WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybridization fish analyses

  1. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  2. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (♀)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (♂), and RCC (2n=100) (♀)×blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (♂) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×CC (♂), bisexual fertile F3–F18 allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×BSB (♂), different ploidy fishes were obtained, including

  3. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ShaoJun

    2010-04-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (male), and RCC (2n=100) (female) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (male) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (female) x CC (male), bisexual fertile F(3)-F(18) allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (female) x BSB (male), different ploidy fishes were

  4. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  5. Hybrid seine for full fish community collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Waldt, Emily M.; Abbett, Ross; David, Anthony; Snyder, James

    2013-01-01

    Seines are simple and effective fish collection gears, but the net mesh size influences how well the catch represents the fish communities. We designed and tested a hybrid seine with a dual-mesh bag (1/4″ and 1/8″) and compared the fish assemblage collected by each mesh. The fine-mesh net retained three times as many fish and collected more species (as many as eight), including representatives of several rare species, than did the coarser mesh. The dual-mesh bag permitted us to compare both sizes and species retained by each layer and to develop species-specific abundance correction factors, which allowed comparison of catches with the coarse-mesh seine used for earlier collections. The results indicate that a hybrid seine with coarse-mesh wings and a fine-mesh bag would enhance future studies of fish communities, especially when small-bodied fishes or early life stages are the research focus.

  6. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the analysis of ... In this study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) as a culture-independent molecular ... a high percentage and took place in an oily biological system under aerobic ...

  7. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH on the veterinary diagnostic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Dianovský

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding deals with of genomic changes detectable by FISH . The DSD syndrom in Yorkshire terrier 78,XY t (Y-;6p+ was observed by the use of X and Y FISH WCP probes. Following results indicated numerous genomic changes in cancers. Using comparative genomic hybridization numerous chromosomal rearrangements were detected, which indicated the heterogeneity in tumour growth. In Bernese Mountain Dog bitch,8 loses on chromosomes and gains on 18 different of chromosomes were detected. The last study was focused on chromosomal position and nucleotide sequencing of the LCA5L exons. Those were analysed in cattle of BTA1q44, sheep OAR1q43 and of CHI1q44 in the goats.

  8. Marine genetic swamping: hybrids replace an obligately estuarine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David G; Gray, Charles A; West, Ronald J; Ayre, David J

    2010-02-01

    Populations of obligately estuarine taxa are potentially small and isolated and may lack genetic variation and display regional differentiation as a result of drift and inbreeding. Hybridization with a wide-ranging marine congener should introduce genetic variation and reduce the effects of inbreeding depression and genetic drift. However, high levels of hybridization can cause demographic and genetic swamping. In southeastern Australia hybridization occurs between obligately estuarine Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) and migratory marine Yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis). Here, we surveyed genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region of juvenile fish from five coastal lagoons (including temporal replication in two lagoons) (total n = 970) to determine the frequency and persistence of hybridization, and its likely consequence for the estuarine restricted A. butcheri. Of 688 juvenile fish genotyped 95% were either A. australis (347) or hybrids (309); only 5% (32) were A. butcheri. Most hybrids were later generation hybrids or A. butcheri backcrosses, which are likely multi-generational residents within lagoons. Far greater proportions of hybrid juveniles were found within two lagoons that are generally closed to the ocean (>90% hybrid fish within generally closed lagoons vs. 12-27% in permanently or intermittently open lagoons). In both lagoons, this was consistent across multiple cohorts of fish [79-97% hybrid fish (n = 282)]. Hybridization and introgression represent a major threat to the persistence of A. butcheri and have yet to be investigated for large numbers of estuarine taxa.

  9. Introgressive hybridization as a promoter of genome reshuffling in natural homoploid fish hybrids (Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C S A; Aboim, M A; Ráb, P; Collares-Pereira, M J

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and speciation by introgressive hybridization is currently one of the major challenges in evolutionary biology. Here, the analysis of hybridization between two pairs of Iberian Leuciscinae provided new data on independent hybrid zones involving Achondrostoma oligolepis (AOL) and Pseudochondrostoma duriense (PDU), and confirmed the occurrence of hybrids between AOL and Pseudochondrostoma polylepis (PPO). A multilevel survey combining morphological, genetic and cytogenomic markers on a vast population screening successfully sorted the selected fishes as admixed. Results were similar in both AOL × PDU and AOL × PPO systems. Overall, hybrid morphotypes, cytogenomic data and genetic profiling indicated preferential backcrossing and suggested AOL as a major genomic contributor. Moreover, results implied AOL as more permissive to introgression than PDU or PPO. Although PDU- and PPO-like individuals appeared more resilient to genome modifications, AOL appeared to be more involved and affected by the ongoing hybridization events, as chromosomal translocations were only found in AOL-like individuals. All hybrids analysed evidenced extensive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymorphism that was not found in parental species, but usually seen falling within the range of possible parental combinations. Yet, transgressive phenotypes that cannot be explained by normal recombination, including more rDNA clusters than expected or the occurrence of syntenic rDNAs, were also detected. Present results proved rapid genomic evolution providing the genetic novelty for species to persist. In addition, although the ultimate consequences of such apparently extensive and recurrent events remain unknown, modern genome-wide methodologies are of great promise towards answering questions concerning the causes, dynamics and impacts of hybridization.

  10. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...

  11. Mitochondrial Genome Variation after Hybridization and Differences in the First and Second Generation Hybrids of Bream Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Zhuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays an important role in fish breeding. Bream fishes contribute a lot to aquaculture in China due to their economically valuable characteristics and the present study included five bream species, Megalobrama amblycephala, Megalobrama skolkovii, Megalobrama pellegrini, Megalobrama terminalis and Parabramis pekinensis. As maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome involves species specific regulation, we aimed to investigate in which way the inheritance of mitogenome is affected by hybridization in these fish species. With complete mitogenomes of 7 hybrid groups of bream species being firstly reported in the present study, a comparative analysis of 17 mitogenomes was conducted, including representatives of these 5 bream species, 6 first generation hybrids and 6 second generation hybrids. The results showed that these 17 mitogenomes shared the same gene arrangement, and had similar gene size and base composition. According to the phylogenetic analyses, all mitogenomes of the hybrids were consistent with a maternal inheritance. However, a certain number of variable sites were detected in all F1 hybrid groups compared to their female parents, especially in the group of M. terminalis (♀ × M. amblycephala (♂ (MT×MA, with a total of 86 variable sites between MT×MA and its female parent. Among the mitogenomes genes, the protein-coding gene nd5 displayed the highest variability. The number of variation sites was found to be related to phylogenetic relationship of the parents: the closer they are, the lower amount of variation sites their hybrids have. The second generation hybrids showed less mitogenome variation than that of first generation hybrids. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS were calculated between all the hybrids with their own female parents and the results indicated that most PCGs were under negative selection.

  12. Ancient hybridization and genomic stabilization in a swordtail fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Cui, Rongfeng; Powell, Daniel L; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A rapidly increasing body of work is revealing that the genomes of distinct species often exhibit hybrid ancestry, presumably due to postspeciation hybridization between closely related species. Despite the growing number of documented cases, we still know relatively little about how genomes evolve and stabilize following hybridization, and to what extent hybridization is functionally relevant. Here, we examine the case of Xiphophorus nezahualcoyotl, a teleost fish whose genome exhibits significant hybrid ancestry. We show that hybridization was relatively ancient and is unlikely to be ongoing. Strikingly, the genome of X. nezahualcoyotl has largely stabilized following hybridization, distinguishing it from examples such as human-Neanderthal hybridization. Hybridization-derived regions are remarkably distinct from other regions of the genome, tending to be enriched in genomic regions with reduced constraint. These results suggest that selection has played a role in removing hybrid ancestry from certain functionally important regions. Combined with findings in other systems, our results raise many questions about the process of genomic stabilization and the role of selection in shaping patterns of hybrid ancestry in the genome. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Parasitic fauna in hybrid tambacu from fish farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronilson Macedo Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitic fauna of hybrid tambacu (Colossoma macropomum x Piaractus mesopotamicus from fish farms and the host-parasite relationship. A hundred and fourteen fish were collected from four fish farms in Macapá, in the state of Amapá, Brazil, 80.7% of which were infected by: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora; Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida; Anacanthorus spatulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis, and Mymarothecium viatorum (Monogenoidea; Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae (Acanthocephala; Cucullanus colossomi (Nematoda; Perulernaea gamitanae (Lernaeidae; and Proteocephalidae larvae (Cestoda. A total of 8,136,252 parasites were collected from the examined fish. This is the first record of N. buttnerae, C. colossomi, N. janauachensis, M. viatorum, and Proteocephalidae for hybrid tambacu in Brazil. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most prevalent parasite, whereas endohelminths were the less. A positive correlation was observed between number of I. multifiliis and total length and weight of fish, as well as between number of P. gamitanae and total length. The infection by I. multifiliis had association with the parasitism by Monogenoidea. Low water quality contributes to high parasitism of hybrid tambacu by ectoparasites, which, however, does not influence the relative condition factor of fish.

  14. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of human blastocysts andcytotrophoblasts by multi-color FISH and Spectra Imaging analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Jingly F.; Ferlatte, Christy; Baumgartner, Adolf; Jung,Christine J.; Nguyen, Ha-Nam; Chu, Lisa W.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fisher,Susan J.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-02-08

    Numerical chromosome aberrations in gametes typically lead to failed fertilization, spontaneous abortion or a chromosomally abnormal fetus. By means of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), we now can screen human embryos in vitro for aneuploidy before transferring the embryos to the uterus. PGD allows us to select unaffected embryos for transfer and increases the implantation rate in in vitro fertilization programs. Molecular cytogenetic analyses using multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of blastomeres have become the major tool for preimplantation genetic screening of aneuploidy. However, current FISH technology can test for only a small number of chromosome abnormalities and hitherto failed to increase the pregnancy rates as expected. We are in the process of developing technologies to score all 24 chromosomes in single cells within a 3 day time limit, which we believe is vital to the clinical setting. Also, human placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) at the fetal-maternal interface acquire aneuploidies as they differentiate to an invasive phenotype. About 20-50% of invasive CTB cells from uncomplicated pregnancies were found aneuploidy, suggesting that the acquisition of aneuploidy is an important component of normal placentation, perhaps limiting the proliferative and invasive potential of CTBs. Since most invasive CTBs are interphase cells and possess extreme heterogeneity, we applied multi-color FISH and repeated hybridizations to investigate individual CTBs. In summary, this study demonstrates the strength of Spectral Imaging analysis and repeated hybridizations, which provides a basis for full karyotype analysis of single interphase cells.

  15. The chromosomal constitution of fish hybrid lineage revealed by 5S rDNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Ye, Lihai; Chen, Yiyi; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Tao, Min; Xiao, Yamei; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-12-03

    The establishment of the bisexual fertile fish hybrid lineage including the allodiploid and allotetraploid hybrids, from interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. 2n = 100, 2n = AA) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 2n = 100, 2n = BB) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies. The chromosomal inheritance of diploid and allotetraploid hybrid progenies in successive generations, was studied by applying 5S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Signals of 5S rDNA distinguished the chromosomal constitution of common carp (B-genome) from red crucian carp (A-genome), in which two strong signals were observed on the first submetacentric chromosome, while no major signal was found in common carp. After fish hybridization, one strong signal of 5S rDNA was detected in the same locus on the chromosome of diploid hybrids. As expected, two strong signals were observed in 4nF3 tetraploid hybrids offspring and it is worth mentioning that two strong signals were detected in a separating bivalent of a primary spermatocyte in 4nF3. Furthermore, the mitosis of heterozygous chromosomes was shown normal and stable with blastular tissue histological studies. We revealed that 5S rDNA signal can be applied to discern A-genome from B-genome, and that 5S rDNA bearing chromosomes can be stably passed down in successive generations. Our work provided a significant method in fish breeding and this is important for studies in fish evolutionary biology.

  16. Study of the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm for Hybrid Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic Artificial Fish Swarm (AFS Algorithm is a new type of an heuristic swarm intelligence algorithm, but it is difficult to optimize to get high precision due to the randomness of the artificial fish behavior, which belongs to the intelligence algorithm. This paper presents an extended AFS algorithm, namely the Cooperative Artificial Fish Swarm (CAFS, which significantly improves the original AFS in solving complex optimization problems. K-medoids clustering algorithm is being used to classify data, but the approach is sensitive to the initial selection of the centers with low quality of the divided cluster. A novel hybrid clustering method based on the CAFS and K-medoids could be used for solving clustering problems. In this work, first, CAFS algorithm is used for optimizing six widely-used benchmark functions, coming up with comparative results produced by AFS and CAFS, then Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is studied. Second, the hybrid algorithm with K-medoids and CAFS algorithms is used for data clustering on several benchmark data sets. The performance of the hybrid algorithm based on K-medoids and CAFS is compared with AFS and CAFS algorithms on a clustering problem. The simulation results show that the proposed CAFS outperforms the other two algorithms in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  17. Ancient hybridization fuels rapid cichlid fish adaptive radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Joana I.; Marques, David A.; Mwaiko, Salome; Wagner, Catherine E.; Excoffier, Laurent; Seehausen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why some evolutionary lineages generate exceptionally high species diversity is an important goal in evolutionary biology. Haplochromine cichlid fishes of Africa's Lake Victoria region encompass >700 diverse species that all evolved in the last 150,000 years. How this ‘Lake Victoria Region Superflock' could evolve on such rapid timescales is an enduring question. Here, we demonstrate that hybridization between two divergent lineages facilitated this process by providing genetic variation that subsequently became recombined and sorted into many new species. Notably, the hybridization event generated exceptional allelic variation at an opsin gene known to be involved in adaptation and speciation. More generally, differentiation between new species is accentuated around variants that were fixed differences between the parental lineages, and that now appear in many new combinations in the radiation species. We conclude that hybridization between divergent lineages, when coincident with ecological opportunity, may facilitate rapid and extensive adaptive radiation. PMID:28186104

  18. Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Joergensen, Louise;

    2012-01-01

    and the consequence of differential binding on the clinical outcome of P. falciparum infections. Recently, the mutually exclusive transcription paradigm has been called into doubt by transcription assays based on individual P. falciparum transcript identification in single infected erythrocytic cells using RNA...... fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of var gene transcription by the parasite in individual nuclei of P. falciparum IE(1). Here, we present a detailed protocol for carrying out the RNA-FISH methodology for analysis of var gene transcription in single-nuclei of P. falciparum infected human...... erythrocytes. The method is based on the use of digoxigenin- and biotin- labeled antisense RNA probes using the TSA Plus Fluorescence Palette System(2) (Perkin Elmer), microscopic analyses and freshly selected P. falciparum IE. The in situ hybridization method can be used to monitor transcription...

  19. Chromogenic in situ hybridization: a multicenter study comparing silver in situ hybridization with FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J M S; Campbell, Fiona M; Ibrahim, Merdol; Wencyk, Peter; Ellis, Ian; Kay, Elaine; Connolly, Yvonne; O'Grady, Anthony; Di Palma, Silvana; Starczynski, Jane; Morgan, John M; Jasani, Bharat; Miller, Keith

    2009-10-01

    Our purposes were to perform a robust assessment of a new HER2 chromogenic in situ hybridization test and report on concordance of silver in situ hybridization (SISH) data with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data and on intraobserver and interlaboratory scoring consistency. HER2 results were scored from 45 breast cancers in 7 laboratories using the Ventana (Tucson, AZ) INFORM HER-2 SISH assay and in 1 central laboratory using a standard FISH assay. Overall, 94.8% of cases were successfully analyzed by SISH across the 6 participating laboratories that reported data. Concordance for diagnosis of HER2 amplification by SISH compared with FISH was high (96.0% overall). Intraobserver variability (8.0%) and intersite variability (12.66%) of absolute HER2/chromosome 17 ratios appear to be tightly controlled across all 6 participating laboratories. The Ventana INFORM HER-2 SISH assay is robust and reproducible, shows good concordance with a standard FISH assay, and complies with requirements in national guidelines for performance of diagnostic tests.

  20. Biochemical analyses of inbreds and their heterotic hybrids in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaftaris, A S

    1990-01-01

    Since Shull's original description of heterosis, breeders have made wide use of this phenomenon. However while breeders and agronomists have been utilizing heterosis as a means of improving crop productivity, the biological basis of heterosis remains unknown. It is generally believed that our understanding of heterosis will greatly enhance our ability to form new genotypes either to be used directly as F1 hybrids or to form the basis for the selection programs to follow. Efforts have been made to understand the phenomenon. They have been directly related to our capabilities for genetic analyses through the years. So, while the original data came out of studies at the phenotypic morphological level they were followed by physiological and later by biochemical data. With the advent of electrophoresis and the consequent ease of accumulation of data related to isozyme variability, a number of attempts have been made to relate genetic relatedness of inbreds with the performance of their F1 hybrid. An inherent difficulty of this approach arises because of the pedigree diversities among the parental lines. To overcome this problem the same approach is followed in lines of similar pedigree, e.g., coming out of the same original population (F2 of a single F1 hybrid) after selection. The data indicate a significant positive correlation between heterozygosity of parental inbreds and heterosis of their respective F1 hybrid estimated as deviation from the mid-parental value. Some recent data from studies at the total protein level will also be discussed.

  1. A New Type of Hybrid Fish-like Microrobot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Shu-Xiang Guo; Kinji Asaka

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop a new type of fish-like microrobot with swimming, walking, and floating motions, in our past research, we developed a hybrid microrobot actuated by ionic conducting polymer film (ICPF) actuators. But the microrobot had some problems in walking and floating motions. In this paper, we propose a concept of hybrid microrobot (see Fig. 1). The microrobot is actuated by a pair of caudal fins, a base with legs and an array of artificial swim bladders. We have developed a prototype of the base with legs and one artificial swim bladder, respectively, and carried out experiments for evaluating their characteristics. Experimental results show the base with legs can realize walking speed of 6 mm/s and rotating speed of 7.1 degrees/s respectively, and the prototype of the artificial swim bladder has a maximum floatage of 2.6 mN. The experimental results also indicate that the microrobot has some advantages, such as walking motion with 2 degrees of freedom, the walking ability on rough surface (sand paper), the controllable floatage, etc. This kind of fish-like microrobot is expected for industrial and medical applications.

  2. Immunochemical analyses of soluble lens proteins in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Soluble eye lens proteins of 10 fishes, belonging to the families Clupeidae, Hemirhamphidae, Lactaridae, Scombridae, Stromatidae, Psettodidae, Bothidae and Soleidae were studied by immunoelectrophoresis using the lens antiserum of Sardinella...

  3. TA3 - Dosimetry and instrumentation supply of the M-Fish technique to the Fish-3 painting technique for analysing translocations: A radiotherapy-treated patient study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouzoulet, F.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Giraudet, A.L.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.A.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.; Roy, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Lab. de Dosimetrie Biologique, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Bourhis, J. [Laboratoire UPRES EA 27-10, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et Tissus sains, PR1, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Currently, the chromosome translocation study is the best method to estimate the dose of an old radiation exposure. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (F.I.S.H.) technique allows an easy detection of this kind of aberrations. However, as only a few number of chromosomes is usually painted, some bias could skew the result. To evaluate the advantage of using full genome staining (M-F.I.S.H. technique) compared with three chromosomes labelling (F.I.S.H.-3 painting), we compared translocation yields in radiotherapy treated patients. Methods: Chromosome aberration analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of two patients treated for a throat cancer by radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained, before, along the treatment and six or four months later. For each sample, a dicentrics analysis was performed together with translocation analysis either with F.I.S.H.-3 painting or M-F.I.S.H.. Results: By confronting results from the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique and the M-F.I.S.H. technique, significant differences were revealed. The translocations yield seemed to be stable with the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique whereas it is not the case with the M-F.I.S.H. technique. This difference in results was explained by the bias induced by F.I.S.H.-3 Painting technique in the visualisation of complex aberrations. Furthermore, we found the presence of a clone bearing a translocation involving a painted chromosome. Conclusions: According to the potential bias of F.I.S.H.-3 painting on translocations study, the M-F.I.S.H. technique should provide more precise and reproducible results. Because of its more difficult implement, it seems hardly applicable to retrospective dosimetry instead of F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique. (authors)

  4. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Dimaki, Maria;

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the pr......Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA...

  5. c-myc in Kaposi's sarcoma: analyses by fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, K; Yang, S; Tung, N; Lee, J; Mahalingam, M

    2014-01-01

    The c-myc proto-oncogene plays a central role in the regulation of cellular transcription, differentiation, and apoptosis, and has been shown to be deregulated in many types of human cancer. Recent findings have demonstrated its amplification in select vascular neoplasms, such as secondary angiosarcomas, suggesting a role in angiogenesis as well. In vitro studies have shown that the c-Myc protein is an important regulatory molecule of spindle cell proliferation and migration in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). In light of these findings, our primary aim was to ascertain whether c-myc, by promoting proliferation and angiogenesis, is an essential co-factor in the aetiopathogenesis of KS. We also attempted to determine a correlation between immunohistochemical expression of the c-Myc protein and c-myc gene copy amplification using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Samples analyzed included archival tissue of KS (n = 24). PCR for detection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA was performed on all samples of KS. For FISH analyses, a dual-labelled technique was employed and probes for the c-myc gene and chromosome 8 were used. The monoclonal anti-c-myc antibody, 9E10, was used for immunohistochemical analyses. While FISH analyses revealed no amplification of c-myc in any of the cases of KS, immunohistochemical analyses revealed positive staining for c-Myc in 13/24 cases (54%). Amplification of the c-myc gene was not witnessed in this preliminary study of 24 cases and thus cannot be correlated with the expression of the c-Myc protein. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Enviromental contaminants in Puget Sound fish - Histological Preparation and Chemical Analyses of Puget Sound Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a long-term contaminant-monitoring program of fish in Puget Sound and Georgia Basin, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and NWFSC have...

  7. Characterization of B chromosomes in Lilium hybrids through GISH and FISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, S.L.; Marasek-Ciolakowska, A.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes and small aberrant chromosomes were detected in Lilium hybrids and characterized through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two small, supernumerary or B chromosomes were detected as extra chromosomes in a tetraploid plant

  8. Phylogenetic relationships and natural hybridization in rabbitfishes (Teleostei: Siganidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriiwa, Kaoru; Hanzawa, Naoto; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Kimura, Seishi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2007-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of rabbitfishes (the family Siganidae), ecologically important components as primary consumers in coral reef communities, were studied using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer 1) sequence analyses. The analyses of 19 out of 22 species known in the Western Pacific region revealed that siganids are genetically clustered into three major clades, which are characterized by some morphological and ecological traits. Between closely related species, such as Siganus guttatus-S. lineatus and S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and also between two morphs recognized in S. corallinus, small but discernible genetic differentiation was found, implying that the components of each pair are incipient species. On the other hand, between some species, such as S. fuscescens-S. canaliculatus and S. unimaculatus-S.vulpinus, individuals of the components of each pair were found to construct a genetic mosaic, suggesting that the components are genetic color morphs within a single biological species, respectively. Moreover, evidence from morphological characters, mtDNA, and nuclear DNA gave an inconsistent picture of identity and relationships for several individuals. They were regarded as hybrids or individuals with hybrid origin. Such instances were observed not only between closely related species, such as S. guttatus-S. lineatus, S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and two morphs (incipient species) in S. corallinus, respectively, but also between distantly related ones, such as S. corallinus-S. puellus. In fact, more than half of the species examined (11/20, when treating the two morphs in S. corallinus as independent species) were involved in hybridization. These suggest that hybridization is much more prevalent in marine fishes than previously assumed, and may have some relevance to their diversification.

  9. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Feng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dongdong; Zhu, Xiangping; Ni, Jing; Wu, Zhihao; Xu, Yongli; Wang, Xincheng; Zhang, Peijun

    2009-05-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes, 12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and maternal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  10. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Feng; WANG Wei; XU Dongdong; ZHU Xiangping; NI Jing; WU Zhihao; XU Yongli; WANG Xincheng; ZHANG Peijun

    2009-01-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder Sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes,12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and matemal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis of primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Mine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unknown whether primary ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is a homogeneous entity, as there are few reports of the results of cytogenetic or molecular analyses of these tumors. Methods We performed interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis to detect translocations and aneuploidy in 34 cases of primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma, and reviewed the histopathological findings. Correlations between the results of FISH analysis, the histopathological features and the clinical data were also analyzed. Results Among the 34 cases, FISH analysis revealed t(14;18(q32;q21 in one case, trisomy 3 in 21 cases (62%, and trisomy 18 in 16 cases (47%. The cases with trisomy 18 had significantly more prominent lymphoepithelial lesions (LELs and less nodularity in the tumors. In regard to the clinical correlations, tumors with trisomy 18 were observed predominantly in females and younger patients; also, in the majority of the cases, the tumor was of conjunctival origin. All the cases with recurrence showed trisomy 18 in the tumor. Conclusion Primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma is a significantly heterogeneous entity. Cases with trisomy 18 may have unique clinicopathological features.

  12. Effect of graded fingerlings on hybrid catfish food fish size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is not unusual to have both 0.5 lb and 5 lb fish harvested from a single-batch hybrid catfish production pond at the end of the growing season. When that happens, farmers may be docked for fish that are either larger or smaller than the processor’s preferred size range. This study was conducted t...

  13. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  14. Role of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in sequencing the tomato genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes at various stages of the cell cycle can be used for localization of DNA probes via Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While mitotic metaphase chromosomes are demonstrably too short and compact for this purpose, long pachytene chromosomes are ideal. BACs that hybridize to euchrom...

  15. Multifrequency analyses of fish distributions in the northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jech, J. Michael

    2004-05-01

    Routine acoustical surveys for estimating Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) population abundance have been conducted on Georges Bank during the autumn spawning season from 1998 to present. Acoustical data are collected with a Simrad EK500 scientific echo sounder operating at 12 or 18, 38, and 120 kHz, and split-beam (the 12-kHz system is a single beam) transducers. Biological measurements and verification of acoustical scatterers are obtained with a pelagic trawl. Acoustical data are evaluated (scrutinized) manually to remove noise, faulty bottom detections, and to classify acoustical backscattering to species. Species classification is currently subjective, and is based on the experience of the scientists and trawl catches. Objective species classification and automated fish density and abundance estimates are an obvious goal for fisheries surveys using advanced technologies. Classification methods using relationships among frequency-dependent volume backscattering strengths, such as presence-absence and combination-permutation, are described and presented. Results indicate that while classification using these methods and acoustical information alone is not robust, these methods highlight backscattering patterns within aggregations and have the potential to characterize backscattering patterns observed in fisheries acoustics data. [Work supported by NOAA Fisheries and ONR.

  16. Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-11-01

    Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance.

  17. The Formation of the Polyploid Hybrids From Different Subfamily Fish Crossings and Its Evolutionary Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaojun; Qin, Qinbo; Xiao, Jun; Lu, Wenting; Shen, Jiamin; Li, Wei; Liu, Jifang; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Chun; Tao, De Min; Zhao, Rurong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp × blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) (♀) × blunt snout bream (BSB) (♂) as w...

  18. The formation of the polyploid hybrids from different subfamily fish crossings and its evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaojun; Qin, Qinbo; Xiao, Jun; Lu, Wenting; Shen, Jiamin; Li, Wei; Liu, Jifang; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2007-06-01

    This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp x blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) (female symbol) x blunt snout bream (BSB) (male symbol) as well as their pentaploid hybrids. The triploid hybrids possessed 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from BSB; the tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from BSB. The females of tetraploid hybrids produced unreduced tetraploid eggs that were fertilized with the haploid sperm of BSB to generate pentaploid hybrids with 172 chromosomes with three sets from BSB and two sets from RCC. The ploidy levels of triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids were confirmed by counting chromosomal number, forming chromosomal karyotype, and measuring DNA content and erythrocyte nuclear volume. The similar and different DNA fragments were PCR amplified and sequenced in triploid, tetraploid hybrids, and their parents, indicating their molecular genetic relationship and genetic markers. In addition, this study also presents results about the phenotypes and feeding habits of polyploid hybrids and discusses the formation mechanism of the polyploid hybrids. It is the first report on the formation of the triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids by crossing parents with a different chromosome number in vertebrates. The formation of the polyploid hybrids is potentially interesting in both evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  19. Current and historical hybridization with differential introgression among three species of cyprinid fishes (genus Cyprinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Richard E; Vedala, Krishna C; Crowl, Tessa M; Ritterhouse, Lauren L

    2011-05-01

    Hybridization is common among freshwater fishes, particular among the Cyprinidae. We used two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene to characterize hybridization among two species pairs of Cyprinella in southwestern North America. Genalogical patterns revealed that C. lutrensis and C. venusta are currently hybridizing in several localities producing apparent F(1), F(2) and backcross generations, yet there was no evidence for introgression outside of local hybrid zones. Alternatively, mitochondrial haplotypes from C. lutrensis appear to have introgressed into a C. lepida population in the Nueces River completely replacing the native C. lepida haplotype. There was no evidence of introgression of nuclear DNA and there does not appear to be ongoing hybridization. The population of C. lepida from the nearby Frio River exhibits no evidence of hybridization with C. lutrensis. Thus, contact between C. lutrensis and C. venusta results in the formation of localized hybrid swarms, while contact between C. lutrensis and C. lepida has resulted in complete mitochondrial introgression in the Nueces River or no apparent hybridization in the Frio River. The three different outcomes of contact between these species illustrate the variable nature of interspecific reproductive interactions and provide an excellent system in which to better understand the factors influencing hybridization among freshwater fishes.

  20. Comparison Between Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were collected, for culture method and bacteria characterized by biochemical ... for 24 hours and later preserved in 70% alcohol before in situ hybridization test. ... were observed in 47 to 75% while the bacterium was isolated on culture in 7 ...

  1. ANALYSES OF FISH TISSUE BY VACUUM DISTILLATION/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The analyses of fish tissue using VD/GC/MS with surrogate-based matrix corrections is described. Techniques for equilibrating surrogate and analyte spikes with a tissue matrix are presented, and equilibrated spiked samples are used to document method performance. The removal of a...

  2. Static and Dynamic Analyses of Long-Span Spatial Steel-Cable-Membrane Hybrid Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁阳; 彭翼; 李忠献

    2003-01-01

    With the increment of the complexity of structural systems and the span of spatial structures, the interactions between parts of the structures, especially between some flexible substructures, become too complex to be analyzed clearly. In this paper, taking an actual gymnasium of a long-span spatial steel-cable-membrane hybrid structure as the calculation model, the static and dynamic analyses of the hybrid structures are performed by employing the global analysis of the whole hybrid structure and the substructural analysis of the truss arch substructure, the cable-membrane substructure, etc. In addition, the comparison of stresses and displacements of structural members in the global and substructural analyses is made. The numerical results show that serious errors exist in the substructural analysis of the hybrid structure, and the global analysis is necessary for the hybrid structure under the excitation of static loads and seismic loads.

  3. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH in buccal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Cortés-Gutiérrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91. In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  4. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) in buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Fernández, J L; López-Fernández, C; Gosálvez, J

    2012-12-28

    DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91). In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  5. Interphase cytogenetics in pathology: principles, methods, and applications of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M; Wilkens, L; Aubele, M; Nolte, M; Zitzelsberger, H; Komminoth, P

    1997-01-01

    Characteristic chromosome aberrations have been identified in various tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific probes that are generated by vector cloning or in vitro amplification and labeled with fluorescent dyes allow for the detection of these genetic changes in interphase cells. This technique, that is also referred to as "interphase cytogenetics", can be performed in cytological preparations as well as in sections of routinely formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. In cancer research and diagnostics, interphase cytogenetics by FISH is used to detect numerical chromosome changes and structural aberrations, e.g., translocations, deletions, or amplifications. In this technical overview, we explain the principles of the FISH method and provide protocols for FISH in cytological preparations and paraffin sections. Moreover, possible applications of FISH are discussed.

  6. Characterization of the Arachis (Leguminosae) D genome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome markers and total genome DNA hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Robledo; Guillermo Seijo

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome markers were developed for Arachis glandulifera using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the 5S and 45S rRNA genes and heterochromatic 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) positive bands. We used chromosome landmarks identified by these markers to construct the first Arachis species ideogram in which all the homologous chromosomes were precisely identified. The comparison of this ideogram with those published for other Arachis species revealed very poor homeologies with a...

  7. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Tommerup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the process continues to be a manual, labour intensive, expensive and time consuming technique, often taking over 3–5 days, even in dedicated labs. We have developed a novel microFISH device to perform metaphase FISH on a chip which overcomes many shortcomings of the current laboratory protocols. This work also introduces a novel splashing device for preparing metaphase spreads on a microscope glass slide, followed by a rapid adhesive tape-based bonding protocol leading to rapid fabrication of the microFISH device. The microFISH device allows for an optimized metaphase FISH protocol on a chip with over a 20-fold reduction in the reagent volume. This is the first demonstration of metaphase FISH on a microfluidic device and offers a possibility of automation and significant cost reduction of many routine diagnostic tests of genetic anomalies.

  8. Grey correlational and SSR analyses of cotton hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiongfeng; Zhang Wensheng; Yang Daigang; Zhou Xiaojian; Zhang Xianliang; Guo Ruilin; Wang Haifeng; Meng Qingqin; Pei Xiaoyu; Zhou Kehai

    2013-01-01

    Ten upland cotton strains exhibiting 3 fiber quality traits and 8 yield traits,were grown for two years in an investigation of the correlation between grey relational analysis (GRA) and genetic identity in heterosis of cot-ton hybrid. The aim was to establish the optimal approach for heterosis prediction and parent selection. Plant traits data were collected and analyzed for GRA. In addition,72 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were examined and 148 polymorphisms were detected. Correlation analysis of GRA,genetic identity,F1 fiber quality and yield heterosis was conducted. Significant differences were observed between the two analytic methods,whereas compa-rable predictions were given for yield heterosis. GRA for yield exhibited slightly higher correlation than genetic identity analysis,with a correlation coefficient of 0.49. GRA and genetic analysis exhibited overlapping yet dis-tinct advantages in heterosis prediction. Therefore,these analytical methods should be integrated to achieve the op-timal heterosis prediction and parent selection.

  9. Inconsistent phylogeographic pattern between a sperm dependent fish and its host: in situ hybridization vs dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergilino, Roland; Leung, Christelle; Angers, Bernard

    2016-09-06

    Co-dispersal of sperm-dependent hybrids and their sexual relatives is expected to result in consistent spatial patterns between assemblages of hybrids and genetic structure of parental species. However, local hybridization events may blur this signal as assemblages could be organized under different connectivity constraints. This study aims at testing the hypothesis of local hybridization events by comparing the assemblage of hybrid fish Chrosomus eos-neogaeus to the genetic diversity of one of its parental species, Chrosomus eos. An extensive survey performed on a total of 132 sites located in two regions of Southern Quebec (West-Qc and East-Qc) revealed a distinct organization of hybrid lineages. One of the six hybrid lineages detected in West-Qc is widespread throughout this region resulting in a low α-diversity (1.38) and β-diversity (4.35). On the other hand, 36 hybrid lineages were detected in East-Qc and displayed narrow geographic distributions leading to a high α-diversity (2.30) and β-diversity (15.68). In addition, the C. eos multilocus haplotype of several of these hybrids is assigned to their respective sympatric C. eos population. Finally, contrasting with hybrids, the paternal species C. eos displayed a higher ρST in West-Qc (0.2300) than in East-Qc (0.0734). The unusually high diversity of hybrid lineages in East-Qc as well as the spatial organization and the close genetic relationship with C. eos sympatric populations support the hypothesis that multiple hybridization events occurred in situ. These findings coupled to the near absence of the maternal species Chrosomus neogeaus suggest that the decline of this species could be the trigger event at the origin of the high rates of spontaneous hybridization in this region.

  10. Behavioural isolation may facilitate homoploid hybrid speciation in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selz, O. M.; Thommen, R.; Maan, M. E.; Seehausen, O.

    Hybrid speciation is constrained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow from the parental species. In the absence of post-mating isolation due to structural changes in the genome, or temporal or spatial premating isolation, another form of reproductive isolation would be needed for homoploid

  11. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  12. Behavioural isolation may facilitate homoploid hybrid speciation in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selz, O. M.; Thommen, R.; Maan, M. E.; Seehausen, O.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid speciation is constrained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow from the parental species. In the absence of post-mating isolation due to structural changes in the genome, or temporal or spatial premating isolation, another form of reproductive isolation would be needed for homoploid hybri

  13. Telomere analysis of platyhelminths and acanthocephalans by FISH and Southern hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombarová, Marta; Vítková, Magda; Spakulová, Marta; Koubková, Bozena

    2009-11-01

    We examined the composition of telomeres in chromosomes of parasitic worms, representatives of the flatworm groups Monogenea and Cestoda (Platyhelminthes), and thorny-headed worms (Syndermata: Acanthocephala) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with different telomeric repeat probes. Our results show that the (TTAGGG)n sequence, supposed to be the ancestral telomeric repeat motif of Metazoa, is conserved in Monogenea (Paradiplozoon homoion) and Cestoda (Caryophyllaeus laticeps, Caryophyllaeides fennica, and Nippotaenia mogurndae) but not in Acanthocephala (Pomphorhynchus laevis and Pomphorhynchus tereticollis). In the Pomphorhynchus species, no hybridization signals were obtained with the "nematode" (TTAGGC)n, "arthropod" (TTAGG)n, and bdelloid (TGTGGG)n telomeric probes using FISH with their chromosomes and Southern hybridization with P. laevis DNA. Therefore, we suggest that parasitic Acanthocephala have evolved yet unknown telomeric repeat motifs or different mechanisms of telomere maintenance.

  14. Clinical Application of Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) to Detect HER-2 Gene in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maurie Buehler; Ellie Guardino; Jung Sik Park; Eun Jeong Jang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of the detection of HER-2 gene by lfuorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in breast cancer and the correlation between HER-2 gene ampliifcation and clinicopathology of breast cancer. Methods:Parafifn-embedded breast inifltrating ductal carcinoma from 48 patients were detected by FISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively for comparing the results of two methods. Results: HER-2 protein expressions were classified into three groups (3+/2+/1+ or 0) and the positive rates of HER-2 gene ampliifcation by FISH were 77.8%, 57.1% and 10.5%, respectively. Of the 29 cases with positive axillary lymph node, 12 were with HER-2 gene ampliifcation (P0.05). Conclusion:The false positive and negative rates are higher in HER-2 protein expression by IHC. Compared with IHC, FISH, being more effective and precise, can be applied extensively in clinic. HER-2 gene ampliifcation is concerned with axillary nodes metastases.

  15. Ocean warming, a rapid distributional shift, and the hybridization of a coastal fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Warren M; Henriques, Romina; Santos, Carmen V; Munnik, Kate; Ansorge, Isabelle; Dufois, Francois; Booth, Anthony J; Kirchner, Carola; Sauer, Warwick H H; Shaw, Paul W

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing awareness of large-scale climate-driven distribution shifts in the marine environment, no study has linked rapid ocean warming to a shift in distribution and consequent hybridization of a marine fish species. This study describes rapid warming (0.8 °C per decade) in the coastal waters of the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone over the last three decades and a concomitant shift by a temperature sensitive coastal fish species (Argyrosomus coronus) southward from Angola into Namibia. In this context, rapid shifts in distribution across Economic Exclusive Zones will complicate the management of fishes, particularly when there is a lack of congruence in the fisheries policy between nations. Evidence for recent hybridization between A. coronus and a congener, A. inodorus, indicate that the rapid shift in distribution of A. coronus has placed adults of the two species in contact during their spawning events. Ocean warming may therefore revert established species isolation mechanisms and alter the evolutionary history of fishes. While the consequences of the hybridization on the production of the resource remain unclear, this will most likely introduce additional layers of complexity to their management.

  16. Prediction of melting temperatures in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures using thermodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Wengel, Jesper; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe

    2016-01-01

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA thermodynamics that provide reasonably accurate thermodynamic information on nucleic acid duplexes and allow estimation of the melting temperature. Because there are no thermodynamic models specifically developed to predict the hybridization temperature of a probe used in a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure, the melting temperature is used as a reference, together with corrections for certain compounds that are used during FISH. However, the quantitative relation between melting and experimental FISH temperatures is poorly described. In this review, various models used to predict the melting temperature for rRNA targets, for DNA oligonucleotides and for nucleic acid mimics (chemically modified oligonucleotides), will be addressed in detail, together with a critical assessment of how this information should be used in FISH.

  17. Functional and comparative genomics analyses of pmp22 in medaka fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawarabayasi Yutaka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pmp22, a member of the junction protein family Claudin/EMP/PMP22, plays an important role in myelin formation. Increase of pmp22 transcription causes peripheral neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type1A (CMT1A. The pathophysiological phenotype of CMT1A is aberrant axonal myelination which induces a reduction in nerve conduction velocity (NCV. Several CMT1A model rodents have been established by overexpressing pmp22. Thus, it is thought that pmp22 expression must be tightly regulated for correct myelin formation in mammals. Interestingly, the myelin sheath is also present in other jawed vertebrates. The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolutionary conservation of the association between pmp22 transcription level and vertebrate myelin formation, and to find the conserved non-coding sequences for pmp22 regulation by comparative genomics analyses between jawed fishes and mammals. Results A transgenic pmp22 over-expression medaka fish line was established. The transgenic fish had approximately one fifth the peripheral NCV values of controls, and aberrant myelination of transgenic fish in the peripheral nerve system (PNS was observed. We successfully confirmed that medaka fish pmp22 has the same exon-intron structure as mammals, and identified some known conserved regulatory motifs. Furthermore, we found novel conserved sequences in the first intron and 3'UTR. Conclusion Medaka fish undergo abnormalities in the PNS when pmp22 transcription increases. This result indicates that an adequate pmp22 transcription level is necessary for correct myelination of jawed vertebrates. Comparison of pmp22 orthologs between distantly related species identifies evolutionary conserved sequences that contribute to precise regulation of pmp22 expression.

  18. itFISH: Enhanced Staining by Iterative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Richard H; Martin, Benjamin L

    2017-03-20

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is an important tool for zebrafish research, particularly when observing the expression of two different genes in the same embryo. Peroxidase-catalyzed deposition of tyramide-conjugated dyes is a widely used and cost-effective approach to performing FISH. A major limitation of the technique is that it does not work well for weakly expressed genes. Here we present a method adapted from planarian research for use in zebrafish that provides a dramatic enhancement of weak staining. By iterating the antibody staining and development steps, a strong signal can be obtained from probes that were previously too weak to detect.

  19. Characterization of the Arachis (Leguminosae D genome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH chromosome markers and total genome DNA hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Robledo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome markers were developed for Arachis glandulifera using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of the 5S and 45S rRNA genes and heterochromatic 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI positive bands. We used chromosome landmarks identified by these markers to construct the first Arachis species ideogram in which all the homologous chromosomes were precisely identified. The comparison of this ideogram with those published for other Arachis species revealed very poor homeologies with all A and B genome taxa, supporting the special genome constitution (D genome of A. glandulifera. Genomic affinities were further investigated by dot blot hybridization of biotinylated A. glandulifera total DNA to DNA from several Arachis species, the results indicating that the D genome is positioned between the A and B genomes.

  20. Design of Hybrid Solar and Wind Energy Harvester for Fishing Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjarnahor, D. A.; Hanifan, M.; Budi, E. M.

    2017-07-01

    In southern beach of West Java, Indonesia, there are many villagers live as fishermen. They use small boats for fishing, in one to three days. Therefore, they need a fish preservation system. Fortunately, the area has high potential of solar and wind energy. This paper presents the design of a hybrid solar and wind energy harvester to power a refrigerator in the fishing boat. The refrigerator should keep the fish in 2 - 4 °C. The energy needed is 720 Wh daily. In the area, the daily average wind velocity is 4.27 m/s and the sun irradiation is 672 W/m2. The design combined two 100W solar panels and a 300W wind turbine. The testing showed that the solar panels can harvest 815 - 817 Wh of energy, while the wind turbine can harvest 43 - 62 Wh of energy daily. Therefore, the system can fulfil the energy requirement in fishing boat, although the solar panels were more dominant. To install the wind turbine on the fishing-boat, a computational design had been conducted. The boat hydrostatic dimension was measured to determine its stability condition. To reach a stable equilibrium condition, the wind turbine should be installed no more than 1.7 m of height.

  1. Bacteriological and metal analyses of water samples from Awotunde fish pond and river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Odeyemi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and metal analyses of water samples obtained from Awotunde fish pond and river in Ila-Orangun, Osun State, Nigeria were determined. The total bacterial and coliform counts were done using pour plating technique. Mineral was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry techniques. The physicochemical parameters were done using standard methods. The total bacterial and coliform count of the water samples ranged 6.4 x 104 CFU/ml - 7.4 x 104 CFU/ml and 1.1 x 103 CFU/ml - 4.0 x 103 CFU/ml respectively. The values obtained for the physicochemical parameters ranged as follows: temperature (24 - 26 oC, HCO3 (2.0 - 4.6, pH (6.0 - 7.2, alkalinity (40 - 100 mg/l, hardness (60 - 120 mg/l, conductivity (200 - 400μS/cm, dissolved oxygen (1.1 - 2.0 mg/l, BOD (0.06 - 0.22 mg/l, chloride (28.4 - 106.4 mg/l, nitrite (4.0 - 188.0 mg/l, sulphate (14.0 - 640.0 mg/l, nitrate (0.0 - 90.0 mg/l and phosphate (1.6 - 83.2 mg/l. The mean values of the mineral contents of the water samples are as follows; potassium (94.4 mg/l, sodium (94.7 mg/l, magnesium (89.3 mg/l and calcium (94.9 mg/l. The mean value obtained for the heavy metal concentrations are as follow; copper (0.1 mg/l, manganese (0.13 mg/l, nickel (2.09 mg/l, lead (0.03 mg/l and iron (0.26 mg/l. This shows that heavy metal concentrations were below critical limit according to the WHO standard. However, the microbial counts obtained portend the fact that the fish harvested from the pond might be a source of food poisoning if such fishes are not adequately cooked. Since the river serve as a source of water for domestic usage, an outbreak of water borne diseases could be imminent. Hence there must be a need for the Nigeria fish farmers to improve on their fish farming management which includes fish food preparation, environmental sanitation and monitoring the quality fish yield.

  2. Detection of VHSV IVb within the gonads of Great Lakes fish using in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2011-05-24

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb was recently detected as the cause of numerous mortality events in Great Lakes fish. In situ hybridization was used to examine the gonads from 13 fish, including freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens and muskellunge Esox masquinongy that were infected naturally, as well as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and fathead minnows Pimphales promelas, which were experimentally infected. Although the ovaries and testes of fish infected by VHSV IVb had few lesions, viral RNA was present in the ovaries of the rainbow trout and fathead minnow and was abundant in the gonads of muskellunge and in the ovaries of freshwater drum. Viral RNA was present mainly surrounding yolk vacuoles/granules or adjacent to the germinal vesicle, with lesser amounts found within the germinal vesicle, in the mesovarium and/or tunica albuginea and blood vessels of the ovary. Viral RNA was also found in and surrounding primary and secondary spermatocytes of the muskellunge.

  3. Detection of integrated herpesvirus genomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Benedikt B

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is widely used to visualize nucleotide sequences in interphase cells or on metaphase chromosomes using specific probes that are complementary to the respective targets. Besides its broad application in cytogenetics and cancer research, FISH facilitates the localization of virus genomes in infected cells. Some herpesviruses, including human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Marek's disease virus (MDV), have been shown to integrate their genetic material into host chromosomes, which allows transmission of HHV-6 via the germ line and is required for efficient MDV-induced tumor formation. We describe here the detection by FISH of integrated herpesvirus genomes in metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei of herpesvirus-infected cells.

  4. Risk stratification of plasma cell neoplasm: insights from plasma cell-specific cytoplasmic immunoglobulin fluorescence in situ hybridization (cIg FISH) vs. conventional FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Henry; Yang, Hai-Su; Jagannath, Sundar; Stephenson, Christine F; Brenholz, Pauline; Mazumder, Amitabha; Chari, Ajai

    2012-10-01

    We directly compared the results of routine fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and plasma cell-specific cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) FISH from 75 paired samples for myeloma risk stratification. CIg FISH improves test specificity and sensitivity and tends to eliminate borderline results. It proves that most plasma cells (PCs) consistently carry the abnormality in myelomas with an IGH translocation, whereas routine FISH detects these cells only at variably low levels. Routine cytogenetic analysis of plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs) has a low sensitivity. Conventional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is not plasma cell (PC) specific and results are diluted by other cells in the sample. Although PC-specific FISH testing has been recommended for multiple myeloma (MM) risk stratification, eg, by combining cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) staining with FISH, the benefits of cIg FISH have never been directly demonstrated in a controlled study. Seventy-five samples from patients with PCNs were analyzed by concomitant conventional FISH and cIg FISH with probes for t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16), -13, 17p-, and +3. The results were compared for their reliability, specificity, and consistency. Apart from marginally improving detection threshold in samples with low PC burden, cIg FISH identified more abnormal cases (50 vs. 47 cases) and more chromosome abnormalities (113 vs. 103 events) than did conventional FISH. It differentiated del(13q) in myelodysplasia from MM. Remarkably, cIg FISH consistently identified a high percentage of abnormal PCs in all cases. It detected IGH translocation in 78% to 100% of PCs in all but 2 positive cases, whereas conventional FISH detected 0% to 46% in these cases (median, 91% vs. 9%). The abnormal cells found in patients with 17p- were 19% to 96% by cIg FISH vs. 0% to 13% by conventional FISH (median, 54% vs. 9%). Cases with insufficient PCs for cIg FISH had only normal conventional FISH results. CIg FISH improves reliability of

  5. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants: thermodynamic analyses and site-specific applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.; Avelar, E.M.

    1979-06-01

    The analysis of hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants is extended to compound hybrid systems which combine the features of previously analyzed systems: the geothermal-preheat and the fossil-superheat systems. Compound systems of the one- and two-stage type are considered. A compilation of working formulae from earlier studies is included for completeness. Results are given for parametric analyses of compound hybrid plants. System performance was determined for wellhead conditions of 150, 200, and 250/sup 0/C, and for steam fractions of 10, 20, 30, and 40%. For two-stage systems an additional cycle variable, the hot water flash fraction, was varied from 0 to 100% in increments of 25%. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, compound hybrid plants are superior to individual all-geothermal and all-fossil plants, and are shown to have certain advantages over basic geothermal-preheat and fossil-superheat hybrid plants. The flexibility of compound hybrid systems is illustrated by showing how such plants might be used at six geothermal sites in the western United States. The question of the optimum match between the energy resources and the power plant is addressed, and an analysis given for a hypothetical geothermal resource.

  6. A simple protocol for attenuating the auto-fluorescence of cyanobacteria for optimized fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Perrine; Ploux, Olivier; Méjean, Annick

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria contain pigments, which generate auto-fluorescence that interferes with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging of cyanobacteria. We describe simple chemical treatments using CuSO4 or H2O2 that significantly reduce the auto-fluorescence of Microcystis strains. These protocols were successfully applied in FISH experiments using 16S rRNA specific probes and filamentous cyanobacteria.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Channa argus, Channa maculata and hybrid snakehead fish [Channa maculata (♀) × Channa argus (♂)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu-Ren; Ma, Ke-Yi; Xing, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Nan; Wang, Yu-Xi; Wang, Qun; Li, Jia-Le

    2013-06-01

    We sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of Channa argus, Channa maculata and their hybrid [C. maculata (♀) and C. argus (♂)]. All the three mitochondrial genomes contained the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 control region. The entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of C. maculata was 16,559 bp long while the complete mtDNA molecule of C. argus and hybrid snakehead fish was 16,558 bp long. This is the first report on the complete mitogenome sequence of C. maculata and hybrid snakehead fish.

  8. Detection of a complex translocation using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, B.A. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Abuelo, D.N. [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Mark, H.F. [Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the detection of a complex 3-way translocation in a patient with multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation. The patient was a 10-year-old girl with mental retardation, seizures, repaired cleft palate, esotropia, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, upward slanting palpebral fissures, single transverse palmar crease, brachydactyly, hypoplastic nails, ectrodactyly between the third and fourth right toes, and hypoplasia of the left third toe. Chromosome analysis performed at birth was reported as normal. We performed high resolution banding analysis which revealed an apparently balanced translocation between chromosomes 2 and 9. However, because of her multiple abnormalities, further studies were ordered. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using chromosome painting probes revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,t(2;8;9) (2pter{yields}q31::8q21.2{yields}8qter; 8pter{yields}q21.2::2q31{yields}q34::9q34{yields}qter; 9pter{yields}q34::2q34{yields}qter). The 3-way translocation appears to be de novo, as neither parent is a translocation carrier. This case illustrates the importance of using FISH to further investigate cases of apparently balanced translocations in the presence of phenotypic abnormalities and/or mental retardation.

  9. Detection of airborne Legionella while showering using liquid impingement and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Ha, Thi-Lan; Robine, Enric; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Mathieu, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Aerosols of water contaminated with Legionella bacteria constitute the only mode of exposure for humans. However, the prevention strategy against this pathogenic bacteria risk is managed through the survey of water contamination. No relationship linked the Legionella bacteria water concentration and their airborne abundance. Therefore, new approaches in the field of the metrological aspects of Legionella bioaerosols are required. This study was aimed at testing the main principles for bioaerosol collection (solid impaction, liquid impingement and filtration) and the in situ hybridization (FISH) method, both in laboratory and field assays, with the intention of applying such methodologies for airborne Legionella bacteria detection while showering. An aerosolization chamber was developed to generate controlled and reproducible L. pneumophila aerosols. This tool allowed the identification of the liquid impingement method as the most appropriate one for collecting airborne Legionella bacteria. The culturable fraction of airborne L. pneumophila recovered with the liquid impingement principle was 4 and 700 times higher compared to the impaction and filtration techniques, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of airborne L. pneumophila in the impinger fluid were on average 7.0 x 10(5) FISH-cells m(-3) air with the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method versus 9.0 x 10(4) CFU m(-3) air with the culture method. These results, recorded under well-controlled conditions, were confirmed during the field experiments performed on aerosols generated by hot water showers in health institutions. This new approach may provide a more accurate characterization of aerobiocontamination by Legionella bacteria.

  10. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in raw bovine milk by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Tirodimos, Ilias; Bobos, Mattheos; Kalamaki, Mary S; Papageorgiou, Demetrios K; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia

    2011-12-02

    The transmission pathways of Helicobacter pylori in humans have not been fully elucidated. Research in the last decade has proposed that foodborne transmission, among others, may be a plausible route of human infection. Owing to the organism's fastidious growth characteristics and its ability to convert to viable, yet unculturable states upon exposure to stress conditions, the detection of H. pylori in foods via culture-dependent methods has been proven to be laborious, difficult and in most cases unsuccessful. Hence, nucleic acid-based methods have been proposed as alternative methods but, to date, only PCR-based methods have been reported in the literature. In the current study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for the detection of H. pylori in raw, bulk-tank bovine milk. After repeated milk centrifugation and washing steps, the bacterial flora of raw milk was subjected to fixation and permeabilization and H. pylori detection was conducted by FISH after hybridization with an H. pylori-specific 16S rRNA-directed fluorescent oligonucleotide probe. Using this protocol, H. pylori was detected in four out of the twenty (20%) raw milk samples examined. The data presented in this manuscript indicate that FISH can serve as an alternative molecular method for screening raw bovine milk for the presence of H. pylori.

  11. Microbial community development of biofilm in Amaranth decolourization technology analysed by FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belouhova, Mihaela; Schneider, Irina; Chakarov, Stoyan; Ivanova, Iliana; Topalova, Yana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role, the space distribution and the relationships of the bacteria from the genus Pseudomonas in a biofilm community during semi-continuous Amaranth decolourization process in model sand biofilters. The examined parameters of the process were as follows: technological parameters; key enzyme activities (azoreductase, succinate dehydrogenase, catechol-1,2-dioxygenase, catechol-2,3-dioxygenase); the number of azo-degrading bacteria and the bacteria from genus Pseudomonas (plate count technique); the amount and the location of Pseudomonas sp. using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The results showed that the increase of the Amaranth removal rate with 120% was accompanied with increase of the enzyme activities of the biofilm (azoreductase activity – with 25.90% and succinate dehydrogenase – with 10.61%). The enzyme assays showed absence of activity for сatechol-1,2-dioxygenase and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase at the early phase and high activities of the same oxygenases at the late phase (2.76 and 1.74 μmol/min mg protein, respectively). In the beginning of the process (0–191 h), the number of the culturable microorganisms from genus Pseudomonas was increased with 48.76% but at the late phase (191–455 h) they were decreased with 15.25% while the quantity of the non-culturable bacteria from this genus with synergetic relationships was increased with 23.26%. The dominant microbial factors were identified in the structure of the biofilm during the azo-degradation process by using FISH analysis. Furthermore, the inner mechanisms for increase of the rate and the range of the detoxification were revealed during the complex wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26019551

  12. Segregation of Species-Specific Male Attractiveness in F2 Hybrid Lake Malawi Cichlid Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Svensson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the huge radiations of haplochromine cichlid fish in Lakes Malawi and Victoria, closely related species are often reproductively isolated via female mate choice although viable fertile hybrids can be produced when females are confined only with heterospecific males. We generated F2 hybrid males from a cross between a pair of closely related sympatric cichlid fish from Lake Malawi. Laboratory mate choice experiments using microsatellite paternity analysis demonstrated that F2 hybrid males differed significantly in their attractiveness to females of the two parental species, indicating heritable variation in traits involved in mate choice that may contribute to reproductive isolation between these species. We found no significant correlation between male mating success and any measurement of male colour pattern. A simple quantitative genetic model of reproductive isolation suggests that there may be as few as two chromosomal regions controlling species-specific attractiveness. We propose that adaptive radiation of Lake Malawi cichlids could be facilitated by the presence of genes with major effects on mate choice and reproductive isolation.

  13. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  14. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses of human oocytes in trisomy 18 and 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, E.Y.; Chen, Y.J.; Gartler, S.M. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The commonly accepted view of synapsis is that only 2 homologues can synapse at any one site and that this restriction applies to polyploids as well. However, triple synapsis has been observed is some triploid plants and in triploid chicken. In humans, triple synapsis of the long arm of chromosome 21 was detected in sperm of a trisomic 21 individual. More recently, studies of oocytes from trisomic 21 and 18 fetuses also indicated extensive triple synapsis along the entire length of the chromosomes. To further investigate this question, we undertook an evaluation of trivalent synapsis in fetal oocytes from 2 trisomic 21 and 2 trisomic 18 fetuses using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome probes. Oocytes were hybridized with whole chromosome probes obtained from ONCOR, Inc. after fixation with methanol and acetic acid. Slides were scored for the distribution of prophase stages, hybridization efficiency, and hybridization characteristics of chromosomes 18 and 21 in the trisomic 18 and 21 fetuses respectively. Fifty-eight per cent (379/650) of pachytenes analyzed for chromosome 18 contained a conspicous trivalent and 319 (48%) of these nuclei contained a single, thick, continuous fluorescent signal consistent with complete triple synapsis along the entire length of all 3 chromosomes. Sixteen per cent (104/650) of pachytene contained 2 signals consistent with a bivalent and a univalent, and 9 cells contained 3 thin signals consistent with asynapsis of all 3 chromosomes. The remaining 158 pachytenes had unusual pairing configurations that we could not classify, but they most likely represent trivalents with partial pairing between different homologues. In the 2 trisomic 21 fetuses, the majority (143/232) of pachytenes also contained one signal while only 52 cells contained a bivalent and univalent. Five cells contained 3 separate signals. These results confirm the existence of triple synapsis in human meiosis.

  15. Discrimination of bacteriophage infected cells using locked nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (LNA-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas Boas, Diana; Almeida, Carina; Sillankorva, Sanna; Nicolau, Ana; Azeredo, Joana; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage-host interaction studies in biofilm structures are still challenging due to the technical limitations of traditional methods. The aim of this study was to provide a direct fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method based on locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes, which targets the phage replication phase, allowing the study of population dynamics during infection. Bacteriophages specific for two biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter, were selected. Four LNA probes were designed and optimized for phage-specific detection and for bacterial counterstaining. To validate the method, LNA-FISH counts were compared with the traditional plaque forming unit (PFU) technique. To visualize the progression of phage infection within a biofilm, colony-biofilms were formed and infected with bacteriophages. A good correlation (r = 0.707) was observed between LNA-FISH and PFU techniques. In biofilm structures, LNA-FISH provided a good discrimination of the infected cells and also allowed the assessment of the spatial distribution of infected and non-infected populations.

  16. HER2 in situ hybridization in gastric and gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: comparison of automated dual ISH to FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Andrea; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Bauer, Sharon; Streutker, Catherine J

    2013-12-01

    Patients with gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinomas that are HER2 positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization show a significant survival benefit with trastuzumab therapy. In situ hybridization is traditionally done by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), despite some limitations. An alternative is the dual in situ hybridization (Dual ISH) technique that is fully automated and uses differentially labeled CEP17 and HER2 probes that can be read by light microscopy on 1 slide. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of Dual ISH in gastric/GEJ cancer and to compare the results with those obtained by IHC and FISH. Cases of gastric/GEJ adenocarcinoma were analyzed by IHC, FISH, and Dual ISH and the correlation between methods calculated. Results for 50 patients were available. There was a 98% (49/50) concordance rate between Dual ISH and FISH. One discrepant case was nonamplified by FISH but showed focal amplification by Dual ISH. Discrepancy was attributed to tumor heterogeneity, which was a frequent finding (78% of HER2-positive cases). There was excellent correlation between Dual ISH and FISH for assessment of HER2 amplification. Dual ISH was rapid, easy to interpret, and maintained cell morphology, which was valuable in identifying tumor heterogeneity.

  17. Comparative Proteomic Analyses of the Hybrid Yellow-Poplar Stigma upon Pollination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Kun Wang; Pingfang Yang

    2012-01-01

    As basal angiosperm,Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg.and Liriodendron tulipifera Linn.are two species belong to Liriodendron genus.Hybrid yellowpoplar was obtained through crossing between Liriodendron tulipifera Linn.x L.chinense(Hemsl.) Sarg.Although hybrid yellow-poplar was strong in both growth and adaptation,its fruiting rate was as low as its parents.In this study,we profiled the proteome in hybrid yellow-poplar stigma before and after pollination.Comparative analyses of two dimensional gel electrophoresis maps from un-pollinated and pollinated stigmas showed that 30 proteins were increased and 27 proteins decreased after pollination.Functional categorization showed that most of them were metabolism-related,stress response related and protein biosynthesis,degradation and destinationrelated proteins.Also there were some redox-related and cell signaling-related proteins.All these changed proteins might involve in or affect the pollen and stigma interaction in hybrid yellow-poplar.This study will be helpful in understanding the regulation of Liriodendron genus sexual reproduction.

  18. Insertional translocation detected using FISH confirmation of array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Hae L; Shaw, Chad; Ou, Zhishuo; Eng, Patricia A; Cooper, M Lance; Pursley, Amber N; Sahoo, Trilochan; Bacino, Carlos A; Chinault, A Craig; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Patel, Ankita; Lupski, James R; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2010-05-01

    Insertional translocations (ITs) are rare events that require at least three breaks in the chromosomes involved and thus qualify as complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR). In the current study, we identified 40 ITs from approximately 18,000 clinical cases (1:500) using array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in conjunction with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmation of the aCGH findings, and parental follow-up studies. Both submicroscopic and microscopically visible IT events were detected. They were divided into three major categories: (1) simple intrachromosomal and interchromosomal IT resulting in pure segmental trisomy, (2) complex IT involving more than one abnormality, (3) deletion inherited from a parent with a balanced IT resulting in pure segmental monosomy. Of the cases in which follow-up parental studies were available, over half showed inheritance from an apparently unaffected parent carrying the same unbalanced rearrangement detected in the propositi, thus decreasing the likelihood that these IT events are clinically relevant. Nevertheless, we identified six cases in which small submicroscopic events were detected involving known disease-associated genes/genomic segments and are likely to be pathogenic. We recommend that copy number gains detected by clinical aCGH analysis should be confirmed using FISH analysis whenever possible in order to determine the physical location of the duplicated segment. We hypothesize that the increased use of aCGH in the clinic will demonstrate that IT occurs more frequently than previously considered but can identify genomic rearrangements with unclear clinical significance.

  19. Molecular genetic analyses of mating pheromones reveal intervariety mating or hybridization in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Fan, Jinjiang; Stein, Birgit; Behr, Melissa J; Samsonoff, William A; Wickes, Brian L; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2002-09-01

    The sexual mating of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is important for pathogenesis studies because the fungal virulence is linked to the alpha mating type (MAT(alpha)). We characterized C. neoformans mating pheromones (MF(alpha) 1 and MFa1) from 122 strains to understand intervariety hybridization or mating and intervariety virulence. MF(alpha) 1 in three C. neoformans varieties showed (a) specific nucleotide polymorphisms, (b) different copy numbers and chromosomal localizations, and (c) unique deduced amino acids in two geographic populations of C. neoformans var. gattii. MF(alpha) 1 of different varieties cross-hybridized in Southern hybridizations. Their phylogenetic analyses showed purifying selection (neutral evolution). These observations suggested that MAT(alpha) strains from any of the three C. neoformans varieties could mate or hybridize in nature with MATa strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans. A few serotype A/D diploid strains provided evidence for mating or hybridization, while a majority of A/D strains tested positive for haploid MF(alpha) 1 identical to that of C. neoformans var. grubii. MF(alpha) 1 sequence and copy numbers in diploids were identical to those of C. neoformans var. grubii, while their MFa1 sequences were identical to those of C. neoformans var. neoformans; thus, these strains were hybrids. The mice survival curves and histological lesions revealed A/D diploids to be highly pathogenic, with pathogenicity levels similar to that of the C. neoformans var. grubii type strain and unlike the low pathogenicity levels of C. neoformans var. neoformans strains. In contrast to MF(alpha) 1 in three varieties, MFa1 amplicons and hybridization signals could be obtained only from two C. neoformans var. neoformans reference strains and eight A/D diploids. This suggested that a yet undiscovered MFa pheromone(s) in C. neoformans var. gattii and C. neoformans var. grubii is unrelated to, highly divergent from, or rarer than that in C

  20. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assessment of chromosome copy number in sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, M.; Sigman, M.; Mark, H.F.L. [Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 15% of all recognized pregnancies end in spontaneous abortions. The overall frequency of chromosome abnormalities in spontaneous abortions is approximately 50%. Thus aneuploidy is a significant cause of fetal wastage. In addition, structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes can also lead to birth defects, developmental delay, mental retardation and infertility. Conventional cytogenetic analysis via GTG- and other banding techniques is a powerful tool in the elucidation of the nature of chromosomal abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) enables detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities, especially trisomies, in intact cells. Using FISH and commercially available biotin-labeled probes, we have initiated a prospective study to assess specific chromosome copy number of preparations of unstained smears from men referred for a male infertility evaluation as well as smears from normal control males chosen randomly from the sample of sperm donors. A total of approximately 19,000 sperm nuclei have been examined thus far. Of those suitable for analysis, 7382 (38.75%) were normal possessing one copy of chromosome 8, 155 (0.81%) were disomic, and 15 (0.079%) had more than two copies of chromosome 8. Comparisons with data available in the literature will be discussed. Work is ongoing to increase the efficiency of hybridization using both reported and previously untried pretreatment and fixation protocols. We have also initiated studies using multicolor FISH with various chromosome enumeration probes. The assay described here is a potentially powerful tool for detecting rare events such as spontaneous germ cell aneuploidy, aneuploidy detected in semen from men with carcinoma in situ of the testis and aneuploidy induced by potential environmental genotoxicants. It can also be utilized for segregation analysis and for correlating chromosome copy number with germ cell morphology.

  1. Trophic structure of mesopelagic fishes in the Gulf of Mexico revealed by gut content and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Ross, Steve W.

    2017-01-01

    Mesopelagic fishes represent an important component of the marine food web due to their global distributions, high abundances and ability to transport organic material throughout a large part of the water column. This study combined stable isotope (SIAs) and gut content analyses (GCAs) to characterize the trophic structure of mesopelagic fishes in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, this study examined whether mesopelagic fishes utilized chemosynthetic energy from cold seeps. Specimens were collected (9–25 August 2007) over three deep (>1,000 m) cold seeps at discrete depths (surface to 1,503 m) over the diurnal cycle. GCA classified 31 species (five families) of mesopelagic fishes into five feeding guilds: piscivores, large crustacean consumers, copepod consumers, generalists and mixed zooplanktivores. However, these guilds were less clearly defined based on stable isotope mixing model (MixSIAR) results, suggesting diets may be more mixed over longer time periods (weeks–months) and across co-occurring species. Copepods were likely important for the majority of mesopelagic fishes, consistent with GCA (this study) and previous literature. MixSIAR results also identified non-crustacean prey items, including salps and pteropods, as potentially important prey items for mesopelagic fishes, including those fishes not analysed in GCA (Sternoptyx spp. and Melamphaidae). Salps and other soft-bodied species are often missed in GCAs. Mesopelagic fishes had δ13C results consistent with particulate organic matter serving as the baseline organic carbon source, fueling up to three trophic levels. Fishes that undergo diel vertical migration were depleted in 15N relative to weak migrators, consistent with depth-specific isotope trends in sources and consumers, and assimilation of 15N-depleted organic matter in surface waters. Linear correlations between fish size and δ15N values suggested ontogenetic changes in fish diets for several species. While there was

  2. Cytogenetic analyses of two endemic fish species from the São Francisco River basin: Conorhynchus conirostris and Lophiosilurus alexandri (Siluriformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza Barbosa de Almeida Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Siluriformes species endemic to the São Francisco River basin were characterized by conventional and differential cytogenetic analyses involving C-banding, Ag-nucleolar organizer region (NOR and chromomycin A3 (CMA3 staining, and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. Conorhynchus conirostris presents a higher diploid number (2n = 60 than those detected in Pimelodidae representatives, whereas Lophiosilurus alexandri, with a karyotype of 2n = 54 chromosomes, presents a chromosomal constitution similar to that found in the family Pseudopimelodidae. Plesiomorphic characteristics such as single NORs at terminal positions are found in both species, as revealed by CMA3 and silver nitrate staining, and FISH with a 18S rDNA probe. C-banding evidenced centromeric and telomeric heterochromatic blocks distributed over most of the chromosomes with a conspicuous heterochromatin segment in a pair of submetacentric chromosomes in L. alexandri. Such karyotype data, if compared to the cytogenetic pattern of other Siluriformes species, can be partially related to their degree of endemism, favorable to the occurrence and fixation of chromosomal rearrangements. The present study in representatives from these two Siluriformes families from the São Francisco River contributes to a better understanding of the karyotype evolution in species of this important order of Neotropical fishes.

  3. Fossil-based comparative analyses reveal ancient marine ancestry erased by extinction in ray-finned fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Ortí, Guillermo; Pyron, Robert Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The marine-freshwater boundary is a major biodiversity gradient and few groups have colonised both systems successfully. Fishes have transitioned between habitats repeatedly, diversifying in rivers, lakes and oceans over evolutionary time. However, their history of habitat colonisation and diversification is unclear based on available fossil and phylogenetic data. We estimate ancestral habitats and diversification and transition rates using a large-scale phylogeny of extant fish taxa and one containing a massive number of extinct species. Extant-only phylogenetic analyses indicate freshwater ancestry, but inclusion of fossils reveal strong evidence of marine ancestry in lineages now restricted to freshwaters. Diversification and colonisation dynamics vary asymmetrically between habitats, as marine lineages colonise and flourish in rivers more frequently than the reverse. Our study highlights the importance of including fossils in comparative analyses, showing that freshwaters have played a role as refuges for ancient fish lineages, a signal erased by extinction in extant-only phylogenies.

  4. Trade-off between morphological convergence and opportunistic diet behavior in fish hybrid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grey Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the result of inter-species interactions and/or a response to environmental effects or the result of trade-offs? Studies focusing on the understanding of a trade-off between multiple parameters are still rare. Although this has previously been done for Cichlid species flock and for Darwin finches, where mouth or beak morphology were coupled to diet and genetic identification, no similar studies have been done for a fish hybrid zone in a river. We tested the correlation between morphology (body and mouth morphology, diet (stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and genomic combinations in different allopatric and sympatric populations for a global data set of 1330 specimens. To separate the species interaction effect from the environmental effect in sympatry, we distinguished two data sets: the first one was obtained from a highly regulated part of the river and the second was obtained from specimens coming from the less regulated part. Results The distribution of the hybrid combinations was different in the two part of the sympatric zone, whereas all the specimens presented similar overall changes in body shape and in mouth morphology. Sympatric specimens were also characterized by a larger diet behavior variance than reference populations, characteristic of an opportunistic diet. No correlation was established between the body shape (or mouth deformation and the stable isotope signature. Conclusion The Durance River is an untamed Mediterranean river despite the presence of numerous dams that split the river from

  5. Trade-off between morphological convergence and opportunistic diet behavior in fish hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corse, Emmanuel; Costedoat, Caroline; Pech, Nicolas; Chappaz, Rémi; Grey, Jonathan; Gilles, André

    2009-10-27

    The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the result of inter-species interactions and/or a response to environmental effects or the result of trade-offs? Studies focusing on the understanding of a trade-off between multiple parameters are still rare. Although this has previously been done for Cichlid species flock and for Darwin finches, where mouth or beak morphology were coupled to diet and genetic identification, no similar studies have been done for a fish hybrid zone in a river. We tested the correlation between morphology (body and mouth morphology), diet (stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes) and genomic combinations in different allopatric and sympatric populations for a global data set of 1330 specimens. To separate the species interaction effect from the environmental effect in sympatry, we distinguished two data sets: the first one was obtained from a highly regulated part of the river and the second was obtained from specimens coming from the less regulated part. The distribution of the hybrid combinations was different in the two part of the sympatric zone, whereas all the specimens presented similar overall changes in body shape and in mouth morphology. Sympatric specimens were also characterized by a larger diet behavior variance than reference populations, characteristic of an opportunistic diet. No correlation was established between the body shape (or mouth deformation) and the stable isotope signature. The Durance River is an untamed Mediterranean river despite the presence of numerous dams that split the river from upstream to downstream. The sympatric effect on morphology and

  6. Salmonellae in fish feces analyzed by in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Qiong; Forstner, Michael R J; Bonner, Timothy H; Hahn, Dittmar

    2013-09-01

    The potential of fish to transfer salmonellae from heterogeneous aquatic biofilms into feces was assessed in controlled aquarium studies with Suckermouth Catfish Hypostomus plecostomus and with biofilms inoculated with salmonellae. Neither the presence of catfish nor inoculation with salmonellae had detectable effects on the abundance of the microbial community. Densities of the microbial community were about 10(5) cells/mL in the water during a 1-week period, whereas densities of the microbial community increased 10-fold (10(6) to 10(7) cells/mg) in catfish feces during the same period. Salmonellae were detected by both quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and situ hybridization in water samples immediately after inoculation, in numbers of about 10(4) cells/mL, representing up to 20% of the cells of the microbial community. Numbers decreased by three orders of magnitude within the first 3 d of the study, which represented only 0.01% of the community, and became undetectable after day 5. In catfish feces, numbers of Salmonella initially increased to up to 6% of the cells of the community but then declined. These results suggest that Salmonella are not biomagnified during gut passage, and thus, fish only provide a means for the translocation of this pathogen.

  7. CONGESTION MANAGEMENT BY OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF FACTS CONTROLLERS USING HYBRID FISH BEE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thangalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Independent System Operator (ISO in the restructured power industry includes system control, capacity planning, transmission tariff and congestion management; the challenging task being minimizing the congestion. One of the popular techniques used to alleviate congestion is using Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS devices. The power system generally operates near its rated capacity in deregulated market because of intensive usage of transmission grids. So, the major issues that need to be addressed are improving the voltage profile and reducing the power loss in the electrical network. Motivation: The location of FACTS devices can improve the power flow in the line, maintain the bus profile and reduce the losses. However locating the ideal location is a NP problem. This study presents a novel heuristic method to determine the types of FACTS devices and its optimal location in a power system without violating the thermal and voltage limits. Power flow sensitivity index to find the optimal location of UPFC is suggested in this study. A hybrid fish bee swarm optimization is proposed which is based on Artificial Bee Colony (ABC and Fish School Search (FSS methods. This proposed algorithm is tested based on IEEE 30 bus system and line performances are studied.

  8. Comparative analyses of animal-tracking data reveal ecological significance of endothermy in fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y.; Goldman, Kenneth J.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Chapman, Demian D.; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite long evolutionary separations, several sharks and tunas share the ability to maintain slow-twitch, aerobic red muscle (RM) warmer than ambient water. Proximate causes of RM endothermy are well understood, but ultimate causes are unclear. Two advantages often proposed are thermal niche expansion and elevated cruising speeds. The thermal niche hypothesis is generally supported, because fishes with RM endothermy often exhibit greater tolerance to broad temperature ranges. In contrast, whether fishes with RM endothermy cruise faster, and achieve any ecological benefits from doing so, remains unclear. Here, we compiled data recorded by modern animal-tracking tools for a variety of free-swimming marine vertebrates. Using phylogenetically informed allometry, we show that both cruising speeds and maximum annual migration ranges of fishes with RM endothermy are 2–3 times greater than fishes without it, and comparable to nonfish endotherms (i.e., penguins and marine mammals). The estimated cost of transport of fishes with RM endothermy is twice that of fishes without it. We suggest that the high energetic cost of RM endothermy in fishes is offset by the benefit of elevated cruising speeds, which not only increase prey encounter rates, but also enable larger-scale annual migrations and potentially greater access to seasonally available resources. PMID:25902489

  9. Comparative analyses of animal-tracking data reveal ecological significance of endothermy in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Goldman, Kenneth J; Caselle, Jennifer E; Chapman, Demian D; Papastamatiou, Yannis P

    2015-05-12

    Despite long evolutionary separations, several sharks and tunas share the ability to maintain slow-twitch, aerobic red muscle (RM) warmer than ambient water. Proximate causes of RM endothermy are well understood, but ultimate causes are unclear. Two advantages often proposed are thermal niche expansion and elevated cruising speeds. The thermal niche hypothesis is generally supported, because fishes with RM endothermy often exhibit greater tolerance to broad temperature ranges. In contrast, whether fishes with RM endothermy cruise faster, and achieve any ecological benefits from doing so, remains unclear. Here, we compiled data recorded by modern animal-tracking tools for a variety of free-swimming marine vertebrates. Using phylogenetically informed allometry, we show that both cruising speeds and maximum annual migration ranges of fishes with RM endothermy are 2-3 times greater than fishes without it, and comparable to nonfish endotherms (i.e., penguins and marine mammals). The estimated cost of transport of fishes with RM endothermy is twice that of fishes without it. We suggest that the high energetic cost of RM endothermy in fishes is offset by the benefit of elevated cruising speeds, which not only increase prey encounter rates, but also enable larger-scale annual migrations and potentially greater access to seasonally available resources.

  10. Trypanosomiasis in hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus and other freshwater fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promkhunthong, W.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The infestation of Trypanosoma sp. (Kinetoplastida in the hybrid catfish and some fresh water fish was studied showing such parasitic infestation was specific only in catfish. The virulence as determined by LD50 for 5 days was 2.28x1010 cell in a fish sample. The parasitic infestation caused hematological changes by the reduction of red as well as white blood cells. The reductions were highly significant as compared to the healthy sample (p<0.05 as noted by the red and white blood cell count which dropped from 2.14±0.48x106 to 1.62±0.27x106 cells/ml and from 1.45±3.76x105 to 2.42±0.78x104 cells/ml blood in the infested samples, respectively. Similar trend was noted for hemoglobin and hematocrit which dropped significantly (p<0.05. The hemoglobin in healthy fish is 7.075±0.929g/100g, which dropped to 6.268±0.697g/100g in the samples with infestation. The percentage of hematocrit in healthy sample is 25.275±3.318%, which dropped to 21.722±3.068% in the samples with infestation. The reverse trend was recognized for serum protein andleukocrit which increased in the samples with Trypanosoma sp. infestation. The density gradient centrifugation technique was employed in the isolation of parasites in which 50% Percoll solution in 0.85% final preparation of saline solution was capable of removing Trypanosoma sp. from the blood. The study of antibody levels in serum showed that the infested hybrid catfish could develop the antibody which reached a peak 14 days after the infestation. Trypanosoma sp. was unable to cause histological changes in the tissues of gill, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and intestine. Minor inflammations were observed, even the cases that large number of parasites were found in the tissues, blood streams and sinuses. Marked reductions were recorded for mature red blood cells while there were the formation of immature red blood and phagocytotic cells at higher rates as compared to the healthy individual.

  11. Health assessment and mercury analyses of fishes of the Atchafalaya National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mercury and poor water quality in the Atchafalaya River Basin have been documented by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality’s Mercury Monitoring Program....

  12. Karyotype of Zea luxurians and Z. mays subsp. mays using FISH/DAPI, and analysis of meiotic behavior of hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Graciela E; Poggio, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    The karyotypes of Zea luxurians and a race of maize from northwestern Argentina are described and compared using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to localize the 180 bp knobs. The meiotic behavior of the F₁ artificial hybrids Z. luxurians × maize is also analyzed to determine the genomic relationships between both species. Neocentromere activity at knobs in the meiosis of the hybrids is particularly discussed. The meiotic behavior and the high pollen sterility of the hybrid revealed genetical and (or) chromosomal divergences, leading to postzygotic reproductive isolation among their parents. Here, we propose that maize shows lower genomic affinity to Z. luxurians than to other species of the genus with 2n = 20.

  13. Trophic structure of a coastal fish community determined with diet and stable isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, A J; Collie, J S; Taylor, D L

    2016-09-01

    A combination of dietary guild analysis and nitrogen (δ(15) N) and carbon (δ(13) C) stable-isotope analysis was used to assess the trophic structure of the fish community in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds, an area off southern New England identified for offshore wind energy development. In the autumn of 2009, 2010 and 2011, stomach and tissue samples were taken from 20 fish and invertebrate species for analysis of diet composition and δ(15) N and δ(13) C signatures. The food chain in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds comprises approximately four trophic levels within which the fish community is divided into distinct dietary guilds, including planktivores, benthivores, crustacivores and piscivores. Within these guilds, inter-species isotopic and dietary overlap is high, suggesting that resource partitioning or competitive interactions play a major role in structuring the fish community. Carbon isotopes indicate that most fishes are supported by pelagic phytoplankton, although there is evidence that benthic production also plays a role, particularly for obligate benthivores such as skates Leucoraja spp. This type of analysis is useful for developing an ecosystem-based approach to management, as it identifies species that act as direct links to basal resources as well as species groups that share trophic roles.

  14. Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to analyze multispecies oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) constitutes a favorable microbiological method for the analysis of spatial distribution of highly variable phenotypes found in multispecies oral biofilms. The combined use of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) produces high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of individual bacteria in their natural environment. Here, we describe the application of M-FISH on early (Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces naeslundii) and late colonizers (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Veillonella spp.) of in situ-formed oral biofilms, the acquisition of CLSM images, as well as the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these digitally obtained and processed images.

  15. Numbers and locations of native bacteria on field-grown wheat roots quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Michelle; Hugenholtz, Philip; White, Rosemary; Vinall, Kerry

    2006-05-01

    Native bacteria, Pseudomonas and filamentous bacteria were quantified and localized on wheat roots grown in the field using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Seminal roots were sampled through the season from unploughed soil in a conservation farming system. Such soils are spatially heterogeneous, and many roots grow slowly through hard soil with cracks and pores containing dead roots remnant from previous crops. Root and rhizosphere morphology, and contact with soil particles were preserved, and autofluorescence was avoided by observing sections in the far-red with Cy5 and Cy5.5 fluorochromes. Spatial analyses showed that bacteria were embedded in a stable matrix (biofilm) within 11 microm of the root surface (range 2-30 microm) and were clustered on 40% of roots. Half the clusters co-located with axial grooves between epidermal cells, soil particles, cap cells or root hairs; the other half were not associated with visible features. Across all wheat roots, although variable, bacteria averaged 15.4 x 10(5) cells per mm(3) rhizosphere, and of these, Pseudomonas and filaments comprised 10% and 4%, respectively, with minor effects of sample time, and no effect of plant age. Root caps were most heavily colonized by bacteria along roots, and elongation zones least heavily colonized. Pseudomonas varied little with root development and were 17% of bacteria on the elongation zone. Filamentous bacteria were not found on the elongation zone. The most significant factor to rhizosphere populations along a wheat root, however, was contact with dead root remnants, where Pseudomonas were reduced but filaments increased to 57% of bacteria (P < 0.001). This corresponded with analyses of root remnants showing they were heavily colonized by bacteria, with 48% filaments (P < 0.001) and 1.4%Pseudomonas (P = 0.014). Efforts to manage rhizosphere bacteria for sustainable agricultural systems should continue to focus on root cap and mucilage chemistry, and remnant roots as

  16. Trace Element and Stable Isotope Analyses of Deep Sea Fish from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Manganese, Tl, Pb, Bi, In, Cs and As showed significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) with δ15N, ... To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting Tl biomagnification in fish. ... constitutes a health risk to humans, as Cr is potentially toxic.

  17. Comparing trophic position of stream fishes using stable isotope and gut contents analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) and gut content analysis (GCA) are commonly used in food web studies, but few studies analyze these data in concert. We used SIA and GCA to identify diets and trophic position (TP) of six stream fishes and to compare TP estimates between methods. Ord...

  18. Studies of the Ecophysiology of Single Cells in Microbial Communities by (Quantitative) Microautoradiography and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (MAR-FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    Microautoradiography (MAR) in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method of obtaining information about the ecophysiology of probe-defined single cells in mixed microbial communities. The incorporation of radiolabelled substrates can be quantified by automated...

  19. Development of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for visualizing CGMMV in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargil, D; Zemach, H; Belausov, E; Lachman, O; Kamenetsky, R; Dombrovsky, A

    2015-10-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), which belongs to the genus Tobamovirus, is a major pathogen of cucurbit crops grown indoors and in open fields. Currently, immunology (e.g., ELISA) and molecular amplification techniques (e.g., RT-PCR) are employed extensively for virus detection in plant tissues and commercial seed lots diagnostics. In this study, a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using oligonucleotides whose 5'-terminals were labeled with red cyanine 3 (Cy3) or green fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), was developed for the visualization of the pathogen in situ. This simple and reliable method allows detection and localization of CGMMV in the vegetative and reproductive tissues of cucumber and melon. When this technique was applied in male flowers, anther tissues were found to be infected; whereas the pollen grains were found to be virus-free. These results have meaningful epidemiological implications for the management of CGMMV, particularly with regard to virus transfer via seed and the role of insects as CGMMV vectors.

  20. Application of IBA in the comparative analyses of fish scales used as biomonitors in the Matola River, Mozambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guambe, J.F. [Freshwater Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701 (South Africa); Physics Department, Eduardo Mondlane Universily, PO Box 257, Maputo (Mozambique); Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West, 7129 (South Africa); Mars, J.A. [Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Day, J. [Freshwater Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Many natural resources are invariably contaminated by industries located on the periphery of the resources. More so, fish found in the resources are used as dietary supplements, especially by individual that reside near the natural resources. The scale offish have been proven to be applicable in monitoring contamination of the natural resources. However, the morphology and chemical composition of the scale of various species differ to a significant degree. Consequently, the incorporation of contaminants into the scale structure will be different. There is a need of pilot for contaminants which can harm the biota. The composition of the fish scales is different. To quantify the degree of incorporation onto the scale matrix we have analysed, using PIXE, RBS and SEM, the scale of four types of fish scales, that is, Pomadasys kaakan the javelin grunter; Luljanus gibbus the humpback red snapper; Pinjalo pinjalo the pinjalo and Uthognathus mormyrus the sand streenbras. In this work we report on the viability of using various fish scales as monitors of natural resource contamination. (author)

  1. Distinguishing real from fake ivory products by elemental analyses: A Bayesian hybrid classification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Thitaram, Chatchote; Klinhom, Sarisa; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2017-03-01

    As laws tighten to limit commercial ivory trading and protect threatened species like whales and elephants, increased sales of fake ivory products have become widespread. This study describes a method, handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) as a noninvasive technique for elemental analysis, to differentiate quickly between ivory (Asian and African elephant, mammoth) from non-ivory (bones, teeth, antler, horn, wood, synthetic resin, rock) materials. An equation consisting of 20 elements and light elements from a stepwise discriminant analysis was used to classify samples, followed by Bayesian binary regression to determine the probability of a sample being 'ivory', with complementary log log analysis to identify the best fit model for this purpose. This Bayesian hybrid classification model was 93% accurate with 92% precision in discriminating ivory from non-ivory materials. The method was then validated by scanning an additional ivory and non-ivory samples, correctly identifying bone as not ivory with >95% accuracy, except elephant bone, which was 72%. It was less accurate for wood and rock (25-85%); however, a preliminary screening to determine if samples are not Ca-dominant could eliminate inorganic materials. In conclusion, elemental analyses by XRF can be used to identify several forms of fake ivory samples, which could have forensic application.

  2. When biogeographical provinces collide: Hybridization of reef fishes at the crossroads of marine biogeographical provinces in the Arabian Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Aim: Suture zones are areas where closely related species from different biogeographical regions come into contact and interbreed. This concept originated from the study of terrestrial ecosystems but it remains unclear whether a similar phenomenon occurs in the marine environment. Here we investigate a potential suture zone from a previously unknown hybrid hotspot at the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen), located in the Arabian Sea, where fauna from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, western Indian Ocean and greater Indo-Polynesian Province intersect. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. Methods: Putative hybrid reef fish were identified based on intermediate coloration and morphology. Underwater observations and collections were conducted to determine: (1) whether parent species form heterospecific social groups or breeding pairs; (2) the sex and reproductive status of morphologically intermediate individuals; and (3) whether parent species were forming mixed species associations owing to a dearth of conspecific partners. To support hybrid status, morphologically intermediate and parental individuals were genotyped using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), nuclear recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2) and the nuclear TMO-4C4 (TMO) gene. Results: We observed putative hybrids involving 14 species from four reef fish families at Socotra. Most cases involved a parental species with a restricted distribution (e.g. Red Sea or Arabian Sea) and a broadly distributed Indo-Pacific species. In most cases, at least one of the parent species was rare at Socotra. Hybrid gene flow was largely unidirectional, and although introgression was rare, we found evidence that some butterflyfish and surgeonfish hybrids were fertile and formed breeding groups with parental species. Main conclusions: The rate of hybrid discovery at Socotra is much greater than that recorded elsewhere in the marine environment and involved both allopatric and

  3. Variability of ribosomal DNA sites in Festuca pratensis, Lolium perenne, and their intergeneric hybrids, revealed by FISH and GISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiazczyk, T; Taciak, M; Zwierzykowski, Z

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the variability of chromosomal location and number of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites in some diploid and autotetraploid Festuca pratensis and Lolium perenne cultivars, as well as on identification of rDNA-bearing chromosomes in their triploid and tetraploid F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrids. The rDNA loci were mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 25S rDNA probes, and the origin of parental genomes was verified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with L. perenne genomic DNA as a probe, and F. pratensis genomic DNA as a block. FISH detected variation in the number and chromosomal location of both 5S and 45S rDNA sites. In F. pratensis mostly additional signals of 5S rDNA loci occurred, as compared with standard F. pratensis karyotypes. Losses of 45S rDNA loci were more frequent in L. perenne cultivars and intergeneric hybrids. Comparison of the F. pratensis and L. perenne genomes approved a higher number of rDNA sites as well as variation in chromosomal rDNA location in L. perenne. A greater instability of F. pratensis-genome-like and L. perenne-genome-like chromosomes in tetraploid hybrids was revealed, indicating gains and losses of rDNA loci, respectively. Our data indicate that the rDNA loci physically mapped on chromosomes 2 and 3 in F. pratensis and on chromosome 3 in L. perenne are useful markers for these chromosomes in intergeneric Festuca × Lolium hybrids.

  4. An investigation on hybrid interface using on-line monitoring experiment and finite element analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, H.T.X.; Martinez, M.J.; Ochoa, O.O.; Lagoudas, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the hybrid interface between metal and thermosetting polymer matrix composite was studied via experimental and numerical investigations. Hybrid laminates, whose constituents are aluminum foil, carbon fabric and epoxy matrix, were manufactured using the vacuum assisted resin transfer mo

  5. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... detection and enumeration of FISH signals in interphase nuclei of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human.... This device is intended for in vitro diagnostic use with FISH assays as an aid in the...

  6. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants - Thermodynamic analyses and site-specific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipippo, R.; Kestin, J.; Avelar, E. M.; Khalifa, H. E.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, we extend the analysis of hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants to compound systems which combine the features of the two previously analyzed hybrid plants, the geothermal preheat and the fossil superheat systems. Compound systems of the one- and two-stage type are considered. A complete summary of formulae to assess the performance of the plants is included for completeness. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, compound hybrid plants are superior to individual all-geothermal and all-fossil plants, and have certain advantages over basic geothermal-preheat and fossil-superheat hybrid plants. The flexibility of compound hybrid systems is illustrated by showing how such plants might be used at several geothermal sites in the western United States.

  7. Comprehensive meiotic segregation analysis of a 4-breakpoint t(1;3;6) complex chromosome rearrangement using single sperm array comparative genomic hybridization and FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Miroslav; Vozdova, Miluse; Musilova, Petra; Prinosilova, Petra; Oracova, Eva; Linkova, Vlasta; Vesela, Katerina; Rubes, Jiri

    2014-10-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) represent rare structural chromosome abnormalities frequently associated with infertility. In this study, meiotic segregation in spermatozoa of an infertile normospermic carrier of a 4-breakpoint t(1;3;6) CCR was analysed. A newly developed array comparative genomic hybridization protocol was used, and all chromosomes in 50 single sperm cells were simultaneously examined. Three-colour FISH was used to analyse chromosome segregation in 1557 other single sperm cells. It was also used to measure an interchromosomal effect; sperm chromatin structure assay was used to measure chromatin integrity. A high-frequency of unbalanced spermatozoa (84%) was observed, mostly arising from the 3:3 symmetrical segregation mode. Array comparative genomic hybridization was used to detect additional aneuploidies in two out of 50 spermatozoa (4%) in chromosomes not involved in the complex chromosome rearrangement. Significantly increased rates of diploidy and XY disomy were found in the CCR carrier compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Defective condensation of sperm chromatin was also found in 22.7% of spermatozoa by sperm chromatin structure assay. The results indicate that the infertility in the man with CCR and normal spermatozoa was caused by a production of chromosomally unbalanced, XY disomic and diploid spermatozoa and spermatozoa with defective chromatin condensation.

  8. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting

  9. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance

  10. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH for BCR/ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia after bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari Chauffaille

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Identification of Philadelphia chromosome or BCR/ABL gene rearrangement in chronic myeloid leukemia is important at diagnosis as well as after treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of karyotyping using fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH upon diagnosis and 1 year after bone marrow transplantation in 12 patients. TYPE OF STUDY: Diagnostic test and residual disease detection. SETTING: Hematology and Hemotherapy Department, Federal University of São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil. SAMPLE: 12 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia at diagnosis and 1 year after bone marrow transplantation. DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Karyotyping was done in the usual way and the BCR/ABL gene-specific probe was used for FISH. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Disease at diagnosis and residual. RESULTS: At diagnosis, 10 patients presented t(9;22(q34.1;q11 as well as positive FISH. Two cases did not have metaphases but FISH was positive. After bone marrow transplantation, 8 patients presented normal karyotype, 1 had persistence of identifiable Philadelphia chromosome and 3 had no metaphases. Two cases showed complete chimera and 2 had donor and host cells simultaneously. FISH was possible in all cases after bone marrow transplantation and confirmed the persistence of identifiable Philadelphia chromosome clone in one patient, and identified another that did not present metaphases for analysis. Cases that showed mixed chimera in karyotype were negative for BCR/ABL by FISH. CONCLUSION: The applicability of FISH is clear, particularly for residual disease detection. Classical and molecular cytogenetics are complementary methods.

  11. Annotation of expressed sequence tags for the East African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni and evolutionary analyses of cichlid ORFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braasch Ingo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cichlid fishes in general, and the exceptionally diverse East African haplochromine cichlids in particular, are famous examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation. Here we report the collection and annotation of more than 12,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from three different cDNA libraries obtained from the East African haplochromine cichlid species Astatotilapia burtoni and Metriaclima zebra. Results We first annotated more than 12,000 newly generated cichlid ESTs using the Gene Ontology classification system. For evolutionary analyses, we combined these ESTs with all available sequence data for haplochromine cichlids, which resulted in a total of more than 45,000 ESTs. The ESTs represent a broad range of molecular functions and biological processes. We compared the haplochromine ESTs to sequence data from those available for other fish model systems such as pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis, trout, and zebrafish. We characterized genes that show a faster or slower rate of base substitutions in haplochromine cichlids compared to other fish species, as this is indicative of a relaxed or reinforced selection regime. Four of these genes showed the signature of positive selection as revealed by calculating Ka/Ks ratios. Conclusion About 22% of the surveyed ESTs were found to have cichlid specific rate differences suggesting that these genes might play a role in lineage specific characteristics of cichlids. We also conclude that the four genes with a Ka/Ks ratio greater than one appear as good candidate genes for further work on the genetic basis of evolutionary success of haplochromine cichlid fishes.

  12. Identification and characterization of marker chromosomes, de novo rearrangements and microdeletions in 100 cases with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.M.; Liu, Y.; Papenhausen, P.R. [Roche Biomedical Labs., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Results of molecular cytogenetic analysis are presented for 100 cases in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used as an adjunct to standard cytogenetics. Commercially available centromeric, telomeric, chromosome painting and unique sequence probes were used. Cases were from a 12-month period (June 1993-May 1994) and included examples of sex chromosome abnormalities (8), duplications (5), de novo translocations (6), satellited (12) and non-satellited (7) markers, and microdeletion syndromes (62). Satellited marker chromosomes were evaluated using a combination of DAPI/Distamycin A staining, hybridization with a classical satellite probe for chromosome 15 and hybridization with alpha-satellite probes for chromosomes 13, 14, 21 and 22. Markers positive for the chromosome 15 probe were further evaluated using unique sequence probes for the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. Microdeletion analysis was performed for Prader-Willi/Angelman (49) and DiGeorge/VCF (13) syndromes. Seven cases evaluated for Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome demonstrated evidence of a deletion within this region. Uniparental disomy analysis was available in cases where a deletion was not detected by FISH, yet follow-up was clinically indicated. Two cases evaluated for DiGeorge/VCF syndrome demonstrated molecular evidence of a deletion. Included in our analysis is an example of familial DiGeorge syndrome.

  13. Morphological, cytological and molecular analyses of a synthetic hexaploid derived from an interspecific hybrid between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium anomalum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium anomalum represents an inestimable source of genes that could potentially be transferred into the gene pool of cultivated cotton. To resolve interspecific hybrid sterility problems, we previously treated triploid hybrids derived from a cross between Gossypium hirsutum and G. anomalum with 0.15% colchicine and obtained a putative fertile hexaploid. In this study, we performed morphological, molecular and cytological analyses to assess the hybridity and doubled status of putative interspecific hybrid plants. Most of the morphological characteristics of the putative hexaploid plants were intermediate between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum. Analysis of mitotic metaphase plates revealed 78 chromosomes, confirming the doubled hybrid status of the hexaploid. Genome-wide molecular analysis with different genome-derived SSR markers revealed a high level of polymorphism (96.6% between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum. The marker transferability rate from other species to G. anomalum was as high as 98.0%. The high percentage of polymorphic markers with additive banding profiles in the hexaploid indicates the hybridity of the hexaploid on a genome-wide level. A-genome-derived markers were more powerful for distinguishing the genomic differences between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum than D-genome-derived markers. This study demonstrates the hybridity and chromosomally doubled status of the (G. anomalum × G. hirsutum2 hexaploid using morphological, cytological and molecular marker methods. The informative SSR markers screened in the study will be useful marker resources for tracking the flow of G. anomalum genetic material among progenies that may be produced by future backcrosses to G. hirsutum.

  14. Morphological, cytological and molecular analyses of a synthetic hexaploid derived from an interspecific hybrid between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium anomalum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia; Zhang; Caijiao; Zhai; Linchi; He; Qi; Guo; Xianggui; Zhang; Peng; Xu; Hongmei; Su; Yuanyong; Gong; Wanchao; Ni; Xinlian; Shen

    2014-01-01

    Gossypium anomalum represents an inestimable source of genes that could potentially be transferred into the gene pool of cultivated cotton. To resolve interspecific hybrid sterility problems, we previously treated triploid hybrids derived from a cross between Gossypium hirsutum and G. anomalum with 0.15% colchicine and obtained a putative fertile hexaploid. In this study, we performed morphological, molecular and cytological analyses to assess the hybridity and doubled status of putative interspecific hybrid plants. Most of the morphological characteristics of the putative hexaploid plants were intermediate between G. hirsutum and G.anomalum. Analysis of mitotic metaphase plates revealed 78 chromosomes, confirming the doubled hybrid status of the hexaploid. Genome-wide molecular analysis with different genome-derived SSR markers revealed a high level of polymorphism(96.6%) between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum. The marker transferability rate from other species to G. anomalum was as high as 98.0%. The high percentage of polymorphic markers with additive banding profiles in the hexaploid indicates the hybridity of the hexaploid on a genome-wide level. A-genome-derived markers were more powerful for distinguishing the genomic differences between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum than D-genome-derived markers. This study demonstrates the hybridity and chromosomally doubled status of the(G. anomalum × G. hirsutum)2hexaploid using morphological, cytological and molecular marker methods. The informative SSR markers screened in the study will be useful marker resources for tracking the flow of G. anomalum genetic material among progenies that may be produced by future backcrosses to G. hirsutum.

  15. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  16. Analyse visgegevens DFS (Demersal Fish Survey) ten behoeve van de compensatiemonitoring Maasvlakte 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    Binnen het monitoringprogramma dat is ingesteld om de compensatie opgave voor de aanleg van de Tweede Maasvlakte te onderzoeken is er in 2014 geen specifiek visprogramma uitgevoerd. In plaats daarvan is een analyse uitgevoerd van de data uit de lange termijn monitoring in het kader van de Demersal F

  17. Human disturbance causes the formation of a hybrid swarm between two naturally sympatric fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselman, Daniel J; Argo, Emily E; McBride, Meghan C; Bentzen, Paul; Schultz, Thomas F; Perez-Umphrey, Anna A; Palkovacs, Eric P

    2014-03-01

    Most evidence for hybrid swarm formation stemming from anthropogenic habitat disturbance comes from the breakdown of reproductive isolation between incipient species, or introgression between allopatric species following secondary contact. Human impacts on hybridization between divergent species that naturally occur in sympatry have received considerably less attention. Theory predicts that reinforcement should act to preserve reproductive isolation under such circumstances, potentially making reproductive barriers resistant to human habitat alteration. Using 15 microsatellites, we examined hybridization between sympatric populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (A. aestivalis) to test whether the frequency of hybridization and pattern of introgression have been impacted by the construction of a dam that isolated formerly anadromous populations of both species in a landlocked freshwater reservoir. The frequency of hybridization and pattern of introgression differed markedly between anadromous and landlocked populations. The rangewide frequency of hybridization among anadromous populations was generally 0-8%, whereas all landlocked individuals were hybrids. Although neutral introgression was observed among anadromous hybrids, directional introgression leading to increased prevalence of alewife genotypes was detected among landlocked hybrids. We demonstrate that habitat alteration can lead to hybrid swarm formation between divergent species that naturally occur sympatrically, and provide empirical evidence that reinforcement does not always sustain reproductive isolation under such circumstances.

  18. Genetic introgression and hybridization in Antillean freshwater turtles (Trachemys) revealed by coalescent analyses of mitochondrial and cloned nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, James F; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Dijk, Peter Paul van; Wilson, Byron S; Marte, Cristian; Schettino, Lourdes Rodriguez; Brian Simison, W

    2013-04-01

    Determining whether a conflict between gene trees and species trees represents incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) or hybridization involving native and/or invasive species has implications for reconstructing evolutionary relationships and guiding conservation decisions. Among vertebrates, turtles represent an exceptional case for exploring these issues because of the propensity for even distantly related lineages to hybridize. In this study we investigate a group of freshwater turtles (Trachemys) from a part of its range (the Greater Antilles) where it is purported to have undergone reticulation events from both natural and anthropogenic processes. We sequenced mtDNA for 83 samples, sequenced three nuDNA markers for 45 samples, and cloned 29 polymorphic sequences, to identify species boundaries, hybridization, and intergrade zones for Antillean Trachemys and nearby mainland populations. Initial coalescent analyses of phased nuclear alleles (using (*)BEAST) recovered a Bayesian species tree that strongly conflicted with the mtDNA phylogeny and traditional taxonomy, and appeared to be confounded by hybridization. Therefore, we undertook exploratory phylogenetic analyses of mismatched alleles from the "coestimated" gene trees (Heled and Drummond, 2010) in order to identify potential hybrid origins. The geography, morphology, and sampling context of most samples with potential introgressed alleles suggest hybridization over ILS. We identify contact zones between different species on Jamaica (T. decussata × T. terrapen), on Hispaniola (T. decorata × T. stejnegeri), and in Central America (T. emolli × T. venusta). We are unable to determine whether the distribution of T. decussata on Jamaica is natural or the result of prehistoric introduction by Native Americans. This uncertainty means that the conservation status of the Jamaican T. decussata populations and contact zone with T. terrapen are unresolved. Human-mediated dispersal events were more conclusively implicated

  19. Activity and interactions of methane seep microorganisms assessed by parallel transcription and FISH-NanoSIMS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekas, Anne E; Connon, Stephanie A; Chadwick, Grayson L; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-03-01

    To characterize the activity and interactions of methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and Deltaproteobacteria at a methane-seeping mud volcano, we used two complimentary measures of microbial activity: a community-level analysis of the transcription of four genes (16S rRNA, methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA), adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase α-subunit (aprA), dinitrogenase reductase (nifH)), and a single-cell-level analysis of anabolic activity using fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (FISH-NanoSIMS). Transcript analysis revealed that members of the deltaproteobacterial groups Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus (DSS) and Desulfobulbaceae (DSB) exhibit increased rRNA expression in incubations with methane, suggestive of ANME-coupled activity. Direct analysis of anabolic activity in DSS cells in consortia with ANME by FISH-NanoSIMS confirmed their dependence on methanotrophy, with no (15)NH4(+) assimilation detected without methane. In contrast, DSS and DSB cells found physically independent of ANME (i.e., single cells) were anabolically active in incubations both with and without methane. These single cells therefore comprise an active 'free-living' population, and are not dependent on methane or ANME activity. We investigated the possibility of N2 fixation by seep Deltaproteobacteria and detected nifH transcripts closely related to those of cultured diazotrophic Deltaproteobacteria. However, nifH expression was methane-dependent. (15)N2 incorporation was not observed in single DSS cells, but was detected in single DSB cells. Interestingly, (15)N2 incorporation in single DSB cells was methane-dependent, raising the possibility that DSB cells acquired reduced (15)N products from diazotrophic ANME while spatially coupled, and then subsequently dissociated. With this combined data set we address several outstanding questions in methane seep microbial ecosystems and highlight the benefit of measuring microbial activity in

  20. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) for the localization of viruses and endosymbiotic bacteria in plant and insect tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliot, Adi; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Brumin, Marina; Cathrin, Pakkianathan Britto; Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Skaljac, Marisa; Belausov, Eduard; Czosnek, Henryk; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-02-24

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a name given to a variety of techniques commonly used for visualizing gene transcripts in eukaryotic cells and can be further modified to visualize other components in the cell such as infection with viruses and bacteria. Spatial localization and visualization of viruses and bacteria during the infection process is an essential step that complements expression profiling experiments such as microarrays and RNAseq in response to different stimuli. Understanding the spatiotemporal infections with these agents complements biological experiments aimed at understanding their interaction with cellular components. Several techniques for visualizing viruses and bacteria such as reporter gene systems or immunohistochemical methods are time-consuming, and some are limited to work with model organisms and involve complex methodologies. FISH that targets RNA or DNA species in the cell is a relatively easy and fast method for studying spatiotemporal localization of genes and for diagnostic purposes. This method can be robust and relatively easy to implement when the protocols employ short hybridizing, commercially-purchased probes, which are not expensive. This is particularly robust when sample preparation, fixation, hybridization, and microscopic visualization do not involve complex steps. Here we describe a protocol for localization of bacteria and viruses in insect and plant tissues. The method is based on simple preparation, fixation, and hybridization of insect whole mounts and dissected organs or hand-made plant sections, with 20 base pairs short DNA probes conjugated to fluorescent dyes on their 5' or 3' ends. This protocol has been successfully applied to a number of insect and plant tissues, and can be used to analyze expression of mRNAs or other RNA or DNA species in the cell.

  1. On the Translation of Hybridity in the Chinese Version of Saving Fish from Drowning in the Light of Bakhtin’s Theory of Dialogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zheng-yan; WANG Ji-ping

    2015-01-01

    In translation, hybridity often poses a big challenge to the translator, especially when the hybrid text is a novel. The au⁃thor of this paper hopes to contribute to the study of the translation of hybridity in English novels by drawing on Bakhtin ’s theory of dialogue. By analyzing the translation of linguistic hybridity in Saving Fish from Drowning, the author of this paper finds that the translation by Caiju is not good enough and tries to provide a new direction by virtue of which translators can choose right transla⁃tion strategies.

  2. Phylogenetic analyses provide insights into the historical biogeography and evolution of Brachyrhaphis fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingley, Spencer J; Reina, Ruth G; Bermingham, Eldredge; Johnson, Jerald B

    2015-08-01

    The livebearing fish genus Brachyrhaphis (Poeciliidae) has become an increasingly important model in evolution and ecology research, yet the phylogeny of this group is not well understood, nor has it been examined thoroughly using modern phylogenetic methods. Here, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Brachyrhaphis by using four molecular markers (3mtDNA, 1nucDNA) to infer relationships among species in this genus. We tested the validity of this genus as a monophyletic group using extensive outgroup sampling based on recent phylogenetic hypotheses of Poeciliidae. We also tested the validity of recently described species of Brachyrhaphis that are part of the B. episcopi complex in Panama. Finally, we examined the impact of historical events on diversification of Brachyrhaphis, and made predictions regarding the role of different ecological environments on evolutionary diversification where known historical events apparently fail to explain speciation. Based on our results, we reject the monophyly of Brachyrhaphis, and question the validity of two recently described species (B. hessfeldi and B. roswithae). Historical biogeography of Brachyrhaphis generally agrees with patterns found in other freshwater taxa in Lower Central America, which show that geological barriers frequently predict speciation. Specifically, we find evidence in support of an 'island' model of Lower Central American formation, which posits that the nascent isthmus was partitioned by several marine connections before linking North and South America. In some cases where historic events (e.g., vicariance) fail to explain allopatric species breaks in Brachyrhaphis, ecological processes (e.g., divergent predation environments) offer additional insight into our understanding of phylogenetic diversification in this group.

  3. Origin and evolution of B chromosomes in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia latifasciata based on integrated genomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Guilherme T; Conte, Matthew A; Fantinatti, Bruno E A; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C; Carvalho, Robson F; Vicari, Marcelo R; Kocher, Thomas D; Martins, Cesar

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 15% of eukaryotes contain supernumerary B chromosomes. When present, B chromosomes frequently represent as much as 5% of the genome. Despite thousands of reports describing the distribution of supernumeraries in various taxa, a comprehensive theory for the origin, maintenance, and evolution of B chromosomes has not emerged. Here, we sequence the complete genomes of individual cichlid fish (Astatotilapia latifasciata) with and without B chromosomes, as well as microdissected B chromosomes, to identify DNA sequences on the B. B sequences were further analyzed through quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. We find that the B chromosome contains thousands of sequences duplicated from essentially every chromosome in the ancestral karyotype. Although most genes on the B chromosome are fragmented, a few are largely intact, and we detect evidence that at least three of them are transcriptionally active. We propose a model in which the B chromosome originated early in the evolutionary history of Lake Victoria cichlids from a small fragment of one autosome. DNA sequences originating from several autosomes, including protein-coding genes and transposable elements, subsequently inserted into this proto-B. We propose that intact B chromosome genes involved with microtubule organization, kinetochore structure, recombination and progression through the cell cycle may play a role in driving the transmission of the B chromosome. Furthermore, our work suggests that karyotyping is an essential step prior to genome sequencing to avoid problems in genome assembly and analytical biases created by the presence of high copy number sequences on the B chromosome.

  4. Global trophic position comparison of two dominant mesopelagic fish families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) using amino acid nitrogen isotopic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, C. Anela; Davison, Peter C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Flynn, Adrian; Gier, Elizabeth J.; Hoffman, Joel C.; McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Miller, Todd W.; Popp, Brian N.; Ross, Steve W.; Sutton, Tracey T.

    2012-01-01

    The δ15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ15N values. Regional differences in the δ15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP) for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) (AA-TP ~2.9) largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ~3.2), while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae) (AA-TP ~3.2) were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP~4.1). We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure.

  5. Global trophic position comparison of two dominant mesopelagic fish families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae using amino acid nitrogen isotopic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Anela Choy

    Full Text Available The δ(15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ(15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ(15N values. Regional differences in the δ(15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ(15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ(15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae (AA-TP ∼2.9 largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ∼3.2, while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae (AA-TP ∼3.2 were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP∼4.1. We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure.

  6. Fish predation on a Daphnia hybrid species complex: A factor explaining species coexistence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaak, P.; Hoekstra, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies on the life histories of Daphnia hybrids and their parental species have revealed that hybrids can combine an intermediate size with a relatively high reproductive rate, which might explain their success in many European lakes. Based on this information, we formulated the temporal

  7. Fully automated fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH staining and digital analysis of HER2 in breast cancer: a validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M J van der Logt

    Full Text Available HER2 assessment is routinely used to select patients with invasive breast cancer that might benefit from HER2-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to validate a fully automated in situ hybridization (ISH procedure that combines the automated Leica HER2 fluorescent ISH system for Bond with supervised automated analysis with the Visia imaging D-Sight digital imaging platform. HER2 assessment was performed on 328 formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded invasive breast cancer tumors on tissue microarrays (TMA and 100 (50 selected IHC 2+ and 50 random IHC scores full-sized slides of resections/biopsies obtained for diagnostic purposes previously. For digital analysis slides were pre-screened at 20x and 100x magnification for all fluorescent signals and supervised-automated scoring was performed on at least two pictures (in total at least 20 nuclei were counted with the D-Sight HER2 FISH analysis module by two observers independently. Results were compared to data obtained previously with the manual Abbott FISH test. The overall agreement with Abbott FISH data among TMA samples and 50 selected IHC 2+ cases was 98.8% (κ = 0.94 and 93.8% (κ = 0.88, respectively. The results of 50 additionally tested unselected IHC cases were concordant with previously obtained IHC and/or FISH data. The combination of the Leica FISH system with the D-Sight digital imaging platform is a feasible method for HER2 assessment in routine clinical practice for patients with invasive breast cancer.

  8. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS. Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%. Conclusions: From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  9. Automation of ALK gene rearrangement testing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaenepoel, Karen; Merkle, Dennis; Cabillic, Florian; Berg, Erica; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Grazioli, Vittorio; Herelle, Olga; Hummel, Michael; Le Calve, Michele; Lenze, Dido; Mende, Stefanie; Pauwels, Patrick; Quilichini, Benoit; Repetti, Elena

    2015-02-01

    In the past several years we have observed a significant increase in our understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive lung cancer. Specifically in the non-small cell lung cancer sub-types, ALK gene rearrangements represent a sub-group of tumors that are targetable by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Crizotinib, resulting in significant reductions in tumor burden. Phase II and III clinical trials were performed using an ALK break-apart FISH probe kit, making FISH the gold standard for identifying ALK rearrangements in patients. FISH is often considered a labor and cost intensive molecular technique, and in this study we aimed to demonstrate feasibility for automation of ALK FISH testing, to improve laboratory workflow and ease of testing. This involved automation of the pre-treatment steps of the ALK assay using various protocols on the VP 2000 instrument, and facilitating automated scanning of the fluorescent FISH specimens for simplified enumeration on various backend scanning and analysis systems. The results indicated that ALK FISH can be automated. Significantly, both the Ikoniscope and BioView system of automated FISH scanning and analysis systems provided a robust analysis algorithm to define ALK rearrangements. In addition, the BioView system facilitated consultation of difficult cases via the internet.

  10. A hybrid approach to analyse a beam-soil structure under a moving random load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, L. T.; Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Kennedy, D.

    2016-11-01

    To study the stochastic response of a beam-soil structure under a moving random load, a hybrid approach based on the pseudo-excitation method and the wavelet method is proposed. Using the pseudo-excitation method, the non-stationary random vibration analysis is transformed into a conventional moving harmonic load problem. Analytical solutions of the power spectral density and standard deviation of vertical displacement are derived in an integral form. However, the integrand is singular and highly oscillatory, and the computational time is an important consideration because a large number of frequency points must be computed. To calculate the response accurately and efficiently, a wavelet approach is introduced. Numerical results show that the frequency band which brings the most significant response is dependent on the load velocity. The hybrid method provides a useful tool to estimate the ground vibration caused by traffic loads.

  11. Action spectrum for melanoma induction in hybrid fish of the genus Xiphophorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.B.

    1997-03-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a complicated disease that is dependent on a number of factors that influence its incidence in ways that are quantitatively uncertain. The incidence of CMM increases with proximity to the Equator -- an observation in line with the conclusion that sun exposure is the most important etiologic agent. However, the latitude effect does not implicate UVB because the intensities of all spectral regions increase toward the Equator. An understanding of the useful public health measures to lower the incidence of CMM would benefit greatly if the spectral region of sunlight implicated in melanoma incidence were known. Such knowledge requires animal models to evaluate the incidence as a function of wavelength. There are marsupial models, a transgenic mouse model, and a fish model. To date, only the fish model has been employed to obtain an action spectrum. The paper describes a fish model, implications of the fish spectrum, and epidemiological data.

  12. In vitro formation and thermal transition of novel hybrid fibrils from type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Song Chen, Toshiyuki Ikoma, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Satoshi Migita, Hisatoshi Kobayashi and Nobutaka Hanagata

    2010-01-01

    Novel type I collagen hybrid fibrils were fabricated by neutralizing a mixture of type I fish scale collagen solution and type I porcine collagen solution with a phosphate buffer saline at 28 °C. Their structure was discussed in terms of the volume ratio of fish/porcine collagen solution. Scanning electron and atomic force micrographs showed that the diameter of collagen fibrils derived from the collagen mixture was larger than those derived from each collagen, and all resultant fibrils exhib...

  13. Prediction of melting temperatures in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures using thermodynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Wengel, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA thermody......Abstract The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA...... thermodynamics that provide reasonably accurate thermodynamic information on nucleic acid duplexes and allow estimation of the melting temperature. Because there are no thermodynamic models specifically developed to predict the hybridization temperature of a probe used in a fluorescence in situ hybridization...

  14. Assessment of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm of infertile men using sperm karyotyping and multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosani, N.; Martin, R.H. [Alberta Children`s Hospital and Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Individuals with male factor infertility resulting from idiopathic oligo-, astheno- or teratozoospermia are frequently offered IVF in an attempt to increase their chances of having a child. A concern remains whether these infertile males have an elevated risk of transmitting chromosomal abnormalities to their offspring. Sperm chromosomal complements from these men were assayed using the human sperm/hamster oocyte fusion system and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm nuclei. For each of 5 infertile patients, 100 sperm karyotypes were analyzed and multicolour FISH analysis was performed on a minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei for each chromosome-specific DNA probe for chromosomes 1 (pUC1.77), 12 (D12Z3), X (XC) and Y (DYZ3). As a group, the infertile patients showed increased frequencies of both numerical ({chi}{sup 2}=17.26, {proportional_to} <0.001) and total abnormalities ({chi}{sup 2}=7.78, {proportional_to} <0.01) relative to control donors when assessed by sperm karyotypes. Analysis of sperm nuclei by FISH indicated a significant increase in the frequency of disomy for chromosome 1 in three of the five patients as compared to control donors ({chi}{sup 2}>8.35, {proportional_to} <0.005). In addition, the frequency of XY disomy was significantly higher in four of the five patients studied by FISH ({chi}{sup 2}>10.58, {proportional_to}<0.005), suggesting that mis-segregation caused by the failure of the XY bivalent to pair may play a role in idiopathic male infertility.

  15. Functional connectivity of coral reef fishes in a tropical seascape assessed by compound-specific stable isotope analyses

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton W.

    2011-01-01

    The ecological integrity of tropical habitats, including mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs, is coming under increasing pressure from human activities. Many coral reef fish species are thought to use mangroves and seagrass beds as juvenile nurseries before migrating to coral reefs as adults. Identifying essential habitats and preserving functional linkages among these habitats is likely necessary to promote ecosystem health and sustainable fisheries on coral reefs. This necessitates quantitative assessment of functional connectivity among essential habitats at the seascape level. This thesis presents the development and first application of a method for tracking fish migration using amino acid (AA) δ13C analysis in otoliths. In a controlled feeding experiment with fish reared on isotopically distinct diets, we showed that essential AAs exhibited minimal trophic fractionation between consumer and diet, providing a δ13C record of the baseline isoscape. We explored the potential for geochemical signatures in otoliths of snapper to act as natural tags of residency in seagrass beds, mangroves and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea and Eastern Pacific Ocean. The δ13C values of otolith essential AAs varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk stable isotope analyses (SIA). Using our otolith AA SIA approach, we quantified the relative contribution of coastal wetlands and reef habitats to Lutjanus ehrenbergii populations on coastal, shelf and oceanic coral reefs in the Red Sea. L. ehrenbergii made significant ontogenetic migrations, traveling more than 30 km from juvenile nurseries to coral reefs and across deep open water. Coastal wetlands were important nurseries for L. ehrenbergii; however, there was significant plasticity in L. ehrenbergii juvenile habitat requirements. Seascape configuration played an important role in determining the functional connectivity of L

  16. Investigations to Model and Analyse the OHC Strength of Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Siddeswarappa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the utilization of hybrid polymer matrix composite materials in many engineering fields has increasedtremendously. The present investigation is devoted on fabric-reinforced hybrid composite laminates with different volumefractions of the constituent materials; epoxy resin, plain-woven glass fabric, and textile satin fabric. Fracture toughness ofa material has immense importance in the determination of the resistance of the material to crack propagation. Hence thisarticle explores the findings of the experimentation on the compressive strength and fracture toughness of fabric-reinforcedlaminates with 0/90O & ± 45O orientation with five notch configurations. The fracture toughness has been found to increasecontinuously with increased volumes of glass fabric and it is less dependent on notch size upto certain limit. Data collectedduring experimentations are validated using analysis of variance (ANOVA technique. Percentage contribution of each parameterwas evaluated using ANOVA technique with fiber content, orientation and notch size as input parameters, while theoutput parameter being the OHC strength of the laminate

  17. Timeframes of speciation, reticulation, and hybridization in the bulldog bat explained through phylogenetic analyses of all genetic transmission elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Phillips, Caleb D; Baker, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic comparisons of the different mammalian genetic transmission elements (mtDNA, X-, Y-, and autosomal DNA) is a powerful approach for understanding the process of speciation in nature. Through such comparisons the unique inheritance pathways of each genetic element and gender-biased processes can link genomic structure to the evolutionary process, especially among lineages which have recently diversified, in which genetic isolation may be incomplete. Bulldog bats of the genus Noctilio are an exemplar lineage, being a young clade, widely distributed, and exhibiting unique feeding ecologies. In addition, currently recognized species are paraphyletic with respect to the mtDNA gene tree and contain morphologically identifiable clades that exhibit mtDNA divergences as great as among many species. To test taxonomic hypotheses and understand the contribution of hybridization to the extant distribution of genetic diversity in Noctilio, we used phylogenetic, coalescent stochastic modeling, and divergence time estimates using sequence data from cytochrome-b, cytochrome c oxidase-I, zinc finger Y, and zinc finger X, as well as evolutionary reconstructions based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) data. No evidence of ongoing hybridization between the two currently recognized species was identified. However, signatures of an ancient mtDNA capture were recovered in which an mtDNA lineage of one species was captured early in the noctilionid radiation. Among subspecific mtDNA clades, which were generally coincident with morphology and statistically definable as species, signatures of ongoing hybridization were observed in sex chromosome sequences and AFLP. Divergence dating of genetic elements corroborates the diversification of extant Noctilio beginning about 3 Ma, with ongoing hybridization between mitochondrial lineages separated by 2.5 myr. The timeframe of species' divergence within Noctilio supports the hypothesis that shifts in the dietary

  18. Diversity of trophic niches among herbivorous fishes on a Caribbean reef (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles), evidenced by stable isotope and gut content analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromard, Charlotte R.; Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Bouchon, Claude

    2015-01-01

    While herbivorous fishes have been widely studied due to the major ecological role they play on coral reefs, the description of their trophic niche remains challenging. In this study, we asked how 10 species of parrotfishes and surgeonfishes partition trophic resources on a Caribbean reef. The determination of trophic niches was conducted using gut and stomach content and stable isotope analyses (15N:14N and 13C:12C ratios). The contributions of food source to fish diet were calculated with concentration-dependent mixing models. Stomach content analyses distinguished two species of Acanthuridae from other fish species: Acanthurus coeruleus due to its high ingestion of fleshy macroalgae and Acanthurus chirurgus due to its high ingestion of calcified macroalgae. Acanthuridae and Sparisoma aurofrenatum presented similar diets in terms of assimilation of food resources with a high contribution of detritus and invertebrates to their diets. The diets of Sparisoma rubripinne and Sparisoma chrysopterum were more heterogeneous by comparison to the previous species. Scarus iseri, Scarus vetula, Scarus taeniopterus and Sparisoma viride appeared to share a similar trophic niche characterized by the contribution of live coral and fleshy macroalgae to their diet. The resource use among herbivorous fishes was partially related to the nutritional quality of food sources, but also to their physical structure and the capacity of fish to process them efficiently. These results showed that the ten species occupy distinct trophic niches, indicating a high functional diversity among the Caribbean herbivorous fishes.

  19. Scoping and sensitivity analyses for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sink, D.A.; Gibson, G.

    1979-03-01

    The results of an extensive set of parametric studies are presented which provide analytical data of the effects of various tokamak parameters on the performance and cost of the DTHR (Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor). The studies were centered on a point design which is described in detail. Variations in the device size, neutron wall loading, and plasma aspect ratio are presented, and the effects on direct hardware costs, fissile fuel production (breeding), fusion power production, electrical power consumption, and thermal power production are shown graphically. The studies considered both ignition and beam-driven operations of DTHR and yielded results based on two empirical scaling laws presently used in reactor studies. Sensitivity studies were also made for variations in the following key parameters: the plasma elongation, the minor radius, the TF coil peak field, the neutral beam injection power, and the Z/sub eff/ of the plasma.

  20. Special hybrid stress element for stress analyses around circular cutouts in laminated composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A 3-dimensional hybrid stress element with a traction-free cylindrical surface based on amodified complementary energy principle has been derived for efficient and accurate analysis of stressconcentration around circular cutouts in thin to thick laminated composites. New expressions of sixstress components are developed by using three stress-functions in cylindrical co-ordinates, so that thehomogeneous equilibrium equations, the interlayer surface transverse-stresses and the traction-freeboundary condition on the cylindrical surface are satisfied exactly, while the interelement traction conti-nuity has been relaxed via the Lagrange multiplier method. Transverse-shear deformation effects areincorporated in each layer with displacement continuity enforced along interlayer surface. Selected ex-amples are used to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the present special element.

  1. Gill monogeneans of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) from the wild and fish farms in Perak, Malaysia: infection dynamics and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shen-Yin; Ooi, Ai-Lin; Wong, Wey-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Tilapia is one of the commercially important fish in Malaysia as well as in other parts of the world. An understanding of monogenean infection dynamics in tilapia fish may assist us in searching for some intervention measures in reducing the loss of fish caused by parasitic diseases. The present study aimed (1) to compare infection level of monogeneans between the wild and cultured Oreochromis niloticus, and between the cultured O. niloticus and cultured red hybrid tilapia, and (2) to examine the spatial distribution of monogenean species over the gills of the different host species. From a total of 75 fish specimens, six species of monogeneans from two genera: Cichlidogyrus (C. halli, C. mbirizei, C. sclerosus, C. thurstonae, C. tilapiae) and Scutogyrus (S. longicornis) were identified. Data showed that the infection level of cultured O. niloticus was higher than that of the wild O. niloticus, however, the former was lower than that of the cultured red hybrid tilapia. Higher species richness of monogeneans was observed in the cultured red hybrid tilapia as compared to the others. Results for spatial distribution showed that the monogeneans have no preference on the left or right sides of the gills. However, C. halli, C. mbirizei, and C. tilapiae showed preferences on specific gill arches in the cultured O. niloticus and red hybrid tilapia. In general, the gill arch IV harboured the least number of monogeneans. The susceptibility of monogenean infection between the different types of tilapia is discussed.

  2. Phylogeny-function analysis of (meta)genomic libraries: screening for expression of ribosomal RNA genes by large-insert library fluorescent in situ hybridization (LIL-FISH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leveau, J.H.J.; Gerards, S.; De Boer, W.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the utility of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in the screening of clone libraries of (meta)genomic or environmental DNA for the presence and expression of bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. To establish proof-of-principle, we constructed a fosmid-based library in Escherichia

  3. Temperature controlling system based on FISH probe hybridization facility%基于FISH探针杂交设备的温度控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天庆; 张化; 张婉尧

    2015-01-01

    以玻片为基础的FISH,它的变性杂交过程完全实现自动化.FISH探针杂交仪内置一个ARM7微处理器,以控制不同温度变化,满足变性、杂交和固定温度等不同模式,可预置用按键编程进去的程序(显示屏上能指导编程),方便客户调用,提高工作效率.温度控制系统是FISH探针杂交设备的核心部分,决定了杂交仪的可靠性、稳定性及精准性.%By using FISH based on slide,automation in the degeneration process of hybrid can be achieved.Installed an internal ARM7 microprocessor,the FISH probe hybridization facility can control temperature,meet different modes such as denaturation,hybridization,fixed temperature,and so on.Procedure input by means of push-button can be preset(there are guidance on display screen)to make things easy for user,as a result,work efficiency can be improved.The temperature controlling system,which is the core of FISH probe hybridization facility and ensure its reliability,stability and accuracy.

  4. Distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Inamori, Ryuhei; Gui, Ping; Xu, Kai-qin; Kong, Hai-nan; Matsumura, Masatoshi; Inamori, Yuhei

    2005-01-01

    A molecular biology method, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in which the pre-treatment was improved in allusion to the media of the constructed wetlands (CW), e.g. the soil and the grit, was used to investigate the vertical distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) quantity and the relation with oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands under three different loadings in summer from May to September. Results showed that the quantity of the AOB decreased in the Typha latifolia CW with the increase of vertical depth. However, the AOB quantity was 2-4 times the quantity of the control in the root area. Additionally, ORP in the rhizosphere was found to be higher than other areas, which showed that Typha latifolia CW was in an aerobic state in summer when using simulated non-point sewage at the rural area of Taihu Lake in China and small town combined sewage.

  5. Validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH for multiple myeloma using CD138 positive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kiyomi Kishimoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm with acquired genetic abnormalities of clinical and prognostic importance. Multiple myeloma differs from other hematologic malignancies due to a high fraction of low proliferating malignant plasma cells and the paucity of plasma cells in bone marrow aspiration samples, making cytogenetic analysis a challenge. An abnormal karyotype is found in only one-third of patients with multiple myeloma and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization is the most useful test for studying the chromosomal abnormalities present in almost 90% of cases. However, it is necessary to study the genetic abnormalities in plasma cells after their identification or selection by morphology, immunophenotyping or sorting. Other challenges are the selection of the most informative FISH panel and determining cut-off levels for FISH probes. This study reports the validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization using CD138 positive cells, according to proposed guidelines published by the European Myeloma Network (EMN in 2012. METHOD: Bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma were used to standardize a panel of five probes [1q amplification, 13q14 deletion, 17p deletion, t(4;14, and t(14;16] in CD138+ cells purified by magnetic cell sorting. RESULTS: This test was validated with a low turnaround time and good reproducibility. Five of six samples showed genetic abnormalities. Monosomy/deletion 13 plus t(4;14 were found in two cases. CONCLUSION: This technique together with magnetic cell sorting is effective and can be used in the routine laboratory practice. In addition, magnetic cell sorting provides a pure plasma cell population that allows other molecular and genomic studies.

  6. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  7. In vitro formation and thermal transition of novel hybrid fibrils from type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Song; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Migita, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ikoma, Toshiyuki [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Hanagata, Nobutaka, E-mail: HANAGATA.Nobutaka@nims.go.j [Nanotechnology Innovation Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Novel type I collagen hybrid fibrils were fabricated by neutralizing a mixture of type I fish scale collagen solution and type I porcine collagen solution with a phosphate buffer saline at 28 {sup 0}C. Their structure was discussed in terms of the volume ratio of fish/porcine collagen solution. Scanning electron and atomic force micrographs showed that the diameter of collagen fibrils derived from the collagen mixture was larger than those derived from each collagen, and all resultant fibrils exhibited a typical D-periodic unit of {approx}67 nm, irrespective of volume ratio of both collagens. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed only one endothermic peak for the fibrils derived from collagen mixture or from each collagen solution, indicating that the resultant collagen fibrils were hybrids of type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen.

  8. In vitro formation and thermal transition of novel hybrid fibrils from type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Migita, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2010-06-01

    Novel type I collagen hybrid fibrils were fabricated by neutralizing a mixture of type I fish scale collagen solution and type I porcine collagen solution with a phosphate buffer saline at 28 °C. Their structure was discussed in terms of the volume ratio of fish/porcine collagen solution. Scanning electron and atomic force micrographs showed that the diameter of collagen fibrils derived from the collagen mixture was larger than those derived from each collagen, and all resultant fibrils exhibited a typical D-periodic unit of ~67 nm, irrespective of volume ratio of both collagens. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed only one endothermic peak for the fibrils derived from collagen mixture or from each collagen solution, indicating that the resultant collagen fibrils were hybrids of type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen.

  9. In vitro formation and thermal transition of novel hybrid fibrils from type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen, Toshiyuki Ikoma, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Satoshi Migita, Hisatoshi Kobayashi and Nobutaka Hanagata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel type I collagen hybrid fibrils were fabricated by neutralizing a mixture of type I fish scale collagen solution and type I porcine collagen solution with a phosphate buffer saline at 28 °C. Their structure was discussed in terms of the volume ratio of fish/porcine collagen solution. Scanning electron and atomic force micrographs showed that the diameter of collagen fibrils derived from the collagen mixture was larger than those derived from each collagen, and all resultant fibrils exhibited a typical D-periodic unit of ~67 nm, irrespective of volume ratio of both collagens. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed only one endothermic peak for the fibrils derived from collagen mixture or from each collagen solution, indicating that the resultant collagen fibrils were hybrids of type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen.

  10. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum.

  11. Performance and driveline analyses of engine capacity in range extender engine hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praptijanto, Achmad; Santoso, Widodo Budi; Nur, Arifin; Wahono, Bambang; Putrasari, Yanuandri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, range extender engine designed should be able to meet the power needs of a power generator of hybrid electrical vehicle that has a minimum of 18 kW. Using this baseline model, the following range extenders will be compared between conventional SI piston engine (Baseline, BsL), engine capacity 1998 cm3, and efficiency-oriented SI piston with engine capacity 999 cm3 and 499 cm3 with 86 mm bore and stroke square gasoline engine in the performance, emission prediction of range extender engine, standard of charge by using engine and vehicle simulation software tools. In AVL Boost simulation software, range extender engine simulated from 1000 to 6000 rpm engine loads. The highest peak engine power brake reached up to 38 kW at 4500 rpm. On the other hand the highest torque achieved in 100 Nm at 3500 rpm. After that using AVL cruise simulation software, the model of range extended electric vehicle in series configuration with main components such as internal combustion engine, generator, electric motor, battery and the arthemis model rural road cycle was used to simulate the vehicle model. The simulation results show that engine with engine capacity 999 cm3 reported the economical performances of the engine and the emission and the control of engine cycle parameters.

  12. New DAPI and FISH findings on egg maturation processes in related hybridogenetic and parthenogenetic Bacillus hybrids (Insecta, Phasmatodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescalchi, O; Scali, V

    2001-10-01

    Bacillus stick insects have proved adequate for studying a wide array of reproductive modes: sexual, parthenogenetic, hybridogenetic, androgenetic. Hybridogenetic strains (B. rossius-grandii) were thought to discard the paternal "grandii" haploset during first meiotic division and keep the "rossius" hemiclone, whereas the clonal B. whitei (=rossius/grandii) would maintain its hybrid structure by fusing back two nonsister nuclei-each derived from previously segregated heterospecific complements-by the end of the 2(nd) meiotic division. New investigations on laid eggs and ovariole squashes, either DAPI stained or FISH labeled, revealed that in hybridogens the "grandii" set is excluded from the germ line prior to meiosis and that a DNA extra-synthesis should occur to produce hemiclonal eggs after two cytologically normal meiotic divisions. On the other hand, in B. whitei eggs no genome segregation appears to occur and an intrameiotic DNA extra-synthesis must take place to produce 2n tetrachromatidic oocytes I; these divide twice and give unreduced clonal eggs. The new findings bring hybridogenetic oogenesis of Bacillus to be coincident with that of the known hemiclonal organisms and point to an independent onset of B. whitei from hemiclonal strains. In addition, B. whitei gains a closer resemblance to B. lynceorum owing to the sharing of a cytologically identical egg maturation mechanism, of the same maternal ancestor and of peculiar chromosomal features. It is here suggested that B. lynceorum originated from the incorporation of an "atticus" genome into a B. whitei egg, according to a pathway of repeated hybridization often occurred with other polyploid hybrids.

  13. Analyses of 32 loci clarify phylogenetic relationships among Trypanosoma cruzi lineages and support a single hybridization prior to human contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Flores-López

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been traditionally divided in two major groups, T. cruzi I and II, corresponding to discrete typing units TcI and TcII-VI under a recently proposed nomenclature. The two major groups of T. cruzi seem to differ in important biological characteristics, and are thus thought to represent a natural division relevant for epidemiological studies and development of prophylaxis. To understand the potential connection between the different manifestations of Chagas disease and variability of T. cruzi strains, it is essential to have a correct reconstruction of the evolutionary history of T. cruzi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nucleotide sequences from 32 unlinked loci (>26 Kilobases of aligned sequence were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of strains representing the known genetic variability of T. cruzi. Thorough phylogenetic analyses show that the original classification of T. cruzi in two major lineages does not reflect its evolutionary history and that there is only strong evidence for one major and recent hybridization event in the history of this species. Furthermore, estimates of divergence times using Bayesian methods show that current extant lineages of T. cruzi diverged very recently, within the last 3 million years, and that the major hybridization event leading to hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI occurred less than 1 million years ago, well before the contact of T. cruzi with humans in South America. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The described phylogenetic relationships among the six major genetic subdivisions of T. cruzi should serve as guidelines for targeted epidemiological and prophylaxis studies. We suggest that it is important to reconsider conclusions from previous studies that have attempted to uncover important biological differences between the two originally defined major lineages of T. cruzi especially if those conclusions

  14. A multinomial logit model-Bayesian network hybrid approach for driver injury severity analyses in rear-end crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Tarefder, Rafiqul; Ma, Jianming; Wei, Heng; Guan, Hongzhi

    2015-07-01

    Rear-end crash is one of the most common types of traffic crashes in the U.S. A good understanding of its characteristics and contributing factors is of practical importance. Previously, both multinomial Logit models and Bayesian network methods have been used in crash modeling and analysis, respectively, although each of them has its own application restrictions and limitations. In this study, a hybrid approach is developed to combine multinomial logit models and Bayesian network methods for comprehensively analyzing driver injury severities in rear-end crashes based on state-wide crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. A multinomial logit model is developed to investigate and identify significant contributing factors for rear-end crash driver injury severities classified into three categories: no injury, injury, and fatality. Then, the identified significant factors are utilized to establish a Bayesian network to explicitly formulate statistical associations between injury severity outcomes and explanatory attributes, including driver behavior, demographic features, vehicle factors, geometric and environmental characteristics, etc. The test results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid approach performs reasonably well. The Bayesian network reference analyses indicate that the factors including truck-involvement, inferior lighting conditions, windy weather conditions, the number of vehicles involved, etc. could significantly increase driver injury severities in rear-end crashes. The developed methodology and estimation results provide insights for developing effective countermeasures to reduce rear-end crash injury severities and improve traffic system safety performance.

  15. Distinguishing between incomplete lineage sorting and genomic introgressions: complete fixation of allospecific mitochondrial DNA in a sexually reproducing fish (Cobitis; Teleostei, despite clonal reproduction of hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Choleva

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers--hybrids with Mendelian heredity--are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species.

  16. Diagnosis of a constitutional five-chromosome rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsien, F.; Shapira, E. [Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Carvalho, T. [Hospital Sarah Kubitschek, Brasilia (Brazil)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements are structural rearrangements involving at least three chromosomes and three or more chromosome breakpoints. Such karyotypes are often acquired during cancer multi-step development and in chromosome instability syndromes. However, extremely rare constitutional forms have been reported, most of which are incompatible with life. We present a 2-year-old female with de novo complex rearrangement consisting of five chromosomes and nine breakpoints. Clinical evaluation at two years of age revealed a weight of 5 kg, length of 66 cm, and had circumference of 38 cm, all below the 5th percentile, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, epicanthal folds, inguinal hernia, left clubfoot, hypertonicity, and developmental delay. The neurological examination revealed chorea-acanthocytosis and psychomotor delay. Cultured lymphocytes and fibroblasts revealed a karyotype consisting of five derivative chromosomes. The metaphases were further analyzed by FISH using chromosome-specific libraries and telomeric probes in order to delineate the composition of the rearranged chromosomes; FISH results demonstrated a karyotype of: 46,XX,1pter{r_arrow}1q25::1q42.1{r_arrow}1qter, 2pter{r_arrow}q32.3::1q32.3{r_arrow}2q41::2q37.3{r_arrow}2qter, 7qter{r_arrow}7q21.2::6q22.3{r_arrow}6qter::1q31{r_arrow}1q32.3::6p23{r_arrow}6q22.3, 7pter{r_arrow}7q21.1::6p23{r_arrow}6pter, 2q33{r_arrow}2q37, 1::9p21{r_arrow}9qter. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of FISH in characterizing complex chromosome rearrangements otherwise difficult to correctly interpret using classical cytogenetics alone.

  17. Application of Entropy and Fractal Dimension Analyses to the Pattern Recognition of Contaminated Fish Responses in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkaitz Eguiraun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to develop a non-invasive methodology for image acquisition, processing and nonlinear trajectory analysis of the collective fish response to a stochastic event. Object detection and motion estimation were performed by an optical flow algorithm in order to detect moving fish and simultaneously eliminate background, noise and artifacts. The Entropy and the Fractal Dimension (FD of the trajectory followed by the centroids of the groups of fish were calculated using Shannon and permutation Entropy and the Katz, Higuchi and Katz-Castiglioni’s FD algorithms respectively. The methodology was tested on three case groups of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, two of which were similar (C1 control and C2 tagged fish and very different from the third (C3, tagged fish submerged in methylmercury contaminated water. The results indicate that Shannon entropy and Katz-Castiglioni were the most sensitive algorithms and proved to be promising tools for the non-invasive identification and quantification of differences in fish responses. In conclusion, we believe that this methodology has the potential to be embedded in online/real time architecture for contaminant monitoring programs in the aquaculture industry.

  18. Identification of intracellular bacteria in adenoid and tonsil tissue specimens: the efficiency of culture versus fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępińska, M; Olszewska-Sosińska, O; Lau-Dworak, M; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, B; Trafny, E A

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophage cells from human nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue can be a source of bacteria responsible for human chronic and recurrent upper respiratory tract infection. Detection and characterization of pathogens surviving intracellularly could be a key element in bacteriological diagnosis of the infections as well as in the study on interactions between bacteria and their host. The present study was undertaken to assess the possibility of isolation of viable bacteria from the cells expressing monocyte/macrophage marker CD14 in nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue. Overall, 74 adenotonsillectomy specimens (adenoids and tonsils) from 37 children with adenoid hypertrophy and recurrent infections as well as 15 specimens from nine children with adenoid hypertrophy, which do not suffer from upper respiratory tract infections (the control group), were studied. The suitability of immunomagnetic separation for extraction of CD14(+) cells from lymphoid tissue and for further isolation of the intracellular pathogens has been shown. The coexistence of living pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes with the bacteria representing normal nasopharyngeal microbiota inside CD14(+) cells was demonstrated. Twenty-four strains of these pathogens from 32.4 % of the lysates of CD14(+) cells were isolated. Concurrently, the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a universal EUB388, and the species-specific probes demonstrated twice more often the persistence of these bacterial species in the lysates of CD14(+) cells than conventional culture. Although the FISH technique appears to be more sensitive than traditional culture in the intracellular bacteria identification, the doubts on whether the bacteria are alive, and therefore, pathogenic would still exist without the strain cultivation.

  19. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima-Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox-Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships.

  20. Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): A Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Friedrich, U. & Lenke, J. Improved Enumeration of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mesophilic Dairy Starter Cultures by Using Multiplex Quantitative Real...messenger RNA using locked nucleic acid probes. Anal. Biochem. 390, 109-114 (2009). 13. Waters, L. & Storz, G. Regulatory RNAs in bacteria . Cell. 136, 615...Video Article Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): a Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection Kelly

  1. Phylogeny-function analysis of (meta)genomic libraries: screening for expression of ribosomal RNA genes by large-insert library fluorescent in situ hybridization (LIL-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveau, Johan H J; Gerards, Saskia; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes A

    2004-09-01

    We assessed the utility of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in the screening of clone libraries of (meta)genomic or environmental DNA for the presence and expression of bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. To establish proof-of-principle, we constructed a fosmid-based library in Escherichia coli of large-sized genomic DNA fragments of the mycophagous soil bacterium Collimonas fungivorans, and hybridized 768 library clones with the Collimonas-specific fluorescent probe CTE998-1015. Critical to the success of this approach (which we refer to as large-insert library FISH or LIL-FISH) was the ability to induce fosmid copy number, the exponential growth status of library clones in the FISH assay and the use of a simple pooling strategy to reduce the number of hybridizations. Twelve out of 768 E. coli clones were suspected to harbour and express Collimonas 16S rRNA genes based on their hybridization to CTE998-1015. This was confirmed by the finding that all 12 clones were also identified in an independent polymerase chain reaction-based screening of the same 768 clones using a primer set for the specific detection of Collimonas 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Fosmids isolated from these clones were grouped by restriction analysis into two distinct contigs, confirming that C. fungivorans harbours at least two 16S rRNA genes. For one contig, representing 1-2% of the genome, the nucleotide sequence was determined, providing us with a narrow but informative view of Collimonas genome structure and content.

  2. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Neto, Maressa; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Camacho, Juan Pedro Martínez; Bakkali, Mohammed; de Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil) and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept) easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers. PMID:24260650

  3. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  4. Detection of Inter-chromosomal Stable Aberrations by Multiple Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (mFISH) and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) in Irradiated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rupak; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2017-01-11

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces numerous stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations. Unstable aberrations, where chromosome morphology is substantially compromised, can easily be identified by conventional chromosome staining techniques. However, detection of stable aberrations, which involve exchange or translocation of genetic materials without considerable modification in the chromosome morphology, requires sophisticated chromosome painting techniques that rely on in situ hybridization of fluorescently labeled DNA probes, a chromosome painting technique popularly known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH probes can be specific for whole chromosome/s or precise sub-region on chromosome/s. The method not only allows visualization of stable aberrations, but it can also allow detection of the chromosome/s or specific DNA sequence/s involved in a particular aberration formation. A variety of chromosome painting techniques are available in cytogenetics; here two highly sensitive methods, multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY), are discussed to identify inter-chromosomal stable aberrations that form in the bone marrow cells of mice after exposure to total body irradiation. Although both techniques rely on fluorescent labeled DNA probes, the method of detection and the process of image acquisition of the fluorescent signals are different. These two techniques have been used in various research areas, such as radiation biology, cancer cytogenetics, retrospective radiation biodosimetry, clinical cytogenetics, evolutionary cytogenetics, and comparative cytogenetics.

  5. [Interphase cytogenetics of the breast tumors with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on cytologic preparation--its practice and clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, M; Osamura, R Y

    1996-05-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study with the chromosome specific probes is performed in the interphase nuclei of the routinely processed cytologic preparation of the breast tumors. Numerical aberrations on the chromosomes 1, 3, 11 or 17 were detected in more than 80% of the malignant tumors, but not in the benign tumors. Marked heterogeneity of the polysomies is noted in the malignant tumor cells. A few malignant cases revealed monosomy of chromosome 17. No apparent correlation between the numerical abnormalities and the histological features in malignant tumors is identified. These results suggest that the interphase cytogenetics with FISH for the breast tumors may be useful for differential diagnosis of malignancy. The practice and the clinical applications of the FISH study are discussed.

  6. Genetic Basis for Spontaneous Hybrid Genome Doubling during Allopolyploid Speciation of Common Wheat Shown by Natural Variation Analyses of the Paternal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Nasuda, Shuhei; Ashida, Yasuyo; Nitta, Miyuki; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Takumi, Shigeo; Kawahara, Taihachi

    2013-01-01

    The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome), namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome) and Aegilopstauschii Coss. (DD genome). An Ae. tauschii intraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis showed that (1) production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2) first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3) six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii’s ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated that the

  7. Genetic basis for spontaneous hybrid genome doubling during allopolyploid speciation of common wheat shown by natural variation analyses of the paternal species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Matsuoka

    Full Text Available The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome, namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome and Aegilopstauschii Coss. (DD genome. An Ae. tauschii intraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis showed that (1 production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2 first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3 six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii's ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated

  8. Comparison of high resolution chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the laboratory evaluation of Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delach, J.A.; Rosengren, S.S.; Kaplan, L.; Greenstein, R.M.; Cassidy, S.B.; Benn, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    The development of probes containing segments of DNA from chromosome region 15q11-q13 provides the opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We have evaluated FISH studies and high resolution chromosome banding studies in 14 patients referred to confirm or rule out AS. In four patients (three from the PWS category and 1 from the AS group) chromosome analysis suggested that a deletion was present but FISH failed to confirm the finding. In one AS group patient, FISH identified a deletion not detectable by high resolution banding. Review of the clinical findings in the discrepant cases suggested that FISH results were correct and high resolution findings were erroneous. Studies with a chromosome 15 alpha satellite probe (D15Z) on both normal and abnormal individuals suggested that incorrect interpretation of chromosome banding may occasionally be attributable to alpha satellite polymorphism but other variation of 15q11-q13 chromosome bands also contributes to misinterpretation. We conclude that patients who have been reported to have a cytogenetic deletion of 15q11-q13 and who have clinical findings inconsistent with PWS and AS should be re-evaluated by molecular genetic techniques. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. mRNA-targeted Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization (FISH) of Gram-negative Bacteria Without Template Amplification or Tyramide Signal Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, James R.; Culley, David E.; Chrisler, William B.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2007-12-01

    Technologies are needed to study gene expression at the level of individual cells within a population or microbial community. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) supplies high-resolution spatial information and has been widely applied to study microbial communities at the rRNA level. While mRNA-targeted FISH has been popular for studying gene expression in eukaryotic cells, very little success has been achieved with prokaryotes. At present, detection of specific mRNAs in individual prokaryotic cells requires the use of in situ-RT-PCR or tyramide signal amplification (TSA). In this study we used DNA oligonucleotide probes labeled with a single near-infrared dye in FISH assays to detect multicopy plasmid-based and endogenous mRNA molecules in Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We took advantage of the fact there is much less background signal produced by biological materials and support matrices in the near-infrared spectrum and thus long camera exposure times could be used. In addition, we demonstrate that a combination of probes targeting both rRNA and mRNA could be successfully employed within the same FISH assay. These results, as well as ongoing R&D improvements in NIR and infrared dyes, indicate the FISH approach we demonstrated could be applied in certain environmental settings to monitor gene expression in mixed populations.

  10. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Ortíz-Hernández, Brenda L; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2013-02-19

    We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.

  12. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and sequential catalysed reporter deposition (2C-FISH for the flow cytometric sorting of freshwater ultramicrobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Neuenschwander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometric sorting is a powerful tool to physically separate cells within mixed microbial communities. If combined with phylogenetic staining (fluorescence in situ hybridization, FISH it allows to specifically sort defined genotypic microbial populations from complex natural samples. However, the targeted enrichment of freshwater ultramicrobacteria, such as members of the LD12 clade of Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11-IIIb, is still challenging. Current FISH protocols, even in combination with signal amplification by catalysed reporter deposition (CARD, are not sufficiently sensitive for the distinction of these bacteria from background noise by flow cytometry, presumably due to their low ribosome content and small cell sizes. We, therefore, modified a CARD based flow sorting protocol with the aim of increasing its sensitivity to a level sufficient for ultramicrobacteria. This was achieved by a second signal amplification step mediated by horseradish peroxidase labelled antibodies targeted to the fluorophores that were previously deposited by CARD-FISH staining. The protocol was tested on samples from an oligo-mesotrophic lake. Ultramicrobacteria affiliated with LD12 Alphaproteobacteria could be successfully sorted to high purity by flow cytometry. The ratios of median fluorescence signal to background ranged around 20, and hybridization rates determined by flow cytometry were comparable to those obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Potential downstream applications of our modified cell staining approach range from the analysis of microdiversity within 16S rRNA-defined populations to that of functional properties, such as the taxon-specific incorporation rates of organic substrates.

  13. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; Ortíz-Hernández, Brenda L.; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1. PMID:23429197

  14. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gosálvez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL, 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL, and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.

  15. Nitrifying bacterial communities in an aquaculture wastewater treatment system using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), 16S rRNA gene cloning, and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paungfoo, Chanyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Burrell, Paul C; Intrasungkha, Nugul; Blackall, Linda L

    2007-07-01

    Aquaculture, especially shrimp farming, has played a major role in the growth of Thailand's economy in recent years, as well as in many South East Asian countries. However, the nutrient discharges from these activities have caused adverse impacts on the quality of the receiving waterways. In particular nitrogenous compounds, which may accumulate in aquaculture ponds, can be toxic to aquatic animals and cause environmental problems such as eutrophication. The mineralization process is well known, but certain aspects of the microbial ecology of nitrifiers, the microorganisms that convert ammonia to nitrate, are poorly understood. A previously reported enrichment of nitrifying bacteria (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB)) from a shrimp farm inoculated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was studied by molecular methods. The initial identification and partial quantification of the nitrifying bacteria (AOB and NOB) were carried out by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using previously published 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probes. The two dominant bacterial groups detected by FISH were from the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides and Proteobacteria (beta subdivision) phyla. Published FISH probes for Nitrobacter and Nitrospira did not hybridize to any of the bacterial cells. Therefore it is likely that new communities of NOBs, differing from previously reported ones, exist in the enrichments. Molecular genetic techniques (cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis) targeting the 16S rRNA genes from the nitrifying enrichments were performed to identify putative AOBs and NOBs.

  16. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  17. Magnetic Fe3O4/Ag Hybrid Nanoparticles as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate for Trace Analysis of Furazolidone in Fish Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wansong Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs composed of ferromagnetic and noble metal materials show dual functions of magnetic activity and local surface plasmon response and have great potential as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS in trace analysis. Easy-to-prepare superparamagnetic Fe3O4/Ag hybrid NPs were synthesized and optimized by adjusting the ratio of silver particles aggregated with APTMS-modified Fe3O4 NPs. The hybrid NPs were assembled under an external magnetic field before being used as substrate for SERS analysis. The SERS spectral features of furazolidone standard solution were clearly identified at concentrations as low as 40 ng mL−1, and furazolidone in fish feeds could be detected at 500 ng g−1. The results indicated that the Fe3O4/Ag hybrid NPs as SERS substrates had a great potential for detection of trace amount of furazolidone and other prohibited or restricted antibiotics in the animal and fish feeds.

  18. speciation through asexuality in fish: postzygotic reproductive isolation may be completed in spite of fertility of hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Janko

    2015-12-01

    Altogether, it appears that initiation of hybrid asexuality and the completion of speciation process through formation of postRIMs are interconnected phenomena. Both processes are linked to the genetic divergence of hybridizing taxa: initially, hybridization between little diverged species leads to recombinant and fertile hybrids allowing intensive gene flow. As the hybridizing taxa continue to diverge, clonally reproducing hybrid females and sterile males become dominant and the gene flow ceases. The speciation may therefore be completed through asexuality of hybrids The work was supported by grant no. 13-12580S provided by the Czech Science Foundation (www.gacr.cz. Further support was provided by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (www.cas.cz by the grant no. RVO 67985904

  19. Comparison of immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assessment for Her-2 status in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Minfang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concordance rate between IHC and FISH according to clinical performance is still controversial. We report a prospective study to reflect the concordance between IHC and FISH in Guilin city, People's Republic of China. Methods Fifty cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of breast tested by IHC and scored as 0, 1+, 2+ and 3+ by pathologists were further analyzed by FISH using a commercially available double-color probe, and the FISH findings were compared with IHC test results. Results A total concordance of 82.0% was observed with a Kappa coefficient of 0.640 (P Conclusion The IHC can be used firstly to screen the HER-2 status, and FISH can be used as a supplementary role to IHC and 2+ and some negative cases. And only those cases with Her-2 status of IHC 3+ or FISH positive should be treated with Herceptin.

  20. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using non-commercial probes in the diagnosis of clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Halder

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: We conclude that FISH should not be the method of choice for clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes. We propose to follow strict clinical criteria for FISH testing or preferably to follow better methods (genotype first approach. Whole genome screening may be used as first line of test and FISH may be used for confirmation of screening result, screening of family members and prenatal diagnosis.

  1. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke BI; James P.BOGART; Jinzhong FU

    2009-01-01

    The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA). Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution [Current Zoology 55(2):145-149,2009].

  2. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong FU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA. Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution.

  3. Effects of the acute exposition to glyphosate-based herbicide on oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant responses in a hybrid Amazon fish surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhorin, Valéria Dornelles Gindri; Sinhorin, Adilson Paulo; Teixeira, Jhonnes Marcos dos Santos; Miléski, Kelly Márcia Lazarotto; Hansen, Paula Carine; Moreira, Paula Sueli Andrade; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Loro, Vania Lúcia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute glyphosate (active ingredient) exposure on the oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defenses of a hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp). The fish were exposed to different herbicide concentrations for 96 h. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls and antioxidant responses were verified. The 15 mg a.pL(-1) of herbicide resulted in the death of 50% of the fish after 96 h. An increase in liver and muscle TBARS levels was observed when fish were exposed to the herbicide. The protein carbonyl content was also increased in the liver (4.5mg a.pL(-1) concentration) and brain (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) concentration). The antioxidant activities decreased in the liver and brain after exposure to herbicide. Levels of ascorbic acid in the liver (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) and 4.5 mg a.pL(-1) concentrations) and brain (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) concentration) were increased post-treatment. Levels of total thiols were increased in the liver and brain (2.25 mg L(-1) and 7.5mg a.pL(-1), respectively). Glyphosate exposure, at the tested concentrations affects surubim health by promoting changes that can affect their survival in natural environment. Some parameters as TBARS and protein carbonyl could be early biomarkers for Roundup exposure in this fish species.

  4. Hybridization Capture Using RAD Probes (hyRAD, a New Tool for Performing Genomic Analyses on Collection Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Suchan

    Full Text Available In the recent years, many protocols aimed at reproducibly sequencing reduced-genome subsets in non-model organisms have been published. Among them, RAD-sequencing is one of the most widely used. It relies on digesting DNA with specific restriction enzymes and performing size selection on the resulting fragments. Despite its acknowledged utility, this method is of limited use with degraded DNA samples, such as those isolated from museum specimens, as these samples are less likely to harbor fragments long enough to comprise two restriction sites making possible ligation of the adapter sequences (in the case of double-digest RAD or performing size selection of the resulting fragments (in the case of single-digest RAD. Here, we address these limitations by presenting a novel method called hybridization RAD (hyRAD. In this approach, biotinylated RAD fragments, covering a random fraction of the genome, are used as baits for capturing homologous fragments from genomic shotgun sequencing libraries. This simple and cost-effective approach allows sequencing of orthologous loci even from highly degraded DNA samples, opening new avenues of research in the field of museum genomics. Not relying on the restriction site presence, it improves among-sample loci coverage. In a trial study, hyRAD allowed us to obtain a large set of orthologous loci from fresh and museum samples from a non-model butterfly species, with a high proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in all eight analyzed specimens, including 58-year-old museum samples. The utility of the method was further validated using 49 museum and fresh samples of a Palearctic grasshopper species for which the spatial genetic structure was previously assessed using mtDNA amplicons. The application of the method is eventually discussed in a wider context. As it does not rely on the restriction site presence, it is therefore not sensitive to among-sample loci polymorphisms in the restriction sites

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH screening for the 22q11.2 deletion in patients with clinical features of velocardiofacial syndrome but without cardiac anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sandrin-Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, a condition associated with 22q11.2 deletions, is characterized by a typical facies, palatal anomalies, learning disabilities, behavioral disturbances and cardiac defects. We investigated the frequency of these chromosomal deletions in 16 individuals with VCFS features who presented no cardiac anomalies, one of the main characteristics of VCFS. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with the N25 (D22S75; 22q11.2 probe revealed deletions in ten individuals (62%. Therefore, even in the absence of cardiac anomalies testing for the 22q11.2 microdeletions in individuals showing other clinical features of this syndrome is recommended.

  6. Host-dependent differences in resource use associated with Anilocra spp. parasitism in two coral reef fishes, as revealed by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welicky, Rachel; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Sikkel, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    The role of parasites in trophic ecology is poorly understood in marine ecosystems. Stable isotope analyses (SIA) have been widely used in studies of trophic ecology, but have rarely been applied to study the role of parasites. Considering that some parasites are associated with altered host foraging patterns, SIA can help elucidate whether parasitism influences host trophic interactions. French grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum), an abundant Caribbean coral reef fish, contributes greatly to trophic connectivity. They typically depart the reef at dusk, feed overnight in seagrass beds, and return to the reef at dawn. The large parasitic isopod Anilocra haemuli commonly infects French grunt, and infected fish are less likely to complete their diel migration, and are in poorer condition than uninfected conspecifics. Brown chromis (Chromis multilineata) are diurnally feeding planktivores and infection by Anilocra chromis does not influence host condition. To determine if Anilocra infection influences host diet and foraging locality, we conducted stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses on scale, muscle, heart and gill tissues of infected and uninfected French grunt and brown chromis. We determined that all French grunt had δ13C values representative of seagrass habitats, but infected French grunt were significantly enriched in 13C and 15N compared to uninfected conspecifics. This suggests that compared to uninfected conspecifics, infected French grunt forage in seagrass, but on isotopically enriched prey, and/or are in poorer condition, which can elevate δ13C and δ15N values. For brown chromis, infection did not significantly influence any δ13C and δ15N values; hence they all foraged in the same environment and on similar prey. This is the first study to use SIA to examine differences in resource use by Caribbean coral reef fishes associated with parasitism and to evaluate how closely related parasites might have host-dependent effects on host trophic ecology.

  7. Comparative analyses of plastid and AFLP data suggest different colonization history and asymmetric hybridization between Betula pubescens and B. nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Alsos, Inger Greve; Brochmann, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Birches (Betula spp.) hybridize readily, confounding genetic signatures of refugial isolation and postglacial migration. We aimed to distinguish hybridization from range-shift processes in the two widespread and cold-adapted species B. nana and B. pubescens, previously shown to share a similarly east-west-structured variation in plastid DNA (pDNA). We sampled the two species throughout their ranges and included reference samples of five other Betula species and putative hybrids. We analysed 901 individual plants using mainly nuclear high-resolution markers (amplified fragment length polymorphisms; AFLPs); a subset of 64 plants was also sequenced for two pDNA regions. Whereas the pDNA variation as expected was largely shared between B. nana and B. pubescens, the two species were distinctly differentiated at AFLP loci. In B. nana, both the AFLP and pDNA results corroborated the former pDNA-based hypothesis that it expanded from at least two major refugia in Eurasia, one south of and one east of the North European ice sheets. In contrast, B. pubescens showed a striking lack of geographic structuring of its AFLP variation. We identified a weak but significant increase in nuclear (AFLP) gene flow from B. nana into B. pubescens with increasing latitude, suggesting hybridization has been most frequent at the postglacial expansion front of B. pubescens and that hybrids mainly backcrossed to B. pubescens. Incongruence between pDNA and AFLP variation in B. pubescens can be explained by efficient expansion from a single large refugium combined with leading-edge hybridization and plastid capture from B. nana during colonization of new territory already occupied by this more cold-tolerant species.

  8. Hybridization leads to sensory repertoire expansion in a gynogenetic fish, the Amazon molly (poecilia formosa): a test of the hybrid-sensory expansion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, Benjamin A; Joy, Jeffrey B; Watson, Corey T; Gonzalez-Bendiksen, Pablo; Gabor, Caitlin R; Breden, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Expansions in sensory systems usually require processes such as gene duplication and divergence, and thus evolve slowly. We evaluate a novel mechanism leading to rapid sensory repertoire expansion: hybrid-sensory expansion (HSE). HSE occurs when two species with differently tuned sensory systems form a hybrid, bringing together alleles from each of the parental species. In one generation, a sensory repertoire is created that is the sum of the variance between parental species. The Amazon molly presents a unique opportunity to test the HSE hypothesis in a "frozen" hybrid. We compared opsin sequences of the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, to those of the parental species. Both parental species are homozygous at the RH2-1 locus and each of the four long wavelength sensitive loci, while P. formosa possess two different alleles at these loci; one matching each parental allele. Gene expression analysis showed P. formosa use the expanded opsin repertoire that was the result of HSE. Additionally, behavioral tests revealed P. formosa respond to colored stimuli in a manner similar or intermediate to the parental species P. mexicana and P. latipinna. Together these results strongly support the HSE hypothesis. Hybrid-sensory repertoire expansion is likely important in other hybrid species and in other sensory systems.

  9. Water and Soil Analyses of Balongis Fish Cage and Oster (Talaba Farms in Concepcion River, Kabasalan, Zamboanga Sibugay Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Lim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The decline of the talaba (saccosrea malabonensis production in Barangay Concepcion, Kabasalan, Zamboanga Sibugay motivated the fisher folks to determine the cause of the phenomenon through the Social Action Ministry (SAM – Diocese of Ipil, Ipil, Zamboanga Sibugay,Philippines who arranged for the conduct of the study. The research was hypothesized to be caused by climate change. Data collection began on January 28 until February 8, 2012 on site. Twelve (12 sampling sites were installed in Concepcion River barangay Balongis, Buayan Zamboanga Sibugay where the barangay’s fish cage and oyster (Talaba farms are Global Positioning System (GPS gadget was used for the identification/markings of sampling stations (07⁰ 46.00 N and 122⁰47.116E to 07⁰45.778 N and 122⁰47.151 E Water and soil/sediment samples were taken and analyzed once a week for three consecutive weeks – January 28 to February 18, 2012. Physical water parameters were taken in situ (pH, Temperature, salinity and TSS. Water temperature raging 24⁰C-31.5⁰C, water pH 7.0-8.24, water salinity 18 -27.6 ppt. Total Suspended Solids (TSS ranged 0.104 g/L to 0.672 g/L – classified turbid water for all sampling sites. Sediment analysis: for mercury containment – qualitative analysis is negative, Soil Classification using the Textual triangle – soil classified as Loamy Sand (Sites 7-10 and Sandy Loam for all other sites. Meiofauna component using the Nematoma, turbellaria, Ciliophora, Ostracoda, Gastrotricha, Tardigrada, Sarcomastigaphora, Sincarida, Copepoda and some other unidentified fauna. Sedimentation rate averaged from 1410-6469 g/m2 per week. The high sediment rate could have caused the decline in oyster production but not by mercury contamination as suspected.

  10. Transcriptomic analyses in a benthic fish exposed to contaminated estuarine sediments through laboratory and in situ bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro M; Miguel, Célia; Caeiro, Sandra; Lobo, Jorge; Martins, Marta; Ferreira, Ana M; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos; DelValls, T A; Costa, Maria H

    2011-11-01

    The transcription of contaminant response-related genes was investigated in juvenile Senegalese soles exposed to sediments from three distinct sites (a reference plus two contaminated) of a Portuguese estuary (the Sado, W Portugal) through simultaneous 28-day laboratory and in situ bioassays. Transcription of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), metallothionein 1 (MT1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), caspase 3 (CASP3) and 90 kDa heat-shock protein alpha (HSP90AA) was surveyed in the liver by real-time PCR. CASP3 transcription analysis was complemented by surveying apoptosis through the TUNEL reaction. After 14 days of exposure, relative transcription was either reduced or decreased in fish exposed to the contaminated sediments, revealing a disturbance stress phase during which animals failed to respond to insult. After 28 days of exposure all genes' transcription responded to contamination but laboratory and in situ assays depicted distinct patterns of regulation. Although sediments revealed a combination of organic and inorganic toxicants, transcription of the CYP1A gene was consistently correlated to organic contaminants. Metallothionein regulation was found correlated to metallic and organic xenobiotic contamination in the laboratory and in situ, respectively. The transcription of oxidative stress-related genes can be a good indicator of general stress but caution is mandatory when interpreting the results since regulation may be influenced by multiple factors. As for MT1, HSP90 up-regulation has potential to be a good indicator for total contamination, as well as the CASP3 gene, even though hepatocyte apoptosis depicted values inconsistent with sediment contamination, showing that programmed cell death did not directly depend on caspase transcription alone.

  11. Simultaneous 16S and 18S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on LR White sections demonstrated in Vestimentifera (Siboglinidae) tubeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimak, Mario P; Toenshoff, Elena R; Bright, Monika

    2012-02-01

    Traditional morphological identification of invertebrate marine species is limited in early life history stages for many taxa. In this study, we demonstrate, by example of Vestimentiferan tubeworms (Siboglinidae, Polychaeta), that the simultaneous fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of both eukaryotic host and bacterial symbiont cells is possible on a single semi-thin (1 μm) section. This allows the identification of host specimens to species level as well as offering visualization of bacteria distributed within the host tissue. Previously published 18S rRNA host-specific oligonucleotide probes for Riftia pachyptila, Tevnia jerichonana and a newly designed Oasisia alvinae probe, as well as a 16S rRNA probe targeting symbionts found in all host species, were applied. A number of standard fixation and hybridization parameters were tested and optimized for the best possible signal intensity and cellular resolution. Ethanol conserved samples embedded in LR White low viscosity resin yielded the best results with regard to both signal intensity and resolution. We show that extended storage times of specimens does not affect the quality of signals attained by FISH and use our protocol to identify morphologically unidentifiable tubeworm individuals from a small data set, conforming to previous findings in succession studies of the Siboglinidae family.

  12. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Hugo B; Feldheim, Kevin A; Jones, Geoffrey P; Ma, Kayan; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H; Berumen, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species.

  13. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, H.B.

    2014-04-24

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Rapid discrimination of Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and H. haemolyticus by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and two matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS platforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Frickmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to considerable differences in pathogenicity, Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and H. haemolyticus have to be reliably discriminated in routine diagnostics. Retrospective analyses suggest frequent misidentifications of commensal H. haemolyticus as H. influenzae. In a multi-center approach, we assessed the suitability of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS for the identification of H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and H. haemolyticus to species level. METHODOLOGY: A strain collection of 84 Haemophilus spp. comprising 50 H. influenzae, 25 H. parainfluenzae, 7 H. haemolyticus, and 2 H. parahaemolyticus including 77 clinical isolates was analyzed by FISH with newly designed DNA probes, and two different MALDI-TOF-MS systems (Bruker, Shimadzu with and without prior formic acid extraction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among the 84 Haemophilus strains analyzed, FISH led to 71 correct results (85%, 13 uninterpretable results (15%, and no misidentifications. Shimadzu MALDI-TOF-MS resulted in 59 correct identifications (70%, 19 uninterpretable results (23%, and 6 misidentifications (7%, using colony material applied directly. Bruker MALDI-TOF-MS with prior formic acid extraction led to 74 correct results (88%, 4 uninterpretable results (5% and 6 misidentifications (7%. The Bruker MALDI-TOF-MS misidentifications could be resolved by the addition of a suitable H. haemolyticus reference spectrum to the system's database. In conclusion, no analyzed diagnostic procedure was free of errors. Diagnostic results have to be interpreted carefully and alternative tests should be applied in case of ambiguous test results on isolates from seriously ill patients.

  15. Application and analysis of LNG cold energy for hybrid fishing vessel%混合动力渔船LNG冷量的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鹏威; 张建一; 詹鋆

    2012-01-01

    液化天然气(LNC)是清洁能源,同时又蕴含大量冷量,我国已经提出渔船推广使用LNG作为动力燃料.目前,渔船制冷能耗占全船能耗30%-40%.为了确定混合动力渔船中LNG的应用优势,本文结合实际生产中的50m型围网渔船进行了计算分析.结果显示,在该型渔船上采用柴油/天然气混合动力,替油率80%时每年可节省燃料费用61万元.将LNG冷量用于冷海水系统,每天可制取0℃冷海水10.4t,减少冷海水制冷系统工作时长1.6h,部分冷量用于系统的过冷循环,可使系统COP提高5.2%.分析表明,利用混合动力渔船的LNG冷能可显著节能,降低营运成本.%Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is a clean energy with a lot of cold energy.Its use as engine fuel for fishing vessel is promoted currently in China.The energy consumption of refrigeration system in fishing vessels has accounted for 30% to 40% in total energy consumption.In order to determine the advantage of LNG applications in hybrid fishing vessel,some calculation and analysis are conducted based on 50 m model purse seine vessel.The results show that 610 thousands yuan can be saved annually if 80% of diesel oil is replaced by LNG on this type of fishing vessels.Meanwhile,10.4 t cold seawater in 0℃ can be produced and 1.6 hour of the system's working time can be reduced each day by use of the LNG cold energy.The COP can be improved by 5.2% when the surplus LNG cold energy is used for subcooled cycle of the refrigeration system.Energy cost can be significantly reduced by use of LNG cold energy in the hybrid fishing vessels based on the analysis.

  16. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  17. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu; Priyadharshini Pandiyan; Kumaran Subaramaniyan; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Sakthivel Manikkam; Balamurugan Sadaiyappan; George Edward Gnana Jothi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii) were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS). Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%). Conclusions:From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  18. Phylogenetic and morphologic analyses of a coastal fish reveals a marine biogeographic break of terrestrial origin in the southern Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Betancur-R

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a approximately 2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by approximately 150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated approximately 0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at approximately 0.78 my. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of

  19. Phylogenetic and Morphologic Analyses of a Coastal Fish Reveals a Marine Biogeographic Break of Terrestrial Origin in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Acero P., Arturo; Duque-Caro, Hermann; Santos, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a ∼2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by ∼150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM) in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated ∼0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at ∼0.78 my. Main Conclusions/Significance Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of additional Southern Caribbean taxa, particularly those with

  20. Methyl mercury exposure from fish consumption in vulnerable racial/ethnic populations: probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary model analyses using 1999-2006 NHANES and 1990-2002 TDS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianping; Zartarian, Valerie G; Liu, Shi V; Geller, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    NHANES subjects self-identified as "Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, or multiracial" (A/P/N/M) have higher levels of blood organic mercury than other racial/ethnic groups; however, the reasons for this have been unclear. This research uses exposure modeling to determine the reasons for elevated blood methylmercury (MeHg) levels, and also extends previous analyses of observed NHANES blood levels. The probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary model was applied, using MeHg fish residue data from FDA's Total Diet Study (1990-2002) combined with NHANES/WWEIA (1999-2006) fish consumption data, to generate exposure estimates by race/ethnicity, age group, and fish type. Statistical analyses of blood methylmercury levels in the (6 times larger) 1999-2006 NHANES data were compared against previous published results for 1999-2002 data. The A/P/N/M group has higher fish intake, modeled MeHg exposures, and blood levels than the general population and other racial/ethnic groups. Tuna, other saltwater fish, and other freshwater fish are key food types driving dietary MeHg exposure. The 1-consumption is an important route for methylmercury intake by the general population, and especially for racial/ethnic groups with higher fish consumption. These probabilistic dietary modeling approaches could be applied for local populations (e.g., tribes) and other chemicals and foods, if data are available.

  1. Behavior of meiotic chromosomes in Pinus wallichiana, P. strobus and their hybrid and nrDNA localization in pollen mother cells of the hybrid by using FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui-Sheng; Zhang, Da-Ming; Fu, Cheng-Xin; Hong, De-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The complete process of meiosis was investigated in Pinus wallichiana, P. strobus and their artificial hybrid (F1) using microsporocytes. It is revealed that there were slightly lower chiasma frequency, lower ring bivalent frequency, lower meiotic index and distinctly higher frequency of aberrance (chromosomal bridges, fragments or micronuclei) in pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the hybrid (F1) than those of the parental species, which showed a certain degree of differentiation between homologous chromosomes of the two parents. However, relatively higher frequency of ring bivalents and higher meiotic index in all the three entities indicate the great stability of genomes of parental species, and the differentiation of genomes between the two parents must have been slight. Total nineteen signal loci of 18S rDNA were observed in nine bivalents of the hybrid (F1), among which one bivalent bears two loci, while the others have only one. It is suggested that distinct differentiation at genetic level existed in homologous chromosomes of the two parental species, whereas only slight differentiation at karyotypic and genomic levels take place between the parent species.

  2. Behavior of Meiotic Chromosomes in Pinus wallichiana, P. strobus and Their Hybrid and nrDNA Localization in Pollen Mother Cells of the Hybrid by Using FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Sheng Deng; Da-Ming Zhang; Cheng-Xin Fu; De-Yuan Hong

    2008-01-01

    The complete process of meiosis was investigated in Pinus wallichiana, P. strobus and their artificial hybrid (F1) using microsporocytes. It is revealed that there were slightly lower chiasma frequency, lower ring bivalent frequency, lower meiotic Index and distinctly higher frequency of aberrance (chromosomal bridges, fragments or micronuclei) in pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the hybrid (F1) than those of the parental species, which showed a certain degree of differentiation between homologous chromosomes of the two parents. However, relatively higher frequency of ring bivalents and higher meiotic index in all the three entities indicate the great stability of genomes of parental species, and the differentiation of genomes between the two parents must have been slight. Total nineteen signal loci of 18S rDNA were observed in nine bivalents of the hybrid (F1), among which one bivalent bears two loci, while the others have only one. It is suggested that distinct differentiation at genetic level existed in homologous chromosomes of the two parental species, whereas only slight differentiation at karyotypic and genomic levels take place between the parent species.

  3. T-joints of Ti alloys with hybrid laser-MIG welding: macro-graphic and micro-hardness analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, R.; Sorgente, D.; Palumbo, G.; Scintilla, L. D.; Brandizzi, M.; Satriano, A. A.; Tricarico, L.

    2012-03-01

    Titanium alloys are characterized by high mechanical properties and elevated corrosion resistance. The combination of laser welding with MIG/GMAW has proven to improve beneficial effects of both processes (keyhole, gap-bridging ability) while limiting their drawbacks (high thermal gradient, low mechanical resistance) In this paper, the hybrid Laser-GMAW welding of Ti-6Al-4V 3-mm thick sheets is investigated using a specific designed trailing shield. The joint geometry was the double fillet welded T-joint. Bead morphologies, microstructures and mechanical properties (micro-hardness) of welds were evaluated and compared to those achieved for the base metals.

  4. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Spontaneous Interspecific Hybrid Between Oryza sativa and Oryza minuta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-deng YI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH is a powerful tool to characterize parental chromosomes in interspecific hybrids, including the behaviour of autosynapsis and chromosome pairing. It was used to distinguish the chromosomes of Oryza sativa from wild species in a spontaneous interspecific hybrid and to investigate the chromosome pairing at metaphase I in meiosis of the hybrid in this study. The hybrid was a triploid with 36 chromosomes according to the chromosome number investigated in mitosis of root tips. During metaphase I of meiosis in the hybrid, less chromosome pairing was observed and most of the chromosomes existed as univalent. Based on GISH and FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses, the chromosomes of the hybrid were composed of genomes A, B and C. Thus, it was believed that the hybrid was the result of natural hybridization between cultivated rice and wild species O. minuta which was planted in experimental fields.

  5. Feasibility Analyses of Developing Low Carbon City with Hybrid Energy Systems in China: The Case of Shenzhen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the largest carbon emission source in China, the power sector grows rapidly owing to the country’s unprecedented urbanization and industrialization processes. In order to explore a low carbon urbanization pathway by reducing carbon emissions of the power sector, the Chinese government launched an international low carbon city (ILCC project in Shenzhen. This paper presents a feasibility analysis on the potential hybrid energy system based on local renewable energy resources and electricity demand estimation over the three planning stages of the ILCC project. Wind power, solar power, natural gas and the existing power grid are components considered in the hybrid energy system. The simulation results indicate that the costs of energy in the three planning stages are 0.122, 0.105 and 0.141 $/kWh, respectively, if external wind farms and pumped storage hydro stations (PSHSs exist. The optimization results reveal that the carbon reduction rates are 46.81%, 62.99% and 75.76% compared with the Business as Usual scenarios. The widely distributed water reservoirs in Shenzhen provide ideal conditions to construct PSHS, which is crucial in enhancing renewable energy utilization.

  6. Evaluation and standardization of different purification procedures for fish bile and liver metallothionein quantification by spectrophotometry and SDS-PAGE analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório-Daussat, Carolina Lyrio; Resende, Marcia Carolina Martinho; Ziolli, Roberta L; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Schaumloffel, Dirk; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D

    2014-03-01

    Fish bile metallothioneins (MT) have been recently reported as biomarkers for environmental metal contamination; however, no studies regarding standardizations for their purification are available. Therefore, different procedures (varying centrifugation times and heat-treatment temperatures) and reducing agents (DTT, β-mercaptoethanol and TCEP) were applied to purify MT isolated from fish (Oreochromis niloticus) bile and liver. Liver was also analyzed, since these two organs are intrinsically connected and show the same trend regarding MT expression. Spectrophotometrical analyses were used to quantify the resulting MT samples, and SDS-PAGE gels were used to qualitatively assess the different procedure results. Each procedure was then statistically evaluated and a multivariate statistical analysis was then applied. A response surface methodology was also applied for bile samples, in order to further evaluate the responses for this matrix. Heat treatment effectively removes most undesired proteins from the samples, however results indicate that temperatures above 70 °C are not efficient since they also remove MTs from both bile and liver samples. Our results also indicate that the centrifugation times described in the literature can be decreased in order to analyze more samples in the same timeframe, of importance in environmental monitoring contexts where samples are usually numerous. In an environmental context, biliary MT was lower than liver MT, as expected, since liver accumulates MT with slower detoxification rates than bile, which is released from the gallbladder during feeding, and then diluted by water. Therefore, bile MT seems to be more adequate in environmental monitoring scopes regarding recent exposure to xenobiotics that may affect the proteomic and metalloproteomic expression of this biological matrix.

  7. Transfer impedance simulation and measurement methods to analyse shielding behaviour of HV cables used in Electric-Vehicles and Hybrid-Electric-Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Abid; Frei, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    In the power drive system of the Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), High Voltage (HV) cables play a major role in evaluating the EMI of the whole system. Transfer impedance (ZT) is the most commonly used performance parameter for the HV cable. To analyse and design HV cables and connectors with better shielding effectiveness (SE), appropriate measurement and simulation methods are required. In this paper, Ground Plate Method (GPM) with improvements has been proposed to measure ZT. Use of low-frequency ferrites to avoid ground-loop effects has also been investigated. Additionally, a combination of analytical model with a circuit model has been implemented to simulate limitations (frequency response) of the test setup. Also parametrical studies using the analytical model have been performed to analyse the shielding behaviour of HV cables.

  8. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  9. Analysis and modelling of the use of a nickel/metal hydride battery in the Autarkic Hybrid; Analyse und Modellierung des Einsatzes einer Nickel/Metallhydrid-Batterie im Autarken Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angloher, J.; Wagner, U.

    1999-07-01

    The optimal operation of traction batteries in hybrid drive concepts requires a battery analysis and modelling in order to prepare the vehicle integration of the battery. In order to use a Ni/MH battery in the Autarkic Hybrid a battery management was set-up in the frame of the special research field 365, whose development depends on the measuring-technical analysis of the energetic battery performance and on a new method to determine the load condition. The contribution describes how neuronal networks can be used by extending conventional methods in order to better determine the actual load condition of the battery. (orig.) [German] Der optimale Betrieb von Traktionsbatterien in hybriden Antriebskonzepten erfordert die vorherige Batterieanalyse und -modellierung, um die Fahrzeugintegration der Batterie vorzubereiten. Fuer den Einsatz einer Ni/MH-Batterie im Autarken Hybrid wurde im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereichs 365 ein Batteriemanagement aufgebaut, dessen Entwicklung auf der messtechnischen Analyse des energetischen Batterieverhaltens und einem neuen Verfahren der Ladezustandsbestimmung basiert. Der Beitrag beschreibt, wie in Erweiterung herkoemmlicher Methoden neuronale Netze verwendet werden koennen, um den aktuellen Ladezustand der Batterie praeziser zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  10. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences.

  11. Fully Automated Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) Staining and Digital Analysis of HER2 in Breast Cancer : A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Logt, Elise M. J.; Kuperus, Deborah A. J.; van Setten, Jan W.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Boers, James. E.; Schuuring, Ed; Kibbelaar, Robby E.

    2015-01-01

    HER2 assessment is routinely used to select patients with invasive breast cancer that might benefit from HER2-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to validate a fully automated in situ hybridization (ISH) procedure that combines the automated Leica HER2 fluorescent ISH system for Bond with su

  12. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  13. Identification of sexually dimorphic gene expression in brain tissue of the fish Leporinus macrocephalus through mRNA differential display and real time PCR analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Costa, Fernanda A; Wasko, A P

    2010-03-01

    Differentially expressed genes in males and females of vertebrate species generally have been investigated in gonads and, to a lesser extent, in other tissues. Therefore, we attempted to identify sexually dimorphic gene expression in the brains of adult males and females of Leporinus macrocephalus, a gonochoristic fish species that presents a ZZ/ZW sex determination system, throughout a comparative analysis using differential display reverse transcriptase-PCR and real-time PCR. Four cDNA fragments were characterized, representing candidate genes with differential expression between the samples. Two of these fragments presented no significant identity with previously reported gene sequences. The other two fragments, isolated from male specimens, were associated to the gene that codes for the protein APBA2 (amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2) and to the Rab 37 gene, a member of the Ras oncogene family. The overexpression of these genes has been associated to a greater production of the beta-amyloid protein which, in turns, is the major factor that leads to Alzheimer's disease, and to the development of brain-tumors, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a higher Apba2 gene expression in males, thus validating the previous data on differential display. L. macrocephalus may represent an interesting animal model to the understanding of the function of several vertebrate genes, including those involved in neurodegenerative and cancer diseases.

  14. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhinyo Panijpan

    2014-12-01

    In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships.

  15. Phenotypic consequences of a mosaic marker chromosome identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as being derived from chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, J.H.; Zhou, X.; Pletcher, B.A. [Cornell Univ. Medical College, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    De novo marker chromosomes are detected in 1 in 2500 amniotic fluid samples and are associated with a 10-15% risk for phenotypic abnormality. FISH can be utilized as a research tool to identify the origins of marker chromosomes. The phenotypic consequences of a marker chromosome derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 are described. A 26-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 28 weeks gestation because of a prenatally diagnosed tetralogy of Fallot. Follow-up ultrasounds also showed ventriculomegaly and cleft lip and palate. 32 of 45 cells had the karyotype 47,XY,+mar; the remaining cells were 46,XY. The de novo marker chromosome was C-band positive and non-satellited and failed to stain with distamycin A/DAPI. At birth the ultrasound findings were confirmed and dysmorphic features and cryptorchidism were noted. Although a newborn blood sample contained only normal cells, mosaicism was confirmed in 2 skin biopsies. FISH using whole-chromosome painting and alpha-satellite DNA probes showed that the marker chromosome had originated from chromosome 16. As proximal 16q is distamycin A/DAPI positive, the marker is apparently derived from proximal 16p. At 15 months of age, this child is hypotonic, globally delayed and is gavage-fed. His physical examination is significant for microbrachycephaly, a round face, sparse scalp hair, ocular hypertelorism, exotropia, a flat, wide nasal bridge and tip, mild micrognathia, and tapered fingers with lymphedema of hands and feet. Inguinal hernias have been repaired. His features are consistent with those described for patients trisomic for most or all of the short arm of chromosome 16. Marker chromosomes derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 appear to have phenotypic consequences. As the origin of more marker chromosomes are identified using FISH, their karyotype/phenotype correlations will become more apparent, which will permit more accurate genetic counseling.

  16. [Evaluation of peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method in the identifi cation of Candida species isolated from blood cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Gonca; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Atalay, Mustafa Altay

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, increased number of patients who are hospitalized in intensive care units, received immunosuppressive therapy and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that can lead an increase in the incidence of systemic candidiasis. In these patients, the most common clinical manifestation is candidemia. Since the identification of Candida species isolated from blood cultures is time consuming by conventional (morphological and biochemical) methods, rapid, reliable and accurate methods are needed. For this purpose novel systems have been developed to identify the agent directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method for the identification of Candida species by comparing with the conventional methods. A total of 50 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Hospital clinics and followed with prediagnosis of systemic fungal infections whose blood cultures were positive for the yeasts between July 2011 and July 2012 were included in the study. The conventional identification of Candida isolates was performed by considering macroscopic and microscopic morphology, germ tube test, cycloheximide sensitivity, urease activity and carbohydrate assimilation patterns with API 20C AUX (bioMerieux, France) test. PNA FISH method was conducted by the use of a commercial kit namely Yeast Traffic Light(®) PNA FISH (AdvanDx, USA). According to morphological and biochemical characteristics (conventional methods), 19 (38%) out of 50 Candida isolates were identified as C.albicans, 12 (24%) as C.glabrata, five (10%) as C.parapsilosis, five (10%) as C.kefyr, four (8%) as C.krusei, two (4%) as C.guilliermondii, two (4%) as C.tropicalis and one (2%) as C.lusitaniae. On the other hand, 24 (48%) of the isolates were identified as C.albicans/C.parapsilosis (with green fluorescence), 16 (32%) as C.glabrata/C.krusei (with red fluorescence) and one (%2) as C.tropicalis (with yellow

  17. PMC- FISHs in Hybrids of Tetraploid Cultivated and Diploid Wild Gossypium Species%四倍体栽培棉与二倍体野生棉杂种PMC-FISH研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌键; 王坤波; 邹美娟; 宋国立; 王春英; 彭仁海; 刘方; 黎绍惠; 张香娣; 王玉红

    2009-01-01

    ad + 7Ⅱdd + 5Ⅰa + 7Ⅰd for (AD)1D5 (G. hirsutum × G. raimondii), 1Ⅴaaaad +1Ⅲadd + 2Ⅱad + 8Ⅱdd + 6Ⅰa + 5Ⅰd for (AD)2D4 (G. barbadense × G. aridum), 2Ⅲadd (adc or acc) + 1Ⅱaa + 9Ⅰa + 4Ⅱcc (dc or dd) + 14Ⅰd (c) for (AD)1C3 (G. hirsutum × G. australe), and 1Ⅱaa + 1Ⅱad (ac)+ 10Ⅰa + 6Ⅱcc (dc or dd) + 13Ⅰd (c) for (AD)1C1-n (G. hirsutum × G. nandewarense), respectively. While the two cultivated tetraploid species, G. hirsutum (AD)1 and G. barbadense (AD)2, which were used for the triploid female parents, displayed the same chromosome configuration as 13Ⅱaa + 13Ⅱdd. It is obvious that there were more bivalents but less univalents in ADD [(AD)1D5 and (AD)2D4] type than that in ADC [(AD)1C3 and (AD)1C1-n] type of triploid F1 hybrids and with fewer A-subgenome univalents and more A-subgenome combined pairings in ADD than in ADC type of triploid F1 hybrids. The results indicated that specific relationship of AD cultivated tetraploid species with D genome may be much closer than with C genome, and that the PMC-FISH technology may play an irreplaceable role in the specific relationship analyses of triploid F1 hybrids in Gossypium.

  18. Targeted sequencing for high-resolution evolutionary analyses following genome duplication in salmonid fish: Proof of concept for key components of the insulin-like growth factor axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Fiona M; Shaw, Rebecca L; Macqueen, Daniel J

    2016-12-01

    High-throughput sequencing has revolutionised comparative and evolutionary genome biology. It has now become relatively commonplace to generate multiple genomes and/or transcriptomes to characterize the evolution of large taxonomic groups of interest. Nevertheless, such efforts may be unsuited to some research questions or remain beyond the scope of some research groups. Here we show that targeted high-throughput sequencing offers a viable alternative to study genome evolution across a vertebrate family of great scientific interest. Specifically, we exploited sequence capture and Illumina sequencing to characterize the evolution of key components from the insulin-like growth (IGF) signalling axis of salmonid fish at unprecedented phylogenetic resolution. The IGF axis represents a central governor of vertebrate growth and its core components were expanded by whole genome duplication in the salmonid ancestor ~95Ma. Using RNA baits synthesised to genes encoding the complete family of IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) and an IGF hormone (IGF2), we captured, sequenced and assembled orthologous and paralogous exons from species representing all ten salmonid genera. This approach generated 299 novel sequences, most as complete or near-complete protein-coding sequences. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed congruent evolutionary histories for all nineteen recognized salmonid IGFBP family members and identified novel salmonid-specific IGF2 paralogues. Moreover, we reconstructed the evolution of duplicated IGF axis paralogues across a replete salmonid phylogeny, revealing complex historic selection regimes - both ancestral to salmonids and lineage-restricted - that frequently involved asymmetric paralogue divergence under positive and/or relaxed purifying selection. Our findings add to an emerging literature highlighting diverse applications for targeted sequencing in comparative-evolutionary genomics. We also set out a viable approach to obtain large sets of nuclear genes for any

  19. Fuel consumption analysis of diesel-electric hybrid system of fishing boat%渔船柴电混合动力系统油耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建军; 李胜勇

    2016-01-01

    为了探索海洋渔船推进系统的节油减排,以一艘安装有柴电混合动力系统,成功实现节能减排的金枪鱼延绳钓船为例,通过剖析柴电混合动力系统的结构,柴油机理论负荷特性,结合渔船实际使用情况,分析其节能原因。结果显示,渔船柴电混合动力系统在使用过程中,可根据工况需要,随意切换常规动力与电力推进系统;通过选择合理的主机工况,提高柴油机输出效率,降低柴油机油耗率;综合各种工况,能节油15%以上。研究表明,现阶段在金枪鱼延绳钓渔船上使用混合动力技术是可行的,能起到节能减排的作用。在核心技术不变的情况下,运用一些创新技术手段,如采用多机多桨拆分系统,赋予系统更高的智能调配作用,可以把混合动力系统推广到拖网渔船和围网渔船上。%In order to explore the energy conservation performance of ocean fishing boat propulsion systems,in this paper,a tuna longline vessel that has realized energy-saving and emission-reducing was taken as an example to analyze the reasons behind,through probing into the structure of its diesel-electric hybrid system, engine load characteristics and the actual using conditions of the vessel. The results showed that the diesel-electric hybrid system of the vessel in use can easily switch between the conventional power and the electricity propulsion systems in accordance with the actual working conditions; by selecting the reasonable working conditions of the main engine,the output efficiency of the diesel engine could thus be improved and the diesel fuel consumption rate decreased,and considering the various working conditions,the system could save energy by more than 15%.The research showed that,at present,using hybrid power technology in tuna longline vessels is feasible and can play a role in energy conservation. With the core technology remaining the same and by adopting some

  20. Anisakid nematodes as possible markers to trace fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a total of 949 fish samples were analysed for the identification of nematode larvae belonging to the Anisakidae family. Biomolecular application for the identification of Anisakidae larvae can be an optimal instrument for the traceability of fish products, described on the Reg. EC 178/2002. Results confirm a correlation between geographical distribution of fishes and presence of specific Anisakid larvae. FAO 37 zone (Mediterranean sea showed a prevailing distribution of Anisakis pegreffii and a minimal presence of A. simplex s.s. in hybrid form with Anisakis pegreffii. FAO 27 zone showed a prevailing distribution of A. simplex s.s. in fish like Brosme (Brosme brosme and infestation prevalence of Pseudoterranova krabbei and P. decipiens s.s. in Gadus morhua. Obtained results validate the hypothesis that molecular biology methods for identifying Anisakidae larvae are effective traceability markers of fish products.

  1. Analyses of trawling track and fishing activity based on the data of vessel monitoring system (VMS): A case study of the single otter trawl vessels in the Zhoushan fishing ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Yingbin; Zheng, Ji

    2015-02-01

    The original purpose of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) is for enforcement and control of vessel sailing. With the application of VMS in fishing vessels, more and more population dynamic studies have used VMS data to improve the accuracy of fisheries stock assessment. In this paper, we simulated the trawl trajectory under different time intervals using the cubic Hermite spline (cHs) interpolation method based on the VMS data of 8 single otter trawl vessels (totally 36000 data items) fishing in Zhoushan fishing ground from September 2012 to December 2012, and selected the appropriate time interval. We then determined vessels' activities (fishing or non-fishing) by comparing VMS speed data with the corresponding speeds from logbooks. The results showed that the error of simulated trajectory greatly increased with the increase of time intervals of VMS data when they were longer than 30 minutes. Comparing the speeds from VMS with those from the corresponding logbooks, we found that the vessels' speeds were between 2.5 kn and 5.0 kn in fishing. The cHs interpolation method is a new choice for improving the accuracy of estimation of sailing trajectory, and the VMS can be used to determine the vessels' activities with the analysis of their trajectories and speeds. Therefore, when the fishery information is limited, VMS can be one of the important data sources for fisheries stock assessment, and more attention should be paid to its construction and application to fisheries stock assessment and management.

  2. Effect of tannic acid-fish scale gelatin hydrolysate hybrid nanoparticles on intestinal barrier function and α-amylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Jung; Ho, Yi-Cheng; Jiang, Shun-Zhou; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2015-07-01

    Practical application of tannic acid is limited because it readily binds proteins to form insoluble aggregates. In this study, tannic acid was self-assembled with fish scale gelatin hydrolysates (FSGH) to form stable colloidal complex nanoparticles. The nanoparticles prepared from 4 mg ml(-1) tannic acid and 4 mg ml(-1) FSGH had a mean particle size of 260.8 ± 3.6 nm, and showed a positive zeta potential (20.4 ± 0.4 mV). The nanoparticles acted as effective nano-biochelators and free radical scavengers because they provided a large number of adsorption sites for interaction with heavy metal ions and scavenging free radicals. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cu(2+) ions was 123.5 mg g(-1) and EC50 of DPPH radical scavenging activity was 21.6 ± 1.2 μg ml(-1). Hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of the nanoparticles were investigated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The copper-chelating capacity and free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were associated with their capacity to inhibit Cu(2+) ion-induced barrier impairment and hyperpermeability of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ). However, α-amylase inhibitory activity of the nanoparticles was significantly lower than that of free tannic acid. The results suggest that the nanoparticles can ameliorate Cu(2+) ion induced intestinal epithelial TJ dysfunction without severely inhibiting the activity of the digestive enzymes.

  3. A radiation hybrid map of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) based on 1581 markers: Synteny analysis with model fish genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Richard; Senger, Fabrice; Rakotomanga, Michaelle; Sadequi, Naoual; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hitte, Christophe; Galibert, Francis

    2010-10-01

    The selective breeding of fish for aquaculture purposes requires the understanding of the genetic basis of traits such as growth, behaviour, resistance to pathogens and sex determinism. Access to well-developed genomic resources is a prerequisite to improve the knowledge of these traits. Having this aim in mind, a radiation hybrid (RH) panel of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was constructed from splenocytes irradiated at 3000 rad, allowing the construction of a 1581 marker RH map. A total of 1440 gene markers providing ~4400 anchors with the genomes of three-spined stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish, helped establish synteny relationships with these model species. The identification of Conserved Segments Ordered (CSO) between sea bass and model species allows the anticipation of the position of any sea bass gene from its location in model genomes. Synteny relationships between sea bass and gilthead seabream were addressed by mapping 37 orthologous markers. The sea bass genetic linkage map was integrated in the RH map through the mapping of 141 microsatellites. We are thus able to present the first complete gene map of sea bass. It will facilitate linkage studies and the identification of candidate genes and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The RH map further positions sea bass as a genetic and evolutionary model of Perciformes and supports their ongoing aquaculture expansion.

  4. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Spontaneous Interspecific Hybrid Between Oryza sativa and Oryza minuta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Chuan-deng; CHENG Xu; WANG Bei-bei; LIANG Guo-hua; GONG Zhi-yun; TANG Shu-zhu; GU Ming-hong

    2008-01-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) is a powerful tool to characterize parental chromosomes in interspecific hybrids, including the behaviour of autosynapsis and chromosome paidng. It was used to distinguish the chromosomes of Oryza sativa from wild species in a spontaneous interspecific hybdd and to investigate the chromosome pairing at metaphase I in meiosis of the hybdd in this study. The hybrid was a triploid with 36 chromosomes according to the chromosome nurnber investigated in mitosis of root tips. During metaphase I of meiosis in the hybrid, less chromosome pairing was observed and most of the chromosomes existed as univalent. Based on GISH and FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization) analyses, the chromosomes of the hybrid were composed of genomes A, B and C. Thus, it was believed that the hybrid was the result of natural hybridization between cultivated rice and wild species O. minuta which was planted in experimental fields.

  5. Analyses of Trawling Track and Fishing Activity Based on the Data of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS):A Case Study of the Single Otter Trawl Vessels in the Zhoushan Fishing Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang; WANG Yingbin; ZHENG Ji

    2015-01-01

    The original purpose of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) is for enforcement and control of vessel sailing. With the ap-plication of VMS in fishing vessels, more and more population dynamic studies have used VMS data to improve the accuracy of fisheries stock assessment. In this paper, we simulated the trawl trajectory under different time intervals using the cubic Hermite spline (cHs) interpolation method based on the VMS data of 8 single otter trawl vessels (totally 36000 data items) fishing in Zhou-shan fishing ground from September 2012 to December 2012, and selected the appropriate time interval. We then determined vessels’ activities (fishing or non-fishing) by comparing VMS speed data with the corresponding speeds from logbooks. The results showed that the error of simulated trajectory greatly increased with the increase of time intervals of VMS data when they were longer than 30 minutes. Comparing the speeds from VMS with those from the corresponding logbooks, we found that the vessels’ speeds were be-tween 2.5kn and 5.0kn in fishing. The cHs interpolation method is a new choice for improving the accuracy of estimation of sailing trajectory, and the VMS can be used to determine the vessels’ activities with the analysis of their trajectories and speeds. Therefore, when the fishery information is limited, VMS can be one of the important data sources for fisheries stock assessment, and more at-tention should be paid to its construction and application to fisheries stock assessment and management.

  6. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  7. Chromosome painting by GISH and multi-color FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful cytogenetic technique for identifying chromosomes and mapping specific genes and DNA sequences on individual chromosomes. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and multi-color FISH (mc-FISH) represent two special types of FISH techniques. Both ...

  8. Spatial variability of mercury and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis) - Implications for risk-benefit analyses of fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Ursula; Palviainen, Marjo; Eronen, Aslak; Piirainen, Sirpa; Laurén, Ari; Akkanen, Jarkko; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the spatial variability of risks and benefits of consuming fish from humic and clear lakes. Mercury in fish is a potential risk for human health, but risk assessment may be confounded by selenium, which has been suggested to counterbalance mercury toxicity. In addition to the risks, fish are also rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are known to be beneficial for cardiovascular health and brain cognitive function in humans. We found that the concentrations of EPA + DHA and mercury in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) vary spatially and are connected with lake water chemistry and catchment characteristics. The highest mercury concentrations and the lowest EPA + DHA concentrations were found in perch from humic lakes with high proportion of peatland (30-50%) in the catchment. In addition, the ratio of selenium to mercury in perch muscle was ≥1 suggesting that selenium may counterbalance mercury toxicity. The observed variation in mercury and EPA + DHA content in perch from different lakes indicate that the risks and benefits of fish consumption vary spatially, and are connected with lake water chemistry and catchment characteristics. In general, consumption of perch from humic lakes exposed humans to greater risks (higher concentrations of mercury), but provided less benefits (lower concentrations of EPA + DHA) than consumption of perch from clear lakes.

  9. The relative importance of mangroves and seagrass beds as feeding habitats for resident and transient fishes from Florida and Belize:: evidence from dietary and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western Atlantic region, the contribution of mangrove food-sources to fish diets has been considered of more limited importance then previously expected due to their constant flooding and proximity to adjacent coastal habitats such as seagrass beds which provide potential ...

  10. The importance of mangroves, mud and sand flats, and seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile fishes in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar : gut content and stable isotope analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugendo, B.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der; Mgaya, Y.D.

    2006-01-01

    The relative importance of bay habitats, consisting of mangrove creeks and channel, seagrass beds, and mud and sand flats, as feeding grounds for a number of fish species was studied in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania, using gut content analysis and stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen. Gut

  11. Giant Galápagos tortoises; molecular genetic analyses identify a trans-island hybrid in a repatriation program of an endangered taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant Galápagos tortoises on the island of Española have been the focus of an intensive captive breeding-repatriation programme for over 35 years that saved the taxon from extinction. However, analysis of 118 samples from released individuals indicated that the bias sex ratio and large variance in reproductive success among the 15 breeders has severely reduced the effective population size (Ne. Results We report here that an analysis of an additional 473 captive-bred tortoises released back to the island reveals an individual (E1465 that exhibits nuclear microsatellite alleles not found in any of the 15 breeders. Statistical analyses incorporating genotypes of 304 field-sampled individuals from all populations on the major islands indicate that E1465 is most probably a hybrid between an Española female tortoise and a male from the island of Pinzón, likely present on Española due to human transport. Conclusion Removal of E1465 as well as its father and possible (half-siblings is warranted to prevent further contamination within this taxon of particular conservation significance. Despite this detected single contamination, it is highly noteworthy to emphasize the success of this repatriation program conducted over nearly 40 years and involving release of over 2000 captive-bred tortoises that now reproduce in situ. The incorporation of molecular genetic analysis of the program is providing guidance that will aid in monitoring the genetic integrity of this ambitious effort to restore a unique linage of a spectacular animal.

  12. Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Kirk J; Scott, Jarrod J; Budsberg, Kevin J; Read, Harry; Balser, Teri C; Currie, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities (microbiomes) are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components.

  13. Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk J Grubbs

    Full Text Available Microbial communities (microbiomes are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components.

  14. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Cheng

    Full Text Available Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES, a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility.

  15. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight—had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated ($r = -0.69$) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was $y = 0.074x_{8} + 1.819x_{9} + 6.72x_{12} - 60.78 (R^{2} = 0.993)$, where $x_{8}$, $x_{9}$ and $x_{12}$ represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and

  16. Microsatellite analyses of artificial and spontaneous dogrose hybrids reveal the hybridogenic origin of Rosa micrantha by the contribution of unreduced gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Christiane M; Wissemann, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Dogroses are characterized by a unique meiosis system, the so-called canina meiosis, which facilitates sexual reproduction at odd-number ploidy. The mostly pentaploid somatic level of dogroses is restored by a merger of haploid sperm cells and tetraploid egg cells. We analyzed experimental hybrids between different dogrose species using microsatellites to determine pollen-transmitted alleles. This information was used to reconstruct the putative hybridogenic origin of Rosa micrantha and R. dumalis and to estimate the frequency of spontaneous hybridization in a natural population. We found no evidence for the hybrid origin of R. dumalis, but our data suggest that R. micrantha presumably arose by hybridization between R. rubiginosa and R. canina or R. corymbifera. We observed only hexaploid individuals of R. micrantha, thus the establishment of this hybridogenic species was favored when unreduced gametes contributed to their origin. We demonstrate that spontaneous hybrids originated infrequently from the parental species in a natural population, but hybridization was often associated with the formation of unreduced gametes. We postulate that unreduced gametes play a major role in the evolutionary success of dogrose hybrids because they provide highly homologous chromosomes crucial for bivalent formation during canina meiosis and thus ensuring this unique form of sexual reproduction.

  17. DNA breakage detection-fish (DBD-FISH): effect of unwinding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Gundín, F; Gosálvez, J; de la Torre, J; Fernández, J L

    2000-09-20

    DBD-FISH is a new procedure that allows detection and quantification of DNA breakage in situ within specific DNA target sites. Cells embedded in an agarose matrix on a slide are treated in an alkaline unwinding solution to transform DNA breaks into single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). After removal of proteins, DNA probes are hybridized and detected. DNA breaks increase the ssDNA and relax supercoiling of DNA loops, so more probe hybridizes, thereby increasing the surface area and fluorescence intensity of the FISH signal. The probe selects the chromatin area to be analysed. In order to restrict the extension of unwound ssDNA to a region closer to the origin of the DNA break, human leukocytes were processed for DBD-FISH with a whole genome probe, after a 10 Gy dose of X-rays, for various unwinding times: 5, 2 min and 30s. Two cell populations were detected after 30s, but not with the 5 or 2 min unwinding times. One cell group had small to medium haloes corresponding to the relaxation of DNA supercoiling after DAPI staining, and strong DBD-FISH labelling of induced DNA breaks, whereas the other cell group showed big haloes of DNA loop unfolding and an absence of DBD-FISH labelling. The latter group was similar to cells processed by DBD-FISH without the unwinding step. Thus, they should correspond to cells unaffected by the alkaline unwinding solution, possibly because very brief unwinding times do not allow the diffusion of the alkali into the cells deep within the gel, thus biasing the results. Taking this into account, 2 min seems to be the minimum unwinding time required for an accurate detection of a signal by DBD-FISH.

  18. Using genetic with stable isotope analyses to investigate hybridization between Atlantic salmon, sea-run and stream resident brown trout in a small stream

    OpenAIRE

    Roussel, Jean-Marc; Charles, Katia; Baglinière, Jean-Luc; Guyomard, René; Ombredane, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar can interbreed and produce viable hybrid offspring. Literature indicates that maternal species can either be brown trout (North America) or Atlantic salmon (South- ern Europe and Ireland), and bidirectional hybridization has also been reported (England, Northern Europe and subantarctic French Territory). In coastal rivers where both species are sympatric, brown trout populations often split into two morphs, stream residents ...

  19. Design and synthesis of "dumb-bell" and "triangular" inorganic-organic hybrid nanopolyoxometalate clusters and their characterisation through ESI-MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Chullikkattil P; Li, Feng-Yan; Lydon, Claire; Miras, Haralampos N; Long, De-Liang; Xu, Lin; Cronin, Leroy

    2011-06-27

    A series of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS)-based linear (bis(TRIS)) and triangular (tris(TRIS)) ligands has been synthesised and were covalently attached to the Wells-Dawson type cluster [P(2)V(3)W(15)O(62)](9-) to generate a series of nanometer-sized inorganic-organic hybrid polyoxometalate clusters. These huge hybrids, with a molecular mass similar to that of small proteins in the range of ≈10-16 kDa, were unambiguously characterised by using high-resolution ESI-MS. The ESI-MS spectra of these compounds revealed, in negative ion mode, a characteristic pattern showing distinct groups of peaks corresponding to different anionic charge states ranging from 3(-) to 8(-) for the hybrids. Each peak in these individual groups could be unambiguously assigned to the corresponding hybrid cluster anion with varying combinations of tetrabutylammonium (TBA) and other cations. This study therefore highlights the prowess of the high-resolution ESI-MS for the unambiguous characterisation of large, nanoscale, inorganic-organic hybrid clusters that have huge mass, of the order of 10-16 kDa. Also, the designed synthesis of these compounds points to the fact that we were able to achieve a great deal of structural pre-design in the synthesis of these inorganic-organic hybrid polyoxometalates (POMs) by means of a ligand design route, which is often not possible in traditional "one-pot" POM synthesis.

  20. Leptin stimulates hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor gene expression in a teleost fish, the hybrid striped bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eugene T; Douros, Jonathan D; Hurt, David A; Borski, Russell J

    2016-04-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic peptide hormone that circulates as an indicator of adiposity in mammals, and functions to maintain energy homeostasis by balancing feeding and energy expenditure. In fish, leptin tends to be predominantly expressed in the liver, another important energy storing tissue, rather than in fat depots as it is in mammals. The liver also produces the majority of circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which comprise the mitogenic component of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF endocrine growth axis. Based on similar regulatory patterns of leptin and IGFs that we have documented in previous studies on hybrid striped bass (HSB: Morone saxatilis×Morone chrysops), and considering the co-localization of these peptides in the liver, we hypothesized that leptin might regulate the endocrine growth axis in a manner that helps coordinate somatic growth with energy availability. Using a HSB hepatocyte culture system to simulate autocrine or paracrine exposure that might occur within the liver, this study examines the potential for leptin to modulate metabolism and growth through regulation of IGF gene expression directly, or indirectly through the regulation of GH receptors (GHR), which mediate GH-induced IGF expression. First, we verified that GH (50nM) has a classical stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and additionally show it stimulates IGF-2 transcription in hepatocytes. Leptin (5 and/or 50nM) directly stimulated in vitro GHR2 gene expression within 8h of exposure, and both GHR1 and GHR2 as well as IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression after 24h. Cells were then co-incubated with submaximal concentrations of leptin and GH (25nM each) to test if they had a synergistic effect on IGF gene expression, possibly through increased GH sensitivity following GHR upregulation by leptin. In combination, however, the treatments only had an additive effect on stimulating IGF-1 mRNA despite their capacity to increase GHR mRNA abundance. This suggests that leptin's stimulatory

  1. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  2. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  3. Cytological Analyses on Development of Male and Female Gametophytes in an Interspecific Hybrid F1 from Cucumis hystrix Chakr. × Cucumis sativus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiang-dong; DAI Liang-fang; QIAN Chun-tao; CHEN Jin-feng

    2006-01-01

    An interspecific hybrid F1 of Cucumis hystrix Chakr. × Cucumis sativus L. (NC4406) was used to establish the developmental sequence and to characterize the male and female gametophytes at cytological level for further understanding of the phylogenic relationship and the mechanism of fertility or sterility in the interspecific hybrid F1. The development of male and female gametophytes was studied through meiotic analysis and paraffin section observation technique, respectively.Meanwhile, the fertility level was assessed through hybrid F1 backcrossing to cultivated cucumber 4406. Variable chromosome confgurations were observed in the pollen mother cells (PMCs) of hybrid F1 at metaphase Ⅰ, e.g., univalents,bivalents, trivalents, quadravalents, etc. At anaphase Ⅰ and Ⅱ, chromosome lagging and bridges were frequently observed as well, which led to the formation of polyads and only a partial number of microspores could develop into fertile pollen grains (about 23.3%). Observations of the paraffin sections showed numerous degenerated and abnormal embryo sacs during the development of female gametophytes, and only 40% of the female gametophytes could develop into normal eight-nuclear megaspore. On an average, 22.8 and 6.3 seeds per fruit could be obtained from the reciprocal backcross. The interspecific hybrid F1 of C. hystrix × NC4406 was partially fertile; however, the meiotic behaviors of hybrid F1 showed a high level of intergenomic recombination between C. hystrix and C. sativus chromosomes, which indicated that it plays an important role for introgression of useful traits from C. hystrix into C. sativus.

  4. Identification of the chromosome complement and the spontaneous 1R/1V translocations in allotetraploid Secale cereale × Dasypyrum villosum hybrids through cytogenetic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książczyk, Tomasz; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kulak-Książczyk, Sylwia; Wiśniewska, Halina; Stojałowski, Stefan; Łapiński, Mirosław

    2011-08-01

    Genome modifications that occur at the initial interspecific hybridization event are dynamic and can be consolidated during the process of stabilization in successive generations of allopolyploids. This study identifies the number and chromosomal location of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites between Secale cereale, Dasypyrum villosum, and their allotetraploid S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. For the first time, we show the advantages of FISH to reveal chromosome rearrangements in the tetraploid Secale × Dasypyrum hybrids. Based on the specific hybridization patterns of ribosomal 5S, 35S DNA and rye species-specific pSc200 DNA probes, a set of genotypes with numerous Secale/Dasypyrum translocations of 1R/1V chromosomes were identified in successive generations of allotetraploid S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. In addition we analyse rye chromosome pairs using FISH with chromosome-specific DNA sequences on S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids.

  5. Analyse - technologies; Analyse - technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudil, D.; Chevalier, M.; Cormont, Ph.; Viala, F.; Kopp, Ch.; Peillet, O.; Chatroux, D.; Lausenaz, Y.; Villard, J.F.; Bruel, L.; Berhouet, F.; Chartier, F.; Aubert, M.; Blanchet, P.; Steiner, F.; Puech, M.H.; Bienvenu, Ph.; Noire, M.H.; Bouzon, C.; Schrive, L

    1999-07-01

    In this chapter of the DCC 1999 scientific report, the following theoretical studies are detailed: emulsions characterization by ultrasonics, high resolution wavelength meter, optimization methodology for diffractive and hybrid optic system, reliability for fast switches in power electronics, study of cesium isolation in irradiated fuels, chemical optodes based on evanescent wave absorption, radionuclides (Zirconium 93 and molybdenum 93) determination in irradiated fuels processing effluents, study of viscous liquid ultrafiltration using supercritical CO{sub 2} fluid. (A.L.B.)

  6. Insights into food preference in hybrid F1 of Siniperca chuatsi (♀) × Siniperca scherzeri (♂) mandarin fish through transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Sun, Jian; Li, Ling; Yu, Ying; Huang, Wei; Qu, Chun-Mei; Cao, Liang; Bai, Xiao-Li; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2013-09-05

    As economically relevant traits, feeding behavior and food preference domestication determine production cost and profitability. Although there are intensive research efforts on feeding behavior and food intake, little is known about food preference. Mandarin fish accept only live prey fish and refuse dead prey fish or artificial diets. Very little is currently known about the genes regulating this unique food preference. Using transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression profiling, we identified 1,986 and 4,526 differentially expressed genes in feeders and nonfeeders of dead prey fish, respectively. Up-regulation of Crbp, Rgr and Rdh8, and down-regulation of Gc expression, consistent with greater visual ability in feeders, could promote positive phototaxis. Altered expressions of period, casein kinase and Rev-erbα might reset circadian phase. Down-regulation of orexigenic and up-regulation of anorexigenic genes in feeders were associated with lower appetite. The mRNA levels of Creb, c-fos, C/EBP, zif268, Bdnf and Syt were dramatically decreased in feeders, which might result in significant deficiency in memory retention of its natural food preference (live prey fish). There were roughly 100 times more potential SNPs in feeders than in nonfeeders. In summary, differential expression in the genes identified shed new light on why mandarin fish only feed on live prey fish, with pathways regulating retinal photosensitivity, circadian rhythm, appetite control, learning and memory involved. We also found dramatic difference in SNP abundance in feeders vs nonfeeders. These differences together might account for the different food preferences. Elucidating the genes regulating the unique food preference (live prey fish) in mandarin fish could lead to a better understanding of mechanisms controlling food preference in animals, including mammals.

  7. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-01-01

    The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain ...

  8. Progress in molecular diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth-disease type 1 (CMT 1, HMSN I) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-detection of a potential genetic mosaicism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, K.; Liehr. T.; Ekici, A. [Institute for Human Genetics, Erlange (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We tested 20 CMT 1 patients characterized according to the criteria of the European CMT consortium by Southern hybridization of MspI restricted genomic DNA with probes pVAW409R1, pVAW412Hec and pEW401HE. In 11 of the 20 CMT 1 cases (55%), we observed a duplication in 17q11.2; one patient had a dinucleotide insertion in exon 6 of the PO-gene (5%). One HNPP case had a typical 17p11.2 deletion. Analysis of CA-repeats was performed with primers RM11GT and Mfd41; SSCP-analysis of the PO, PMP22 and Cx32-genes is in progress. FISH was carried out with probe pVAW409R1. 125 interphase nuclei were analyzed for each proband by counting the signals per nucleus. Normal cells show a characteristic distribution of signals: 1 signal in 5.9% of nuclei, 2 in 86.3% and 3 in 7.8%. A duplication is indicated by a shift to 3 signals in more than approximately 60% and 2 in less than 25% of the nuclei. In contrast, the 17p11.2 deletion of the HNPP patient shifts to 82.4% of nuclei with a single hybridization signal versus 14.4% with 2 signals. We detected one case with significantly abnormal distribution of interphase nuclei hybridization signals compared to cultures of normal cells and to those with 17p11.2 duplication or deletion: 3.2% nuclei revealed 1 signal, 48.0% two signals and 48.8% 3 signals, indicating a pathogenic but moderate dosis increase compared to the throughout duplicated cases. FISH with probe pVAW409R1 is a versatile tool to detect the HNPP deletion both in interphase nuclei and in metaphase chromosomes. In CMT 1 disease interphase nuclei are required for FISH analysis due to the small duplication of 1.5 Mbp. In contrast to Southern techniques, FISH is able to detect genetic mosaicism.

  9. A comparison of cooling tower systems. Analysis of high-efficiency closed hybrid-medium counter-current cooling system; Koeltorensystemen vergeleken. Analyse hoog rendement gesloten hybride-mediumterugkoeler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, H.T. [Heat Transfer Holland, Zuidwolde (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    Cooling towers are also utilized in climate technique to dispose of process heat. Water use, the added chemicals and the cleaning cost constitute the largest debit items in exploitation. Open wet cooling towers use water all through the year. The closed hybrid medium blast cooler only uses water in the summer. (mk) [Dutch] Koeltorens worden, ook in de klimaattechniek, ingezet om proceswarmte af te voeren. Het waterverbruik, de toegevoegde chemicalien en de schoonmaakkosten behoren tot de grotere kostenposten in de exploitatie. Open natte koeltorens verbruiken het hele jaar door water. De gesloten hybride-mediumterugkoeler verbruikt alleen water in de zomer.

  10. Micro Analyses AC/DC Hybrid Power Grid Planning and Design%交直流混合微电网的规划设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红阳

    2016-01-01

    由于交直流混合微电网可以减少多重变换器运行所产生的损耗、谐波电流,同时能够提高系统的经济性、可靠性,所以现在已成为当今微电网的主要发展方向。笔者将从电压等级、接地方式、母线结构和网络拓扑等角度,探讨交直流混合微电网的规划设计,以供有意对交直流混合微电网进行深入研究的专家学者参考。%Due to micro AC/DC hybrid power grid can reduce multiple converter loss, harmonic current generated by the operation, at the same time can improve the efficiency of system, the reliability, so now it is the main direction of micro grid today. Grounding method, the author will from voltage grade, bus structure and network topology of micro AC/DC hybrid power grid planning and design were discussed, for the intention to conduct the thorough research to the micro AC/DC hybrid power grid in the experts and scholars to provide the reference.

  11. 荧光原位杂交法(FISH)快速检测尿液中金黄色葡萄球菌%Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Rapidly Detects Staphylococcus Aureus in Urinary Tract Infection Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青; 李艳; 汪明; 顾剑; 胡慧霞; 徐万洲; 韦传东; 吴泽刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 利用荧光原位杂交法快速检测尿液中的金黄色葡萄球菌,筛查金黄色葡萄球菌所致的尿路感染.方法 针对金黄色葡萄球菌16sRNA设计荧光标记的核苷酸探针,利用荧光原位杂交技术(FISH)对132例疑似尿路感染患者中段尿标本进行检测;同时进行中段尿培养.结果 荧光原位杂交法检测阳性的有9例,与中段尿培养比较,其敏感度为100.0%,特异度为99.2%,阳性预期值为90.0%,阴性预期值为100.0%.结论 荧光原位杂交能快速检测尿液中的金黄色葡萄球菌,对金黄色葡萄球菌所致的尿路感染进行快速诊断.%Objective The rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus in urine by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)method. Screening urinary tract infection (UTIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Probes that were specific for Staphylococcus aureus were designed based on the conserved 16 s RNA sequences. Detected a total of 132 urine samples using FISH method. And all of tbese samples tested via traditional culturing techniques. Results 9 of these samples tested positive for a UTI via FISH analysis. Compared to conventional methods of bacterial identification,the FISH method had a sensitivity of 100.0% ,specificity of 99. 2%,positive expected value of 90. 0% and negative expected value of 100. 0%. Conclusion FISH had the potential to become an extremely useful diagnostic tool for UTIs because it has a quick turnaround time and high accuracy.

  12. International, collaborative assessment of limitations of chromosome-specific probes (CSP) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH): Analysis of expected detections in 73,000 prenatal cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.I.; Henry, G.P.; Miller, W.A. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    FISH and CSP have been proposed to reduce karyotyping need. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential efficacy of CSP-FISH using currently available probes (13, 18, 21, X, & Y) in large, prenatal diagnostic centers. Results (1990-1993) from 7 centers in 4 countries were divided by those expected to be detectable by currently available probes, and those which would be missed assuming 10% probe efficacy. 72,994 karyotypes included 699 trisomy 21`s, 352 trisomy 18`s, 136 trisomy 13`s, 358 sex chromosome aneuploidies, 70 triploidies, and 855 others (translocations, inversions, deletions, markers). Of 2,613 abnormalities, 1,745 would be detectable (66.8%). [Detroit 55.7%, Stockholm 68.3%, Boston 52.6%, Denver 61.3%, Muenster 77.0%, London 84.5%, Philadelphia 69.4%]. Centers with high proportions of referrals for ultrasound anomalies had the highest CSP-FISH positives secondary to increased T 18 & 13. We conclude: (1) 73,000 karyotypes show relatively consistent incidences of the common trisomies, sex chromosome abnormalities, and other chromosome abnormalities among the centers. (2) The proportion expected detectable by FISH-CSP technology varies from 52.6% to 84.5%, averaging 66.8%. (3) 1/3 of the karyotypic abnormalities would be missed, and therefore, replacement of complete karyotyping with FISH would have unacceptably high false-negative rates for routine evaluation. (4) FISH-CSP, while useful when positive for anomalies, is not sufficient when negative to obviate the need for a complete karyotype.

  13. Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  14. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  15. Fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) technique combined with karyotyping analysis in prenatal diagnosis%FISH技术在产前诊断中的应用价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈国松; 张甦; 何平亚; 方嵘

    2011-01-01

    目的 使用荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术对常见胎儿染色体数目异常进行快速诊断,结合羊水细胞培养染色体核型分析技术形成产前诊断体系,并对其临床应用价值进行评价.方法 应用诊断最常见染色体病的5种染色体(13、18、21、X和Y)特异性FISH探针对480例未经培养羊水细胞进行产前诊断,并和同时进行的羊水培养染色体核型分析相比较.结果 480例未经培养羊水细胞FISH实验全部获得检测结果,并发现21-三体综合征2例,18-三体综合征1例,克氏综合征1例,特纳综合征 1例,与羊水培养染色体分析结果一致,但报告时间(2至3d)与羊水染色体分析报告时间(2~3周)相比大为缩短.受固有技术限制有6例结构异常未能检出,但应用FISH技术对其中1例与性染色体有关的结构异常进行辅助诊断,获得了成功.结论 FISH技术在常见染色体数目异常产前诊断中应用行之有效,与羊水染色体核型分析技术相结合,将使产前诊断更加高效和安全.%To evaluate the clinical application of the combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)technique and karyotyping analysis in prenatal diagnosis.MethodsFISH technology with the centromeric probes of chromo-some 13, 18, 21 ,X and Y was applied in 480 amniotic fluid specimens, the results were compared with those of the G banding karyotypes from standard cytogenetic analysis in cultured amniotic fluid cells.ResultsTotal 480 uncultured amniotic fluid speci-mens were successfully tested by FISH and two Down' s syndrome, one Edwards syndrome, one Klinefelter syndrome and one Turner syndrome were detected. The results obtained by FISH were consistent with those from karyotyping analysis. FISH (2-3 days) was faster than karyotyping(2-3 weeks) to get results. Karyotypes analysis detected 6 cases of chromosome structural abnormalities which were not detected by FISH, however, one of them with a sex chromosome-related structural

  16. Role of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH in the diagnosis of spindle and round cell tumors of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: In summary we advise an immunohistochemical panel for round/spindle cell tumors of the kidney and for unclear cases we advise to add (FISH to get the correct diagnosis, as they are completely different regarding surgical approach and post-operative adjuvant therapy.

  17. Morphological description and molecular analyses of Tylodelphys sp. (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) newly recorded from the freshwater fish Gobiomorphus cotidianus (common bully) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, I; Poulin, R; Presswell, B

    2017-05-01

    Among eyeflukes, Tylodelphys Diesing, 1850 includes diverse species able to infect the eyes, but also the brain, pericardial sac and body cavity of their second intermediate host. While the genus shows a cosmopolitan distribution with 29 nominal species in Africa, Asia, Europe and America, a likely lower research effort has produced two records only for all of Australasia. This study provides the first description of a species of Tylodelphys and the first record for a member of the Diplostomidae in New Zealand. Tylodephys sp. metacercaria from the eyes of Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall, 1975 is distinguished from its congeners as being larger in all, or nearly all, metrics than Tylodelphys clavata (von Nordmann, 1832), T. conifera (Mehlis, 1846) and T. scheuringi (Hughes, 1929); whereas T. podicipina Kozicka & Niewiadomska, 1960 is larger in body size, ventral sucker and holdfast sizes and T. ophthalmi (Pandey, 1970) has comparatively a very small pharynx and body spination. Tylodelphys sp. exhibits consistent genetic variation for the 28S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and Cox1 genes, and phylogenetic analyses confirm that it represents an independent lineage, closely related to North American species. Morphological and molecular results together support the distinct species status of Tylodephys sp. metacercaria, the formal description and naming of which await discovery of the adult. Furthermore, the validity of T. strigicola Odening, 1962 is restored, T. cerebralis Chakrabarti, 1968 is proposed as major synonym of T. ophthalmi, and species described solely on the basis of metacercariae are considered incertae sedis, except those for which molecular data already exist.

  18. Detection of MDM2/CDK4 amplification in lipomatous soft tissue tumors from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue: comparison of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creytens, David; van Gorp, Joost; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Libbrecht, Louis

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the detection of MDM2 and CDK4 amplification was evaluated in lipomatous soft tissue tumors using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a PCR-based technique, in comparison with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These 2 techniques were evaluated in a series of 77 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lipomatous tumors (27 benign adipose tumors, 28 atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas, 18 dedifferentiated liposarcomas, and 4 pleomorphic liposarcomas). Using MLPA, with a cut-off ratio of >2, 36/71 samples (22 atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas, and 14 dedifferentiated liposarcomas) showed MDM2 and CDK4 amplification. Using FISH as gold standard, MLPA showed a sensitivity of 90% (36/40) and a specificity of 100% (31/31) in detecting amplification of MDM2 and CDK4 in lipomatous soft tissue tumors. In case of high-level amplification (MDM2-CDK4/CEP12 ratio >5), concordance was 100%. Four cases of atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (4/26, 15%) with a low MDM2 and CDK4 amplification level (MDM2-CDK4/CEP12 ratio ranging between 2 and 2.5) detected by FISH showed no amplification by MLPA, although gain of MDM2 and CDK4 (ratios ranging between 1.6 and 1.9) was seen with MLPA. No amplification was detected in benign lipomatous tumors and pleomorphic liposarcomas. Furthermore, there was a very high concordance between the ratios obtained by FISH and MLPA. In conclusion, MLPA proves to be an appropriate and straightforward technique for screening MDM2/CDK4 amplification in lipomatous tumors, especially when a correct cut-off value and reference samples are chosen, and could be considered a good alternative to FISH to determine MDM2 and CDK4 amplification in liposarcomas. Moreover, because MLPA, as a multiplex technique, allows simultaneous detection of multiple chromosomal changes of interest, it could be in the future a very reliable and fast molecular analysis on

  19. Annual trends in catchability and fish stock assessments

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A key assumption of many fish stock assessment models is that catchability is constant over time. We assume here that trends in catchability may occur through fishing power creeping. The tuning fleets, which are prone to fishing power development, may be identified using the "Hybrid" method. A range of catchability trends, including values derived from the "Hybrid" method, is then implemented to standardise the fishing effort of some tuning fleets used in the stock assessments performed by XS...

  20. Microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization analyses of gene expression in hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus tremula var. glandulosa) cell suspension cultures after exposure to NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Hyoshin; Lee, Jae-Soon; Noh, Eun-Woon; Choi, Young-Im; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Choi, Dong-Woog

    2012-09-01

    The gene expression profiles of hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus tremula var. glandulosa) cells in suspension culture after exposure to salinity (NaCl) induced stress were examined by constructing two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries. cDNA from non-treated cells was used as a driver and cDNA samples from cell suspension cultures exposed to 150 mM NaCl for 2 or 10 h were used as testers. Randomly selected clones from each SSH library were sequenced and 727 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained and analyzed. Four novel ESTs were identified. Between the two libraries, 542 unique SSH clones were selected for placement on a cDNA microarray. In total, 18 differentially expressed genes were identified with 4 and 12 genes being significantly differentially expressed 2 and 10 h after the treatment, respectively. Genes related to metabolism and protein synthesis and several genes whose protein products are implicated in salt or other abiotic stress-related responses were expressed in the salt-stressed cells.

  1. Optical Transitions in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells: Ellipsometry, Density Functional Theory, and Quantum Efficiency Analyses for CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirayama, Masaki; Kadowaki, Hideyuki; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Sugita, Takeshi; Tamakoshi, Masato; Kato, Masato; Fujiseki, Takemasa; Murata, Daisuke; Hara, Shota; Murakami, Takurou N.; Fujimoto, Shohei; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Light-induced photocarrier generation is an essential process in all solar cells, including organic-inorganic hybrid (CH3NH3PbI3 ) solar cells, which exhibit a high short-circuit current density (Jsc ) of approximately 20 mA /cm2 . Although the high Jsc observed in the hybrid solar cells relies on strong electron-photon interaction, the optical transitions in the perovskite material remain unclear. Here, we report artifact-free CH3NH3PbI3 optical constants extracted from ultrasmooth perovskite layers without air exposure and assign all of the optical transitions in the visible and ultraviolet region unambiguously, based on density-functional theory (DFT) analysis that assumes a simple pseudocubic crystal structure. From the self-consistent spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis of the ultrasmooth CH3NH3PbI3 layers, we find that the absorption coefficients of CH3NH3PbI3 (α =3.8 ×104 cm-1 at 2.0 eV) are comparable to those of CuInGaSe2 and CdTe, and high α values reported in earlier studies are overestimated seriously by the extensive surface roughness of CH3NH3PbI3 layers. The polarization-dependent DFT calculations show that CH3NH3 + interacts strongly with the PbI3 - cage, modifying the CH3NH3PbI3 dielectric function in the visible region rather significantly. In particular, the transition matrix element of CH3NH3PbI3 varies, depending on the position of CH3NH3 + within the Pb—I network. When the effect of CH3NH3 + on the optical transition is eliminated in the DFT calculation, the CH3NH3PbI3 dielectric function deduced from DFT shows an excellent agreement with the experimental result. As a result, distinct optical transitions observed at E0(Eg)=1.61 eV , E1=2.53 eV , and E2=3.24 eV in CH3NH3PbI3 are attributed to the direct semiconductor-type transitions at the R , M , and X points in the pseudocubic Brillouin zone, respectively. We further perform the quantum efficiency (QE) analysis for a standard hybrid-perovskite solar cell incorporating a mesoporous TiO2

  2. Resolving colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on plant root surfaces by combining fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (ME μXRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeker, Linnea K; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2016-12-01

    Metal(loid)-contamination of the environment due to anthropogenic activities is a global problem. Understanding the fate of contaminants requires elucidation of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metal(loid) speciation from molecular to field scales. Improved methods are needed to assess micro-scale processes, such as those occurring at biogeochemical interfaces between plant tissues, microbial cells, and metal(loid)s. Here we present an advanced method that combines fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with synchrotron-based multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging (ME μXRF) to examine colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on root surfaces of plants used to phytostabilize metalliferous mine tailings. Bacteria were visualized on a small root section using SytoBC nucleic acid stain and FISH probes targeting the domain Bacteria and a specific group (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, or Actinobacteria). The same root region was then analyzed for elemental distribution and metal(loid) speciation of As and Fe using ME μXRF. The FISH and ME μXRF images were aligned using ImageJ software to correlate microbiological and geochemical results. Results from quantitative analysis of colocalization show a significantly higher fraction of As colocalized with Fe-oxide plaques on the root surfaces (fraction of overlap 0.49±0.19) than to bacteria (0.072±0.052) (pbacteria that colocalized with metal(loid)s, Actinobacteria, known for their metal tolerance, had a higher correlation with both As and Fe than Alphaproteobacteria or Gammaproteobacteria. This method demonstrates how coupling these micro-techniques can expand our understanding of micro-scale interactions between roots, metal(loid)s and microbes, information that should lead to improved mechanistic models of metal(loid) speciation and fate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Subtelomeric rearrangements in Indian children with idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay: Frequency estimation & clinical correlation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shruthi; Koshy, Teena; Vekatachalam, Perumal; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Yesodharan, Dhanya; Gowrishankar, Kalpana; Kumar, Jeevan; Ravichandran, Latha; Joseph, Santhosh; Chandrasekaran, Anupama; Paul, Solomon F. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Subtelomeres are prone to deleterious rearrangements owing to their proximity to unique sequences on the one end and telomeric repetitive sequences, which increase their tendency to recombine, on the other end. These subtelomeric rearrangements resulting in segmental aneusomy are reported to contribute to the aetiology of idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD). We undertook this study to estimate the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in children with ID/DD. Methods: One hundred and twenty seven children with idiopathic ID/DD were tested for subtelomeric rearrangements using karyotyping and FISH. Blood samples were cultured, harvested, fixed and GTG-banded using the standard protocols. Results: Rearrangements involving the subtelomeres were observed in 7.8 per cent of the tested samples. Detection of rearrangements visible at the resolution of the karyotype constituted 2.3 per cent, while those rearrangements detected only with FISH constituted 5.5 per cent. Five deletions and five unbalanced translocations were detected. Analysis of parental samples wherever possible was informative regarding the inheritance of the rearrangement. Interpretation & conclusions: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements observed in this study was within the reported range of 0-35 per cent. All abnormal genotypes were clinically correlated. Further analysis with array technologies presents a future prospect. Our results suggest the need to test individuals with ID/DD for subtelomeric rearrangements using sensitive methods such as FISH. PMID:27934799

  4. Subtelomeric rearrangements in Indian children with idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay: Frequency estimation & clinical correlation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Subtelomeres are prone to deleterious rearrangements owing to their proximity to unique sequences on the one end and telomeric repetitive sequences, which increase their tendency to recombine, on the other end. These subtelomeric rearrangements resulting in segmental aneusomy are reported to contribute to the aetiology of idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD. We undertook this study to estimate the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in children with ID/DD. Methods: One hundred and twenty seven children with idiopathic ID/DD were tested for subtelomeric rearrangements using karyotyping and FISH. Blood samples were cultured, harvested, fixed and GTG-banded using the standard protocols. Results: Rearrangements involving the subtelomeres were observed in 7.8 per cent of the tested samples. Detection of rearrangements visible at the resolution of the karyotype constituted 2.3 per cent, while those rearrangements detected only with FISH constituted 5.5 per cent. Five deletions and five unbalanced translocations were detected. Analysis of parental samples wherever possible was informative regarding the inheritance of the rearrangement. Interpretation & conclusions: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements observed in this study was within the reported range of 0-35 per cent. All abnormal genotypes were clinically correlated. Further analysis with array technologies presents a future prospect. Our results suggest the need to test individuals with ID/DD for subtelomeric rearrangements using sensitive methods such as FISH.

  5. THE RESEARCH IN FISH GENETICS IN CROATIA AND FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Treer

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a review on fish genetics research in Croatia and former Yugoslavia, based on the analyses of all the articles published in four main journals (Ribarstvo Jugoslavije, Morsko ribarstvo, Ichthyologia and Acta Adriatica since 1945 till disintegration of Yugoslavia in 1991. Most of the papers cover the fields on cytogenetics and hybridization (24 and 13 respectively. Eight papers were on fish selection and five on population genetics. Apart from those, five papers were written by foreign authors. Two groups of researchers from the University of Sarajevo were specially active. One of them lead by B e r b e r o v i ć and S o f r a d ž i j a did extensive work in cytogenetics, analyzing the karyotypes of many fish species, some of them endemic. Another one lead by V u k o v i ć , investigated some natural hybrids and created many of them artificially, particulary among cyprinids. These results are presented in a special table. Contrary to the mountainous Bosnia where this type of research was of systematic and ecologic importance, in Croatia whwrw aquaculture was highly developed, the approach was quite different. The scientists from the University of Zagreb, H a b e k o v i ć and T u r k , studied the hybridization and selection of important cultured cyprinids. Apart from these scientific groups, many papers were published by A l - S a b t i , who later became world famous in fish cytogenetics. The works of many other authors who contributed with papers in different fields of fish genetics are also described.

  6. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tim S; Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Kofoed, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    results show that the differences between the HER2 genetic assays do not have an effect on the analytic performance and the CISH technology is superior to high throughput HER2 genetic testing due to scanning speed, while the IQ-FISH may still be a choice for fast low throughput HER2 genetic testing.......The purpose was to evaluate and compare 5 different HER2 genetic assays with different characteristics that could affect the performance to analyze the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) gene copy number under low and high throughput conditions. The study included 108 tissue samples from breast...... cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region...

  7. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique for studying the microbial communities in intestinal tissues of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is very useful for the evaluation of microbial communities in various environments. It is possible to apply this technique to study the intestinal microflora in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Different fixatives and storage temperature were tested in this technique. It was found that fixation with 10% buffered formalin for 12 hours and changed to 70% ethanol shown positive results when compared to the fixation with Davidson's fixative or RF fixative. The best signaling was obtainedfrom the samples which were stored in -20ºC. By using the DNA probe targeted to the Eubacteria domain (EUB338 probe, 5′-GCT GCC TCC CGT AGG AGT-3′ labeled with fluorescein as a hybridizing probe, it was found that most intestinal microflora were aggregated with the intestinal contents, or dispersed in the lumen. There was not evidence of the attachment of the microflora with the intestinal epithelium in this study.

  8. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  9. Systematic two-hybrid and comparative proteomic analyses reveal novel yeast pre-mRNA splicing factors connected to Prp19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    Full Text Available Prp19 is the founding member of the NineTeen Complex, or NTC, which is a spliceosomal subcomplex essential for spliceosome activation. To define Prp19 connectivity and dynamic protein interactions within the spliceosome, we systematically queried the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome for Prp19 WD40 domain interaction partners by two-hybrid analysis. We report that in addition to S. cerevisiae Cwc2, the splicing factor Prp17 binds directly to the Prp19 WD40 domain in a 1:1 ratio. Prp17 binds simultaneously with Cwc2 indicating that it is part of the core NTC complex. We also find that the previously uncharacterized protein Urn1 (Dre4 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe directly interacts with Prp19, and that Dre4 is conditionally required for pre-mRNA splicing in S. pombe. S. pombe Dre4 and S. cerevisiae Urn1 co-purify U2, U5, and U6 snRNAs and multiple splicing factors, and dre4Δ and urn1Δ strains display numerous negative genetic interactions with known splicing mutants. The S. pombe Prp19-containing Dre4 complex co-purifies three previously uncharacterized proteins that participate in pre-mRNA splicing, likely before spliceosome activation. Our multi-faceted approach has revealed new low abundance splicing factors connected to NTC function, provides evidence for distinct Prp19 containing complexes, and underscores the role of the Prp19 WD40 domain as a splicing scaffold.

  10. Analyses of numerical aberrations of chromosome 17 and tp53 gene deletion/amplification in human oral squamous cell carcinoma using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi MESZAROS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, oral and facial cancers represent approximately 5% of all cancers. Deactivation and unregulated expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The genomic change results in numerical and structural chromosomal alterations, particularly in chromosomes 3, 9, 11 and 17. The aim of our study was to identify numerical aberrations of chromosome 17, deletion or amplification of p53 gene and to reveal correlations between abnormalities of chromosome 17and of p53 gene with TNM status and grading in 15 subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma. 80 % of cases presented chromosome 17 polysomy and only 20% of cases had chromosome 17 monosomy. 46.6 % of samples revealed p53 gene amplification and 33.3 % of them p53 deletion. Polysomy of chromosome 17 was also detected in tumor-adjacent epithelia. The degree of the cytogenetic abnormality did not correlate with the stage of the disease, the histological differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. Molecular cytogenetic techniques, using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes, facilitate the confirmation of presumed chromosomal aberrations with high sensitivity and specificity.

  11. Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification - fluorescence in situ hybridization (in situ RCA-FISH) to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A target-primed in situ rolling circle amplification (in situ RCA) protocol was developed for detection of single-copy genes inside bacterial cells and optimized with Pseudomonas stutzeri, targeting nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes (nirS and nosZ). Two padlock probes were designed per gene......). Nevertheless, multiple genes (nirS and nosZ; nirS and the 16S rRNA gene) could be detected simultaneously in P. stutzeri. Environmental application of in situ RCA-FISH was demonstrated on activated sludge by the differential detection of two types of nirS-defined denitrifiers; one of them was identified...

  12. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues, including tissue microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summersgill, Brenda M; Shipley, Janet M

    2010-01-01

    Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) material is frequently the most convenient readily available source of diseased tissue, including tumors. Multiple cores of FFPE material are being used increasingly to construct tissue microarrays (TMAs) that enable simultaneous analyses of many archival samples. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an important approach to analyze FFPE material for specific genetic aberrations that may be associated with tumor types or subtypes, cellular morphology, and disease prognosis. Annealing, or hybridization of labeled nucleic acid sequences, or probes, to detect and locate one or more complementary nucleic acid sequences within fixed tissue sections allows the detection of structural (translocation/inversion) and numerical (deletion/gain) aberrations and their localization within tissues. The robust protocols described include probe preparation, hybridization, and detection and take 2-3 days to complete. A protocol is also described for the stripping of probes for repeat FISH in order to maximize the use of scarce tissue resources.

  13. Analyse des effets de deux modalités de constitution des groupes dans un dispositif hybride de formation à distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Depover

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude porte sur les effets de deux modalités de constitution des groupes (spontané versus contrasté dans un dispositif hybride de formation à distance destiné à des étudiants universitaires. Les scénarios d’apprentissage mis en œuvre à l’occasion de cette expérience reposent sur l’utilisation des cartes conceptuelles comme support au travail collaboratif. Les résultats observés n’ont pas permis de mettre en évidence de différence quant à la densité conceptuelle des cartes ou au nombre d’unités de sens produites. Par contre, il apparaît que les unités de sens qui concernent les activités de planification et les commentaires métacognitifs sont nettement plus nombreuses au sein des groupes constitués par pairage contrasté. Une corrélation positive entre l’intensité des interactions à l’intérieur du forum et la densité conceptuelle des cartes produites a également été mise en évidence pour les groupes constitués sur la base d’un pairage contrasté. En ce qui concerne le pairage spontané, nos résultats indiquent que les paires constituées témoignent d’un comportement plus homogène, se révèlent plus collaboratives et consacrent moins d’effort à la planification du travail de groupe.

  14. Subtractive and differential hybridization molecular analyses of Ceratitis capitata XX/XY versus XX embryos to search for male-specific early transcribed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Marco; D'Amato, Rocco; Petrella, Valeria; Ippolito, Domenica; Ventre, Giuseppe; Zhang, Ying; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, is a fruit crop pest of very high economic relevance in different continents. The strategy to separate Ceratitis males from females (sexing) in mass rearing facilities is a useful step before the sterilization and release of male-only flies in Sterile Insect Technique control programs (SIT). The identification of genes having early embryonic male-specific expression, including Y-linked genes, such as the Maleness factor, could help to design novel and improved methods of sexing in combination with transgenesis, aiming to confer conditional female-specific lethality or female-to-male sexual reversal. We used a combination of Suppression Subtractive Hybrydization (SSH), Mirror Orientation Selection (MOS) anddifferential screening hybridization (DSH) techniques to approach the problem of isolating corresponding mRNAs expressed in XX/XY embryos versus XX-only embryos during a narrow developmental window (8-10 hours after egg laying, AEL ). Here we describe a novel strategy we have conceived to obtain relatively large amounts of XX-only embryos staged at 8-10 h AEL and so to extract few micrograms of polyA+ required to apply the complex technical procedure. The combination of these 3 techniques led to the identification of a Y-linked putative gene, CcGm2, sharing high sequence identity to a paralogous gene, CcGm1, localized either on an autosome or on the X chromosome. We propose that CcGm2 is a first interesting putative Y-linked gene which could play a role in sex determination. The function exterted by this gene should be investigated by novel genetic tools, such as CRISPR-CAS9, which will permit to target only the Y-linked paralogue, avoiding to interfere with the autosomal or X-linked paralogue function.

  15. Comparison between triple quadrupole, time of flight and hybrid quadrupole time of flight analysers coupled to liquid chromatography for the detection of anabolic steroids in doping control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Oscar J; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen; Elbardissy, Hisham; Grimalt, Susana; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix; Ventura, Rosa; Delbeke, Frans T

    2011-01-17

    Triple quadrupole (QqQ), time of flight (TOF) and quadrupole-time of flight (QTOF) analysers have been compared for the detection of anabolic steroids in human urine. Ten anabolic steroids were selected as model compounds based on their ionization and the presence of endogenous interferences. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were evaluated. QqQ allowed for the detection of all analytes at the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (between 2 and 10 ng mL(-1) in urine). TOF and QTOF approaches were not sensitive enough to detect some of the analytes (3'-hydroxy-stanozolol or the metabolites of boldenone and formebolone) at the established MRPL. Although a suitable accuracy was obtained, the precision was unsatisfactory (RSD typically higher than 20%) for quantitative purposes irrespective of the analyser used. The methods were applied to 30 real samples declared positives either for the misuse of boldenone, stanozolol and/or methandienone. Most of the compounds were detected by every technique, however QqQ was necessary for the detection of some metabolites in a few samples. Finally, the possibility to detect non-target steroids has been explored by the use of TOF and QTOF. The use of this approach revealed that the presence of boldenone and its metabolite in one sample was due to the intake of androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. Additionally, the intake of methandienone was confirmed by the post-target detection of a long-term metabolite.

  16. Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  17. Particle size analyses of porous silica and hybrid silica chromatographic support particles. Comparison of flow/hyperlayer field-flow fractionation with scanning electron microscopy, electrical sensing zone, and static light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuehong

    2008-05-16

    Porous silica and hybrid silica chromatographic support particles having particle diameters ranging approximately from 1 microm to 15 microm have been characterized by flow/hyperlayer field-flow fractionation (FFF). The particle size accuracy has been improved significantly in this work by a second-order polynomial calibration. Very good agreement between the FFF data and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results has been achieved. The effects of particle porosity, pore sizes, and particle sizes on the particle size accuracy in electrical sensing zone (ESZ) analyses have been discussed. It has been demonstrated by computer simulation and experimental measurements that false peaks can be generated in certain particle size regions when the static light scattering (SLS) technique is applied to tightly distributed spherical chromatographic support particles.

  18. Significant Effects of Fishing Gear Selectivity on Fish Life History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhenlin; SUN Peng; YAN Wei; HUANG Liuyi; TANG Yanli

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, extreme changes have occurred in the characters of exploited fish populations. The majority of these changes have affected the growth traits of fish life history, which include a smaller size-at-age, an earlier age-at-maturation and among others. Currently, the causes of these life history traits changes still require systematic analyses and empirical studies. The explanations that have been cited are merely expressed in terms of fish phenotypic adaptation. It has been claimed that the original traits of fish can be recovered once the intensity of exploitation of the fish is controlled. Sustained environmental and fishing pressure will change the life history traits of most fish species, so the fish individual’s traits are still in small size-at-age and at earlier age-at-maturation in exploited fish populations. In this paper, we expressed our view of points that fishing gear has imposed selectiv-ity on fish populations and individuals as various other environmental factors have done and such changes are unrecoverable. Ac-cording to the existing tend of exploited fish individual’s life history traits, we suggested further researches in this field and provided better methods of fishery management and thereby fishery resources protection than those available early.

  19. Detection of salmonellae from fish in a natural river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, James; Wheeler, Phil E; Obafemi, Shola; Valdez, Jessica; Forstner, Michael R J; Bonner, Timothy H; Hahn, Dittmar

    2008-09-01

    Sediment, water, and fish gut samples taken at three sites near the headwaters of the San Marcos River, Texas, were analyzed for salmonellae Salmonella spp. by culture and molecular techniques. While enrichment cultures from sediment and water samples from the two uppermost sites were negative for salmonellae in polymerase chain reaction analyses, both sediment and water samples were positive at the downstream site. At all sites, salmonellae were present in the guts of different fishes (e.g., largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus). The highest percentage of detection (33% of analyzed fish) occurred at the downstream site, whereas detection percentages at the upper two sites were 18% and 17%. Detection of salmonellae was usually limited to one segment of the gut (i.e., upper or lower part). Serovars were highly variable among individuals and differed between the upper and lower gut in the only individual (a common carp) that had salmonellae in both gut segments. In situ hybridization demonstrated that salmonellae were normally associated with particulate material in the gut and occurred in highly variable numbers ranging from an occasional organism to a majority of the gut microbe population. These results demonstrate the presence of different serovars of potentially human pathogenic salmonellae among four ecologically distinct fishes within natural environments. They also suggest that salmonellae are not components of the indigenous microbial community in fish intestines but rather are ingested with particulate material.

  20. Fish Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  1. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring in Idaho, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, A.Douglas

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the progress of Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s fish health monitoring during the past five years and will serve as a completion report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. Anadromous fish at twelve IDFG facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed to anadromous fish prior to their release. A fish disease database has been developed and data is presently being entered. Alternate funding has been secured to continue fish health monitoring.

  2. Hybrid channel flow-type mechanisms in the Greater Himalayan Sequence (West Nepal): new constraints from vorticity of flow and quartz petrofabric analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassi, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Central Thrust is located ˜5 km structurally below the previous mapped locations. Deformation temperature increases up structural section from ˜450°C to ˜650°C and overlaps with peak metamorphic temperature indicating that penetrative shearing was responsible for the exhumation of the GHS occurred at "close" to peak metamorphic conditions. I interpreted the telescoping and the inversion of the paleo-isotherms at the base of the GHS as produced mainly by a sub-simple shearing (Wm = 0.88-1) pervasively distributed through the lower portion of the GHS. The results are consistent with hybrid channel flow-type models where the boundary between lower and upper portions of the GHS, broadly corresponding to the tectono-metamorphic discontinuity recently documented in west Nepal, represents the limit between buried material, affected by dominant simple shearing, and exhumed material affected by a general flow dominates by pure shearing. This interpretation is consistent with the recent models suggesting the simultaneous operation of channel flow- and critical wedge-type processes at different structural depth.

  3. 应用FISH-AFLP技术分析平欧杂种榛主栽品种的遗传关系%Analysis of the Genetic Relationship of the Main Cultivars of Ping’ou Hybrid Hazelnut (C. heterophylla×C. avellana) by FISH-AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马庆华; 陈新; 赵天田; 刘庆忠; 王贵禧

    2013-01-01

    [目的]建立平欧杂种榛FISH-AFLP技术体系,并应用该技术分析平欧杂种榛主栽品种的遗传关系。[方法]以达维等10个主栽品种为试材,经 DNA 提取、PstⅠ/MseⅠ双酶切,进行 FISH-AFLP 反应,数据转换为“0-1”矩阵后,使用NTSYS pc 2.11F和Popgene 1.32软件进行数据分析并作图。[结果]从64对引物中,筛选出15对多态性强的PstⅠ/MseⅠ引物,共获得1739条谱带,引物平均多态带比率97.94%;平欧杂种榛主栽品种的相似性系数为0.7556-0.8543,当阈值为0.8398时,可分成4个AFLP群,其中,玉坠(84-310)、辽榛4号(85-41)和平欧69号(84-69)单独为1群,其他品种为1群;平欧杂种榛主栽品种的有效等位基因数、基因多样度、Shannon信息指数分别为1.3921、0.2482和0.3957,具有较高的遗传多样性;研究获得的特征条带可用于平欧杂种榛主栽品种的快速鉴别。[结论]由于平欧杂种榛的实生选优群体是多亲本组合的混合后代,因此,该群体是一个具有高度遗传多样性的群体,主栽品种间存在复杂的亲缘关系;研究构建的FISH-AFLP技术流程、筛选得到的引物以及分析得到的各项遗传参数,可为其他榛属植物的相关研究提供参考。%[Objective]The objective of this study is to establish FISH-AFLP analysis system for Ping’ou hybrid hazelnut and analyze the genetic relationship of the main cultivars.[Method]Ten main cultivars, such as Dawei, were selected as materials. High-quality genomic DNA was extracted with improved CTAB method, and the purified DNA samples were digested with PstⅠ/MseⅠ. After ligation reaction, the samples were used to perform FISH-AFLP detection. The information of all bands was converted into“0-1”matrix. NTSYS pc 2.11F and Popgene 1.32 software were used to conduct the data analysis and plotting.[Result]The results showed that:15 PstⅠ/MseⅠ primer pairs were selected from 64

  4. Breaking the host range: mandarin fish is susceptible to a vesiculovirus derived from snakehead fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Wen, Yi; Hu, Xianqin; Wang, Wenwen; Liang, Xufang; Li, Jun; Vakharia, Vikram; Lin, Li

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Vesiculovirus, which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, can cause great economic loss in fish culture. In the present report, a vesiculovirus [named snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV)] was isolated from diseased hybrid snakehead fish. SHVV shared 94 % nucleotide sequence identity at the genomic level with Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV), which infects mandarin fish (S. chuatsi). We showed that SHVV was able to replicate and proliferate well in SSN-1 cells, which originate from striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus). Furthermore, mandarin fish was susceptible to SHVV by bath exposure, as well as by intraperitoneal injection. The infected fish showed typical clinical signs of rhabdovirus infection, including haemorrhage and oedema. Histopathological analysis revealed that extensive inflammation and necrosis were observed in the spleen, kidney, liver, heart and brain of the moribund mandarin fish. These results will shed new light on the epidemic of vesiculovirus infections among fish.

  5. Analysis and Experimental Implementation of a Heuristic Strategy for Onboard Energy Management of a Hybrid Solar Vehicle Analyse et expérimentation d’une stratégie heuristique pour la gestion d’énergie à bord d’un véhicule hybride solaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraggio G.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the simulation analysis and the experimental implementation of a Rule-Based (RB control strategy for on-board energy management of a Hybrid Solar Vehicle (HSV, consisting in a series hybrid electric vehicle assisted by photovoltaic panels. The RB strategy consists of two tasks: one external, which determines the final battery State of Charge (SOC to be reached at the end of the driving schedule to allow full exploitation of solar energy during parking phase; the other internal, whose aim is to define the optimal Electric Generator (ICE-EG power trajectory and SOC oscillation around the final value. This control strategy has been implemented in a real time NI® cRIO control unit, thus allowing to perform experimental tests for energy management validation on a real HSV prototype developed at the University of Salerno. Ce document présente l’analyse et la mise en oeuvre d’expérimentation de règles bases RB (Rule Base de stratégie de contrôle pour la gestion d’énergie à bord d’un véhicule hybride solaire HSV (Hybrid Solar Vehicle qui est constitué d’un véhicule hybride électrique fabriqué en série et alimenté par des panneaux photovoltaïques. La stratégie RB se compose de deux tâches : l’une externe, qui détermine l’état final de charge de la batterie (SOC, State of Charge qui doit être atteint à la fin du cycle de conduite pour permettre la pleine exploitation de l’énergie solaire pendant la phase de stationnement, l’autre interne, dont le but est de définir le générateur électrique optimal (ICEEG, Internal Combustion Engine – Electric Generator, la trajectoire de la puissance et l’oscillation du SOC autour de la valeur finale. Cette stratégie de contrôle a été mise en oeuvre en temps réel dans une unité de contrôle NI®cRIO (National Instruments compact RIO, permettant ainsi d’effectuer des essais expérimentaux pour la validation de la gestion d’énergie sur un

  6. Annual trends in catchability and fish stock assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Ulrich, Clara; Korsbrekke, K.;

    2003-01-01

    A key assumption of many fish stock assessment models is that catchability is constant over time. We assume here that trends in catchability may occur through fishing power creeping. The tuning fleets, which are prone to fishing power development, may be identified using the "Hybrid" method...

  7. Stability analyses of single arch in arch-reticulated shell hybrid steel structure of Beijing Jiangtai Winter Garden%北京将台花园拱壳杂交钢结构的单拱稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石永久; 高阳; 王元清; 施刚; 卢凯; 任景峰

    2013-01-01

    对于大跨度空间钢结构而言,整体稳定分析不可忽略.北京将台商务中心冬季花园采用网壳与拉索杂交结构,玻璃幕墙固定于拉索上.其中网壳部分由9榀空间钢拱和普通壳体杆件组成,可以看作拱壳杂交结构.本文选取了结构中跨度最长的单榀拱结构进行稳定分析,包括特征值屈曲分析及非线性全过程分析.结果表明,单拱的稳定承载力满足要求,非线性对单榀结构的稳定性能有较大影响.此外,尽管几何初始缺陷对弹性结构的稳定性能有一定影响,但对弹塑性结构的稳定性能影响不大.%Global stability analysis cannot be ignored for large-span spatial steel structures. Beijing Jiangtai Winter Garden adopts hybrid structure with latticed shell and vertical cables,on which glass curtain wall is fixed. Therein the reticulated shell is composed of 9 spatial arches and other common frames,thus it can be seen as arch-reticulated shell hybrid structure. This paper analyzed the stability of one single arch structure which has the longest span in the whole structure, including buckling analyses and non-linear full range analyses. The results showed that the stability of single arch met requirements, and the nonlinearity had great influence on the stability of single arch structure. Besides, although the initial geometric imperfection had certain effect on the elastic structure, it had little effect on the elasto-plastic one.

  8. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  9. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Patricia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Pacheco, Mario [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lourdes Pereira, M. [CICECO and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Mendo, Sonia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rotchell, Jeanette M., E-mail: J.Rotchell@sussex.ac.u [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  10. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  11. Analyses of the sediment toxicity of Monjolinho River, São Carlos, São Paulo State, Brazil, using survey, growth and gill morphology of two fish species (Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernanda Campagna

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of the sediments of the Monjolinho River (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brazil, through partial chronic toxicity bioassays with juveniles of D. rerio and P. reticulata. Histological analyses of the gills and biometric measurements were conducted to detect the possible deleterious effects that caused the death. In all points the sampled the alterations were found in the gills (hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellas and dilation of blood vessels, with the most intense lesions (second stage occurring at the point two. The biometric analysis pointed to inadequate conditions for the growth of the test-organisms when exposed to the sediment samples. These results showed that the conditions of these environments were not suitable for the survival and growth of these fishes.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a toxicidade dos sedimentos do rio Monjolinho (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brasil, por meio de bioensaios de toxicidade crônicos parciais com juvenis de D. rerio e P. reticulata. Foram realizadas análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos para detectar possíveis efeitos deletérios que antecedam a mortalidade. Em todos os pontos amostrados, foram verificadas alterações nas brânquias (hiperplasia, fusão de lamelas secundárias e dilatação de vasos sanguíneos, sendo no ponto dois foram encontradas lesões mais acentuadas (segundo estágio. A análise biométrica dos indivíduos expostos em amostras de sedimento demonstrou condições inadequadas para o crescimento e desenvolvimentos dos organismos-teste em todo o ambiente estudado. Os sedimentos apresentaram maior toxicidade no período chuvoso, sendo estes resultados confirmados por meio das análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos expostos, as quais demonstraram lesões mais acentuadas no mesmo período. Tal situação possivelmente decorre dos impactos antrópicos os quais o sistema está suscet

  12. Fishing TaSC Interacting Protein in Wheat Using Split Ubiquitin Yeast Two Hybrid System%利用分裂泛素酵母双杂交技术钓取小麦TaSC互作蛋白质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺芳芳; 杨旭; 武小翠; 刘晓梅; 葛荣朝; 赵宝存

    2013-01-01

      TaSC (Triticum asetivum L. salt-tolerance related gene, GenBank 登录号为 AY956330)是从小麦耐盐突变体RH8706-49中克隆的高盐诱导表达的耐盐相关基因.以该基因编码的蛋白质TaSC为诱饵,运用分裂泛素酵母双杂交技术从小麦 cDNA 表达文库中钓取互作蛋白质,筛选到一个编码小麦未知功能蛋白质的基因(GenBank 登录号为AK336035),命名为TaSCIP1(TaSC interaction protein 1).双分子荧光互补(BiFC)实验证实TaSCIP1与TaSC存在互作.该互作蛋白的分离有利于进一步研究TaSC基因的耐盐机制.%The TaSC (Triticum asetivum L. salt-tolerance related gene, GenBank accession number AY956330) has been cloned from wheat salt tolerant mutant RH 8706-49, which is induced by high salinity. To fish interacting proteins of this gene, we used TaSC protein as bait to hybrid with the wheat cDNA expression library using the split ubiquitin yeast two hybrid system in this experiment. A novel wheat gene (GenBank accession number AK336035) encoding a protein with unknown function was isolated, which was designated TaSCIP1 (TaSC interaction protein 1). Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiment con-firmed the interaction between proteins TaSCIP1 and TaSC. The separation of TaSC-interacting protein is beneficial to disclose the mechanism of salt tolerance gene TaSC.

  13. Suppression subtractive hybridization and its application to fish gene cloning%抑制消减杂交(SSH)及其在鱼类基因克隆中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程起群

    2004-01-01

    There are 10 percent to 15 percent genes expression in certain cells during the life time of fishes like other vertebrates. The genes were different at different development stage, under different physiological conditions, and in different kinds of cells. So comparing the differences of gene expression in different cells can help us understand the genetic nature of phenotypic differences, and understand the basic information of life period, and find the genes in relation to development and diseases, and finally benefit mankind. Several methods were developed to clone differential expression gene in recent years. They are subtractive hybridization (SH), differential display (DD),representional difference analysis (RDA), and so on. These methods all have postive influences on cloning special genes, but they all have some defects, such as higher false-positive, lower replication, lower sensitive and difficulty to manipulate. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was developed by Diatchenko et al in 1996. SSH was based on suppression PCR and combines normalization and subtraction in a single procedure. It is a more effective and convenient method than all others mentioned above. The principle and the rules of manipulation of SSH in detail was illuminated and the novel genes cloned by SSH was listed. They are immune related genes and reproduction and development related genes. The reproduction and development related genes are as follows: ZP3, Cyclin A2,CBI02, YA2, FSTRAP. The immune related genes are as follows: NKEF(natural killer enhancing factor), CC chemokine, CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR4, AIF-1(allograft inflammatory factor-1), IL-1β(inteleukin-1), FcεRIγ(γ submit of high affinity Fc receptor for IgE), SSA(serum amyloid A), LECT2 (leucocyte cell-derived hemotaxin 2), GMFβ(glia maturation factorβ), CD45, Lysozyme C, PBEF (Pre-B cell enhancing factor), C-type lectin,PTX(Pentraxin), IL-1RⅡ, IL-8-1ike CXC chemokine, TF(tissue factor), trout chemokine 2, TNF decoy

  14. In vitro concurrent endothelial and osteogenic commitment of adipose-derived stem cells and their genomical analyses through comparative genomic hybridization array: novel strategies to increase the successful engraftment of tissue-engineered bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Chiara; Bressan, Eriberto; Ferroni, Letizia; Nalesso, Elisa; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Stellini, Edoardo; Pinton, Paolo; Sivolella, Stefano; Zavan, Barbara

    2012-03-20

    In the field of tissue engineering, adult stem cells are increasingly recognized as an important tool for in vitro reconstructed tissue-engineered grafts. In the world of cell therapies, undoubtedly, mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow or adipose tissue are the most promising progenitors for tissue engineering applications. In this setting, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are generally similar to those derived from bone marrow and are most conveniently extracted from tissue removed by elective cosmetic liposuction procedures; they also show a great potential for endothelization. The aim of the present work was to investigate how the cocommitment into a vascular and bone phenotype of ASCs could be a useful tool for improving the in vitro and in vivo reconstruction of a vascularized bone graft. Human ASCs obtained from abdominoplasty procedures were loaded in a hydroxyapatite clinical-grade scaffold, codifferentiated, and tested for proliferation, cell distribution, and osteogenic and vasculogenic gene expression. The chromosomal stability of the cultures was investigated using the comparative genomic hybridization array for 3D cultures. ASC adhesion, distribution, proliferation, and gene expression not only demonstrated a full osteogenic and vasculogenic commitment in vitro and in vivo, but also showed that endothelization strongly improves their osteogenic commitment. In the end, genetic analyses confirmed that no genomical alteration in long-term in vitro culture of ASCs in 3D scaffolds occurs.

  15. Untangling the evolutionary history of a highly polymorphic species: introgressive hybridization and high genetic structure in the desert cichlid fish Herichtys minckleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Isabel S; Ornelas-Garcıa, Claudia Patricia; Leal-Cardin, Mariana; Ramírez, Tania; Barluenga, Marta

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the origin of biodiversity requires knowledge on the evolutionary processes that drive divergence and speciation, as well as on the processes constraining it. Intraspecific polymorphisms can provide insight into the mechanisms that generate and maintain phenotypic, behavioural and life history diversification, and can help us understand not only the processes that lead to speciation but also the processes that prevent local fixation of morphs. The 'desert cichlid' Herichtys minckleyi is a highly polymorphic species endemic to a biodiversity hotspot in northern Mexico, the Cuatro Ciénegas valley. This species is polymorphic in body shape and trophic apparatus, and eco-morphotypes coexist in small spring-fed lagoons across the valley. We investigated the genetic structure of these polymorphisms and their phylogeographic history by analysing the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA and 10 nuclear microsatellite markers in several populations from different sites and morphs. We found two very divergent mitochondrial lineages that most likely predate the closing of the valley and are not associated with morphotypes or sites. One of these lineages is also found in the sister species Herichthys cyanoguttatus. Data from neutral microsatellite markers suggest that most lagoons or drainages constitute their own genetic cluster with sympatric eco-morphotypes forming panmictic populations. Alternative mechanisms such as phenotypic plasticity and a few loci controlled traits provide possible explanations for the sympatric coexistence of discrete nonoverlapping eco-morphotypes with apparent lack of barriers to gene flow within multiple lagoons and drainages. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Protocols for Pachytene Chromosome and DNA Fiber FISH in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ren-hai; LING Jian; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become the most important technique in plant molecular cytogenetics research.FISH-based physical mapping provides a valuable complementary approach in genome sequeneing to measure the physical distances between adjacent BAC contigs and delineating the structure and DNA composition of genomic regions of centromere and telomere.The accuracy and precision of the FISH-base physical maps depend on the resolution power of FISH.

  17. Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C

    2014-07-01

    Vegetarian diets might affect the risk of cancer. The objective was to describe cancer incidence in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in a large sample in the United Kingdom. This was a pooled analysis of 2 prospective studies including 61,647 British men and women comprising 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, and 20,544 vegetarians (including 2246 vegans). Cancer incidence was followed through nationwide cancer registries. Cancer risk by vegetarian status was estimated by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. After an average follow-up of 14.9 y, there were 4998 incident cancers: 3275 in meat eaters (10.1%), 520 in fish eaters (6.0%), and 1203 in vegetarians (5.9%). There was significant heterogeneity between dietary groups in risks of the following cancers: stomach cancer [RRs (95% CIs) compared with meat eaters: 0.62 (0.27, 1.43) in fish eaters and 0.37 (0.19, 0.69) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.006], colorectal cancer [RRs (95% CIs): 0.66 (0.48, 0.92) in fish eaters and 1.03 (0.84, 1.26) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.033], cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue [RRs (95% CIs): 0.96 (0.70, 1.32) in fish eaters and 0.64 (0.49, 0.84) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.005], multiple myeloma [RRs (95% CIs): 0.77 (0.34, 1.76) in fish eaters and 0.23 (0.09, 0.59) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.010], and all sites combined [RRs (95% CIs): 0.88 (0.80, 0.97) in fish eaters and 0.88 (0.82, 0.95) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.0007]. In this British population, the risk of some cancers is lower in fish eaters and vegetarians than in meat eaters. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegans1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vegetarian diets might affect the risk of cancer. Objective: The objective was to describe cancer incidence in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in a large sample in the United Kingdom. Design: This was a pooled analysis of 2 prospective studies including 61,647 British men and women comprising 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, and 20,544 vegetarians (including 2246 vegans). Cancer incidence was followed through nationwide cancer registries. Cancer risk by vegetarian status was estimated by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results: After an average follow-up of 14.9 y, there were 4998 incident cancers: 3275 in meat eaters (10.1%), 520 in fish eaters (6.0%), and 1203 in vegetarians (5.9%). There was significant heterogeneity between dietary groups in risks of the following cancers: stomach cancer [RRs (95% CIs) compared with meat eaters: 0.62 (0.27, 1.43) in fish eaters and 0.37 (0.19, 0.69) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.006], colorectal cancer [RRs (95% CIs): 0.66 (0.48, 0.92) in fish eaters and 1.03 (0.84, 1.26) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.033], cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue [RRs (95% CIs): 0.96 (0.70, 1.32) in fish eaters and 0.64 (0.49, 0.84) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.005], multiple myeloma [RRs (95% CIs): 0.77 (0.34, 1.76) in fish eaters and 0.23 (0.09, 0.59) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.010], and all sites combined [RRs (95% CIs): 0.88 (0.80, 0.97) in fish eaters and 0.88 (0.82, 0.95) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.0007]. Conclusion: In this British population, the risk of some cancers is lower in fish eaters and vegetarians than in meat eaters. PMID:24898235

  19. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  20. Fluorescence in situ hybridization applications for super-resolution 3D structured illumination microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Yolanda; Smeets, Daniel; Cremer, Marion; Schermelleh, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization on three-dimensionally preserved cells (3D-FISH) is an efficient tool to analyze the subcellular localization and spatial arrangement of targeted DNA sequences and RNA transcripts at the single cell level. 3D reconstructions from serial optical sections obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) have long been considered the gold standard for 3D-FISH analyses. Recent super-resolution techniques circumvent the diffraction-limit of optical resolution and have defined a new state-of-the-art in bioimaging. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) represents one of these technologies. Notably, 3D-SIM renders an eightfold improved volumetric resolution over conventional imaging, and allows the simultaneous visualization of differently labeled target structures. These features make this approach highly attractive for the analysis of spatial relations and substructures of nuclear targets that escape detection by conventional light microscopy. Here, we focus on the application of 3D-SIM for the visualization of subnuclear 3D-FISH preparations. In comparison with conventional fluorescence microscopy, the quality of 3D-SIM data is dependent to a much greater extent on the optimal sample preparation, labeling and acquisition conditions. We describe typical problems encountered with super-resolution imaging of in situ hybridizations in mammalian tissue culture cells and provide optimized DNA-/(RNA)-FISH protocols including combinations with immunofluorescence staining (Immuno-FISH) and DNA replication labeling using click chemistry.

  1. Kvalitative analyser ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolsen, Merete Watt

    bogen forklarer de fundamentale trin i forskningsprocessen og applikerer dem på udvalgte kvalitative analyser: indholdsanalyse, Grounded Theory, argumentationsanalyse og diskursanalyse......bogen forklarer de fundamentale trin i forskningsprocessen og applikerer dem på udvalgte kvalitative analyser: indholdsanalyse, Grounded Theory, argumentationsanalyse og diskursanalyse...

  2. Chromosomal localization of rDNA genes and genomic organization of 5S rDNA in Oreochromis mossambicus, O. urolepis hornorum and their hybrid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hua Ping Zhu; Mai Xin Lu; Feng Ying Gao; Zhang Han Huang; Li Ping Yang; Jain Fang Gui

    2010-08-01

    In this study, classical and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in tilapia fishes, Oreochromis mossambicus (XX/XY sex determination system), O. urolepis hornorum (WZ/ZZ sex determination system) and their hybrid by crossing O. mossambicus female × O. u. hornorum male. An identical karyotype (($2n = 44$, NF (total number of chromosomal arms) = 50) was obtained from three examined tilapia samples. Genomic organization analysis of 5S rDNA revealed two different types of 5S rDNA sequences, 5S type I and 5S type II. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S rDNA probes showed six positive fluorescence signals on six chromosomes of all the analysed metaphases from the three tilapia samples. Subsequently, 45S rDNA probes were also prepared, and six positive fluorescence signals were observed on three chromosome pairs in all analysed metaphases of the three tilapia samples. The correlation between 45 rDNA localization and nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) was confirmed by silver nitrate staining in tilapia fishes. Further, different chromosomal localizations of 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA were verified by two different colour FISH probes. Briefly, the current data provide an insights for hybridization projects and breeding improvement of tilapias.

  3. Fighting fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  4. Quantitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of rearing environment, tilapia and common carp cultured in earthen ponds and inhibitory activity of its lactic acid bacteria on fish spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaktcham, Pierre Marie; Temgoua, Jules-Bocamdé; Ngoufack Zambou, François; Diaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Wacher, Carmen; Pérez-Chabela, María de Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bacterial load of water, Nile Tilapia and common Carp intestines from earthen ponds, isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and assess their antimicrobial activity against fish spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Following enumeration and isolation of microorganisms the antimicrobial activity of the LAB isolates was evaluated. Taxonomic identification of selected antagonistic LAB strains was assessed, followed by partial characterisation of their antimicrobial metabolites. Results showed that high counts (>4 log c.f.u ml(-1) or 8 log c.f.u g(-1)) of total aerobic bacteria were recorded in pond waters and fish intestines. The microbiota were also found to be dominated by Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. LAB isolates (5.60%) exhibited potent direct and extracellular antimicrobial activity against the host-derived and non host-derived spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. These antagonistic isolates were identified and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was found as the predominant (42.85%) specie. The strains displayed the ability to produce lactic, acetic, butyric, propionic and valeric acids. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative (Vibrio spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were produced by three L. lactis subsp. lactis strains. In this study, the LAB from the microbiota of fish and pond water showed potent antimicrobial activity against fish spoilage or pathogenic bacteria from the same host or ecological niche. The studied Cameroonian aquatic niche is an ideal source of antagonistic LAB that could be appropriate as new fish biopreservatives or disease control agents in aquaculture under tropical conditions in particular or worldwide in general.

  5. Recent Advances in Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 廸弘; Michihiro C., Yoshida; 北海道大学理学部附属動物染色体研究施設; Chromosome Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures that directly couple molecular and cytological information allow precise visualization of DNA sequences on metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei. These techniques can be used to identify chromosomes, detect chromosomal aberrations, and analyze linear and spetial genome organization. FISH procedures are also used to clinical fields for diagnosis of disease-related chromosome changes and tumor biology.

  6. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  7. Learning from Fish: Kinematics and Experimental Hydrodynamics for Roboticists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George V. Lauder; Peter G. A. Madden

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, experimental analyses of the biomechanics of locomotion in fishes have generated a number of key findings that are relevant to the construction of biomimetic fish robots. In this paper, we present 16 results from recent experimental research on the mechanics, kinematics, fluid dynamics, and control of fish locomotion that summarize recent work on fish biomechanics. The findings and principles that have emerged from biomechanical studies of fish locomotion provide important insights into the functional design of fishes and suggest specific design features relevant to construction of robotic fish-inspired vehicles that underlie the high locomotor performance exhibited by fishes.

  8. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  9. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  10. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  11. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  12. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  13. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  14. Comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis of Her-2/neu oncoprotein overexpression in breast cancer: HercepTest (Dako) for manual testing and Her-2/neuTest 4B5 (Ventana) for Ventana BenchMark automatic staining system with correlation to results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Doris; Heim, Sibylle; Werhan, Cedric; Zeindl-Eberhart, Evelyn; Kirchner, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Overexpression of Her-2/neu-oncoprotein is used as marker for Herceptin therapy. To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of automatic immunohistochemistry (Benchmark, Ventana), we compared the results to the manual testing (Dako) in 130 breast carcinomas and validated the results by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Manual and automatic immunohistochemistry of Her-2/neu-oncoprotein using two different antibodies (HercepTest, Her-2/neuTest 4B5) was analyzed. FISH was performed in all cases with uncertain or strong overexpression in either immunohistochemical stainings or with different immunohistochemical results. Same immunohistochemical results were seen in 73.8%. Two cases with overexpression, detected with Her-2/neuTest 4B5 and confirmed by FISH, showed no overexpression using HercepTest. From 21 cases with 2+ by Her-2/neuTest 4B5, 15 cases had no gene amplification (two of them with 3+ HercepTest); three cases showed a gene amplification (one of them with failing overexpression by HercepTest); two other cases were polysomic; one could not be analyzed. Ventana immunohistochemistry seems to be of same reliability like Dako with a little better concordance to FISH in our study.

  15. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES USING CLONAL ANALYSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱军; 薛永权; 虞斐; 吴亚芳; 潘金兰; 陆定伟

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of clonal analysis to the early diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Methods: Four types of clonal analyses were performed on the bone marrow samples from 50 patients suspected of MDS: (1) Conventional Cytogenetics (CC) for clonal chromosomal abnormalities; (2) BrdU-Sister Chromatid Differentiation (BrdU-SCD) for cell cycle kinetics; (3) Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) for trisomy 8; (4) Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) for N-ras mutation. Results: The diagnosis of forty-three patients was compatible with the FAB criteria for MDS. The other seven cases didn't meet the FAB criteria, with only one lineage of dyspoiesis or with no obvious dysplastic changes. Among these seven cases, two were morphologically diagnosed with suspicious refractory anemia, one with sideroblastic anemia, one with leukemoid reaction, one with hypercellular anemia and two with chronic aplastic anemia. Clonal analyses of the 7 patients showed that six cases had clonal karyotype abnormalities, four had prolonged cell cycle patterns, four had trisomy 8 of different proportions and one had mutation of the exon 1 of N-RAS. Thus, they were revaluated as MDS patients. Conclusion: The untypical MDS patients with one lineage dyspoiesis or without obvious dysplastic changes can be diagnosed early by combining multiple clonal analysis techniques such as CC, SCD, FISH and PCR-SSCR.

  16. Statistical modelling of fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine

    1999-01-01

    for modelling the dynamics of a fish population is suggested. A new approach is introduced to analyse the sources of variation in age composition data, which is one of the most important sources of information in the cohort based models for estimation of stock abundancies and mortalities. The approach combines...... and it is argued that an approach utilising stochastic differential equations might be advantagous in fish stoch assessments....

  17. Statistical modelling of fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine

    1999-01-01

    for modelling the dynamics of a fish population is suggested. A new approach is introduced to analyse the sources of variation in age composition data, which is one of the most important sources of information in the cohort based models for estimation of stock abundancies and mortalities. The approach combines...... and it is argued that an approach utilising stochastic differential equations might be advantagous in fish stoch assessments....

  18. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  19. Vitamin A intoxication from reef fish liver consumption in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewailly, E; Rouja, P; Schultz, E; Julien, P; Tucker, T

    2011-09-01

    We report three historical cases of severe vitamin A intoxication in anglers who had consumed reef fish liver caught in Bermuda. The subsequent analyses of 35 fish livers from seven different fish species revealed that very high concentrations of vitamin A exist in tropical fish liver, even in noncarnivorous fish species. Large variations in concentrations were observed between specimens and between species. The angling population and (especially) pregnant women should be advised of this potential health threat.

  20. BayFish: Bayesian inference of transcription dynamics from population snapshots of single-molecule RNA FISH in single cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariana Gomez-Schiavon; Liang-Fu Chen; Anne E West; Nicolas E Buchler

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) provides unparalleled resolution in the measurement of the abundance and localization of nascent and mature RNA transcripts in fixed, single cells...

  1. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  2. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  3. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  4. FISH detection of chromosome 15 deletions in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, I.; Chadwick, D.; Chitayat, D. [Hospital for Sick Children and Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-03-29

    We have evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for the clinical laboratory detection of the 15q11-q13 deletion seen in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) using probes for loci D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10, and GABRB3. In a series of 118 samples from patients referred for PWS or AS, 29 had deletions by FISH analysis. These included two brothers with a paternally transmitted deletion detectable with the probe for SNRPN only. G-banding analysis was less sensitive for deletion detection but useful in demonstrating other cytogenetic alterations in four cases. Methylation and CA-repeat analyses of 15q11-q13 were used to validate the FISH results. Clinical findings of patients with deletions were variable, ranging from newborns with hypotonia as the only presenting feature to children who were classically affected. We conclude that FISH analysis is a rapid and reliable method for detection of deletions within 15q11-q13 and whenever a deletion is found, FISH analysis of parental chromosomes should also be considered. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Analyses of the use of natural gas in solar power plants (CSP) hybridization in the Sao Francisco Basin (BA); Analise do uso de gas natural na hibridizacao de plantas termosolares (CSP) na Bacia do Sao Francisco (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagueta, Diego Cunha; Penafiel, Rafael Andres Soria; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Dutra, Ricardo M.; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) in Northeast, Brazil. It focused on parabolic trough solar power plants, which is the most mature CSP technology; and evaluated plants rated at 100 MWe, dry cooling systems (due to the low water availability in Northeast), and with and without hybridization based on natural gas (degree of hybridization varying from 25 to 75%). Hence, the capacity factor of the simulated plants hovered between 23 and 98%, according to the degree of hybridization and the choice of the thermodynamic cycle of the natural gas fueled thermal system: Rankine or combined cycle. The CSP plants were simulated at Bom Jesus da Lapa, in the semi-arid region of Bahia. Given the prospects for natural gas resources in the Sao Francisco Basin, different scenarios for the gas prices were tested. Moreover, two scenarios were tested for the cost of the CSP plants, one based on the current financial environment and the other based on incentive policies, such as fiscal incentives and loans. Findings show that while simple plants levelized costs (LCOE) hovered around 520 R$/MWh, for hybrid plants LCOE may reach 140 to 190 R$/MWh. Therefore, this study proposed incentive policies to promote the increasing investment in hybrid CSP plants. (author)

  6. An infertile case of 47,XYY syndrome without autistic spectrum: Cost effective well-define of extra Y chromosome by GTG, C bandings, QF-PCR and FISH analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özturk Özdemir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD was frequently reported in autosomal and sex chromosome abnormalities and limited findings pointed out the Y chromosome. In the current case, it was aimed to identify the genetic cause for a man without autism profiles using combined cytogenetic and molecular genetic techniques. Automated karyotype analysis was made after combined methods with GTG, C bandings, QF-PCR and FISH techniquesfor the current case. Additional Y chromosome was identified after conventional GTG and C-banded karyotype analysis. The current case of 47,XYY syndrome was reported due to without autistic profiles such as language and social impairment. The proband’s karyotype was determined as 47,XYY. No other numerical and/or structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in the karyotype analysis. Cytogenetic methods combined with cost-effective techniques such as C, GTG banding and FISH provide well-define of extra Y chromosome in the presented case of without autistic spectrum. Both Y chromosomes were in the same size and C-banded profiles in the current proband pointed out that both are originated from one chromosome by endoreduplication Y chromosome after zigot formation

  7. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, SF; Østerdal, ML; Salvig, JD

    2007-01-01

    )) from around week 20 (groups 1 and 2) or 6.3 g n-3 PUFA from week 33 (group 3). The control regimen was capsules with olive oil. Effect on timing of spontaneous delivery was examined by Cox regression, assuming elective delivery (occurring in 40%) as a censoring event. Analyses of effect of fish oil......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  8. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  9. Fish Vaccine Development and Use to Prevent Streptococcal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important pathogen of tilapia, hybrid striped bass and trout raised in intensive aquaculture is Streptococcus sp., a cause of severe economic losses in the fish farming industry. Infected fish experience severe to moderate mortality due to Streptococcus iniae and/or S. agalactiae. The diseased ...

  10. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  11. Population genomics reveals a possible history of backcrossing and recombination in the gynogenetic fish Poecilia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberici da Barbiano, Laura; Gompert, Zachariah; Aspbury, Andrea S; Gabor, Caitlin R; Nice, Chris C

    2013-08-20

    Unisexual sperm-dependent vertebrates are of hybrid origins, rare, and predicted to be short-lived as a result of several challenges arising from their mode of reproduction. In particular, because of a lack of recombination, clonal species are predicted to have a low potential to respond to natural selection. However, many unisexual sperm-dependent species persist, and assessing the genetic diversity present in these species is fundamental to understanding how they avoid extinction. We used population genomic methods to assess genotypic variation within the unisexual fish Poecilia formosa. Measures of admixture and population differentiation, as well as clustering analyses, indicate that the genomes of individuals of P. formosa are admixed and intermediate between Poecilia latipinna and Poecilia mexicana, consistent with the hypothesis of their hybrid origins. Bayesian genomic cline analyses indicate that about 12% of sampled loci exhibit patterns consistent with inheritance from only one parent. The estimation of observed heterozygosity clearly suggests that P. formosa is not comprised of direct descendants of a single nonrecombining asexual F1 hybrid individual. Additionally, the estimation of observed heterozygosity provides support for the hypothesis that the history of this unisexual species has included backcrossing with the parent species before the onset of gynogenesis. We also document high levels of variation among asexual individuals, which is attributable to recombination (historical or ongoing) and the accumulation of mutations. The high genetic variation suggests that this unisexual vertebrate has more potential to respond to natural selection than if they were frozen F1 hybrids.

  12. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed.

  13. Quantifying relative fishing impact on fish populations based on spatio-temporal overlap of fishing effort and stock density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    GAM analyses to predict local cod densities and combine this with spatio-temporal data of fishing effort based on VMS (Vessel Monitoring System). To quantify local fishing impact on the stock, retention probability of the gears is taken into account. The results indicate a substantial decline...

  14. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  15. COMPLIANCE STUDIES: WHAT ABOUT THE FISH?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Wagner, Katie A.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, M. B.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-08-21

    ABSTRACT It is understood that operational and structural conditions at hydroelectric facilities along with environmental conditions of the migration corridors affect the passage conditions for fish. Hydropower fish survival assessments at the individual- and population-level have progressed over the past decade with development of turbine simulation software and improvements in telemetry systems, in particular, micro-transmitters, cabled and autonomous receivers, and advanced statistical designs that provide precise estimates of passage routes and dam-passage survival. However, these approaches often ignore fish condition as a variable in passage and survival analyses. To account for fish condition effects on survival results, compliance statistical models often require increased numbers of tagged fish. For example, prior to and during migration, fish encounter numerous stressors (e.g., disease, predation, contact with structures, decompression events), all of which can cause physical and physiological stress, altering the probability of survival after passage through a dam or a series of dams. In addition, the effects of surgical transmitter implantation process or the transmitter itself may cause physiological stress, alter behavior, and/or decrease survival. Careful physiological evaluations can augment survival model assumptions, resultant data, and predictive scenarios. To exemplify this, surgeons concurrently noted fish condition and surgical implantation during a multi-dam compliance study in 2011. The analyses indicted that surgeon observations on fish condition and surgical outcomes were related to 24 h holding mortalities and fish that never detected after release. Short reach and long reach survival were related to surgical outcomes and fish condition, respectively.

  16. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  17. Introgressive hybridization in a trophically polymorphic cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, C Darrin; García-de-León, Francisco J

    2013-11-01

    Trophically polymorphic species could represent lineages that are rapidly diverging along an ecological axis or could phenotypically mark the collapse of species through introgressive hybridization. We investigated patterns of introgression between the trophically polymorphic cichlid fish Herichthys minckleyi and its relative H. cyanoguttatus using a combination of population genetics and species tree analyses. We first examined the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes within the alternative H. minckleyi pharyngeal jaw morphotypes that are endemic to the small desert valley of Cuatro Ciénegas. We recovered two clusters of mitochondrial haplotypes. The first contained a number of slightly differentiated cytochrome b (cytb) haplotypes that showed some phylogeographic signal and were present in both jaw morphotypes. The other haplotype was monomorphic, highly differentiated from the other cluster, present in equal frequencies in the morphotypes, and identical to H. cyanoguttatus haplotypes found outside Cuatro Ciénegas. Then, we investigated whether H. minckleyi individuals with the H. cyanoguttatus cytb were more evolutionarily similar to H. cyanoguttatus or other H. minckleyi using a species tree analysis of 84 nuclear loci. Both H. minckleyi pharyngeal morphotypes, regardless of their cytb haplotype, were quite distinct from H. cyanoguttatus. However, hybridization could be blurring subdivision within H. minckleyi as the alternative jaw morphotypes were not genetically distinct from one another. Accounting for introgression from H. cyanoguttatus will be essential to understand the evolution of the trophically polymorphic cichlid H. minckleyi.

  18. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish Squalius lucumonis and three other Italian leuciscines using chromosome banding and FISH with rDNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Anna Rita; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Tancioni, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish, Toscana stream chub Squalius lucumonis, were analysed using conventional banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 50) and karyotype characteristics including pericentromeric heterochromatic blocks and GC-rich CMA(3)-positive sites corresponding to both positive Ag-NORs and 45S rDNA loci on the short arms of a single medium-sized submetacentric chromosome pair were consistent with those found in most European leuciscine cyprinids. On other hand, 5S rDNA FISH in the Toscana stream chub and three other Italian leuciscines, S. squalus, Rutilus rubilio and Telestes muticellus, revealed a species-specific hybridization pattern, i.e. signals on four (S. lucumonis), three (S. squalus and R. rubilio) and two (T. muticellus) chromosome pairs. Whereas all the species shared the 5S rDNA loci on the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair, a "leuciscine" cytotaxonomic marker, S. lucumonis showed both classes of rDNA loci tandem aligned on the short arms of chromosome pair No. 12. The present findings suggest that the observed high variability of 5S rDNA loci provides a powerful tool for investigation of karyotype differentiation in karyologically conservative leuciscine fishes.

  19. Continuity and invariance in hybrid automata

    OpenAIRE

    Lygeros, John; Johansson, Karl H.; Simic, Slobodan; ZHANG, JUN; Sastry, Shankar

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid automata have been proposed as a language for modelling and analysing the interaction of digital and analogue dynamics in embedded computer systems. In the paper, hybrid automata are studied from a dynamical systems perspective. Extending earlier work on conditions for existence and uniqueness of executions of hybrid automata, we characterise a class of hybrid automata whose executions depend continuously on the initial state. The continuity conditions are subsequently used to derive a...

  20. Evaluación de los desechos de pescado frescos y ensilados en la alimentación de híbridos de Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus (Fresh fishing offals and silage evaluation for hybrid of Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llanes Iglesias, José E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe evaluó el uso de los desechos frescos de pescado y sus respectivos ensilados por vías biológica y bioquímica, como única fuente de proteína animal en dietas húmedas para alevines de híbridos de Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus (4,53+ 0,05g, las que fueron comparadas con un Alimento Comercial (20% de harina de desechos de pescado durante 60 días. Los resultados mostraron que los mejores indicadores de crecimiento y utilización de la proteína fueron obtenidos con los desechos frescos, los que difirieron significativamente (P85%, fue similar entre las dietas. Los ensilados y la harina de pescado no difirieron significativamente en los indicadores evaluados, siendo una alternativa para la producción de alimentos acuícola para países en vía de desarrollo. AbstractThis study evaluated the use of fresh fishes wastes and their respectives silages by biologic and quimic methodogies like only one source of animal protein in moist diets for hybrid of Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus (4,53+ 0,05g. These were compared with a comercial foods (20% of fish wastes meal, during 60 days. The results showed that better growth and use of protein were obtened with fresh waste, what were differed significatively (P<0.05, to silage and fish meal. Beside, the use of food conversión was similar between the diets. The silage and fish meal did not differ significatively in the indicators evaluated.

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR gene copy number (GCN correlates with clinical activity of irinotecan-cetuximab in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer: a fluorescence in situ (FISH and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scartozzi Mario

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background K-RAS wild type colorectal tumors show an improved response rate to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Nevertheless 70% to 40% of these patients still does not seem to benefit from this therapeutic approach. FISH EGFR GCN has been previously demonstrated to correlate with clinical outcome of colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. CISH also seemed able to provide accurate EGFR GCN information with the advantage of a simpler and reproducible technique involving immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Based on these findings we investigated the correlation between both FISH and CISH EGFR GCN and clinical outcome in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan-cetuximab. Methods Patients with advanced K-RAS wild-type, colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan-cetuximab after failure of irinotecan-based chemotherapy were eligible. A cut-off value for EGFR GCN of 2.6 and 2.12 for FISH and CISH respectively was derived from ROC curve analysis. Results Forty-four patients were available for analysis. We observed a partial remission in 9 (60% and 2 (9% cases with a FISH EGFR GCN ≥ 2.6 and Conclusion FISH and CISH EGFR GCN may both represent effective tools for a further patients selection in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab.

  2. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  3. Fish Immunoglobulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoof, Sara; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception. PMID:27879632

  4. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  5. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  6. Fluorescence in situ hybridization rapidly detects three different pathogenic bacteria in urinary tract infection samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Ming; Pan, Xiao P; Tang, Yong F

    2010-11-01

    The detection of pathogenic bacteria in urine is an important criterion for diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs). By using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rRNA-targeted, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes, bacterial pathogens present in urine samples were identified within 3-4 h. In this study, three probes that are specific for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus were designed based on the conserved 16S RNA sequences, whereas probe Eub338 broadly recognizes all bacteria. We collected a total of 1000 urine samples, and 325 of these samples tested positive for a UTI via traditional culturing techniques; additionally, all 325 of these samples tested positive with the Eub338 probe in FISH analysis. FISH analyses with species-specific probes were performed in parallel to the test the ability to differentiate among several pathogenic bacteria. The samples for these experiments included 76 E. coli infected samples, 32 E. faecalis infected samples and 9 S. aureus infected samples. Compared to conventional methods of bacterial identification, the FISH method produced positive results for >90% of the samples tested. FISH has the potential to become an extremely useful diagnostic tool for UTIs because it has a quick turnaround time and high accuracy.

  7. 荧光原位杂交技术在检测胎儿染色体亚显微结构异常中的应用%Application of the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on the prenatal diagnosis of the subtle chromosomal aberrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹爱华; 刘舒; 潘小英; 傅文婷; 王继成; 卢建; 杨洁霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic value of the fluorescent in situ hybridization on detection of subtle chromosomal aberrations in cultured amniotic fluid cells. Methods Amniocenteses were performed in a pregnant women of 18 gestational weeks, and metaphase FISH was followed because the results of amniotic fluid karyotype and ultrasound were disagree with each other. The metaphase chromosomes were hybridized in situ with the human centromere probes of chromosome 18,X,Y and site specific probe of chromosome 13,21. The treated slides were examined and taken photos under the carl zeiss fluoromicroscope. Result Subtle translocation of chromosome Y was detected by FISH. Conclusion Our result indicated that it is very helpful for the diagnosis of subtle chromosomal aberrations by combining FISH with traditional karyotype analysis.%目的 探讨荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术在诊断培养后的羊水细胞染色体亚显微结构异常中的应用价值.方法 对1例18孕周,经典细胞遗传学羊水染色体核型分析结果与B超检查结果有不符合的胎儿,应用FISH的18号、X、Y染色体着丝粒探针和13、21号染色体位点特异性探针,对培养后的羊水中期细胞标本进行检测.结果 共分析了22个独立细胞克隆的分裂象,发现胎儿染色体存在两种核型嵌合,结果记为:mos 45,X[20]/46,XY[2];FISH检测发现此胎儿核型存在Y染色体亚显微小片段易位.结论 FISH技术结合传统细胞遗传学核型分析,对于诊断染色体亚显微结构异常非常重要.

  8. Homoeologous chromosome pairing in the distant hybrid Alstroemeria aurea x A. inodora and the genome composition of its backcross derivatives determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with species-specific probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, S A; Ramanna, M S; de Jeu, M J; Kuipers, A G; Jacobsen, E

    1999-01-01

    A distant hybrid between two diploid species (2n = 2x = 16), Alstroemeria aurea and A. inodora, was investigated for homoeologous chromosome pairing, crossability with A. inodora and chromosome transmission to its BC1 offspring. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with two species-specific probes, A001-I (A. aurea specific) and D32-13 (A. inodora specific), was used to analyse chromosome pairing in the hybrid and the genome constitution of its BC1 progeny plants. High frequencies of associated chromosomes were observed in both genotypes of the F1 hybrid, A1P2-2 and A1P4. In the former, both univalents and bivalents were found at metaphase I, whereas the latter plant also showed tri- and quadrivalents. Based on the hybridization sites of DNA probes on the chromosomes of both parental species, it was established that hybrid A1P4 contains a reciprocal translocation between the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 8 of A. inodora. Despite regular homoeologous chromosome pairing in 30% of the pollen mother cells, both hybrids were highly sterile. They were backcrossed reciprocally with one of the parental species, A. inodora. Two days after pollination, embryo rescue was applied and, eventually, six BC1 progeny plants were obtained. Among these, two were aneuploids (2n = 2x + 1 = 17) and four were triploids (2n = 3x = 24). The aneuploid plants had originated when the interspecific hybrid was used as a female parent, indicating that n eggs were functional in the hybrid. In addition, 2n gametes were also functional in the hybrid, resulting in the four triploid BC1 plants. Of these four plants, three had received 2n pollen grains from the hybrid and one a 2n egg. Using FISH, homoeologous crossing over between the chromosomes of the two parental species in the hybrid was clearly detected in all BC1 plants. The relevance of these results for the process of introgression and the origin of n and 2n gametes are discussed.

  9. Investigation of Collective Behaviour and Electrocommunication in the Weakly Electric Fish, Mormyrus rume, through a biomimetic Robotic Dummy Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Elisa; Worm, Martin; Mintchev, Stefano; van der Wiel, Marleen; Benelli, Giovanni; von der Emde, Gerhard; Stefanini, Cesare

    2016-12-01

    A robotic fish has been developed to create a mixed bio-hybrid system made up of weakly electric fish and a mobile dummy fish. Weakly electric fish are capable of interacting with each other via sequences of self-generated electric signals during electrocommunication. Here we present the design of an artificial dummy fish, which is subsequently tested in behavioural experiments. The robot consists of two parts: a flexible tail that can move at different frequencies and amplitudes, performing a carangiform oscillation, and a rigid head containing the motor for the tail oscillation. The dummy fish mimics the weakly electric fish Mormyrus rume in morphology, size and electric signal generation. In order to study electrical interactions, the dummy fish is equipped with ten electrodes that record electric signals of nearby real fish and generate electric dipole fields around itself that are similar to those produced by real fish in both waveform and sequence. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that the dummy fish is able to recruit both single individuals and groups of M. rume from a shelter into an exposed area. The development of an artificial dummy fish may help to understand fundamental aspects of collective behaviour in weakly electric fish and the properties necessary to initiate and sustain it in closed-loop feedback experiments based on electrocommunication.

  10. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ji Hyoun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword – hence their common name “swordtails”. Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and – surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus. We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily. Results We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually

  11. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus) uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Hyoun; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-29

    Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword - hence their common name "swordtails". Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and - surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish) species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus). We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily. We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually selected sword trait is shown to be the most likely

  12. Analysis of Non-binary Hybrid LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Sassatelli, Lucile

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse asymptotically a new class of LDPC codes called Non-binary Hybrid LDPC codes, which has been recently introduced. We use density evolution techniques to derive a stability condition for hybrid LDPC codes, and prove their threshold behavior. We study this stability condition to conclude on asymptotic advantages of hybrid LDPC codes compared to their non-hybrid counterparts.

  13. Marine soundscape shaped by fishing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossent, Julie; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds. Analyses of associated fauna samples indicated that snapping shrimps provided a major contribution to the maerl bed soundscape. Moreover, sea urchins and squat lobsters most likely contributed to differences between the soundscapes of unfished and fished maerl beds. Our results supported the idea that the soundscape can provide valuable information on maerl bed ecosystem health related to fishing activity. PMID:28280559

  14. Fish locomotion: recent advances and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George V

    2015-01-01

    Research on fish locomotion has expanded greatly in recent years as new approaches have been brought to bear on a classical field of study. Detailed analyses of patterns of body and fin motion and the effects of these movements on water flow patterns have helped scientists understand the causes and effects of hydrodynamic patterns produced by swimming fish. Recent developments include the study of the center-of-mass motion of swimming fish and the use of volumetric imaging systems that allow three-dimensional instantaneous snapshots of wake flow patterns. The large numbers of swimming fish in the oceans and the vorticity present in fin and body wakes support the hypothesis that fish contribute significantly to the mixing of ocean waters. New developments in fish robotics have enhanced understanding of the physical principles underlying aquatic propulsion and allowed intriguing biological features, such as the structure of shark skin, to be studied in detail.

  15. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  16. Bounded hybrid superiority in an avian hybrid zone: effects of mate, diet, and habitat choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, T P; Ellis, J C; Annett, C A; Pierotti, R

    2000-10-01

    differences in hatching and fledging success, with females paired to hybrid males showing better success compared to females paired to glaucous-winged gull males. Hybrids showed better hatching and fledging success in the north because hybrids are more like western gulls than glaucous-winged gulls in foraging behavior, taking a higher percentage of fish in their diet, which enhances chick growth and survival. This is believed to be the first documentation of bounded hybrid superiority that delineates the mechanisms that underlie hybrid superiority.

  17. 75 FR 5626 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA INT-DES...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas...) announcing the commencement of work under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) on the Cle Elum Dam... upstream adult fish passage facilities at the dam, as well as analyses associated with the...

  18. Molecular cytogenetics of pituitary adenomas, assessed by FISH technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogeorgos, George

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) represents a moden molecular pathology technique, alternative to conventional cytogenetics (karyotyping). In addition to metaphase spreads, it can be applied directly to interphase nuclei. The latter makes the FISH technique powerful for pathologists for it integrates molecular genetics and classic cytogenetics and brings them together to a single framework for morphologic evaluation. Interphase FISH can be applied to imprints from fresh tissue or to paraffin sections after proteinase K digestion. Centromeric, telomeric and locus DNA-sequence specific probes can be used to identify aneuploidy or gene mutations. Several protocols combine molecular cytogenetics with classic karyotyping. Other sophisticated, FISH-based protocols have been introduced. Among them, comparative genomic hybridization is very important for it can detect non-balanced chromosomal aberrations of uncultured tumor cells and provide overall genomic information in a single experiment. This review presents the principles and applications of FISH technique for the investigation of the cytogenetic background of pituitary adenomas.

  19. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  20. 3-D Locomotion control for a biomimetic robot fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang ZHANG; Shuo WANG; Min TAN

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns with 3-D locomotion control methods for a biomimetic robot fish. The system architecture of the fish is firstly presented based on a physical model of carangiform fish. The robot fish has a flexible body, a rigid caudal fin and a pair of pectoral fins, driven by several servomotors. The motion control of the robot fish are then divided into speed control, orientation control, submerge control and transient motion control, corresponding algorithms are detailed respectively.Finally, experiments and analyses on a 4-1ink, radio-controlled robot fish prototype with 3-D locomotion show its good performance.

  1. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  2. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  3. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  4. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  5. 甘蓝型油菜与红菜薹的杂种及其后代遗传变异分析%Genetic Variation Analyses on Brassica napus×Purple-Caitai Hybrids and Their Backcross Progenies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亭亭; 徐跃进; 万正杰; 张艳

    2011-01-01

    Distant hybridization of a new kind of cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica napus (2n =4× =38) and Purple-Caitai was carried out. Purple-Caitai was used as the recurrent parent to continue backcross. Agronomic and quality traits of the hybrids and backcross progenies of Brassica napus × Purple-Caitai were analyzed. The results showed that the donor parent and the recipient parent e×hibited nucleus replacement,the values of agronomic traits and quality traits of hybridization and backcross progenies had a certain fluctuation and the higher the generation of material, the more similar to the recurrent parent, while the variation range of lower generation was wide.%本研究采用一种新型甘蓝型油菜细胞质雄性不育系(Eru CMS)(Brassica napus 2n=4x=38)与红菜薹(B.campestris L.ssp.chinensis L.var.utilis Tsen et Lee.2n=2x=20)进行远缘杂交,并以红菜薹为轮回亲本连续回交,对甘蓝型油菜细胞质雄性不育系与红菜薹的杂种一代及其回交后代进行植物学性状及品质性状调查测定.结果表明,供体亲本和受体亲本在回交转育过程中发生明显的核置换,其杂交及回交后代的农艺性状及品质性状出现波动,并且随着回交次数的增多,世代越高的材料越相似于轮回亲本红菜薹,而世代越低材料遗传变异范围更大.

  6. A combined RT-PCR and dot-blot hybridization method reveals the coexistence of SJNNV and RGNNV betanodavirus genotypes in wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, B; Cherif, N; Garcia-Rosado, E; Infante, C; Cano, I; Castro, D; Hammami, S; Borrego, J J; Alonso, M C

    2010-10-01

    To detect the possible coexistence of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotypes in a single fish, a methodology based on the combination of PCR amplification and blot hybridization has been developed and applied in this study. The degenerate primers designed for the PCR procedure target the T4 region within the capsid gene, resulting in the amplification of both genotypes. The subsequent hybridization of these amplification products with two different specific digoxigenin-labelled probes resulted in the identification of both genotypes separately. The application of the RT-PCR protocol to analyse blood samples from asymptomatic wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) specimens has shown a 46.87% of viral nervous necrosis virus carriers. The combination of RT-PCR and blot hybridization increases the detection rate up to 90.62%, and, in addition, it has shown the coexistence of both genotypes in 18 out of the 32 specimens analysed (56.25%). This study reports the coexistence of betanodaviruses belonging to two different genotypes (SJNNV and RGNNV) in wild fish specimens. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of SJNNV and RGNNV genotypes in the same specimen. This study also demonstrates a carrier state in this fish species for the first time. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-27) - Abbot Creek Fish Barrier Project (Hungry Horse Mitigation / Habitat Improvements)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarde, Richard [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-06-28

    BPA proposes to fund a fishery enhancement project where a fish passage barrier will be installed in Abbot Creek to remove introduced rainbow trout and prevent hybridization with westslope cutthroat trout. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) will operate a fish trap downstream of the barrier for 6-10 consecutive years to manually remove the rainbow trout and hybrid spawners from the population. Removal of rainbow trout and hybrids from the stream will eradicate the existing hybrid population spawning in Abbot Creek and ultimately reduce the threat of hybridization in the Flathead River system. Pending completion of a successful disease screening and authorization from MFWP Fish Health Committee, live fish captured in the fish trap will be transported to a nearby close-basin lake for use in MFWP’s Urban Fishing Program.

  8. Comet-FISH with rDNA probes for the analysis of mutagen-induced DNA damage in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Grabowska, Marta; Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Kolano, Bozena

    2012-06-01

    We used comet-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the model plant species Crepis capillaris following exposure of seedlings to maleic hydrazide (MH). FISH with 5S and 25S rDNA probes was applied to comets obtained under alkaline conditions to establish whether these DNA regions were preferentially involved in comet tail formation. MH treatment induced significant fragmentation of nuclear DNA and of rDNA loci. A 24-h post-treatment recovery period allowed a partial reversibility of MH-induced damage on nuclear and rDNA regions. Analyses of FISH signals demonstrated that rDNA sequences were always involved in tail formation and that 5S rDNA was more frequently present in the tail than 25S rDNA, regardless of treatment. The involvement of 25S rDNA in nucleolus formation and differences in chromatin structure between the two loci may explain the different susceptibility of the 25S and 5S rDNA regions to migrate into the tail. This work is the first report on the application of FISH to comet preparations from plants to analyze the distribution and repair of DNA damage within specific genomic regions after mutagenic treatment. Moreover, our work suggests that comet-FISH in plants may be a useful tool for environmental monitoring assessment.

  9. Fluorescent in situ hybridization as an adjunct to conventional cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, H F

    1994-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that exploits the availability of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology. In metaphase FISH, a specific nucleic acid sequence (probe) is bound to the homologous segment on a metaphase chromosome in a fixed preparation on a glass slide. The presence of a region-specific DNA sequence in a nondividing cell can be detected using interphase FISH. Interphase cytogenetics via FISH can be performed on fixed cells harvested during a routine culture, on tissue sections and on many cytologic specimens. Specific examples of clinical and research applications are discussed to illustrate the utility of FISH in the detection of constitutional and acquired chromosomal abnormalities.

  10. Fish mycobacteriosis (Tuberculosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.

  11. Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion: A case with equivocal cytogenetic findings resolved by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juyal, R.C.; Patel, P.I.; Greenberg, F. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-11

    The availability of markers for the 17p11.2 region has enabled the diagnosis of Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). SMS is typically associated with a discernible deletion of band 17p11.2 upon cytogenetic analysis at a resolution of 400-550 bands. We present a case that illustrates the importance of using FISH to confirm a cytogenetic diagnosis of del(17)(p11.2). Four independent cytogenetic analyses were performed with different conclusions. Results of low resolution analyses of amniocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes were apparently normal, while high resolution analyses of peripheral blood samples in two laboratories indicated mosaicism for del(17)(p11.2). FISH clearly demonstrated a 17p deletion on one chromosome of all peripheral blood cells analyzed and ruled out mosaicism unambiguously. The deletion was undetectable by flow cytometric quantitation of chromosomal DNA content, suggesting that it is less than 2 Mb. We conclude that FISH should be used to detect the SMS deletion when routine chromosome analysis fails to detect it and to verify mosaicism. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. No Fishing Now,More Fish Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishing ban for ecological purposes starts on the Pearl River Since April1,a two-month ban on fishing has been imposed on the Pearl River valley in south China.It is the first fishing ban in this area with the purpose of preserving biodiversity in China’s third longest

  13. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...

  14. 膀胱移行细胞癌各分期分级中荧光原位杂交检测敏感性比较%Evaluation on significance of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detection of bladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀红; 杜雨; 张道新; 田野

    2011-01-01

    Objective In order to look for a better non - invasive method for diagnosing bladder cancer, the fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ) technique had been applied in diagnosis of bladder cancer. Methods FISH and cytological analysis were performed simultaneously on urine - exfoliated cells from 138 patients with hematuria. Chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutation were determined by FISH with probes for chromosomes 3,7, 17 and pl6. The sensitivity of FISH and cytological examination in diagnosing transitional cell carcinoma of bladder was studied and compared. Results Big and irregular cell nuclei and position effect variegation were seen in some cells ( P < 0. 05 ). In stage Tl bladder cancer, the sensitivity of FISH and cytological analysis was 83 . 6 % and 31.3% respectively, while in stage T2 - T4 , their sensitivity was 100 % and 55. 6 % respectively. Their sensitivity was 36. 3 % and 9.1% respectively with grade Gl versus 95. 2 % and 42. 9 % respectively with grade G2, and the sensitivity was 100 % and 50 % respectively with grade G3 ( P < 0. 05 ) in a comparable manner. There was significant difference in total sensitivity for diagnosis and staging of transitional cell carcinoma of bladder between FISH and cytological examination ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion FISH is more sensitive than cytological examination, hence it may be applied as a valuable method for diagnosing transitional cell carcinoma of bladder.%目的 评价荧光原位杂交(FISH)在诊断膀胱移行细胞癌各分期分级中的敏感性.方法 应用荧光标记的3、7、17号染色体及p16基因探针检测138例血尿患者尿液中脱落细胞的染色体及基因畸变情况,根据诊断标准计算FISH诊断膀胱移行细胞癌的敏感性.同时留取上述患者尿液送病理科行尿找瘤细胞检查,并比较两种方法对膀胱移行细胞癌的诊断效能.结果 FISH图像中细胞核大且不规则者更易观察到染色体基因异常情况,并可见具有较多染

  15. Characterization of a very rare case of living ewe-buck hybrid using classical and molecular cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Knorr, Christoph; Perucatti, Angela; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Erhardt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The natural occurrence of live hybrid offsprings between sheep and goats has been documented in literature, however all the studies have reported the mating of goats with rams, whereas the reciprocal cross was never documented. This study reports on a very rare case of interspecies hybridization occurred between a ewe (2n = 54, XX) and a buck (2n = 60, XY). The hybrid, born in a German flock under natural conditions, is characterised by an intermediate karyotype (2n = 57, XX). The CBA-banding has shown 3 metacentric and 54 acrocentric chromosomes, whereas the GTG- and RBA-banding have revealed that the autosomes involved in the hybrid combination were CHI1, 3; CHI2, 8 and CHI5, 11 corresponding to the metacentric chromosomes OAR1, OAR2 and OAR3. A tri-colour FISH using chromosome paintings and BAC probes has validated this arrangement. A further FISH analysis has been carried out to analyse the telomeres, which showed a normal structure. Nucleolus organiser-bearing chromosomes were identified as pairs OAR1p(CHI3), OAR2q(CHI2), OAR3q(CHI5), OAR4(CHI4) and OAR25(CHI28), and nuclear associations were found. Sex chromosomes were correctly arranged. The odd number of the karyotype might be responsible for a reduced fertility as consequence of the incorrect chromosomal pairing and/or segregation during the meiosis. PMID:27698378

  16. The extent and position of homoeologous recombination in a distant hybrid of Alstroemeria: a molecular cytogenetic assessment of first generation backcross progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, S A; Kuipers, A G; De Jeu, M J; Ramanna, M S; Jacobsen, E

    1999-04-01

    To estimate the extent and position of homoeologous recombination during meiosis in an interspecific hybrid between two distantly related Alstroemeria species, the chromosome constitution of six first generation backcross (BC1) plants was analysed using sequential fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis. Four different probes were used for the FISH analysis: two species-specific and two rDNA probes. The six BC1 plants were obtained from crosses between the hybrid A. aurea x A. inodora with its parent A. inodora. GISH clearly identified all chromosomes of both parental genomes as well as recombinant chromosomes. The sequential GISH and FISH analysis enabled the accurate identification of all individual chromosomes in the BC1 plants, resulting in the construction of detailed karyotypes of the plants. The identification of the recombinant chromosomes provided evidence which chromosomes of the two species are homoeologous. Two of the BC1 plants were aneuploid (2n=2x+1=17) and four triploid (2n=3x=24), indicating that both n and 2n gametes were functional in the F1 hybrid. Using GISH, it was possible to estimate homeologous recombination in two different types of gametes in the F1 hyrid. The positions of the crossover points ranged from highly proximal to distal and the maximum number of crossover points per chromosome arm was three. Compared with the aneuploid plants, the triploid plants (which received 2n gametes) clearly possessed fewer crossovers per chromosome, indicating reduced chromosome pairing/recombination prior to the formation of the 2n gametes. Besides homeologous recombination, evidence was found for the presence of structural rearrangements (inversion and translocation) between the chromosomes of the parental species. The presence of the ancient translocation was confirmed through FISH analysis of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes.

  17. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  18. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the tissue detection of bacterial pathogens associated with porcine infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Jensen, Louise Kruse; Barington, Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    sequences within intact cells. FISH allows direct histological localization of the bacteria in the tissue and thereby a correlation between the infection and the histopathological changes present. This chapter presents protocols for FISH identification of bacterial pathogens in fixed deparaffinized tissue......Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an efficient technique for the identification of specific bacteria in tissue of both experimental and spontaneous infections. The method detects specific sequences of nucleic acids by hybridization of fluorescently labeled probes to complementary target...

  19. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for the Tissue Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Porcine Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvang Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Louise Kruse; Barington, Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    sequences within intact cells. FISH allows direct histological localization of the bacteria in the tissue and thereby a correlation between the infection and the histopathological changes present. This chapter presents protocols for FISH identification of bacterial pathogens in fixed deparaffinized tissue......Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an efficient technique for the identification of specific bacteria in tissue of both experimental and spontaneous infections. The method detects specific sequences of nucleic acids by hybridization of fluorescently labeled probes to complementary target...

  20. Isolation and characterization of 5S rDNA sequences in catfishes genome (Heptapteridae and Pseudopimelodidae): perspectives for rDNA studies in fish by C0t method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Juceli Gonzalez; Wolf, Ivan Rodrigo; de Moraes-Manécolo, Vivian Patrícia Oliveira; Bardella, Vanessa Belline; Ferracin, Lara Munique; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; da Rosa, Renata; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2016-12-01

    Sequences of 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are extensively used in fish cytogenomic studies, once they have a flexible organization at the chromosomal level, showing inter- and intra-specific variation in number and position in karyotypes. Sequences from the genome of Imparfinis schubarti (Heptapteridae) were isolated, aiming to understand the organization of 5S rDNA families in the fish genome. The isolation of 5S rDNA from the genome of I. schubarti was carried out by reassociation kinetics (C0t) and PCR amplification. The obtained sequences were cloned for the construction of a micro-library. The obtained clones were sequenced and hybridized in I. schubarti and Microglanis cottoides (Pseudopimelodidae) for chromosome mapping. An analysis of the sequence alignments with other fish groups was accomplished. Both methods were effective when using 5S rDNA for hybridization in I. schubarti genome. However, the C0t method enabled the use of a complete 5S rRNA gene, which was also successful in the hybridization of M. cottoides. Nevertheless, this gene was obtained only partially by PCR. The hybridization results and sequence analyses showed that intact 5S regions are more appropriate for the probe operation, due to conserved structure and motifs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the organization of multigene families in catfish's genomes.

  1. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  2. 型钢边缘构件-钢连梁焊接型混合连肢墙节点滞回性能有限元分析%FEM Analyses on Hysteretic Behavior of Steel Coupling Beam-column Connections with Steel Boundary Elements Welded in Hybrid Coupled Shear Wall Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 苏明周; 王丽; 李旭东

    2012-01-01

    The finite element analyses on hysteretic behavior of steel coupling beam-column connections with steel boundary elements welded in hybrid coupled shear wall system were performed by using the FEM software ABAQUS for numerical simulation,so as to obtain the seismic performance of hybrid coupled shear wall system under low cyclic loading.The results of the finite element analyses agree quite well with experimental results.Meanwhile,the finite element analysis results and experimental results all indicate that the hysteretic curve of connections in hybrid coupled wall is full,and the ductility factor and ultimate bearing capacity are high,which shows that this kind of connection has high seismic performance,and is suitable for using in the high-rise buildings in high-intensity earthquake areas.%通过利用ABAQUS有限元软件对型钢边缘构件-钢连梁焊接型混合连肢墙(HCW)节点滞回性能进行有限元分析,研究混合连肢墙在低周循环荷载作用下的抗震性能,并将有限元计算结果与试验结果进行了对比,吻合情况较好。同时,试验研究与有限元分析结果均表明:节点滞回曲线饱满,且延性系数及极限承载力较高,表明节点具有良好的抗震性能。

  3. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  4. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  5. Bacteriological Quality of Tilapia Fish from Treated Wastewater in Peri-Urban Areas, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, OJ; Mdegela, RH; Kusiluka, LJM

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess faecal bacterial contamination in tilapia fish from wastewater treatment ponds at Mzumbe and in pristine water in Mindu dam. Tilapia fish (fish flesh and fish intestines) and water samples were analysed for Escherichia coli and total plate count. The concentrat...

  6.   In situ identification of streptococci and other bacteria in initial dental biofilm by confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Kilian, Mogens; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has been employed as a method for studying intact natural biofilm. When combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) it is possible to analyze spatial relationships and changes of specific members of microbial populations over time. The aim...... of this study was to perform a systematic description of the pattern of initial dental biofilm formation by applying 16S rRNA- targeted oligonucleotide probes to the identification of streptococci and other bacteria, and to evaluate the usefulness of the combination of CLSM and FISH for structural studies......) and analysed by CLSM. The current approach of using FISH techniques enabled differentiation of streptococci from other bacteria and determination of their spatio-temporal organization. The presence of chimney-like multilayered microcolonies with different microbial compo- sitions demonstrated...

  7. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  8. Genome evolution in alpine oat-like grasses through homoploid hybridization and polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, Grit; Wölk, Alexandra; Röser, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization and polyploidization can radically impact genome organization from sequence level to chromosome structure. As a result, often in response to environmental change and species isolation, the development of novel traits can arise and will tend to result in the formation of homoploid or polyploid hybrid species. In this study we focus on evidence of hybridization and polyploidization by ascertaining the species parentage of the endemic alpine Helictotrichon parlatorei group. This group comprises five taxa; the diploids H. parlatorei, Helictotrichon setaceum subsp. setaceum and subsp. petzense, their putative hybrid Helictotrichon ×krischae and the hexaploid Helictotrichon sempervirens. For molecular analyses, cloned nuclear Topoisomerase VI genes of H. sempervirens and H. ×krischae were sequenced and compared with sequences of the diploids to estimate the evolutionary history in this group. In addition, detailed chromosome studies were carried out including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 45S ribosomal and satellite DNA probes, and fluorochrome staining with chromomycin and DAPI. Two distinct types of Topoisomerase VI sequences were identified. One of them (SET) occurs in both subspecies of H. setaceum, the other (PAR) in H. parlatorei. Both types were found in H. ×krischae and H. sempervirens Karyotypes of H. parlatorei and H. setaceum could be distinguished by chromosomes with a clearly differentiated banding pattern of ribosomal DNAs. Both patterns occurred in the hybrid H. ×krischae Hexaploid H. sempervirens shares karyotype features with diploid H. parlatorei, but lacks the expected chromosome characteristics of H. setaceum, possibly an example of beginning diploidization after polyploidization. The geographic origin of the putative parental species and their hybrids and the possible biogeographical spread through the Alps are discussed.

  9. Furan in canned sardines and other fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Celine; Crews, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-seven different samples of canned sardines and other fish sold in the United Kingdom were analysed for their furan content using a validated automated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure. All 37 samples contained detectable furan, with an average level of 26 μg kg(-1). The maximum furan content was in canned fish containing tomato sauce, which had an average of 49 μg kg(-1) and in canned fish packed with lemon which had an average of 55 μg kg(-1). All fish in brine or in oil contained less than 20 μg kg(-1) furan. Furan levels recorded in fish packed in extra virgin olive oil were low with an average of 2 μg kg(-1).

  10. Embryonic and genetic manipulation in fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fishes, the biggest and most diverse community in vertebrates are good experimental models for studies of cell and developmental biology by many favorable charac teristics. Nuclear transplantation in fish has been thor oughly studied in China since 1960s. Fish nuclei of em bryonic cells from different genera were transplanted into enucleated eggs generating nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrids of adults. Most importantly, nuclei of cultured goldfish kid ney cells had been reprogrammed in enucleated eggs to support embryogenesis and ontogenesis of a fertile fish. This was the first case of cloned fish with somatic cells. Based on the technique of microinjection, recombinant MThGH gene has been transferred into fish eggs and the first batch of transgenic fish were produced in 1984. The behavior of foreign gene was characterized and the onset of the foreign gene replication occurred between the blas tula to gastrula stages and random integration mainly oc curred at later stages of embryogenesis. This eventually led to the transgenlc mosaicism. The MThGH-transferred common carp enhanced growth rate by 2-4 times in the founder juveniles and doubled the body weight in the adults. The transgenic common carp were more efficient in utilizing dietary protein than the controls. An “all-fish” gene construct CAgcGH has been made by splicing the common carpβ-actin gene (CA) promoter onto the grass carp growth hormone gene (gcGH) coding sequence. The CAgcGH-transferred Yellow River Carp have also shown significantly fast-growth trait. Combination of techniques * Corresponding author, Fax: 0086-27-87876624 E-mail: zyzhu@ihb.ac.cn of fish cell culture, gene transformation with cultured cells and nuclear transplantation should be able to generate ho mogeneous strain of valuable transgenic fish to fulfil human requirement in 21st century.

  11. Fish populations surviving estrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Claus

    2014-02-10

    Among the most common pollutants that enter the environment after passing municipal wastewater treatment are estrogens, especially the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol that is used in oral contraceptives. Estrogens are potent endocrine disruptors at concentrations frequently observed in surface waters. However, new genetic analyses suggest that some fish populations can be self-sustaining even in heavily polluted waters. We now need to understand the basis of this tolerance.

  12. Establishment of a new human pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma cell line, FU-MFH-2: molecular cytogenetic characterization by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isayama Teruto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH is one of the most frequent malignant soft tissue tumors in adults. Despite the considerable amount of research on MFH cell lines, their characterization at a molecular cytogenetic level has not been extensively analyzed. Methods and results We established a new permanent human cell line, FU-MFH-2, from a metastatic pleomorphic MFH of a 72-year-old Japanese man, and applied multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH, Urovysion™ FISH, and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH for the characterization of chromosomal aberrations. FU-MFH-2 cells were spindle or polygonal in shape with oval nuclei, and were successfully maintained in vitro for over 80 passages. The histological features of heterotransplanted tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency mice were essentially the same as those of the original tumor. Cytogenetic and M-FISH analyses displayed a hypotriploid karyotype with numerous structural aberrations. Urovysion™ FISH revealed a homozygous deletion of the p16INK4A locus on chromosome band 9p21. CGH analysis showed a high-level amplification of 9q31-q34, gains of 1p12-p34.3, 2p21, 2q11.2-q21, 3p, 4p, 6q22-qter, 8p11.2, 8q11.2-q21.1, 9q21-qter, 11q13, 12q24, 15q21-qter, 16p13, 17, 20, and X, and losses of 1q43-qter, 4q32-qter, 5q14-q23, 7q32-qter, 8p21-pter, 8q23, 9p21-pter, 10p11.2-p13, and 10q11.2-q22. Conclusion The FU-MFH-2 cell line will be a particularly useful model for studying molecular pathogenesis of human pleomorphic MFH.

  13. 转基因水稻中外源基因的荧光原位杂交(FISH)分析%DETECTION AND ANALYSIS OF ALIEN GENES IN TRANSGENIC RICE BY FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金危危; 李霞; 李宗芸; 宁顺斌; 凌定厚; 宋运淳

    2001-01-01

    利用荧光原位杂交(FISH),在供试8个转基因水稻株系的染色体上检出了转入的外源基因barnase-ps1片段.其中两株系各检出了两个不同的信号位点,而其他株系均只检出一个信号位点.所有染色体着丝粒区都没有杂交信号.结合Southern杂交及表达分析发现,大多数株系中,整合在染色体端部区的barnase基因表现为高水平表达,而靠近着丝粒区的则表现为低水平表达,表明表达水平与转基因整合位置可能存在一定程度的相关性.表达水平与拷贝数无明显相关.本文还利用多色荧光原位杂交(Multi-color FISH)技术,进行了barnaseps1片段与报道基因pHctinG的共杂交,多数情况下,barnase-ps1片段与报道基因整合在染色体的同一位置.

  14. Using Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization to Diagnose Pallister-Killian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Na; Lee, Jiwon; Yu, Hee Joon; Lee, Jeehun; Kim, Sun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by isochromosome 12p and tissue-limited mosaic tetrasomy 12p. In this study, we diagnosed three pediatric patients who were suspicious of having PKS using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and FISH analyses performed on peripheral lymphocytes. Patients 1 and 2 presented with craniofacial dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and a developmental delay. Array CGH revealed two to three copies of 12p in patient 1 and three copies in patient 2. FISH analysis showed trisomy or tetrasomy 12p. Patient 3, who had clinical features comparable to those of patients 1 and 2, was diagnosed by using FISH analysis alone. Here, we report three patients with mosaic tetrasomy 12p. There have been only reported cases diagnosed by chromosome analysis and FISH analysis on skin fibroblast or amniotic fluid. To our knowledge, patient 1 was the first case diagnosed by using array CGH performed on peripheral lymphocytes in Korea.

  15. Differentiation of triticale cultivars through FISH karyotyping of their rye chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, Maia; Ferrari, María Rosa; Espert, Shirley Mary; Ferreira, Víctor; Grassi, Ezequiel; Greizerstein, Eduardo José; Poggio, Lidia

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to cytogenetically characterize triticale cultivars through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of their rye chromosomes. In the present work, we studied six cultivars of triticale ('Cayú-UNRC', 'Cumé-UNRC', 'Genú-UNRC', 'Ñinca-UNRC', 'Quiñé-UNRC', and 'Tizné-UNRC'), released by the Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto (UNRC), Córdoba, Argentina. The cultivars were obtained from the International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) and improved for fresh forage, haymaking, and feed grain at UNRC. The distribution and organization of highly repetitive DNA sequences of Secale cereale (pSc74, pSc200, pSc250, and pSc119.2) using FISH analyses revealed a specific localization of the signals for several rye chromosomes, which allowed us to distinguish the cultivars. Cluster analysis showed a great cytogenetic similarity among the rye cultivars used to originate these hybrids. The knowledge of the variability among triticale cultivars is necessary to propose future crosses in breeding programs. This study will also be valuable to identify commercial seeds and to analyze the possible association between agronomic characters and the presence of certain rye chromosomes or specific regions in these chromosomes.

  16. A Global View of Large-Scale Commercial Fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroodsma, D.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in big data processing and satellite technology, combined with the widespread adoption of Automatic Identification System (AIS) devices, now allow the monitoring of fishing activity at a global scale and in high resolution. We analyzed AIS data from more than 40,000 vessels from 2012-2015 to produce 0.1 degree global daily maps of apparent fishing effort. Vessels were matched to publically accessible fishing vessel registries and identified as fishing vessels through AIS Type 5 and Type 24 self-reported messages. Fishing vessels that broadcasted false locations in AIS data were excluded from the analysis. To model fishing pattern classification, a subset of fishing vessels were analyzed and specific movements were classified as "fishing" or "not fishing." A logistic regression model was fitted to these classifications using the following features: a vessel's average speed, the standard deviation of its speed, and the standard deviation of its course over a 12 hour time window. We then applied this model to the entire fishing vessel dataset and time normalized it to produce a global map of fishing hours. The resulting dataset allows for numerous new analyses. For instance, it can assist with monitoring apparent fishing activity in large pelagic marine protected areas and restricted gear use areas, or it can quantify how activity may be affected by seasonal or annual changes in biological productivity. This dataset is now published and freely available in Google's Earth Engine platform, available for researchers to answer a host of questions related to global fishing effort.

  17. APPLICATION OF RE-ESTABLISHING DOSE-RESPONSE CURVES BY FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION (FISH)%荧光原位杂交技术在剂量重建中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段志凯; 张淑贤; 郭万龙; 吴启庆; 郭鲜花; 时爱丽; 王斌生

    2008-01-01

    采用不同剂量60Co γ射线照射两名正常人外周血淋巴细胞后,应用荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术检测染色体易位率,并拟合出剂量效应关系曲线为:Y=0.01316+0.07569D+0.01583D2.通过盲法对实验结果验证,验证结果表明拟合的曲线可用于剂量重建.FISH技术用来检测染色体稳定性畸变,既快速又准确,适合于染色体易位的检测,有望成为剂量重建的理想技术方法.

  18. 荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术在转基因小鼠检测中的应用%Application of the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization in detecting transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建云; 邵伟娟; 潘漪清; 高诚

    2002-01-01

    制备转基因小鼠特有的DIG标记探针,应用染色体荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术,对转基因小鼠外周血细胞的遗传性状进行分析,检测其合子类型,以挑选纯合子小鼠用于保种.结果杂合型小鼠61%的细胞有一个荧光信号,而纯合型小鼠约24%的细胞有两个荧光信号,48%的细胞有一个荧光信号,野生型小鼠无荧光信号.因此染色体荧光原位杂交技术可作为检测转基因小鼠遗传特性的一种方法.

  19. Mercury and lead levels in fish of the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Thirty five fish were collected for analyses; 27 from the cast side and 8 from the west side. Samples contained representatives of four species; chain pickerel (Exos...

  20. Kinship analyses identify fish dispersal events on a temperate coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunter, C; Pascual, M; Garza, J C; Raventos, N; Macpherson, E

    2014-06-22

    Connectivity is crucial for the persistence and resilience of marine species, the establishment of networks of marine protected areas and the delineation of fishery management units. In the marine environment, understanding connectivity is still a major challenge, due to the technical difficulties of tracking larvae. Recently, parentage analysis has provided a means to address this question effectively. To be effective, this method requires limited adult movement and extensive sampling of parents, which is often not possible for marine species. An alternative approach that is less sensitive to constraints in parental movement and sampling could be the reconstruction of sibships. Here, we directly measure connectivity and larval dispersal in a temperate marine ecosystem through both analytical approaches. We use data from 178 single nucleotide polymorphism markers to perform parentage and sibship reconstruction of the black-faced blenny (Tripterygion delaisi) from an open coastline in the Mediterranean Sea. Parentage analysis revealed a decrease in dispersal success in the focal area over 1 km distance and approximately 6.5% of the juveniles were identified as self-recruits. Sibship reconstruction analysis found that, in general, full siblings did not recruit together to the same location, and that the largest distance between recruitment locations was much higher (11.5 km) than found for parent-offspring pairs (1.2 km). Direct measurements of dispersal are essential to understanding connectivity patterns in different marine habitats, and show the degree of self-replenishment and sustainability of populations of marine organisms. We demonstrate that sibship reconstruction allows direct measurements of dispersal and family structure in marine species while being more easily applied in those species for which the collection of the parental population is difficult or unfeasible.

  1. CLINICAL STUDY OF CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITY IN MISSED ABORTION TISSUE DETECTED BY FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION TECHNIQUE%FISH 技术检测稽留流产组织中染色体异常的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春珺; 于晶峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨稽留流产胎儿组织细胞中染色体异常总发生率及异常种类和各种异常的发生率。方法:采用18号、X 和 Y 染色体着丝粒探针及13、16、21、22号染色体单一序列探针,对105例稽留流产胎儿组织进行FISH 检测。结果:49.5%的稽留流产是由胎儿染色体异常引起的;染色体异常的前3位为三倍体,16号染色体三体,X 单体,分别占染色体异常总发生率的32.7%、15.4%和15.4%;高龄组(≥35岁)和非高龄组(0.05);妊娠≤12wk和妊娠>12wk者染色体异常率分别为60.9%和31.7%,差异有统计学意义(P0. 05). The detection rate of chromosomal abnormality in the cases of ≤12 gestational weeks was 60. 9%,while the detection rate of chromosomal abnormality in the cases of >12 gestational weeks was 31. 7%,there was significant difference(P<0. 05). Conclusion:Most missed abortion are caused by genetic gene defect, FISH technique can detect aborted fetuses, find chromosomal abnormality rapidly and accurately,provide data for genetic counseling of subsequent pregnancy.

  2. Genetic identification of F1 and post-F1 serrasalmid juvenile hybrids in Brazilian aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Teruo Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Juvenile fish trade monitoring is an important task on Brazilian fish farms. However, the identification of juvenile fish through morphological analysis is not feasible, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species individuals, making the monitoring of these individuals difficult. Hybrids can be erroneously identified as pure species in breeding facilities, which might reduce production on farms and negatively affect native populations due to escapes or stocking practices. In the present study, we used a multi-approach analysis (molecular and cytogenetic markers to identify juveniles of three serrasalmid species (Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus brachypomus and their hybrids in different stocks purchased from three seed producers in Brazil. The main findings of this study were the detection of intergenus backcrossing between the hybrid ♀ patinga (P. mesopotamicus×P. brachypomus×♂ C. macropomum and the occurrence of one hybrid triploid individual. This atypical specimen might result from automixis, a mechanism that produces unreduced gametes in some organisms. Moreover, molecular identification indicated that hybrid individuals are traded as pure species or other types of interspecific hybrids, particularly post-F1 individuals. These results show that serrasalmid fish genomes exhibit high genetic heterogeneity, and multi-approach methods and regulators could improve the surveillance of the production and trade of fish species and their hybrids, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of fish farming.

  3. Genetic population structure of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) supports the presence of multiple hybrid zones for marine fishes in the transition zone between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Nielsen, P.H.; Meldrup, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    Genetic population structure of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) in the Northeast Atlantic was investigated using eight highly variable microsatellite loci. In total 706 individuals from eight locations with temporal replicates were assayed, covering an area from the French Bay of Biscay...... Sea, suggesting high gene flow among populations in these areas. In contrast, there was a sharp cline in genetic differentiation going from the low saline Baltic Sea to the high saline North Sea. The data were explained best by two divergent populations connected by a hybrid zone; however......, a mechanical mixing model could not be ruled out. A significant part of the genetic variance could be ascribed to variation among years within locality. Nevertheless, the population structure was relatively stable over time, suggesting that the observed pattern of genetic differentiation is biologically...

  4. Umatilla - Rough Fish Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to enhance environmental conditions in the McCormack Slough on Umatilla NWR, the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and...

  5. Textbook of fish health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Post, George

    1987-01-01

    Written to fill the great need for a fish disease textbook for college students, this new edition contains the latest information and important discoveries related to those fish diseases that affect man economically...

  6. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which ...

  7. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  8. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  9. Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[k]fluoranthene in Some Processed Fish and Fish Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde S. Olatunji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concentration levels of the probable carcinogenic PAH fractions, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and benzo[k]fluoranthrene (BkF in fillets of some processed fish species were investigated. Fish species comprising Merluccius poli (hake, Tyrsites atun (snoek, Seriola lalandi (yellow-tail and Brama brama (angel fish were bought in fish shops at Gordon’s Bay, Western Cape, South Africa. The fish were gutted, filleted and prepared for edibility by frying, grilling and boiling. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from each homogenized fish sample, cleaned-up using solid phase extraction (SPE, and analysed for the PAH fractions, BaP and BkF using a Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. The sum of the two PAHs (∑2PAH i.e., BaP and BkF ranged between 0.56 and 1.46 µg/kg, in all boiled, grilled and fried fish species. The fried fish extracts showed significantly higher (p < 0.05 abundance of ∑2PAH, than grilled and boiled fish. Dietary safety and PAHs toxicity was also discussed.

  10. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish specie

  11. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish species consume medusae and some reasons to suspect that there are even more that do so, are discussed.

  12. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish

  13. FISH analysis in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettio, D.; Rizzi, N.; Giardino, D. [Centro Auxologico Italiano, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1995-03-27

    We report on a combined high resolution cytogenetic and fluorescent in situ hybridization study (FISH) on 15 Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and 14 Angelman syndrome (AS) patients. High resolution banding showed a microdeletion in the 15q11-q13 region in 7 out of 15 PWS patients, and FISH analysis of the D15S11 and SNRPN cosmids demonstrated absence of the critical region in three additional cases. Likewise 8 out of 14 AS patients were found to be deleted with FISH, using the GABRB3 specific cosmid, whereas only 4 of them had a cytogenetically detectable deletion. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. FISH and FICTION to detect chromosomal aberrations in lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giefing, Maciej; Siebert, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) is a powerful and robust technique allowing the visualization of target sequences like genes in interphase nuclei. It is widely used in routine diagnostics to identify cancer specific aberrations including lymphoma associated translocations or gene copy number changes in single tumor cells. By combining FISH with immunophenotyping-a technique called Fluorescence Immunophenotyping and Interphase Cytogenetic as a Tool for Investigation Of Neoplasia (FICTION)-it is moreover possible to identify a cell population of interest. Here we describe standard protocols for FISH and FICTION as used in our laboratory in diagnosis and research.

  15. COmbined Binary RAtio fluorescence in situ hybridiziation (COBRA-FISH): development and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, A K; Tanke, H J

    2006-01-01

    The ability to probe for the location of DNA sequences in morphologically preserved chromosomes and nuclei by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provided for cytogenetics a quantum leap forward in resolution and ease of detection of chromosomal aberrations. COBRA-FISH, an acronym for COmbined Binary RAtio-FISH is a multicolor FISH methodology, which enables recognition of all human chromosome arms on the basis of color, thus greatly facilitating cytogenetic analysis. It also permits gene and viral integration site mapping in the context of chromosome arm painting. Here we review the principle, practice and applications of COBRA-FISH.

  16. The results of cytogenetic analyses in prenatal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Privrodski Jadranka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. G-banding and other classical cytogenetic methods are still in use, together with molecular cytogenetic techniques such as FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and SKY (Spectral Karyotyping. Material and methods. This retrospective study evaluated clinical data on individuaols seeking genetic counseling over a 15-year period (1992 - 2007 at the Medical Genetic Center, Child and Youth Health Care Institute of Vojvodina in Novi Sad. The study included 37.191 genetic counselings, and 20.607 prenatal analyses (amniocentesis and cordocentesis. Results Over a 15-year period (1992 - 2007 17.937 amniotic fluid samples were analyzed and 274 abnormal karyotypes were found; out of 2.670 fetal blood samples, there were 78 abnormal karyotypes. During a 15-year period, prenatal diagnosis, using amniocentesis and/or cordocentesis, showed 352 fetuses with chromosomal aberrations. Discussion. On average, over the past 15-year period, 8% of pregnancies were controlled with invasive prenatal procedures. The percentage has changed; in fact, it is increasing from year to year. In 1992, only 0.82% (N=139/17000 of pregnant women in Vojvodina underwent invasive prenatal procedures, and in 2006 the rate increased to 15.65% (N=2660/17000. Conclusion. It is necessary to improve and promote the possibilities of genetic counseling and invasive prenatal diagnosis in order to prevent the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations and other genetic diseases.

  17. Analyses par diffraction de rayons X sur des revêtements barrières thermiques réalisés par un procédé hybride plasma-laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antou, G.; Hlawka, F.; Montavon, G.; Bach, M.; Cornet, A.; Coddet, C.

    2004-11-01

    Les revêtements barrières thermiques (BTs) constitués de zircone yttriée partiellement stabilisée (ZrO{2} + 7% en masse d'Y{2}O{3}) et d'une sous-couche métallique (MCrAlY où M représente une combinaison de nickel et de cobalt) sont extrêmement utilisés afin d'améliorer les performances des composants des parties chaudes des turbines à gaz. La projection plasma sous atmosphère ambiante et l'irradiation laser in situ (au moyen d'un laser à diodes) sont associés ici afin de modifier les caractéristiques structurales des BTs. Les phases présentes au sein de la BT ont un rôle important. Des analyses par diffraction de rayons X ont été menées pour étudier les changements de phase possibles après traitement laser. Aucun changement de phase n'a été remarqué : la phase tétragonale métastable (t') demeure la phase prépondérante aussi bien pour les dépôts projetés que les dépôts post-traités au laser et refondus in situ. La formation de cette phase semble être liée à la solidification et au refroidissement rapide découlant de la projection plasma ainsi que de la refusion laser. Ce résultat est prometteur, car :

  18. FISH applications for genomics and plant breeding strategies in tomato and other Solanaceous crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szinay, D.; Bai, Y.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jong, de J.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of advanced fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technologies for genomics and breeding of tomato and related Solanum species. The first part deals with the major determinants of FISH technology: (1) spatial resolution, which depends on the diffraction limit of the

  19. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  20. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  1. Fish under exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.

  2. Development and characterization of interspecific hybrids between Oryza sativa and O. latifolia by in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI ChuanDeng; TANG ShuZhu; ZHOU Yong; LIANG GuoHua; GONG ZhiYun; GU MingHong

    2008-01-01

    Oryza sativa and O. latifolia belong to the AA and CCDD genomes of Oryza, respectively. In this study, interspecific hybrids of these species were obtained using the embryo rescue technique. Hybrid pani-cle traits, such as long awns, small grain, exoteric large purple stigma, grain shattering and dispersed panicles, resemble that of the paternal parent, O. latifolia, whereas there is obvious heterosis in such respects as plant height, tillering ability and vegetative vigor. Chromosome pairing and the genomic components of the hybrid were subsequently investigated using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Based on the mitotic metaphase chromosome numbers of the root tips investigated, the hybrid is a triploid with 36 chromosomes. The genomic con-stitution of the hybrid is ACD. In the meiotic metaphase I of the hybrid pollen mother cell, poor chro-mosome pairing was identified and most of the chromosomes were univalent, which resulted in com-plete male sterility in the hybrid.

  3. Zoonoses associated with fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Shane

    2011-09-01

    The taxonomic group that composes the fishes is the most diverse group of vertebrates worldwide. The challenges of unique physiologies, a foreign environment, and many unknowns attract a passionate group of biologists and veterinarians. Economically, fishes have become vital as food, bait, and companion animals. Fishermen and fish handlers (processing plants) represent the historical human population exposed to fish zoonoses, but growth in aquaculture and aquarium hobbyists have led to an increase in published fish-borne zoonotic cases starting in the late 1950s that bloomed in the 1980s. Human physicians, particularly dermatologists and infectious disease specialists, are now more aware of fish-borne zoonoses, but they can be assisted with diagnosis when informed patients give more detailed histories with fish/water exposure.

  4. Impact of fishing on size composition and diversity of demersal fish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, G.; Gislason, Henrik; Graham, K.;

    2000-01-01

    . but particularly in high-latitude regions, we observe a decreasing trend in the slope, reflecting changes in size composition toward a relative decline in larger fish. The results from tropical regions are less conclusive, partly owing to the difficulty in obtaining consistent data series, but probably also......By analysing data sets from different world regions we add evidence to documented changes in demersal fish community structure that may be related to fishing. Changes are analysed by community properties that might be expected to capture relevant overall changes - size spectra slopes and intercepts...... because the generally higher growth rates of the constituent species make the slope less sensitive to changes in fishing. No evidence was found of any decline in species richness, while changes in diversity (richness and evenness) were caused either by changes in patterns of dominance or by changes...

  5. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  6. Population structure and adaptation in fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten

    Marine fishes represent a valuable resource for the global economy and food consumption. Accordingly, many species experience high levels of exploitation necessitating effective management plans. However, long term sustainability may be jeopardized from insufficient knowledge about intra-specific......Marine fishes represent a valuable resource for the global economy and food consumption. Accordingly, many species experience high levels of exploitation necessitating effective management plans. However, long term sustainability may be jeopardized from insufficient knowledge about intra......-specific population structure and adaptive divergence. The large population sizes and high migration rates common to most marine fishes impede the differentiating effect of genetic drift, having led to expectations of no population structure and that the occurrence of local adaptation should be rare in these species....... Comprehensive genetic analyses on the small pelagic fish European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) revealed significant population structure throughout its distribution with an overall pattern of reduced connectivity across environmental transition zones. Population structure reflected both historical separations over...

  7. Genome analysis of 7 Kengyilia (Triticeae Poaceae) species with FISH and GISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome composition of and genetic relationships among seven Kengyilia species were assessed using a technique of sequential FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Five of these 7 species, K. kokonorica, K. rigidula, K. hirsula, K. grandiglumis, and K. th...

  8. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  9. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  10. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  11. American Samoa ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set...

  12. 雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤及其他倍性鱼cdc2基因cDNA全序列克隆及表达%The cloning of cdc2 cDNAs and a comparative study of its expression in different ploidy fishes including the diploid gynogenetic hybrid of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶敏; 刘少军; 钟欢; 周毅; 宋灿; 张纯; 刘筠

    2013-01-01

    Cdc2(Cyclin Dependent Kinase,namely CDK1)encoded by cdc2 gene and CyclinB combination regulates G2/M transition. To find out molecular mechanism that diploid hybrid fish could produce diploid gamete,the full length cDNAs of cdcl in the third gynogenetic generation(G3) ,red crucian carp( Carassius auratus red var. ) ,triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid were obtained by PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Our data showed that all the cDNAs of cdcl gene in the four different ploidy fishes encode a protein of 302 amino acids containing a domain (PSTAVRE) which combine Cyclins. A high homology of 97. 6% of the Cdc2 protein can be drawn by comparing the amino acid sequences in these four fishes, which indicates the higher conservative function and evolution of Cdc2 protein in these four fishes. A comparative expression pattern of cdcl in early-stage gonads of G3 and different ploidy fishes was carried out by Realtime PCR using specific primers against the same sequences of coding regions in the four fishes. The results showed that the expression of cdcl in the ovary of G3 was higher than those of red crucian carp and triploid crucian carp, while lower than that of allotetraploid, which, at the molecular level, indicates existence of polyploid oogonia in early-stage gonads of G3. The higher expression of cdcl in G3 suggests that consecutive S-phase replication may occur without intervening mitosis, which might be related to the formation mechanisms for the diploid eggs generated by diploid hybrids.%为研究雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤产生二倍体卵子的分子机制,实验采用PCR和cDNA末端快速分离法,克隆获得了雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤第三代(G3)、二倍体红鲫、三倍体湘云鲫和四倍体鲫鲤的细胞周期相关基因——cdc2基因cDNA全序列.结果显示,4种不同倍性鱼cdc2基因均编码含有302个氨基酸蛋白,而且编码的蛋白都含有与其他CDK激酶相当保守的序列PSTAVRE;同源性分析发现,4

  13. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Katie E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos, an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu. Results We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey. Conclusion Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots". Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies.

  14. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane

  15. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  16. The effect of fish on plankton dynamics : a theoretical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Rinaldi, S.; Kuznetsov, Y.A.

    2000-01-01

    We present an expansion of a classical minimal Daphnia–algae model to account for effects of fish as a top predator. Our analyses suggest that in most situations, the plankton should show hysteresis in response to predation pressure by fish. Thus, there exist two distinct regimes, one in which

  17. Population distribution of 45S and 5S rDNA in golden mahseer, Tor putitora: population-specific FISH marker

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mamta Singh; Ravindra Kumar; N. S. Nagpure; Basdeo Kushwaha; Indra Mani; U. K. Chauhan; W. S. Lakra

    2009-12-01

    Chromosomal locations of major 45S and minor 5S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and organization of 5S rRNA genes were analysed in five different populations of golden mahseers (Tor putitora) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern blot hybridization. All five populations of T. putitora ($2n = 100$) showed a similar type of macro-karyotype composed of 12 metacentric, 22 submetacentric, 14 subtelocentric and 52 telocentric chromosomes. Analysis of active nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) by silver staining did not show any differences in number and chromosomal position in different populations. But FISH data showed significant difference between the populations, four of the five populations showed six 18S (three pairs) and two 5S (one pair) signals with positional polymorphism, while one population showed eight 18S and four 5S signals, respectively. Southern blot data confirms that 5S rDNA clusters present on two different chromosome pairs in Kosi river population contain non-transcribed spacers (NTS) of same length. In the present study, simultaneous localization of 45S and 5S rDNA by in situ hybridization helped us to develop the discrete population-specific markers in different geographically isolated populations of T. putitora.

  18. Mercury in canned fish from local markets in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tomas; Blahova, Jana; Sedlackova, Lenka; Kalina, Jiri; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2017-02-06

    The aim of this survey was to compare total mercury (THg) in canned fish in terms of species and fishing area. A number of 110 samples of canned fish, which were divided by fish species and fishing area, were analysed. The highest THg content in muscle tissue was found in the escolar. In other fish species, the highest level was detected in tuna. Mercury content in tuna differed significantly from mackerel, sardine, and sprat. Mercury content in herring differed significantly from sprat. The order of the fish according to their THg content corresponds to their status in the aquatic food chain. A significant difference was also found between fish caught from the closed Mediterranean and Black Sea and fish caught in the open oceans. In terms of THg content, the results of this study indicate good quality of various species of canned fish caught in worldwide locations.

  19. Characteristics of Marine Recreational Fishing in the anakkale Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. UNAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic and harvest impacts of Marine Recreational Fishing (MRF in Çanakkale Strait were analysed along with fishing policy, sociology and habits of fishers. Data sources included field survey data carried out along the entire length of the Çanakkale strait and policy information gathered from published sources. MRF policy is commendable, even in the fishing tourism sector, and is better developed than that in many other European countries. In Çanakkale, 9.9% of the population is recreational fishers. Recreational fishers are typically men (90%, primarily those between the ages of 25 and 49 yrs. The occupation of the recreational fishers ranged from self-employed (28%, students (28%, retired persons (22% and public employees (15%, to currently-unemployed persons (7%. An analysis of diel behaviour showed that most recreational fishers preferred fishing during the day (56.1%, while the evening was the next most preferred time for fishing (18%, followed by the night-time (9.8%, while a substantial number of recreational fishers (16.1% reported that they fished at any time of day. The most popular type of fishing was shore-based (68%, followed by boat-based (21%, and underwater fishing (11%. The mean daily fishing times were 6.07 h d-1, 6.18 h d-1 4.75 d-1 for boat-based, underwater and shore-based fishing, respectively. Summer and autumn were the preferred seasons for shore-based and underwater fishing, while autumn and winter were preferred for boat-based fishing. The highest Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE was observed for boat-based fishing (2.77 kg h-1, followed by underwater (0.97 kg h-1 and shore-based fishing (0.81 kg h-1. The catch composition included 51 species, though the catch composition of each fishing type was mostly comprised of only 3 or 4 species. The impact of the MRF harvest was high (30% of commercial fishing, particularly for bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix and picarel (Spicara smaris species. The economic impact of MRF was

  20. Characteristics of Marine Recreational Fishing in the anakkale Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. UNAL

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic and harvest impacts of Marine Recreational Fishing (MRF in Çanakkale Strait were analysed along with fishing policy, sociology and habits of fishers. Data sources included field survey data carried out along the entire length of the Çanakkale strait and policy information gathered from published sources. MRF policy is commendable, even in the fishing tourism sector, and is better developed than that in many other European countries. In Çanakkale, 9.9% of the population is recreational fishers. Recreational fishers are typically men (90%, primarily those between the ages of 25 and 49 yrs. The occupation of the recreational fishers ranged from self-employed (28%, students (28%, retired persons (22% and public employees (15%, to currently-unemployed persons (7%. An analysis of diel behaviour showed that most recreational fishers preferred fishing during the day (56.1%, while the evening was the next most preferred time for fishing (18%, followed by the night-time (9.8%, while a substantial number of recreational fishers (16.1% reported that they fished at any time of day. The most popular type of fishing was shore-based (68%, followed by boat-based (21%, and underwater fishing (11%. The mean daily fishing times were 6.07 h d-1, 6.18 h d-1 4.75 d-1 for boat-based, underwater and shore-based fishing, respectively. Summer and autumn were the preferred seasons for shore-based and underwater fishing, while autumn and winter were preferred for boat-based fishing. The highest Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE was observed for boat-based fishing (2.77 kg h-1, followed by underwater (0.97 kg h-1 and shore-based fishing (0.81 kg h-1. The catch composition included 51 species, though the catch composition of each fishing type was mostly comprised of only 3 or 4 species. The impact of the MRF harvest was high (30% of commercial fishing, particularly for bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix and picarel (Spicara smaris species. The economic impact of MRF was

  1. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  2. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  3. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...

  4. Do Fish Sleep?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Most fish can’t shut their eyes, so it’s easy to think they don’t sleep. But that’s like assuming humans don’t sleep because we can’t shut our ears to drown out sound. In fact, many species of fish take time out during the day or (more often) at night to enter a sleeplike stage. Some of these fish float in place, others lie on the bottom。

  5. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  6. Combining fluorescent in situ hybridization data with ISS staging improves risk assessment in myeloma: an International Myeloma Working Group collaborative project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, H; Durie, B G M; Cavo, M; Attal, M; Gutierrez, N; Haessler, J; Goldschmidt, H; Hajek, R; Lee, J H; Sezer, O; Barlogie, B; Crowley, J; Fonseca, R; Testoni, N; Ross, F; Rajkumar, S V; Sonneveld, P; Lahuerta, J; Moreau, P; Morgan, G

    2013-03-01

    The combination of serum β2-microglobulin and albumin levels has been shown to be highly prognostic in myeloma as the International Staging System (ISS). The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of ISS stage and cytogenetic abnormalities in predicting outcomes. A retrospective analysis of international studies looking at both ISS and cytogenetic abnormalities was performed in order to assess the potential role of combining ISS stage and cytogenetics to predict survival. This international effort used the International Myeloma Working Group database of 12 137 patients treated worldwide for myeloma at diagnosis, of whom 2309 had cytogenetic studies and 5387 had analyses by fluorescent in situ hybridization (iFISH). Comprehensive analyses used 2642 patients with sufficient iFISH data available. Using the comprehensive iFISH data, combining both t(4;14) and deletion (17p), along with ISS stage, significantly improved the prognostic assessment in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival. The additional impact of patient age and use of high-dose therapy was also demonstrated. In conclusion, the combination of iFISH data with ISS staging significantly improves risk assessment in myeloma.

  7. Combining fluorescent in situ hybridization data with ISS staging improves risk assessment in myeloma: an International Myeloma Working Group collaborative project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, H; Durie, BGM; Cavo, M; Attal, M; Gutierrez, N; Haessler, J; Goldschmidt, H; Hajek, R; Lee, JH; Sezer, O; Barlogie, B; Crowley, J; Fonseca, R; Testoni, N; Ross, F; Rajkumar, SV; Sonneveld, P; Lahuerta, J; Moreau, P; Morgan, G

    2014-01-01

    The combination of serum β2-microglobulin and albumin levels has been shown to be highly prognostic in myeloma as the International Staging System (ISS). The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of ISS stage and cytogenetic abnormalities in predicting outcomes. A retrospective analysis of international studies looking at both ISS and cytogenetic abnormalities was performed in order to assess the potential role of combining ISS stage and cytogenetics to predict survival. This international effort used the International Myeloma Working Group database of 12 137 patients treated worldwide for myeloma at diagnosis, of whom 2309 had cytogenetic studies and 5387 had analyses by fluorescent in situ hybridization (iFISH). Comprehensive analyses used 2642 patients with sufficient iFISH data available. Using the comprehensive iFISH data, combining both t(4;14) and deletion (17p), along with ISS stage, significantly improved the prognostic assessment in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival. The additional impact of patient age and use of high-dose therapy was also demonstrated. In conclusion, the combination of iFISH data with ISS staging significantly improves risk assessment in myeloma. PMID:23032723

  8. Combating Illegal Fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Stanciu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing is a worldwide phenomenon. Its extent and its environmental,economic and social consequences are such that it has become a priority issue at international level. IUU fishingcontributes to the depletion of fish stocks and jeopardises protection and recovery measures put in place to ensure theviability of resources. It represents unfair competition for those who exploit fish resources legally. The Commissionhave been involved in the fight against IUU fishing for over a decade and in 2002 the Commission adopted an ActionPlan against IUU fishing inspired by the FAOs International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate IUUfishing of 2001. However, despite regional and international efforts to stop IUU fishing the phenomenon is still agrowing problem and as a result, the European Community intensified its action towards IUU fishing by launching aconsultation process in 2007. A Proposal to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing was adopted in October 2007and a Regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing was adopted on 29September 2008, after a unanimous political agreement.

  9. Anglers' fishing problem

    CERN Document Server

    Karpowicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The considered model will be formulated as related to "the fishing problem" even if the other applications of it are much more obvious. The angler goes fishing. He uses various techniques and he has at most two fishing rods. He buys a fishing ticket for a fixed time. The fishes are caught with the use of different methods according to the renewal processes. The fishes' value and the inter arrival times are given by the sequences of independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with the known distribution functions. It forms the marked renewal--reward process. The angler's measure of satisfaction is given by the difference between the utility function, depending on the value of the fishes caught, and the cost function connected with the time of fishing. In this way, the angler's relative opinion about the methods of fishing is modelled. The angler's aim is to have as much satisfaction as possible and additionally he has to leave the lake before a fixed moment. Therefore his goal is to find two...

  10. Of Fish and Micrornas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower...... to the mechanisms of control of gene expression, impacting a broad range of biological processes. Thus far, >25, 000 miRNA sequences have been identified in 193 species, including fish. In fish, the interest on miRNAs started with the analysis of their expression and function during embryonic development. In our...... selection markers to identify disease-resistant fish....

  11. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  12. Nutritive value of fish meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M.E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the variations in the chemical composition of different types of fish meal available in the metropolitan areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Fifteen different types of fish meal samples were collected from study areas. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extract (NFE, ether extract (EE and total ash (TA in the animal nutrition and poultry research and training centre (PRTC laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Metabolizable energy (ME was estimated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, DM, CP, NFE, EE, TA and ME content significantly differed (P0.05 variation was found in the CF contents of the samples. DM content varied from 86.7 to 96.7%, CP content varied from 31.3 to 61.2%, EE content varied from 0.8 to 23.5%, NFE content varied from 0.6 to 14.6%, Ash content varied from 13.3 to 36.7% and ME content varied from 1788.4 to 3478.8 kcal/kg. It could therefore be inferred that, the chemical composition of fish meal available in the local market are widely variable. Therefore, every sample needs to be analyzed before use for ration formulation.

  13. Technological exploration of BAC-FISH on mitotic chromosomes of maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng TAO; Zuxin ZHANG; Yonglin CHEN; Lijia LI; Yonglian ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    The rice BAC-DNA was used as probes and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to the interphase and metaphase mitotic chromosomes of maize. To optimize the BAC-FISH technique, we respect-ively assayed the effect of several factors, including maize or rice genomic Cot DNA used as blocking reagent of DNA, washing temperatures and FAD concentration in the washing buffer and in the hybrid solution. The results show that Cot DNA of maize genome blocked the repet-itive sequence of the rice BAC-DNA when the Cot value was below 50. Meanwhile, it was necessary to adjust the Cot value according to the different probes and their ratios. Decreasing the concentration of FAD in the hybridization mixtures, adjusting the washing rate after hybridization, and most especially, blocking the rice-specific repetitive sequences of BAC-DNA could improve the positive signals of BAC-FISH.

  14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) to mitotic heterochromatin of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Maria Carmela; Dimitri, Patrizio

    2010-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic chromosomes into euchromatin and heterochromatin represents an enigmatic aspect of genome evolution. Constitutive heterochromatin is a basic, yet still poorly understood component of eukaryotic genomes and its molecular characterization by means of standard genomic approaches is intrinsically difficult. Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes do not seem to be particularly useful to map heterochromatin sequences because the typical features of heterochromatin, organized as it is into a chromocenter, limit cytogenetic analysis. In contrast, constitutive heterochromatin has been well-defined at the cytological level in mitotic chromosomes of neuroblasts and has been subdivided into several bands with differential staining properties. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) probes that carry large genomic portions defined by sequence annotation has yielded a "revolution" in the field of cytogenetics because it has allowed the mapping of multiple genes at once, thus rendering constitutive heterochromatin amenable to easy and fast cytogenetics analyses. Indeed, BAC-based FISH approaches on Drosophila mitotic chromosomes have made it possible to correlate genomic sequences to their cytogenetic location, aiming to build an integrated map of the pericentric heterochromatin. This chapter presents our standard protocols for BAC-based FISH, aimed at mapping large chromosomal regions of mitotic heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster.

  15. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  16. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  17. Expression analyses identify MLL as a prominent target of 11q23 amplification and support an etiologic role for MLL gain of function in myeloid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Bruce; Vandesompele, Jo; Schoch, Claudia; Lindvall, Charlotta; Mrozek, Krzysztof; Bloomfield, Clara D; Beverloo, H Berna; Michaux, Lucienne; Dastugue, Nicole; Herens, Christian; Yigit, Nurten; De Paepe, Anne; Hagemeijer, Anne; Speleman, Frank

    2004-01-01

    MLL amplification was recently recognized as a recurrent aberration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodys-plastic syndrome (MDS), associated with adverse prognosis and karyotype complexity. Here we present detailed results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and expression analyses of MLL and 5 selected 11q candidate oncogenes (CBL, DDX6, ETS1, FLI1, and PLZF) in 31 patient samples and one cell line with 11q23 gain. FISH analyses revealed that the 11q23 amplicon invariably encompassed MLL, DDX6, ETS1, and FLI1, whereas expression analyses identified MLL and DDX6 as the most differentially expressed genes among samples with and without 11q23 copy gain or amplification. In MLL-amplified samples, a significant transcriptional up-regulation of MEIS1, PROML1, ADAM10, NKG2D, and ITPA was noted. Further analyses, designed to elucidate a possible role of the 11q overexpressed genes (MLL, DDX6, FLI1, and ETS1) in unselected MDS and AML samples, revealed a significant upregulation of MLL in MDS. Our findings confirm the MLL gene as a prominent target of 11q23 amplification and provide further evidence for an etiologic role for MLL gain of function in myeloid malignancies. In addition, our results indicate that the transcriptional program associated with MLL rearrangements and MLL overexpression displays significant similarities.

  18. Price effects of changing quantities supplied at the integrated european fish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Smit, Jos; Guillen, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the effect that changes in the quantities supplied from EU fish stocks have on fish prices. As opposed to earlier studies, this one is European- wide, taking international market integration into account. Average own-price flexibilities for fresh captured fish are found...

  19. Trophic behaviour of juvenile reef fishes inhabiting interlinked mangrove-seagrass habitats in offshore mangrove islets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangroves are essential fish habitats acting as shelters and nurseries, but the relative contribution of mangrove resources to fish diets relies on site-specific context and fish life history stage. Stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) and gut-content analyses were used to investigate siz...

  20. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Changwang; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by \\textit{local spreading}, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and \\textit{global spreading}, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. In a metapopulation, made up of many weakly connected subpopulations, we show that one can calculate an optimal tradeoff between local and global spreading which will maximise the extent of the epidemic. As an example we analyse the 2008 outbreak of the Internet worm Conficker, which uses hybrid spreading to propagate through the internet. Our results suggests that the worm would have been eve...

  1. [Investigation of 1q21 amplification in patients with multiple myeloma using I-FISH and cIg-FISH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-fang; Li, Chun-ming; Qiu, Hai-rong; Lu, Hua; Wu, Han-xin; Xu, Jia-ren; Zhang, Peng; Li, Jian-yong; Chen, Li-juan

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the prevlance of 1q21 amplification in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and its correlation with the progression and prognosis of the disease. 1q21 amplification was detected in 48 patients with MM using cytoplasmic light chain immunofluorescence with fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (cIg-FISH) and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) analysis combined with CD138 immunomagnetic cell sorting (MACS). 1q21 amplification (≥ 3 red signals) was detected in 26/48(54.2%) cases by cIg-FISH and 31/48 (64.6%) cases by I-FISH combined with CD138 MACS. There was a good consistency between the two methods (P>0.05). The mortality of patients with 1q21 amplification was significantly higher than those without (P0.05). The frequency of 1q21 amplification in MM is high. There was also an association between the amplification and poor prognosis. cIg-FISH is consistent with CD138 MACS combined with I-FISH.

  2. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  3. Fish Springs NWR mammal, fish, amphibian, and reptile list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a species list for mammals, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles found on or adjacent to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, as of October, 1996.

  4. Chromosomal imbalances detected in primary bone tumors by comparative genomic hybridization and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Baruffi Marcelo Razera; Engel Edgard Edward; Squire Jeremy Andrew; Tone Luis Gonzaga; Rogatto Silvia Regina

    2003-01-01

    We applied a combination of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to characterize the genetic aberrations in three osteosarcomas (OS) and one Ewing's sarcoma. CGH identified recurrent chromosomal losses at 10p14-pter and gains at 8q22.3-24.1 in OS. Interphase FISH allowed to confirm 8q gain in two cases. A high amplification level of 11q12-qter was detected in one OS. The Ewing's sarcoma showed gain at 1p32-36.1 as the sole chromosome alteratio...

  5. HYBRID METHOD FOR ANALYSE DISCONTINUITIES IN SHIELDED MICROSTRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED EL AMINE EL GOUZI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis is employed to analyze discontinuity in shielded Microstrip (open end, uniform bend. An accurate and efficient method of moments solution combined with the source method(SM formulation is proposed in order to achieve a full-wave characterization of the analyzed structures. A wavelet matrix transform(WMT, operated by wavelet-like transform (WLT allows a significant reduction of the central processing unit time and the memory storage.

  6. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    in the highest fish-consuming group ({approx}3 times/wk), which had mercury exposures (mean hair content of 3.9 ppm) much higher than those seen in the United States. As an adjunct to this cursory review, we also present some new ''ecological'' analyses based on international statistics on hair Hg, fish consumption, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and selected cardiovascular health endpoints. We searched for consistent differences between primarily fish-consuming nations, like Japan or the Seychelles, and others who traditionally eat much less fish , such as in central Europe, for example. We use data on cigarette sales, smoking prevalence surveys, and national lung cancer mortality rates to control for the effects of smoking on heart disease. These ecological analyses do not find significant adverse associations of either fish consumption or hair Hg with cardiovascular health; instead, there is a consistent trend towards beneficial effects, some of which are statistically significant. However, such ecological studies cannot distinguish differences due to variations in individual rates of fish consumption. We conclude that the extant epidemiological evidence does not support the existence of significant heart disease risks associated with mercury in fish, for the United States. The most prudent advice would continue to be that of maintaining a well-balanced diet, including fish or shellfish at least once per week. There may be additional benefits from fatty fish.

  7. Life history variation in Barents Sea fish: implications for sensitivity to fishing in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Magnus A; Primicerio, Raul; Dolgov, Andrey; Ottesen, Camilla A M; Aschan, Michaela

    2014-09-01

    Under exploitation and environmental change, it is essential to assess the sensitivity and vulnerability of marine ecosystems to such stress. A species' response to stress depends on its life history. Sensitivity to harvesting is related to the life history "fast-slow" continuum, where "slow" species (i.e., large, long lived, and late maturing) are expected to be more sensitive to fishing than "fast" ones. We analyze life history traits variation for all common fish species in the Barents Sea and rank fishes along fast-slow gradients obtained by ordination analyses. In addition, we integrate species' fast-slow ranks with ecosystem survey data for the period 2004-2009, to assess life history variation at the community level in space and time. Arctic fishes were smaller, had shorter life spans, earlier maturation, larger offspring, and lower fecundity than boreal ones. Arctic fishes could thus be considered faster than the boreal species, even when body size was corrected for. Phylogenetically related species possessed similar life histories. Early in the study period, we found a strong spatial gradient, where members of fish assemblages in the southwestern Barents Sea displayed slower life histories than in the northeast. However, in later, warmer years, the gradient weakened caused by a northward movement of boreal species. As a consequence, the northeast experienced increasing proportions of slower fish species. This study is a step toward integrating life history traits in ecosystem-based areal management. On the basis of life history traits, we assess the fish sensitivity to fishing, at the species and community level. We show that climate warming promotes a borealization of fish assemblages in the northeast, associated with slower life histories in that area. The biology of Arctic species is still poorly known, and boreal species that now establish in the Arctic are fishery sensitive, which calls for cautious ecosystem management of these areas.

  8. A Research for Massive Fish Kills in Lake Bafa (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yabanlı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As there were massive fish kills in Lake Bafa which is a lagoon situated in Southwestern Turkey in October, 2006, water and fish samples were taken from the region. Water samples were analysed physicochemically, toxicologically and microbiologically and fish samples were subjected to toxicological analysis. The analyses of lake water revealed on oxygen value of approximately 5.0 mg/L, salinity 16.2 ‰, nitrogen from ammonia 0.1 mg/L, nitrogen nitrite 0.013 mg/L, and total organic carbon 13 mg/L. Total coliform count was 1100 MPN/100 ml and faecal coliform count was 28 MPN/100 ml. There was no detection of any pesticide residues in fish and water samples. Massive fish kills are thought to be due to the decrease in water quality.

  9. Reduced growth in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus ×O. Niloticus) at intermediate stocking density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Yi-Bo; Yang, Yun-Xia; Cai, Fa-Sheng

    2002-12-01

    Hybrid tilapia were reared at densities of 1, 5 or 10 fish per tank for four weeks. Mortality was 0 at 1 and 10 fish per tank, but was 25% at 5 fish per tank. Specific growth rate was highest at 1 fish per tank, and lowest at 5 fish per tank. The lower growth rate at the intermediate stocking density was associated with reduced feed efficiency, but there was no reduction in feed intake or digestibility. The results suggested increased metabolic cost caused by aggressive behaviour at intermediate stocking density, which can be suppressed by a further increase in density.

  10. REDUCED GROWTH IN HYBRID TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS×O. NILOTICUS) AT INTERMEDIATE STOCKING DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 崔奕波; 杨云霞; 蔡发盛

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid tilapia were reared at densities of 1, 5 or 10 fish per tank for four weeks. Mortality was 0 at 1 and 10 fish per tank, but was 25% at 5 fish per tank. Specific growth rate was highest at 1 fish per tank, and lowest at 5 fish per tank. The lower growth rate at the intermediate stocking density was associated with reduced feed efficiency, but there was no reduction in feed intake or digestibility. The results suggested increased metabolic cost caused by aggressive behaviour at intermediate stocking density, which can be suppressed by a further increase in density.

  11. Mineralization Of PAHs In Coal-Tar Impacted Aquifer Sediments And Associated Microbial Community Structure Investigated With FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and in laboratory-scale incubations of the aquifer sediments. DAPI-detect...

  12. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in different ploidy levels cross-breeding of lily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available 21 crossing were conducted between Asiatic Lily with different ploidy levels, the results showed that the interploidy hybridization between diploid and tetraploid lilies was not as successful as intraploidy hybridization. Regardless of male sterility, triploid lilies could be used as female parents in the hybridization which the progenies were aneuploidy. 3x×4x crosses could be cultured more successfully than 3x×2x crosses. 45S rDNA was mapped on the chromosomes of seven Lilium species and their progenies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. FISH revealed six to sixteen 45S rDNA gene loci, and normally the sites were not in pairs. The asymmetry indexes of LA (Longiflorum hybrids × Asiatic hybrids hybrids was higher than Asiatic hybrids, the evolution degree was LA hybrids > Asiatic hybrids. 45S rDNA distributed variably on chromosome 1-10 and 12 among Asiatic hybrids. Chromosome 1 had invariable sites of 45S rDNA in all Asiatic hybrids, which could be considered as the characteristic of Asiatic hybrids. LA hybrid 'Freya' had two sites of 45S rDNA on one homologous chromosome 5, and also it could be found in the progenies. The karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA as probe were applied to identify the different genotypes of 9 hybrids. Typical chromosomes with parental signal sites could be observed in all the genotypes of hybrids, it was confirmed that all the hybrids were true.

  13. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  14. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  15. Alaskan sport fishing waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a guide to newcomers and visitors, fishery biologists have compiled a list of some of the well-known fishing waters in Alaska. The list is merely a starting point...

  16. Ammonia toxicity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D J; Tsui, T K N

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia is present in the aquatic environment due to agricultural run-off and decomposition of biological waste. Ammonia is toxic to all vertebrates causing convulsions, coma and death, probably because elevated NH4+ displaces K+ and depolarizes neurons, causing activation of NMDA type glutamate receptor, which leads to an influx of excessive Ca2+ and subsequent cell death in the central nervous system. Present ammonia criteria for aquatic systems are based on toxicity tests carried out on, starved, resting, non-stressed fish. This is doubly inappropriate. During exhaustive exercise and stress, fish increase ammonia production and are more sensitive to external ammonia. Present criteria do not protect swimming fish. Fish have strategies to protect them from the ammonia pulse following feeding, and this also protects them from increases in external ammonia, as a result starved fish are more sensitive to external ammonia than fed fish. There are a number of fish species that can tolerate high environmental ammonia. Glutamine formation is an important ammonia detoxification strategy in the brain of fish, especially after feeding. Detoxification of ammonia to urea has also been observed in elasmobranches and some teleosts. Reduction in the rate of proteolysis and the rate of amino acid catabolism, which results in a decrease in ammonia production, may be another strategy to reduce ammonia toxicity. The weather loach volatilizes NH3, and the mudskipper, P. schlosseri, utilizes yet another unique strategy, it actively pumps NH4+ out of the body.

  17. PARASITES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  18. Hawaiian Fish Distributors Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is proprietary sales data from one Kona-based fish dealer for about one year back in the late 1980s. Fishing was generally around Kona. This is Dealer Data and...

  19. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  20. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  2. Renal and urinary findings in 20 patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH Achados renais e urinários em 20 pacientes com síndrome de Williams-Beuren diagnosticados pelo teste de hibridização in situ por fluoresceína (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Mizuho Miura Sugayama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare multiple anomalies/mental retardation syndrome caused by deletion of contiguous genes at chromosome region 7q11.23. The aim of this work was to determine the frequency and the types of renal and urinary tract anomalies in 20 patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome. METHODS: The fluorescence in situ hybridization test using a LSI Williams syndrome region DNA probe was performed for all 20 patients to confirm the diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome. A prospective study was performed in order to investigate renal and urinary aspects using laboratory assays to check renal function, ultrasonography of the kidneys and urinary tract, voiding cystourethrogram and urodynamics. RESULTS: Deletion of the elastin gene (positive fluorescence in situ hybridization test was found in 17 out of 20 patients. Renal alterations were diagnosed in 5 of 17 (29% the patients with the deletion and in 1 of 3 patients without the deletion. Fourteen patients with the deletion presented dysfunctional voiding. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 3 patients with deletions and 1 of these presented bilateral stenosis of the renal arteries. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the high incidence of renal and urinary abnormalities in Williams-Beuren syndrome, performing a systematic laboratory and sonographic evaluation of the patients is recommended.OBJETIVO: A síndrome de Williams-Beuren é uma rara síndrome de deleção de genes contíguos que cursa com múltiplas anomalias congênitas, deficiência mental e anomalias renais e urinárias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a freqüência e os tipos de anomalias renais e urinárias em 20 pacientes com síndrome de Williams-Beuren diagnosticados pelo teste de hibridização in situ por fluorescência. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se prospectivamente os aspectos renais e urinários através de avaliação laboratorial da função renal, ultrassonografia de rins e vias urinárias, uretrocistografia

  3. Fish populations in Plynlimon streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Crisp

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In Plynlimon streams, brown trout (Salmo trutta L. are widespread in the upper Wye at population densities of 0.03 to 0.32 fish m-2 and show evidence of successful recruitment in most years. In the upper Severn, brown trout are found only in an area of c. 1670 -2 downstream of Blaenhafren Falls at densities of 0.03 to 0.24 fish -2 and the evidence suggests very variable year to year success in recruitment (Crisp & Beaumont, 1996. Analyses of the data show that temperature differences between afforested and unafforested streams may affect the rates of trout incubation and growth but are not likely to influence species survival. Simple analyses of stream discharge data suggest, but do not prove, that good years for recruitment in the Hafren population were years of low stream discharge. This may be linked to groundwater inputs detected in other studies in this stream. More research is needed to explain the survival of the apparently isolated trout population in the Hafren.

  4. Biannual Fish Survey, Spring 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biannual fish survey was initiated in 1989 to monitor population trends of federally endangered fish species at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Item 421 of...

  5. [Fluorescent in situ hybridization in clinical cytogenetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalová, K

    1995-02-01

    During the last few years molecular biology methods expanded into human cytogenetics. This is in close connection with advanced technologies of DNA probes preparation and possibilities of their non-radioactive labelling by means of enzymatic incorporation of modified nucleotides as well as their hybridization with complementary DNA of chromosomes and interphase nuclei. FISH became a useful method in the clinical research. We present the short review of FISH methodologies and their applications for studies of translocation, deletions, amplifications and other chromosomal rearrangements in genetic and oncologic patients. The sensitivity of these methods is approximately 1-10 kb and therefore precise localization of genes on chromosomes is possible. Except gene mapping FISH can be used for comparative genomic mapping (CGH) and for identification of chromosomal changes of tumor cells.

  6. Foraging habits of reef fishes associated with mangroves and seagrass beds in a Caribbean lagoon: A stable isotope approach

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds represent suitable fish habitats as nurseries or feeding areas. This study was conducted in a Caribbean lagoon to assess the foraging habits of juvenile transient reef fishes in these two habitats. Twelve fish species were sampled in coastal mangroves, an offshore mangrove islet, and a seagrass bed site, and stable isotope analyses were performed on fishes and their prey items. The SIAR mixing model indicated that transient fishes from both mangroves and s...

  7. Enhanced susceptibility of hybrid tilapia to Flavobacterium columnare after parasitism by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare and protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis are two common pathogens of cultured fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) to the bacterium F. columnare, including fish mortality and bacterial loads in ...

  8. Polyphasic Analyses of Methanogenic Archaeal Communities in Agricultural Biogas Plants▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nettmann, E.; Bergmann, I.; Pramschüfer, S.; Mundt, K; Plogsties, V.; Herrmann, C.; Klocke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the microbial consortia participating in the generation of biogas, especially in methane formation, is still limited. To overcome this limitation, the methanogenic archaeal communities in six full-scale biogas plants supplied with different liquid manures and renewable raw materials as substrates were analyzed by a polyphasic approach. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out to quantify the methanogenic Archaea in the reactor samples. In addition, quantitative r...

  9. Towards Fluorescence In Vivo Hybridization (FIVH) Detection of H. pylori in Gastric Mucosa Using Advanced LNA Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Leite, Marina; Guimarães, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    acid (LNA)/ 2' O-methyl RNA (2'OMe) probe using standard phosphoramidite chemistry and FISH hybridization was then successfully performed both on adhered and suspended bacteria at 37°C. In this work we simplified, shortened and adapted FISH to work at gastric pH values, meaning that the hybridization......In recent years, there have been several attempts to improve the diagnosis of infection caused by Helicobacter pylori. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a commonly used technique to detect H. pylori infection but it requires biopsies from the stomach. Thus, the development of an in vivo...

  10. Identification of hemiclonal reproduction in three species of Hexagrammos marine reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura-Kawaguchi, M R; Horita, M; Abe, S; Arai, K; Kawata, M; Munehara, H

    2014-08-01

    Natural hybrids between the boreal species Hexagrammos octogrammus and two temperate species Hexagrammos agrammus and Hexagrammos otakii were observed frequently in southern Hokkaido, Japan. Previous studies revealed that H. octogrammus is a maternal ancestor of both hybrids; the hybrids are all fertile females and they frequently breed with paternal species. Although such rampant hybridization occurs, species boundaries have been maintained in the hybrid zone. Possible explanations for the absence of introgressions, despite the frequent backcrossing, might include clonal reproduction: parthenogenesis, gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. The natural hybrids produced haploid eggs that contained only the H. octogrammus genome (maternal ancestor) with discarded paternal genome and generated F1 -hybrid type offspring by fertilization with the haploid sperm of H. agrammus or H. otakii (paternal ancestor). This reproductive mode was found in an artificial backcross hybrid between the natural hybrid and a male of the paternal ancestor. These findings indicate that the natural hybrids adopt hybridogenesis with high possibility and produce successive generations through hybridogenesis by backcrossing with the paternal ancestor. These hybrids of Hexagrammos represent the first hybridogenetic system found from marine fishes that widely inhabit the North Pacific Ocean. In contrast with other hybridogenetic systems, these Hexagrammos hybrids coexist with all three ancestral species in the hybrid zone. The coexistence mechanism is also discussed.

  11. Higher and lower-level relationships of the deep-sea fish order alepocephaliformes (Teleostei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jan Y.; Møller, Peter R.; Lavoué, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Fishes of the order Alepocephaliformes, slickheads and tubeshoulders, constitute a group of deep-sea fishes poorly known in respect to most areas of their biology and systematics. Morphological studies have found alepocephaliform fishes to display a mosaic of synapomorphic and symplesiomorphic...... are alepocephaliforms and unambiguously aligned sequences were subjected to partitioned maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Results from the present study support Alepocephaliformes as a genetically distinct otocephalan order as sister clade to Ostariophysi (mostly freshwater fishes comprising Gonorynchiformes...

  12. State of Idaho Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foott, J. Scott; Hauch, A. Kent

    1989-05-01

    This report documents the progress in the assigned tasks which have occurred during the second year of the Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring Project. Fish at seven Idaho Department of Fish and Game facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed on smolts prior to their release in the Spring of 1989. A disease database has been developed and facility impediments to fish health have been identified.

  13. The role of epigenetics in hybrid vigour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Greaves, Ian K; Fujimoto, Ryo; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2013-12-01

    Hybrid vigour, or heterosis, refers to the increased yield and biomass of hybrid offspring relative to the parents. Although this has been exploited in plants for agriculture and horticulture, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying hybrid vigour are largely unknown. Genetic analyses show that there are a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to the heterotic phenotype, indicating that it is a complex phenomenon. Gene expression in hybrids is regulated by the interactions of the two parental epigenetic systems and the underlying genomes. Increasing understanding of the interplay of small RNA (sRNA) molecules, DNA methylation, and histone marks provides new opportunities to define the basis of hybrid vigour and to understand why F1 heterosis is not passed on to subsequent generations. We discuss recent findings that suggest the existence of several pathways that alter DNA methylation patterns, which may lead to transcriptional changes resulting in the heterotic phenotype.

  14. Hybrid sterility in plant: stories from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yidan; Liu, Yao-Guang; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic reproductive isolation in plants. The best-known example is perhaps the hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Major progress has been reported recently in rice in identifying and cloning hybrid sterility genes at two loci regulating female and male fertility, respectively. Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of these genes, together with the results from other model organisms especially Drosophila, have advanced the understanding of the processes underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. These findings also have significant implications for crop genetic improvement, by providing the feasibility and strategies for overcoming intersubspecific hybrid sterility thus allowing the development of intersubspecific hybrids.

  15. Innovation in utilization of fish tanks for fish culture among fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of fish tanks for fish culture among fish farmers in Obio/Akpor Local Government, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Data for this study was obtained through the administration of questionnaire and scheduled ...

  16. Widespread hybridization among species of Indian major carps in hatcheries, but not in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, V.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons;

    2005-01-01

    samples. Individual admixture coefficients showed that 24% of all hatchery-reared fishes were hybrids, whereas a single hybrid was observed in the wild-caught samples. Only catla Catla catla x rohu Labeo rohita and mrigal Cirrhinus cirrhosus x rohu hybrids were observed, the vast majority of which were F......-hybrids in hatchery samples, reproductive barriers among species have so far precluded widespread introgression. Continued hybridization may eventually lead to a breakdown of species barriers, thereby compromising the genetic integrity of the species in the wild, and leading to production losses...

  17. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  18. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  19. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Serafy

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1 Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2 Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1 focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2 consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3 quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i

  20. c-erbB2/neu gene and chromosome 17 analysis in breast cancer by FISH on archival cytological fine-needle aspirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzelani, A; Alasio, L; Bartoli, C; Bonora, M G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F; Pilotti, S

    1999-01-01

    The detection of specific genetic alterations in breast cancer is useful for diagnosing, predicting prognosis and planning preoperative treatment. c-erbB2/neu overexpression is usually detected by immunocytochemistry (ICC), although this technique is neither completely reproducible nor highly reliable, owing to specimen and methodologic variability and antibody sensitivity. Here, we combine two well-established techniques, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to detect c-erbB2/neu amplification in patients candidate to primary chemotherapy and, in part, previously analysed for c-erbB2/neu overexpression. Sixty smears from FNA were used to simultaneously detect c-erbB2/neu and chromosome 17 centromere. FISH was successful in 58 cases and detected 24 amplified cases, three of which were negative by immunophenotyping, 28 negative cases, with evidence of two normal c-erbB2/neu/ signals, two cases with deletion of c-erbB2/neu, and four cases with polysomy, thus providing more reliable and informative results than ICC. This study underlines the advantages offered by the FNA and FISH combination which are two rapid, reliable, simple and informative techniques, to analyse one of the most important genetic markers for predicting prognosis and chemotherapy planning for breast carcinoma in particular in the light of the recently proposed trials of primary chemotherapy. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408862