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Sample records for hybrid sunflower taxa

  1. Orfej: New NS sunflower hybrid

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    Cvejić Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New sunflower hybrid Orfej was developed by breeding process in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Hybrid has high yield potential, excellent seed quality, adaptive to grown in different agro-ecological conditions and highly resistant and tolerant to main diseases and vermin in the region. Hybrid is resistant to all races of downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii and highly tolerant to root and stem forms of white rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This work shows the results of seed yield from the trials of the Department for plant variety registration and protection and the results of Small plot trials of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops.

  2. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

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    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  3. New confectionary sunflower hybrids in NS palette

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    Hladni Nada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower breeding is directed towards the increase of the genetic potential for yield, stability of the yield, health care, and the quality of nutrition along with the increase of the production economy. In accordance with the Serbian market demands there have been efforts in breeding highly productive hybrids for special uses of the confectionary type at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. In this program, special attention has been given to the increase of the protein content and quality while decreasing the seed oil content, to the increase of 1000 seed weight and the decrease of the hull ratio. New NS confectionary hybrids NS-H-6316, NS-H-6318 and NS-H-6320 are adequate for nutrition, dehulling and core production. They belong to the group of mid-early hybrids while their genetic potential for seed yield is above 4.5 t ha-1 and seed oil content is less than 40%. Protein content in the core is 23-27%, mass of 1000 seeds is above 95 g, and the hull ratio is low. With the creation of the new palette of NS sunflower hybrids for various production purposes and conditions, we have gained higher quality material for the needs of the oil, food and baking industry.

  4. Characterization of the Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Valin

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    G. Georgiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A male sterile two-linear sunflower hybrid was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo using the method of inter-linear hybridization. The mother component is line 10517 which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father component is line 10595R, a fertility restorer of branched type. Both parental forms have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Valin is medium early, with vegetation period of 110 – 115 days, plant height 165 – 175 cm and head diameter 17 – 18 cm. The percent of kernel in seed is within the range of 65 – 73%. Seeds have absolute weight 50 – 55 g, and oil content in seed is 46 – 50%. The hybrid is resistant to lodging and moderately resistant to phoma and phomopsis. The resistance to downy mildew is as high as 95 % up to race 700, and the resistance to the parasite Orobanche is 100% (races A-F. In the breeding fields of DAI the hybrid went through threeyear testing according to a scheme and growing technology approved for this crop. During the first two years of the control testing it exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 11.0% and 14.4%, respectively. During the third year, hybrid Valin was above the mean standard with 10.9% by seed yield and with 6.6% by oil yield in a unified competitive varietal testing. The maximum yield obtained at DAI was 4483 kg/ha, and the maximum oil content was 50.1%. In 2007 and 2008 hybrid Valin went through official testing within the structure of the Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control of Bulgaria. By the index seed yield, the exceeding of the mean standard was 23.6 % in the first year, and in the second the yield was with 1.4 % below the standard. Oil content was a little below the standard in both years. The aim of this investigation was to make as full as possible a characterization of the new registered sunflower hybrid Valin on the base of biological, phytopatological and

  5. Genomic Prediction of Sunflower Hybrids Oil Content

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    Brigitte Mangin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of hybrid performance using incomplete factorial mating designs is widely used in breeding programs including different heterotic groups. Based on the general combining ability (GCA of the parents, predictions are accurate only if the genetic variance resulting from the specific combining ability is small and both parents have phenotyped descendants. Genomic selection (GS can predict performance using a model trained on both phenotyped and genotyped hybrids that do not necessarily include all hybrid parents. Therefore, GS could overcome the issue of unknown parent GCA. Here, we compared the accuracy of classical GCA-based and genomic predictions for oil content of sunflower seeds using several GS models. Our study involved 452 sunflower hybrids from an incomplete factorial design of 36 female and 36 male lines. Re-sequencing of parental lines allowed to identify 468,194 non-redundant SNPs and to infer the hybrid genotypes. Oil content was observed in a multi-environment trial (MET over 3 years, leading to nine different environments. We compared GCA-based model to different GS models including female and male genomic kinships with the addition of the female-by-male interaction genomic kinship, the use of functional knowledge as SNPs in genes of oil metabolic pathways, and with epistasis modeling. When both parents have descendants in the training set, the predictive ability was high even for GCA-based prediction, with an average MET value of 0.782. GS performed slightly better (+0.2%. Neither the inclusion of the female-by-male interaction, nor functional knowledge of oil metabolism, nor epistasis modeling improved the GS accuracy. GS greatly improved predictive ability when one or both parents were untested in the training set, increasing GCA-based predictive ability by 10.4% from 0.575 to 0.635 in the MET. In this scenario, performing GS only considering SNPs in oil metabolic pathways did not improve whole genome GS prediction but

  6. Development of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron methyl

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    Jocić Siniša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of tribenuron-methyl resistant wild Helianthus annuus L. population (ANN-KAN created an opportunity for expansion of sunflower herbicide resistance breeding program. The aim of this study was development of sunflower hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Creation of tribenuron-methyl resistant hybrids would enable the use of a wider palette of herbicides for sunflower, more efficient chemical control of Cirsium arvense and more economically profitable post-emergence control of some annual broad-leaves weeds in sunflower. Original populations SURES-1 and SURES-2 are homozygous for resistance to tribenuron-methyl. F1 generations produced from the crossings are completely resistant to tribenuron-methyl, pointing out to dominant way of inheritance of this trait. Studies on the exact number of genes controlling the resistance are in progress. Tribenuron-methyl resistance was transferred from original populations into a number of female and male inbred lines of cultivated sunflower. These inbred lines could enable creation of a number of hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Hybrids SUMO-1-PR, SUMO-2- OR and SUMO-3 are resistant to doubled application dose of tribenuron-methyl. Agronomical characteristics of these hybrids are on the level with the leading conventional sunflower hybrids.

  7. Resistance of sunflower hybrids to imazamox and tribenuron-methyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozic, D; Saric, M; Malidza, G

    2012-01-01

    The response of the imazamox resistant and susceptible sunflower hybrids Rimi and S to imazamox and of tribenuron-methyl resistant and susceptible hybrids Rsu and S to tribenuron-methyl was investigated both in a whole-plant bioassay and in field experiments. Plants were treated post-emergence wi...

  8. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... It was therefore the objective of this study to evaluate the interactive effects of hybrids, planting geometries and nitrogen rates on the ontogeny growth, fraction of inter- cepted radiation, intercepted PAR, yield components and oil quality of sunflower under irrigated arid environmental conditions. MATERIALS ...

  9. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (BZU) Multan, Pakistan, during the spring season of 2009 to study the interactive effect of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in terms of growth, fraction of intercepted radiation (Fi), intercepted photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR), yield components and oil contents to planting geometries and nitrogen rates.

  10. Drought Stress Responses of Sunflower Germplasm Developed after Wide Hybridization

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    Roumiana Dimova Vassilevska-Ivanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Response of sunflower germplasms viz. cultivated sunflower H. annuus and two breeding lines H. annuus x T. rotundifolia and H. annuus x V. encelioides developed after wide hybridization were used for identification of drought tolerant sunflower genotypes at the seedling growth stage. Three water stress levels of zero (control, -0.4, and -0.8 MPa were developed using polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG-6000. Physiological and biochemical stress determining parameters such as root and shoots length, fresh weight, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (GPO, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and antioxidant metabolite content (total antioxidant capacity, total phenols and total flavonoids content were compared between seedlings of all three genotypes. Results revealed that sunflower genotypes have similar responses at two osmotic potentials for shoot and root length and fresh weight. The data also showed that drought stresss could induce oxidative stress, as indicated by the increase level of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase at -04 MPa in H. annuus cv 1114. Although the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase was differentially influenced by drought, the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase subjected to drought stress follow a similar pattern in both breeding lines, indicating that similar defense systems might be involved in the oxidative stress injury in sunflowers. Increase in content of phenols and flavonoids were detected for all three genotypes under stress, which showed that these were major antioxidant metabolites in scavenging cellular H2O2.

  11. New sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl

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    Cvejić Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl enabled the use of wider palette of herbicides to control effectively weeds during the growing season. Moreover, thanks to this tolerance, chemical control of broad-leaves weeds in sunflower, especially Cirsium arvense, is more efficient. The Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops offers four new hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl: NS SUMO SUN, NS SUMO STAR, NS SUMO SjAj and NS SUMO SOL, released in 2016. Hybrids belong to early and medium-early maturity groups; have high yield potential and high oil content. They are adapted for cultivation in different environmental conditions. All hybrids are resistant to broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr races from A-E and have a high level of tolerance to Phomopsis, white rot (Sclerotinia sclorotiorum, rust (Puccinia helianthi and others. The paper presents the results of seed and oil yield from the official trials of the Department of variety registration within the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia.

  12. Genome-scale transcriptional analyses of first-generation interspecific sunflower hybrids reveals broad regulatory compatibility.

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    Rowe, Heather C; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2013-05-23

    Interspecific hybridization creates individuals harboring diverged genomes. The interaction of these genomes can generate successful evolutionary novelty or disadvantageous genomic conflict. Annual sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris have a rich history of hybridization in natural populations. Although first-generation hybrids generally have low fertility, hybrid swarms that include later generation and fully fertile backcross plants have been identified, as well as at least three independently-originated stable hybrid taxa. We examine patterns of transcript accumulation in the earliest stages of hybridization of these species via analyses of transcriptome sequences from laboratory-derived F1 offspring of an inbred H. annuus cultivar and a wild H. petiolaris accession. While nearly 14% of the reference transcriptome showed significant accumulation differences between parental accessions, total F1 transcript levels showed little evidence of dominance, as midparent transcript levels were highly predictive of transcript accumulation in F1 plants. Allelic bias in F1 transcript accumulation was detected in 20% of transcripts containing sufficient polymorphism to distinguish parental alleles; however the magnitude of these biases were generally smaller than differences among parental accessions. While analyses of allelic bias suggest that cis regulatory differences between H. annuus and H. petiolaris are common, their effect on transcript levels may be more subtle than trans-acting regulatory differences. Overall, these analyses found little evidence of regulatory incompatibility or dominance interactions between parental genomes within F1 hybrid individuals, although it is unclear whether this is a legacy or an enabler of introgression between species.

  13. Genomic In Situ Hybridization (GISH) as a Tool to Identify Chromosomes of Parental Species in Sunflower Interspecific Hybrids

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    Interspecific hybridization has been widely used to transfer genes from wild species into cultivated sunflower. Fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) has been used to identify alien chromosomes or segments in other crops, but an equivalent technique for sunflower is lacking. The objective...

  14. Borneo: The new NS sunflower confectionary type hybrid

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    Hladni Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, beside the basic direction in sunflower breeding, the creation of standard hybrids with high oil content with high seed and oil yield, hybrids are being created for special confectionery purposes directed towards the final kernel products. In this program, apart from breeding in order to improve main seed yield components, special attention is given to the increase of protein content and the quality with the decrease of seed oil content, to the increase of the weight of 1000 seeds and to the decrease of content of the shell. Two-line SC hybrid was created by crossing the cytoplasmatic male sterile line of the mother with a father line with fertility restoration genes. Borneo is a high protein confectionary type hybrid that has been registered in Slovakia (EU in 2009. It contains successfully combined genes responsible for high genetic potential for yield and valuable technical and technological seed traits. The hybrid is adequate for nutrition, dehuling and kernel production. Borneo is a medium early hybrid with the genetic potential for yield of over 4,5t/ha and its seed oil content is under 43%. .

  15. Genome-scale transcriptional analyses of first-generation interspecific sunflower hybrids reveals broad regulatory compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Interspecific hybridization creates individuals harboring diverged genomes. The interaction of these genomes can generate successful evolutionary novelty or disadvantageous genomic conflict. Annual sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris have a rich history of hybridization in natural populations. Although first-generation hybrids generally have low fertility, hybrid swarms that include later generation and fully fertile backcross plants have been identified, as well as at least three independently-originated stable hybrid taxa. We examine patterns of transcript accumulation in the earliest stages of hybridization of these species via analyses of transcriptome sequences from laboratory-derived F1 offspring of an inbred H. annuus cultivar and a wild H. petiolaris accession. Results While nearly 14% of the reference transcriptome showed significant accumulation differences between parental accessions, total F1 transcript levels showed little evidence of dominance, as midparent transcript levels were highly predictive of transcript accumulation in F1 plants. Allelic bias in F1 transcript accumulation was detected in 20% of transcripts containing sufficient polymorphism to distinguish parental alleles; however the magnitude of these biases were generally smaller than differences among parental accessions. Conclusions While analyses of allelic bias suggest that cis regulatory differences between H. annuus and H. petiolaris are common, their effect on transcript levels may be more subtle than trans-acting regulatory differences. Overall, these analyses found little evidence of regulatory incompatibility or dominance interactions between parental genomes within F1 hybrid individuals, although it is unclear whether this is a legacy or an enabler of introgression between species. PMID:23701699

  16. Sorting through the chaff, nDNA gene trees for phylogenetic inference and hybrid identification of annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus).

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    Moody, Michael L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    The annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus) present a formidable challenge for phylogenetic inference because of ancient hybrid speciation, recent introgression, and suspected issues with deep coalescence. Here we analyze sequence data from 11 nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes for multiple genotypes of species within the section to (1) reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, (2) explore the utility of nDNA gene trees for detecting hybrid speciation and introgression; and (3) test an empirical method of hybrid identification based on the phylogenetic congruence of nDNA gene trees from tightly linked genes. We uncovered considerable topological heterogeneity among gene trees with or without three previously identified hybrid species included in the analyses, as well as a general lack of reciprocal monophyly of species. Nonetheless, partitioned Bayesian analyses provided strong support for the reciprocal monophyly of all species except H. annuus (0.89 PP), the most widespread and abundant annual sunflower. Previous hypotheses of relationships among taxa were generally strongly supported (1.0 PP), except among taxa typically associated with H. annuus, apparently due to the paraphyly of the latter in all gene trees. While the individual nDNA gene trees provided a useful means for detecting recent hybridization, identification of ancient hybridization was problematic for all ancient hybrid species, even when linkage was considered. We discuss biological factors that affect the efficacy of phylogenetic methods for hybrid identification.

  17. Genome-scale transcriptional analyses of first-generation interspecific sunflower hybrids reveals broad regulatory compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Heather C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interspecific hybridization creates individuals harboring diverged genomes. The interaction of these genomes can generate successful evolutionary novelty or disadvantageous genomic conflict. Annual sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris have a rich history of hybridization in natural populations. Although first-generation hybrids generally have low fertility, hybrid swarms that include later generation and fully fertile backcross plants have been identified, as well as at l...

  18. Analysis the parameters of seed quality in ns sunflower hybrid after processing in gravity separator

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    Jokić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad before and after processing in gravity separator. The cultivars were Pegaz, Duško, NS Fantazija, Sumo 1 PR and NS Oskar. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed in 2015 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1.000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of sclerotinia per 1.000. The results showed that all the parameters of seed quality of sunflower hybrids were better after processing seeds in the gravity separator.

  19. Transcriptional Dynamics of LTR Retrotransposons in Early Generation and Ancient Sunflower Hybrids

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    Ungerer, Mark C.; Kawakami, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization and abiotic stress are natural agents hypothesized to influence activation and proliferation of transposable elements in wild populations. In this report, we examine the effects of these agents on expression dynamics of both quiescent and transcriptionally active sublineages of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in wild sunflower species with a notable history of transposable element proliferation. For annual sunflower species Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris, neither early generation hybridization nor abiotic stress, alone or in combination, induced transcriptional activation of quiescent sublineages of LTR retrotransposons. These treatments also failed to further induce expression of sublineages that are transcriptionally active; instead, expression of active sublineages in F1 and backcross hybrids was nondistinguishable from, or intermediate relative to, parental lines, and abiotic stress generally decreased normalized expression relative to controls. In contrast to findings for early generation hybridization between H. annuus and H. petiolaris, ancient sunflower hybrid species derived from these same two species and which have undergone massive proliferation events of LTR retrotransposons display 2× to 6× higher expression levels of transcriptionally active sublineages relative to parental sunflower species H. annuus and H. petiolaris. Implications and possible explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:23335122

  20. Genetic analysis of agro-morphological traits in promising hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

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    Maryam GOLABADI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective underlying sunflower breeding programs is to develop high-yielding productive F1 hybrid cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic control of some agro-morphological traits of new sunflower F1 hybrids. For this purpose, fourteen inbred lines of sunflower were crossed with three male sterile inbred lines. Their hybrids (14 hybrids were then evaluated against three control cultivars. The data thus obtained were analyzed using the nested model (North Carolina Design І as a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four replications. Analysis of variance showed that the hybrids were significantly different in all the traits studied, except for head and stem diameters. From among the hybrids evaluated, Cms19 × Rn1-81 was found to have the highest seed yield and oil content. Cluster analysis classified the hybrids into four different groups. Genetic analysis showed that days to maturity, seed weight, and oil content (% were under the additive gene action. Breeding strategies based on selection could be suggested for the improvement of these traits. Head angle, head diameter, seed yield, and oil yield were under the dominance gene action; breeding based on hybridization methods is, therefore, proposed for these traits. Finally, both additive and dominance gene actions were observed to play important roles in the genetic control of plant height and stem diameter.

  1. Characterization of F1 interspecific hybrids between wild Helianthus annuus L. populations and cultivated sunflower

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    Terzić Sreten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotype, chromosomes pairing and pollen vitality were compared between parental populations and F1 hybrids of interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus L. and cultivated sunflower. The investigation of the simple sequence repeats (SSR polymorphism was also used to test the hybrid nature of F1 populations. The phenotypic traits of F1 hybrid plants were either closer to the wild species or intermediate. Irregular chromosome pairing was found in only 0 to 10% of meiocytes in the meiosis of F1 hybrid plants. Interspecific crosses were confirmed with SSR markers in all hybrid combinations. Alleles that were not present in parental DNA were frequently observed in F1 hybrids. That is additional evidence that those hybrid combinations were not produced by self-fertilization. The results suggest that SSR markers can be efficiently used for the F1 hybrid characterization in crosses between closely related species, in which, the changes of phenotype, meiosis and pollen vitality are not always significant.

  2. Evaluation of NS sunflower hybrids in small-plot trials via hybrid × location interaction

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    Balalić Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate NS sunflower hybrids on the basis of the results of seed yield, seed oil content and oil yield obtained in a network of small-plot trials in Serbia in 2011. The trial included 9 hybrids and 14 locations. Seed yield, seed oil content and oil yield were significantly different in small-plot trials in the investigated regions of Serbia. The highest average seed yield was produced by Sremac (3.67 t ha-1, Velja (3.62 t ha-1, Duško (3.56 t ha-1 and Novosađanin (3.55 t ha-1. On the location Rimski šančevi the seed yield (4.48 t ha-1 was significantly highest. Average oil content for hybrids grown in 14 locations was 47.25%. Hybrids Baća (50.26%, NS-H-111 (48.91%, Bačvanin (48.70% and Novosađanin (47.83% showed the highest average seed oil content. The highest average oil yield was produced by Baća (1.71 t ha-1, Novosađanin (1.70, Velja (1.67 t ha-1, Sremac (1.63 t ha-1 and NS-H-111 (1.63 t ha-1. Locations with the highest oil yield were Rimski šančevi (2.03 t ha-1 and Sombor (1.96 t ha-1. In the four-year trials in Vojvodina, the average seed yield of 9 hybrids was 3.35 t ha-1. Seed yield over general mean was reached by three hybrids (Duško, Sremac and Velja. The highest seed yield was reached by hybrid Duško (3.56 t ha-1. AMMI1 biplot showed that most stable and with high seed and oil yield were the hybrids Duško, Sremac and Baća, and for oil content Baća, Bačvanin and NS-H-111.

  3. [Genotype peculiarities of crossability of cultivated sunflower with wild species and the use of embryo culture in interspecific hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V N; Iushkina, L L; Sharypina, Ia Iu; Kirichenko, V V

    2005-01-01

    Peculiarities of the genotype effect of cultivated and wild sunflower species on crossability indices and in vitro hybrid embryonic development have been investigated. It was shown that selection of initial material can considerably influence seed-setting and in vitro embryonic development in the cross group of cultivated sunflower with annual and perennial wild species. The range of plant hybrids obtained through somatic embryogenesis and induction of adventitious shoots was higher in comparison with direct growth of embryos in in vitro culture.

  4. Minireview: importance of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in suppressing common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen production

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    Peter Reisinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia is the number one weed in Hungary: it covers ca. 5% of the arable land, causing huge losses in row crops, especially in sunflowers. In addition, because of the high allergenicity of its pollen, common ragweed is a heavy burden on the health care system. This minireview discusses the importance of use of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in eliminating common ragweed from sunflower fields, with special emphasis on the efficacy of common ragweed control of two acetolactate-synthase inhibitor postemergence herbicides (imazamox and tribenuron methyl in several sunflower hybrids that carry the resistance gene against such herbicides. Common ragweed control by these herbicides was excellent: they suppressed the growth of the weed plant until the canopy closure of the crop (8-leaf stage. Common ragweed plants germinating after this date were unable to compete with the crop: although they survived, they remained small (ca. 70% reduction in height, produced ca. 90% less male inflorescences (source of the allergenic pollen, and caused no significant reduction in the crop yield. In order to stop the seed production by the few late-germinating weed plants we recommend a mechanical common measure (row-cultivator in late August.

  5. Irrigation method does not affect wild bee pollinators of hybrid sunflower

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    Hillary Sardiñas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation method has the potential to directly or indirectly influence populations of wild bee crop pollinators nesting and foraging in irrigated crop fields. The majority of wild bee species nest in the ground, and their nests may be susceptible to flooding. In addition, their pollination of crops can be influenced by nectar quality and quantity, which are related to water availability. To determine whether different irrigation methods affect crop pollinators, we compared the number of ground-nesting bees nesting and foraging in drip- and furrow-irrigated hybrid sunflower fields in the Sacramento Valley. We found that irrigation method did not impact wild bee nesting rates or foraging bee abundance or bee species richness. These findings suggest that changing from furrow irrigation to drip irrigation to conserve water likely will not alter hybrid sunflower crop pollination.

  6. Microsatellite signature of ecological selection for salt tolerance in a wild sunflower hybrid species, Helianthus paradoxus

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    EDELIST, CÉCILE; LEXER, CHRISTIAN; DILLMANN, CHRISTINE; SICARD, DELPHINE; RIESEBERG, LOREN H.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid sunflower species Helianthus paradoxus inhabits sporadic salt marshes in New Mexico and southwest Texas, USA, whereas its parental species, Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris, are salt sensitive. Previous studies identified three genomic regions — survivorship quantitative trait loci (QTLs) — that were under strong selection in experimental hybrids transplanted into the natural habitat of H. paradoxus. Here we ask whether these same genomic regions experienced significant selection during the origin and evolution of the natural hybrid, H. paradoxus. This was accomplished by comparing the variability of microsatellites linked to the three survivorship QTLs with those from genomic regions that were neutral in the experimental hybrids. As predicted if one or more selective sweeps had occurred in these regions, microsatellites linked to the survivorship QTLs exhibited a significant reduction in diversity in populations of the natural hybrid species. In contrast, no difference in diversity levels was observed between the two microsatellite classes in parental populations. PMID:17107488

  7. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

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    Goran Krizmanić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012 in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70% as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%, stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untreated seed; T-1: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M; T-2: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. imidacloprid and T-3: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. clothianidin. Based on the obtained results we have determined that sunflower hybrid ‘Luka’, compared to hybrid ‘Apolon’, in the given storage conditions and with the same seed treatment has 5-8% higher germination energy and seed germination and that in climate chamber both hybrids have 5-7% higher germination energy. Seed treatment of both sunflower hybrids with A.I. imidacloprid maximally reduced initial germination energy and seed germination in all tested periods and conditions of storage. On the average, natural seed, after 18 months of storage did not have better seed quality compared to seed treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M while other treatments had more significant influence on reduction of germination energy and seed germination, 6-15%. On the average, compared to other variants, seeds treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M after 18 months of storage in both storage conditions had higher germination energy by 4-15%, and seed germination by 2-12%.

  8. Agronomic and production characteristics of sunflower hybrids: NS Oskar and NS Fantazija

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    Cvejić Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of seed and oil yield obtained from the trials and production plots, single out sunflower hybrids NS Oskar and NS Fantazija as very promising and potentially leading in Serbia. They were created by breeding process at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Hybrids are medium early ie. late maturity sunflower hybrids, have high yielding potential and high oil content. They are adjusted to different agro ecological conditions because they have wide adaptability to the different conditions of production. They also possess a high degree of tolerance and resistance to major parasites in the region, such as downy mildew, Phomopsis, white rot, broomrape etc. Hybrid seed is of excellent quality and germination. This paper presents the results of seed yield in trials from Department for variety testing of Ministry of Agriculture and environmental protection of the Republic of Serbia, as well as the results achieved in small-plot trials of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops and results from farm producers.

  9. Soluble fractions and kinetics parameters of nitrate and ammonium uptake in sunflower (“Neon” Hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiziene Soares Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sunflower plants are source of oilseeds with great importance for agroenergy. Nitrogen deficiency is considered one of the factors limiting growth and yield. The objective of this study was to assess the nitrogen uptake (high and low supply of nitrate and ammonium and to determine the uptake kinetics parameters (Km and Vmax of these ions in sunflower plants (Neon hybrid. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using a hydroponic system. The following treatments were applied: 0.2 and 2.0 mmol L-1 of N-NO3- and N-NH4+. The two kinetics parameters (Km and Vmax involved in the uptake of nitrate and ammonium were determined, as well as the soluble fractions (N-NO3-, N-NH4+, amino-N and sugars and total N, in different plant tissues. The plants grown with ammonium showed higher Vmax than those cultivated with nitrate. High ammonium rates caused reduction of root volume and the plants supplied with 2.0 mmol L-1 of N-NO3- produced more biomass from the roots and aerial part. The highest concentrations of NNO3- were found in the petioles. Analyzed together, the data suggest a greater potential for use of nitric-N as a nitrogen source for fertilization in the cultivation of sunflower.

  10. Comparative Research of Qualitative Characteristics in Nowadays Varieties and Hybrids of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. by Plant Varieties Examination

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    О. О. Шовгун

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative research of qualitative characteristics has been performed on qualitative characteristics of modern varieties and hybrids of Sunflower for the five years of research and technical examination in various soil and climate conditions: Steppe, Forest-Steppe. Regularities have been established of the oil fatty-acid composition variability during examination and varieties and hybrids of improved fatty-acid composition have been detected. High-protein and large-fruit sunflower varieties for confectionary use have  been detected.

  11. Effect of hybrid, storage conditions and seed protection on sunflower field emergence

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    Mrđa Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed emergence under field conditions decisively and directly determines the number of plants per hectare, which is one of three basic components of yield in the plant world. Influence of chemical treatment on field emergence of three commercial sunflower hybrids stored in different conditions was tested in 2007 and 2008 on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. On average, hybrid H1 had the highest value of field emergence (88.79% and for chemical treatment fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (87.71%. Seed kept in common storage had the highest emergence value in fi eld (87.92%. Seed treated with fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid and stored for one year in common storage had the highest field emergence (90.18%. Considering interaction between storage conditions and genotype, hybrid H1 seed sown after chemical treatment had the highest field emergence (91.82% and seed kept in common storage (90.48%. Hybrid H1 seed compared with other two had the highest field emergence treated with fludioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (91.84%.

  12. Productivity of NS sunflower hybrids in small-plot trials in Serbia in 2010

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    Miklič Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the evaluation of NS sunflower hybrids on the basis of the results of seed yield, seed oil content and oil yield obtained in a network of small-plot trials in Vojvodina and central Serbia in 2010, as well as recommendations for the sowing season 2011. Seed yield, seed oil content and oil yield were significantly different in small-plot trials in the investigated regions. In Vojvodina, the highest average seed yield was produced by Duško (3.08 t ha-1, Sremac (2.98 t ha-1, Orfej (2.97 t ha-1 Velja (2.93 t ha-1 and NS-H-111 (2.92 t ha-1. In the region of central Serbia, the highest seed yield was achieved by the hybrids NS-H-111 (2.97 t ha-1 and Duško (2.87 t ha-1. Hybrid Baća showed the highest average seed oil content both in the region of Vojvodina (48.54% and central Serbia (48.80%. The highest average oil yield (over 1.30 t ha-1 was produced by Duško, Bačvanin and NS-H-111 in the Vojvodina region, and in central Serbia oil yield (over 1.30 t ha-1 by NS-H-111, Oskar and Novosađanin. In the three-year trials in Vojvodina four hybrids (Duško, Sremac, Velja and NS-H-111 showed seed yield over general mean. The highest seed yield was reached by hybrid Duško (3.54 t ha-1.

  13. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON GRAIN YIELD, OIL CONTENT AND OIL YIELD OF NEW OS SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

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    Anto Mijić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of determining the influence of weather conditions on the yield components of sunflower, the results of three-year field trials are analysed in the paper. In the trials sown in Osijek in 2013, 2014 and 2015, there were 15 sunflower hybrids: two foreign hybrids and 13 hybrid combinations of the Agricultural Institute Osijek. In the period before sowing (January – March, the highest amount of precipitation was in 2013 (213.1 mm, then in 2015 (167.9 mm, and the lowest in 2014 (109.5 mm. In the growing period (April – September, the highest amount of precipitation (487.3 mm was in 2014, 475.7 mm in 2013, and in 2015 it was the lowest (251.6 mm. In 2013, during the growing period, the mean monthly air temperature was 19.1°C, in 2015 19.9°C, and in 2014 18.6°C. Of these years, statistically significant at the P=0.05, the highest value of the analysed traits was recorded in 2013: grain yield of 6.47 t ha-1, oil content 51.69% and oil yield 3.05 t ha-1. Grain yield, oil content and oil yield were lower in 2015, and the lowest in 2014. Matej, a newly recognized sunflower hybrid of the Agricultural Institute Osijek had the highest values of grain and oil yield (6.95 and 3.39 t ha-1, and by its oil content of 53.44%, it was in the third place. For high grain and oil yields of sunflower, in addition to the optimal air temperature, the amount and distribution of precipitation before and also during the growing season are very important.

  14. Analysis of relations between crop temperature indices and yield of different sunflower hybrids foliar treated by biopreparations

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    Kovár Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of biological active preparations (BAPs and remote-sensing control in the management of agronomic intervention are an important part of successful crop cultivation. The effects of foliar application of two BAPs (containing amino acids or Abiestins® on yield and yield-forming, as well eco-physiological traits calculated from infrared thermographs data (crop water stress index, CWSI and index of stomatal conductance, Ig of three hybrids of sunflower were studied in field poly-factorial experiments, realised during two years (2012 and 2013. The results showed that the application of selected BAPs has contributed to an increase of the sunflower yield, in particular through an increase in the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761, P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in achenes was significantly higher in treatments with BAPs, mainly with preparation containing free amino acids. The study describes the quantitative relationship between yield and quality of sunflower production (rp = −0.41, P < 0.01. Selected hybrids of sunflower in two growth stages showed the significant differences in CWSI and Ig (both at P < 0.01, respectively. An analysis of negative linear relation between the yield of achenes and CWSI (rp = −0.654, P < 0.001 confirmed that higher value of plant stress resulted in a smaller yield and vice-versa. The opposite trend was observed between yield and Ig index (rp = 0.576, P < 0.001. The data obtained from IR thermography can be used for monitoring the physiological health of sunflower plants, as well in potential prediction and control of yield.

  15. Nitrogen and phosphorus management strategy for better growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrid

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    Amjed Ali and Ijaz Rasool Noorka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted during autumn season, 2010 investigated the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on sunflower hybrid Hysun-33. The experiment was planned in randomized complete block design (factorial arrangement, with three replication, having net plot size of 3 x 7 m. The experiment comprised of 9 treatments, three levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, viz., 85, 135, 185 kg N ha-1, and 50, 75, 85 kg P ha-1. Nitrogen affected all estimated characters significantly, except plant population, while, phosphorus did not show significant effect on plant population and plant height. All other parameters, as leaf area plant-1, head diameter, 1000- achene weight and achene yield were affected significantly by different nitrogen and phosphorus levels. Interactive effects of nitrogen and phosphorus were significant in all these cases. The highest achene’s yield (2584 kg ha-1 was obtained with the application of 135-75 kg NP ha-1as against the lowest (1491kg ha-1 at 85-50 kg NP ha-1.

  16. AMMI model in the evaluation of hybrid × sowing date interaction for seed yield and oil content in sunflower

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    Balalić Igor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the three year experiment (2005, 2006, 2007 the effects of hybrid, sowing date and their interaction for seed yield and oil content in sunflower were investigated. Three hybrids (Miro, Rimi, Pobednik and eight sowing dates were included in the experiment. AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiple Interaction model was applied (Gauch & Zobel, 1996. AMMI1 biplot, using excel (macro was done according to Lipkovich & Smith (2002. In the three years average, hybrids did not show significant differences in the mean values for seed yield. Sowing dates had significant portion in the yield formation. The highest seed yield was achieved in the earlier sowing dates. From R3 to R6 the seed yield stagnated, and in R7 and R8 the mean values were significantly lowest. Hybrid Pobednik showed significantly highest oil content. Oil content (three years average was highest in R2, R4 and R5, after that mean values decreased and they were lowest in R7 and R8. AMMI ANOVA for seed yield and oil content showed highly significant values for IPC1 (73,8 % of variation for seed yield and 69,4 % for oil content. On the basis of the stability evaluation for seed yield and oil content on AMMI1 biplot can be seen that hybrid Miro was most stable, and hybrids Pobednik and Rimi were less stable. Highly significant positive correlation with IPC1 for seed yield had pa_cv and rv_cv (precipitation and relative air humidity in the flowering stage and significant correlation rv_fz (relative air humidity in the physiological maturity. Highly significant or significant correlation with first bilinear component for oil content showed tmx_cv, tsd_cv and os_cv (maximum decade temperature, mean decade temperature and insolation in the flowering stage. AMMI1 biplot can help in the recommendation of high yielding, stable sunflower hybrids and most convenient sowing dates. .

  17. Influence of growth regulator on plant growth, development and yield formation of sunflower hybrids (F1 under the conditions of Southern Steppe zone of Ukraine

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    О. А. Єременко

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of AKM plant growth regulator on growth, development and yield formation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrids in hybridization plots under the conditions of the Southern Steppe zone of Ukraine. Methods. Laboratory tests, field study, statistical evaluation. Results. The results of studies devoted to determining the optimal AKM concentration for the treatment of seeds of the maternal and paternal lines, the effect of AKM on field germination, biometric parameters of sunflower plants, seed quality (F1 and yield are presented. Three hybrids of the Ukrainian selection, such as ‘Alpha’, ‘Logos’ and ‘Persei’ were studied during 2014–2016. Optimal concentration of AKM (0.0015 g/l was defined. The vigor of seeds processed by AKM was higher than in check variety by 0.8–12.8 р.р. (♂; 0.4–10.7 p.p. (♀, laboratory germination – by 2.3–6.1 p.p. (♂; 3.5–6.2 p.p. (♀. In 2016, the sunflower plant height for all variants exceeded this parameter to be obtained for other years of the study. This could be explained by the fact that HTC in 2016 for the BBCH 00–39 period was 1.4 times higher than in 2015. In general, hybrids as the studied factor considerably influenced sunflower yield, and the share of the hybrid (factor A influence is 33%. This should be considered when selecting hybrids for sunflower cultivation technologies in the Steppe zone of Ukraine. Conclusions. Hydrothermal conditions of the year had the maximum impact on the formation of seed quality and yield of sunflower plants of the hybrids under study, but when using AKM growth regulator for presowing seed treatment, this negative impact was reduced by an average of 23%.

  18. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  19. Patterns of genetic diversity and candidate genes for ecological divergence in a homoploid hybrid sunflower, Helianthus anomalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAPIR, YUVAL; MOODY, MICHAEL L.; BROUILLETTE, LARRY C.; DONOVAN, LISA A.; RIESEBERG, LOREN H.

    2008-01-01

    Natural hybridization accompanied by a shift in niche preference by hybrid genotypes can lead to hybrid speciation. Natural selection may cause the fixation of advantageous alleles in the ecologically diverged hybrids, and the loci experiencing selection should exhibit a reduction in allelic diversity relative to neutral loci. Here, we analyzed patterns of genetic diversity at 59 microsatellite loci associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in a homoploid hybrid sunflower species, Helianthus anomalus. We used two indices, ln RV and ln RH, to compare variation and heterozygosity (respectively) at each locus between the hybrid species and its two parental species, H. annuus and H. petiolaris. Mean values of ln RV and ln RH were significantly lower than zero, which implies that H. anomalus experienced a population bottleneck during its recent evolutionary history. After correcting for the apparent bottleneck, we found six loci with a significant reduction in variation or with heterozygosity in the hybrid species, compared to one or both of the parental species. These loci should be viewed as a ranked list of candidate loci, pending further sequencing and functional analyses. Sequence data were generated for two of the candidate loci, but population genetics tests failed to detect deviations from neutral evolution at either locus. Nonetheless, a greater than eight-fold excess of nonsynonymous substitutions was found near a putative N-myristoylation motif at the second locus (HT998), and likelihood-based models indicated that the protein has been under selection in H. anomalus in the past and, perhaps, in one or both parental species. Finally, our data suggest that selective sweeps may have united populations of H. anomalus isolated by a mountain range, indicating that even low gene-flow species may be held together by the spread of advantageous alleles. PMID:17944850

  20. A shift in nuclear state as the result of natural interspecific hybridization between two North American taxa of the basidiomycete complex Heterobasidion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo Garbelotto; Paolo Gonthier; Rachel Linzer; Giovanni Nicolotti; William Otrosina

    2004-01-01

    A natural first generation hybrid fungus shows interspecific heterozygosity. The nuclear condition of a rare natural hybrid between two taxa of the Heterobasidion complex is investigated. Heterobasidion species are known to be either homokaryotic (haploid) or heterokaryotic (n + n), but heterokaryons are made up of both...

  1. Selection on crop-derived traits and QTL in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) crop-wild hybrids under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owart, Birkin R; Corbi, Jonathan; Burke, John M; Dechaine, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Locally relevant conditions, such as water stress in irrigated agricultural regions, should be considered when assessing the risk of crop allele introgression into wild populations following hybridization. Although research in cultivars has suggested that domestication traits may reduce fecundity under water stress as compared to wild-like phenotypes, this has not been investigated in crop-wild hybrids. In this study, we examine phenotypic selection acting on, as well as the genetic architecture of vegetative, reproductive, and physiological characteristics in an experimental population of sunflower crop-wild hybrids grown under wild-like low water conditions. Crop-derived petiole length and head diameter were favored in low and control water environments. The direction of selection differed between environments for leaf size and leaf pressure potential. Interestingly, the additive effect of the crop-derived allele was in the direction favored by selection for approximately half the QTL detected in the low water environment. Selection favoring crop-derived traits and alleles in the low water environment suggests that a subset of these alleles would be likely to spread into wild populations under water stress. Furthermore, differences in selection between environments support the view that risk assessments should be conducted under multiple locally relevant conditions.

  2. De novo sequencing of sunflower genome for SNP discovery using RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pegadaraju, Venkatramana; Nipper, Rick; Hulke, Brent; Qi, Lili; Schultz, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Application of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker technology as a tool in sunflower breeding programs offers enormous potential to improve sunflower genetics, and facilitate faster release of sunflower hybrids to the market place...

  3. Cytogenetic study of hexaploid species Helianthus tuberosus and its F1 and BC1F1 hybrids with cultivated sunflower, H. annuus

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    Atlagić Jovanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of resistance to many disease-provoking pathogens. Three accessions of H. tuberosus were used in this research and they were crossed with cultivated sunflower. Six F] and two BC1F1 hybrid combinations were obtained. Analysis of meiosis was performed using aceto-carmine method (GEORGIEVA-TODOROVA, 1976 and pollen viability was determined by staining method of ALEXANDER (1969. Meiosis was regular in cultivated sunflower and the pollen viability was high (96.8-98.9%. Low percent of irregularities was found in the meiosis of H. tuberosus. Pollen viability was high (97.2-98.7%. Chromosome pairing was mostly regular in F1 hybrids (34 bivalents, but some meiocytes contained 28-32 bivalents with uni- and quadrivalents present. The percent of meiocytes with fast chromosomes in metaphase was 24.6-87.2, with lagging chromosomes in anaphase I 10.5-81.0 and in telophase 25.0-33.3. Chromosome bridges were detected in 0-9.9% of meiocytes in anaphase. Pollen viability in F1 hybrids ranged from 27.0 to 47.9%. In BC1F1 hybrids number of bivalents was 16-25, univalent 2-18 and multivalent 0-1. Although a triploid set of chromosomes (51 was expected in BC1F1 hybrids, number of chromosomes was 45-57. Pollen viability varied from 0 to 54.3%.

  4. Identifying multiple origins of polyploid taxa: a multilocus study of the hybrid cloak fern (Astrolepis integerrima; Pteridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, James B; Allison, James R; Pryer, Kathleen M; Windham, Michael D

    2012-11-01

    Molecular studies have shown that multiple origins of polyploid taxa are the rule rather than the exception. To understand the distribution and ecology of polyploid species and the evolutionary significance of polyploidy in general, it is important to delineate these independently derived lineages as accurately as possible. Although gene flow among polyploid lineages and backcrossing to their diploid parents often confound this process, such post origin gene flow is very infrequent in asexual polyploids. In this study, we estimate the number of independent origins of the apomictic allopolyploid fern Astrolepis integerrima, a morphologically heterogeneous species most common in the southwestern United States and Mexico, with outlying populations in the southeastern United States and the Caribbean. Plastid DNA sequence and AFLP data were obtained from 33 A. integerrima individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data and multidimensional clustering of the AFLP data were used to identify independently derived lineages. Analysis of the two datasets identified 10 genetic groups within the 33 analyzed samples. These groups suggest a minimum of 10 origins of A. integerrima in the northern portion of its range, with both putative parents functioning as maternal donors, both supplying unreduced gametes, and both contributing a significant portion of their genetic diversity to the hybrids. Our results highlight the extreme cryptic genetic diversity and systematic complexity that can underlie a single polyploid taxon.

  5. Sunflower breeding for resistance to Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Gontcharov S.V.; Antonova T.S.; Saukova S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium fungi have grown from a minor pathogen of sunflower crop to a major problem of sunflowers in Russia. The aim of this work was breeding for resistance to this new major pathogen, combining field and laboratory testing in the framework of VNIIMK hybrid sunflower breeding program. Four segregated hybrid combinations selected on the basis of their field resistance to different pathogens were used as breeding material. Three of them were doublecross combinations: F3 R-14 × (VK-591 × VK-53...

  6. RESULTS CONCERNING THE MELLIFEROUS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS CULTIVATED IN ROMANIA

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    NICOLETA ION

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the melliferous characteristics of thirty three sunflowerhybrids studied in the period 2002-2006 in South Romania. The studied hybridswere the following: Festiv, Florom 350, Alex, Romina, Performer, Turbo, Favorit,Justin, Splendor, Trajano, Hercule, Felix, Select and 20 being foreign hybrids(Melody, Sunko, Sanay, Kasol, NK Dolbi, NK Ferti, NK Armoni, Opera PR, Rigasol,Huracan, Podium, Fleuret OR, Rigasol, OR, Mateol, Lindor, Fly, Arena, Alexandra,Masai, SaxoIn order to evaluate the quantity of sugar per hectare and further the potential yieldof honey per hectare, the nectar secretion (capillaries method, the sugarconcentration of the nectar (refractometer method, the number of flowers per headand the number of plants per hectare were determined during field studies.

  7. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  8. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  9. Stability estimation for seed and oil yield of NS sunflower hybrids in small-plot trials and recommendations for 2010 sowing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklič Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the evaluation of NS sunflower hybrids based on the results of seed yield, oil content and oil yield obtained in a network of small-plot trials in Vojvodina and central Serbia in 2009, as well as recommendations for 2010 sowing season. The hybrid location interaction was evaluated by AMMI model (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction. In small plot trials, 19 NS sunflower hybrids on 11 locations in Vojvodina and 3 in central Serbia were included. Seed yield, oil content and oil yield were significantly different in the small-plot trials in the investigated regions. The highest average seed yields in Vojvodina were produced by Duško (3.75 t ha-1, Novosađanin (3.74 t ha-1, Kazanova (3.66 t ha-1, Sremac (3.62 t ha-1, Pobednik (3.59 t ha-1 and NS-H-111 (3.57 t ha-1. In the region of central Serbia seed yield over 3.50 t ha-1 was achieved by the hybrids Branko (3.57 t ha-1 and Duško (3.53 t ha-1. Hybrid Pobednik showed the highest average oil content in the region of Vojvodina (49.37 %, as well as in the region of central Serbia (49.96 %. Highest average oil yield (over 1.70 t ha-1 was produced by Pobednik, Novosađanin, NS-H-111 and Somborac in the Vojvodina region, and in central Serbia oil yield (over 1.60 t ha-1 was produced by Branko and Duško. In three-year trials in Vojvodina, eight hybrids (Duško, Kazanova, Sremac, Velja, Baća, Novosađanin, NS-H-111 and Pobednik showed seed yield over general mean. Highest seed yield was given by hybrid Duško (3.63 t ha-1. AMMI biplot for seed yield showed that hybrids Duško, Novosađanin and NS-H-111 had the highest adaptability at all locations (Region Vojvodina and central Serbia, because the interaction had the lowest values. Pobednik and NS-H-111 showed the highest stability for oil content over all locations. The lowest interaction effects for oil yield were found with Duško and NS-H-111. The hybrid NS-H-111, with average mean value over general

  10. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  11. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  12. Sunflower propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, M L; Nestares, G; Vega, T; Zorzoli, R; Picardi, L A

    2010-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been cultivated both as an oilseed and as an ornamental plant. Several protocols have been described for the micropropagation, direct plant regeneration by organogenesis being acceptable for this plant species. Besides a strong genotype dependency, the type and ontogenic stage of explants, environmental conditions of the culture, and media composition affect sunflower organogenesis. Several problems have hindered the ability to regenerate normal shoots; the most common being hyperhydricity and precocious flowering. This chapter describes a protocol for direct shoot regeneration from cotyledons developed and established in our laboratory, as well as the improvement regenerated shoot quality.

  13. Evaluation of relationships between growth rate, tree size, lignocellulose composition and enzymatic saccharification in interspecific Corymbia hybrids and parental taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Healey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order for a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock to be considered sustainable, it must possess a high rate of growth to supply biomass for conversion. Despite the desirability of a fast growth rate for industrial application, it is unclear what effect growth rate has on biomass composition or saccharification. We characterized Klason lignin, glucan, and xylan content with response to growth in Corymbia interspecific F1 hybrid families (HF and parental species C. torelliana (CT and C. citriodora subspecies variegata (CCV and measured the effects on enzymatic hydrolysis from hydrothermally pretreated biomass. Analysis of biomass composition within Corymbia populations found similar amounts of Klason lignin content (19.7-21.3% among parental and hybrid populations, whereas glucan content was clearly distinguished within CCV (52% and HF148 (60% as compared to other populations (28-38%. Multiple linear regression indicates that biomass composition is significantly impacted by tree size measured at the same age, with Klason lignin content increasing with diameter breast height (DBH (+0.12% per cm DBH increase, and glucan and xylan typically decreasing per DBH cm increase (-0.7% and -0.3%, respectively. Polysaccharide content within CCV and HF-148 were not significantly affected by tree size. High-throughput enzymatic saccharification of hydrothermally pretreated biomass found significant differences among Corymbia populations for total glucose production from biomass, with parental CT and hybrids HF-148 and HF-51 generating the highest amounts of glucose (~180 mg/g biomass, respectively, with HF-51 undergoing the most efficient glucan-to-glucose conversion (74%. Based on growth rate, biomass composition, and further optimization of enzymatic saccharification yield, high production Corymbia hybrid trees are potentially suitable for fast-rotation bioenergy or biomaterial production.

  14. Evaluation of Relationships between Growth Rate, Tree Size, Lignocellulose Composition, and Enzymatic Saccharification in Interspecific Corymbia Hybrids and Parental Taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Adam L; Lee, David J; Lupoi, Jason S; Papa, Gabriella; Guenther, Joel M; Corno, Luca; Adani, Fabrizio; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    In order for a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock to be considered sustainable, it must possess a high rate of growth to supply biomass for conversion. Despite the desirability of a fast growth rate for industrial application, it is unclear what effect growth rate has on biomass composition or saccharification. We characterized Klason lignin, glucan, and xylan content with response to growth in Corymbia interspecific F1 hybrid families (HF) and parental species Corymbia torelliana and C. citriodora subspecies variegata and measured the effects on enzymatic hydrolysis from hydrothermally pretreated biomass. Analysis of biomass composition within Corymbia populations found similar amounts of Klason lignin content (19.7-21.3%) among parental and hybrid populations, whereas glucan content was clearly distinguished within C. citriodora subspecies variegata (52%) and HF148 (60%) as compared to other populations (28-38%). Multiple linear regression indicates that biomass composition is significantly impacted by tree size measured at the same age, with Klason lignin content increasing with diameter breast height (DBH) (+0.12% per cm DBH increase), and glucan and xylan typically decreasing per DBH cm increase (-0.7 and -0.3%, respectively). Polysaccharide content within C. citriodora subspecies variegata and HF-148 were not significantly affected by tree size. High-throughput enzymatic saccharification of hydrothermally pretreated biomass found significant differences among Corymbia populations for total glucose production from biomass, with parental Corymbia torelliana and hybrids HF-148 and HF-51 generating the highest amounts of glucose (~180 mg/g biomass, respectively), with HF-51 undergoing the most efficient glucan-to-glucose conversion (74%). Based on growth rate, biomass composition, and further optimization of enzymatic saccharification yield, high production Corymbia hybrid trees are potentially suitable for fast-rotation bioenergy or biomaterial production.

  15. Variability in oil tocopherol concentration and composition of traditional and high oleic sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L. in the Pampean region (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo, Carmen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols are natural antioxidants that increase the stability of food fat and fulfill an important biological requirement in humans. There are no previous studies on the variability of tocopherol concentration and composition in the oil of sunflower traditional hybrids (TH and high oleic sunflower hybrids (HOH from different environments in Argentina. The objective of this work was to detect and  examine that variability. Seed samples were obtained from i seven TH grown in four locations (Experiment I and, ii five hybrids (three HOH and two traditional ones grown in three locations (Experiment II. Concentrations of total tocopherol in oil ranged from 634 to 1054 μg g oil–1. α-tocopherol accounted for 90.8 to 97% of the total tocopherols. Total and α-tocopherol concentrations were highly genetically determined (more than 80%. In Experiment I, a significant, although low in value, interaction between hybrid and location was found for total and α-tocopherol concentrations. In Experiment II, mean values for total tocopherol concentration in HOH and in each environment were larger than in TH. Significant differences for total and α-tocopherol concentration were not found among HOH and environments. The variation of tocopherol concentration for each hybrid across environments was higher than the variation among hybrids in the same environment. To obtain oil with high tocopherol concentration, both hybrid and environment must be selected.Los tocoferoles son antioxidantes naturales que aumentan la estabilidad de los aceites y cumplen una importante actividad biológica en humanos. No son conocidos estudios sobre la variabilidad del contenido y composición de tocoferoles en el aceite de híbridos de girasol tradicionales (HT y “alto oleico” (HAO sembrados en diferentes ambientes en Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar y examinar esa variabilidad. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de a 7 HT sembrados en 4 localidades

  16. Selection on Crop-Derived Traits and QTL in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Crop-Wild Hybrids under Water Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Owart, Birkin R.; Jonathan Corbi; John M Burke; Jennifer M Dechaine

    2014-01-01

    Locally relevant conditions, such as water stress in irrigated agricultural regions, should be considered when assessing the risk of crop allele introgression into wild populations following hybridization. Although research in cultivars has suggested that domestication traits may reduce fecundity under water stress as compared to wild-like phenotypes, this has not been investigated in crop-wild hybrids. In this study, we examine phenotypic selection acting on, as well as the genetic architect...

  17. Inheritance of reduced saturated fatty acid content in sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Vick Brady A.; Jan C.C.; Miller Jerry F.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, consumers have become concerned with reducing the saturated fat content of their diet. Studies have indicated that high levels of saturated fat consumption are correlated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The total saturated fat content of oil from current sunflower hybrids averages about 130 g kg-1. To identify sunflower germplasm with reduced saturated fatty acid composition, a total of 884 cultivated sunflower accessions from the USDA-ARS North Central Regiona...

  18. SUNFLOWER SUPPLY INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gineo, Wayne M.; Sundquist, W. Burt

    1981-01-01

    This report is concerned with a discussion of the sunflower production sector. It summarizes and discusses the North American sunflower production sector in terms of area, acreage, total production, yields and prices. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of the potential level of sunflower production is made.

  19. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  20. Genetics and mapping of the R11 gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes a 20% yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in Nor...

  1. Sesquiterpene Lactone Composition of Wild and Cultivated Sunflowers and Biological Activity against an Insect Pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasifka, Jarrad R; Spring, Otmar; Conrad, Jürgen; Cook, Leonard W; Palmquist, Debra E; Foley, Michael E

    2015-04-29

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds, and insects. Across a broad range of Helianthus annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from disc florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers and also between distinct groups of inbreds used to produce sunflower hybrids. Discriminant function analysis showed the presence and relative abundance of argophyllone B, niveusin B, and 15-hydroxy-3-dehydrodesoxyfruticin were usually (75%) effective at classifying wild sunflowers, cultivated inbreds, and hybrids. Argophyllone B reduced the larval mass of the sunflower moth, Homeosoma electellum, by >30%, but only at a dose greater than that found in florets. Low doses of mixed extracts from cultivated florets produced a similar (≈40%) reduction in larval mass, suggesting combinations of sesquiterpene lactones act additively. Although the results support a role for sesquiterpene lactones in herbivore defense of cultivated sunflowers, additional information is needed to use these compounds purposefully in breeding.

  2. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  3. Heterosis profile of sunflower leaves: a label free proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohayeji, Mehdi; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Toorchi, Mahmood; Lagana, Aldo

    2014-03-17

    Heterosis is the superior performance of heterozygous F1-hybrid plants compared with their homozygous genetically distinct parents. The proteome of leaves of one sunflower hybrid and its parental inbred lines was analyzed by label free LC-MS/MS. A total of 1998 proteins were identified. Among them 38 proteins indicated heterosis pattern in hybrid compared with midparents. The results showed an increment of photosynthesis capacity, assimilation rate, nitrogen fixation, cell growth and reducing in some energy-consuming processes like protein production, response to stresses and respiration. These results suggest that heterosis mechanisms increase input energy of plant with reinforcement of carbon fixation pathway and reduction in consumed energy toward production of superior hybrid. This study could help to better elucidate what mechanisms are involved in heterosis of sunflower leaves and what happens at proteome level. The current work describes the first study in which gel-free shotgun proteomics was used to compare the proteome of leaves of one sunflower hybrid to its parental inbred lines. In this study 1998 proteins were identified from sunflower leaves with label free nano LC-MS/MS. The numbers of 38 proteins significantly showed heterosis pattern. The comparison between hybrid and parental inbred lines showed that hybrid vigor is actually linked by emphasizing the assimilation rate and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  5. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  6. Sunflower seed allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. prepare_taxa_charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhujani, Vijay; Badapanda, Chandan

    2017-06-01

    QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) is one of the most popular open-source bioinformatics suite for performing metagenome, 16S rRNA amplicon and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) data analysis. Although, it is very comprehensive and powerful tool, it lacks a method to provide publication ready taxonomic pie charts. The script plot_taxa_summary . py bundled with QIIME generate a html file and a folder containing taxonomic pie chart and legend as separate images. The images have randomly generated alphanumeric names. Therefore, it is difficult to associate the pie chart with the legend and the corresponding sample identifier. Even if the option to have the legend within the html file is selected while executing plot_taxa_summary . py , it is very tedious to crop a complete image (having both the pie chart and the legend) due to unequal image sizes. It requires a lot of time to manually prepare the pie charts for multiple samples for publication purpose. Moreover, there are chances of error while identifying the pie chart and legend pair due to random alphanumeric names of the images. To bypass all these bottlenecks and make this process efficient, we have developed a python based program, prepare_taxa_charts . py , to automate the renaming, cropping and merging of taxonomic pie chart and corresponding legend image into a single, good quality publication ready image. This program not only augments the functionality of plot_taxa_summary . py but is also very fast in terms of CPU time and user friendly.

  8. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Dal Belo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122 were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield and development stages (crop phenology were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %. Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1 and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations.

  9. Growth rhythms in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunflower hybrids maintain high level of stability in a variety of environments. Environmental variations affect and modify plant attributes like growth, development and assimilation through physio-morphic functions, thus modifying plant phenology. Field experiments, one each in spring and autumn, were conducted at Pir ...

  10. Growth rhythms in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... affect and modify plant attributes like growth, development and assimilation through physio-morphic functions, thus modifying plant ... and 2008) to document the effect of environmental variations on growth rhythms of sunflower hybrids. ..... temperature and maximum intercepted solar radiation at these crop ...

  11. Growth rhythms in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Sunflower hybrids, Alisson-RM, Parasio-24, MG-2 and S-278 were planted in randomized complete block design with four replications. The data based on physiological attributes like leaf area (LA), specific leaf area (SLA), crop growth rate (CGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) at 10 days interval after complete ...

  12. Sunflower mega-environments in Serbia revealed by GGE biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower mega-environment analysis was conducted for the grain yield data of 20 hybrids and 19 test locations during 2006, and 20 hybrids and 16 test locations during 2007. Combined data included 15 hybrids and 9 test locations common for both years and it was analyzed as balanced experiment. The analysis of variance components showed that hybrid by location interaction explained 2.74, 5.8, and 3.72 times more variation than hybrid, for grain yield, for 2006, 2007, combined data, respectively, and indicated potential mega-environment existence. Our results showed the existence of two mega-environments in Serbia sunflower growing region: (1 Kula Vitovnica, Aleksa Šantić, Sombor and (2 Rimski Šančevi, Kikinda. It has been concluded that if we want promising sunflower hybrids to be optimally used, they should be cropped differently for the two determined mega-environments.

  13. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren H. Rieseberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp. and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis, with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The “response to biotic stimulus” category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi. We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the

  14. Características fenológicas, produtivas e qualitativas de híbridos de girassol em diferentes épocas de semeadura para produção de silagem Sowing dates effects on the phenology, yield and qualitative traits of sunflower hybrids for silage making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renius Mello

    2006-06-01

    ógica.The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of three sowing dates: October (early, November (normal and December (late, on the phenological, yield and qualitative traits of four sunflower hybrids: Rumbosol-91 (forage, M-734 (double purpose, C-11 (double purpose and BRS-191 (grain grown for silage making. A 4 x 3 factorial treatment combination (four hybrids x three sowing dates was allocated in a randomized block design with four replications. The October sowing brought about longer cycle, higher plant height, and smaller seed head diameter and contribution due to the prevailing climatic conditions of lower temperature, insolation and photoperiod during the crop growth period. The Rumbosol-91 and BRS-191 hybrids sowed in November showed higher lodging plus stalk breaking proportion of about 49.6 and 65.7%, respectively. The BRS-191 and M-734 hybrids sowed in December showed higher biomass yields of 39.71 and 43.76 t ha-1 fresh matter and 11.31 and 11.41 t ha-1 drymatter, respectively. While the CP content increased, the NDF, ADF and ADL contents decreased from the stem, to the leaf and to the head plant fractions. The whole plant DM values ranged from 23.2% in the Rumbosol-91 hybrid sowed in November to 47.9% in the C-11 hybrid sowed in December, indicating that the hybrids have differentiated moisture retention capacity at similar physiologic maturity of the culture (R-9 phase. The CP values ranged from 7.0 to 15.7%, an evidence of the high protein content of the culture. The ADL values of the whole plant ranged among 6.5 to 12.4%, with lowest values for the M-734 hybrid sowed in December and C-11 hybrid sowed in October. The M-734 hybrid sowed in December has better relationship among phenology, yield and bromatological composition, traits required for the making of high quality silage.

  15. [Establishing the regeneration system of sunflower].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Caifeng; Zhang, Yifei; Chen, Yeting; Zhao, Liying; Yue, Peng; Teng, Xiangyong; Wang, Nanbo

    2011-09-01

    In order to establish a high efficient regeneration system of sunflower, we optimized the process of callus induction, differentiation and rooting by screening the optimum genotype, explant materials, hormone and cytokine concentration and additives. The results indicated that hybrid sunflowers were easier to regenerate than selfing ones; The best explant was four days cotyledon. The optimum induction medium was Murashige and Skoog (MS) + 2.0 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) + 0.5 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) + 1.0 mg/L kinetin (KT). The maximum rate of callus induction was 100%. The optimum differentiation medium was MS +0.2 mg/L 6-BA + 0.5 mg/L NAA + 0.3 mg/L KT + 0.3 mg/L silver nitrate (AgNO3) + 0.2 g/L active carbon (AC), and the buds differentiation rate was up to 71%. The best rooting culture medium was 1/2 MS + 0.6 mg/L indolebutyric acid (IBA). The highest rooting rate was 77%. The analysis of variance showed that genotype, explants growth time, different kinds and concentration of hormone, AC concentration had a significant effect on sunflower regeneration.

  16. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  17. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  18. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  19. EFFECTS OF ROW SPACING ON AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS OF THREE DOUBLE CROPPED SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS EFEITOS DO ESPAÇAMENTO ENTRE LINHAS NOS CARACTERES AGRONÔMICOS DE TRÊS HÍBRIDOS DE GIRASSOL CULTIVADOS NA SAFRINHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Barneche de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of the research was to evaluate the effects of row spacing on agronomic characteristics of three sunflower hybrids. The trial was carried out in Rio Verde, Goiás State, Brazil. The hybrids tested were Agrobel 960, BRHS 5, and Hélio 251, in four row spacing (40 cm, 50 cm, 70 cm, and 80 cm, in a population of 45.000 plants ha-1. The hybrids were planted in March 12, 2005, after bean grown in the summer season, and harvested in July 5. Achene yield and thousand weight, capitulum size, number of achenes per capitulum, and plant height were evaluated. The Agrobel 960 hybrid presented the largest achene yield and the smallest height. The larger yield of Agrobel 960 was attributed to the higher number of achenes per capitulum. The sunflower hybrids did not present significant differences for achene thousand weight and capitulum size. The 40 cm row spacing presented larger achene yield and number of achenes per capitulum. However, it did not influence the achene thousand weight, capitulum size, and plant height.

     

    KEY-WORDS: Helianthus annuus

  20. Stem cankers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia reveal a complex of pathogenic Diaporthe (Phomopsis) species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, S.M.; Tan, Y.P.; Young, A.J.; Neate, S.M.; Aitken, E.A.B.; Shivas, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of Diaporthe (anamorph Phomopsis) species associated with stem canker of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia was studied using morphology, DNA sequence analysis and pathology. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three clades that did not correspond with known taxa, and these are

  1. Integrated management of sunflower necrosis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shirshikar S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower necrosis disease (SND) is a new threat for sunflower cultivation in India. The disease was observed during 1997 in Karnataka, a major sunflower growing state of India. Later, its occurrence was reported from almost all sunflower growing states of India, posing threat to sunflower cultivation. Presently no reliable resistant sources are available. The disease being viral in nature is very much difficult to combat by single approach. At Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.), India, ...

  2. Evaluation and Identification of Alternaria leaf spot resistant sunflower genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    C. Gopalakrishnan, N.Manivannan, P.Vindhiyavarman and K.Thiyagarajan

    2010-01-01

    All India coordinated sunflower entries belonging to advance hybrid trial were screened initially by infector rowtechnique under field conditions followed by green house conditions by artificial inoculation during 2007 and2008 for Alternaria leaf blight resistance. The study indicated that field screening alone is not dependable forassessing the disease resistance, especially when the disease pressure is less because of chances of diseaseescape. The present study clearly shows that green hous...

  3. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N. [Unidad Integrada Balcarce, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Covi, Mauro [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Intendente Gueiraldes 2160, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nolasco, Susana M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Avda. del Valle 7537, B7400JWI, Olavarria (Argentina)

    2009-03-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard. (author)

  4. Combining ability's for yield components in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop new single-cross sunflower hybrids with an altered plant model and a high genetic potential for seed yield and oil content, it is essential to study the combining ability's of the inbred lines. Full diallel crosses with six genetically divergent sunflower inbreeds were carried out in order to study the mode of inheritance and combining ability for plant height and head diameter in the F1 and F2 generations. Significant differences in the mean values for the traits concerned were observed. The most common mode of inheritance of plant height in the F1 and F2 generations was super dominance, and there were also instances of partial dominance and dominance. The mode of inheritance of head diameter in the F1 and F2 generations was dominance and super dominance. Highly significant GCA and SCA value, for plant height and head diameter were recorded. We found a line (NS-NDF with negative GCA value that was also a good genera 1 combiner for reduced plant height and head diameter. .

  5. [Polymorphism and inheritance of seed storage protein in sunflower].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, I N; Gavrilova, V A; Loskutov, A V; Rozhkova, V T; Tolmachev, V V

    2004-09-01

    The data on polymorphism and inheritance of the seed storage protein helianthinin are presented. The results of hybrid analysis indicate that in the annual sunflower Helianthus annuus, helianthinin synthesis is controlled by at least three loci: HelA, HelB, HelB, and HelC. Codominant alleles controlling different electrophoretic variants of polypeptides were identified at each of the loci. The HelA locus was inherited independently of HelB and HelC in a series of dihybrid crosses. The frequencies of recombination between loci HelB and HelC estimated in F2 and BC of two crossing combinations were respectively 21.8 and 19.0%. Segregation of the Hel-C-controlled variants in the progenies from the crosses of cultured sunflower with annual wild species and forms corresponded to that theoretically expected for Mendelian inheritance. The maternal type of helianthinin inheritance was observed in the progenies from the crosses of inbred H. annuus lines with perennial diploid and polyploid Helianthus species. Altered expression of the HelC locus was detected in some hybrid combinations. These alterations appeared in early (F1, F2) hybrid generations and were similar in different hybrid combinations. They did not depend on the perennial paternal species being more influenced by the maternal genotype and by the mode of obtaining hybrids (in an embryo culture or in the field). These results are explained by "genomic shock" generated by hybridization of genetically incompatible species.

  6. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) in vivo assay for screening imidazolinone-resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, T; Breccia, G; Gil, M; Zorzoli, R; Picardi, L; Nestares, G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vivo acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity response to imidazolinones and its possible use as a selection method for evaluating AHAS inhibitor resistance. In vivo AHAS assay and the comparison of parameters from dose-response curves have been used as a valid tool for comparing sunflower lines and hybrids differing in imidazolinone resistance. The sunflower resistant genotypes evaluated here were 100-fold and 20-fold more resistant compared with the susceptible line for imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. This assay also allowed discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous genotypes for I(mr1) locus that codify for the catalytic subunit of AHAS. The in vivo AHAS assay described in this study was useful for the selection of sunflower genotypes differing in herbicide resistance and could be a useful tool when breeding for imidazolinone resistance in sunflower. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated pest management of the banded sunflower moth in cultivated sunflower in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key insect pest of cultivated sunflowers in North Dakota. We investigated pest management strategies to reduce feeding injury caused by the banded sunflower moth in commercial oilseed and confection sunflower fields l...

  8. INTEGRATED NITROGEN AND BORON FERTILIZATION IMPROVES THE PRODUCTIVITY AND OIL QUALITY OF SUNFLOWER GROWN IN A CALCAREOUS SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    SHEHZAD, Muhammad Asif; MAQSOOD, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Among biotic and abiotic factors, imbalanced plant nutrition is more indispensable for low sunflower productivity. To assess the interaction behavior of nitrogen with boron on sunflower growth, yield and its oil quality in alkaline-calcareous soils, a field experiment was conducted for two consecutive growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. Sunflower hybrid (Helianthus annuus ‘Hysun-33’) was grown on sandy clay loam soil that was amended with diverse boron rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 kg ha-1 under vari...

  9. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  10. Sunflower 1000-seed weight as affected by year and genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić Velimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For a successful seed production, it is necessary to know the size, i.e. 1000-seed weight, since it affects the sowing rate, plant density over the vegetative period as well as the seed yield per unit area. The study was conducted in field conditions, on plots where seed production of sunflower hybrids parental components was organized. Seed production was based at three different localities. Observation was conducted during the course of three years. The study was performed on 18 different genotypes. Considering the total number of the observed genotypes, 10 genotypes represented lines based on CMS, while the remaining 8 genotypes represented restorer lines. The study showed that 1000-seed weight was higher with CMS based lines than with restorer lines, which was expected considering the branching of the restorer lines. Sunflower 1000-seed weight depended on the year of observation and the observed genotype. Year had a significant effect on 1000-seed weight.

  11. Correlation studies on nitrogen for sunflower crop across the agroclimatic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Wajid; Belhouchette, Hatem; Tariq, Muhammad; Fahad, Shah; Hammad, Hafiz Mohkum; Mubeen, Muhammad; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed; Khan, Imran; Mahmood, Faisal; Abbas, Tauqeer; Rasul, Fahd; Nadeem, Muhammad; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Ullah, Najeeb; Alghabari, Fahad; Saud, Shah; Mubarak, Hussani; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is an important yield limiting factor for sunflower production. The correlation between yield components and growth parameters of three sunflower hybrids (Hysun-33, Hysun-38, Pioneer-64A93) were studied with five N rates (0, 60, 120, 180, 240 kg ha(-1)) at three different experimental sites during the two consecutive growing seasons 2008 and 2009. The results revealed that total dry matter (TDM) production and grain yield were positively and linearly associated with leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD), and crop growth rate (CGR) at all three sites of the experiments. The significant association of yield with growth components indicated that the humid climate was most suitable for sunflower production. Furthermore, the association of these components can be successfully used to predict the grain yield under diverse climatic conditions. The application of N at increased rate of 180 kg ha(-1) resulted in maximum yield as compared to standard rate (120 kg ha(-1)) at all the experimental sites. In this way, N application rate was significantly correlated with growth and development of sunflower under a variety of climatic conditions. Keeping in view such relationship, the N dose can be optimized for sunflower crop in a particular region to maximize the productivity. Multilocation trails help to predict the input rates precisely while taking climatic variations into account also. In the long run, results of this study provides basis for sustainable sunflower production under changing climate.

  12. Effect of water stress on yield and yield components of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment during year 2009 was conducted in the research station of the University of Tehran, College of Abouraihan in Pakdasht region, Iran. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on seed yield, yield component and some quantitative traits of four sunflower hybrids namely Azargol, Alstar, ...

  13. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  14. Four-year field experiment on nitrogen application to sunflower genotypes grown in semiarid conditions

    OpenAIRE

    De Giorgio D.; Montemurro V.; Fornaro F.

    2007-01-01

    A four-year field experiment was carried out to study the effects of different N levels on yield, yield components, N uptake and seed quality of sunflower genotypes grown in semiarid Mediterranean conditions. Five genotypes (four commercial hybrids and one newly selected genotype) and three N fertilization levels (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1) were compared over four years (1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999). Sunflower plants were taken at flowering time and their dry weight, leaf area index and total N c...

  15. Durability of resistance to rust in sunflower: Implications for resistance breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llamas José María

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower rust is caused by Puccinia helianthi Schw. and is an important disease in Argentina, Australia, Canada, Egypt, Israel, Turkey, USA and the former USSR. Sunflower rust is a macrocyclic, heterothallic and autoecious fungus, surviving mainly in plant debris in soil in the form of teliospores. New races of P. helianthi are continuously evolving and overcoming resistance genes, resulting in a continuous threat for the crop. The deployment of hybrids with simple resistances has exacerbated this problem. Combination of the appropriate R-genes could result in a resistance more difficult to overcome. The identification and characterization of new durable sources of sunflower rust resistance is a high priority for both researchers and industry. There is a possibility of breeding for high coumarin content to improve resistance at early stages of fungal development.

  16. Seed yield and protein content in sunflower depending on stand density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of stand density on seed yield and protein content in sunflower hybrids. The field experiment was carried out at Rimski Šančevi location. Six NS sunflower hybrids were examined. Five hybrids are confectionery (NS Goliat, NS Slatki, NS Gricko, Vranac and Cepko, and one is used for bird food (NS-H-6485. The trial was arranged as randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. Sowing was done with six different densities (from 20,000 to 70,000 plants per hectare, with an increment of 10,000 plants per hectare. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the effect of hybrid, stand density and hybrid × stand density interation were highly significant for seed yield and protein content. The highest seed yield, on the basis of average for all densities, was found in NS-H-6485 (4.77 t ha-1 and in NS Gricko (4.43 t ha-1. Average seed yield of hybrids significantly increased up to 50,000 plants per ha-1, when it reached the value of 4.50 t ha-1, and then decreased. Significantly higher protein content, taking into account all stand densities, showed hybrid Cepko (16.94%. Protein content, above the overall average value, was achieved in hybrid Vranac (16.11%. The high­est protein content in the average for all six hybrids was at the lowest stand density (20,000 plants per ha-1, and then decreased up to higher densities. The results showed that stand density had significant effect on seed yield and protein content in sunflower hybrids. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31025: The development of new cultivars and improving the technology of producing oil plant species for different purposes

  17. Impact of abiotic stress on photosynthetic efficiency and leaf temperature in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonela Markulj Kulundžić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the variability of photosynthetic performance index (PIABS and leaf temperature values measured in V6 development phase on 13 sunflower hybrids, grown in stressful conditions. The pot trial was made up of two treatments, one (T1 with 60% Field Water Capacity (FWC, and the other one (T2 with 80% FWC. Significant differences between T1 and T2 treatments were established for both of these parameters which prove their dependence on the water content in the soil, while the influence of hybrid was evident only in the case of PIABS. Although in T1, as opposed to T2, all sunflower hybrids reacted by increasing leaf temperature, reaction to stress conditions measured with PIABS parameter was not uniform. Some of the hybrids reacted by decreasing PIABS values, while others reacted by increasing their PIABS values. Therefore, it can be concluded that changes in parameters were independent of each other, which was confirmed by correlation analysis. Investigated parameters are suitable for determining the existence of undesirable environmental conditions that cause stress in plants and can be used in breeding of sunflower to withstand abiotic stress conditions, i.e. in selection of stress tolerant hybrids.

  18. 7 CFR 457.108 - Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of priority is as follows... for oil type sunflower seed grading U.S. No. 2, or non-oil type sunflower seed with a test weight of... area in which you normally market the sunflower seed. The local market price for oil type sunflower...

  19. SNP Discovery and Development of a High-Density Genotyping Array for Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlava, Eleni; Taylor, Christopher A.; Tang, Shunxue; Bowers, John E.; Mandel, Jennifer R.; Burke, John M.; Knapp, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have made possible the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms that allow for the simultaneous interrogation of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Such resources have the potential to facilitate the rapid development of high-density genetic maps, and to enable genome-wide association studies as well as molecular breeding approaches in a variety of taxa. Herein, we describe the development of a SNP genotyping resource for use in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). This work involved the development of a reference transcriptome assembly for sunflower, the discovery of thousands of high quality SNPs based on the generation and analysis of ca. 6 Gb of transcriptome re-sequencing data derived from multiple genotypes, the selection of 10,640 SNPs for inclusion in the genotyping array, and the use of the resulting array to screen a diverse panel of sunflower accessions as well as related wild species. The results of this work revealed a high frequency of polymorphic SNPs and relatively high level of cross-species transferability. Indeed, greater than 95% of successful SNP assays revealed polymorphism, and more than 90% of these assays could be successfully transferred to related wild species. Analysis of the polymorphism data revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that were largely congruent with the evolutionary history of sunflower, though the large number of markers allowed for finer resolution than has previously been possible. PMID:22238659

  20. Chemicals involved in honeybee-sunflower relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Delegue, M H; Etievant, P; Guichard, E; Marilleau, R; Douault, P; Chauffaille, J; Masson, C

    1990-11-01

    We present a review of work on the plant chemicals involved in the honeybee-sunflower model system. Combined behavioral and chemical analyses were conducted under natural and controlled conditions. First the distribution of forager bees' visits on two pairs of sunflower genotypes producing a different level of hybrid seed yield was recorded under pollen-proof tunnels. Mirasol parental lines producing high seed yields were visited at random, whereas forager bees visited preferentially the female parental line of Marianne, resulting in low seed yield. Nectar samples collected on the genotypes were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose were identified. Parental lines of Mirasol showed similar sugar profiles, whereas the female line of Marianne contained higher amounts of sucrose than the male line. We assume that the bees' preferences between genotypes might rely on differences in the sugar composition of floral nectars, especially in the amount of sucrose. Aromas from headspace collection were compared between pairs and periodically during the flowering period. Of the 144 components indexed for Marianne lines and 136 components for Mirasol lines, 17 of the components for Marianne lines and 18 for Mirasol lines differed significantly according to flowering stage. Significant differences appeared in eight of the 134 components of Marianne lines and in 20 of the 250 components for Mirasol lines. Such differences, even restricted to a few components, might account for honeybees' discrimination between genotypes or flowering stage. Experiments then were conducted in a flight room using an artificial flower device. A total volatile extract was used as a conditioning scent previous to the test where the total extract was successively compared to several of its subfractions. Fractions significantly less visited than the total extract were discarded, whereas fractions confused with the total extract were kept. From step to step, a restricted fraction

  1. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  2. Electrical Properties of Sunflower Achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Ján

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work contains the results of measuring the electrical properties of sunflower achenes. The interest in electrical properties of biological materials resulted in engineering research in this field. The results of measurements are used for determining the moisture content, the surface level of liquid and grainy materials, for controlling the presence of pests in grain storage, for the quantitative determination of mechanical damage, in the application of dielectric heating, and in many other areas. Electrical measurements of these materials are of fundamental importance in relation to the analysis of quantity of absorbed water and dielectric heating characteristics. It is a well-known fact that electrical properties of materials, namely dielectric constant and conductivity, are affected by the moisture content of material. This fact is important for the design of many commercial moisturetesting instruments for agricultural products. The knowledge of dielectric properties of materials is necessary for the application of dielectric heating. The aim of this work was to measure conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent on samples of sunflower achenes, the electrical properties of which had not been sufficiently measured. Measurements were performed under variable moisture content and the frequency of electric field ranging from 1 MHz to 16 MHz, using a Q meter with coaxial probe. It was concluded that conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent increased with increasing moisture content, and dielectric constant and loss tangent decreased as the frequency of electric field increased.

  3. Interspecific amphiploid-derived alloplasmic male sterility with defective anthers, narrow disk florets, and small ray flowers in sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS)/fertility-restoration system is important for hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed production. Two novel alloplasmic CMSs, designated CMS GRO1 and CMS MAX3 with defective anthers, narrow disk florets with no swollen corolla, and short, narrow ray flowers,...

  4. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Michael B.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Khoury, Colin K.; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C.; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation. PMID:26500675

  5. Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Daniel Gomes Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some people are born with the wish of being different: some want to be politicians to mark the History in their country, others want to be football players, others want to have an “ability” that makes them special, like flying, reading people’s minds, mind control, etc, but aren’t we perfect as we are? Normality is the only perfection in our lives, but the thirst for power prevents us from doing the right thing. Even if we have a good heart, we are always prone to corruption, so as to fulfill our thirst for power.  We have the example of some politicians and other people in charge of enterprises who had power but used it for their own good, even if that meant harming people others. The short story that I present is completely original, but it’s a criticism of the corruptive influence of power. We can say that “If you want to know a man, give him power”.

  6. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  7. Filtration of sunflower oil in the field of vibroacoustic effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. A. Bredikhin; F. Y. Rudik; M. S. Tuliyeva

    2017-01-01

    Purification of crude unrefined sunflower oil along with the removal of primary oxidation products is an urgent task to remove the solid constituents formed during the processing of sunflower seeds...

  8. Analysis of transposons and repeat composition of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia; Zuccolo, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Jurman, Irena; Ferrillo, Veronica; Vitacolonna, Nicola; Sarri, Vania; Cattonaro, Federica; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cionini, Pier Giorgio; Morgante, Michele

    2010-02-01

    A sample-sequencing strategy combined with slot-blot hybridization and FISH was used to study the composition of the repetitive component of the sunflower genome. One thousand six hundred thirty-eight sequences for a total of 954,517 bp were analyzed. The fraction of sequences that can be classified as repetitive using computational and hybridization approaches amounts to 62% in total. Almost two thirds remain as yet uncharacterized in nature. Of those characterized, most belong to the gypsy superfamily of LTR-retrotransposons. Unlike in other species, where single families can account for large fractions of the genome, it appears that no transposon family has been amplified to very high levels in sunflower. All other known classes of transposable elements were also found. One family of unknown nature (contig 61) was the most repeated in the sunflower genome. The evolution of the repetitive component in the Helianthus genus and in other Asteraceae was studied by comparative analysis of the hybridization of total genomic DNAs from these species to the sunflower small-insert library and compared to gene-based phylogeny. Very little similarity is observed between Helianthus species and two related Asteraceae species outside of the genus. Most repetitive elements are similar in annual and perennial Helianthus species indicating that sequence amplification largely predates such divergence. Gypsy-like elements are more represented in the annuals than in the perennials, while copia-like elements are similarly represented, attesting a different amplification history of the two superfamilies of LTR-retrotransposons in the Helianthus genus.

  9. A Partial Equilibrium Analysis of Sunflower Market in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    B. Miran; G. Unakitan

    2006-01-01

    Sunflower oil is the most preferred vegetable oil in Turkey. 35% of total consumption of vegetable oil issunflower oil. Sunflower seed import is approximately 500-650 thousand tons while sunflower seedproduction is 800-850 thousand tons in the last years. The main objective of this study is to determine thereasons of deficiency of vegetable oil in Turkey and to suggest some solutions. For this objective, theprospective situation and the market structure of sunflower seed in Turkey has estimat...

  10. Indicator taxa revisited: useful for conservation planning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper; Rahbek, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Aim:  Indicators for biodiversity are needed to facilitate the identification of complementary reserve networks for biodiversity conservation. One widely adopted approach is to use indicator taxa, i.e. a single taxon such as birds or butterflies, despite the ongoing debate regarding their usefuln......Aim:  Indicators for biodiversity are needed to facilitate the identification of complementary reserve networks for biodiversity conservation. One widely adopted approach is to use indicator taxa, i.e. a single taxon such as birds or butterflies, despite the ongoing debate regarding...... their usefulness as indicators of broader biodiversity. Here we assess several aspects, such as influence of species number, of indicator taxa for three extensive data sets to improve our insight into the effectiveness of indicator taxa. Location:  Denmark, sub-Saharan Africa and Uganda. Methods:  First, we...... investigate to what extent variation in species number between indicator taxa (e.g. 488 mammal spp. vs. 210 snake spp.) is causing the differences in effectiveness between indicator taxa. Second, we investigate whether indicator taxa are capable of outperforming indicator groups composed of random sets...

  11. The sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Martinez, Yves; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Vear, Felicity; Pichon, Magalie; Godiard, Laurence

    2015-02-01

    Downy mildew of sunflower is caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farlow) Berlese & de Toni. Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen that attacks annual Helianthus species and cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Depending on the sunflower developmental stage at which infection occurs, the characteristic symptoms range from young seedling death, plant dwarfing, leaf bleaching and sporulation to the production of infertile flowers. Downy mildew attacks can have a great economic impact on sunflower crops, and several Pl resistance genes are present in cultivars to protect them against the disease. Nevertheless, some of these resistances have been overcome by the occurrence of novel isolates of the pathogen showing increased virulence. A better characterization of P. halstedii infection and dissemination mechanisms, and the identification of the molecular basis of the interaction with sunflower, is a prerequisite to efficiently fight this pathogen. This review summarizes what is currently known about P. halstedii, provides new insights into its infection cycle on resistant and susceptible sunflower lines using scanning electron and light microscopy imaging, and sheds light on the pathogenicity factors of P. halstedii obtained from recent molecular data. Kingdom Stramenopila; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Plasmopara; Species Plasmopara halstedii. Sunflower seedling damping off, dwarfing of the plant, bleaching of leaves, starting from veins, and visible white sporulation, initially on the lower side of cotyledons and leaves. Plasmopara halstedii infection may severely impact sunflower seed yield. In spring, germination of overwintered sexual oospores leads to sunflower root infection. Intercellular hyphae are responsible for systemic plant colonization and the induction of disease symptoms. Under humid and fresh conditions, dissemination structures are produced by the pathogen on all

  12. 7 CFR 810.1801 - Definition of sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sunflower seed. 810.1801 Section 810... STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Terms Defined § 810.1801 Definition of sunflower seed. Grain that, before the removal of foreign material, consists of 50.0 percent or...

  13. Frankfurter Type Sausage Production with Sunflower Oil Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Ertaş, A. Hamdi; KARABAŞ, Gülay

    1998-01-01

    Some quality characteristics of frankfurter type sausages (with 30% total fat) produced by adding sunflower oil at different levels (10%, 20% and 30%) were determined and compared to control with 30% animal fat. Increasing of sunflower oil content resulted in lower process yield. Cholesterol content and water holding capacity of frankfurters also decreased at the levels of sunflower oil from 10 to 30% (P

  14. Sunflower disease and insect pests in Pakistan: A review | Mukhtar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... insects and nematodes attack damage the sunflower crop, results a wide range of loss in production and yield. Sunflower is susceptible to diseases of various kinds. The most serious diseases of sunflower are caused by fungi. The major diseases include rust, downy mildew, Verticillium wilt, Sclerotinia stalk and head rot, ...

  15. Progress on introduction of rust resistance genes into confection sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi) emerged as a serious disease in the last few years. Confection sunflower is particularly vulnerable to the disease due to the lack of resistance sources. The objectives of this project are to transfer rust resistance genes from oil sunflower to confectionery sunfl...

  16. Loss of sunflower seeds to columbids in South Africa: economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey across the sunflower production region of South Africa during November 2003 to July 2005 estimated the loss of sunflower seeds to columbids (doves and pigeons, Aves: Columbidae). Farmers estimated that 12.7% of the national yield was lost to columbids. In a follow-up survey, 37 sunflower fields were visited ...

  17. Ecological niches of open ocean phytoplankton taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Vogt, Meike; Payne, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We characterize the realized ecological niches of 133 phytoplankton taxa in the open ocean based on observations from the MAREDAT initiative and a statistical species distribution model (MaxEnt). The models find that the physical conditions (mixed layer depth, temperature, light) govern large...... conditions in the open ocean. Our estimates of the realized niches roughly match the predictions of Reynolds' C-S-R model for the global ocean, namely that taxa classified as nutrient stress tolerant have niches at lower nutrient and higher irradiance conditions than light stress tolerant taxa. Yet...

  18. Complete genome sequence of sunflower ring blotch virus, a new potyvirus infecting sunflower in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Mederos, Dariel; Bejerman, Nicolás; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2017-06-01

    The complete genome sequence of sunflower ring blotch virus (SuRBV), a previously undescribed potyvirus infecting sunflower in Argentina, is reported. The SuRBV genome comprises 9555 nucleotides (nt) and encodes a polyprotein of 3061 amino acids, flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 117 and 255 nt, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SuRBV belongs to the potato virus Y (PVY) subgroup and clusters together with sunflower chlorotic mottle virus and bidens mosaic virus. Percentage nucleotide identity between the whole genomes of SuRBV and BiMV was 70.6%, suggesting SuRBV should be considered a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus.

  19. In vitro propagation of endangered Dianthus taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of recent researches regarding the in vitro culture of 30 endangered Dianthus taxa is presented in this paper. Various in vitro protocols developed for selected rare and threatened Dianthus taxa are analysed in order to provide a useful synthesis of the data obtained with the main principles, techniques and recommendations for futher research and practice. The recapitulated data presented in this review can be used as a tool for the micropropagation of other endangered Dianthus taxa, enabling their propagation and obtaining a sufficient amount of plants for reintroduction. In addition, the obtained results represent the basis for ex situ conservation of the investigated taxa, especially for medium-term and long-term conservation (cryopreservation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  20. Antibacterial activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Oleozon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, L A; Lezcano, I; Nunez, N; Espim, M; Duprè, I; Pinna, A; Molicotti, P; Fadda, G; Zanetti, S

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of the ozonized sunflower oil (Oleozon) on different bacterial species isolated from different sites. The effect of Oleozon on Mycobacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, Pseudomonas and Escherichia coli was tested. The sunflower oil was ozonized at the Centro de Investigaciones del Ozone (CENIC, Havana, Cuba) by an ozone generator. MICs were determined by the agar dilution method. For Mycobacteria, the MIC of Oleozon was determined on solid medium by a microdrop agar proportion test. Oleozon showed antimicrobial activity against all strains analysed, with an MIC ranging from 1.18 to 9.5 mg ml-1. Oleozon showed a valuable antimicrobial activity against all micro-organisms tested. Results suggest that Mycobacteria are more susceptible to Oleozon than the other bacteria tested. The wide availability of sunflower oil makes Oleozon a competitive antimicrobial agent. These results should prompt the setting up of some clinical trials to compare Oleozon with other antimicrobial agents.

  1. Sunflower genetic, genomic and ecological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Nolan C; Burke, John M; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Vear, Felicity; Baute, Gregory; Knapp, Steven J; Vincourt, Patrick; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2013-01-01

    Long a major focus of genetic research and breeding, sunflowers (Helianthus) are emerging as an increasingly important experimental system for ecological and evolutionary studies. Here, we review the various attributes of wild and domesticated sunflowers that make them valuable for ecological experimentation and describe the numerous publicly available resources that have enabled rapid advances in ecological and evolutionary genetics. Resources include seed collections available from germplasm centres at the USDA and INRA, genomic and EST sequences, mapping populations, genetic markers, genetic and physical maps and other forward- and reverse-genetic tools. We also discuss some of the key evolutionary, genetic and ecological questions being addressed in sunflowers, as well as gaps in our knowledge and promising areas for future research. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. The repetitive component of the sunflower genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Giordani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus and species belonging to the genus Helianthus are emerging as a model species and genus for a number of studies on genome evolution. In this review, we report on the repetitive component of the H. annuus genome at the biochemical, molecular, cytological, and genomic levels. Recent work on sunflower genome composition is described, with emphasis on different types of repeat sequences, especially LTR-retrotransposons, of which we report on isolation, characterisation, cytological localisation, transcription, dynamics of proliferation, and comparative analyses within the genus Helianthus.

  3. Impact of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, on Yield of the Cultivated Sunflower, Helianthus annuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J.P.; Grant, Angela K.; Jyoti, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Foliar and soil-drench insecticide treatments were used in attempts to manipulate infestation of cultivated sunflower plants, Helianthus annuus LeConte (Asterales: Asteraceae) by Dectes texanus LeConte, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) a serious pest of sunflowers in the High Plains of the USA. Seed yields were assessed on a per-plant basis for both oilseed and confection type sunflower hybrids in two years. Both insecticide treatments (foliar ë-cyhalothrin and soil-drench carbofuran) improved yield of oilseed sunflowers in 2004, but not in 2005. Yield of confection hybrids was improved by a systemic fungicide (thiophanate methyl) in 2005, but insecticides did not improve yield in either year. Both insecticide treatments gave good control of various stalk-boring insects such as Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), and Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but neither gave better than 50% control of D. texanus. Plants were sorted according to the presence or absence of D. texanus larvae and no reduction was found in total seed weight, seed size, or oil content as a result of infestation. However, mature larvae of D. texanus girdle stalks at the base in preparation for overwintering, a behavior that reduced stalk breakage force by 34–40%, leading to yield losses through lodging. At harvest in 2005, there were differences between cultivars and among treatments in the proportions of D. texanus larvae that had girdled their plants at harvest. It was concluded that further research aimed at reducing crop losses to D. texanus should focus on means of delaying stalk desiccation and/or deterioration, factors that appear to trigger girdling behavior. PMID:20307233

  4. Spatial structure of a natural mixed topodeme of subalpine Sorbus taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Gömöry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and genetic variation of a population of Sorbus chamaemespilus (L. Crantz and putative hybrids between S. chamaemespilus, S. aria and S. aucuparia growing in the nature reserve Skalnä Alpa (central Slovakia were studied. The analysis of spatial patterns using Ripley's K-function revealed a significant clustering of the adults of both S. chamaemespilus and hybrid taxa at distances up to ~15 m and a strong affinity between both taxonomical groups, indicating similar ecological requirements. Bivariate point-pattern analysis considering cardinal direction showed that juvenile individuals of S. chamaemespilus are clustered around the adults up to the distance of ~2 m, whereas in hybrid taxa with larger and more dense crowns, juveniles are clustered at distances more than ~3 m from the adults. The analysis of genetic variation in a subset of adult shrubs using 4 nuclear microsatellite loci revealed that unlike expected, there was no variation in S. chamaemespilus but several genotypes were found in the group of hybrid taxa. Implications for the reproduction system and conservation of the investigated taxa are discussed.

  5. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  7. Sunflower Array Antenna with Adjustable Density Taper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganó, M.C.; Toso, G.; Caille, G.; Mangenot, C.; Lager, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    A deterministic procedure to design a nonperiodic planar array radiating a rotationally symmetric pencil beam pattern with an adjustable sidelobe level is proposed. The elements positions are derived by modifying the peculiar locations of the sunflower seeds in such a way that the corresponding

  8. Nickel remediation by AM-colonized sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Keomany; Charest, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    This greenhouse study aimed to examine the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the uptake of and tolerance to nickel (Ni) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). We hypothesized that AM colonization increases Ni content and tolerance in sunflower grown under varying soil Ni concentrations. The combined effect of AM colonization and soil Ni input on the assimilation of nitrogen, in particular the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), in sunflower plants was also investigated. A factorial experimental design was performed with sunflower cv. Lemon Queen, with or without the AM fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, and treated with 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg Ni kg(-1) dry soil (DS). The AM colonization significantly enhanced plant growth and Ni content, especially at the lower soil Ni treatments. Furthermore, the AM plants exposed to the highest soil Ni level of 400 mg Ni kg(-1) DS had a significantly higher shoot Ni extracted percentage than non-AM plants, suggesting that the AM symbiosis contributed to Ni uptake, then its translocation from roots to shoots. The AM colonization also significantly increased the GS activity in roots, this being likely an indicator of an enhanced Ni tolerance. These findings support the hypothesis that AM symbiosis contributes to an enhanced Ni plant uptake and tolerance and should be considered as part of phytoremediation strategies.

  9. Registration of the oilseed restorer sunflower germplasms RHA 472, RHA 473, RHA 474, and RHA 475, possessing resistance to Sclerotinia head rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most significant disease threat to sunflower production in most of the world is Sclerotinia head rot (HR), caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Resistance to Sclerotinia is available in some inbred lines, but no line or hybrid is immune to it and all resis...

  10. Copyrolysis of lignites and sunflower seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sait Tascy; Tuncer Erciyes; Hasancan Okutan; Ekrem Ekinci [Osmangazi University (Turkey). Department. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Limitation to oil yield in static atmospheres is usually experienced during pyrolysis of hydrogen deficient hydrocarbons. One way of preventing this shortage may be the use of copyrolysis operations which may, either increase the oil yield, and/or modify composition of liquid products. In this study copyrolysis of Goynuk lignite and sunflower oil has been conducted in a modified Heinze retort using 100 g sample sizes. Lignite and sunflower oil were pyrolysed separately using 5{sup o}C heating rate up to 600{sup o}C. At this final temperature the system held for 30 minutes. Using similar experimental conditions (28:72%), (50:50%) and (70:30%) sunflower oil and lignite mixtures were also copyrolysed. After the cooling operation, the tars which collected were fractionated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions in a silica gel column chromatography using n-hexane, toluene and methanol. Aliphatic fractions were subjected to GC/MS analysis. The total yield and liquid yield showed a synergy for (28-72%) oil-lignite mixture whereas negative synergy was obtained for the (70-30%) oil-lignite mixture. Tars obtained from the mixtures were found to be depressed in aliphatic and aromatic fraction and promoted in polar fractions. This behaviour is explained in terms of hydrogen deficiency resulting in shortage of hydrogenation reactions. On the other hand, the abundant unsaturated oxygen containing moieties in the sunflower oil increased the polar fractions. The overwhelmingly paraffinic (69.5 %) and moderate (21.1 %) olefinic structure of the pure lignite tar was found to decrease in parrafins and increase in olephins with increasing amount of sunflower oil in the mixture. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus E; Christensen, Lars P

    2015-03-01

    Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. The concentration of SLs on the sunflower seeds is considered high enough to elicit dermatitis in sensitive persons, and it seems appropriate to warn Compositae-allergic subjects against handling sunflower seeds. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The genomic organization of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in Helianthus (Asteraceae) homoploid hybrid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, S Evan; Ungerer, Mark C; Moore, Richard C

    2009-09-01

    The origin of new diploid, or homoploid, hybrid species is associated with rapid genomic restructuring in the hybrid neospecies. This mode of speciation has been best characterized in wild sunflower species in the genus Helianthus, where three homoploid hybrid species (H. anomalus, H. deserticola, and H. paradoxus) have independently arisen via ancient hybridization events between the same two parental species (H. annuus and H. petiolaris). Most previous work examining genomic restructuring in these sunflower hybrid species has focused on chromosomal rearrangements. However, the origin of all three homoploid hybrid sunflower species also is associated with massive proliferation events of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in the hybrid species' genomes. We compared the genomic organization of these elements in the parent species and two of the homoploid hybrid species using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We found a significant expansion of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons confined to the pericentromeric regions of two hybrid sunflower species, H. deserticola and H. paradoxus. In contrast, we detected no significant increase in the frequency or extent of dispersed retrotransposon populations in the hybrid species within the resolution limits of our assay. We discuss the potential role that transposable element proliferation and localization plays in the evolution of homoploid hybrid species.

  13. Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marcell K.; Hemp, Andreas; Appelhans, Tim; Behler, Christina; Classen, Alice; Detsch, Florian; Ensslin, Andreas; Ferger, Stefan W.; Frederiksen, Sara B.; Gebert, Friederike; Haas, Michael; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Hemp, Claudia; Kindeketa, William J.; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Ngereza, Christine; Otte, Insa; Röder, Juliane; Rutten, Gemma; Schellenberger Costa, David; Tardanico, Joseph; Zancolli, Giulia; Deckert, Jürgen; Eardley, Connal D.; Peters, Ralph S.; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Schleuning, Matthias; Ssymank, Axel; Kakengi, Victor; Zhang, Jie; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Brandl, Roland; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kleyer, Michael; Nauss, Thomas; Tschapka, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single taxa show complex distribution patterns and respond to different environmental factors, scaling up diversity to the community level leads to an unambiguous support for temperature as the main predictor of species richness in both plants and animals. Our findings illuminate the influence of taxonomic coverage for models of diversity gradients and point to the importance of temperature for diversification and species coexistence in plant and animal communities. PMID:28004657

  14. Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marcell K; Hemp, Andreas; Appelhans, Tim; Behler, Christina; Classen, Alice; Detsch, Florian; Ensslin, Andreas; Ferger, Stefan W; Frederiksen, Sara B; Gebert, Friederike; Haas, Michael; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Hemp, Claudia; Kindeketa, William J; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Ngereza, Christine; Otte, Insa; Röder, Juliane; Rutten, Gemma; Schellenberger Costa, David; Tardanico, Joseph; Zancolli, Giulia; Deckert, Jürgen; Eardley, Connal D; Peters, Ralph S; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Schleuning, Matthias; Ssymank, Axel; Kakengi, Victor; Zhang, Jie; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Brandl, Roland; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kleyer, Michael; Nauss, Thomas; Tschapka, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-12-22

    The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single taxa show complex distribution patterns and respond to different environmental factors, scaling up diversity to the community level leads to an unambiguous support for temperature as the main predictor of species richness in both plants and animals. Our findings illuminate the influence of taxonomic coverage for models of diversity gradients and point to the importance of temperature for diversification and species coexistence in plant and animal communities.

  15. Sunflower (Helinathus annuus L.): A potential crop for environmental industry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad M.N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sunflower applications in phytotechnologies for the clean-up of inorganic and organic contaminants and pollutants are reviewed in this compilation. There have been several apprehensions on the application of phytoremediation technology. High bioproductivity and biomass yield are a must for the success of this strategy. The phytoextraction coefficient of sunflowers is high compared with many other species. Sunflower is a proven laboratory and field example for the emerging environmental indust...

  16. Correlation and path analysis of yield and yield components of confectionary sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Path coefficient analysis was applied to gain information on direct and indirect effects of studied traits (seed oil content, kernel oil content, seed protein content, kernel protein content, head diameter, kernel ratio and plant height on sunflower seed yield. Traits which exhibit the highest effects on seed yield will be used as a selection criterion in confectionary sunflower breeding. The research was conducted during three vegetation seasons on 22 experimental confectionary sunflower hybrids, created in breeding program the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops. Among the largest number of examined traits, significant and highly significant correlations were found. With the analysis of simple correlation coefficients a low interdependence was determined between, kernel protein content, plant heights with seed yield. Negative but weak correlation was determined between kernel oil content, seed protein content, kernel ratio with seed yield. Established a negative strong correlation of head diameter (-0.190* and negative very strong correlation of seed oil content (-0.351** with seed yield. The seed oil content had a very strong direct negative effect on seed yield (DE=-0.831**. The head diameter, plant height, seed protein content had weak negative direct effect on seed yield. Kernel protein content and kernel oil content has demonstrated a weak direct positive effect on seed yield. Path coefficient analysis for seed yield showed very strong direct effect for kernel ratio (DE=0.487* on seed yield, it shows that the kernel ratio is important selection criterion for confectionary sunflower breeding. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31025: Development of new varieties and production technology improvement of oil crops for different purposes

  17. Expressed Sequence Tags from the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii, an obligate parasite of the sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouzeyar Said

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sunflower downy mildew is a major disease caused by the obligatory biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenicity. In this study we used a genomics approach to gain a first insight into the transcriptome of P. halstedii. Results To identify genes from the obligatory biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii that are expressed during infection in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. we employed the suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH method from sunflower seedlings infected by P. halstedii. Using this method and random sequencing of clones, a total of 602 expressed sequence tags (ESTs corresponding to 230 unique sequence sets were identified. To determine the origin of the unisequences, PCR primers were designed to amplify these gene fragments from genomic DNA isolated either from P. halstedii sporangia or from Helianthus annuus. Only 145 nonredundant ESTs which correspond to a total of 373 ESTs (67.7% proved to be derived from P. halstedii genes and that are expressed during infection in sunflower. A set of 87 nonredundant sequences were identified as showing matches to sequences deposited in public databases. Nevertheless, about 7% of the ESTs seem to be unique to P. halstedii without any homolog in any public database. Conclusion A summary of the assignment of nonredundant ESTs to functional categories as well as their relative abundance is listed and discussed. Annotation of the ESTs revealed a number of genes that could function in virulence. We provide a first glimpse into the gene content of P. halstedii. These resources should accelerate research on this important pathogen.

  18. Intramolecular transesterification of glycerides during the hydrogenation of sunflower oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyutyunnikov, B.N; Mastruk, M.S

    1972-01-01

    The intramolecular transesterification of glycerides, the migration of the acyls of fatty acids between positions within the same glyceride molecule, was traced during the hydrogenation of sunflower...

  19. Chemical changes in sunflower silage associated with different additives

    OpenAIRE

    Goes,Rafael Henrique de Tonissi e Buschinelli de; Miyagi,Eliane Sayuri; Oliveira,Euclides Reuter de; Brabes,Kelly Cristina da Silva; Patussi,Rosielen Augusto; Dambrós,Carlos Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-six experimental silos arranged in a completely randomized 4 x 3 factorial design were provided to evaluate the chemical changes of sunflower silage treated with soybean hulls, sunflower crushed and urea at 14, 21 and 28 days of ensilage. The additives were based on 5% natural matter, whereas control consisted of silage with 100% sunflower plant. OM, NDIP, and MM had average rates 911.2; 86.6 and 92.9 g kg-1 of dry matter respectively. The addition of soybean hulls and sunflower crushe...

  20. Meristem transformation of sunflower via Agrobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrammeijer, B; Sijmons, P C; van den Elzen, P J; Hoekema, A

    1990-07-01

    For transformation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Zebulon), shoot apical meristems were dissected from seeds and cocultivated with a disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a binary vector carrying genes encoding GUS- and NPTII-activity. The influence of the media conditions, the time of cocultivation and the stage of the developing seed on shoot development and meristem transformation was analysed. Transformants were selected by their ability to grow on kanamycin. Transformation was confirmed by assays for GUS and NPTII. GUS-positive shoots were rooted on rockwool and transferred to soil. Transformation of shoot meristem cells occurred at low frequencies. Chimaeric expression of the two genes was observed in transformed plants. Integration of the foreign DNA in the sunflower genome was confirmed with the polymerase chain reaction.

  1. Physical properties of sunflower seeds during drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Adriana de Souza Smaniotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect that the moisture content has on the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The cultivar Olisun 3, with an initial moisture content of 34.1 (% wb, was used and then subjected to drying in an oven with forced air ventilation under three temperature conditions: 40, 60 and 80 °C. The reduction in the moisture content during drying was monitored by the gravimetric method until it reached a final moisture content of 8.0 ± 1.0 (% wb. The physical properties were analysed: the bulk density, true density, intergranular porosity and volumetric shrinkage of the mass and unit and terminal velocity. The reduction in the moisture content influenced the physical properties of sunflower seeds and caused a decrease in the intergranular porosity, bulk density and true density at all examined temperatures. The mass and volumetric contractions of the unit and reduction in shrinkage rates all increased with the drying of sunflower seeds at all studied temperatures. The terminal velocity increased as the moisture content of the grains increased, which was more evident at the drying temperature of 80 °C.

  2. Considerations concerning a new sunflower oil plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruckenstein, C.

    1982-01-01

    The turn-key project to process sunflower seed is described in detail. This factory will process decorticated sunflower seed which ensures meal with higher protein content (40-42%). The hulls from the decortication will be burned to produce 35 tons steam per hour. Quantities of hulls left over can be pelleted. Unloading section of the plant is designed for 300 tons per hour. The drying section for the first stage is foreseen for 100 tons per hour drying the seeds from 16% to 10% moisture. In the factory there is a second-stage dryer before decortication bringing the moisture in the seeds from 10% down to 8%. The basic technological process consists of cleaning, decortication, preparation, pre-pressing, extraction, and meal treatment. Meal can be sold in bulk or pelleted. The factory is designed for the actual sunflower seed from North Dakota with an average oil content of 40%. In a few years this content will be increased to 45%.

  3. The chemical inducer, BTH (benzothiadiazole) and root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus spp.) trigger resistance against white rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bán, Rita; Baglyas, Gellért; Virányi, Ferenc; Barna, Balázs; Posta, Katalin; Kiss, József; Körösi, Katalin

    2017-03-01

    White rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SS) is one of the most devastating plant diseases of sunflower. Controlling this pathogen by available tools hardly result in acceptable control. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of plant resistance inducers, BTH (benzothiadiazole in Bion 50 WG) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on disease development of white rot in three sunflower genotypes. Defence responses were characterized by measuring the disease severity and identifying cellular/histological reactions (e.g. autofluorescence) of host plants upon infection. Depending on the host genotype, a single application of inducers reduced disease symptoms. Histological examination of host responses revealed that BTH and/or AMF pre-treatments significantly impeded the development of pathogenic hyphae in Iregi szürke csíkos and P63LE13 sunflower plants and it was associated with intensive autofluorescence of cells. Both localized and systemic induction of resistance was observed. Importantly, the frequency of mycorrhization of hybrid P63LE13 and PR64H41 was significantly increased upon BTH treatment, so it had a positive effect on the formation of plant-mycorrhiza interactions in sunflower. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the additive effect of BTH on mycorrhization and the positive effect of these inducers against SS in sunflower.

  4. Diversifying Sunflower Germplasm by Integration and Mapping of a Novel Male Fertility Restoration Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Wang, Dexing; Feng, Jiuhuan; Seiler, Gerald J.; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    The combination of a single cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) PET-1 and the corresponding fertility restoration (Rf) gene Rf1 is used for commercial hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34) seed production worldwide. A new CMS line 514A was recently developed with H. tuberosus cytoplasm. However, 33 maintainers and restorers for CMS PET-1 and 20 additional tester lines failed to restore the fertility of CMS 514A. Here, we report the discovery, characterization, and molecular mapping of a novel Rf gene for CMS 514A derived from an amphiploid (Amp H. angustifolius/P 21, 2n = 68). Progeny analysis of the male-fertile (MF) plants (2n = 35) suggested that this gene, designated Rf6, was located on a single alien chromosome. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) indicated that Rf6 was on a chromosome with a small segment translocation on the long arm in the MF progenies (2n = 34). Rf6 was mapped to linkage group (LG) 3 of the sunflower SSR map. Eight markers were identified to be linked to this gene, covering a distance of 10.8 cM. Two markers, ORS13 and ORS1114, were only 1.6 cM away from the gene. Severe segregation distortions were observed for both the fertility trait and the linked marker loci, suggesting the possibility of a low frequency of recombination or gamete selection in this region. This study discovered a new CMS/Rf gene system derived from wild species and provided significant insight into the genetic basis of this system. This will diversify the germplasm for sunflower breeding and facilitate understanding of the interaction between the cytoplasm and nuclear genes. PMID:23307903

  5. Detection of the parasitic plant, Orobanche cumana on sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orobanche cumana broomrape is a parasitic plant described as an agricultural problem for sunflower production in many countries. In Tunisia, this pathogen was found parasitizing sunflower cultivars in some fields in the Béja region, for the first time during the 2009-2010 agricultural season. Clear O. cumana attachments ...

  6. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  7. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-01-01

    : The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration...

  8. The sunflower affair; L'affaire tournesol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, V.

    2003-11-01

    The sunflower oils is a weak percentage of the bio-fuels market, but is largely used in the agricultural engines. This oil can be produced without industrial process, which is a great interest for the farmers. The process and the financial situation of the sunflower oil are presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw of...

  10. Potential allelopathic effects of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L. ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential allelopathic effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivar Hysun 38 on Rhizobium, Azospirillum, and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were studied by applying oxidase, QTS tests and Gram staining. Microorganisms for the control group were isolated from soil sampled before sowing sunflower.

  11. Effect of intercropping sunflower with soybean at different interrow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean (Glycine max) were relatively new crops of economic significance in Uganda before 1990s compared to traditional cash crops such as cotton, tea and coffee. By 2000 many smallholder farmers in the Mid-Northern Agro-ecological Zone of Uganda started planting sunflower ...

  12. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). 201.56-2...-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion... discolored. (Toxic materials in the substratum may cause short, blunt roots; see § 201.58(a)(9).) (C) Primary...

  13. Triploid Production from Interspecific Crosses of Two Diploid Perennial Helianthus with Diploid Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Seiler, Gerald J; Gulya, Thomas J; Feng, Jiuhuan; Rashid, Khalid Y; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2017-04-03

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. & G. and H. maximiliani Schr. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analyses indicated that the triploid F1s had two genomes from the wild pollen sources and one from the cultivated line. Mitotic chromosome analyses indicated that the frequency of triploid progenies from the crosses of cultivated lines × H. nuttallii accession 102 (N102) was significantly higher than those of unexpected polyploid progenies from the crosses of wild perennial species × N102, and no unexpected polyploids were obtained from the reverse crosses. Pollen stainability analysis suggested the existence of a low percentage of unreduced (2n) male gametes in some accessions, especially N102 and H. maximiliani accession 1113 (M1113), which were generated at the telophase II and tetrad stages of meiosis. The triploid F1s could be the results of preferred fertilization of the low frequency of 2n male gametes with the female gametes of the cultivated sunflower, due to the dosage factors related to recognition and rejection of foreign pollen during fertilization. The triploids have been used to produce amphiploids and aneuploids. Future studies of the male gametes' fate from pollination through fertilization will further uncover the mechanism of this whole genome transmission. Studies of the genetic control of this trait will facilitate research on sunflower polyploidy speciation and evolution, and the utilization of this trait in sunflower breeding. Copyright © 2017 Liu et al.

  14. SUNflower +6 : development and application of a footprint methodology for the SUNflower +6 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P. Oppe, S. Reurings, M. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in traffic safety is the result of many efforts, starting with political decisions, the development of safety plans and safety actions and their implementation. This report explores ways of presenting information from the SUNflower+6 countries in such a way that it shows how the interaction

  15. New Oppioidea taxa from Madagascar (Acari: Oribatida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahunka, S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the continuous survey of the Madagascan Oribatida Fauna some newly surveyed Oppioidea (Acari: Oribatida species are discussed. Altogether 15 species are listed of the recently studied, identified and described taxa originating from several sites of the island (Malagasy Republic. Seven species of them are new to science and some other known only from few localities. One species represents also a new genus, Interbelba gen. nov. Three species, Berniniella bicarinata (Paoli, 1908, Quadroppia circumita (Hammer, 1961 and Discosuctobelba variosetosa (Hammer, 1961are recorded from Madagascar for the first time. With 22 figures.

  16. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  17. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  18. [Nutritive-physiological study of sunflower seed protein isolate and spun sunflower seed protein-casein fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proll, J; Uhlig, J; Schmandke, H; Noack, R

    1977-01-01

    Compared with defatted sunflower seeds, in sunflower seed globulin isolates the content of lysine and sulphur containing amino acids is decreased, the content of phenylalanine is increased. The content of the whole essential amino acids of sunflower seed globulin isolate in relation to casein is decreased. The value of the enzymatic invitro available amino acids of sunflower seed globulin is comparable with casein. The digestibility is good, the biological value is in relation to defatted sunflower seed lower. Apart from the lower content of sulphur-containing amino acids the amino acid composition of spun sunflower seed globulin/casein (I:I) fibers corresponds with the calculated value; in relation to sunflower seed globulin isolate the content of lysine and the whole essential amino acids of the spun protein fibers is increased. The enzymatic in-vitro-hydrolysis results altogether in a comparable availability of the amino acids between spun protein fibers and sunflower seed globulin isolates. The digestibility and the biological value of spun protein fibers corresponds with that of casein.

  19. A distributional and cytological survey of the presently recognized taxa of Hibiscus section Furcaria (Malvaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Douglas Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus section Furcaria is a natural group of plants that presently includes 109 recognized taxa. Taxa are found in subsaharan Africa, India, southeastern Asia, Malesia, Australia, islands of the Pacific basin, the Caribbean, North, Central, and South America. The basic chromosome number is x = 18. In nature, ploidy levels range from diploid to decaploid. The taxa exhibit a remarkable amount of genome diversity. At least 13 genomes have been identified, some distributed widely and others with more restricted distributions. No modern taxonomic monograph ofHibiscus section Furcaria exists, but a number of regional studies have appeared that are essentially global in extent. Also, a number of studies of chromosome numbers and genome relationships have been published. The present paper includes a census of all the presently accepted taxa, the geographical distribution of each taxon, and chromosome numbers and genome designations of the 49 taxa for which the information is available. Important mechanisms of speciation include genome divergence at the diploid level, followed by hybridization and allopolyploidy, significant species radiation at the tetraploid and hexaploid levels, and the development of even higher levels of allopolyploids.

  20. The influence of invasive Fallopia taxa on resident plant species in two river valleys (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Chmura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zones in two rivers in southern Poland were studied in terms of species composition and soil parameters in patches dominated by three knotweed taxa (Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis and the hybrid F. ×bohemica. The main purpose was to detect any differences in species diversity, environmental conditions and in the impact of the three Fallopia spp. on resident species. Fieldwork was conducted in spring and summer in 30 invaded plots (in total 90 subplots. It was demonstrated that vegetation dominated by particular knotweed taxa differed in response to soil pH and ammonium, nitrate, and magnesium content. Fallopia spp. (living plants and necromass had a stronger negative impact on the cover and species diversity of the resident species in summer in comparison with spring. Vegetation patches differed significantly in species composition in relation to the knotweed taxa present. These differences may be the consequence of the differentiated biotopic requirements of Fallopia taxa and the coexisting plants, or to the different impact of the knotweed taxa on the resident species.

  1. Isolation of three diterpenoid acids from sunflowers, as oviposition stimulants for the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bruce D; Charlet, Laurence D; Foster, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    The banded sunflower moth (BSFM), Cochylis hospes Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Cochylidae) is a specialist insect, the larvae of which feed on sunflowers, Helianthus spp., and a few other species of Compositae. It is one of the most important pests of sunflower in the USA. Previous work on H. annuus, the cultivated sunflower, revealed two diterpenoids that function as oviposition stimulants for female BSFM, and that other, more polar compounds also stimulated oviposition. Using a bioassay-guided approach, we isolated three additional diterpenoids, grandifloric acid (1), 15beta-hydroxy-ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid (2), and 17-hydroxy-16alpha-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), from polar fractions of pre-bloom sunflower head extracts. In laboratory bioassays, purified natural samples of each of these compounds stimulated oviposition by female BSFM. Structure-activity relationships of the five diterpenoids known to stimulate oviposition by female BSFM are discussed.

  2. Impact of major gene resistance management for sunflower on fitness of Plasmopara halstedii (downy mildew populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourvieille de Labrouhe Denis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in virulence of Plasmopara halstedii populations under different major gene (Pl management strategies were studied over 5 years continuous cropping of one sunflower hybrid under netting cages. Strategies were monoculture of forms of the hybrid with 1 gene or with combinations of 2 genes, alternation of different genes, and mixtures of several different forms of the hybrid. Monoculture with single resistance genes led to loss of efficient resistance after 3 years, with high levels of disease and increased variability of the pathogen, whatever the Pl gene used. Combinations of genes, alternation and mixtures gave longer term control of downy mildew. In particular, combinations of resistance genes coming from both female and male parents of the hybrid (such that even impurities had a resistance gene gave the best control and least variation in pathogen virulence. Results are discussed with the object of durable control of downy mildew by all methods available.

  3. The cultivated sunflower - a source of renewable resources for the future. Die Sonnenblume - eine 'nachwachsende Rohstoffquelle' mit Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, W. (Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung 1)

    1992-02-01

    Our institute has been dealing with breeding of oil crops for more than four decades, now. In this context, the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in one of our favorite subjects. This plant has long been considered as a species very recalcitrant to various methods of biotechnology. However, substantial progress has been made in recent years, e.g. with regard to the characterization and description of wild Helianthus species, including their biochemical and molecular genetics, and optimization of tissue and embryo culture techniques for rapid propagation and screening for stress tolerance or disease resistance in vitro, an establishment of methods for the reproducible regeneration of androgenetic haploids for an accelerated development of doubled haploids, i.e. inbred lines, the development of improved techniques of chromosome doubling as a prerequisite for an application of doubled haploids and interspecific hybrids in a sunflower breeding programme, the development of applicable techniques for a successful and stable genetic transformation of sunflower. Nowadays, these techniques can be considered highly valuable complements for classical breeding methods in order to provide valuable basic material. In particular, new sunflower lines and hybrids with modified oil quality, i.e. fatty acid composition, have been developed recently. Such types of novel seed oil are highly appreciated by our chemical industry, e.g. for the production of new oleochemicals. (orig.).

  4. 15th International Sunflower Conference Horizontal resistances in sunflower: a review of a workshop at the 15th International Sunflower Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castano Fernando

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A workshop on horizontal resistance at the 15th International Sunflower Conference, held in Toulouse, France, from June 12 to 16, 2000, covered topics including the evaluation, stability and inheritance of resistance of sunflower to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Diaporthe helianthi, Alternaria helianthi and Verticillium dahliae. It was notable that research continues into evaluation methodology at the same time as quantitative genetics, use of molecular markers, search for QTL and resistance improvement by genetic engineering.

  5. Radiation efficiency and nitrogen fertilizer impacts on sunflower crop in contrasting environments of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Wajid; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Amin, Asad; Tariq, Muhammad; Awais, Muhammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Jabran, Khawar; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Sultana, Syeda Refat; Hammad, Hafiz Mohkum; Rehmani, Muhammad Ishaq Asif; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Rahman, Muhammad Habib Ur; Turan, Veysel; Fahad, Shah; Suad, Shah; Khan, Aziz; Ali, Shahzad

    2018-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is the leading non-conventional oilseed crop in Pakistan. Nitrogen fertilizer can affect plant growth and productivity by changing canopy size which has an effect on the radiation use efficiency (RUE) of the crop. The response of sunflower hybrids in terms of phenology, fraction of intercepted radiation (F i), and RUE to nitrogenous rates (0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 kg ha-1) was studied in three field experiments conducted in three various environments: Multan (arid), Faisalabad (semi-arid), and Gujranwala (sub-humid) during spring seasons 2008 and 2009. The treatments were laid out according to a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements, keeping the sunflower hybrids in main plots and nitrogen rates in sub-plots, and replicated three times. The results showed Hysun-38 took a maximum number of days to anthesis (101) as compared to Pioneer-64A93 (100) and Hysun-33 (99). The mean values of F i were 0.850, 0.903, and 0.978, and the estimated values of RUE for total aboveground dry matter were 2.14, 2.47, and 2.65 g MJ-1 at experimental locations of Multan, Faisalabad, and Gujranwala, respectively. The values of RUE for grain yield (RUEGY) were 0.78, 0.98, and 1.26 g MJ-1 at experimental locations of Multan, Faisalabad, and Gujranwala, respectively. The average RUEGY values over three locations were 2.61, 2.60, 2.43, and 2.36 g MJ-2 in N4 (180 kg ha-1), N5 (240 kg ha-1), N3 (120 kg ha-1), and N2 (60 kg ha-1) treatments, respectively. Increasing rates of N increased RUEGY over the standard treatment N3 (120 kg N ha-1); however, the averaged values over three locations were 1.22, 1.08, 0.99, and 0.92 g MJ-2 in N4, N5, N3, and N2 treatments, respectively. Therefore, optimum water and N doses are important for attaining higher RUE, which may enhance sunflower growth and yield.

  6. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  7. Infrared Imaging of Sunflower and Maize Root Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokken,K.; Davis, L.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) permits the direct analysis of plant cell-wall architecture at the cellular level in situ, combining spatially localized information and chemical information from IR absorbances to produce a chemical map that can be linked to a particular morphology or functional group. This study demonstrated the use of SR-IMS to probe biopolymers, such as cellulose, lignin, and proteins, in the root tissue of hydroponically grown sunflower and maize plants. Principal components analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the major spectral variance between maize and sunflower plant tissues. The use of PCA showed distinct separation of maize and sunflower samples using the IR spectra of the epidermis and xylem. The infrared band at 1635 cm-1, representing hydrocinnamic acid in (H type) lignin, provided a conclusive means of distinguishing between maize and sunflower plant tissues.

  8. Final Critical Habitat for the Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) occur. The geographic extent includes...

  9. Detection of the parasitic plant, Orobanche cumana on sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... Orobanche cumana broomrape is a parasitic plant described as an agricultural problem for sunflower production in many ... hosts first occur at the underground level by the parasite ..... Parasitic Flowering Plants: Ecology and.

  10. Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Douglas E; Smith, Stephen A; Cellinese, Nico; Wurdack, Kenneth J; Tank, David C; Brockington, Samuel F; Refulio-Rodriguez, Nancy F; Walker, Jay B; Moore, Michael J; Carlsward, Barbara S; Bell, Charles D; Latvis, Maribeth; Crawley, Sunny; Black, Chelsea; Diouf, Diaga; Xi, Zhenxiang; Rushworth, Catherine A; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Sytsma, Kenneth J; Qiu, Yin-Long; Hilu, Khidir W; Davis, Charles C; Sanderson, Michael J; Beaman, Reed S; Olmstead, Richard G; Judd, Walter S; Donoghue, Michael J; Soltis, Pamela S

    2011-04-01

    Recent analyses employing up to five genes have provided numerous insights into angiosperm phylogeny, but many relationships have remained unresolved or poorly supported. In the hope of improving our understanding of angiosperm phylogeny, we expanded sampling of taxa and genes beyond previous analyses. We conducted two primary analyses based on 640 species representing 330 families. The first included 25260 aligned base pairs (bp) from 17 genes (representing all three plant genomes, i.e., nucleus, plastid, and mitochondrion). The second included 19846 aligned bp from 13 genes (representing only the nucleus and plastid). Many important questions of deep-level relationships in the nonmonocot angiosperms have now been resolved with strong support. Amborellaceae, Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales are successive sisters to the remaining angiosperms (Mesangiospermae), which are resolved into Chloranthales + Magnoliidae as sister to Monocotyledoneae + [Ceratophyllaceae + Eudicotyledoneae]. Eudicotyledoneae contains a basal grade subtending Gunneridae. Within Gunneridae, Gunnerales are sister to the remainder (Pentapetalae), which comprises (1) Superrosidae, consisting of Rosidae (including Vitaceae) and Saxifragales; and (2) Superasteridae, comprising Berberidopsidales, Santalales, Caryophyllales, Asteridae, and, based on this study, Dilleniaceae (although other recent analyses disagree with this placement). Within the major subclades of Pentapetalae, most deep-level relationships are resolved with strong support. Our analyses confirm that with large amounts of sequence data, most deep-level relationships within the angiosperms can be resolved. We anticipate that this well-resolved angiosperm tree will be of broad utility for many areas of biology, including physiology, ecology, paleobiology, and genomics.

  11. Influence of aging process on biochemical changes in sunflower seed

    OpenAIRE

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana; Malenčić Đ.; Tatić Mladen; Miladinović Jegor

    2005-01-01

    This investigation was conducted in order to determine the degree of biochemical changes during accelerated and natural aging of sunflower seed. Five sunflower lines developed in Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated aging for three and five days, and natural aging of six and twelve months under conventional storage and controlled conditions, were used in these trials. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase contents and peroxidase activities were studied. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismuta...

  12. Oryzanol as natural antioxidant for improving sunflower oil stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Srinivas, P; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-06-01

    Sunflower oil is being made shelf stable by the incorporation of synthetic antioxidants such as tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), while natural antioxidants like oryzanol and tocopherols can also be used. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of natural oryzanol (Oz) concentrate (15.5 % oryzanol) and purified Oz (80 % oryzanol) on oxidative and thermal stability of sunflower oil. Sunflower oil was incorporated with Oz concentrate to provide 0, 0.12, 0.25, 0.50, 0.84, 1.0, 1.60, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.20 % oryzanol in the oil, stored for 5 weeks at 37 °C and oxidative stability was evaluated. It was found that the oryzanol concentrate showed good antioxidant effect with increase in concentration of oryzanol. In another set of experiments, sunflower oil containing purified Oz at 1 % level individually and in combination with 0.1 % α- tocopherol (α-T) was heated at 120 °C for 24 h to evaluate thermal stability. Sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz (80 % purity) showed 98.40 % and sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz and 0.1 % α-T showed 108.75 % antioxidant effect compared to TBHQ taken as 100 %. The study indicated that sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz (80 % purity) and 0.1 % α-T combination provides a synergistic effect in inhibiting primary and secondary products and showed highest thermal stability. SFO containing 1 % Oz added as concentrate also showed good antioxidant effect during storage. Hence, instead of using synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ, we can add natural oryzanol (purified or as concentrate) to sunflower oil to increase its oxidative and thermal stability.

  13. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, João Guilherme Dal Belo; Silva, João Vasco; Justino, Flávio Barbosa; Ittersum, Martin K. van

    2014-01-01

    Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and ...

  14. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  15. Rhizobium helianthi sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuexin; Yan, Shouwei; Li, Dai; Pang, Huancheng; Li, Yuyi; Zhang, Jianli

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterium, designated Xi19T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from the rhizosphere of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Wuyuan county of Inner Mongolia, China and was characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel isolate was related to species of the genus Rhizobium, sharing the greatest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Rhizobium rhizoryzae J3-AN59T (98.4 %), followed by Rhizobium pseudoryzae J3-A127T (97.4 %). There were low similarities ( Rhizobium. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain Xi19T and the most related strain Rhizobium rhizoryzae J3-AN59T were low. The major cellular fatty acids of strain Xi19T were C16 : 0, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c. Q-10 was identified as the predominant ubiquinone and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C content of strain Xi19T was 60.2 mol%. On the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics, coupled with genotypic data obtained in this work, strain Xi19T represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium helianthi is proposed. The type strain is Xi19T ( = CGMCC 1.12192T = KCTC 23879T).

  16. Do bees like Van Gogh's Sunflowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Walker, Julian

    2006-06-01

    Flower colours have evolved over 100 million years to address the colour vision of their bee pollinators. In a much more rapid process, cultural (and horticultural) evolution has produced images of flowers that stimulate aesthetic responses in human observers. The colour vision and analysis of visual patterns differ in several respects between humans and bees. Here, a behavioural ecologist and an installation artist present bumblebees with reproductions of paintings highly appreciated in Western society, such as Van Gogh's Sunflowers. We use this unconventional approach in the hope to raise awareness for between-species differences in visual perception, and to provoke thinking about the implications of biology in human aesthetics and the relationship between object representation and its biological connotations.

  17. Genetic mapping of rust resistance genes in confection sunflower line HA-R6 and oilseed line RHA 397.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; Gulya, T J; Markell, S G; Hulke, B S; Qi, L L

    2013-08-01

    tested so far. Our newly developed molecular markers will facilitate breeding efforts to pyramid the R 13 genes with other rust R-genes and accelerate the development of rust-resistant sunflower hybrids in both confection and oilseed sunflowers.

  18. Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hussain, Mumtaz

    2011-01-30

    The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determining Critical Soil pH for Sunflower Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Sutradhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil acidity has become a major yield-limiting factor in cropping systems of the Southern Great Plains, in which winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is the predominant crop. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is a strong rotational crop with winter wheat due to its draught and heat tolerance. However, the effects of low soil pH on sunflower productivity have not been explored. The objective of this study was to determine the critical soil pH and aluminum concentration (AlKCl for sunflower. Sunflower was grown in a randomized complete block design with three replications of a pH gradient ranging from 4.0 to 7.0 at three locations with varying soil types. Soil pH was altered using aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO43 and hydrated lime (Ca(OH2. Plant height, vigor, and survivability were all negatively affected by soil acidity. Sunflower yield was reduced by 10% at or below soil pH 4.7 to 5.3 dependent upon location and soil type. Levels of AlKCl above 6.35 mg kg−1 reduced seed yield by 10% or greater. We concluded that sunflower may serve as a better rotational crop with winter wheat under acidic conditions when compared to other adaptable crops.

  20. Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated Soils using Sunflower Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Sewalem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytremediation has emerged as a practical approach to clean up metal-polluted soils. In this study the role of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants as a potential phytoremediator to soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb was investigated. Our results showed that the effect of Cd was stronger on the growth of the roots, while the effect of Pb was stronger on the shoots of sunflower seedlings. At the physiological level, Cd treatment was found to induce low levels of lipid peroxidation and membrane leakage with less affected photosynthesis in the leaves of the treated sunflower seedlings compared to the effects of Pb. The results presented here showed that a high amount of the total absorbed Cd (88.84% was accumulated in roots, while a high amount of the total absorbed Pb (71.39 was tranlocated to shoots of sunflower seedlings. Similar trends of Cd and Pb allocation between roots and shoots at the yield stage were recorded. We suggest here that sunflower plants may remediate Cd contaminated soils through phytostabilization, while may remediate Pb contaminated soils through phytoextraction. Finaly, the trace amounts of Cd and Pb that were accumulated in seeds recommends sunflower plants to be used safely and economically for cleaning up soils contaminated with Cd and/or Pb.

  1. Chemometric approach to develop frying stable sunflower oil blends stabilized with oleoresin rosemary and ascorbyl palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Sehwag, Sneha; Niwas Mishra, Hari

    2017-03-01

    The frying performance of sunflower oil blends (SOBs) stabilized with oleoresin rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) (ROSM) (200-1500mg/kg) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) (100-300mg/kg) were tested for 18hopen pan-frying. Sunflower oil with TBHQ (SOTBHQ) (200mg/kg) and without additives (SOcontrol) served as positive and negative controls, respectively. The frying stability was monitored over time by estimating the levels of conjugated dienes, total polar compounds, polymeric compounds viz., triglyceride polymers, dimers, oxidized triglyceride monomers, diglycerides and free fatty acids, and induction period based on Rancimat. Chemometric tools were used to classify the oil samples based on frying stability. Thermo-oxidative changes were reduced significantly for blends stabilized with ROSM and AP (p<0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) distinguished SOBs from positive controls. A formulation consisting of 1309.62 and 129.29mg/kg of ROSM and AP, respectively, was optimized using a hybrid PCA-RSM approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of mating system parameters in an evolving gynodioecous population of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumet, M; Ostrowski, M-F; David, J; Tollon, C; Muller, M-H

    2012-04-01

    Cultivated plants have been molded by human-induced selection, including manipulations of the mating system in the twentieth century. How these manipulations have affected realized parameters of the mating system in freely evolving cultivated populations is of interest for optimizing the management of breeding populations, predicting the fate of escaped populations and providing material for experimental evolution studies. To produce modern varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), self-incompatibility has been broken, recurrent generations of selfing have been performed and male sterility has been introduced. Populations deriving from hybrid-F1 varieties are gynodioecious because of the segregation of a nuclear restorer of male fertility. Using both phenotypic and genotypic data at 11 microsatellite loci, we analyzed the consanguinity status of plants of the first three generations of such a population and estimated parameters related to the mating system. We showed that the resource reallocation to seed in male-sterile individuals was not significant, that inbreeding depression on seed production averaged 15-20% and that cultivated sunflower had acquired a mixed-mating system, with ∼50% of selfing among the hermaphrodites. According to theoretical models, the female advantage and the inbreeding depression at the seed production stage were too low to allow the persistence of male sterility. We discuss our methods of parameter estimation and the potential of such study system in evolutionary biology.

  3. RESPONSE OF TWO SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. GENOTYPES TO VA-MYCORRHIZAL INOCULATION AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. CHANDRASHEKARA, V.C. PATIL

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of two sunflower genotypes (Morden and MSFH-8 with and without VA-mycorrhizal fungi at three P levels (38, 56 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1 in vertisol of Dharwad was studied to determine the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on plant growth, yield and P uptake. The results showed that the VAM inoculation increased sunflower yield (14%, total biomass (16%, oil content (3.1% and P uptake (30.5% over uninoculated control. The percent root colonization and chlamydo-spore count decreased with increasing P levels. The total biomass production, seed yield and P uptake of mycorrhizal plants at 38 kg P2O5 ha-1 more than the non-mycorrhizal plants at 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. The biomass and seed yield of mycorrhizal plants at same P level were more than the non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal plants of Morden at 38 kg P2O5 ha-1 and MSFH-8 at 56 kg P2O5 ha-1 produced higher seed yield, oil content and total biomass than non-mycorrhizal plants supplied with 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. The results indicated that, VA-mycorrhizal inoculation helps in saving 25 and 50 percent of recommended dose of phosphatic fertilizer (75 kg P2O5 ha-1 in MSFH-8 (single cross hybrid and Morden (open pollinated variety, respectively.

  4. 15th International Sunflower Conference Synthesis of new derivatives from vegetable sunflower oil methyl esters via epoxydation and oxirane opening

    OpenAIRE

    Pages Xavier; Alfos Carine

    2001-01-01

    Recently, epoxides have received increased attention because they are of interest both as end-products and as chemical intermediates; epoxidized oils, mainly High Oleic Sunflower Oil, and their ester derivatives have thus found important applications as plasticizers and additives for polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Epoxidized esters have been produced classically from High Oleic Sunflower Methyl Esters (HOSME) using H2O2 and formic acid. The epoxidation reaches 90% on pilot scale (5kg). Epoxidized ...

  5. History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinero-Ruiz, L.; Delavault, P.; Pérez-Vich, B.; Pacureanu-Joita, M.; Bulos, M.; Altieri, E.; Domínguez, J.

    2015-07-01

    Broomrape, caused by Orobanche cumana, has affected sunflowers since the early 20th century in Eastern Europe. Currently, it limits sunflower oil production in Southern and Eastern Europe and in some areas of Asia, causing around 50% seed losses when susceptible hybrids are grown. Covered in this review are aspects such as: biological processes that are common to Orobanche spp. and/or particular to O. cumana in sunflower, genetic resistance and its mechanisms, races of the parasite identified in different countries throughout the time and their increasing virulence, and breeding for resistance to some herbicides as a novel control option. The main purpose is to present an updated and, as far as possible, complete picture of the way both the parasitic weed and its host crop have evolved in time, and how they co-exist in the current agriculture. Additionally, we propose a system for determining the races of the parasite that can be internationally adopted from now. In the context of minimal harmful effects on the environment, changing patterns of land use in farming systems, and global environment changes, the final goal of this work is to provide all those interested in parasites from field crops and their integrated management compiled information on the sunflower – O. cumana system as a case study. (Author)

  6. Regularities of filtration of sunflower oil with the use of vibroacoustic exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. A. Bredikhin; F. Y. Rudik; M. S. Tuliyeva

    2017-01-01

    The residue in sunflower oil is a dispersed phase consisting of particulate products grinding sunflower seeds in the form of particles of the pulp, oil cake, meal, residual quantities of metals, pesticides...

  7. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  8. New records of Phacus and Monomorphina taxa (Euglenophyta for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangjan Kritsana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of Phacus and Monomorphina (Euglenophyta from northern Thailand was studied in various water bodies of Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Lampang and Phayao provinces. This paper presents 25 taxa of Phacus and 1 Monomorphina new for Thailand, including 3 Phacus taxa new for Southeast Asia. Several varieties and forms were recognized. All are briefly described, with original illustrations.

  9. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  10. Antioxidative effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Zofia; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Bilska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is a main problem during food processing, storage and consumption leading to losses of quality, stability, safety and nutritive value. Antioxidants have been used to prevent oxidation changes and off - flavor development in food products. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative effect of thyme ethanol extract on sunflower oil during its storage in different temperature conditions. Oil samples were stored in darkness at 4°C, 18°C, 38°C. Samples of thyme (thymus vulgaris) were purchased at a local pharmacy in Poznań, Poland and sunflower oil was acquired from a local supermarket. Thyme extract was characterized by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging methods. Ethanol extract of thyme at 1% level was added to sunflower oil. Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), totox value (TxV) and fatty acids (FA) content were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of thyme extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. High polyphenol content, DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging activity of ethanol thyme extract were evaluated. Results from different parameters were in agreement with other researchers, suggesting the antioxidant effect of thyme on antioxidant stability. Results show that thyme extract prolonged stability of sunflower oil and it may be a potent antioxidant for its stabilization. Ethanol thyme extract may be used as a natural antioxidant to prolong stability of oils.

  11. Filtration of sunflower oil in the field of vibroacoustic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bredikhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude unrefined sunflower oil along with the removal of primary oxidation products is an urgent task to remove the solid constituents formed during the processing of sunflower seeds. All of them irrespective of the chemical composition negatively affect the quality of the food product and, over time, saturate the oil with coagulants that affect its organoleptic and physico-mechanical characteristics. The problem of cleaning unrefined sunflower oil by filtration with the use of vibroacoustic action is considered. The calculation scheme of the process is given, and an experimental setup has been developed that makes it possible to vary the angle of inclination of the filter element. The research of sunflower oil filtration in the field of vibroacoustic impact is carried out. In the study, a decision was made to expand the energy effects to create a cumulative system in the liquid medium that improves the hydrodynamic situation at the scale of the oil purification plant. It is established that the process speed can be intensified by creating additional microflows that provide an active influence on the motion of liquid, gas and solid particles. The results are obtained, which testify to the effectiveness of the use of vibroacoustic effects during the filtration of sunflower oil.

  12. Antioxidant effects of supercritical fluid garlic extracts in sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Falconi, Caterina; Marconi, Ombretta; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Lipid oxidation causes changes in quality attributes of vegetable oils. Synthetic antioxidants have been used to preserve oils; however, there is interest in replacing them with natural ones. Garlic and its thiosulfinate compound allicin are known for their antioxidant activities. This study assesses a novel formulation, the supercritical fluid extract of garlic, on sunflower oil oxidation during an accelerated shelf-life test. Three quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide values, and p-anisidine values) were evaluated in each of the six oil samples. The samples included sunflower oil alone, sunflower oil supplemented with BHT, the undiluted supercritical fluid extract of garlic, and sunflower oils supplemented with three levels of garlic extract. The oils were also investigated for their antioxidant properties using the DPPH and the FRAP assays. The results were compared with the effect of the synthetic BHT. Our results underlined that the highest level of garlic extract may be superior, or at least comparable, with BHT in preserving sunflower oil. The oxidative degradation of oily samples can be limited by using supercritical fluid extract of garlic as it is a safe and an effective natural antioxidant formulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Interspecific hybridization between Mauremys reevesii and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turtle hybrids have been found in some taxa, but so far, studies on interspecific hybridization between Mauremy reevesii and Mauremy sinensis have not been reported. Recently, we obtained three specimens (Hy1, Hy2, Hy3)with unusual morphological characteristics from pet trade Market, which are suspected to be ...

  14. Circumnutations of sunflower hypocotyls in satellite orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Lewis, R. F.; Venditti, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    The principal objective of the research reported here was to determine whether a plant's periodic growth oscillations, called circumnutations, would persist in the absence of a significant gravitational or inertial force. The definitive experiment was made possible by access to the condition of protracted near weightlessness in an earth satellite. The experiment, performed during the first flight of Spacelab on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shuttle, Columbia, in November and December, 1983, tested a biophysical model, proposed in 1967, that might account for circumnutation as a gravity-dependent growth response. However, circumnutations were observed in microgravity. They continued for many hours without stimulation by a significant g-force. Therefore, neither a gravitational nor an inertial g-force was an absolute requirement for initiation [correction of initation] or continuation of circumnutation. On average, circumnutation was significantly more vigorous in satellite orbit than on earth-based clinostats. Therefore, at least for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) circumnutation, clinostatting is not the functional equivalent of weightlessness.

  15. Different leachate phytotreatment systems using sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbo, Francesco; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    The use of energy crops in the treatment of wastewaters is of increasing interest, particularly in view of the widespread scarcity of water in many countries and the possibility of obtaining renewable fuels of vegetable origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of landfill leachate phytotreatment using sunflowers, particularly as seeds from this crop are suitable for use in biodiesel production. Two different irrigation systems were tested: vertical flow and horizontal subsurface flow, with or without effluent recirculation. Plants were grown in 130L rectangular tanks placed in a special climatic chamber. Leachate irrigated units were submitted to increasing nitrogen concentrations up to 372mgN/L. Leachate was successfully tested as an alternative fertilizer for plants and was not found to inhibit biomass development. The experiment revealed good removal efficiencies for COD (η>50%) up until flowering, while phosphorous removal invariably exceeded 60%. Nitrogen removal rates decreased over time in all experimental units, particularly in vertical flow tanks. In general, horizontal flow units showed the best performances in terms of contaminant removal capacity; the effluent recirculation procedure did not improve performance. Significant evapo-transpiration was observed, particularly in vertical flow units, promoting removal of up to 80% of the inlet irrigation volume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic analysis of proline concentration under osmotic stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Farghama; Rauf, Saeed; Monneveux, Philippe; Anwar, Shoaib; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-09-01

    Proline concentration has been often suggested as an indicator of osmotic stress. A better understanding of the genetics of this trait is however needed. In the present study, proline concentration has been assessed, together with root and stem growth, potassium, calcium and total soluble sugars concentration and stress injury symptoms, in seedlings of sunflower hybrids and their parents grown under control and osmotic conditions. Proline strongly accumulated with osmotic stress. Its concentration exhibited a large variation among genotypes and was higher in hybrids than in parental lines. A positive association was noted between proline concentration and osmotic adjustment that was reflected in a reduction of osmotic stress induced injury, as showed by the reduced number of calli in the hybrids with higher proline concentration. Broad and narrow sense heritability was higher under osmotic stress suggesting applying the selection in osmotic stress condition. In the control treatment, dominance effects explained most of the genetic variation for proline concentration while under osmotic stress both dominance and additive variance were high. The importance of dominance and additive effects suggested that several genomic regions are controlling this trait. Good general combiners, presumably carrying positive additive alleles affecting proline concentration, were identified.

  17. Reconstructing the History of Selection during Homoploid Hybrid Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrenberg, Sophie; Lexer, Christian; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to identify selection pressures during the historical process of homoploid hybrid speciation in three Helianthus (sunflower) hybrid species. If selection against intrinsic genetic incompatibilities (fertility selection) or for important morphological/ecological traits (phenotypic selection) were important in hybrid speciation, we would expect this selection to have influenced the parentage of molecular markers or chromosomal segments in the hybrid species’ genomes. To infer past selection, we compared the parentage of molecular markers in high-density maps of the three hybrid species with predicted marker parentage from an analysis of fertility selection in artificial hybrids and from the directions of quantitative trait loci effects with respect to the phenotypes of the hybrid species. Multiple logistic regression models were consistent with both fertility and phenotypic selection in all three species. To further investigate traits under selection, we used a permutation test to determine whether marker parentage predicted from groups of functionally related traits differed from neutral expectations. Our results suggest that trait groups associated with ecological divergence were under selection during hybrid speciation. This study presents a new method to test for selection and supports earlier claims that fertility selection and phenotypic selection on ecologically relevant traits have operated simultaneously during sunflower hybrid speciation. PMID:17479459

  18. Enhancement of vitamin E production in sunflower cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretto, Sofia; Bray Speth, Elena; Fachechi, Christian; Gala, Rosa; Zacheo, Giuseppe; Giovinazzo, Giovanna

    2004-09-01

    The most biologically active component of vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol, is synthesized in its most effective stereoisomeric form only by photosynthetic organisms. Using sunflower cell cultures, a suitable in vitro production system of natural alpha-tocopherol was established. The most efficient medium was found to be MS basal medium with naphthaleneacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine with the addition of casaminoacids and myo-inositol. Culture feeding experiments using biosynthetic precursors showed that alpha-tocopherol production improved by 30% when homogentisic acid was used. Interestingly, time-course experiments with sunflower suspension cultures showed a possible increase of 78% in alpha-tocopherol production when using cultures of longer subculture intervals. Compared to the starting plant tissue, an overall 100% increase of alpha-tocopherol was reached by these sunflower cell cultures.

  19. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  20. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  1. [Study of Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism in the Sunflower (Helianthus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, N V; Usatov, A V; Logacheva, M D; Azarin, K V; Gorbachenko, C F; Kornienko, I V; Gavrilova, V A; Tihobaeva, V E

    2015-08-01

    The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. The differences between species are confined to four SSR loci. Within cultivated forms of the sunflower H. annuus, the polymorphism is absent. A comparative analysis was performed on sequences of the cpDNA inbred line 3629, line 398941 of the wild sunflower, and the American line HA383 H. annuus. As a result, 52 polymorphic loci represented by 27 SSR and 25 SNP were found; they can be used for genotyping of H. annuus samples, including cultural varieties: twelve polymorphic positions, of which eight are SSR and four are SNP.

  2. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  3. Interspecific hybridization impacts host range and pathogenicity of filamentous microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depotter, Jasper R.L.; Seidl, Michael F.; Wood, Thomas A.; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widely observed within diverse eukaryotic taxa, and is considered an important driver for genome evolution. As hybridization fuels genomic and transcriptional alterations, hybrids are adept to respond to environmental changes or to invade novel niches. This may be

  4. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTION OF BIOPREPARATIONS FROM DEFATTED SOY AND SUNFLOWER LECITHINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdov O. L.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of hepatoprotective activity of biopreparations of defatted soy and sunflower lecithins under carbon tetrachloride intoxication of the experimental animals are given. Analyze of biochemical and histological data under soy and sunflower lecithin exposure changed in terms of poisoning enables to conclude that both biological products of defatted lecithin slowed the growth of mass of animal liver and transaminase activity and stimulated liver regeneration as a result of polyploidy and hypertrophy of hepatocytes, resuscitated beam and lobulation organ and created contacts between hepatocytes and venous vessels as well. It is evidenced that repair processes are activated in condition of their injection under carbon tetrachloride intoxication.

  5. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Mureşan; Nadejda Pînzari; Andreea Puşcaş; Cristina Gherasim; Lucian Cuibus; Emil Racolţa; Sevastița Muste; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%). Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini) is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the h...

  6. Nine endangered taxa, one recovering ecosystem: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.

    2011-01-01

    It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern California island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and ecosystem levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows ecosystem recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of ecosystem change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.

  7. Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos: Publications and status of described taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Javier H; Urteaga, Diego; Teso, Valeria

    2015-10-28

    Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos was an Argentinian malacologist working in the "Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo" at La Plata University where she taught invertebrate zoology between 1947 and 1990. Her scientific publications are listed in chronological order. Described genus-group and species-group taxa are listed. Information about the type locality and type material, and taxonomic remarks are also provided. Finally, type material of all described taxa was requested and, when located, illustrated.

  8. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4. The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60% did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences

  9. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  10. Physico-chemical and functional properties of sunflower proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Sunflower protein, Helianthusannuus ,helianthinin, albumins, solubility, structure,denaturation, pH, temperature, ionic strength,phenoliccompounds,

  11. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in varieties of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... lethality and sterility, induced by the mutagen in question. Generating variability by mutagenic agents is of para- mount importance in sunflower crop improvement when seed unfilling is a major problem. A crop plant can be improved in productivity; resistance to biotic and abiotic stress etc. when the genetic ...

  12. Tocopherol biosynthesis is enhanced in photomixotrophic sunflower cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachechi, Christian; Nisi, Rossella; Gala, Rosa; Leone, Antonella; Caretto, Sofia

    2007-04-01

    Alpha-tocopherol is the most biologically active component of vitamin E and is synthesized only by photosynthetic organisms. Two heterotrophic cell lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) of differing alpha-tocopherol biosynthetic capability, three-fold higher in the high synthesizing cell line, HT, than in the low synthesizing one, LT, were previously identified. To investigate the relationship between alpha-tocopherol biosynthesis and photomixotrophic culture conditions, a new photomixotrophic sunflower cell line HS3 was established by selecting HT cells able to grow in the presence of a ten-fold reduced sucrose concentration in the culture medium. The photosynthetic properties of HS3 cells were characterized in comparison with HT and LT cells, revealing an increase in chlorophyll content, chloroplast number, and level of the photosynthesis related enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Furthermore, an enhanced expression of the gene encoding for the tocopherol biosynthetic enzyme geranyl-geranylpyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS) was observed in HS3 cells. HS3 cells also revealed a 25% and a more than three-fold higher tocopherol level than HT and LT, respectively, indicating a positive correlation between alpha-tocopherol biosynthesis of sunflower cell cultures and their photosynthetic properties. These findings can be useful for improving the tocopherol yields of the sunflower in vitro production system.

  13. Quantification of alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelochemicals in leaves, stems and roots of sunflower (cv Hysun 38) were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for alkaloids and spectrophotometry for phenols and flavonoids. In the TLC, the highest Rf value was recorded in leaves, followed by roots and stems, a sequence that held true also for the quantity ...

  14. Tillage effects on soil. Physical properties and sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physical properties and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) yield under convectional tillage (CT) and zero-tillage (Z,TJ. was monitored for 3 consecutive years in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria (SGSZN). While bulk density of CT increased slightly over the years, significant decrease of 12 and 8% were ...

  15. Cross reaction between P-61 sunflower seedlings oleosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A true triacylglycerol lipase was detected in germinating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings associated to oleosomes. This enzyme that has not yet been identified was partially purified as shown by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) (10%); two protein bands, P-61 and P-66 ...

  16. Assessment of sunflower genotype tolerance to Phoma macdonaldii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larfeil Carine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower genotypes with differing susceptibility to Phoma macdonaldii, the causal agent of sunflower black stem disease, were inoculated artificially with an aggressive fungal strain according to various modalities. A first series of experiments carried out in a greenhouse on plants at various phenological stages (2-leaf pairs, 5-6 leaf pairs, budding and early flowering showed that the behaviour of sunflower cultivars, distributed into different susceptibility groups, remained unchanged irrespective of the phenological stage reached at the time of the inoculation. The development of the symptoms varied with genotype susceptibility to the disease: it was fast with coalescing necrotic spots on the stems for the most susceptible cultivars. The intensity and the development rate of the symptoms were also increased when the inoculation had been carried out at later stages. Two additional series of experiments were carried out in the field. In each series, a first block accounted for natural contaminations and a second block was inoculated artificially. The development of the symptoms and the susceptibility groups within the two blocks were identical to those observed in the greenhouse. These results led to the validation of an early inoculation test, at the cotyledon stage, which accounts satisfactorily for the behaviour of sunflower cultivars under natural conditions and is thus likely to be used in breeding programs.

  17. Transport of glutamine into the xylem of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Findenegg, G.R.; Plaisier, W.; Posthumus, M.A.; Melger, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants were grown on nutrient solution with ammonium nitrogen. After 12 days of growth the ammonium in the nutrient solution was labeled with N (99%). Three hours later glutamine-N in the xylem exudate was labeled for 56% as shown by GC-MS; this percentage increased

  18. Effect of Dietary Inclussion of Antibiotics and Wild Sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of addition of penicillin, streptomycin and wild sunflower leaf in layer diet on the performance of hens was investigated. Forty (40) Shaver Brown layers at twenty four weeks of age were involved in a completely randomized design experiment. They were randomly allocated to give dietary treatments.

  19. Natural Rubber Quantification in Sunflower Using an Automated Solvent Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) produce a small amount of low molecular weight natural rubber (NR) and this species has potential as a rubber-producing crop plant. Quantifying NR in plant tissue has traditionally been accomplished using Soxhlet or gravimetric methodologies. Accelerated solve...

  20. Nutritional value, for pigs and rats, of sunflower oilcake meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.P. Hayes. Department of Poultry Science, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Different amounts of hull were removed from .... the pig growth trial on an air-dry basis (%). Sunflower oilcake diet. Control. 40. 42. 44. 46. Component. Maize meal. 73.9. 69.9. 68.7. 67.7. 66.8. Wheaten bran.

  1. Sunflower proteins : overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Pérez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing worldwide demand for proteins of both animal and plant origin. However, animal proteins are expensive in terms of both market price and environmental impact. Among alternative plant proteins, sunflower seeds are particularly interesting in view of their widespread availability in

  2. Preliminary analyses and amino acid profile of wild sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tithonia diversifolia (wild sunflower) leaves were harvested, sundried and milled to obtain Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM). Samples of the TDLM were analysed for proximate composition, amino acid profile and certain antinutrients. Analysis revealed a composition of 20.6% CP, 18.9% CF, 4.0% EE, 42.5% CHO and ...

  3. Effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) extracts on wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... good use in several ways in agro-ecosystems. Sunflower. (Helianthus annuus L.) in general, and its ... edible oil and protein, resistance to drought, and its short duration, which makes it a suitable crop if ... improved seed, diseases, and drought, weed infestation has emerged as a serious problem. Weeds ...

  4. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  5. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in varieties of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Sunflower oil contains linoleic and linolenic acid which lowers blood cholesterol and manage the blood glucose levels. The mutagenic effect of a mutagen, which is an index for the appropriate choice, can be evaluated in terms of “mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency” (Konzak et al., 1965). Mutagenic ...

  6. Effect of saponified high fat sunflower oilcake and lipoic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are toxic to cellulolytic bacteria and are also saturated in the rumen. Stabilization of residual oil in sunflower oilcake by conversion into calcium salts would be advantageous. Alpha lipoic acid acts as an anti-oxidant to ...

  7. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Barbosa Justino, F.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different

  8. Effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods as protein source in supplementary diets of Small East African goats. ... In the growth experiment the animals were divided into four groups, each with six animals, while for the digestibility experiment the animals were divided into four groups, each with three ...

  9. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Linkage Disequilibrium in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Judith M.; Berry, Simon T.; Leon, Alberto J.; Slabaugh, Mary B.; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K.; Burke, John M.; Knapp, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression−the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines (θ = 0.0094) than wild populations (θ = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome (∼3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping. PMID:17660563

  10. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil biodiesel | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electric oil expeller was used for the extraction of crude oil. Base catalyzed transesterifiction process is applied for optimum yield (80%) of biodiesel. Fuel properties of sunflower oil biodiesel were compared with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Engine efficiency of biodiesel with reference to power, ...

  11. Effects of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L .) extracts on wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on growth and yield parameters, weed density, and hormone production were recorded. Physicochemical properties of soil were analysed before sowing sunflower and after harvesting wheat. Commonly observed effects of allelochemicals were (a) decreased production of indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid and ...

  12. Phyto-accumulation of heavy metals by sunflower ( Helianthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out at the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan to investigate the phyto-accumulation capacity of heavy metals [lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd)] by two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The experiment was ...

  13. Phytotoxicity of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two cover crops, green gram (Vigna radiata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) were used. In pot experiment, SRSS at various stages was compared with non sunflower rhizosphere soil (NSRSS). Growth and yield attributes of P. hysterophorus was compared between SGM and SGM along with cover crops and control ...

  14. Association Mapping and the Genomic Consequences of Selection in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; Nambeesan, Savithri; Bowers, John E.; Marek, Laura F.; Ebert, Daniel; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall patterns of genomic diversity and to perform association analyses on plant architecture (i.e., branching) and flowering time, successfully identifying numerous associations underlying these agronomically and evolutionarily important traits. Overall, we found variable levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. In general, islands of elevated LD correspond to genomic regions underlying traits that are known to have been targeted by selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In many cases, these regions also showed significantly elevated levels of differentiation between the two major sunflower breeding groups, consistent with the occurrence of divergence due to strong selection. One of these regions, which harbors a major branching locus, spans a surprisingly long genetic interval (ca. 25 cM), indicating the occurrence of an extended selective sweep in an otherwise recombinogenic interval. PMID:23555290

  15. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves da Rocha-Filho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  16. Structure of pectic polysaccharides from sunflower salts-soluble fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript discusses the structural features of pectin polysaccharides extracted from seedless sunflower head residues. The analysis using 1H, 13C and two-dimensional gHSQC NMR showed various numbers of methyl and hydroxyl groups attached to the anomeric carbons in the pectin backbone at differe...

  17. FORTIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS FORTIFICATION OF SUNFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Škarpa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element which in small amounts is necessary for human and animal nutrition. In the organism it helps a number of antioxidant enzymes to function normally. In many parts of the world, including the Central European region, its content in agricultural products is very low. Attempts are therefore made to increase its content and cover human requirements with biologically valuable products by incorporating selenium into the system of plant nutrition. In a vegetation trial established in 2010 and 2011 we explored the effect of foliar applications of Se (IV on achenes yields and on content of selenium in the seeds and the uptake of selenium by the sunflower stand. Solutions of sodium selenite at 0.16 and 0.5 g Se.he-1 were applied at rates 50 and 150 g Se.ha-1 at the beginning of elongation growth (stage R-1. Sunflower achenes yields were significantly influenced by the weather in the experimental years. In 2011 sunflower production was by 29.4% lower than in 2010. Se fortification in dose 50 g Se.ha-1 increased sunflower achenes yield by 3.1%. The higher dose of selenium (150 g Se.ha-1 reduced yields by 6.8% compared with the no-fertilized treatment. Due to the effect of foliar Se nutrition the content of selenium in sunflower achenes increased highly significantly from 123 µg.kg-1 to 6,004 µg.kg-1 of achenes. The weight of 1000 achenes, oil content and content of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic acids were not significantly affected by selenium application. Fortification of Se increased stearic acid content from 3.16% to 3.47%.

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic variability of disc flower corolla length and nectar content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Jovan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nectar content and disc flower corolla length are the two most important parameters of attractiveness to pollinators in sunflower. The phenotypic and genotypic variability of these two traits was studied in four commercially important hybrids and their parental components in a trial with three fertilizer doses over two years. The results showed that, looking at individual genotypes, the variability of disc flower corolla length was affected the most by year (85.38-97.46%. As the study years were extremely different, the phenotypic variance of the hybrids and parental components was calculated for each year separately. In such conditions, looking at all of the crossing combinations, the largest contribution to phenotypic variance of the corolla length was that of genotype: 57.27-61.11% (NS-H-45 64.51-84.84% (Velja; 96.74-97.20% (NS-H-702 and 13.92-73.17% (NS-H-111. A similar situation was observed for the phenotypic variability of nectar content, where genotype also had the largest influence, namely 39.77-48.25% in NS-H-45; 39.06-42.51% in Velja; 31.97-72.36% in NS-H-702; and 62.13-94.96% in NS-H-111.

  19. Preparation of stable food-grade double emulsions with a hybrid premix membrane emulsification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Juraite, Dovile; Schroën, Karin; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that food-grade double emulsions can be successfully prepared using a hybrid premix emulsification system. A coarse emulsion containing beetroot juice as inner water phase, sunflower oil as oil phase and 0.5% or 1.0% whey protein isolate solution as outer water phase

  20. Oilfield water treatment by electrocoagulation-reverse osmosis for agricultural use: effects on germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo S A; Cerqueira, Alexandre A; Rigo, Michelle M; de Paiva, Julieta L; Couto, Rafael S P; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel V; Marques, Monica R C

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of oilfield water (OW), treated by a hybrid process of electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis (EC-RO), on seed germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower (Heliantus annus L.). In the EC step, tests were conducted with 28.6 A m -2 current density and 4 min. reaction time. In the RO step, the system was operated with 1 L min -1 constant flow and 2 MPa, 2.5 MPa and 3 MPa feed pressures. In all feed pressures, RO polymeric membranes achieved very high removals of chemical oxygen demand (up to 89%) and oils and greases (100%) from EC-treated effluent. In best feed pressure (2.5 MPa), turbidity, total dissolved salts, electrical conductivity, salinity, toxic ions and sodium adsorption ratio values attained internationally recognized standards for irrigation water. Using EC-RO (feed pressure:2.5 MPa) treated OW, germinated sunflower seeds percentage (86 ± 6%), speed of germination (30 ± 2) and biomass production (49 ± 5 mg) were statistically similar to control (distilled water) results. Vigor index average values obtained using OW treated by EC-RO (3871)were higher than that obtained by OW water treated by EC (3300). The results of this study indicate that EC-RO seems to be a promising alternative for treatment of OW aiming sunflower crops irrigation, since the use of this treated effluent did not affect adversely seed germination and seedling development, and improved seedling vigor. Furthermore, OW treatment by EC-RO reduces sodium levels into acceptable standards values avoiding soil degradation.

  1. Effector Polymorphisms of the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii and Their Use to Identify Pathotypes from Field Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Bordat, Amandine; Sallet, Erika; Pouilly, Nicolas; Carrere, Sébastien; Roux, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    The obligate biotroph oomycete Plasmopara halstedii causes downy mildew on sunflower crop, Helianthus annuus. The breakdown of several Pl resistance genes used in sunflower hybrids over the last 25 years came along with the appearance of new Pl. halstedii isolates showing modified virulence profiles. In oomycetes, two classes of effector proteins, key players of pathogen virulence, are translocated into the host: RXLR and CRN effectors. We identified 54 putative CRN or RXLR effector genes from transcriptomic data and analyzed their genetic diversity in seven Pl. halstedii pathotypes representative of the species variability. Pl. halstedii effector genes were on average more polymorphic at both the nucleic and protein levels than random non-effector genes, suggesting a potential adaptive dynamics of pathogen virulence over the last 25 years. Twenty-two KASP (Competitive Allele Specific PCR) markers designed on polymorphic effector genes were genotyped on 35 isolates belonging to 14 Pl. halstedii pathotypes. Polymorphism analysis based on eight KASP markers aims at proposing a determination key suitable to classify the eight multi-isolate pathotypes into six groups. This is the first report of a molecular marker set able to discriminate Pl. halstedii pathotypes based on the polymorphism of pathogenicity effectors. Compared to phenotypic tests handling living spores used until now to discriminate Pl. halstedii pathotypes, this set of molecular markers constitutes a first step in faster pathotype diagnosis of Pl. halstedii isolates. Hence, emerging sunflower downy mildew isolates could be more rapidly characterized and thus, assessment of plant resistance breakdown under field conditions should be improved. PMID:26845339

  2. Aflatoxin levels in sunflower seeds and cakes collected from micro- and small-scale sunflower oil processors in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmongoyo, Juma A; Wu, Felicia; Linz, John E; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Mugula, Jovin K; Tempelman, Robert J; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania. Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across two years, and analyzed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For seed samples collected June-August 2014, the highest aflatoxin concentrations were from Dodoma (1.7-280.6 ng/g), Singida (1.4-261.8 ng/g), and Babati-Manyara (1.8-162.0 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Mbeya (2.8-97.7 ng/g), Dodoma (1.9-88.2 ng/g), and Singida (2.0-34.3 ng/g). For seed samples collected August-October 2015, the highest concentrations were from Morogoro (2.8-662.7 ng/g), Singida (1.6-217.6 ng/g) and Mbeya (1.4-174.2 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Morogoro (2.7-536.0 ng/g), Dodoma (1.4-598.4 ng/g) and Singida (3.2-52.8 ng/g). In summary, humans and animals are potentially at high risk of exposure to aflatoxins through sunflower seeds and cakes from micro-scale millers in Tanzania; and location influences risk.

  3. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadley, M.R.; Willey, N.J. [University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Faculty of Applied Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 {mu}g radiolabelled Cs g{sup -1} soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author).

  4. Effect Of Incorporation Of Sunflower Seed Flour On The Chemical And Sensory Characteristics Of Cracker Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona MAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sunflower seed flour supplementation on the quality characteristics of wheat flour cracker biscuits was studied. For this purpose, four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 15%, 25%, and 35% of sunflower seed flour, were used. The cracker biscuits with sunflower seed flour and the control samples were subjected to physico-chemical and organoleptic analyses. The cracker biscuits, prepared with sunflower seed flour up to a 35% level of supplementation in wheat flour, were found to be acceptable with respect to all sensory attributes. In the present study, significant improvement in the chemical composition (ash, fat, and crude protein of wheat-flour cracker biscuits supplemented with sunflower seed flour was observed. This reflects the potential for use of sunflower seed flour, as a partial replacement for wheat flour, for enhancement of these nutrients/chemical constituents

  5. Arsenic-contaminated soils. Phytotoxicity studies with sunflower and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubun, Y.V.; Kosterin, P.V.; Zakharova, E.A.; Fedorov, E.E. [Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (Russian Federation); Shcherbakov, A.A. [Saratov Military Inst. of Radiological, Chemical and Biological Defence, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Aim and Scope. Environmental pollution caused by arsenic (As) is a major ecological problem. There has been intense worldwide effort to find As-hyperaccumulating plants that can be used in phytoremediation - the green-plant-assisted removal of chemical pollutants from soils. For phytoremediation, it is natural to prefer cultivated rather than wild plants, because their agriculture is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Pers.) for soil-As contents of 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, with sodium arsenite as a model contaminant. Methods. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days. Microfield experiments were conducted on experimental plots. To study the phytoremediation effect of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), we treated 1- and 3-day-old plant seedlings with water solutions of the auxins (concentrations of 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -7}, and 10{sup -9} g l{sup -1}). The soil and plant-biomass samples were analyzed for total As by using the color reaction of ammonium molybdate with As. Results and Discussion. Phytotoxicity studies showed that 100 mg as kg{sup -1} soil poisoned sunflower and sorghum growth by 50%. There was a linear correlation between soil-As content and As accumulation in the plants. Laboratory experiments showed that the soil-As content was reduced two- to threefold after sunflower had been grown with 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil for 30 days. Treatment of sunflower and sorghum seedlings with IAA and 2,4-D at a concentration of 10{sup -5} g l{sup -1} in microfield experiments enhanced the phytoremediation two- to fivefold as compared with untreated control plants. The best results were obtained with 3-day-old seedlings. Conclusion, Recommendation and Outlook. (a) Sunflower and sorghum are good candidates to remediate As-polluted soils. (b) Phytoremediation can be improved with IAA or 2

  6. Mammal taxa constituting potential coevolved reservoirs of filoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, A.Townsend; Papes, Monica; Carroll, Darin S.

    2007-01-01

    The virus family Filoviridae includes 2 genera, the Marburg viruses and the Ebola viruses. The ecology of the filoviruses is poorly known, and indeed their host relationships remain completely unknown. An earlier effort prioritized mammalian taxa as to their possible status as the long-term coevo......The virus family Filoviridae includes 2 genera, the Marburg viruses and the Ebola viruses. The ecology of the filoviruses is poorly known, and indeed their host relationships remain completely unknown. An earlier effort prioritized mammalian taxa as to their possible status as the long...

  7. Lessons from the British Defeat Combating Colonial Hybrid Warfare in the 1781 Southern Theater of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    insights to the dealing with hybrid enemies today. To defeat hybrid enemies, armies need an organizational culture that supports transition among the...Tse-Tung’s Mobile War (Manhattan, KS: Sunflower University Press, 2009); Gerald Carbone, Nathanael Greene: A Biography of the American Revolution...North Carolina (Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History, 1976); John Tokar, “Logistics and the

  8. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  9. Improving Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture by Controlling Tahini Particle Size Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Mureşan; Lucian Cuibus; Anna Olari; Emil Racolţa; Carmen Socaciu; Sabine Danthine; Sevastița Muste; Christophe Blecker

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower halva is an appreciated product, but shows currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers, having a hard texture and oil exuded on the surface (low stability). The aim of this work was to assess the influence of tahini particle size on sunflower halva texture and stability. Eight different particle size sunflower tahini samples were produced at pilot plant scale, the higher the number of passes through the colloidal mill, the smaller the particle size ...

  10. Levels of antioxidant enzymes and alkaline protease from pulp and peel of sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Wesen Adel Mehdi; Faridah Yusof; Layla O. Farhan; Atheer Awad Mehde; Raha Ahmed Raus

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The activity of enzymes participating in the systems of antioxidant protection was assayed in the peel and pulp of sunflower. The essential roles of proteases in food stimulate research to find other sources of the enzyme especially from non-conventional sources. In the present work, we study several biochemical parameters in the pulp and peel of sunflower. Methods: Pulp and peel of sunflower was extracted, antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidant were measured. Alkalin...

  11. Crop-weed competition between sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and Convolvulus arvensis L. in substitutive experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinczi, G; Takács, A; Horváth, J

    2006-01-01

    The main characteristics of a substitutive experiment is that the proportions of two species in the mixtures are varied while the overall density of the two species is maintained constant - a replacement series. In our experiments early competition between sunflower and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) was studied in a replacement studies under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were set up with the following treatments: 1, sunflower 100% (6 plants pot(-1)); 2, sunflower 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)); 3, sunflower 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)); 4, C. arvensis 100% (6 plants pot(-1)). Sixty eight days after sowing dry weight of shoots and roots were measured and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content was also determined. Dry biomass production of sunflower was almost twice higher as compared to that of C. arvensis without interspecific competition. Dry weight of sunflower and C. arvensis shoots and roots for a plant continuously decreased by reducing their proportion in the mixtures. Higher biomass production of sunflower suggests, that its development is faster at the beginning of vegetation penod, therefore sunflower has better competitive ability in sunflower--C. arvensis mixtures in the early competition as compared to C. arvensis. Shoot:root ratio of plants did not change considerably in mixtures, but generally was ten times higher in sunflower plants, as compared to that of C. arvensis. Shoots generally contained macro elements at higher concentration as compared to those of roots. Total NPK content of sunflower was reduced by 53 and 82% for a pot, as its proportion decreased in the mixtures. More severe reduction in NPK content was observed in case of C. arvensis, which also proves stronger competitive ability of sunflower in the early vegetation.

  12. The Effectof Temperature on the Dynmaic Viscosity of Acetone Sunflower-Seed Oil Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    TOPALLAR, Hüseyin; BAYRAK, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acetone on the dynamic viscosity of sunflower-seed oil was studied under a dynamic heating regime at temeparuters ranging from 25oC to 50oC at 5oC intervals. Acetone dramatically reduced the viscosity of sunflower-seed oil. The reduction of viscosity was far less with further addition of acetone. A linear relationship was found between the density of sunflower-seed oil and temperature. The influence of a solvent on the density of the sunflower-seed oil/acetone solution can be ac...

  13. Purification and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptide from Sunflower Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Qun Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower proteins were hydrolyzed with Flavourzyme for the production of antioxidant peptide. DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC were consecutively employed to purify a novel sunflower antioxidant peptide, and the ability to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol was expressed as the antioxidative activity of the peptide. The amino acid sequence was identified as Ala-Cys-Ala-His-Asp-Lys-Val by a Q-Tof2 mass spectrometer. This novel peptide exhibited a high antioxidative activity of 79.42 U/mL, which is expected to protect against oxidative damage in living systems in relation to aging and carcinogenesis. Higher antioxidative activities were presumed mainly due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acids in its sequence.

  14. Shoot development from hypocotyl protoplasts of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Nagl, Nevena; Miladinovic, Dragana; Mikic, A

    2009-06-01

    The plant regeneration from sunflower protoplast was achieved by protocols that considerably differ with respect to basal medium and concentration of growth regulators added. In most cases regeneration was restricted to a small proportion of genotypes. In this experiment, sunflower inbred line Ha-74A, with a high regeneration ability was used for protoplast isolation from etiolated hypocotyls. Isolated protoplasts were embedded in agarose droplets and cultured according to different regeneration protocols. The best results were obtained when protoplasts were cultured on L4 medium followed by transfer of regenerated microcalluses to solid regeneration media. Shoot regeneration was achieved by culture of calluses on SE regeneration medium after the treatment with 2.2 μM thidiazuron.

  15. Testing Sunflower Inbred Lines for Tolerance to Phoma Black Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boško Dedić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phoma black stem is caused by a widespread pathogen Phoma macdonaldii Boerema.The disease occurs regularly, causing damage by early defoliation and premature ripening.Complete resistance of sunflower to this disease has never been found, but there arereports of differences in response by different genotypes. Fifty-four new inbred lines weretested in our trials conducted at the Rimski Šančevi experimental field. Plants in one trialwere non-irrigated, and irrigated in another. Sunflower plants were artificially inoculatedwith mycelial plugs in the bud stage. The length of stem lesions was measured and comparedusing an analysis of variance. Disease intensity was generally more severe in the nonirrigatedfield. There were significant differences in tolerance to Phoma black stem amongthe tested lines in both trials. The percentage of tolerant genotypes was 1.8%.

  16. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  17. Ecological properties of some Crocus taxa in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Kyrgyzstan and Shenyang provinces of Western China, and Ala Tau and Tien Shan Mountains of Mongolia in the. East. Most of the taxa collected are located in the. Balkans and Turkey. The distribution range of the species is from 10° west longitude to 80° east longitude and 30º north latitude to 50º south ...

  18. Ecological properties of some Crocus taxa in Turkey | Sik | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants together with in situ soil samples were collected in their flowering periods and data on the distribution areas of the plants and some physical and chemical properties of soil samples were determined. In conclusion, the ... and it has been observed that taxa usually grow in light alkali, non-salted, clayey-loamy soils.

  19. Biodiversity of few Indian charophyte taxa based on molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiversity of few Indian charophyte taxa based on molecular characterization and construction of phylogenetic tree. ... such as band frequency, RAPD polymorphism, genetic identity index or similarity index, band sharing frequency and genetic distance within and in between Chara and Nitella were evaluated. With the ...

  20. Cytotaxonomical studies on some Crocus L. taxa in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Cytotaxonomical studies on some Crocus L. taxa in. Turkey. F. Candan1, L. Şik1* and T. Kesercioğlu2. 1Department of Biology, Science and Art Faculty, Celal Bayar University, Muradiye-Manisa, Turkey. 2Department of Science Educations, Buca Education Faculty, Dokuz Eylul ...

  1. Taxa-area relationship of aquatic fungi on deciduous leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Sofia; Cássio, Fernanda; Pascoal, Cláudia; Bärlocher, Felix

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental patterns in macroecology is the increase in the number of observed taxa with size of sampled area. For microbes, the shape of this relationship remains less clear. The current study assessed the diversity of aquatic fungi, by the traditional approach based on conidial morphology (captures reproducing aquatic hyphomycetes) and next generation sequencing (NGS; captures other fungi as well), on graded sizes of alder leaves (0.6 to 13.6 cm2). Leaves were submerged in two streams in geographically distant locations: the Oliveira Stream in Portugal and the Boss Brook in Canada. Decay rates of alder leaves and fungal sporulation rates did not differ between streams. Fungal biomass was higher in Boss Brook than in Oliveira Stream, and in both streams almost 100% of the reads belonged to active fungal taxa. In general, larger leaf areas tended to harbour more fungi, but these findings were not consistent between techniques. Morphospecies-based diversity increased with leaf area in Boss Brook, but not in Oliveira Stream; metabarcoding data showed an opposite trend. The higher resolution of metabarcoding resulted in steeper taxa-accumulation curves than morphospecies-based assessments (fungal conidia morphology). Fungal communities assessed by metabarcoding were spatially structured by leaf area in both streams. Metabarcoding promises greater resolution to assess biodiversity patterns in aquatic fungi and may be more accurate for assessing taxa-area relationships and local to global diversity ratios.

  2. Dendrothele griseocana (Corticiaceae) and related taxa with hyphal pegs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen K. Nakasone

    2006-01-01

    Four Dendrothele (Corticiaceae, Polyporales) species with hyphal pegs are described and illustrated. Type specimens of Corticium griseocanum and Dendrothele papillosa were examined and found to be conspecific. Two new taxa, D. americana and D. tanzaniana, are described and illustrated, and the new combination, Dendrothele andina, is proposed. A key to D. griseocana and...

  3. Iteration expansion and regional evolution: phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four related taxa in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Beiwei; Luo, Jing; Zhang, Yusi; Niu, Zhitao; Xue, Qingyun; Ding, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    The genus Dendrobium was used as a case study to elucidate the evolutionary history of Orchidaceae in the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) and Southeast Asia region. These evolutionary histories remain largely unknown, including the temporal and spatial distribution of the evolutionary events. The present study used nuclear and plastid DNA to determine the phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four closely related taxa. Plastid DNA haplotype and nuclear data were shown to be discordant, suggesting reticulate evolution drove the species’ diversification. Rapid radiation and genetic drift appeared to drive the evolution of D. tosaense and D. flexicaule, whereas introgression or hybridization might have been involved in the evolution of D. scoriarum and D. shixingense. The phylogeographical structure of D. officinale revealed that core natural distribution regions might have served as its glacial refuges. In recent years, human disturbances caused its artificial migration and population extinction. The five taxa may have originated from the Nanling Mountains and the Yungui Plateau and then migrated northward or eastward. After the initial iteration expansion, D. officinale populations appeared to experience the regional evolutionary patterns in different regions and follow the sequential or rapid decline in gene exchange. PMID:28262789

  4. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaher, F. A.; Aly, Saadia M.; El-Kinawy, O. S.

    1998-01-01

    Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase) in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium&...

  5. Biodiesel production by chemical or enzymatic esterification of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, Paula C.; Rosa, M. Fernanda; Oliveira, A.C.; Pingarilho, M.S.; Beirao, S.G.; Vieira, Ana Maria Soares

    1998-07-01

    In this work, two processes of sunflower oil transesterification, with methanol or ethanol, were studied for biodiesel production: chemical (catalyst- NaOH) and enzymatic (catalyst - rhizomucor miehei lipase). The chemical catalysis proved to be more efficient, having been obtained higher conversion yields and a better quality biodiesel, mainly in the case where methanol was used. The transesterification product had, in all cases, to be purified in order to be used as a diesel substitute.

  6. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  7. OCCURRENCE OF DISEASES ON SUNFLOWER STEMS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During a three–year period (2001-2003, occurrence of diseases on sunflower stems was monitored in fields of PIK Vinkovci (on the Sopot location. The experiment involved 24 genotypes planted in 2001, 30 genotypes in 2002, and 20 genotypes in 2003, each of them repeated in two trials: treated and non-treated. The Konker fungicide preparation, dosed 1.5 l/ha, was used for sunflower protection. The treatment was applied at the R1-R2 development stage of sunflower (the size of immature bud was up to 2 cm. Based on the conducted survey, it was found out that Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was the most dominant disease agent to sunflower stems in 2001. Percentage of infection for the non-treated and treated trials was between 0 and 32.5%, and 0 and 17.5%, respectively. In 2002 and 2003, Phomopsis helianthi was the most dominant disease agent. Average value rate in 2002 fluctuated between 0.65 and 4.00 in non-treated trial and between 0.05 and 2.60 in treated trial. In 2003, occurrence of P. helianthi was of weak intensity, mostly because of unfavorable weather conditions for parasite development. Average ratings were 0.35 to 3.30 in the non-treated trial, and 0.20 to 1.85 in the treated trial. Application of fungicide during the whole experiment period had positive effects on the decrease of infection intensity and the increase of grain and oil yields.

  8. Optimization of Sunflower Oil Transesterification Process Using Sodium Methoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KoohiKamali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD through response surface methodology (RSM was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w. The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P≥0.05. Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.

  9. Residual nutational activity of the sunflower hypocotyl in simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity dependence of circumnutational activity in the sunflower hypocotyl is investigated under conditions of simulated weightlessness. Seedling cultures of the sunflower Helianthus annuus were placed four days after planting in clinostats rotating at a rate of 1.0 rpm in the horizontal or somersaulting configurations, and plant movements around their growth axes were recorded in infrared light by a time-lapse closed-circuit video system. The amplitudes and mean cycle durations of the plant nutations in the horizontal and tumbling clinostats are observed to be 20% and 72%, and 32% and 74%, respectively, of the values observed in stationary plants; extrapolations to a state of zero g by the imposition of small centripetal forces on horizontally clinostated plants also indicate some nutational motion in the absence of gravity. It is concluded that the results are incompatible with the model of Israelsson and Johnsson (1967) of geotropic response with overshoot for sunflower circumnutation; however, results of the Spacelab 1 mission experiment are needed to unambiguously define the role of gravitation.

  10. Microbiological Production of Citric and Isocitric Acids from Sunflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of wild type strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 and its mutant Yarrowia lipolytica N 15 as well the biosynthesis of citric and isocitric acids on sunflower oil were studied. It was indicated that cell growth was associated with the simultaneous utilization of glycerol and free fatty acids produced during oil hydrolysis. The activities of enzymes of glycerol metabolism (glycerol kinase, fatty acid assimilation enzymes of glyoxylate cycle (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase and citric acid cycle were comparatively assayed in Y. lipolytica grown on sunflower oil, glycerol and oleic acid. Glycerol kinase and enzymes of glyoxylate cycle were active during the whole period of cell cultivation on sunflower oil. Citric acid production and a ratio between citric and isocitric acids depended on both the strain used and the medium composition. It was revealed that wild type strain Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2373 produced almost equal amounts of citric and isocitric acids at pH=4.5 and predominantly accumulated isocitric acid at pH=6.0. The mutant Y. lipolytica N 15 produced only citric acid (150 g/L with mass yield (YCA of 1.32 g/g. Biochemical characteristics of mutant strain Y. lipolytica N 15 were discussed.

  11. Determination of Fe Deficiency Tolerance in Sunflower Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Alkan Torun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency (Fe is an important nutritional disorder of plants and humans worldwide including Turkey. Sunflower is known as a Fe sensitive crop and its deficiency leads to severe yield and quality losses. In this study, the sensitivity of different sunflower genotypes to Fe deficiency was determined. For this purpose, sunflower genotypes TR-6149-SA, TR-3080 and 6480 were grown either without Fe (0 µmol or with Fe (100 µmol hydroponically. At the end of experiment symptom grade, SPAD value, chlorophyll concentration, shoot dry matter yield, Fe-reductase activity, shoot Fe concentration and pH value of growth medium were measured. It was found out that Fe uptake and Fe reductase activity were the most important factors determining the Fe-deficiency tolerance of a genotype. In the deficiency of Fe conditions, the activity of Fe reductase enzyme in the roots was found higher in the genotype of TR-3080 compared to the other genotypes. The results revealed that the genotypic responses to the different Fe concentrations applied are significantly different and Fe reductase enzyme activity may play an important role in amelioration of iron deficiency.

  12. Factors of honeybee colony performances on sunflower at apiary scale

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    Kretzschmar André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An observatory of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera, consisting of at least 200 colonies, divided into 10 apiaries of 20 colonies, was monitored for three years on sunflower honeyflow (2015–2017. The purpose of this observatory is to understand which factors control colony performance during sunflower honeyflow in south-western France. From the temporal dynamics of weight gain, statistical analysis reveals a hierarchy of factors. First, variability in apiary scale performance is an image of the effect of resource variability. But, in addition to this primordial factor, two other factors contribute very significantly to performance. On the one hand, the amount of capped brood and the number of bees at the time of the installation of the apiary: these two elements testify to the vitality of the colony. The second remarkable factor is the Varroa load, which strongly penalizes performance beyond a certain threshold. The negative effect of the Varroa load on the colony performance is minimized in case of abondant sunflower honey flow.

  13. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  14. Sunflower growth according to seed inoculation with endophytic bacteria

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    Juliana Fernandes dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower crop has a great importance worldwide, due to the oil of excellent quality extracted from its seeds and in natura grains that are consumed in various ways. However, drought is one of the main environmental factors that limit its yield. An experiment was carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions, in a completely randomized experimental design, in order to determine the effect of endophytic bacteria inoculation (Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter cloacae on the growth and contents of nutrients and organic solutes, in sunflower leaves and roots under water deficit. Plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry biomass of shoot and roots, as well as contents of N, P, K, soluble carbohydrates, free proline, free amino acids and soluble proteins, were determined at 35 days after the plant emergence. The water deficit reduced plant growth regardless inoculation. However, under optimum conditions of soil moisture, the combination of both endophytic bacteria increased the sunflower growth. The water deficit also increased the N and K contents in leaves, as well as the organic solutes content in shoots, especially in inoculated plants. These results suggest that the inoculation of endophytic bacteria may increase the capacity of drought stressed plants to perform the osmotic adjustment through a higher accumulation of organic solutes, when compared to plants not inoculated.

  15. Sunflower cake from biodiesel production fed to crossbred Boer kids

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    Mariza Sufiana Faharodine Aly Agy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intake of the dry matter (DM, the crude protein (CP and the metabolizable energy intake (ME in megacalories per day (Mcal/day were not affected by the diets. In contrast, the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, in g/kg BW, increased linearly. An increasing linear effect was also observed for the ether extract (EE intake, whereas a decreasing linear performance was observed for the non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC intake. The digestibility of DM, organic matter and NFC decreased linearly with the sunflower cake inclusion, whereas the digestibility of CP, NDF, and EE were not influenced by the diets. No effect was observed for the concentration of serum glucose or urea nitrogen serum. No effect was observed on the urea nitrogen serum in the hours after feeding; however, including sunflower cake in the diets resulted in a quadratic performance for the serum glucose concentrations in the hours after feeding. The average daily gain (ADG had a decreasing linear effect, and the food conversions of the DM, CP, NDF, NFC and ME had increasing linear effects. The feeding costs decreased with the level of sunflower cake.

  16. RXLR and CRN Effectors from the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii Induce Hypersensitive-Like Responses in Resistant Sunflower Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Buendia, Luis; Pecrix, Yann; Blanchet, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Vear, Felicity; Godiard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g., plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower) strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analyzed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances. PMID:28066456

  17. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  18. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Bakre, S.M.; Gadmale, D. K.; Toche, R. B.; V. B. GAIKWAD

    2014-01-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxid...

  19. Dissimilaridade genética de girassol por meio de caracteres quantitativos Agronomic performance and genetic dissimilarity sunflower

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    João Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz Rigon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar, por meio de caracteres quantitativos, a dissimilaridade genética entre cultivares de girassol em diferentes localidades, além da concordância entre os métodos, visando à extração de linhagens para possíveis cruzamentos. Foram cultivados oito híbridos de girassol em duas localidades no noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, com solo predominantemente do tipo Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram utilizados métodos multivariados para determinar a divergência genética, utilizando a distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Apesar dos rendimentos distintos entre locais e cultivares, os métodos de agrupamento tiveram concordância entre si. Para obtenção de populações segregantes, a cultivar 'Olisun 5', independente da localidade, demonstrou-se com maior potencial de hibridação, tendo as maiores contribuições por meio do número de aquênios por capítulo e altura de inserção do capítulo.The aim of this study to evaluate by means of quantitative traits, the genetic dissimilarity among sunflower cultivars in different locations, in addition to the agreement between the methods in order to extract lines for future crosses. There were eight sunflower hybrids grown in two locations in northwestern Rio Grande do Sul, mainly with soil type Oxisol. Multivariate methods were used to determine the genetic diversity, using the Mahalanobis distance. Although the different yield between locations and cultivars, methods of grouping agreed among them selves. To obtain segregating populations, regardless of location, the cultivate 'Olisun 5', demonstrated greater potential for hybridization, with major contributions through number of achenes per chapter and height of the insertion section.

  20. The effectiveness of surrogate taxa to conserve freshwater biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Underwood, Zachary E.; Rahel, Frank J.; Walters, Annika W.

    2018-01-01

    Establishing protected areas has long been an effective conservation strategy, and is often based on more readily surveyed species. The potential of any freshwater taxa to be a surrogate of other aquatic groups has not been fully explored. We compiled occurrence data on 72 species of freshwater fish, amphibians, mussels, and aquatic reptiles for the Great Plains, Wyoming. We used hierarchical Bayesian multi-species mixture models and MaxEnt models to describe species distributions, and program Zonation to identify conservation priority areas for each aquatic group. The landscape-scale factors that best characterized aquatic species distributions differed among groups. There was low agreement and congruence among taxa-specific conservation priorities (conservation priorities based on a single freshwater aquatic group would not protect all species in the other aquatic groups.

  1. Relationship among the species richness of different taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Volkmar; Bengtsson, Janne; Zaitsev, Andrei S

    2006-08-01

    Spatially explicit forecasting of changes in species richness is key to designing informative scenarios on the development of diversity on our planet. It might be possible to predict changes in the richness of inadequately investigated groups from that of groups for which enough information is available. Here we evaluate the reliability of this approach by reviewing 237 richness correlations extracted from the recent literature. Of the 43 taxa covered, beetles, vascular plants, butterflies, birds, ants, and mammals (in that order) were the most common ones examined. Forests and grasslands strongly dominated the ecosystem types studied. The variance explanation (R2) could be calculated for 152 cases, but only 53 of these were significant. An average correlation effect size of 0.374 (95% CI = +/- 0.0678) indicates positive but weak correlations between taxa within the very heterogeneous data set; None of the examined explanatory variables (spatial scale, taxonomic distance, trophic position, biome) could account for this heterogeneity. However, studies focusing on 10-km2 grid cells had the highest variance explanation. Moreover, within-phylum between-class comparisons had marginally significantly lower correlations than between-phylum comparisons. And finally, the explanatory power of studies conducted in the tropics was significantly higher than that of studies conducted in temperate regions. It is concluded that the potential of a correlative approach to species richness is strongly diminished by the overall low level of variance explanation. So far, no taxon has proved to be a universal or even particularly good predictor for the richness of other taxa. Some suggestions for future research are inclusion of several taxa in models aiming at regional richness predictions, improvement of knowledge on species correlations in human dominated systems, and a better understanding of mechanisms underlying richness correlations.

  2. First report of sunflower white mold caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger in Inner Mongolia region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the 2014 growing season, sunflower plants with symptoms of basal stem rot and whole plant wilt were observed in sunflower fields in Inner Mongolia, China. The average disease incidence was between 10-15%. Tiny (0.30 to 2.68 mm) black sclerotia were usually observed on the stem of infected pla...

  3. Formation and Stability of Foams Made with Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Foam properties of a sunflower isolate (SI), as well as those of helianthinin and sunflower albumins (SFAs), were studied at various pH values and ionic strengths and after heat treatment. Less foam could be formed from helianthinin than from SFAs, but foam prepared with helianthinin was more stable

  4. Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... QC-PCR) and indirect (dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) disappearance in rumen fungi media culture for 12 days) methods. The results of QC-PCR showed that rumen anaerobic fungi population in the medium containing high fat sunflower meal was greater as compared to low fat sunflower meal (+0.14 ...

  5. Sunflower hulls degradation by co-composting with different nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conghos, M M; Aguirre, M E; Santamaría, R M

    2006-09-01

    The decomposition of sunflower hull and its mixtures was examined under mesophilic (M) and thermophilic (T) temperatures during 100 days. Thermophilic conditions were used to define the composting process. Vetch, alfalfa and ammonium nitrate were used as nitrogen co-substrates, in 6 treatments: sunflower hulls alone (C), sunflower hulls plus ammonium nitrate (CN), sunflower hulls plus alfalfa (CA), sunflower hulls plus alfalfa and ammonium nitrate (CAV), sunflower hulls plus vetch (CV), sunflower hulls plus vetch and ammonium nitrate (CVN). Total organic carbon (TOC), oxidizable carbon (OC), dry matter, ashes content, total nitrogen (N), cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pH, electrical conductivity and C to N ratio were measured to asses the efficiency of the composting process and to determine the best amendment. Results show that sunflower hulls (Sh) treatment with the organic amendments had a better response than the inorganic ones. This was concluded from the variation in the fiberfractions, the decrease in dry matter and the major decrease in C to N ratio.

  6. 78 FR 50409 - Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC, Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on August... Municipal Energy Agency (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Sunflower Electric Power Corporation...

  7. Sesquiterpene lactone composition of wild and cultivated sunflowers and biological activity against an insect pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds and insects. Across a broad range of H. annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers, but also between d...

  8. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  9. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (psunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  10. Using Simon Wiesenthal's "The Sunflower" to Teach the Study of Genocide and the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, Kimberley A.

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses a project called ""The Sunflower" Symposium," named in honor of Simon Wiesenthal's "The Sunflower" (1998). The project was a catalyst for discussions on legalized discrimination, the infringement of civil rights, (in)justice, (in)tolerance, and civic responsibility, influencing students to connect the Holocaust to other world…

  11. Triploid production from interspecific crosses of two diploid perennial Helianthus with cultivated sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic source for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. &. G. ...

  12. Genetic progress in sunflower crop in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, D N; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Lorentz, L H; Boligon, A A; Caraffa, M; Wartha, C A

    2017-04-13

    The sunflower has adaptability to growing regions with different climatic and soil characteristics, showing drought tolerance and high-quality oil production. The State of Rio Grande do Sul is the third largest sunflower producer in Brazil, with research related to the sunflower breeding initiated after the decade of 1950. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic progress for grain yield, oil content, and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Data of grain yield, oil content, and oil yield obtained from 58 sunflower cultivar yield trials in 19 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul during the period from 2005 to 2014 were used. Genetic progress was studied according to the methodology proposed by Vencovsky and data from sunflower cultivar yield trials were used. Annual genetic progress of sunflower during the period of 10 years (2005-2014) was 132.46 kg⋅ha(-1)⋅year(-1) for grain yield, -0.17%/year for oil content, and 48.11 kg⋅ha(-1)⋅year(-1) for oil yield. The sunflower-breeding programs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were efficient for the traits grain yield and oil yield and presented no efficiency for oil content.

  13. Physicochemical properties of 2S Albumins and the corresponding protein isolate from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Sunflower albumins (SFAs) are a diverse group of proteins present in sunflower isolates, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 2S. This research presents a detailed study of the influence of pH on the structure and solubility of SFAs. The effect of temperature on the structure of SFAs

  14. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower... (STCC) number are: 01 Farm products, with the exception of grain (STCC No. 0113), soybeans (STCC No...

  15. Chemical Attributes of Soil Fertilized with Cassava Mill Wastewater and Cultivated with Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Suyane Marques Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA, located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6×5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136 m3 ha−1; and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater, with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers.

  16. Production and morphological components of sunflower on soil fertilized with cassava wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Suyane Marques Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agroindustrial residues, such as cassava wastewater, have been used as soil fertilizers, reducing environmental pollution and recovering nutrients. The objective of this work was to evaluate production and morphological components and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, hybrid Helio-250, fertilized with cassava wastewater. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronomico de Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A randomized block experimental design was used, with six cassava wastewater rates (0, 8.5, 17.0, 34.0, 68.0 and 136 m3 ha-1 and four replications. The variables evaluated were shoot fresh and dry weight, capitulum fresh and dry weight, capitulum diameter, seed yield, oil yield and seed oil content. The use cassava wastewater as soil fertilizer improved the production and morphological variables evaluated, except the seed oil content, which decreased with application of cassava wastewater rates above 25 m3 ha-1.

  17. Leaf structural adaptations of two Limonium miller (Plumbaginales, Plumbaginaceae taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Lana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limonium gmelinii (Willd. O. Kuntze 1891 subsp. hungaricum (Klokov Soó is Pannonian endemic subspecies that inhabits continental halobiomes, while Limonium anfractum (Salmon Salmon 1924 is one of the indicators of halophyte vegetation of marine rocks and its distribution is restricted to the southern parts of Mediterranean Sea coast. In this work, micromorphological and anatomical characters of leaves of these two Limonium taxa were analyzed, in order to examine their adaptations to specific environmental conditions on saline habitats. The results showed that both taxa exhibited strong xeromorphic adaptations that reflected in flat cell walls of epidermal cells, thick cuticle, high palisade/spongy tissue ratio, high index of palisade cells, the presence of sclereid idioblasts in leaf mesophyll and mechanical tissue by phloem and xylem. Both taxa are crynohalophytes and have salt glands on adaxial and abaxial epidermis for excretion of surplus salt. Relatively high dimensions of mesophyll cells, absence of non-glandular hairs and unprotected stomata slightly increased above the level of epidermal cells, are also adaptations to increased salinity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002

  18. Are troglobitic taxa troglobiomorphic? A test using phylogenetic inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Desutter-Grandcolas

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Obligate cave dwelling organisms are frequently characterised by a peculiar morphological syndrome, named troglomorphosis or troglobiomorphosis. This hypothesis, which deals with the evolutionary influence of the subterranean environment on cave organisms is far from being universally accepted. Yet it has been adopted by many authors and is often included in the definitions of the current classification of cave taxa. In this paper I present a test of the troglobiomorphosis hypothesis, using the case study of the cricket clade Amphiacustae (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae. Such a test preliminarily requires that observations of the habitat of the taxa (achieved on present-day populations are clearly separated from hypotheses on the evolutionary transformations of cave taxa (troglobiomorphosis hypothesis s. str.. The evolutionary hypotheses on troglobite morphology are tested using phylogenetic inference, that is by parsimoniously mapping the states of several morphological characters (eye size, body colour, relative hindleg size onto the cladogram of the Amphiacustae. According to these phylogenetic analyses, the troglobiomorphosis hypothesis is corroborated by the patterns reconstructed for eye size and body coloration characters, but is refuted by the patterns built for hindleg size.

  19. Effect of Nitrogen and Intercropping Ratios on Grain Yield and Some Morphological Traits of Corn and Sunflower in North Khouzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N Mosavian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effect various nitrogen and intercropping ratios on grain yield and some morphological traits of corn (Zea mays L. and sunflower (Helianthus annus L., a field experiment was conducted at the research farm of Agricultural Faculty of Islamic Azad University of Shoushtar (Khouzestan, in 2006. The split-plot set of treatments was arranged within a randomized complete block with three replicates. Treatments were various nitrogen rates (50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 as main-plots and different ratios of intercropping corn and sunflower (pure stand of corn, intercrop 75% corn plus 25% sunflower, 50% corn plus 50% sunflower, 25% corn plus 75% sunflower and pure stand of sunflower in sub-plots. The results showed that the lowest and the highest grain yield were specified for corn (980 and 1225 g m-2, and for sunflower (346 and 387 g m-2 at 50 and 150 kg N ha-1, respectively. While in intercropping the highest and the lowest grain yield of corn were obtained in pure stand (1265 g m-2, and in 25% corn plus 75% sunflower ratio (957 g m-2. This was also valid for sunflower and resulted in decrease of grain yield of sunflower in 75% corn:25% sunflower intercrop. The oil percent of sunflower increased with decreasing sunflower proportion in intercropping. In addition increasing nitrogen levels resulted to increased land equivalent ratio (LER. So the highest (1.7 and the lowest (1.4 LER based on grain yield was achieved in 25% corn:75% sunflower and 50% corn:50% sunflower intercrops, respectively where 150 kg N ha-1 was applied.

  20. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  1. Rhizosphere Soil Aggregation and Plant Growth Promotion of Sunflowers by an Exopolysaccharide-Producing Rhizobium sp. Strain Isolated from Sunflower Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Alami, Younes; Achouak, Wafa; Marol, Christine; Heulin, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    Root-adhering soil (RAS) forms the immediate environment where plants take up water and nutrients for their growth. We report the effect of an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing rhizobacterium (strain YAS34) on the physical properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) RAS, associated with plant growth promotion, under both water stress and normal water supply conditions. Strain YAS34 was isolated as a major EPS-producing bacterium from the rhizoplane of sunflowers grown in a French dystric c...

  2. Plant response to lead in the presence or absence EDTA in two sunflower genotypes (cultivated H. annuus cv. 1114 and interspecific line H. annuus × H. argophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncheva, Snezhana; Moustakas, Michael; Ananieva, Kalina; Chavdarova, Martina; Gesheva, Emiliya; Vassilevska, Rumyana; Mateev, Plamen

    2013-02-01

    interspecific hybridization. The ability of EDTA to prevent Pb absorption by the plants could underly the mechanism of limiting of the negative impact of Pb ions. Hence, EDTA cannot be used to enhance Pb absorption from nutrient solution by sunflower plants for phytoremediation purposes.

  3. Heavy metals effects on proteolytic system in sunflower leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Liliana B; Zawoznik, Myriam S; Tomaro, María L; Gallego, Susana M

    2008-06-01

    Plant proteolytic system includes proteases, mainly localized inside the organelles, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in both, the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It was recently demonstrated that under severe Cd stress sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) proteasome activity is reduced and this results in accumulation of oxidized proteins. In order to test if under other heavy metal stresses sunflower proteolytic system undergoes similar changes, an hydroponic experiment was carried out. Ten days old sunflower plants were transferred to hydroponic culture solutions devoid (control) or containing 100 microM of AlCl(3), CoCl(2), CuCl(2), CrCl(3), HgCl(2), NiCl(2), PbCl(2) or ZnCl(2) and analyzed for protein oxidative damage and proteolytic activities. After 4 days of metal treatment, only Co(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), and Ni(2+) were found to increase carbonyl groups content. Except for Al(3+) and Zn(2+), all metals tested significantly reduced all proteasome activities (chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like and PGPH) and acid and neutral proteases activities. The effect on basic proteases was more variable. Abundance of 20S protein after metal treatments was similar to that obtained for control samples. Co(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Cr(3+), and Pb(2+) induced accumulation of ubiquitin conjugated proteins. It is concluded that heavy metal effects on proteolytic system cannot be generalized; however, impairment of proteasome functionality and decreased proteases activities seem to be a common feature involved in metal toxicity to plants.

  4. Biplot Analysis of Silicon Dioxide on Early Growth of Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into nanotechnology has advanced in almost all fields of technology and the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 in germination performance sunflower. Germination and seedling growth are the most important stage of plant development and are critical factors to crop production and are essential to achieve optimum performance. The effects of pre-germination hydration in solutions of nano-SiO2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h on germination characteristics of sunflower were investigated. The trait by treatment (TT biplot explained 93% of the total variation of the standardized data (77% and 16% for the first and second principal components, respectively. According to polygon-view of TT biplot, T2 (0.2 mM had the highest values for all of the measured traits except mean germination time and the time to 50% germination. The germination percentage was determined as the best trait and showed the high association with promptness index, energy of germination and germination rate traits. The results of the present study indicated that pre-sowing seed treatments with low concentration of nano-SiO2 had favorable effect sunflower seed germination and seedling early growth. Such a similar outcome could be applied in the future to outline other crops in response to nano-particles as well as to help define tolerance tools for recommendations in stressful conditions in the world.

  5. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  6. Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of fossils across taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mietchen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of life forms in the fossil record is largely determined by the extent to which they were mineralised at the time of their death. In addition to mineral structures, many fossils nonetheless contain detectable amounts of residual water or organic molecules, the analysis of which has become an integral part of current palaeontological research. The methods available for this sort of investigations, though, typically require dissolution or ionisation of the fossil sample or parts thereof, which is an issue with rare taxa and outstanding materials like pathological or type specimens. In such cases, non-destructive techniques could provide a valuable methodological alternative. While Computed Tomography has long been used to study palaeontological specimens, a number of complementary approaches have recently gained ground. These include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI which had previously been employed to obtain three-dimensional images of pathological belemnites non-invasively on the basis of intrinsic contrast. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether 1H MRI can likewise provide anatomical information about non-pathological belemnites and specimens of other fossil taxa. To this end, three-dimensional MR image series were acquired from intact non-pathological invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils. At routine voxel resolutions in the range of several dozens to some hundreds of micrometers, these images reveal a host of anatomical details and thus highlight the potential of MR techniques to effectively complement existing methodological approaches for palaeontological investigations in a wide range of taxa. As for the origin of the MR signal, relaxation and diffusion measurements as well as 1H and 13C MR spectra acquired from a belemnite suggest intracrystalline water or hydroxyl groups, rather than organic residues.

  7. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri A Thomassen

    Full Text Available Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi, Reticulated (G. reticulata and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1 isolation-by-distance; 2 physical barriers to dispersal; 3 general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4 regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically

  8. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A; Freedman, Adam H; Brown, David M; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  9. Progress in modification of sunflower oil to expand its industrial value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Saeed; Jamil, Nazia; Tariq, Sultan Ali; Khan, Maria; Kausar, Maria; Kaya, Yalcin

    2017-05-01

    Increasing the sunflower seed oil content as well as improving its quality makes it compatible for industrial demands. This is an important breeding objective of sunflower which increases its market value and ensures high returns for the producers. The present review focuses on determining the progress of improving sunflower seed oil content and modifying its quality by empirical and advanced molecular breeding methods. It is known that the sunflower oil content and quality have been altered through empirical selection methods and mutation breeding programmes in various parts of the world. Further improvement in seed oil content and its components (such as phytosterols, tocopherols and modified fatty acid profile) has been slowed down due to low genetic variation in elite germplasm and complex of hereditary traits. Introgression from wild species can be carried out to modify the fatty acids profile and tocopherol contents with linkage drags. Different transgenes introduced through biotechnological methods may produce novel long-chain fatty acids within sunflower oil. Bio-engineering of sunflower oil could allow it to be used in diverse industrial products such as bio-diesel or bio-plastics. These results showed that past and current trends of modifying sunflower oil quality are essential for its further expansion as an oilseed crop. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Confectionery products (halva type obtained from sunflower: production technology and quality alterations. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureşan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower "halva" is a popular and widely enjoyed confectionery product specific to the countries of Eastern Europe. Conventional halva has historically been produced from sesame seeds in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, in the production of halva in Eastern Europe, sesame seeds have been largely replaced by sunflower seeds, due to the high availability of sunflower in this region and the comparable taste of the final product. Due to the importance of the cost of raw materials in the food industry, utilization of sunflower seeds in halva production may be of great interest worldwide because it offers the possibility of significantly lowering production costs. Nevertheless, oil separation and storage techniques must be perfected if sunflower halva is to fulfill its promise of becoming a cost effective alternative to sesame seed halva on a worldwide scale. The aims of this review are firstly, to describe the current state of sunflower halva technology, secondly, to isolate the main problems affecting the quality of the final product, and thirdly, to suggest areas of further research necessary to move sunflower halva production closer to reaching its full potential on the world market.

  11. Hydrothermal treatment and ethanol pulping of sunflower stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparrós, S; Ariza, J; López, F; Nacimiento, J A; Garrote, G; Jiménez, L

    2008-03-01

    The influence of temperature in the hydrothermal treatment of sunflower stalks on the composition of the liquid fraction obtained was examined. The remaining solid fraction was subjected to ethanol pulping in order to obtain pulp that was used to produce paper sheets. The pulp was characterized in terms of yield, kappa index, viscosity, and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents; and the paper sheets in terms of breaking length, stretch, burst index and tear index. Hydrothermal treatment of the raw material at 190 degrees C provided a liquid phase with maximal hemicellulose-derived oligomers and monosaccharide (glucose, xylose and arabinose) contents (26.9 and 4.2 g/L, respectively). Pulping the solid fraction obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 180 degrees C, with 70% ethanol at a liquid/solid ratio of 8:1 at 170 degrees C for 120 min provided pulp with properties on a par with those of soda pulp from the sunflower stalks, namely: 36.3% yield, 69.1% cellulose, 12.6% hemicellulose, 18.2% lignin and 551 ml/g viscosity. Also, paper sheets obtained from the ethanol pulp were similar in breaking length (3.8 km), stretch (1.23%), burst index (1.15 kN/g) and tear index (2.04 m Nm(2)/g) to those provided by soda pulp.

  12. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  13. Effects of sunflower soap stocks on light lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C; Giráldez, J F; Morán, L; Mateo, J; Villalobos-Delgado, L H; Andrés, S; Bodas, R

    2017-08-01

    Thirty-two lambs were used to study the effect of sunflower soap stocks (SS), a by-product from the vegetable oil refinery industry, on meat chemical composition, fatty acid profile, volatile compounds, and consumer acceptability. Lambs were finished (average length of fattening period 35 ± 7.3 d, 26.8 ± 0.09 kg final BW) on a pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) with no SS (00SS) or including 15, 30 or 60 g SS/kg (15SS, 30SS, and 60SS, respectively). Sunflower soap stocks decreased the percentage of SFA, increased the proportion of -MUFA ( 0.05). Atherogenicity and saturation indexes decreased by 31% and 27%, respectively, in SS groups compared to control (linear 0.05). However, certain volatile compounds (benzene and toluene) and 10-18:1 fatty acid, known potential hazards for human health, were increased in meat from lambs fed TMR with SS. For this reason, only inclusion rates up to 15 g SS/kg TMR seem to sustain a satisfactory balance between beneficial and detrimental effects on lamb meat composition and quality.

  14. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  15. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L

    2003-03-05

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials.

  16. Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons activity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Retrotransposons are heterogeneous sequences, widespread in eukaryotic genomes, which refer to the so-called mobile DNA. They resemble retroviruses, both in their structure and for their ability to transpose within the host genome, of which they make up a considerable portion. Copia- and Gypsy-like retrotransposons are the two main classes of retroelements shown to be ubiquitous in plant genomes. Ideally, the retrotransposons life cycle results in the synthesis of a messenger RNA and then self-encoded proteins to process retrotransposon mRNA in double stranded extra-chromosomal cDNA copies which may integrate in new chromosomal locations. Results The RT-PCR and IRAP protocol were applied to detect the presence of Copia and Gypsy retrotransposon transcripts and of new events of integration in unstressed plants of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) selfed line. Results show that in sunflower retrotransposons transcription occurs in all analyzed organs (embryos, leaves, roots, and flowers). In one out of sixty-four individuals analyzed, retrotransposons transcription resulted in the integration of a new element into the genome. Conclusion These results indicate that the retrotransposon life cycle is firmly controlled at a post transcriptional level. A possible silencing mechanism is discussed. PMID:20030800

  17. Functional properties of proteins isolated from industrially produced sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petia Ivanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein isolate 1 (PI1 and protein isolate 2 (PI2 were prepared from industrially produced sunflower meal by using isoelectric and ethanol precipitation respectively. The water absorption capacity of PI1 was 6 times higher than that of PI2 and was significantly reduced by the presence of 0.03 M and 0.25 M NaCl. Oil absorption capacity of both protein isolates was not influenced by NaCl supplementation. Foam capacity of PI1 and PI2 was pH-dependent. While the foam capacity of both isolates was improved by either 0.03 M or 0.25 M NaCl, the foam stability was negatively influenced by the addition of NaCl at all pH values with except for pH 4. Emulsifying activity of PI1 and PI2 was lowest at pH 4. The emulsions exhibited relatively high stability (> 90% under all studied conditions. Knowledge of the influence of pH and boundary concentrations of NaCl on the functionality of sunflower meal protein isolates could be beneficial for their future potential application in food industry.

  18. Karyotypic Evolution of the Common and Silverleaf Sunflower Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam F. Heesacker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Silverleaf sunflower ( Torrey and Gray has been an important source of favorable alleles for broadening genetic diversity and enhancing agriculturally important traits in common sunflower ( L., and, as the closest living relative of , provides an excellent model for understanding how apparently maladaptive chromosomal rearrangements became established in this genus. The genomes of and were comparatively mapped to identify syntenic and rearranged chromosomes and develop genomic blueprints for predicting the impact of chromosomal rearrangements on interspecific gene flow. Syntenic chromosomal segments were identified and aligned using 131 orthologous DNA marker loci distributed throughout the genome (299 DNA marker loci were mapped in . We identified 28 colinear chromosomal segments, 10 colinear chromosomes, and seven chromosomal rearrangements (five non-reciprocal translocations and two inversions. Four chromosomes carrying non-reciprocal translocations apparently arose from the duplication of two chromosomes, and three chromosomes apparently arose from end-to-end or end-to-opposite-end fusions of chromosomes or chromosome segments. Chromosome duplication may reduce the initial fitness costs of chromosomal rearrangements, thereby facilitating their establishment. Despite dramatic differences in chromosome architecture, a significant fraction of the genome appears to be accessible for introgression into .

  19. Sensitivities of extant animal taxa to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Astrid C.; Pörtner, Hans-O.

    2013-11-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is absorbed by the oceans, causing a progressive increase in ocean inorganic carbon concentrations and resulting in decreased water pH and calcium carbonate saturation. This phenomenon, called ocean acidification, is in addition to the warming effects of CO2 emissions. Ocean acidification has been reported to affect ocean biota, but the severity of this threat to ocean ecosystems (and humans depending on these ecosystems) is poorly understood. Here we evaluate the scale of this threat in the context of widely used representative concentration pathways (RCPs) by analysing the sensitivities of five animal taxa (corals, echinoderms, molluscs, crustaceans and fishes) to a wide range of CO2 concentrations. Corals, echinoderms and molluscs are more sensitive to RCP8.5 (936 ppm in 2100) than are crustaceans. Larval fishes may be even more sensitive than the lower invertebrates, but taxon sensitivity on evolutionary timescales remains obscure. The variety of responses within and between taxa, together with observations in mesocosms and palaeo-analogues, suggest that ocean acidification is a driver for substantial change in ocean ecosystems this century, potentially leading to long-term shifts in species composition.

  20. Laticiferous taxa as a source of energy and hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, S.; Subramanian, R.B.; Kothari, I.L.; Inamdar, J.A. (Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India))

    Twenty-nine laticiferous taxa of Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, and Sapotaceae were screened for suitability as alternative sources of renewable energy, rubber, and phytochemicals and to select the most promising ones for large-scale cultivation. Of these, Allamanda violacea (14.9% protein, 13.8% polyphenol, 8.6% oil, 3.2% hydrocarbon), Catharanthus roseus (15.4% protein, 10.4% polyphenol, 11.5% oil, 1.9% hydrocarbon), and Holarrhena antidysenterica (14.2% protein, 16.4% polyphenol, 5,4% oil, 4.8% hydrocarbon) of Apocynaceae; Asclepias curassavica (19.3% protein, 6.5% polyphenol, 3.9% oil, 2.0% hydrocarbon), Calotropis gigantea (18.5% protein, 6.8% polyphenol, 7.0% oil, 2.8% hydrocarbon) of Asclepiadaceae; Mimusops elengi (11.3% protein, 9.7% polyphenol, 7.2% oil, 4.0% hydrocarbon) of Sapotaceae show promising potential for future petrochemical plantations; of all these taxa, Holarrhena antidysenterica yielded an unusually high percentage (4.8%) of hydrocarbon fraction followed by Mimusops elengi (4.0%). NMR spectra confirmed the presence of cis-polyisoprene in all species studied except Nerium indicum (white-flowered var.). These data indicate that the majority of the species under investigation may be considered for large-scale cultivation as an alternative source of rubber, intermediate energy, and other phytochemicals.

  1. A microarray for assessing transcription from pelagic marine microbial taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, Irina N; Robidart, Julie C; James Tripp, H; Turk-Kubo, Kendra; Wawrik, Boris; Post, Anton F; Thompson, Anne W; Ward, Bess; Hollibaugh, James T; Millard, Andy; Ostrowski, Martin; Scanlan, David J; Paerl, Ryan W; Stuart, Rhona; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2014-07-01

    Metagenomic approaches have revealed unprecedented genetic diversity within microbial communities across vast expanses of the world's oceans. Linking this genetic diversity with key metabolic and cellular activities of microbial assemblages is a fundamental challenge. Here we report on a collaborative effort to design MicroTOOLs (Microbiological Targets for Ocean Observing Laboratories), a high-density oligonucleotide microarray that targets functional genes of diverse taxa in pelagic and coastal marine microbial communities. MicroTOOLs integrates nucleotide sequence information from disparate data types: genomes, PCR-amplicons, metagenomes, and metatranscriptomes. It targets 19 400 unique sequences over 145 different genes that are relevant to stress responses and microbial metabolism across the three domains of life and viruses. MicroTOOLs was used in a proof-of-concept experiment that compared the functional responses of microbial communities following Fe and P enrichments of surface water samples from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. We detected transcription of 68% of the gene targets across major taxonomic groups, and the pattern of transcription indicated relief from Fe limitation and transition to N limitation in some taxa. Prochlorococcus (eHLI), Synechococcus (sub-cluster 5.3) and Alphaproteobacteria SAR11 clade (HIMB59) showed the strongest responses to the Fe enrichment. In addition, members of uncharacterized lineages also responded. The MicroTOOLs microarray provides a robust tool for comprehensive characterization of major functional groups of microbes in the open ocean, and the design can be easily amended for specific environments and research questions.

  2. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernandez

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de. The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons. The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0 was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01 allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  3. Microdistillation and analysis of volatiles from eight ornamental salvia taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile compounds from seven Salvia species and one interspecific hybrid growing at the Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, Texas, US, S. coccinea, S. farinacea, S. greggii, S. leucantha, S. longispicata × farinacea, S. madrensis, S. roemeriana and S. splendens were investigated for their chemic...

  4. Climate, demography, and zoogeography predict introgression thresholds in salmonid hybrid zones in Rocky Mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young; Daniel J. Isaak; Kevin S. McKelvey; Taylor M. Wilcox; Daniel M. Bingham; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Kellie J. Carim; Matthew R. Campbell; Matthew P. Corsi; Dona L. Horan; David E. Nagel; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Among the many threats posed by invasions of nonnative species is introgressive hybridization, which can lead to the genomic extinction of native taxa. This phenomenon is regarded as common and perhaps inevitable among native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, despite that these taxa naturally co-occur in some locations. We conducted...

  5. Hybridization and genome evolution II: Mechanisms of species divergence and their effects on evolution in hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. BAILEY, Fabrice EROUKHMANOFF, Glenn-Peter SæTRE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent genomic studies have highlighted the importance of hybridization and gene exchange in evolution. We ask what factors cause variation in the impact of hybridization, through adaptation in hybrids and the likelihood of hybrid speciation. During speciation, traits that diverge due to both divergent and stabilizing selection can contribute to the buildup of reproductive isolation. Divergent directional selection in parent taxa should lead to intermediate phenotypes in hybrids, whereas stabilizing selection can also produce extreme, transgressive phenotypes when hybridization occurs. By examining existing theory and empirical data, we discuss how these effects, combined with differences between modes of divergence in the chromosomal distribution of incompatibilities, affect adaptation and speciation in hybrid populations. The result is a clear and testable set of predictions that can be used to examine hybrid adaptation and speciation. Stabilizing selection in parents increases transgression in hybrids, increasing the possibility for novel adaptation. Divergent directional selection causes intermediate hybrid phenotypes and increases their ability to evolve along the direction of parental differentiation. Stabilizing selection biases incompatibilities towards autosomes, leading to reduced sexual correlations in trait values and reduced pleiotropy in hybrids, and hence increased freedom in the direction of evolution. Directional selection causes a bias towards sex-linked incompatibilities, with the opposite consequences. Divergence by directional selection leads to greater dominance effects than stabilizing selection, with major but variable impacts on hybrid evolution [Current Zoology 59 (5: 675-685, 2013].

  6. The impact of rare taxa on a fish index of biotic integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, H.; Chizinski, C.J.; Dolph, C.L.; Vondracek, B.; Wilson, B.N.

    2010-01-01

    The index of biotic integrity (IBI) is a commonly used bioassessment tool that integrates abundance and richness measures to assess water quality. In developing IBIs that are both responsive to human disturbance and resistant to natural variability and sampling error, water managers must decide how to weigh information about rare and abundant taxa, which in turn requires an understanding of the sensitivity of indices to rare taxa. Herein, we investigated the influence of rare fish taxa (within the lower 5% of rank abundance curves) on IBI metric and total scores for stream sites in two of Minnesota's major river basins, the St. Croix (n = 293 site visits) and Upper Mississippi (n = 210 site visits). We artificially removed rare taxa from biological samples by (1) separately excluding each individual taxon that fell within the lower 5% of rank abundance curves; (2) simultaneously excluding all taxa that had an abundance of one (singletons) or two (doubletons); and (3) simultaneously excluding all taxa that fell within the lower 5% of rank abundance curves. We then compared IBI metric and total scores before and after removal of rare taxa using the normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) and regression analysis. The difference in IBI metric and total scores increased as more taxa were removed. Moreover, when multiple rare taxa were removed, the nRMSE was related to sample abundance and to total taxa richness, with greater nRMSE observed in samples with a larger number of taxa or sample abundance. Metrics based on relative abundance of fish taxa were less sensitive to the loss of rare taxa, whereas those based on taxa richness were more sensitive, because taxa richness metrics give more weight to rare taxa compared to the relative abundance metrics. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%. Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the husks for developing an ecological package. Sunflower kernels were industrially roasted in a continuous roasting drum.  Raw and roasted kernels were pressed at pilot plant scale by using a laboratory expeller. Partially defatted sunflower paste was obtained from the press cakes by employing a ball mill. Different fat content tahini samples were obtained by adding the required amount of oil to the partially defatted paste. Tahini samples fat content ranged from 45 to 60%. Tahini and halva were chosen as a study model. Decreasing tahini oil content increased its colloidal stability during storage, a similar trend being noticed when halva samples were stored. Moreover, halva texture analysis and sensory characteristics were assessed for selecting the optimum tahini oil content and thermal treatment. Various sunflower kernel food applications were proposed by obtaining the related prototypes at pilot plant scale: roasted sunflower kernel biscuits, sunflower spreadable cream filled biscuits, hummus, sunflower paste coated in chocolate, sunflower kernel chikki and bars, as well as an innovative ecological package based on the resulting sunflower husks and a starch adhesive. 

  8. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  9. Rhizosphere soil aggregation and plant growth promotion of sunflowers by an exopolysaccharide-producing Rhizobium sp. strain isolated from sunflower roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Y; Achouak, W; Marol, C; Heulin, T

    2000-08-01

    Root-adhering soil (RAS) forms the immediate environment where plants take up water and nutrients for their growth. We report the effect of an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing rhizobacterium (strain YAS34) on the physical properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) RAS, associated with plant growth promotion, under both water stress and normal water supply conditions. Strain YAS34 was isolated as a major EPS-producing bacterium from the rhizoplane of sunflowers grown in a French dystric cambisol. Strain YAS34 was assigned to the Rhizobium genus by 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Inoculation of sunflower seeds and soil with strain YAS34 caused a significant increase in RAS per root dry mass (dm) (up to 100%) and a significant increase in soil macropore volume (12 to 60 microm in diameter). The effect of inoculation on sunflower shoot dm (up to +50%) and root dm (up to +70%) was significant under both normal and water stress conditions. Inoculation with strain YAS34 modified soil structure around the root system, counteracting the negative effect of water deficit on growth. Using [(15)N]nitrate, we showed that inoculation made the use of fertilizer more effective by increasing nitrogen uptake by sunflower plantlets.

  10. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg–1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours than with air (8 hours. Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity.

    Se ha aplicado dos procedimientos de ozonización a aceites de girasol a diferentes dosis de ozono, obteniendo el ozono a partir de oxígeno medicinal y de aire. Se han determinado los índices de peróxido, yodo y acidez conjuntamente con la densidad, viscosidad y la actividad antimicrobiana. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada mediante CG. El contenido de oxígeno fue determinado mediante Análisis Elemental. Se utilizó la resonancia paramagnética electrónica para medir los radicales libres orgánicos. Las reacciones fueron realizadas hasta valores de índice de peróxidos de 658 y 675 mmol-equiv kg–1 usando oxígeno medicinal y aire durante 5 y 8 horas, respectivamente. Las muestras de aceite de girasol ozonizado no presentaron radicales libres orgánicos, lo cual es muy importante en el caso de que estos aceites sean utilizados en medicina. La reacción de ozonización es más rápida cuando se utiliza oxígeno medicinal (5 horas

  11. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassie B. Marvey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported.

  12. Sunflower press cake as a substrate for eicosapentaenoic acid production by representatives of the genus Mortierella

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential for the regulation of critical biological functions in humans and other mammals. EPA production via solid state fermentation of sunflower press cake was investigated...

  13. Optimization of the Enzyme-Catalyzed Transesterification of Hungarian Sunflower Oil with High Oleic Acid Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Sandor; Krar, Marton; Hancsok, Jenoe (Univ. of Pannonia, Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing, H-8201 Veszprem (Hungary)). e-mail: kovacss@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2008-10-15

    In our research work we defined the optimum parameters (temperature, methanol to triglyceride molar ratio, reaction time, number of methanol feeds, and the amount of Candia Antarctica lipase) of the enzyme-catalyzed transesterification of properly pre-treated high oleic acid containing sunflower oil. The oleic acid content of the previously mentioned sunflower oil was present in the structure of the triglycerides. Characteristics of the produced sunflower oil methyl esters were evaluated according to the requirements of the EN 14214 standard. Our experimental results indicated that enzyme-catalyzed transesterification could be successfully used for the conversion of high oleic sunflower oils, since we have found proper combination of process parameters resulting in high yield (>99%) of monoesters. The applied enzyme can be separated after the transesterification and used again. The glycerine - because its reaction inhibiting effect - was separated continuously by membrane separation

  14. Production of sunflower oil methyl esters by optimized alkali-catalyzed methanolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Samia [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Moser, Bryan R. [United States Department of Agriculture, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    We report the optimization of sunflower oil methyl esters (SOME/biodiesel) production via alkaline catalyzed transesterification of crude sunflower oil and subsequent physical and chemical characterization. The optimum conditions elucidated for the methanolysis of sunflower oil were found to be: methanol/sunflower oil molar ratio, 6:1; reaction temperature, 60 C; and NaOH catalyst concentration, 1.00% (w/w). An optimum SOME yield of 97.1% was achieved. SOME were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). A number of fuel properties of SOME as measured according to accepted methods were found to satisfy nearly all prescribed ASTM D 6751 specifications, where applicable. The results of the present study indicated that SOME could be a potential alternative to other common biodiesels and petrodiesel. (author)

  15. EVALUATION OF PIE IN SUNFLOWER POWER OF CHICKENS CUT ALMOST HILLBILLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal in performing this study was to determine the best level of sunflower cake in feeding broilers semi-rustic-line Label Rouge. In the experiment were acquired with 180 birds a day old, distributed in a completely randomized design (CRD with four treatments, five replicates and nine animals per experimental unit. The diets of the birds were based on the ingredients ground corn, soybean meal, core and different percentages of inclusion of sunflower cake: 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. The parameters used in the experiment were the average daily weight gain, total weight gain, viability, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio and productive. At eighty-day-old chicks were assessed and it was observed that the performance of the birds was not affected by the introduction of sunflower cake in the diet. You can include up to 15% of sunflower cake in the feed of broilers semi-rustic without causing production losses.

  16. Protein digestibility of soybean, canola and sunflower meal, and its effect on growth performance and body

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothwa, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The apparent protein digestibility of three feed ingredients, namely soybean, canola and sunflower meal, was studied for Tilapia rendalli, using chromic oxide as a dietary marker. The effect of these ingredients on the growth performance and body...

  17. THE EFFECTS OF INOCULANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ON THE FERMENTATION AND AEROBIC STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisun Koc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of actic acid bacterial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1174 (Pioneer®,USA was used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. Inoculant was applied 6.00 log10 cfu/g silage levels. Silages with no additive served as controls. After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in the PVC type laboratory silos. Three silos for each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 14 days. Neither inoculant improved the fermentation parameters of sunflower silages. At the end of the ensiling period, inoculant increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB and decreased yeast and mould numbers of silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect aerobic stability of silages.

  18. New sesquiterpene lactones from sunflower root exudate as germination stimulants for Orobanche cumana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupp, Frank M; Spring, Otmar

    2013-11-06

    Orobanche cumana is a serious threat for cultivation of sunflower in Europe and Asia. Germination of the parasite is induced by metabolites released from the host root system. The first germination stimulant from sunflower root exudate was recently identified as dehydrocostus lactone, a sesquiterpene lactone. Bioassay-guided fractionation of root exudates now showed the release of additional sesquiterpene lactones. Besides dehydrocostus lactone, costunolide, tomentosin, and 8-epixanthatin were purified and identified spectroscopically. All four compounds induced germination of O. cumana at nano- to micromolar concentrations. Costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone concentrations above 1 μM reduced the activity, and application of 100 μM inhibited germination irreversibly. Seeds of Phelipanche ramosa could not be induced with costunolide. O. cumana seeds also germinated with GR24, a synthetic strigolactone. No bioactive fraction of sunflower contained compounds of this type. This supports previous findings that sesquiterpene lactones instead of strigolactones trigger the sunflower/O. cumana interaction.

  19. [Study on the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Wolska, Jolanta; Debia, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds on RBCA, YpSs, DG18 media at 25, 37, and 45°C. Twenty samples of sunflower seeds (not roasted and not salted) were used for the analysis. The highest number of moulds were xerophilic species isolated on DG18 at 25°C (33), followed by mesophilic species (29) on RBCA medium at 25°C, and mesophilic (22) and thermophilic species (10) on YpSs medium at 37, and 45°C, respectively. Eurotium herbariorum was isolated from all samples. A total of 287 strains belonging to 52 mould species were isolated from sunflower seeds. The study revealed new species not previously isolated from sunflower seeds mycobiota.

  20. Transcriptomic underpinning of toxicant-mediated physiological function alterations in three terrestrial invertebrate taxa: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulle, Franck [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Morgan, A. John [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 915, Cardiff, CF10 3US Wales (United Kingdom); Cocquerelle, Claude [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Vandenbulcke, Franck, E-mail: franck.vandenbulcke@univ-lille1.f [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-09-15

    Diverse anthropogenic activities often lead to the accumulation of inorganic and organic residues in topsoils. Biota living in close contact with contaminated soils may experience stress at different levels of biological organisation throughout the continuum from the molecular-genetic to ecological and community levels. To date, the relationship between changes at the molecular (mRNA expression) and biochemical/physiological levels evoked by exposures to chemical compounds has been partially established in a limited number of terrestrial invertebrate species. Recently, the advent of a family of transcriptomic tools (e.g. Real-time PCR, Subtractive Suppressive Hybridization, Expressed Sequence Tag sequencing, pyro-sequencing technologies, Microarray chips), together with supporting informatic and statistical procedures, have permitted the robust analyses of global gene expression changes within an ecotoxicological context. This review focuses on how transcriptomics is enlightening our understanding of the molecular-genetic responses of three contrasting terrestrial macroinvertebrate taxa (nematodes, earthworms, and springtails) to inorganics, organics, and agrochemicals. - Environmental toxicology and transcriptomics in soil macroinvertebrates.

  1. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTROPHORETIC FRACTIONS OF PROTEIN ISOLATES FROM SUNFLOWER MEAL

    OpenAIRE

    Voronova N. S.; Ovcharov D. V.

    2014-01-01

    The food status of Russians is characterized by deficiency of protein. Perspective sources of food protein are the secondary resources of the oil and fat industry received when processing seeds of sunflower, including sunflower meal. Unfortunately, the features of technological process at the oilextracting press exclude a possibility of receiving food protein-containing products from them without the additional processing increasing biological value and improving technical characteristics of ...

  2. Improvement of soil properties and nitrogen utilisation of sunflower by amending municipal solid waste compost

    OpenAIRE

    Montemurro, Francesco; Maiorana, Michele; Convertini, Grazia; Fornaro, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We studied the effects of municipal solid waste compost applied to soil on sunflower nitrogen (N) uptake, N utilisation, yield, soil mineral N deficit and soil characteristics. One unfertilised control was compared with the optimal N dose for the sunflower crops in the test area (100 kg N ha-1) supplied as: organic fertilisation, with municipal solid waste compost; mineral fertilisation, with ammonium nitrate; and mixed fertilisation, with 50 kg N ha-1 from compost and...

  3. Bacillus depressus sp. nov., isolated from soil of a sunflower field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuexin; Xin, Di; Xin, Yuhua; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Tianying; Zhang, Jianli

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and aerobic bacterium, designated BZ1(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a sunflower field in Wuyuan county, Inner Mongolia, China. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was found to be a member of the genus Bacillus and the close phylogenetic relatives to be Bacillus gottheilii WCC 4585(T), Bacillus oceanisediminis H2(T), Bacillus mesonae FJAT-13985(T) and Bacillus horneckiae DSM 23495(T) with 98.3, 98.1, 98.0 and 97.6 % sequence similarity, respectively. Strain BZ1(T) was found to grow at 6-40 °C (optimum 30-33 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-5.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0.5 %). The cell wall diamino acid of the peptidoglycan of strain BZ1(T) was identified as meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant respiratory quinone as MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were found to be iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C14:0, and the polar lipids to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The novel strain was found to have a DNA G + C content 44.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related strains was low. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results, it is concluded that strain BZ1(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which we propose the name Bacillus depressus sp. nov. The type strain is BZ1(T) (= CGMCC 1.15124(T) = KCTC 33643(T)).

  4. USE LANDSAT IMAGE TO EVALUATE VEGETATION STAGE IN SUNFLOWER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Valentin HERBEI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing is of great interest for the study and characterization of the vegetation and of the agricultural crops, in order to monitor them and to develop predictable patterns regarding the evolution of the crops and also for the purpose of the decision making process in real time. The main purpose of this research was the study of the sunflower crops dynamics based on spectral information obtained from satellite images. Vegetation dynamics was differently expressed by the indexes NDVI, NDBR and NDMI determined based on spectral information. NDVI has registered an ascending slope since the beginning of the vegetation period until the flowering (65 BBCH code when the maximum value was recorded (NDVIGS6 = 0.4074. Later the distribution of this indicator recorded a descending slope until the physiological maturity.

  5. An alternative process for hydrogenation of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic methodologies for hydrogenation of vegetable oils have traditionally been carried out by nickel catalysts under high pressure of H2 and high temperature. An alternative method for hydrogenation of sunflower oil using limonene and palladium-on-carbon was investigated in this study. The use of limonene as a hydrogen donor solvent was proposed in order to avoid high temperature and high-pressure conditions. The catalytic transfer of hydrogenation was studied by using 0.5 to 2% of Pd as a catalyst, a limonene:oil ratio of 3:1, and reaction times from 0.5 to 2 hours. Under these conditions, high selectivities for oleic acid and low concentrations of stearic acid were obtained.

  6. Magnetic Mesoporous Palladium Catalyzed Selective Hydrogenation of Sunflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tian, Fei; Yu, Jingjing; Bi, Yanlan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel magnetic mesoporous Pd catalyst is used to catalyse selective hydrogenation of sunflower oil at a mild temperature of 50°C. Effects of reaction temperature, stirring speed, time, catalyst loading and hydrogen pressure on the reaction activity, trans fatty acid (TFA) and stearic acid formation were studied. Under the condition of 3.2 mg Pd/100 g oil, 50°C, 1300 rpm stirring speed and 19.0 atm of H2, the lowest amount of TFA generated during the reaction (IV = 80) was 14.9 ± 0.4% while 11.4 ± 0.4% of stearic acid was produced. And this magnetic Pd-catalyst can be reused easily for at least six times without significant catalyst deactivation, the amount of TFA almost remained unchanged. Moreover, this Pd-catalyst shows a good magnetic separation, which provides a potential method for the facile oil modification.

  7. Chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of sunflower oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Rosana de Cassia S.; Lara, Luciano R.S. [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Fisica], e-mail: rosana@unisc.br; Bitencourt, Thiago B.; Nascimento, Maria da Graca [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nunes, Marta R. dos Santos [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of the methyl esters of sunflower oil with lipase from Candida antarctica B and aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence and absence of an acyl donor was investigated. The biphasic system (CH{sub C}l{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O) comprised Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB, 1000 u g{sup -1}) and 30% (v/v) aqueous hydrogen peroxide. In some cases the conversion was higher than 99%. The best results were obtained for the biphasic system after 16 h of reaction, at 30 deg C, using 10 mmol of octanoic acid in relation to 1 g of the oil, 6 mL of dichloromethane and 5 mL of water. (author)

  8. Variability among inbred lines and RFLP mapping of sunflower isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera Alicia D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight isozyme systems were used in this study: acid phosphatase (ACP, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, esterase (EST, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM. The polymorphism of these enzyme systems was studied in 25 elite inbred lines. A total of 19 loci were identified, but only eight of them were polymorphic in the germplasm tested. The polymorphic index for the eight informative markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.36. Five isozyme loci were mapped in F2:3 populations with existing RFLP data. Est-1, Gdh-2 and Pgi-2 were mapped to linkage groups 3, 14 and 9, respectively. As in previous reports, an ACP locus and a PGD locus were found to be linked, both located in linkage group 2 of the public sunflower map.

  9. Alternaria toxins in South African sunflower seeds: cooperative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickert, Sebastian; Hermes, Lena; Marques, Lucas Maciel Mauriz; Focke, Christine; Cramer, Benedikt; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Flett, Bradley; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    Sunflower seed samples (N = 80) from different sunflower cultivars originating from different localities in South Africa were analyzed for 15 toxins produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria by means of a simple one-step extraction dilute-and-shoot HPLC-MS/MS approach. References for valine-tenuazonic acid (Val-TeA), altenusin (ALTS), and altenuisol (ALTSOH) were isolated from fungal culture extracts and spectroscopically characterized. Additionally, valine-tenuazonic acid was tested regarding its cytotoxicity in comparison with tenuazonic acid (TeA) and showed less activity on HT-29 cells. Furthermore, alternariol monomethyl ether-3-O-ß-D-glucoside (AME-3G) was produced by fermentation of alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae. The seed samples were analyzed both with and without hulls. The method covers the AAL toxins TA1 and TA2, altenuene (ALT) and iso-altenuene (iso-ALT), altenuisol, altenusin, altertoxin I (ATX-I) and altertoxin II (ATX-II), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether, alternariol monomethyl ether-3-O-ß-D-glucoside, tenuazonic acid, allo-tenuazonic acid (allo-TeA) and valine-tenuazonic acid, and tentoxin (TEN). More than 80% of the samples were positive for one or more analytes above the respective limit of detection (0.2-23 μg/kg). Alternariol, its monomethyl ether, tentoxin, tenuazonic acid, altenuisol, and valine-tenuazonic acid were found in quantifiable amounts. The highest prevalences were found for tentoxin (73% positive, mean content 13.2 μg/kg, maximum level 130 ± 0.9 μg/kg) followed by tenuazonic acid (51% positive, mean content 630 μg/kg, maximum level 6300 ± 560 μg/kg). The obtained data were further analyzed statistically to identify quantitative or qualitative relationships between the levels of Alternaria toxin in the samples.

  10. Growing Mediums in Different Environments for Sunflower and Cilantro Microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, B.; Gonzalez, O.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the growth and subsequent harvest of young seedlings known as microgreens, which have expanded into a very profitable market. The goal of the experiment is to discover whether the nutrients, soil quality and climate influences the quality, flavor, and yield of the microgreens. To conduct this experiment, locations and soil types were chosen; the locations consisted of a greenhouse (an enclosed space which held consistent sunlight, warmth, and humidity) and a lath house (a somewhat shaded location that was open to the elements as well as temperature changes), while compost, Quick Root (a growing medium that is relatively devoid of nutrients), and a combination of the two is used in this experiment. This meant that a total of six different combinations could be tested. Along with that, two different seeds were selected, sunflower seeds and cilantro seeds. Each of the results are mainly influenced by the soil type, and a partial influence by the climate. Compost has an extreme lack in growth and did not produce enough plants to record in general. The Quick Root results show only a burst of growth would occur; also, the plants did not have a strong taste, but did grow slightly quicker within the greenhouse. Another advantage to the Quick Root results is that the root size nearly tripled compared to the 50/50 root size. 50/50 holds the strongest results i.e., growth consistency and holds a stronger taste. Originally, there was an attempt to grow sunflowers uncovered, but was not attempted again due to poor results. Overall the 50/50 held a stronger growth and taste, but also would easily excel in the long run compared to the Quick Root and the compost.

  11. Nitrate and nitrite uptake and reduction by intact sunflower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, E; de la Haba, P; Fontes, A G; Maldonado, J M

    1990-08-01

    Nitrogen-starved sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovic) cannot absorb NO 3 (-) or NO 2 (-) upon initial exposure to these anions. Ability of the plants to take up NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) at high rates from the beginning was induced by a pretreatment with NO 3 (-) . Nitrite also acted as inducer of the NO 2 (-) -uptake system. The presence of cycloheximide during NO 3 (-) -pretreatment prevented the subsequent uptake of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) , indicating that both uptake systems are synthesized de novo when plants are exposed to NO 3 (-) . Cycloheximide also suppressed nitrate-reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) and nitrite-reductase (EC 1.7.7.1) activities in the roots. The sulfhydryl-group reagent N-ethylmaleimide greatly inhibited the uptake of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) . Likewise, N-ethylmaleimide promoted in vivo the inactivation of nitrate reductase without affecting nitrite-reductase activity. Rates of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) uptake as a function of external anion concentration exhibited saturation kinetics. The calculated Km values for NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) uptake were 45 and 23 μM, respectively. Rates of NO 3 (-) uptake were four to six times higher than NO 3 (-) -reduction rates in roots. In contrast, NO 2 (-) -uptake rates, found to be very similar to NO 3 (-) -uptake rates, were much lower (about 30 times) than NO 2 (-) -reduction rates. Removal of oxygen from the external solution drastically suppressed NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) uptake without affecting their reduction. Uptake and reduction were also differentially affected by pH. The results demonstrate that uptake of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) into sunflower plants is mediated by energy-dependent inducible-transport systems distinguishable from the respective enzymatic reducing systems.

  12. Effectiveness of added natural antioxidants in sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapiste, Guillermo H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of α- and δ-tocopherol, citric acid, ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate was investigated in sunflower oil containing naturally occurring tocopherol. The effectiveness of natural antioxidants in sunflower oil was monitored by the accelerated oxidative stability test Rancimat and oxidation development during storage under different conditions. Samples in storage experiments were periodically removed and analyzed for peroxide value, p-anisidine value, total content and distribution of polar compounds, and residual naturally occurring tocopherol. The effectiveness of each antioxidant was strongly dependent on temperature and the testing method. While ascorbic acid appears to be the most effective antioxidant according to the Rancimat oxidative stability index, δ-tocopherol shows improved performance when considering storage experiments.Se investigó la actividad antioxidante de α-tocoferol, δ-tocoferol, ácido cítrico y palmitato de ascorbilo en aceite de girasol con su conteniendo natural de tocoferol. La efectividad de los mismos fue analizada a través de la medida de la estabilidad oxidativa en Rancimat y el seguimiento de la oxidación con el almacenamiento a diferentes temperaturas. Las muestras extraídas periódicamente de la estufa fueron sometidas a los siguientes análisis: índice de peróxidos, valor de p-anisidina, contenido y distribución de compuestos polares y contenido residual de tocoferol natural. La efectividad de cada antioxidante resultó fuertemente dependiente de la temperatura y método de ensayo. Mientras el ácido ascórbico resultó ser el antioxidante más efectivo según el índice de estabilidad oxidativa medido en el equipo Rancimat, el δ-tocoferol fue el antioxidante más efectivo en las experiencias de almacenamiento.

  13. Plasticity in sunflower leaf and cell growth under high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céccoli, G; Bustos, D; Ortega, L I; Senn, M E; Vegetti, A; Taleisnik, E

    2015-01-01

    A group of sunflower lines that exhibit a range of leaf Na(+) concentrations under high salinity was used to explore whether the responses to the osmotic and ionic components of salinity can be distinguished in leaf expansion kinetics analysis. It was expected that at the initial stages of the salt treatment, leaf expansion kinetics changes would be dominated by responses to the osmotic component of salinity, and that later on, ion inclusion would impose further kinetics changes. It was also expected that differential leaf Na(+) accumulation would be reflected in specific changes in cell division and expansion rates. Plants of four sunflower lines were gradually treated with a relatively high (130 mm NaCl) salt treatment. Leaf expansion kinetics curves were compared in leaves that were formed before, during and after the initiation of the salt treatment. Leaf areas were smaller in salt-treated plants, but the analysis of growth curves did not reveal differences that could be attributed to differential Na(+) accumulation, since similar changes in leaf expansion kinetics were observed in lines with different magnitudes of salt accumulation. Nevertheless, in a high leaf Na(+) -including line, cell divisions were affected earlier, resulting in leaves with proportionally fewer cells than in a Na(+) -excluding line. A distinct change in leaf epidermal pavement shape caused by salinity is reported for the first time. Mature pavement cells in leaves of control plants exhibited typical lobed, jigsaw-puzzle shape, whereas in treated plants, they tended to retain closer-to-circular shapes and a lower number of lobes. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. 15e CONFERENCE INTERNATIONALE TOURNESOL Sunflower ecophysiology: some unresolved issues*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Antonio J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Major unresolved issues in sunflower ecophysiology constrain efforts to improve crop modelling, management, genetic analysis and breeding. Three issues are used here to illustrate this point. Firstly, much of the work on the duration of the emergence to flowering phase has considered the phase as a whole. It is argued that a more detailed analysis based on sub-phases is required, particularly in view of possible intraspecific variability in the durations of the basic vegetative and juvenile phases and evidence that photoperiod responses before, during and after floral initiation may differ between genotypes and even be of opposite sign for the same genotype. Secondly,contrasting responses of grain oil proportion to manipulation of plant population density and incident radiation appear to be linked to variations in kernel oil proportion rather than to kernel: hull ratio, and responses of grain oil proportion to changes in sowing date seem to have a similar origin. More effort should be focused on understanding the controls of oil mass per kernel. It is speculated that there may be a genotype-dependent limit to this variable. A third unresolved issue relates to the nature and strength of the linkage between post-anthesis stay-green and leaf photosynthetic functionality. These variables are poorly related during pre-anthesis senescence of leaves in the lower portion of closed canopies, and for sunflower this linkage appears much weaker than in other crop species. Current interest in post-anthesis stay-green as a possibly useful crop attribute requires clarification of this uncertainty.

  15. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil.

  16. CASTOR BEAN AND SUNFLOWER INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS IN ROW ARRANGEMENT: BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro de Miranda Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment field was carried in the agricultural seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010, with aim of studying the response of castorbean (Ricinus communis L. intercropping with sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in row arrangement in the dryland farming conditions. In addition, it was evaluated the biological efficiency of plants in intercropping systems.The design used in the experiment was randomized block with seven treatement and four replications. The treatments were represented by rows of castor oil (Ma and sunflower (Gi listed below: 1Ma:1Gi; 1Ma:2Gi; 1Ma:3Gi; 2Ma:2Gi; 2Ma:3Gi; castor and sunflower in the monoculture. The efficiency of intercropping was measured by LER, ATER, LEC, average between LER and ATER, SPI and CoR. The grain yield of castor bean and sunflower were reduced in intercropped row arrangements. The row arrangement 1Ma:2Gi showed the smallest reduction of average productivity of castor beans and sunflower in the evaluation period of the experiment. The castor bean was the dominant crop in relation to sunflower.

  17. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELLEN L. LIMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05 by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day. There was no significant effect (P>0.05 for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41. For contents of ruminal NH3-N was a significant effect (P <0.05 only for collection time, and ammonia peaks occurred between 2 and 4 h after feeding, with values of 22.56 and 21.40 mg/dL. The total concentration of short chain fatty acids and the C2:C3 ratio was reduced in 9.6 and 15.43%. The ruminal degradability of NDF was not affected by the supplements. The supplementation with sunflower crushed to beef steers grazing, in partial replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters.

  18. Discovery and introgression of the wild sunflower-derived novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl19in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z W; Ma, G J; Zhao, J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2017-01-01

    A new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 19 , was identified from wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414, introduced to confection sunflower, and genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414 exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Evaluation of the 140 BC 1 F 2:3 families derived from the cross of CMS CONFSCLB1 and PI 435414 against Plasmopara halstedii race 734 revealed that a single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Bulked segregant analysis conducted in the BC 1 F 2 population with 860 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers indicated that the resistance derived from wild H. annuus was associated with SSR markers located on linkage group (LG) 4 of the sunflower genome. To map and tag this resistance locus, designated Pl 19 , 140 BC 1 F 2 individuals were used to construct a linkage map of the gene region. Two SSR markers, ORS963 and HT298, were linked to Pl 19 within a distance of 4.7 cM. After screening 27 additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers previously mapped to this region, two flanking SNP markers, NSA_003564 and NSA_006089, were identified as surrounding the Pl 19 gene at a distance of 0.6 cM from each side. Genetic analysis indicated that Pl 19 is different from Pl 17 , which had previously been mapped to LG4, but is closely linked to Pl 17 . This new gene is highly effective against the most predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in North America and is the first downy mildew resistance gene that has been transferred to confection sunflower. The selected resistant germplasm derived from homozygous BC 2 F 3 progeny provides a novel gene for use in confection sunflower breeding programs.

  19. Photosynthetic Performance of the Imidazolinone Resistant Sunflower Exposed to Single and Combined Treatment by the Herbicide Imazamox and an Amino Acid Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrinka Anastasova Balabanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The herbicide imazamox may provoke temporary yellowing and growth retardation in IMI-R sunflower hybrids, more often under stressful environmental conditions. Although photosynthetic processes are not the primary sites of imazamox action, they might be influenced; therefore, more information about the photosynthetic performance of the herbicide-treated plants could be valuable for a further improvement of the Clearfield technology. Plant biostimulants have been shown to ameliorate damages caused by different stress factors on plants, but very limited information exists about their effects on herbicide-stressed plants. In order to characterize photosynthetic performance of imazamox-treated sunflower IMI-R plants, we carried out experiments including both single and combined treatments by imazamox and a plant biostimulants containing amino acid extract. We found that imazamox application in a rate of 132 μg per plant (equivalent of 40 g active ingredient ha-1 induced negative effects on both light-light dependent photosynthetic redox reactions and leaf gas exchange processes, which was much less pronounced after the combined application of imazamox and amino acid extract.

  20. Analysis of the Effects of Agricultural Inputs Price Liberalization on the Production of Sunflower in Khoy Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bagherzadeh; Fatemeh kazemzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower is one of four main annual oil plants that cultivated in oil and nut varieties. This plant as an important and industrial food product and because of nutritional features and the potential for earning exchange has become a valuable product in foreign and inner markets and has a special position in agricultural sector. Khoy, by producing 40 percent of sunflower productions of country annually, is the greatest sunflower producer in Iran. The main purpose of this study is the analysis ...

  1. 15th International Sunflower Conference Synthesis of new derivatives from vegetable sunflower oil methyl esters via epoxydation and oxirane opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Xavier

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, epoxides have received increased attention because they are of interest both as end-products and as chemical intermediates; epoxidized oils, mainly High Oleic Sunflower Oil, and their ester derivatives have thus found important applications as plasticizers and additives for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. Epoxidized esters have been produced classically from High Oleic Sunflower Methyl Esters (HOSME using H2O2 and formic acid. The epoxidation reaches 90% on pilot scale (5kg. Epoxidized esters produced from HOSME have respectively hydroxyl values of 0, oxirane values of 5.2/4.5 and iodine values of 1.7/1.5. Cleavage trials of the oxirane group of the epoxidized esters with different reactants have been undertaken in order to produce on pilot scale new derivatives to be characterized and tested in different fields of application (lubrication, detergency and as chemical intermediates. Reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with an excess of oleic acid was conducted under atmospheric pressure without any catalyst and solvent. The oxirane opening leads to complete estolide formation: after neutralization, analytical controls (chemical values, GC and HPLC analysis indicate that the estolides are composed of a mixture of C36 (oleate of methyl hydroxystearate and C54 (di-oleate of methyl dihydroxystearate. Oxirane opening with alcohols (ethanol and octanol was preferentially performed by acid catalysis at 100°C under atmospheric pressure. Analytical controls show the formation of different etheralcohols and secondary products resulting from dehydration, transesterification and dimerization side-reactions. Cleavage reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with a primary amine (butylamine was conducted under pressure, at high temperature (180/200°C. Both transesterification and opening of the oxirane group occur under these conditions. Reaction products are composed of amides formed by transesterification and a mixture of fatty amines/imines obtained by ring opening as established

  2. Confirmation of sunflower F1 hybrids using SDS-PAGE analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    -17 x TF-11 x TF-7. Pakistan Late maturing and having large sterile zone diameter. 5 ... Four cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines (TS-17, TS-18, TS-228 .... resolution two-dimensional reference maps, expression profiles, and.

  3. Mode of inheritance and combining ability for plant height and head diameter in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of sunflower hybrids with high genetic potential for seed and oil yields requires information on the general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA for plant height and head diameter in the F1 generation. Used in this study were thirteen new divergent cms inbred lines (A, three Rf restorers utilized as testers, and their F1 hybrids. The inbred A-lines, Rf-testers and F1 hybrids differed significantly in the mean values for plant height and head diameter. The mode of inheritance for plant height was superdominance of the better parent and for head diameter it was dominance and superdominance of the better parent. Highly significant positive values of GCA for both traits were found in cms inbred line NS-G-7 and restorer line RHA-N-49. Based on the GCA values chosen were lines with the best GCA for plant height (NS-G-9, NS-G-7 originating from PRA-RUN and head diameter (NS-G-13, NS-G-12 originating from DES. The greatest highly significant positive SCA value was found in NS-G-1xRHA-N-49 for plant height and in NS-G-8xRUS-RF-OL-168 for head diameter. Non-additive genetic variance played the main role in the inheritance of both traits as confirmed by the GCA/SCA ratios in the F1 generation, which were invariably smaller than unit. The female A lines had the highest contribution to the expression of head diameter and plant height. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31025

  4. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitantes dos capítulos de girassol no recôncavo baiano Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea on sunflower flowers in Recôncavo Baiano region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerilene Santiago Machado

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O girassol (Helianthus annuus L. é uma espécie de polinização cruzada, cujos principais polinizadores são as abelhas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo obter informações sobre a diversidade de abelhas visitantes nos capítulos de girassol, fornecendo subsídios para identificar os possíveis polinizadores efetivos na região do Recôncavo Baiano. As coletas das abelhas foram realizadas no período de setembro-outubro de 2004, janeiro-fevereiro e maio-junho de 2005 sobre os híbridos de girassol, "AG 920" e "AG 930", cultivados na área experimental de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais da Universidade Federal da Bahia, em Cruz das Almas-BA. Um total de 26 espécies de abelhas foram identificadas, sendo que Apis mellifera foi a mais abundante (58,32%, seguida de Nannotrigona testaceicornis (18,53% e Trigona spinipes (11,37%. As demais espécies apresentaram uma freqüência relativa inferior a 5%.Sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., is a cross-pollinating plant whose main pollinator are bees. This work was airmed at getting information about the diversity of visiting bee on sunflower inflorescence, by identifing the possible sunflower pollinators in Recôncavo Baiano region. The bees were collected on September-October of 2004, January-February and May-June of 2005 sunflowers hybrids (AG 920 and AG 930 cultivated in the entomology experimental area of Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Ambiental da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil. Twenty six species were identified Apis mellifera (58.32%, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (18.53% and Trigona spinipes (11.37% were the most abundant species. The other species presented a frequency lower than relative 5%.

  5. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  6. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  7. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  8. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  9. Improving Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture by Controlling Tahini Particle Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower halva is an appreciated product, but shows currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers, having a hard texture and oil exuded on the surface (low stability. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of tahini particle size on sunflower halva texture and stability. Eight different particle size sunflower tahini samples were produced at pilot plant scale, the higher the number of passes through the colloidal mill, the smaller the particle size (P1- coarsest → P8 - finest. Halva prototypes (25g / piece, including also an industrial sample (H0, were obtained at laboratory scale by mixing the nougat with tahini. The texture was evaluated on Stable micro systems TA.HD Plus texture analyzer equipped either with a cylinder probe or with a blade set. All samples were stored for 60 days at 4°C, room temperature (~25°C or 40°C. During storage, the colloidal stability of all samples was assessed by a gravimetric technique. Tahini samples P6 → P8 were not suitable for halva production while due to the low viscosities, the product was impossible to be shaped. Among obtained sunflower halva prototypes (H1 → H5 it was shown that decreasing tahini particle size decreased sunflower halva hardness and stability. For each sample, the increase of storage temperature decreased sunflower halva stability. Sunflower halva H3 was the most efficient, while was more stable and showed smaller hardness values than H0.

  10. Effect of some Evaporation Matters on Storability of Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saidy, Aml E A; El-Hai, K M Abd

    This study focuses on finding compounds that are safe to humans and environment, such as propionic and acetic acids that may provide an alternative control of seed-borne pathogens and decrease seed deterioration during storage. The objectives of this study were to reduce sunflower seed deterioration and improve the viability of sunflower seed using environmentally safe organic acids. Propionic and acetic acids were applied on sunflower seed at different concentrations under laboratory conditions during different storage periods. After 6 months storage period, the viability of sunflower seed as well as morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design and randomized complete block design for greenhouse experiment. Propionic and acetic acids at different concentrations showed inhibitory effects on the presence of different fungal genera in all storage periods. Propionic acid was most effective followed by acetic acid. Increasing storage periods from 0-6 months significantly decreased germination percentage, germination energy, seedling characters, survived healthy seedlings and seed oil and protein percentages but dead and rotted seeds, as well as rotted seedlings were increased. Treating sunflower seeds with propionic acid (100%) improved germination criteria, seedling characters and seed chemical characters as well as survival seedlings and minimized the dead seeds, rotted seeds and rotted seedlings as compared with the control under all storage periods. Under greenhouse conditions, the maximum growth parameter and physiological characters (chlorophylls a, b, carotenoids and total phenols) were recorded from seed treated with 100% propionic acid after 6 months of storage. It may be concluded that propionic and acetic acids vapors can have considerable fungicidal activity against sunflower pathogens and improve seed viability

  11. Effects of High Temperature and Water Stress on Seed Germination of the Invasive Species Mexican Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Mexican sunflower is native to Mexico and Central America and was introduced into China early last century. Now it has widely naturalized and is exhibiting increasing invasiveness in South China. As this species often dominates bare ground, a habitat characterized by extreme fluctuation in temperature and water, it is reasonable to hypothesize that it has special adaptations to high temperature and water stress. Using laboratory experiments to simulate these stresses, this study investigated the response of Mexican sunflower seed germination to temperature and water stress, and compared these responses with those previously reported for another invasive, bamboo piper, which is confined to relatively cool and moist habitats in Xishuangbanna. As expected, Mexican sunflower seeds exhibited higher tolerance to these stresses than bamboo piper. Germination of Mexican sunflower seeds was highest at 15-30°C, but significant numbers of seeds germinated and formed seedlings at 10°C and 35°C, at which no bamboo piper seeds formed seedlings, indicating a wider temperature range for germination than the latter. Roughly half the seeds survived 240 h continuous heat treatment and up to 15 h daily periodical heat treatment at 40°C, while bamboo piper seeds were mostly killed by these treatments. About 20% of Mexican sunflower but no bamboo piper seeds germinated after heat treatment for 30 min at 80°C. Germination was completely inhibited in bamboo piper seeds at -0.6 mPa, while 20-60% of Mexican sunflower seeds germinated depending on PEG or NaCl as osmoticum. This higher tolerance in Mexican sunflower seeds accords with its stronger invasiveness in this area. This comparison between two plant invaders demonstrates that invasiveness is not an all-or-nothing situation, and that adaptation to local habitats is a critical determinant of successful invasiveness for an alien plant.

  12. Regularities of filtration of sunflower oil with the use of vibroacoustic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bredikhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residue in sunflower oil is a dispersed phase consisting of particulate products grinding sunflower seeds in the form of particles of the pulp, oil cake, meal, residual quantities of metals, pesticides. In the recycling process they are in the oil in suspension and negatively affect its quality. For research an experimental setup was developed allowing to change the angle of inclination of the filter element. The regularities of filtration were determined without preliminary purification of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. It is established, the contamination of centrifuged oil in the initial period is 14.6 times lower. After 10 minutes of treatment, it decreases by 62%, after 20 minutes – by 79.4%. With a 30-minute treatment, particles of 0.005-0.1 mm in size are removed to 90%, which is approximated to the refined oil in terms of contamination. The influence of vibration-acoustic action on sunflower oil during its filtration is shown. At the last stage of production, the peroxide index is reduced to 2-3 moles of active oxygen, and after 3 months of storage – from 11.8 to 7.7, which according to GOST corresponds to the highest-grade oil. The regularities of the filtration without pre-treatment of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. Shows the effect of vibroacoustic exposure on sunflower oil when filtering. The obtained data on the change of qualitative parameters of sunflower oil during its filtration in the field of vibroacoustic impact.

  13. Sustaining salmonid populations: A caring understanding of naturalness of taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Regier, Henry A.; Knudsen, E. Eric

    2004-01-01

    Species of the family of Salmonidae occur naturally in Northern Hemisphere waters that remain clear and cool to cold in summer. For purposes of reproduction, salmonids generally behaviorally respond to the currents of streams and lakes in recently glaciated areas. For feeding and maturation, many larger species migrate into existing systems of large lakes, seas, and oceans. The subfamilies include Salmoninae, Coregoninae, and Thymallinae. In many locales and regions of the hemisphere, numerous species of these subfamilies evolved and self-organized into species flocks or taxocenes of bewildering complexity. For example, any individual species may play different or unique ecological roles in different taxocenes. The northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, with their seas and tributaries, each contained a metacomplex of such taxocenes that, in their natural state some centuries ago, resembled each other but differed in many ways. Humans have valued all species of this family for subsistence, ceremonial, naturalist, gustatory, angling, and commercial reasons for centuries. Modern progressive humans (MPHs), whose industrial and commercial enterprises have gradually spread over this hemisphere in recent time, now affect aquatic ecosystems at all scales from local to global. These human effects mingle in complex ways that together induce uniquely natural salmonid taxocenes to disintegrate with the loss of species, including those groups least tolerant to human manipulations, but extending more recently to those taxa more adapted to anthropogenic change. As we leave the modern era, dominated by MPHs, will we find ways to live sustainably with salmonid taxocenes that still exhibit self-organizational integrity, or will only individual, isolated populations of salmonid species, derived from those most tolerant of MPHs, survive? To achieve future sustainability of salmonids, we suggest implementation of a search for intuitive knowledge based on faith in the wisdom of

  14. Paternity determination of interspecific rhododendron hybrids by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernicka, Małgorzata; Mścichowska, Anna; Klein, Maria; Muras, Piotr; Grzebelus, Ewa

    2010-04-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) has been proved to be the most effective and accurate technique for confirmation of hybrid character. The objective of our study was to adapt and optimize a GISH protocol for identification of donor chromatin in hybrids obtained by interspecific crosses between five Rhododendron taxa (R. aureum, R. brachycarpum, R. catawbiense 'Catharine van Tol', R. catawbiense 'Nova Zembla', and R. yakushimanum 'Koichiro Wada'). Positive results were obtained only when we used mitotic chromosome spreads prepared from anthers. The best differentiation of maternal and paternal chromosomes in hybrid genomes was obtained when 50 ng of probe was applied together with blocking DNA at a concentration of 3.0 microg/microL. The results demonstrate that GISH is a practical tool for detection of alien genomes and analysis of the constitution of the chromosomes in rhododendron hybrids.

  15. SUNflower +6 : estudio comparativo sobre el desarrollo de la seguridad vial en los países SUNflower +6 : informe final.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2007-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  17. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Navdeep; Buti, Matteo; Kane, Nolan; Bellec, Arnaud; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Berges, Hélène; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are “novel” to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence. PMID:24833511

  18. Genetic Analysis of Yield and Physiological Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under Irrigation and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam POURMOHAMMAD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementing appropriate breeding strategies for sunflower, alongside dependable information on heritability and gene effects upon yield and related traits under drought conditions, are all necessary. Thirty sunflower hybrids were produced by line × tester cross of six male-sterile and five restorer lines. Their hybrids were evaluated in three levels of irrigation, as follows: (1 non-stressed plots, irrigated at regular intervals (W1; (2 mild water stress (W2, irrigated from the beginning of the button stage (R4 to seed filling initiation (R6; (3 severe water stress (W3 started from the beginning of button stage (R4 to physiological maturity. Based on observations and specific methods for determination, canopy temperatures, chlorophyll index, relative water content and proline content, were studied by additive effects, under the different irrigation conditions. Canopy temperatures,chlorophyll index, relative water content, leaf water potential, proline content and yield were controlled by additive effects under mild stressed conditions. Under severe stress conditions however, canopy temperatures, leaf water potential and proline content were controlled by additive effects, while chlorophyll index and relative water content were controlled by both additive and dominant effects, as seed yield was mainly influenced by the dominant effects. The narrow sense heritability ranged from 47-97% for all traits, except for chlorophyll fluorescence. Yield correlated positively with chlorophyll index and relative water content, and negatively with canopy temperature and leaf water potential. Therefore, under drought stressed conditions in breeding programs, canopy temperatures, chlorophyll index and relative water content can be reliable criteria for the selection of tolerant genotypes with prospect to higher yields.

  19. Technical efficiency analysis for oilseed sunflower farms: a case study in Erzurum, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külekçi, Murat

    2010-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the technical efficiency of farms producing sunflower in Erzurum, Turkey and to identify factors that might be causing inefficiency. Stochastic frontier analysis was used to measure technical efficiency. One hundred and seventeen randomly selected farms were interviewed for farm-level data in the 2004-2005 production period. Results revealed that the mean technical efficiency for the sunflower farms, estimated by the stochastic production frontier, is 64%. At full technical efficiency, on average, the farmers could reduce their inputs by around 56% without reducing their sunflower production, simply by improving technical efficiency. In the inefficiency model the parameter estimates showed that older farmers, higher level of farmer's education, more experienced farmers, larger farm size and higher information score resulted in lower technical inefficiency, while bigger family size and more credit usage resulted in higher technical inefficiency. This study proposes strategies such as providing better extension services and farmer-training programmes, including more educated people in sunflower farming and also expanding the sunflower-growing area through provision of adequate facilities in order to increase technical efficiency.

  20. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative determination of virgin olive oil adulteration with sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulli, Konstantina I; Mousdis, George A; Georgiou, Constantinos A

    2006-11-01

    Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with sunflower oil is a major issue for the olive oil industry. In this paper, the potential of total synchronous fluorescence (TSyF) spectra to differentiate virgin olive oil from sunflower oil and synchronous fluorescence (SyF) spectra combined with multivariate analysis to assess the adulteration of virgin olive oil are demonstrated. TSyF spectra were acquired by varying the excitation wavelength in the region 270-720 nm and the wavelength interval (Deltalambda) in the region from 20 to 120 nm. TSyF contour plots for sunflower, in contrast to virgin olive oil, show a fluorescence region in the excitation wavelength range 325-385 nm. Fifteen different virgin olive oil samples were adulterated with sunflower oil at varying levels (0.5-95%) resulting in one hundred and thirty six mixtures. The partial least-squares regression model was used for quantification of the adulteration using wavelength intervals of 20 and 80 nm. This technique is useful for detection of sunflower oil in virgin olive oil at levels down to 3.4% (w/v) in just two and a half minutes using an 80-nm wavelength interval.

  1. Sunflower crop and climate change: vulnerability, adaptation, and mitigation potential from case-studies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaeke Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is characterized by higher temperatures, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, extreme climatic hazards, and less water available for agriculture. Sunflower, a spring-sown crop often cultivated in southern and eastern regions of Europe, could be more vulnerable to the direct effect of heat stress at anthesis and drought during its growing cycle, both factors resulting in severe yield loss, oil content decrease, and fatty acid alterations. Adaptations through breeding (earliness, stress tolerance, crop management (planting dates, and shifting of growing areas could be developed, assessed and combined to partly cope with these negative impacts. New cultivation opportunities could be expected in northern parts of Europe where sunflower is not grown presently and where it could usefully contribute to diversify cereal-based cropping systems. In addition, sunflower crop could participate to the mitigation solution as a low greenhouse gas emitter compared to cereals and oilseed rape. Sunflower crop models should be revised to account for these emerging environmental factors in order to reduce the uncertainties in yield and oil predictions. The future of sunflower in Europe is probably related to its potential adaptation to climate change but also to its competitiveness and attractiveness for food and energy.

  2. Effect of solvents on the fractionation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootello, Miguel A; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2015-04-01

    Solvent fractionation of high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower oil was studied to determine the best solvent to use (hexane or acetone) in terms of the operational parameters and properties of the final stearins. Acetone fractionation on two types of HOHS sunflower oils (N17 and N20) was carried out at temperatures from 5 to 10 °C using micelles with different oil/solvent ratios. Acetone was more suitable than hexane as a solvent for HSHO sunflower oil fractionation because it allowed the oil to be fractionated at higher temperatures and at lower supercooling degrees. Likewise, a sunflower soft stearin obtained by dry fractionation of HOHS sunflower oil was also used to produce high-melting point stearins by acetone or hexane fractionation. The fractionation of these stearins could be performed at higher temperatures and gave higher yields. The combination of dry and solvent fractionation to obtain tailor-made stearins is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  4. Sunflower oil supplementation alters meat quality but not performance of growing partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülşen, N; Umucalilar, H D; Kirikçi, K; Hayirli, A; Aktümsek, A; Alaşahan, S

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil supplementation (0%, 3%, 6% and 9%) to partridge chicks (Alectoris chukar) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics. Feed consumption and live weight gain were responsive to dietary sunflower oil inclusion during the starter period, but not during the grower period. Increasing sunflower oil level linearly increased crude protein and fat digestibilities. Except for abdominal fat, weights of inedible parts and edible organs remained unchanged by the diets. The treatments linearly decreased weight and efficiency of carcass and weights of wings and breast and did not alter weights of thighs and neck. Breast meat saturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 17.9% and unsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 10.6%, as sunflower oil level increased in the diets. Monounsaturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 27.3%, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 51%. Overall, n-3 (0.78% vs. 0.59%) and n-6 (42.6% vs. 29.8%) were greater in breast meat in treatment groups than in control group. In conclusion, sunflower addition into diets has minimal effects on performance of growing partridges, but significantly alters meat fatty acid composition.

  5. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD is CaSO(4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1 and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3 ha(-1. The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, pH and total dissolved salts (TDS in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1 and water was supplied at 1200 m(3·ha(-1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  6. Sodic Soil Properties and Sunflower Growth as Affected by Byproducts of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha−1) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m3 ha−1). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS) in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha−1 and water was supplied at 1200 m3·ha−1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage. PMID:23285042

  7. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. The Application of Neural Networks in Balancing Production of Crude Sunflower Oil and Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Ivetic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to predict specific output characteristics of half finished goods (crude sunflower oil and meal on the basis of specific input variables (quality and composition of sunflower seeds, with the help of artificial neural networks. This is an attempt to predict the amount much more precisely than is the case with technological calculations commonly used in the oil industry. All input variables are representing the data received by the laboratory, and the output variables except category % of oil which is obtained by measuring the physical quantity of produced crude sunflower oil and sunflower consumed quantity of the processing quality. The correct prediction of the output variables contributes to better sales planning, production of sunflower oil, and better use of storage. Also, the correct prediction of technological results of the quality of crude oil and meal provides timely response and also preventing getting rancid and poor-quality oil, timely categorizing meal, which leads to proper planning and sales to the rational utilization of storage space, allows timely response technologists and prevents the growth of microorganisms in the meal.

  9. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO(4), which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1)) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3) ha(-1)). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS) in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1) and water was supplied at 1200 m(3)·ha(-1). Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  10. Water footprint and carbon footprint of the energy consumption in sunflower agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the energy requirements, carbon footprint, and water footprint of sunflower production in Kermanshah province, western Iran. Data were collected from 70 sunflower production agroecosystems which were selected based on random sampling method in summer 2012. Results indicated that total input and output energy in sunflower production were 26,973.87 and 64,833.92 MJha-1, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in sunflower agroecosystems was recorded for electricity power, N fertilizer, and diesel fuel with 35, 19, and 17%, respectively. Also, energy use efficiency, water footprint, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and carbon footprint were calculated as 2.40, 3.41 m3 kg-1, 2042.091 kg CO2eqha-1, and 0.875 kg CO2eqkg-1, respectively. 0.18 of sunflower water footprint was related to green water footprint and the remaining 82% was related to blue water footprint. Also, the highest share of carbon footprint was related to electricity power (nearby 80%). Due to the results of this study, reducing use of fossil fuel and non-renewable energy resource and application of sufficient irrigation systems by efficient use of water resource are essential in order to achieve low carbon footprint, environmental challenges, and also sustainability of agricultural production systems.

  11. Atmospheric non-thermal argon–oxygen plasma for sunflower seedling growth improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matra, Khanit

    2018-01-01

    Seedling growth enhancement of sunflower seeds by DC atmospheric non-thermal Ar–O2 plasma has been proposed. The plasma reactor was simply designed by the composition of multi-pin electrodes bonded on a solderable printed circuit board (PCB) anode. A stable plasma was exhibited in the non-periodical self-pulsing discharge mode during the seed treatment. The experimental results showed that non-thermal plasma treatment had a significant positive effect on the sunflower seeds. Ar–O2 mixed gas ratio, treatment time and power source voltage are the important parameters affecting growth stimulation of sunflower sprouts. In this research, the sunflower seeds treated with 3:3 liters per minute (LPM) of Ar–O2 plasma at a source voltage of 8 kV for 1 min showed the best results in stimulating the seedling growth. The results in this case showed that the dry weight and average shoot length of the sunflower sprouts were 1.79 and 2.69 times higher and heavier than those of the untreated seeds, respectively.

  12. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  13. DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Coddington

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios “barcodes” (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists. Because most species on Earth are undescribed, a complete reference database at the species level is impractical in the near term. The question therefore arises whether unidentified species can, using DNA barcodes, be accurately assigned to more inclusive groups such as genera and families—taxonomic ranks of putatively monophyletic groups for which the global inventory is more complete and stable. We used a carefully chosen test library of CO1 sequences from 49 families, 313 genera, and 816 species of spiders to assess the accuracy of genus and family-level assignment. We used BLAST queries of each sequence against the entire library and got the top ten hits. The percent sequence identity was reported from these hits (PIdent, range 75–100%. Accurate assignment of higher taxa (PIdent above which errors totaled less than 5% occurred for genera at PIdent values >95 and families at PIdent values ≥ 91, suggesting these as heuristic thresholds for accurate generic and familial identifications in spiders. Accuracy of identification increases with numbers of species/genus and genera/family in the library; above five genera per family and fifteen species per genus all higher taxon assignments were correct. We propose that using percent sequence identity between conventional barcode sequences may be a feasible and reasonably accurate method to identify animals to family/genus. However

  14. Anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake: a current overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rubia, M A; Fernández-Cegrí, V; Raposo, F; Borja, R

    2013-01-01

    Due to the chemical and physical structure of a lignocellulosic biomass, its anaerobic digestion (AD) is a slow and difficult process. In this paper, the results obtained from a batch biochemical methane potential (BMP) test and fed-batch mesophilic AD assays of sunflower oil cake (SuOC) are presented. Taking into account the low digestibility shown during one-stage experiments the methane yield decreased considerably after increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) from 2 to 3 g VS L(-1) d(-1), SuOC was subjected to a two-stage AD process (hydrolytic-acidogenic and methanogenic stages), in two separate reactors operating in series where the methanogenic stage became acidified (with >1,600 mg acetic acid L(-1)) at an OLR as low as 2 g VS L(-1) d(-1). More recently, BMP assays were carried out after mechanical, thermal, and ultrasonic pre-treatments to determine the best option on the basis of the methane yield obtained.

  15. Fuel conversional aspects of palm oil and sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi-Rbas, A. [PK 216, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2003-05-15

    There are great differences between palm oil and palm kernel oil in physical and chemical characteristics. Palm oil contains mainly palmitic (16:0) and oleic (18:1) acids, the 2 common fatty acids and about 50% saturated, while palm kernel oil contains mainly lauric acid (12:0) and is more than 89% saturated. Palm is widely grown in Southeast Asia, and 90% of the palm oil produced is used for food, while the remaining 10% is used for nonfood consumption, such as production of oleo-chemicals. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. Compared to No. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oils are much more viscous, while methyl esters of vegetable oils are slightly more viscous. The methyl esters are more volatile than the vegetable oils. The soaps obtained from the vegetable oils can be pyrolyzed into hydrocarbon-rich products. The yield of conversion of the sunflower oil reached the maximum 78.3% at 660 K over ZnCl{sub 2} catalyst. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha, F. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA. In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anticarcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anticarcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the

  17. Alternative potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Thereza dos Santos Torqueti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil is dependent on importation of fertilizers, especially the potassics. Rocks and minerals that contain nutrients have a potential for use in agriculture as fertilizer, especially those of slow solubilization and that exhibit residual effect. In this context, the objective was to assess the feasibility of glauconite rock as potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions arranged in an entirely randomized design, in a 4x4 + 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates and one plant per plot. Four glauconite-based fertilizers were used as a potassium source: fine grained glauconite, fine grained organo-mineral glauconite, coarse grained glauconite and coarse grained organo-mineral glauconite, in four doses, as well as an additional treatment with four doses of KCl, the principal conventional source of the nutrient. The height of the flower stalks, the diameter of the stem and floral capitulum, the number of cultivation days and post-harvest durability were evaluated. The application of KCl yielded the production of flower stems with greater height and larger capitulum diameter in relation to the supply of glauconite. Among the glauconite based fertilizers, the fine grained organo-mineral product provided the best flower charateristics. The postharvest commercial durability of the flower stalks was higher in plants that received the glauconite and fine grained organo-mineral glauconite. The fine grained organo-mineral glauconite surpasses all other alternative sources of potassium in relation to the agronomic characteristics evaluated.

  18. Degradation of soil fertility can cancel pollination benefits in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Giovanni; Berti, Antonio; Morari, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-02-01

    Pollination and soil fertility are important ecosystem services to agriculture but their relative roles and potential interactions are poorly understood. We explored the combined effects of pollination and soil fertility in sunflower using soils from a trial characterized by different long-term input management in order to recreate plausible levels of soil fertility. Pollinator exclusion was used as a proxy for a highly eroded pollination service. Pollination benefits to yield depended on soil fertility, i.e., insect pollination enhanced seed set and yield only under higher soil fertility indicating that limited nutrient availability may constrain pollination benefits. Our study provides evidence for interactions between above- and belowground ecosystem services, highlighting the crucial role of soil fertility in supporting agricultural production not only directly, but also indirectly through pollination. Management strategies aimed at enhancing pollination services might fail in increasing yield in landscapes characterized by high soil service degradation. Comprehensive knowledge about service interactions is therefore essential for the correct management of ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes.

  19. Registration of two double rust resistant germplasms, HA-R12 and HA-R13 for confection sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms HA-R12 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673104) and HA-R13 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673105) were developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, and released in Jul...

  20. SNP discovery and QTL mapping of Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a serious disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the cool and humid production areas of the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BSR resistance were identified in a sunflower recombinant inbr...

  1. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm line HA-BSR1 highly tolerant to Sclerotinia basal stalk rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a devastating disease that causes a significant damage to worldwide sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production by reducing seed yield and quality. The objective of this research was to develop highly BSR tolerant sunflower g...

  2. Mycoflora of phylloplane as a factor protecting the oil sunflower against the diseases caused by fungi, depending on ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Kita

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1980-83 a research was carried out on the phylloplane of oil sunflowers. A composition of species of the fungus community was determined as well as its reaction in relation to the sunflower pathogens: Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  3. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered whorled sunflower, Helianthus verticillatus, at two sites in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helianthus verticillatus, the whorled sunflower, is an endangered species endemic to only a few locations in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia. This sunflower is an aggressive grower and attractive to both plant enthusiasts and pollinators with its multiple, small yellow flowers in late fall. There is...

  5. Somatic embryogenesis from corolla tubes of interspecific amphiploids between cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and its wild species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somatic embryogenesis in vitro provides an efficient means of plant multiplication, facilitating sunflower improvement and germplasm innovation. In the present study, using interspecific amphiploids (2n=4x=68) between cultivated sunflower and wild perennial Helianthus species as explant donors, soma...

  6. Characterisation and expression of the mitochondrial genome of a new type of cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Moneger, Françoise; Leaver, Christopher J.; Petrov, Peter; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1994-01-01

    A new cytoplasmic male sterile sunflower, CMS3, was characterised in relation to the Petiolaris (PET1) cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower, CMS89. Southern blot analysis showed that the mitochondrial genome of CMS3 contains unique rearrangements in at least five loci (atp6, atp9, atpA, nad1 + 5 and

  7. Environmental (in)dependence of a hybrid zone: Insights from molecular markers and ecological niche modeling in a hybrid zone of Origanum (Lamiaceae) on the island of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariotakis, Michael; Koutroumpa, Konstantina; Karousou, Regina; Pirintsos, Stergios A

    2016-12-01

    The role of environment and the relative significance of endogenous versus exogenous selection in shaping hybrid zones have been crucial issues in the studies of hybridization. Recent advances in ecological niche modeling (ENM) offer new methodological tools, especially in combination with the genotyping of individuals in the hybrid zone. Here, we study the hybrid zone between the widely known spices Origanum onites and Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum in Crete. We analyze the genetic structure of both parental taxa and their hybrid Origanum × intercendens using AFLP markers on 15 sympatric and 12 allopatric populations and employ ecological niche modeling and niche similarity tests to study their niche patterns. We complement these analyses with seed viability measurements. Our study revealed that the hybridizing taxa O. onites and O. vulgare ssp. hirtum and the resulting genotypic classes showed geographical and environmental niche similarities based on the predictions of ENMs and the subsequent similarity tests. The occurrence of the hybrid zone is not directly dependent on environmental factors which favor the fitness of the hybrid compared to the parental taxa, but rather on aspects such as historical factors and management practices, which may contribute to the localization and maintenance of the contact zone between parental species. Our results suggest that if a minimum required niche differentiation between genotypic classes is not achieved, environmental dependence might not have a prominent role on the outcome of the hybridization.

  8. Distribution of high bacterial taxa across the chronosequence of two alpine glacier forelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Laurent; Tscherko, Dagmar; Bru, David; Kandeler, Ellen

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about the changes in abundance of microbial taxa in relation to the chronosequence of receding glaciers. This study investigated how the abundances of ten bacterial phyla or classes varied along successional gradients in two glaciers, Ödenwinkelkees and Rotmoosferner, in the central Alps. Quantitative PCR was used to estimate the abundance of the different bacterial taxa in extended glacier chronosequences, including 10- to 160-year-old successional stages, the surface of the glacier, and a fully established soil. Actinobacteria (15-30%) was the dominant group within the chronosequences. Several taxa showed significant differences in the number of taxa-specific 16S rRNA gene copies per nanogram of DNA and/or in the ratio of taxa-specific to the total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies (i.e., the relative abundance of the different taxa within the bacterial community) between the established soils or the glacier surface and the 10- to 160-year-old successional stages. A significantly higher proportion of Βetaproteobacteria (20%) was observed on the surface of both glaciers. However, no differences were observed between the 10- to 160-year-old successional stages in the number of taxa-specific 16S rRNA gene copies per nanogram of DNA or in the ratio of taxa-specific to the total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies for the different taxa. Nevertheless, when the relative abundance data from all the studied taxa were combined and analyzed altogether, most of the sites could be distinguished from one other. This indicates that the overall composition of the bacterial community was more affected than the abundance of the targeted taxa by changes in environmental conditions along the chronosequences.

  9. Importance of whole-plant biomass allocation and reproductive timing to habitat differentiation across the North American sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Goolsby, Eric W; Davis, Kaleigh E; Bullock, Devon V; Donovan, Lisa A

    2017-05-01

    Trait-based plant ecology attempts to use small numbers of functional traits to predict plant ecological strategies. However, a major gap exists between our understanding of organ-level ecophysiological traits and our understanding of whole-plant fitness and environmental adaptation. In this gap lie whole-plant organizational traits, including those that describe how plant biomass is allocated among organs and the timing of plant reproduction. This study explores the role of whole-plant organizational traits in adaptation to diverse environments in the context of life history, growth form and leaf economic strategy in a well-studied herbaceous system. A phylogenetic comparative approach was used in conjunction with common garden phenotyping to assess the evolution of biomass allocation and reproductive timing across 83 populations of 27 species of the diverse genus Helianthus (the sunflowers). Broad diversity exists among species in both relative biomass allocation and reproductive timing. Early reproduction is strongly associated with resource-acquisitive leaf economic strategy, while biomass allocation is less integrated with either reproductive timing or leaf economics. Both biomass allocation and reproductive timing are strongly related to source site environmental characteristics, including length of the growing season, temperature, precipitation and soil fertility. Herbaceous taxa can adapt to diverse environments in many ways, including modulation of phenology, plant architecture and organ-level ecophysiology. Although leaf economic strategy captures one key aspect of plant physiology, on their own leaf traits are not particularly predictive of ecological strategies in Helianthus outside of the context of growth form, life history and whole-plant organization. These results highlight the importance of including data on whole-plant organization alongside organ-level ecophysiological traits when attempting to bridge the gap between functional traits and plant

  10. Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for the removal of metal ions from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G.; Shi, W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Textiles and Clothing

    1998-04-01

    Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for the removal of metal ions such as copper, cadmium, zinc, and chromium ions in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of four heavy metals are 29.3 mg/g (Cu{sup 2+}), 30.73 mg/g (Zn{sup 2+}), 42.18 mg/g (Cd{sup 2+}), and 25.07 mg/g (Cr{sup 3+}), respectively. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks affected the adsorption of metal ions; the finer size of particles showed better adsorption to the ions. Temperature also plays an interesting role in the adsorption of different metal ions. Copper, zinc, and cadmium exhibited lower adsorption on sunflower stalks at higher temperature, while chromium showed the opposite phenomenon. The adsorption rates of copper, cadmium, and chromium are quite rapid. Within 60 min of operation about 60--80% of these ions were removed from the solutions.

  11. Soil-less bioassays for early screening for resistance to imazapyr in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Tatiana; Breccia, Gabriela; Nestares, Graciela; Mayor, María Laura; Zorzoli, Roxana; Picardi, Liliana

    2009-09-01

    Rapid and efficient diagnostic tests for early screening of herbicide resistance are convenient alternatives to field screening methods. There is a need for a quick, reliable and cost-effective method for rapid diagnosis of imidazolinone resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Two seed germination bioassays were developed. Seeds from three sunflower inbred lines differing in resistance to imidazolinones were germinated either on solid culture medium or placed in plastic pots filled with commercial perlite. After 8 days incubation under controlled conditions, both assays successfully distinguished susceptible genotype from the resistant and intermediate ones. The susceptible genotype showed arrested root growth at all herbicide treatments (root length sunflower populations. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Determination of traces of several pesticides in sunflower oil using organic phase immuno electrodes (OPIEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Testing for traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates), present in hydrophobic matrices such as sunflower oil was checked using new immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs). The competitive process took place in an n-hexane-chloroform 75% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent final enzymatic measurement was performed in decane using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. A linear response of between about 10 nM and 4 μM was usually obtained in the presence of sunflower oil. Immunosensors show satisfactory selectivity and precision and recovery tests carried out on commercial sunflower oil samples gave excellent results. Lastly, theoretical confirmation of the possibility that immunosensors can act positively in organic solvent mixtures was discussed on the basis of Hill׳s coefficient values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of the ferredoxin electron donor on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-Calerón, M; Youssar, L; Salas, J J; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, E

    2009-08-01

    Ferredoxins are proteins that participate in photosynthesis and in other processes that require reducing equivalents, such as the reduction of nitrogen or fatty acid desaturation. Two classes of ferredoxins have been described in plants: light-regulated photosynthetic ferredoxins and heterotrophic ferredoxins whose activity is not influenced by light. Genes encoding the two forms of ferredoxin have been cloned and characterized in developing sunflower cotyledons. Here, these genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and they were purified by ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography to study their capacity to supply electrons to two different sunflower desaturases: soluble stearoyl-ACP desaturase from sunflower cotyledons, and membrane bound desaturase FAD7 expressed in yeast. In both cases photosynthetic ferredoxin was the form that promoted the strongest desaturase activity.

  14. INFLUENCE OF BIOPREPARATIONS FROM DRY SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWER LECITHINS ON SERUM LIPIDS COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Dziak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry lecithin, which is a mixture of polar phospholipids, neutral lipids, free fatty acids, glycolipids, carbohydrates, and small amounts of moisture, is a promising object for biologic-hepatoprotectors creation. One of its pharmacological activity displays is its influence on serum lipids, in particular transport forms of these lipids. The influence of dry soy lecithin and sunflower on hyperlipoproteinemia ratio and other lipid disorders is studied. It is shown that low-fat dry soybean lecithin showed hypocholesterolemic activity against all studied forms of serum cholesterol. Nonfat dry sunflower lecithin had similar but somewhat less prominent effect. However reduced concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol under sunflower lecithin developed right before soya lecithin. Both lecithin prevented the development of dyslipidemia induced carbon tetrachloride.

  15. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  16. Occurrence and transport of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River, northwestern Mississippi, October 2009-June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The Big Sunflower River Basin, located within the Yazoo River Basin, is subject to large annual inputs of nitrogen from agriculture, atmospheric deposition, and point sources. Understanding how nutrients are transported in, and downstream from, the Big Sunflower River is key to quantifying their eutrophying effects on the Gulf. Recent results from two Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW models), which include the Big Sunflower River, indicate minimal losses of nitrogen in stream reaches typical of the main channels of major river systems. If SPARROW assumptions of relatively conservative transport of nitrogen are correct and surface-water losses through the bed of the Big Sunflower River are negligible, then options for managing nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico may be limited. Simply put, if every pound of nitrogen entering the Delta is eventually delivered to the Gulf, then the only effective nutrient management option in the Delta is to reduce inputs. If, on the other hand, it can be shown that processes within river channels of the Mississippi Delta act to reduce the mass of nitrogen in transport, other hydrologic approaches may be designed to further limit nitrogen transport. Direct validation of existing SPARROW models for the Delta is a first step in assessing the assumptions underlying those models. In order to characterize spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River Basin, water samples were collected at four U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations located on the Big Sunflower River between October 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. Nitrogen concentrations were generally highest at each site during the spring of the 2010 water year and the fall and winter of the 2011 water year. Additionally, the dominant form of nitrogen varied between sites. For example, in samples collected from the most upstream site (Clarksdale), the concentration of organic nitrogen was generally higher than the concentrations of

  17. Comparison of auxin activty in tumourous and normal callus cultures from sunflower and tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal and tumourous calluses of sunflower and tobacco the level of extractable auxins was determined by Avena coleoptile straight growth test. Auxin activity was detected practically in two zones: I - at position with Rf 0.2-0.4 and II - at position with Rf 0.6-0.9. The tumour tissues of sunflower and tobacco plants, representing different types of neoplastic growth exhibit a 3 times higher auxin activity as compared with that of the corresponding normal tissues. Tobacco tissues, on the other hand, had a higher auxin level than the corresponding sunflower tissues and they exhibited different proportions in the activity of zones I and II, which points to a dominance of genetic regulation of hormone metabolism in these plants.

  18. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  19. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 6. Names of some subtribe Malinae Reveal taxa (information 6

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    В. М. Меженський

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyse the Ukrainian nomenclature of subtribe Malinae representatives and improve terminological system of the Ukrainian names of a species and a generic levels and names of fruit crops. Results. There is a confusion in the Ukrainian names of plants of Cydonia-Chaenomeles–Pseudocydonia, Mespilus–Eriobotrya, Amelanchier–Cotoneaster. Considering the division of Sorbus s.l. on separate genera Sorbus s.str., Aria, Cormus, Chamaemespilus, Torminalis and availability of numerous hybrids with their involvement, the Ukrainian names for both taxa and nothotaxa of species and generic levels are offered, principles of their choice are also considered. Formation of the Ukrainian generic names on the basis of specific epithets leads to undesirable tautonomy. Aspects of derussification of the Ukrainian professional terminology are discussed. Conclusions. Ukrainian scientific generic and nothogeneric plant names for subtribe Malinae are transliterated/transcripted, borrowed as a calque of latin names or have their own origin, consisting of one or two words. The choice of the best variants of generic and species names from a number of possible ones has a temporal component and largely depends on experts who apply them and basic principles of choice. It is necessary to improve the modern Ukrainian plant nomenclature on a national basis involving the transformed Latin scientific names for introduced species and hybrids.

  20. Risk posed to honeybees (Apis mellifera L, Hymenoptera) by an imidacloprid seed dressing of sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, R; Schöning, R; Stork, A; Schramel, O

    2001-03-01

    In a greenhouse metabolism study, sunflowers were seed-treated with radiolabelled imidacloprid in a 700 g kg-1 WS formulation (Gaucho WS 70) at 0.7 mg AI per seed, and the nature of the resulting residues in nectar and pollen was determined. Only the parent compound and no metabolites were detected in nectar and pollen of these seed-treated sunflower plants (limit of detection laboratory tests, imidacloprid showed high oral toxicity to honeybees (Apis mellifera), with LD50 values between 3.7 and 40.9 ng per bee, corresponding to a lethal food concentration between 0.14 and 1.57 mg kg-1. The residue level of imidacloprid in nectar and pollen of seed-treated sunflower plants in the field was negligible. Under field-growing conditions no residues were detected (limit of detection: 0.0015 mg kg-1) in either nectar or pollen. There were also no detectable residues in nectar and pollen of sunflowers planted as a succeeding crop in soils which previously had been cropped with imidacloprid seed-treated plants. Chronic feeding experiments with sunflower honey fortified with 0.002, 0.005, 0.010 and 0.020 mg kg-1 imidacloprid were conducted to assess potential long-term adverse effects on honeybee colonies. Testing end-points in this 39-day feeding study were mortality, feeding activity, wax/comb production, breeding performance and colony vitality. Even at the highest test concentration, imidacloprid showed no adverse effects on the development of the exposed bee colonies. This no-adverse-effect concentration of 0.020 mg kg-1 compares with a field residue level of less than 0.0015 mg kg-1 (= limit of detection in the field residue studies) which clearly shows that a sunflower seed dressing with imidacloprid poses no risk to honeybees. This conclusion is confirmed by observations made in more than 10 field studies and several tunnel tests.

  1. High trees increase sunflower seed predation by birds in an agricultural landscape of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eSchäckermann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural habitats in agricultural landscapes promote agro-ecosystem services but little is known about negative effects (dis-services derived by natural habitats such as crop seed predation. Birds are important seed predators and use high landscape structures to perch and hide. High trees in agricultural landscapes may therefore drive seed predation. We examined if the presence, the distance and the percentages of high trees (tree height >5 m and the percentages of natural habitat surrounding sunflower fields, increased seed predation by birds in Israel. At the field scale, we assessed seed predation across a sample grid of an entire field. At the landscape scale, we assessed seed predation at the field margins and interiors of 20 sunflower fields. Seed predation was estimated as the percentage of removed seeds from sunflower heads. Distances of sample points to the closest high tree and percentage of natural habitat and of high trees in a 1km radius surrounding the fields were measured.We found that seed predation increased with decreasing distance to the closest high tree at the field and landscape scale. At the landscape scale, the percentage of high trees and natural habitat did not increase seed predation. Seed predation in the fields increased by 37 %, with a maximum seed predation of 92 %, when a high tree was available within zero to 50 m to the sunflower fields. If the closest high tree was further away, seed predation was less than 5 %. Sunflower seed predation by birds can be reduced, when avoiding sowing sunflowers within a radius of 50 m to high trees. Farmers should plan to grow crops, not sensitive to bird seed predation, closer to trees to eventually benefit from ecosystem services provided by birds, such as predation of pest insects, while avoiding these locations for growing crops sensitive to bird seed predation. Such management recommendations are directing towards sustainable agricultural landscapes.

  2. Association mapping in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) reveals independent control of apical vs. basal branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambeesan, Savithri U; Mandel, Jennifer R; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Corbi, Jonathan; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2015-03-11

    Shoot branching is an important determinant of plant architecture and influences various aspects of growth and development. Selection on branching has also played an important role in the domestication of crop plants, including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Here, we describe an investigation of the genetic basis of variation in branching in sunflower via association mapping in a diverse collection of cultivated sunflower lines. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed extensive variation in the extent and type of branching within the focal population. After correcting for population structure and kinship, association analyses were performed using a genome-wide collection of SNPs to identify genomic regions that influence a variety of branching-related traits. This work resulted in the identification of multiple previously unidentified genomic regions that contribute to variation in branching. Genomic regions that were associated with apical and mid-apical branching were generally distinct from those associated with basal and mid-basal branching. Homologs of known branching genes from other study systems (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, pea, and petunia) were also identified from the draft assembly of the sunflower genome and their map positions were compared to those of associations identified herein. Numerous candidate branching genes were found to map in close proximity to significant branching associations. In sunflower, variation in branching is genetically complex and overall branching patterns (i.e., apical vs. basal) were found to be influenced by distinct genomic regions. Moreover, numerous candidate branching genes mapped in close proximity to significant branching associations. Although the sunflower genome exhibits localized islands of elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD), these non-random associations are known to decay rapidly elsewhere. The subset of candidate genes that co-localized with significant associations in regions of low LD represents the most

  3. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.

  4. Natural hybridization and hybrid zones between Quercus crassifolia and Quercus crassipes (Fagaceae) in Mexico: morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Sánchez, Efraín; Oyama, Ken

    2004-09-01

    Hybrid zones provide interesting systems to study genetic and ecological interaction between different species. The correct identification of hybrids is necessary to understand the evolutionary process involved in hybridization. An oak species complex occurring in Mexico formed by two parental species, Quercus crassifolia H. & B. and Q. crassipes H. & B., and their putative hybrid species, Q. dysophylla, was analyzed with molecular markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA [RAPDs]) and morphological tools in seven hybrid zones (10 trees per taxa in each hybrid zone) and two pure sites for each parental species (20 trees per site). We tested whether geographic proximity of hybrid plants to the allopatric site of a parental species increases its morphological and genetic similarity with its parent. Seventeen morphological traits were measured in 8700 leaves from 290 trees. Total DNA of 250 individuals was analyzed with six diagnostic RAPD primers. Quercus crassifolia differed significantly from Q. crassipes in all the examined characters. Molecular markers and morphological characters were highly coincident and support the hypothesis of hybridization in this complex, although both species remain distinct in mixed stands. Clusters and a hybrid index (for molecular and morphological data) showed that individuals from the same parental species were more similar among themselves than to putative hybrids, indicating occasional hybridization with segregation in hybrid types or backcrossing to parents. Evidence does not indicate a unidirectional pattern of gene flow.

  5. Regeneration of interspecific somatic hybrids between Helianthus annuus L. and Helianthus maximiliani (Schrader) via protoplast electrofusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Vasic, Dragana; Nagl, Nevena

    2006-07-01

    Helianthus maximiliani is one of the wild Helianthus species with the genes for resistance to many pathogens including Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Unfortunately, a transfer of disease resistance genes from this species into the cultivated sunflower is limited by its poor crossability with the cultivated sunflower and sterility of interspecific hybrids. To overcome this problem, mesophyll protoplasts of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum-resistant clone of H. maximiliani were electrically fused with etiolated hypocotyl protoplasts of the cultivated sunflower inbred line PH-BC1-91A. Fusion products were embedded in agarose droplets and subjected to different regeneration protocols. Developed microcalluses were released from the agarose and transferred into solid media. Shoot regeneration was achieved by culture of calluses on regeneration medium containing 2.2 mg l(-1) BAP and 0.01 mg l(-1) NAA after the treatment with a high concentration of 2,4 D for a limited period of time. A morphological and RAPD analysis confirmed a hybrid nature of the regenerated plants.

  6. The Effect of Citrus Pulp Amendment on Sunflower Production and the Dissipation of the Herbicide Aclonifen

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Avola; Mara Gennari; Cristina Abbate; Rosalena Tuttobene

    2007-01-01

    The research evaluated the effects that amendment with 3 kg m-2 and 9 kg m-2 of citrus pulp had both on the production of sunflowers and the dissipation of the aclonifen herbicide. At the same time any eventual effect of the use of the herbicide on sunflower production was verified. The use of the citrus pulp determined an increase in the height of the plants, the diameter of the flower-heads and their achenes production and a reduction in the sterile zone. The effect of amending was not prop...

  7. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  8. Production and characterization of pyrolysis liquids from sunflower-pressed bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerçel, Hasan Ferdi

    2002-11-01

    Pyrolysis experiments on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 52.10 wt.% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere with flow rate of 50 ml min(-1) and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C s(-1). The chemical characterization results showed that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks.

  9. Control of ornamental sunflower height with daminozideControle do porte de girassol ornamental com daminozide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available New sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cultivars with ornamental features were developed in South of Brazil by Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA-CNPSoja. Despite its beauty, the hybrid ‘BRS-Oasis’ reaches over two meters height, with dimensions inadequate to an ornamental plant. The goal of this research was to decrease its height, without reducing stem and head diameter, to growth it as cut flower inside greenhouse or as potted plant. Daminozide, a growth retardant, was applied twice or three times, at concentrations of 4,000 mg.L-1; 6,000 mg.L-1; or 8,000 mgL-1. An additional treatment by applying just water was used as a control. Height control, without decreasing stem and head diameters was obtained by applying Daminozide twice at 6,000 mg.L-1 or Daminozide three times at 4,000 mg.L-1. Final plant height was adequate to growth ‘BRS-Oasis’ as a cut flower inside greenhouse, but not small enough to growth it as a potted plant.Novas cultivares de girassol (Helianthus annuus L. com características ornamentais foram desenvolvidas pela Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA-CNPSoja. Embora apresente potencial ornamental, o hibrido ‘BRS-Oasis’ apresenta altura superior a dois metros, a qual não é adequada para cultivo como planta ornamental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi reduzir seu porte, sem reduzir os diâmetros da haste e da inflorescência, para cultivo como flor de corte em estufa e como planta envasada. Este regulador foi aplicado duas a três vezes durante o ciclo, nas concentrações de 4.000 mg.L-1, 6.000 mg.L-1 ou 8.000 mgL-1. Como controle foi utilizada a aplicação de água. A redução do porte, sem redução dos diâmetros da haste e da inflorescência, foi obtida aplicando-se Daminozide duas vezes na concentração de 6.000 mg.L-1 ou três vezes na concentração de 4.000 mg.L-1. A altura das plantas favoreceu o cultivo em estufa, entretanto o porte não foi reduzido o suficiente para

  10. Hybrid virtues

    OpenAIRE

    Prijić – Samaržija, Snježana

    2014-01-01

    The controversies about cases such us of epistemic injustice, epistemic paternalism and epistocracy indicate that knowledge needs to be considered as socially situated phenomena and, consequently, that epistemic attitudes, social practices and institutions require evaluation from both an epistemic and an ethical/political perspective. The project titled as ethics of knowing and, especially, promising concept of hybrid virtues or corresponding hybrid view provides a desirable framework for the...

  11. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  12. High oleic sunflower biodiesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of biodiesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25º to 110ºC and expeller rotation (85 to 119rpm on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25º to 30ºC and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the biodiesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified biodiesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for biodiesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la producción de biodiesel usando etanol y aceite de girasol. La extracción del aceite de girasol fue evaluada primero. Un diseño experimental fue usado para estimar la influencia de las variables independientes: temperatura del grano (25º a 110ºC y rotación del expeller (85 a 119 rpm en la obtención del aceite crudo. El mejor resultado obtenido fue un 68,38%, conseguido con una rotación de 100 a 115 rpm, una temperatura del grano de 25º a 30ºC y un contenido de humedad de alrededor del 7%. El siguiente estudio mediante transesterificación, evaluó la influencia de la relación molar etanol: aceite y concentración de catalizador (metilato sódico en el rendimiento de la fase rica en esteres. El rendimiento más alto fue 98,39% obtenido con una relación molar de 9.1 y 3% de

  13. Cavitation fatigue and its reversal in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Volker; Sperry, John S

    2002-05-01

    "Cavitation fatigue" is the increased susceptibility of a xylem conduit to cavitation as a result of its prior cavitation. It was investigated whether cavitation fatigue induced in vivo could be repaired in intact plants. Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) were subjected to soil drought in the greenhouse. Native embolism and vulnerability to cavitation was measured in well-watered controls and after 5 d and 10 d of controlled drought. A dramatic cavitation fatigue was observed where droughted xylem that was refilled in the laboratory developed up to 60 PLC (percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) at -1 MPa versus only 5.2 PLC in non-droughted controls. Rewatered plants showed the complete reversal of cavitation fatigue over 4 d. Reversal of fatigue was correlated with the refilling of embolized vessels in the intact plants (r(2)=0.91, P<0.01), suggesting that xylem transport to fatigued vessels was required for their repair. The in vivo reversal of fatigue was partially duplicated in excised stem segments by perfusing them with root exudates from droughted (DR) and well-watered (WW) plants. The DR exudate had a greater effect, and this was associated with a greater pH in the DR versus WW saps, but there was no difference in total cation concentration. Perfusions with 2 mM CaCl(2) and KCl solutions also partially reversed cavitation fatigue as opposed to no effect with deionized water, suggesting a role of ions in addition to a pH effect. It is suspected that fatigue is caused by stretching and partial disruption of linkages between cellulose microfibrils in inter-conduit pit membranes during air seeding, and that the reversal of fatigue involves restoring these linkages by ingredients in xylem sap.

  14. Breeding systems, hybridization and continuing evolution in Avon Gorge Sorbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Shanna; Robertson, Ashley; Rich, Timothy C G; Djordjevic, Milena; Cerovic, Radosav; Houston, Libby; Harris, Stephen A; Hiscock, Simon J

    2013-04-01

    Interspecific hybridization and polyploidy are key processes in plant evolution and are responsible for ongoing genetic diversification in the genus Sorbus (Rosaceae). The Avon Gorge, Bristol, UK, is a world 'hotspot' for Sorbus diversity and home to diploid sexual species and polyploid apomictic species. This research investigated how mating system variation, hybridization and polyploidy interact to generate this biological diversity. Mating systems of diploid, triploid and tetraploid Sorbus taxa were analysed using pollen tube growth and seed set assays from controlled pollinations, and parent-offspring genotyping of progeny from open and manual pollinations. Diploid Sorbus are outcrossing and self-incompatible (SI). Triploid taxa are pseudogamous apomicts and genetically invariable, but because they also display self-incompatibility, apomictic seed set requires pollen from other Sorbus taxa - a phenomenon which offers direct opportunities for hybridization. In contrast tetraploid taxa are pseudogamous but self-compatible, so do not have the same obligate requirement for intertaxon pollination. The mating inter-relationships among Avon Gorge Sorbus taxa are complex and are the driving force for hybridization and ongoing genetic diversification. In particular, the presence of self-incompatibility in triploid pseudogamous apomicts imposes a requirement for interspecific cross-pollination, thereby facilitating continuing diversification and evolution through rare sexual hybridization events. This is the first report of naturally occurring pseudogamous apomictic SI plant populations, and we suggest that interspecific pollination, in combination with a relaxed endosperm balance requirement, is the most likely route to the persistence of these populations. We propose that Avon Gorge Sorbus represents a model system for studying the establishment and persistence of SI apomicts in natural populations.

  15. Seedling Growth and Physiological Responses of Sixteen Eucalypt Taxa under Controlled Water Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. M. Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We assessed growth and physiological responses of Eucalyptus and Corymbia species to water limitation aiming to widen possibilities for plantations in dry climatic conditions. We selected 16 taxa: 4 Corymbia and 12 Eucalyptus species from the Subgenera Symphyomyrtus. Seedlings were evaluated from 100 to 170 days after sowing. Growth and physiological traits showed significant differences among taxa and between two levels of water availability. Water limitation significantly impacted biomass production and physiological characteristics, however in different levels. Leaf area and biomass production decreased 15%–48% under water limitation among taxa. Eucalyptus moluccana, CCV 2, and VM1 (drought tolerant clone showed the largest decrease in leaf area. Transpiration across taxa decreased 30%–57% and photosynthesis 14%–48% under water limited condition. Taxa from cold environments were less responsive in leaf area reduction under water limitation, and taxa from Exsertaria section showed lower reduction in photosynthesis (E. camaldulensis showed the lowest reduction. Responses to water limitation are related to the environment of origin. E. molucana, the only Adnataria species from a high precipitation region (>1500 mm year−1, was one of the most sensitive in reduction of biomass production, different behavior from the other Adnataria species, originated in regions with rainfall <750 mm year−1. Water limitation increased leaf-level water use efficiency by 18% on average, 8% in E. longirostrata, and 28% in E. camaldulensis, E. brassiana, and E. crebra. Growth and physiological responses observed show the potential of different eucalypts taxa to tolerate water limited environments.

  16. Contamination by Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus in sunflower seeds used in psittacine bird food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Machado Conceição

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Widely distributed in food for psittacine birds due its low price, high palatability, and cultural reasons, the Helianthus annuus, called sunflower, is proving important in clinical influenza as a result of excess calories and high incidence of contamination by some fungi, particularly Aspergillus, specifically A. flavus and A. fumigatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination by Aspergillus spp sunflower seeds for feeding psittacine birds, sold in Aracaju, Sergipe state. The tests were performed in the Laboratory of Microbiology of the Dr. Vicente Borreli Veterinary Hospital in Pio Décimo College. We evaluated four samples of sunflower seeds, soldin a municipal market and in three different supermarkets in bulk and under three bottled trademarks, processed according to Forsythe (2002. Our survey revealed a high development of A. flavus and A. fumigatus sunflower seeds. This contamination may be related to several factors such as inadequate harvest stages of drying, processing and storage of grain. Furthermore, it is important to highlight the need of a better grain storage, with controlled temperature and humidity, to reduce the possibility of contamination by Aspergillus spp. that causes injury in the feeding of psittacine birds and other animal species.

  17. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  18. Conformational states of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Helianthinin: Effect of heat and pH.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The structure and solubility of helianthinin, the most abundant protein of sunflower seeds, was investigated as a function of pH and temperature. Dissociation of the 11S form (hexamer) into the 7S form (trimer) gradually increased with increasing pH from 5.8 to 9.0. High ionic strength (I = 250 mM)

  19. Isolation and characterization of undenatured chlorogenic acid free sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales-Perez, S.; Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for obtaining sunflower protein (SFP) isolate, nondenatured and free of chlorogenic acid (CGA), has been developed. During the isolating procedure, the extent of CGA removal and protein denaturation was monitored. The defatted flour contained 2.5 percent CGA as the main phenolic compound.

  20. Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Christov, Michail; Bohorova, Natasha; Petrov, Peter; Dudov, Kalin; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jaques

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in

  1. Synthesis and refining of sunflower biodiesel in a cascade of continuous centrifugal contactor separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Abu Ghazali, Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik; Teddy, T; Picchioni, Francesco; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol was studied in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like oil and methanol flow rate, rotational speed and catalyst

  2. Levels of antioxidant enzymes and alkaline protease from pulp and peel of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesen Adel Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: The present study concluded that peel in sunflower are strong radical scavengers and can be considered as good sources of natural antioxidants for medicinal and commercial uses. Further analysis showed that protease activity was a significantly high in the pulp compared to the peel.

  3. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transient expression of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in detached sunflower leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Lindenmuth, Benjamin E; McDonald, Karen A; Hwang, Hwang; Bui, Mai Q Nguyen; Falk, Bryce W; Uratsu, Sandra L; Phu, My L; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2014-01-01

    For biofuel applications, synthetic endoglucanase E1 and xylanase (Xyn10A) derived from Acidothermus cellulolyticus were transiently expressed in detached whole sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves using vacuum infiltration. Three different expression systems were tested, including the constitutive CaMV 35S-driven, CMVar (Cucumber mosaic virus advanced replicating), and TRBO (Tobacco mosaic virus RNA-Based Overexpression Vector) systems. For 6-day leaf incubations, codon-optimized E1 and xylanase driven by the CaMV 35S promoter were successfully expressed in sunflower leaves. The two viral expression vectors, CMVar and TRBO, were not successful although we found high expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves previously for other recombinant proteins. To further enhance transient expression, we demonstrated two novel methods: using the plant hormone methyl jasmonic acid in the agroinfiltration buffer and two-phase optimization of the leaf incubation temperature. When methyl jasmonic acid was added to Agrobacterium tumefaciens cell suspensions and infiltrated into plant leaves, the functional enzyme production increased 4.6-fold. Production also increased up to 4.2-fold when the leaf incubation temperature was elevated above the typical temperature, 20C, to 30C in the late incubation phase, presumably due to enhanced rate of protein synthesis in plant cells. Finally, we demonstrated co-expression of E1 and xylanase in detached sunflower leaves. To our knowledge, this is the first report of (co)expression of heterologous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in sunflower.

  4. Ruminal biohydrogenation kinetics of defatted flaxseed and sunflower is affected by heat treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2017-01-01

    and partly defatted flaxseed (DF) and partly defatted sunflower (DS) as test feeds. Feeds were heated in a laboratory oven at 110 °C for 0 (unheated), 45, or 90 min. Michaelis–Menten kinetics was applied for quantifying biohydrogenation rate. The DF heated for 90 min showed the lowest biohydrogenation rate...

  5. A laboratory simulation of the carbonization of sunflower achenes and seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braadbaart, F. [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Earth Sciences-Geochemistry, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80021, 3058 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Wright, P.J. [Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Horst, J. van der; Boon, J.J. [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    The current project describes physical and chemical alterations that result from the thermal exposure of sunflower achenes and seeds. Specifically, achenes and seeds were heated at temperatures ranging from 130 to 600 C under anoxic conditions for 60 min. Changes were measured in mass, relative percentages of C and N, internal and external morphology, molecular composition by direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry (DTMS) under EI conditions, and the reflectance on polished specimens. The main constituents of sunflower seeds are lipids and protein, while the pericarps or hulls enclosing the seeds have a ligno-cellulosic structure. The morphology of achenes and seeds remains intact following exposure which makes the identification of the residues possible. The results of the sunflower experiments were compared to previous experiments conducted with peas and wheat grains. Up to approximately 340 C, the molecular conversion of polysaccharide and protein rich peas and wheat grains follow similar pathways, while the lignin present in sunflower achenes follows its own unique pathway, resulting in a different molecular composition. At higher temperatures the molecular composition of the three propagules becomes identical. In addition the reflectance of the three propagules is identical confirming the similarity in molecular composition. Lipids show a different behaviour compared to the other three biopolymers; from 370 C no oils are observed in the heated specimens and the DTMS-EI measurements show no lipid markers. Apart from evaporation of the triacylglycerides it is suggested that steroids have a high resistance against thermal degradation and are converted into aromatic moieties. (author)

  6. Mapping the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed morphology in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports the results of analyzing the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying sunflower seed morphological traits in a segregating population derived from an oilseed by confection cross. A linkage map containing 165 target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) and 44 simple sequence re...

  7. Changes in mass and dimensions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes and seeds due to carbonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, F.; Wright, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    When analyzing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) remains, which are often carbonized, archaeobotanists commonly differentiate between wild and domesticated achenes and seeds based on the measured length (L) and width (W) or the calculated index L*W. Carbonization reduces the dimensions. To compensate

  8. Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Macrophomina phaseolina Strains Causing Pathogenicity on Sunflower and Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali N. Khan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophomina phaseolina is the most devastating pathogen which causes charcoal rot and root rot diseases in various economically important crops. Three strains M. phaseolina 1156, M. phaseolina 1160, and M. phaseolina PCMC/F1 were tested for their virulence on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.. The strains showed high virulence on both hosts with a disease score of 2 on chickpea and sunflower. The strains also increased the hydrogen per oxide (H2O2 content by 1.4- to 1.6-fold in root as well as shoot of chickpea and sunflower. A significant increase in antioxidant enzymes was observed in fungal infected plants which indicated prevalence of oxidative stress during pathogen propagation. The M. phaseolina strains also produced hydrolytic enzymes such as lipase, amylase, and protease with solubilization zone of 5–43 mm, 5–45 mm, and 12–35 mm, respectively. The M. phaseolina strains were identified by 18S rRNA and analyzed for genetic diversity by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The findings based on RAPD markers and 18S rRNA sequence analysis clearly indicate genetic variation among the strains collected from different hosts. The genetically diverse strains were found to be pathogenic to sunflower and chickpea.

  9. Sources of resistance to sunflower diseases in a global collection of domesticated USDA plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) and head rot (HR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary are traditionally major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the United States, while Phomopsis stem canker (PSC) caused by Phomopsis helianthi Munt.-Cvet. et. al. has increasingly become damaging in...

  10. Could a crop model be useful for improving sunflower crop management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flénet Francis

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In France, there is a need for improved sunflower crop management, in order to meet the greater requirement for oil by increasing both seed yields and the area of this crop. The objective of this article is to review the main characteristics of sunflower crop management in France and in other countries, in order to emphasize the need for improvement, and to evaluate if the recent advances in crop modelling could help to find solutions. In France, a better adaptation of crop management to water availability is needed, as well as a more efficient control of diseases without applying more fungicides. The results of these objectives would also trigger major improvements in other countries, but there is also a need to control insects and to adapt crop management to the goals of oil quality. The main sunflower crop models are reviewed in this article, with an emphasis on the most recent ones. Their ability to contribute to improving sunflower crop management, although they do not take into account diseases and insects, is discussed. Confidence in the decisions based on simulations, and the way to evaluate it, is also examined.

  11. Crystallization Kinetics of Fully Hydrogenated Palm Oil in Sunflower Oil Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Walstra, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2000-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of mixtures of fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF) was studied. The thermal properties and phase behavior of this model system were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. From the melting enthalpy and clear

  12. “In vitro” antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil on yeasts from onychomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrer, L.V.; Cunha, K. C.; Nogueira, M. C. L.; Cardoso, C. C.; Soares, M. M. C. N.; Almeida, M. T. G.

    2012-01-01

    The “in vitro” antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Bioperoxoil®) was tested on 101 samples of yeasts originating from onychomycosis using the disk diffusion method. The oil was efficacious against several clinical fungal strains: Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporon asahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii. PMID:24031958

  13. "In vitro" antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil on yeasts from onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Guerrer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The "In vitro" antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Bioperoxoil® was tested on 101 samples of yeasts originating from onychomycosis using the disk diffusion method. The oil was efficacious against several clinical fungal strains: Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporonasahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii.

  14. "In vitro" antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil on yeasts from onychomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrer,L.V.; Cunha,K. C.; Nogueira,M. C. L.; Cardoso,C. C.; Soares,M. M. C. N.; Almeida,M. T. G.

    2012-01-01

    The ?in vitro? antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Bioperoxoil?) was tested on 101 samples of yeasts originating from onychomycosis using the disk diffusion method. The oil was efficacious against several clinical fungal strains: Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporon asahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii.

  15. "In vitro" antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil on yeasts from onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrer, L V; Cunha, K C; Nogueira, M C L; Cardoso, C C; Soares, M M C N; Almeida, M T G

    2012-10-01

    The "in vitro" antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Bioperoxoil®) was tested on 101 samples of yeasts originating from onychomycosis using the disk diffusion method. The oil was efficacious against several clinical fungal strains: Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporon asahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii.

  16. A laboratory simulation of the carbonization of sunflower achenes and seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, F.; Wright, P.J.; Horst, J. van der; Boon, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The current project describes physical and chemical alterations that result from the thermal exposure of sunflower achenes and seeds. Specifically, achenes and seeds were heated at temperatures ranging from 130 to 600 °C under anoxic conditions for 60 min. Changes were measured in mass, relative

  17. The analysis of proteome changes in sunflower seeds induced by N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... identity to homeobox-leucine zipper protein HAHB-4. The analysis of proteome changes induced by N+ implantation could provid a new clue to studing mutation mechanism of ion implantation. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the analysis of proteome changes induced by N+ implantation in sunflower seeds.

  18. Comparison of Selenium Toxicity in Sunflower and Maize Seedlings Grown in Hydroponic Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garousi, Farzaneh; Veres, Szilvia; Kovács, Béla

    2016-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selenium (Se) at low concentrations is beneficial, whereas high Se concentrations can induce toxicity. Controlling Se uptake, metabolism, translocation and accumulation in plants is important to decrease potential health risks and helping to select proper biofortification methods to improve the nutritional content of plant-based foods. The uptake and distribution of Se, changes in Se content, and effects of various concentrations of Se in two forms (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) on sunflower and maize plants were measured in nutrient solution experiments. Results revealed the Se content in shoots and roots of both sunflower and maize plants significantly increased as the Se level increased. In this study, the highest exposure concentrations (30 and 90 mg/L, respectively) caused toxicity in both sunflower and maize. While both Se forms damaged and inhibited plant growth, each behaved differently, as toxicity due to selenite was observed more than in the selenate treatments. Sunflower demonstrated a high Se accumulation capacity, with higher translocation of selenate from roots to shoots compared with selenite. Since in seleniferous soils, a high change in plants' capability exists to uptake Se from these soils and also most of the cultivated crop plants have a bit tolerance to high Se levels, distinction of plants with different Se tolerance is important. This study has tried to discuss about it.

  19. Effect of irrigation with sea water on soil salinity and yield of oleic sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farhadi Machekposhti, Mabood; Shahnazari, Ali; Ahmadi, Mirkhalegh Z.; Aghajani, Ghasem; Ritzema, Henk

    2017-01-01

    A field trial was carried out in 2013 and 2014 in a research field near Sari (Iran), to study the effect of irrigation with Caspian Sea water on soil salinity, growth parameters and yield components of oleic sunflower. The experiment was conducted with 4 levels of blending viz. 0% (S0)

  20. Residual effect of sewage sludge fertilization on sunflower yield and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann C. de Albuquerque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the residual effect of sewage sludge fertilization on yield and nutrition of sunflower in its second cycle. The experiment was carried out from April to August 2012. The treatments consisted of four doses of sewage sludge (0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1, dry basis applied in the first cycle of sunflower, distributed in a randomized block design, with six replicates. Sunflower stem diameter, plant height, capitulum diameter and yield increased with the increment in sewage sludge doses, with maximum values observed with the dose of 30 t ha-1. The contents of calcium and magnesium in the soil, pH, sum of bases, effective and potential cation exchange capacity and base saturation increased, while potential acidity and the contents of manganese and iron in the leaves decreased, with the increment in the residual doses of sewage sludge. There was a reduction in yield and growth characteristics of sunflower in the second cycle; thus, additional fertilization with sewage sludge is recommended in each new cycle.

  1. Regional characteristics of market production of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Simo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the trends in the development of industrial crop production in the case of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia from 1976 to 2013. Grouping of regions (4 regions without Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija and districts (25 districts in Serbia in 2013, according to the characteristics of land capacity, production of sugar beet and sunflower and level of development, was carried out by cluster analysis. Based on the median value of the important characteristics of available land capacity, production volume and economic development in municipalities, I-distance method were ranked districts in Serbia from 1 to 25. Similarities between the sugar beet and sunflower production regions in Serbia were determined by the method of complete-linkage clustering, and the results were presented in the dendrogram. According to data for 2013 it was found that 99.8% of sugar beet production and 93.9% of sunflower production in Serbia comes from the Vojvodina region. The average yields per hectare for analyzed crops in the areas of the Vojvodina region, on average, were by up to 10% higher compared to the yields in Serbia. According to the characteristics of land capacity and production, areas of the Vojvodina region belong to the highest rank 1-7, while according to the characteristics of the development level, these areas belong to rank 2-13.

  2. Single sequence repeat markers associated with partial resistance in sunflower to Phoma macdonaldii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab DAVAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phoma black stem of sunflower, caused by Phoma macdonaldii, occurs in many countries. The objective of the present study was to estimate the number of markers and genomic regions in sunflower associating with Phoma black stem resistance. Genetic variability among 32 sunflower genotypes, including recombinant inbred lines and their parents, M7 mutant lines developed by gamma irradiation, and some genotypes from different countries of origin, was evaluated using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Eighty-eight markers were generated at 38 SSR loci, with a mean number of alleles per locus of 2.32. Using susceptibility data of 32 sunflower genotypes against seven P. macdonaldii isolates (Darvishzadeh et al., 2007, one to four markers were associated with each of seven different P. macdonaldii isolates. To reduce the probability of false positives, a sequential Bonferroni-experiment-wise P-value was used for each marker trait association tested. The identified markers showed a promising trend, although they did not pass the more stringent bar of statistical significance, and should be studied further.

  3. Development of sunflower oil and composition with respect to seed moisture and physiological maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiccants/harvest aids are becoming more commonly used to hasten sunflower harvest. The current recommendation is to apply a desiccant (e.g., glyphosate and paraquat) at 35% or less seed moisture at physiological maturity (PM). Desiccating as early as possible without sacrificing yield may be a des...

  4. Counter-current CO2 purification of partially deacylated sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    High oleic sunflower oil was partially deacylated by propanolysis to produce a mixture of diglycerides and triglycerides. To remove by-product fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) from this reaction mixture, a liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) counter-current fractionation method was developed. The fracti...

  5. Silk-fiber immobilized lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of emulsified sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sushovan; Barbora, Lepakshi; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Goswami, Pranab

    2009-06-01

    Lipase was immobilized in silk fibers through glutaraldehyde cross-linking to a maximum loading of 59 U/g silk-fiber and the immobilized lipase was utilized for the hydrolysis of sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus). The hydrolytic activity of the lipase, which was poor in biphasic oil in water system, was increased significantly when the sunflower oil was emulsified in aqueous medium. The hydrolytic activities of the immobilized lipase were 48.73 +/- 1.26 U, 36.11 +/- 0.96 U, and nil when the substrate sunflower oil was used as emulsion created by a rhamnolipid biosurfactant, Triton X100, and ultrasonication, respectively. Although the efficiency of the immobilized lipase was less than 12% than the corresponding free lipase, the immobilized lipase could be reused for the biosurfactant-mediated hydrolysis of sunflower oil up to third cycle of the reaction. The yield of the fatty acids in the second, third, and fourth cycles were 49.45%, 22.91%, and 5.09%, respectively, of the yield obtained in the first cycle.

  6. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  7. Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

  8. Investigation of the effect of sunflower oil methyl ester on the performance of a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkilic, C.; Yucesu, H. [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    2005-10-15

    The viscosity of raw vegetable oil is rather higher than that of diesel fuel. High viscosity has a negative effect on atomization quality, and so engine performance and exhaust emission are affected badly; this causes failure of engine parts. To decrease viscosity of vegetable oil, methyl ester was produced and tested as an alternative fuel in a single cylinder, four strokes, air-cooled diesel engine. The viscosity of sunflower oil methyl ester obtained after transesterification was reduced considerably and heating value was improved. Engine tests were carried out at full load-different speed range; the engine torque and power of sunflower oil methyl ester was lower than that of diesel fuel in range of 6-18% and specific fuel consumption was higher than that of diesel fuel of approximately 3%. CO{sub 2} , CO and NO{sub x} emissions of sunflower methyl ester were lower than that of diesel fuel. The sunflower oil methyl ester fuel was used successfully as alternative fuel in short-term tests. (Author)

  9. Helianthus porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  10. The equation of state for solutions of the sunflower oil+isomerhexane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, M. M.; Abdukhamidova, Z.

    1995-11-01

    The article presents the results of an experimental investigation into the density of solutions of the sunflower oil+isomerhexane system (from 23 to 75%) at temperatures of from 293 to 450 K and pressures of from 0.101 to 98.1 MPa. An equation of state is obtained.

  11. Counter-current carbon dioxide purification of partially deacylated sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    High oleic sunflower oil was partially deacylated by propanolysis to produce a mixture of diglycerides and triglycerides. To remove by-product fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) from this reaction mixture, a liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) counter-current fractionation method was developed. The fracti...

  12. Helianthus Porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing the Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  13. Effect of glycerol on the morphology of starch-sunflower oil composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Feil, H.

    1999-01-01

    The presented study involves the encapsulation of sunflower oil in starch by casting emulsions of oil in aqueous starch solutions. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer and lecithin was used as an emulsifier, to improve the emulsion stability. Increasing glycerol concentration in the samples resulted

  14. How canola and sunflower oils affect lipid profile and anthropometric parameters of participants with dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Sedigheh; Noroozi, Mona; Khosrotabar, Naghmeh; Mazandarani, Shadi; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2017-01-01

    Background: Restricted intakes of saturated and trans-fatty acids and replacement with poly or monounsaturated fatty acids are emphasized in healthy diets. This study evaluates the effects of a six-month consumption of canola oil compared to sunflower oil on lipid profile and anthropometric parameters of people affected by dyslipidemia. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 96 patients with dyslipidemia, who were randomly assigned into canola oil or the sunflower oil groups. The participants were instructed to record the contents of their daily meals, beverages, fruits, and snacks a day before treatment, at the second clinic visit, in the third month, and at the end of study (i.e., six months). Lipid profile and anthropometric parameters were compared between the two groups. Student t-test or Mann Whitney U test was used for statistical comparisons of variables between groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to adjust the confounding factor effects. Results: Of the enrolled participants, 44 (45.8%) were on sunflower oil diet and 52 (54.2%) on canola oil diet. We observed no change in anthropometric parameters and thus no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). Significant reductions in LDL-C (psunflower oil. Conclusion: Dietary fats in the form of canola oil or sunflower oil effectively lower the serum cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations. They also result in an increase in serum concentration of HDL-C. These oils, however, did not modify general anthropometric parameters. PMID:28638812

  15. Flakes product supplemented with sunflower and dry residues of wild oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košutić Milenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of simultaneous addition of sunflower (3, 6 or 9 g/100 g of sample and dry residue of wild oregano (0.5 or 1 of sample, on the physical texture and chemical properties of corn flakes to obtain new products with altered nutritional properties. The chemometric analysis pointed at the versatile beneficial contributions of sunflower in corn flakes enriched with dry residue of wild oregano enabling the optimization of corn flakes formula. The presented data point that addition of milled sunflower in investigated corn flakes products improved nutritive properties while addition of dry residue of wild oregano improved physical characteristics of corn flakes products. Regarding quality (sample CF11, score value of 0.59 maximum scores have been obtained with the addition of 6 g/100 g of sunflower and 1 g/100 g of dry residue of wild oregano per 100 g of sample for corn flakes formulation. Production of corn flakes with addition of wild oregano residues contributed to the food waste valorisation in the food industry. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 46005 an Grant no. TR 31027

  16. Temporal dynamics of light and nitrogen vertical distributions in canopies of sunflower, kenaf and cynara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archontoulis, S.V.; Vos, J.; Yin, X.; Bastiaans, L.; Danalatos, N.G.; Struik, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    To enhance eco-physiological and modelling studies, we quantified vertical distributions of light and nitrogen in canopies of three Mediterranean bio-energy crops: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and cynara (Cynara cardunculus). Field crops were grown with and without

  17. Direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lubrication properties of sunflower oil have been modified by epoxidation in the first step and acetylation of the obtained epoxide in the second step. Epoxidation has been followed in dichloromethane solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid as oxidizing agent and sulfuric acid as catalyst. The reaction ...

  18. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... studied extensively. Generally, decreasing seed size reduced seedling establishment (Damirkaya et al., 2006;. Mauromicale and Cavallaro 1997). In field condition poor ... stresses such as salinity, water deficiency and high and ..... overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower.

  19. Effect of different levels of sunflower meal and multi-enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milan computer

    2018-01-19

    Jan 19, 2018 ... In conclusion, the supplementation of. SFM up to 20% in diet with multi-enzyme complex in laying hens did not appear to cause any adverse effects on egg production and quality as well on antioxidant status in laying hens. Keywords: Enzymes, laying hen, performance, sunflower meal, yolk cholesterol.

  20. Rhizopus oryzae associated with Melanagromyza splendida and stem disease of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2012, a female parental line in a Yolo, CA in sunflower seed-production field began displaying external stem symptoms that could not be attributed to any known disease. Symptoms appeared to be associated with tunneling caused by an un-identified insect. Stems were collected and Rhizopu...

  1. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations.

  2. Collection of wild Helianthus anomalus and deserticola sunflower from the desert southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resources are the biological basis of global food security. Collection and preservation of wild relatives of important crop species such as sunflower provide the basic foundation to improve and sustain the crop. Acquisition through exploration is the initial step in the germplasm conservatio...

  3. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding. PMID:27242810

  4. High power ultrasound effects on lipid oxidation of refined sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, F; Grondin, I; Costes, P; Moutoussamy, L; Sing, A Shum Cheong; Smadja, J

    2004-07-01

    The effects of high power ultrasound treatment (20 kHz) on some components of refined sunflower oil were studied in order to verify if and to what extent modifications in the lipidic fraction can occur. Traditional parameters including free acidity, total polar compounds, peroxide value, and conjugated dienes concentration were determined in refined sunflower oil samples before, immediately after the ultrasonic treatment and during storage. Differences between treated and untreated samples were detected only for peroxide values (PV). The PV increased from 5.38 meq. O2/kg oil for untreated oil to 6.33 meq. O2/kg oil for sunflower oil sonicated (20 kHz; 150 W; 2 min). The fatty acid composition was obtained by high resolution gas chromatography. No significant changes were observed regarding the decrease in fatty acid composition before and immediately after the treatment. Regarding the volatile fraction, some off-flavour compounds for example hexanal and limonene resulting from the ultrasonic degradation of sunflower oil were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  5. direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Lubrication properties of sunflower oil have been modified by epoxidation in the first step and acetylation of the obtained epoxide in the second step. Epoxidation has been followed in dichloromethane solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid as oxidizing agent and sulfuric acid as catalyst.

  6. Molecular mapping of three nuclear male sterility mutant genes in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait is a useful tool for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding and genetic programs. Previously, we induced NMS mutants in cultivated line HA 89. The mutants possessed single recessive genes, ms6, ms7, and ms8, respectively, in NMS HA 89-872, NMS HA 89-552, and...

  7. Removal of Orange 16 reactive dye from aqueous solutions by waste sunflower seed shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOR MALUTAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the use of an agro-industrial waste, i.e., sunflower seed shells, was investigated as a sorbent for the removal of Orange 16 reactive dye from aqueous environments. Batch experiments were performed as a function of pH, sorbent dose, dye concentration, temperature and contact time. The per­cent dye removal increased with increasing sorbent dose and temperature of the aqueous solution, and decreased with increasing dye concentration; the re­quired contact time was five hours. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin–Ra­du­shkevich and Tempkin adsorption isotherms were used to describe the equi­librium sorption data and to determine the corresponding isotherm constants. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔG, ΔH and ΔS, were also determined. These parameters indicated that the sorption of reactive dye onto sunflower seed shells was a spontaneous, endothermic and entropy-driven process. The kinetic data were evaluated by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intra-par­ticle diffusion kinetic models. The results of the kinetic study indicated that the sorption of Orange 16 reactive dye onto sunflower seed shells is a complex process and both chemical surface sorption and intra-particle diffusion contri­bute to the rate-limiting step. Therefore, the sunflower seed shell showed itself to be a promising cheap sorbent for the decolourization of aqueous coloured solutions or effluents.

  8. Seed yield and oil content of some sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunflower cultivars Sanbro, Tarsan-1018 and Ozdemirbey were used as materials in the experiment which was designed in a split plot of randomized complete blocks with three replications. Seven irrigation schedules; I0 = nonirrigated (control), I1 = irrigation at vegetative stage, I2 = irrigation at heading stage, I3 = irrigation ...

  9. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression patterns of LATERAL SUPPRESSOR-LIKE and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION-LIKE genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, Marco; Salvini, Mariangela; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively. Typical amino acid residues and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL are the orthologs of the branching regulator LS and ROX/LAX1, involved in the growth habit of both dicot and monocot species. qRT-PCR analyses revealed a high accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts in roots, vegetative shoots, and inflorescence shoots. By contrast, in internodal stems and young leaves, a lower amount of Ha-LSL transcripts was observed. A comparison of transcription patterns between Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL revealed some analogies but also remarkable differences; in fact, the gene Ha-ROXL displayed a low expression level in all organs analyzed. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis showed that Ha-ROXL transcription was strongly restricted to a small domain within the boundary zone separating the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the leaf primordia and in restricted regions of the inflorescence meristem, beforehand the separation of floral bracts from disc flower primordia. These results suggested that Ha-ROXL may be involved to establish a cell niche for the initiation of AMs as well as flower primordia. The accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts was not restricted to the boundary zones in vegetative and inflorescence shoots, but the mRNA activity was expanded in other cellular domains of primary shoot apical meristem as well as AMs. In addition, Ha

  10. Selection on leaf ecophysiological traits in a desert hybrid Helianthus species and early-generation hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Fulco; Rosenthal, David M; Johnston, Jill A; Kane, Nolan; Gross, Briana L; Lexer, Christian; Dudley, Susan A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Donovan, Lisa A

    2004-12-01

    Leaf ecophysiological traits related to carbon gain and resource use are expected to be under strong selection in desert annuals. We used comparative and phenotypic selection approaches to investigate the importance of leaf ecophysiological traits for Helianthus anomalus, a diploid annual sunflower species of hybrid origin that is endemic to active desert dunes. Comparisons were made within and among five genotypic classes: H. anomalus, its ancestral parent species (H. annuus and H. petiolaris), and two backcrossed populations of the parental species (designated BC2ann and BC2pet) representing putative ancestors of H. anomalus. Seedlings were transplanted into H. anomalus habitat at Little Sahara Dunes, Utah, and followed through a summer growing season for leaf ecophysiological traits, phenology, and fitness estimated as vegetative biomass. Helianthus anomalus had a unique combination of traits when compared to its ancestral parent species, suggesting that lower leaf nitrogen and greater leaf succulence might be adaptive. However, selection on leaf traits in H. anomalus favored larger leaf area and greater nitrogen, which was not consistent with the extreme traits of H. anomalus relative to its ancestral parents. Also contrary to expectation, current selection on the leaf traits in the backcross populations was not consistently similar to, or resulting in evolution toward, the current H. anomalus phenotype. Only the selection for greater leaf succulence in BC2ann and greater water-use efficiency in BC2pet would result in evolution toward the current H. anomalus phenotype. It was surprising that the action of phenotypic selection depended greatly on the genotypic class for these closely related sunflower hybrids grown in a common environment. We speculate that this may be due to either phenotypic correlations between measured and unmeasured but functionally related traits or due to the three genotypic classes experiencing the environment differently as a result of

  11. Ultra-Fine Friction Grinding of Sunflower Kernels – Thereof Tahini and Halva Production and Rheological Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Emil RACOLŢA; Elena Andruța MUREȘAN; Andrei BORȘA; Romina Alina VLAIC; Vlad MUREȘAN

    2016-01-01

    Tahini is a paste obtained by milling the roasted sunflower kernel. Usually, a time and energy consuming two-steps process is involved, a three-roll refiner and a beating machine. The aim of this work was to identify and test a milling process for roasted sunflower kernels with lower time and energy consumption. Different particle size sunflower tahini and halva samples were produced by Ultra-Fine Friction Grinding machine Masuko Sangyo “Supermasscolloider” MKCA6-2 and compared to standard te...

  12. Sunflower cake in diets for lambs: intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and rumen parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth dos Santos Moura

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study objective was to determine the intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation parameters in sheep fed diets containing levels of substitution of soybean meal for sunflower cake. The diets consisted of five levels of protein soybean meal (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % by sunflower cake. Diets were formulated with 12.6% CP, respecting the roughage:concentrate ratio of 40:60, as source roughage was used hay Tifton-85 and as food concentrates used were: corn, soybean meal, sunflower cake and premix mineral vitaminic. Five lambs crossbred castrated with average weight of 29.64 ± 2.94 kg were used, distributed in latin square 5 x 5. There were no differences in intake dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and total digestible nutrients. The intake of ether extract (EE and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC were increased linearly. For intake of total carbohydrates (TC was observed equation linear in relation to body weight and metabolic weight and quadratic when expressed in g day-1 with peak in 377.1 g kg-1 replacement of soybean meal by sunflower cake. There were no differences in digestibility DM, OM, CP, NDF, NFC and TC. There was a linear increase in the digestibility of ether extract (EE. The intake, feces, urinary and retained nitrogen were not influenced by levels of substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake in the diets. For the pH of liquor ruminal there was no difference for the different levels of substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake. However, ruminal pH differed with respect to collection time for all experimental diets. There was no effect on diets and sampling time for concentration of NH3-N. It was concluded that the sunflower cake can be used as na alternative food to replace soybean meal up to 100% in concentrate mixture unless there are changes in the rumen parameters, balance of nitrogen, intake and nutrient digestibility.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis by 16S rDNA gene sequence comparison of avian taxa of Bisgaard and characterization and description of two new taxa of Pasteurellaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H; Foster, G; Christensen, J P; Pennycott, T; Olsen, J E; Bisgaard, M

    2003-01-01

    Characterization and classification of members of Pasteurellaceae isolated from birds by extended phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA gene sequence comparison. A total of 95 avian isolates were subjected to extended phenotypic characterization. Thirteen bacterial strains selected from main phenotypic clusters and isolated from parrot, parakeet, budgerigar, partridge, pheasant, chicken, duck, hawk and gull were subsequently characterized by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Eight of the sequenced strains were classified with six taxa of Bisgaard of which two (34 and 40) have not been published before, and the properties of four others (14, 22, 26 and 32) changed upon the characterization of these new isolates. Of the remaining strains, one was identified as a phenotypic variant in maltose and dextrin of Pasteurella gallinarum another as a trehalose positive variant of taxon 3 of Bisgaard. The remaining three strains sequenced were not closely related to existing taxa of Pasteurellaceae. However, they were found to belong to the Avian cluster with 92-97% 16S rDNA gene sequence similarity. The study allowed the classification of bacteria isolated from birds by the integrated use of extended phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Only the application of 16S rDNA gene sequencing allows a correct identification of variant strains. The description of new taxa within the bacterial family Pasteurellaceae will subsequently allow additional isolates of these taxa to be identified and improve the diagnosis and epidemiological understanding of bacteria causing disease in birds.

  14. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) — I. 2. Section Phoma: Additional taxa with very small conidia and taxa with conidia up to 7 µm long

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruyter, de J.; Noordeloos, M.E.; Boerema, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-seven taxa in section Phoma with conidia not exceeding 7 µm in length are keyed out and described on account of their characteristics in vitro. Four new species are introduced: Phoma aurea de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma crystallifer de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma flavescens de

  15. The High-Oleic-Sunflower as new base oil component. Properties and application; Die High-Oleic-Sunflower als neue Grundoelkomponente. Eigenschaften und Anwendungsbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botz, O. [Natoil Motorenoele GmbH und Co. KG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Vegetable oils basically have been used as base component for lubricants at all times. Starting with the 19th century they had been replaced slowly by base oils founded upon mineral oils. At the beginning of the eighties in the last century there was a strong switch to vegetable base oils again. Determining factor were ecological reasons and not application demands. At the beginning of the nineties a real boom started using the so called bio-lubes. Since 1993 the ''Fachagentur fuer nachwachsende Rohstoffe'' promotes the cultivation of renewable vegetable raw materials and the marketing of the resulting products. A fast and significant market penetration of bio-lubes has been impeded massively by the adoption of rape-seed oil as base component. Even though the disadvantage of bio-lubes based on rape-seed oil was known sufficiently, the main amount of bio-lubes was produced on the base of this oil. As a result the reputation of bio-lubes has been influenced strongly. Furthermore the high price level of the saturated esters has been another reason of the weak market penetration fo bio-lubes. For this reason until today consumers associate the preception of bio-lube or biogenic lubricants either with bad application facilities or with exorbitant prices. Basically today are predominantly used three types of base oil for bio-lubes: Triglycerides, unsaturated esters and saturated esters. Natoil demonstrated in tests that the feedstock ''High-Oleic-Sunflower'' (belonging to the group of triglycerides) shows significant differences to previous renewable base oil components on the market. With a concentration of more than 90% oleic acid, ''High-Oleic-Sunflower'' shows a composition of fatty acids which offers multifarious possible applications. The outstanding inherent lubricating qualities of unsaturated compounds and the inherent very high viscosity-index (VI>200) together with the excellent oxidation stability of

  16. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  17. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Oil Sunflower in Salted Soil of Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAN Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining field trial with test analysis, a nitrogen(N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O fertilizer experiment of oil sunflowers was set to explore the influence of different ratio of N, P, K fertilizer on dry matter accumulation of oil sunflowers, nutrient absorption and accumulation, the yield and quality, etc in salted soil of the northern Ningxia, in order to provide scientific evidence for regulating and controlling of fertilization in the salted soil and enhancing the yields and quality of oil sunflowers. The results showed that: in the salted soil, the plant which had been disposed by N, P, K fertilizer had more advantages, the 1 000-grain weight, fruit quantity of each oil sunflower and yield per plant and hectare all increased significantly. Treatment of adding the organic fertilizer on the basis of N, P, K fertilizer could also increase the amount of N, P, K absorption significantly. At the same time, the application of N, P, K fertilizer would increase the fat content and reduce the protein, increase the oleic acid and stearic acid, reduce the content of linoleic acid and palmitic acid. The needs of nitrogen (N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O absorption of oil sunflower seeds were averagely 6.1~9.6, 3.2~3.8 kg and 12.3~13.7 kg, about 1:0.40~0.55:1.43~2.09 in ratio, 1:0.49:1.79 averagely in ratio.

  19. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, S Evan; Bakken, Bradley H; Blackman, Benjamin K; Chapman, Mark A; Kane, Nolan C; Tang, Shunxue; Ungerer, Mark C; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H; Burke, John M

    2012-10-01

    Aside from polyploidy, transposable elements are the major drivers of genome size increases in plants. Thus, understanding the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), especially given its large genome size (∼3.5 Gb) and the well-documented cases of amplification of certain transposons within the genus, is of considerable importance for understanding the evolutionary history of this emerging model species. By analyzing approximately 25% of the sunflower genome from random sequence reads and assembled bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, we show that it is composed of over 81% transposable elements, 77% of which are long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Moreover, the LTR retrotransposon fraction in BAC clones harboring genes is disproportionately composed of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons ('chromoviruses'), and the majority of the intact chromoviruses contain tandem chromodomain duplications. We show that there is a bias in the efficacy of homologous recombination in removing LTR retrotransposon DNA, thereby providing insight into the mechanisms associated with transposable element (TE) composition in the sunflower genome. We also show that the vast majority of observed LTR retrotransposon insertions have likely occurred since the origin of this species, providing further evidence that biased LTR retrotransposon activity has played a major role in shaping the chromatin and DNA landscape of the sunflower genome. Although our findings on LTR retrotransposon age and structure could be influenced by the selection of the BAC clones analyzed, a global analysis of random sequence reads indicates that the evolutionary patterns described herein apply to the sunflower genome as a whole. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Growth under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration accelerates leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, Lourdes; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación; Agüera, Eloísa

    2012-09-15

    Some morphogenetic and metabolic processes were sensitive to a high atmospheric CO(2) concentration during sunflower primary leaf ontogeny. Young leaves of sunflower plants growing under elevated CO(2) concentration exhibited increased growth, as reflected by the high specific leaf mass referred to as dry weight in young leaves (16 days). The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased with leaf development, especially in plants grown under elevated CO(2) concentrations, suggesting that high CO(2) accelerates chlorophyll degradation, and also possibly leaf senescence. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased the oxidative stress in sunflower plants by increasing H(2)O(2) levels and decreasing activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The loss of plant defenses probably increases the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast, decreasing the photosynthetic pigment content as a result. Elevated CO(2) concentration was found to boost photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, especially in young leaves. High CO(2) also increased the starch and soluble sugar contents (glucose and fructose) and the C/N ratio during sunflower primary leaf development. At the beginning of senescence, we observed a strong increase in the hexoses to sucrose ratio that was especially marked at high CO(2) concentration. These results indicate that elevated CO(2) concentration could promote leaf senescence in sunflower plants by affecting the soluble sugar levels, the C/N ratio and the oxidative status during leaf ontogeny. It is likely that systemic signals produced in plants grown with elevated CO(2), lead to early senescence and a higher oxidation state of the cells of these plant leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.