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Sample records for hybrid rice production

  1. Analysis on Dry Matter Production Characteristics of Super Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Six middle-season indica hybrid rice combinations,including five super hybrid rice combinations with the high yield about 10.5 t/ha and a check hybrid rice combination Shanyou 63 with a yield potential about 9.5 t/ha,were used as materials to study the dry matter production characteristics.The super hybrid rice showed a high ability in dry matter production and accumulation and its yield enhanced with the increase of dry matter accumulation.The advantage period of dry matter production in the super hybrid rice was mainly at the middle and late growth stages compared with the check.The grain yield had no significant correlation with the dry matter accumulation before the elongation stage while had a significantly positive correlation with the dry matter accumulation from the elongation to maturity stages in super hybrid rice.There were more dry matter in vegetative organs at the heading stage in the super hybrid rice but its contribution to yield (apparent conversion percentage) was averagely 4.3 percent points lower than that in the check.For crop growth rate (CGR),the comparative advantage of super hybrid rice was at the middle and late stages,especially after flowering.Moreover,as the rising of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD),CGR enhanced.The total LAD and the mean of LAD per day of super hybrid rice was about 14.79% and 10.31% higher than those of the check,respectively.The results indicate that the high yield of super hybrid rice mostly comes from the products of photosynthesis after heading,which is shown by the increased CGR at middle and later stages.It is suggested that LAD character might be used to better explain the advantage in the dry matter production of super hybrid rice than LAI.

  2. DOES PRODUCTIVITY MATTER IN THE ADOPTION OF HYBRID RICE? A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Rashed Saeed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyze comparative economics of hybrid rice and basmati in the core rice growing area of Punjab. Cross-data was collected through well-structured questionnaires from 80 farmers during May and June 2011.Study results reveal that higher yield and less time required for maturity in production were the main reasons for planting of hybrid rice. Hybrid rice occupied 3.6 acres whereas area under basmati was 5.9 acres of the total farm area. Farmers obtained above 60 percent increase in yield of hybrid rice. Results show that cost of production of basmati rice was estimated as Rs.37364 per acre and total revenue was Rs.44768 per acre. The benefit cost ratio of basmati rice was 1.20 and that of hybrid rice was 1.80, implying that hybrid rice has brought comparatively more economic benefits to the farmers as compared to basmati in the study area. Shortage of buyers, much costly poor quality hybrid seed, late payment and higher transportation costs are among major constraints in rice production and marketing.

  3. The distribution of photosynthetic products and grain plumpness of two-line intersubspecific hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHuaiyu; WANGHuaxin; ZHANGZhongling; WUSuqiong; CHENZhiyu

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of two-line intersubspecific hybrid vigor is an important way to increase yield of rice. However, the poor plumpness of grains in many combinations is an obstacle for using the method, We analyzed the relationship between the translocation rate of photosynthetic products into grains and the grain plumpness by the aid of 14C tracer technique.

  4. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  5. Simulation of Potential Production and Optimum Population Quantitative Indices for the Second Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Li-jiao; YAO Zhong; ZHENG Zhi-ming; LI Hua-bin

    2006-01-01

    The article established the HDRICE model by modifying the structure of the ORYZA1 model and revising its parameters by field experiments. The HDRICE model consists of the modules of morphological development of rice, daily dry matter accumulation and partitioning, daily CO2 assimilation of the canopy, leaf area, and tiller development. The model preferably simulated the dynamic rice development because of the thorough integration of the effects of temperature and light on the rates of rice development, photosynthesis, respiration, and. other ecophysiological processes. In addition, this model has attainable grain yield in the test experiment that showed the potential yield of cultivar Xieyou 46 ranged from 11 to 13 tons ha-1. Besides, the model was used to optimize the combinations of the transplanting date, seedling age and density for cultivar Xieyou 46 at Jinhua area, and the population quantitative indices to attain the potential yield such as maximum stems, effective panicles, filled grain number/leaf area, and so on. The result showed that the combination of transplanting date on July 25, seedling age of 35 days and base seedling density of 1.33 × 106ha-1 is the optimum combination for the second hybrid rice production in Jinhua County, China. And the maximum stems, the effective panicles, the filled grain per panicle, the peak of optimum LAI, LAI in later filling stage, and the filled grain number/leaf were 6.03 × 106 ha, 3.99 × 106 ha,119.2, 8.59, 5-6, and 0.64, respectively.

  6. Status and Prospects of Hybrid Rice Breeding in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cai-lin

    2005-01-01

    Research on hybrid rice in Jiangsu Province, China began in 1970. Great progress has been made since then, which can be divided into three stages according to the development of hybrid rice breeding and production in Jiangsu Province. The first stage was beginning stage from 1970 to 1980, when progress was mainly made in cytoplasmic male sterile line breeding. The second stage could be described as developing stage, from 1980 to 1995, when indica hybrid rice was rapidly popularized, and japonica hybrid rice became popular later. From 1996, hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province entered the third stage, when both indica and japonica hybrid rice breeding in the three-line system or intersubspecific hybrid rice breeding in the two-line system made a great breakthrough with the successful breeding of the hybrids Teyou 559, 9 You 138 and Liangyoupeijiu. The developing trend of hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province is also discussed.

  7. High Temperature Induced Glume Closure Resulted in Lower Fertility in Hybrid Rice Seed Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haoliang; Zhang, Binglin; Zhang, Yunbo; Chen, Xinlan; Xiong, Hui; Matsui, Tsutomu; Tian, Xiaohai

    2017-01-01

    Predicted climate changes, in particular, the increased dimension and frequency of heat waves, are expected to affect crop growth in the future seriously. Hybrid rice relies on seed production from male sterile and restorer lines. Experiments were conducted over two consecutive years to compare the high temperature tolerance of parents of different hybrid rice combinations, in terms of fertility rate, flowering pattern, pollination and physiological parameters of the lodicule. Three male sterile lines and a broad compatibility restorer line (as pollen donor and conventional variety as well) were grown to heading stage and then treated with average daily temperatures of 26°C (range 23–30°C), 28°C (25–32°C), and 30°C (26–34°C), respectively, continued for 5–7 days each in a natural light phytotron which simulated the local typical high temperature weather in the field. The results indicated that male sterile lines were more sensitive to high temperature than the restorer line for fertility rate, and the sensitivity varied between varieties. The fertility rate of the restorer line was maintained at about 90% under the high temperature treatments, while it decreased in the male sterile lines by 23.3 and 48.1% at 28 and 30°C, respectively. The fertility rate of the most sensitive line declined by 70%, and the tolerant line declined by 34% at 30°C. Glume closure in the male sterile lines was a major reason for the reduced fertility rate under high temperature, which is closely correlated with carbohydrates content and the vascular bundle pattern in the lodicule. The present study identified a useful trait to select male sterile lines with high temperature tolerance for seed production. PMID:28105031

  8. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  9. Development of stem borer resistant transgenic parental lines involved in the production of hybrid rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S; Nagadhara, D; Pasalu, I C; Kumari, A Padma; Sarma, N P; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

    2004-07-15

    Stem borer resistant transgenic parental lines, involved in hybrid rice, were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer method. Two pSB111 super-binary vectors containing modified cry1Ab/cry1Ac genes driven by maize ubiquitin promoter, and herbicide resistance gene bar driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were, used in this study. Embryogenic calli after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium were selected on the medium containing phosphinothricin. Southern blot analyses of primary transformants revealed the stable integration of bar, cry1Ab and cry1Ac coding sequences into the genomes of three parental lines with a predominant single copy integration and without any rearrangement of T-DNA. T1 progeny plants disclosed a monogenic pattern (3:1) of transgene segregation as confirmed by molecular analyses. Furthermore, the co-segregation of bar and cry genes in T1 progenies suggested that the transgenes are integrated at a single site in the rice genome. In different primary transformants with alien inbuilt resistance, the levels of cry proteins varied between 0.03 and 0.13% of total soluble proteins. These transgenic lines expressing insecticidal proteins afforded substantial resistance against stem borers. This is the first report of its kind dealing with the introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry genes into the elite parental lines involved in the development of hybrid rice.

  10. Research on Theories and Techniques of Irrigation for Safeguarding Seed Production of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Jiang-shi; L(U) Chuan-gen; YAO Ke-min; HU Ning; XIA Shi-jian

    2006-01-01

    By inducing frequency, intensity and duration of lower temperature in the middle and last ten-day periods in August in the rice-growing areas of southern China, increasing temperature for safe seed production was defined as 2℃. During the sensitive period of fertility, characters of panicle height and canopy structure of TGMS rice, Pei'ai64S, were measured.Results showed that temperature changes caused by irrigation in fields were below 40 cm of rice plant, and heating effect was significant at 20 cm when the temperature was increased by 3.1℃. For the present study, the following irrigation techniques were put forth: the water depth of 15-20 cm, current water used, irrigating after 17:00 and bailing at 10:00 in sunny or cloudy weather, irrigating on whole day, in shady or rainy weather, increasing inflows and outflows in large fields. In the present experiment, pollen fertility and self-fertilized seed setting rate accepted that the techniques were feasible and effective for against lower temperature and safeguarding seed production of two-line hybrid rice.

  11. Hybrid rice achievements, development and prospect in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Guo-hui; YUAN Long-ping

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the history and progress of hybrid rice development. Hybrid rice research was initiated back in 1964, and commercialized in 1976. Three-line and two-line system hybrid rice were developed in 1974 and 1995, respectively. Research on super hybrid rice, which was ifrst launched by Ministry of Agriculture, China in 1996, is discussed, and the great progress of super hybrid rice had been achieved with a new yield record by 15.4 t ha–1 in the 6.84 ha demonstration location in Xupu, Hunan Province, China in 2014. And the mechanism of heterosis, the techniques of hybrid seed production and the modern ifeld managements in hybrid rice over the past decades are also discussed. Additional y, this article dealt with the intel ectual property protection (IPR) and development of hybrid rice seed industry in China. Major factors that constrain hybrid rice development are analyzed and possible solutions to this problems are proposed. Final y, the authors present methods to further increase production yield, and propose an improvement for breeding super high-yielding hybrid rice based on these methods.

  12. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  13. Practices and Prospects of Super Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The great progress in super rice breeding both in China and other countries has been made in recent years.However, there were three main problems in super rice breeding: 1) the super rice varieties were still rare; 2) most super rice varieties exhibited narrow adaptability; and 3) current breeding theories emphasized too much on the rice growth model, but they were unpractical in guidance for rice breeding. According to the authors' experience on the rice breeding, the breeding strategies including three steps (super parent breeding, super hybrid rice breeding and super hybrid rice seed production)were proposed, and the objectives of each step and the key technologies to achieve the goals were elucidated in detail. The super parent of hybrid rice should exhibit excellent performance in all agronomic traits, with the yield or sink capacity reached the level of the hybrid rice control in regional trials. The super hybrid rice combination should meet the following criteria: good rice quality, wide adaptation, lodging resistance, resistance to main insects and diseases, and the yield exceeded above 8%over the control varieties in the national and provincial regional trials. To achieve the goal, the technical strategies, such as selecting optimal combination of the parents, increasing selection pressure, paying more attention to harmony of ideal plant type, excellent physiological traits and all the agronomic traits, should be emphasized. The yield of seed production should reach 3.75 t/ha and 5.25 t/ha for the super hybrid rice combinations derived from early-season and middle-season types of male sterile lines, respectively. The main technologies for raising seed production yield included selecting optimum seed production site, using the male sterile line with large sink capacity and good outcrossing characteristics, and improving the amount of the pollen by intensive cultivation of the male parent. According to the technologies of the three-step breeding on super

  14. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of atrazine-tolerant transgenic japonica rice parental lines for utilization in hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luhua; Chen, Haiwei; Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9-7.0% or 0.8-8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0-59.2% or 28.1-30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production.

  15. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of atrazine-tolerant transgenic japonica rice parental lines for utilization in hybrid seed production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.. To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer, and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9-7.0% or 0.8-8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0-59.2% or 28.1-30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production.

  16. Evaluation of the Agronomic Performance of Atrazine-Tolerant Transgenic japonica Rice Parental Lines for Utilization in Hybrid Seed Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9–7.0% or 0.8–8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0–59.2% or 28.1–30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production. PMID:25275554

  17. A new method to identify and improve the purity of hybrid rice with herbicide resistant gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGDanian; ZHANGShunqing; XUERui; HUAZhihua; XIEXiaobo; WANGXiaoling

    1998-01-01

    There is a dose relationship between the hybrid rice production and seed purity, Two-line bybrid rice with bigher beterosis is produced through the hybridization between a photothermo sensitive genetic male sterile (GMS) rice line and a paternat variety, But the fertilety of photo-thermo sensitive GMS rice line is not stable because it changes with the total climate.

  18. IRRI/ADB Project on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Jiming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hybrid rice technology has made a significant progress in recent years in more than twenty rice-growing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided funds for International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to support the project of Sustaining Food Security in Asia through Development of Hybrid Rice Technology 2002-2004 mainly practiced in nine countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  19. ECONOMICS OF RICE PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilizer was the only variable that significantly influenced rice yields on ... cultural production in Ghana (MOFA, 2002), [n 2002, the agricultural sector em- ..... The rapid growth of the population has culminated in undue pressure on agricultural.

  20. Growth and Productivity of Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus

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    Dr. Amanullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha-1 each on the productivity profitability of small land rice (Oryza sativa L. grower under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P ha-1 fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1, impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep & poultry manures and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied as check was investigated. In experiment (2, three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues & wheat straw and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied as check. Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p≤0.05 less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues had resulted in higher rice productivity (90 = 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha-1. In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures. In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic resides had higher rice productivity over wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw. On the average, the rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than the rice grown under crop residues. We concluded from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal manures especially poultry manure could increase rice productivity. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal

  1. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China.

  2. Super Hybrid Rice Breeding in China: Achievements and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Hua Cheng; Li-Yong Cao; Jie-Yun Zhuang; Shen-Guang Chen; Xiao-Deng Zhan; Ye-Yang Fan; De-Feng Zhu; Shao-Kai Min

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid rice has contributed greatly to the self-sufficiency of food supply in China. To meet the future demand for rice production, a national program on super rice breeding was established in China in 1996. The corresponding targets, breeding strategies and most significant advances are reviewed in this paper. New plant type models have been modified to adjust to various rice growing regions. In recognition of the importance of applying parents with intermediate subspecies differentiation in increasing F1 yield, medium type parental lines were selected from populations derived from inter-subspecies crosses with the assistance of DMA markers for subspecies differentiation. Results also indicate that a substantial increase of biomass is the basis for further enhancement of the grain yield potential, and amelioration of leaf characteristics is helpful in increasing the photosynthetic rate. Thirty-four super hybrid rice varieties have been released commercially, growing in a total area of 13.5 million hm2 and producing 6.7 thousand million kg more rice in 1998-2005. Although remarkable progress has been made in super hybrid rice breeding in China, selections on the root system and integration of more biotechnological tools remain a great challenge.

  3. Characterization and Use of Male Sterility in Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoqing Li; Daichang Yang; Yingguo Zhu

    2007-01-01

    The hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding that was initiated in China in the 1970s led to a great improvement in rice productivity. In general, it increases the grain yield by over 20% to the inbred rice varieties, and now hybrid rice has been widely introduced into Africa, Southern Asia and America. These hybrid varieties are generated through either three-line hybrid and two-line hybrid systems; the former is derived from cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and the latter derived from genie male sterility (GMS). There are three major types of CMS (HL, BT and WA) and two types of GMS (photoperiod-sensitive (PGMS) and temperature-sensitive (TGMS)). The BT- and HL-type CMS genes are characterized as orf79and orfH79, which are chimeric toxic genes derived from mitochondrial rearrangement, fffdfor CMS-WA is located on chromosome 1, while Rf1, Rf4, RfSand Rf6 correspond to CMS-BT, CMS-WA and CMS-HL, located on chromosome 10. The Rf1 gene for BT-CMS has been cloned recently, and encodes a mitochondria-targeted PPR protein. PGMS is thought to be controlled by two recessive loci on chromosomes 7 and 12, whereas nine recessive alleles have been identified for TGMS and mapped on different chromosomes. Attention is still urgently needed to resolve the molecular complexity of male sterility to assist rice breeding.

  4. Hybrid sterility in plant: stories from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yidan; Liu, Yao-Guang; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic reproductive isolation in plants. The best-known example is perhaps the hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Major progress has been reported recently in rice in identifying and cloning hybrid sterility genes at two loci regulating female and male fertility, respectively. Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of these genes, together with the results from other model organisms especially Drosophila, have advanced the understanding of the processes underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. These findings also have significant implications for crop genetic improvement, by providing the feasibility and strategies for overcoming intersubspecific hybrid sterility thus allowing the development of intersubspecific hybrids.

  5. Father of Hybrid Rice Plants Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    New joint venture strengthens China’s position against international seed companies Yuan Longping Hi-Tech Agriculture Co.Ltd.(Longping Hi-Tech),named after the father of hybrid rice in China,announced on February 10 the establishment of a joint venture(JV) with a subsidiary of Vilmorin & Cie.

  6. Source-Sink Relationship in Intersubspecific Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-hang; XIANG Xun-chao; HE Li-bin; LI Ping

    2006-01-01

    Three indica restorer lines (Mianhui 725, Shuhui 527, Shuhui 881), an American rice variety Lemont and a javanica rice variety Xiangdali were crossed with japonica Kitaake, and five F1 hybrids were obtained to study the photosynthetic and agronomic traits. The data on photosynthetic characteristics indicated that the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of the five F1 hybrids was significantly higher than that of their parents (or one of them) under high photosynthetic flux density (PFD); while the overall performance of hybrids was better than their respective parents in apparent quantum yield (AQY), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and CO2compensation point (CCP). Moreover, the photosynthetic performance of the five F1 were different due to the variation in heredity and the typical indica-japonica hybrids, Mianhui 725/Kitaake and Shuhui 527/Kitaake, were better than the others on this aspect. The agronomic traits revealed that the five F1 exhibited different heterosis, with Shuhui 881/Kitaake the largest sink followed by Mianhui725/Kitaake, Shuhui 527/Kitaake, Lemont/Kitaake and Xiangdaii/Kitaake. The production potential of indica-japonica hybrids was higher than that of the other two hybrids, which was consistent with the performance of Pn. However, the superior trait of indica-japonica hybrids on sink size has not been fully turned into high yield because of abnormal seed setting. Therefore, attention should be paid to the proper genome coordination and appropriate genetic distance so as to achieve super high yielding.

  7. Forty Years' Development of Hybrid Rice:China's Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang-xian; CHENG Shi-hua; DONG Hai-tao; CAO Li-yong; LI De-bao; YANG Shi-hua; ZHAI Hu-qu

    2004-01-01

    China is the first country where heterosis of hybrid rice was successfully exploited commercially on a large scale in the world. Hybrid rice has been developed for 40 years since Prof. Yuan initiated it in China. It had been planted about 330 million hectares with an increase of nearly 400 million tons of rice during 1976-2002. China's experience on hybrid rice could be attributed to utilization of various cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) resources, high outcrossing rate CMS lines and stable environmentally induced genetic male sterile (EGMS) lines, improvement of diseases resistance and grain quality, and combination of ideal plant type with heterosis in hybrid rice breeding program. Innovative breeding techniques, e.g. improvement in root system, molecular marker-assisted selection and wild hybridization should be considered in further development of hybrid rice in China.

  8. Demonstrative Study of Chinese Hybrid Rice in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thailand is the kingdom of quality rice in the world, and China is the “pilgrimage” place of hybrid rice. There is a very attractive joint in the yield pre dominance of Chinese hybrid rice and the good quality of Thai rice, which maybe start a new agro - eco nomic increasing phase. This kind of cooperation initiate between China National Hybrid Rice Research and Development Center (CNHRRDC) and Charoen Pokphand Seeds Co., Ltd. (C. P. Group) in Thailand 2001. The main results of the program are reported as follows.

  9. Organic Upland Rice Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The upland rice is popular for growing in southern Thailand because this area is the lowland and less area than other sectors. Upland rice is grown as alternative crops of farmers for household consumption which using organic farming method because organic rice seed can be produced by self-production in farmhouse. However, the upland rice is grown under organic farming system. The seeds must originate from plants being grown in compliance with the organic farming rules for at least one generation. There are many factors involving the production of seeds under organic farming system, making the yield low. Thus, the objective of this study on appropriate methods of upland rice seed production under organic farming system in southern Thailand. The results showed that in producing organic seeds, suitable varieties should be selected to suit each area with regular high yield quality. It can be grown in low fertile soil, resist pests and diseases and compete with weeds. The suitable season should be selected for the seed production and the growing areas ought to be in an ecological zone with at least 14-20 mm of 5-day rainfall during the growing cycle. Soil fertility: crop rotation, green manure plants, compost of rice straw and organic manures. For control of disease and insect pests use of resistant or tolerant varieties, plant extracts, natural enemies. The organic seed production of upland rice in southern Thailand, Samduen variety had suitability for recommendation to seed producer in this area because it can provide high growth, yield and seed quality.

  10. Utilization of Aromatic Rice in Improving Grain Quality of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周坤炉; 廖伏明

    2004-01-01

    To improve grain quality of the high-yielding hybrid rice in China, we introduced the aromatic rice MR365. an improve Indian cultivar with aroma and other desirable grain quality characters such as long grain and low chalkiness, from IRRI in 1984 and began to transfer its aroma and good quality characters into the existing maintainer lines with good combining ability but poor grain quality.In the meantime,we also conducted the research on the inheritance of aroma for incerasing the breeding efficiency. Through years of research and breeding practices, two cytoplasmic male sterile(CMS)lines Xiangxiang2 A and Xingxiang A and a series of quasi-aromatic hybrids mated from these aromatic CMS lines have been developed and released for commercial production in China. It was found that the inheritance of aroma in MR365 and its dervatives including Xiangxiang2 A,XinxiangA and Xiang2B S was controlled by one pair of recessive major genes based on the identification of aroma by the KOH-soaking method. We also found that there existed disparity in aroma degree among different grains of F2 generation,and different aromatic CMS lines derived from the same aromatic donor such as Xiangxing2 A and Xinxiang A had also a little difference in the degree of aroma,which implies that,besides the major genes,aroma may also be affected by the genetic backgrounds or minor genes.Xiangxiang 2 A,developed from the cross of V20A//V20B/MR365,is the first aromatic CMS line bred in China. It is not only aromatic but has good grain quality and combining ability. Using it as female parent,Xiangyou 63(Xiangxiang 2A/Minghui 63),the first quasi-aromatic hybrid rice combination in China,was developed and approved to release to farmers in 1995.Xiangyou63 is characteristic of quasi-aromatic or partially aromatic(because only a portion of or NOT ALL grains are aromatic),good grain quality,high-yielding ability, good blast resistance and wide adaptability.However,Xiangiang2 A has an evident drawback

  11. Workable male sterility systems for hybrid rice: Genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Zhong; E, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Hua-Li; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-12-01

    The exploitation of male sterility systems has enabled the commercialization of heterosis in rice, with greatly increased yield and total production of this major staple food crop. Hybrid rice, which was adopted in the 1970s, now covers nearly 13.6 million hectares each year in China alone. Various types of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) systems have been applied in hybrid rice production. In this paper, recent advances in genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology are reviewed with an emphasis on major male sterility systems in rice: five CMS systems, i.e., BT-, HL-, WA-, LD- and CW- CMS, and two EGMS systems, i.e., photoperiod- and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility (P/TGMS). The interaction of chimeric mitochondrial genes with nuclear genes causes CMS, which may be restored by restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. The PGMS, on the other hand, is conditioned by a non-coding RNA gene. A survey of the various CMS and EGMS lines used in hybrid rice production over the past three decades shows that the two-line system utilizing EGMS lines is playing a steadily larger role and TGMS lines predominate the current two-line system for hybrid rice production. The findings and experience gained during development and application of, and research on male sterility in rice not only advanced our understanding but also shed light on applications to other crops.

  12. Preliminary Study on Mechanized Cultivation Technologies of Male Parent in Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice Seed Production%籼粳杂交水稻制种父本机插机收技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆惠斌; 马寅超

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduced the trials and demonstration of male parent machine transplanting and machine harvesting in indica-japonica hybrid rice seed production in Ningbo City about four years. The costs and seed yield of male parent with different cultivation method were analyzed, and put forward the mechanized cultivation techniques of male parent in indica-japonica hybrid rice seed pro-duction.%介绍了宁波市4年来籼粳杂交水稻制种父本机插机收的试验示范情况,分析比较了父本机插机收与人工插种收割的成本和制种产量,提出了杂交水稻父本机插机收的配套栽培技术。

  13. Metabolic prediction of important agronomic traits in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Zhiwu; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo; Huang, Wenchao

    2016-02-24

    Hybrid crops have contributed greatly to improvements in global food and fodder production over the past several decades. Nevertheless, the growing population and changing climate have produced food crises and energy shortages. Breeding new elite hybrid varieties is currently an urgent task, but present breeding procedures are time-consuming and labour-intensive. In this study, parental metabolic information was utilized to predict three polygenic traits in hybrid rice. A complete diallel cross population consisting of eighteen rice inbred lines was constructed, and the hybrids' plant height, heading date and grain yield per plant were predicted using 525 metabolites. Metabolic prediction models were built using the partial least square regression method, with predictive abilities ranging from 0.858 to 0.977 for the hybrid phenotypes, relative heterosis, and specific combining ability. Only slight changes in predictive ability were observed between hybrid populations, and nearly no changes were detected between reciprocal hybrids. The outcomes of prediction of the three highly polygenic traits demonstrated that metabolic prediction was an accurate (high predictive abilities) and efficient (unaffected by population genetic structures) strategy for screening promising superior hybrid rice. Exploitation of this pre-hybridization strategy may contribute to rice production improvement and accelerate breeding programs.

  14. Utilization of aromatic rice in improving grain quality of hybrid rice(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Xiangxiang 2A has an evident drawback, i.e., instability in male sterility under higher temperature conditionsresulting from the existence of minor restoring genes in it, which greatly hampered the extension of its elite hybrid Xiangyou63 with both high yield and fine quality in commercial production.To improve Xiangxiang 2A, the hybridization of Xiangxiang 2B with V20 B was made again in 1990. A new aromaticCMS line Xinxiang A was successfully developed in 1994. It not only retains the favorable characteristics of Xiangxiang 2Ain grain quality and combining ability, but also expresses complete and stable male sterility and high seed production yieldpotential. Up to now, by using it as female parent, a series of quasi-aromatic hybrids have been developed. Some of themhave been released to farmers. Because such hybrids can not only yield higher or as high as but also possess a bettergrain quality than the current common high-yielding hybrid rice varieties, so that they are preferred and well welcome bythe farmers in China. The planting area under these hybrids is increasing rapidly in China.

  15. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  16. Performance of super hybrid rice cultivars grown under no-tillage and direct seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Good progress has been made in the super hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. breeding in China. However, rice yield not only depends on the genetic characteristics but also on the agronomic practices. No-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS is a simplified cultivation technology that greatly simplifies both land preparation and crop establishment. Aiming to determine the grain yield performance of super hybrid rice under NTDS and to identify critical factors that determine grain yield, field experiments were conducted in Nanxian, Hunan Province, China in 2009 and 2010. Two super hybrid cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu and Y-liangyou 1, were grown under conventional tillage and transplanting (CTTP and NTDS. Grain yield, yield components, biomass production, crop growth rate and biomass accumulation during sowing to heading (HD and HD to maturity were measured for each cultivar. There was no difference in grain yield under NTDS and CTTP. However, grain yield differed with cultivar and year. Y-liangyou 1 produced 4 % higher grain yield than Liangyoupeijiu in 2009, whereas in 2010 both cultivars yielded similarly. Grain yields of both cultivars were higher in 2009 than in 2010. Higher grain yield of Y-liangyou 1 in 2009 was associated with higher spikelet filling (spikelet filling percentage and grain weight, which resulted from higher biomass production. Crop growth rate after HD was critical for biomass production by the super hybrid rice. We suggest that increasing the crop growth rate after HD is an effective approach to increase grain yield of super hybrid rice under NTDS.

  17. Increasing yield potential of hybrid rice through molecular breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Qiyun; Yuan Longping; Liang Fengshan; Zhuang Wen; Li Jiming; Wang Yueguang; Duan Meijuan; Xiong Yuedong; Wang Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world population. The utilization of the wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in 1970s has significantly raised rice yield potential. But the world's annual rice production will have to increase 70 percent over the next 30 years, to keep up with the demends of the growing population.

  18. Advances in the understanding of inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and wide-compatibility in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG YiDan; CHEN JiongJiong; DING JiHua; ZHANG QiFa

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid sterility is a major form of postzygotic reproductive isolation and frequently occurs in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). It has been a major barrier for utilization of the strong heterosis expressed in hybrids between indica and japonica. A large number of loci for rice inter-subspecific hybrid sterility have been identified by genetic analysis. Cytological studies revealed that male and female gamete abortions and reduced affinity between the uniting gametes all occurred in indica-japonica hybrids, suggesting the complexity of the causes for inter-subspecific hybrid sterility. Two genes conditioning embryo-sac and pollen sterility respectively in indica-japonica hybrids have been cloned recently, providing opportunities for molecular characterization of the indica-japonica hybrid sterility and wide-compatibility. Future studies should aim at cloning more genes for indica-japonica hybrid sterility, characterizing the underlying molecular mechanism, and utilization of the findings for the development of inter-subspecific hybrids to increase rice productivity.

  19. Research and Application of High-yield Seed Production Techniques of Hybrid Rice in Ecuador%杂交水稻在厄瓜多尔的高产制种技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚志明

    2011-01-01

    The key techniques of seed production of hybrid rice in Ecuador, such as performance of parents' characters, sowing method of female parent, sowing quantity of parents, CA3 dosage, were researched. The results showed that the optimum key techniques are as follows: direct sowing of female parent, sowing quantity of female parent by 45~50 kg/hm2, GA3 dosage with 600~750 g/hm2. Meanwhile, applying this experimental results in field seed production, it successfully supports the high-yield seed production technique of chinese hybrid rice in Ecuador.%对杂交水稻在厄瓜多尔制种的亲本特性表现、母本播种方式、亲本用种量、GA、用量等关键技术进行了研究,确定了采用母本直播方式、母本用种量45~50 kg/hm3、GA3适宜用量600-750 g/hm2等技术要点,并将试验成果应用于大田制种,成功配套了中国杂交水稻在厄瓜多尔的高产制种技术.

  20. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  1. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  2. Review and Prospect on Japonica Hybrid Rice Research in Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-quan; WANG Shou-hai; WANG De-zheng; LUO Yan-chang; ZHANG Pei-jiang; WU Shuang; DU Shi-yun; XU Chuan-wan

    2005-01-01

    The breeding history and commercial exploitation of japonica hybrid rice in Anhui Province, China over the last threedecades were reviewed. Besides, the bottleneck problems restricting the development of japonica hybrid rice in China weresummarized, and corresponding technological countermeasures were proposed.

  3. 辽宁杂交粳稻育种有关问题探讨%On the Problems in Japonica Hybrid Rice Breeding in Liaoning On the Problems in Japonica Hybrid Rice Breeding in Liaoning On the Problems in Japonica Hybrid Rice Breeding in Liaoning On the Problems in Japonica Hybrid Rice Breeding in Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华泽田; 王彦荣; 王岩; 蔡伟; 代贵金; 郝宪彬

    2001-01-01

    针对目前北方杂交粳稻发展中存在的问题,笔者结合自己多年的育种实践,提出了杂交粳稻育种的研究方向和技术路线。%In view of the existing problems in the development of japonica hybrid rice in Northern China, the authors proposed the research orientation and technical approaches for japonica hybrid rice breeding on the basis of the breeding practices of many years. a) Correctly understand and utilize heterosis in rice. By way of raising yield potential of both parents and making use of the additive effects of genes to increase the standard heterosis of F1 hybrids; To improve grain quality of F1 hybrids, the breeding of quality parents should be intensified because of the negative heterosis in some grain quality characters. b) Ideal plant type should be paid more attention to in japonica hybrid rice breeding. The plant types of both parents should be favourable not only to a full play of F1 heterosis but also to hybrid seed production. c) Explore new germplasms such as japonica male sterile lines with dominant semi-dwarf genes and transgenic herbicide-resistant japonica restorer and enhance the use of them.

  4. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yun CHEN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed, including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification, the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production. In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines, four types, including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS, were proposed. A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed. The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones. The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer. In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines, the characterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward. The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  5. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-yun; LEI Dong-yang; TANG Wen-bang; XIAO Ying-hui

    2011-01-01

    The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed,including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification,the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production.In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines,four types,including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice),TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice),reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS,were proposed.A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed.The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones.The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer.In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines,the charecterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward.The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  6. Machine Vision Analysis of Characteristics and Image Information Base Construction for Hybrid Rice Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Incompletely closed glumes, germination on panicle and disease ara thrae important factors causing poor seed quality of hybrid rice. To determine how many and which categories should be classified to meet the demand for seed in rice production, the effects of various degrees of incompletely closed glumes, germination on panicle and disease on germination percentage at the harvest and after storage for six months were studied by standard germination percentage test. Six categories of seeds with germ (germinated seeds), severe disease, incompletely closed glumes, spot disease, fine fissure and normal seeds were inspected and then treated separately. Images of the five hybrid rice seed (Jinyou 402, Shanyou 10, Zhongyou 27, Jiayou 99 and Ⅱ you 3207) were acquired with a self-developed machine vision system. Each image could be processed to get the feature values of seed region such as length, width, ratio of length to width, araa, solidity and hue. Then all the images of normal seeds were calculated to draw the feature value ranges of each hybrid rice variety. Finally, an image information base that stores typical images and related feature values of each variety was established. This image information base can help us to identify the classification limit of characteristics, and provide the reference of the threshold selection. The management of large numbers of pictures and the addition of new varieties have been supported. The research laid a foundation for extracting image features of hybrid rice seed, which is a key approach to futura quality inspection with machine vision.

  7. Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Liu-qing; JIANG Yun-zhu; LU Li-xiang; LIN Hai; PANG Qian-lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Vietnam’s climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.%This paper introduces Vietnam's climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.

  8. Preliminary studies on rice quality of japonica-indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhenyu; ZHANGYunkang; WUJianli

    1997-01-01

    It has been proved that high yield combinations can be obtained via hybridization between indica and japonica rice. However, people have worried about the quality of this kind of rice for a long time. Our researches were mainly based on the mating pattern of “japonica male sterile line/indica restorer line” to generate and select elite japonicalinous crosses. Ricequality is shown in table 1 and 2.

  9. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1).

  10. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  11. Breeding for Parents of Hybrid Rice with Maize pepc Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-zheng; WANG Xiu-feng; JIAO De-mao; WU Shuang; LI Xia; LI Li; CHI Wei; WANG Shou-hai; LI Cheng-quan; LUO Yan-chang

    2002-01-01

    The results of the investigation on transgenic rice with maize C4-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc) gene showed that the transgenic rice plants with the maize pepc gene expressed at high level and the maize PEPC expression was inherited in the progenies in a Mendelian manner. The transgenic plants had PEPC activity of more than 10-fold higher than untransformed plants. As compared with untransformed plants, the panicle per plant, spikelet per panicle, 1000-grain weight and grain-weight per plant for transgenic plants increased by 14.9 %, 5.7%, 1.3 % and 13.9 %, respectively. By crossing the maize pepc gene was incorporated into the parents of hybrid rice, which were the photo-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS)lines of two-line hybrid rice such as Peiai64s, 7001s, 2302s, 2304s and 2306s-1, and the BT type of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line of three-line hybrid rice such as Shuangjiu A, and restorer lines 5129, Wanjing97 in the spring of 1998. The following progresses were made: (1) The inheritance of the high-level expression of the maize PEPC was stable in different genetic background of rice; (2) PEPC activity of F1 hybrid was the mean of the two parents. Its saturated photosynthetic rate (Pn) rose to 50 % higher than that of the receptor parent. These results demonstrated that it is possible to increase the vigor of the rice plant by transgenic approach with maize pepc gene; (3) The activity of PEPC in leaf could be considered as the major physiological index because the correlation coefficient between PEPC activity and Pn was 0.6470 * *; (4) We have developed three rice lines with maize pepc gene; (5) The selection method of high photosynthetic efficiency rice has been established, which includes soaking seeds into solution of hygromycin phosphotransferase to germinate, tracing the pepc gene by PCR analysis, evaluating the performance of the rice plants in the field and examining PEPC activities and Pn of rice plants with maize pepc gene.

  12. Use of Chinese hybrid rice with modified SRI in Guinea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Jiming; Wang Xuehua

    2003-01-01

    @@ Guinea is one of the nations in West Africa where riceis an important and main staple food for the people. Its riceaverage yield is only 1.5 tons per hectare, however, muchlower than those in the rest of the world. With the increaseof the population, the shortfall in rice production becomesmore and more serious. Therefore, it is very important toincrease the rice yield.

  13. Weedy (red) rice: an emerging constraint to global rice production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziska, L.H.; Gealy, D.R.; Burgos, N.; Caicedo, A.L.; Gressel, J.; Lawton-Rauh, A.L.; Avila, L.A.; Theisen, G.; Norsworthy, J.; Ferrero, A.; Vidotto, F.; Johnson, D.E.; Ferreira, F.G.; Marchesan, E.; Menezes, V.; Cohn, M.A.; Linscombe, S.; Carmona, L.; Tang, R.; Merotto, A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing increases in the human population necessitate that rice will continue to be a critical aspect of food security for the twenty-first century. While production must increase in the coming decades to meet demand, such increases will be accompanied by diminished natural resources and rising

  14. Hybrid Rice Research and Development in China and Its New Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid rice's history and its development up to date are described in the paper. Compared with the conventional rice, hybrid rice can increase grain yield by about 20%. Hybrid rice breeding in China has been advancing along the three-line method, to two-line method, to super high-yielding rice application strategically and its success in higher degree will be seen by the utilization of distant heterosis cooperated with biotechnology.

  15. Water-wise Rice Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, B.A.M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Hardy, B.; Bindraban, P.S.; Tuong, T.P.; Ladha, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Rice is a profligate user of water. It takes 3,000–5,000 liters to produce 1 kilogram of rice, which is about 2 to 3 times more than to produce 1 kilogram of other cereals such as wheat or maize. Until recently, this amount of water has been taken for granted. Now, however, the water crisis

  16. Adoption of recommended rice production practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption of recommended rice production practices among women rice farmers in Nasarawa State, ... Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Also, buy-back arrangement should be introduced in order to ensure good pricing for rice producers.

  17. A Set of SCAR Markers Efficiently Differentiating Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-jing; XIE Hong-wei; QIAN Ming-juan; CHEN Guang-hui; LI Shao-qing; ZHU Ying-guo

    2012-01-01

    Molecular markers have been widely used in crop genetic improvement,seed test and genetic mapping.Of which,sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers are particularly popular for its diversity,stable reproducibility,and suitability for analyzing large number of samples.In this study,500 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were tested,and a set of SCAR markers comprising 37 pairs of loci-specific primers were developed from the DNA fragments ranging from 300 to 1000 bp which correspond to the stable,distinctive RAPD banding patterns.Using these SCAR markers,59 hybrid rice combinations were assessed and distinguished into 58 subgroups at the similarity coefficient of 0.97 in a genetic clustering tree based on the allele diversities of the SCAR markers.Furthermore,13 hybrid rice combinations were reassayed with 40 randomly selected simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to evaluate the effectiveness of these SCAR markers.SSR markers produced similar results to SCAR markers as the 13 hybrid rice combinations were completely separated at the similarity coefficient of 0.91 in the clustering tree established from SSR patterns.Taken together,SCAR markers prove to be effective tools for identifying and differentiating hybrid rice combinations.

  18. A Set of SCAR Markers Efficiently Differentiating Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-jing LI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers have been widely used in crop genetic improvement, seed test and genetic mapping. Of which, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR markers are particularly popular for its diversity, stable reproducibility, and suitability for analyzing large number of samples. In this study, 500 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers were tested, and a set of SCAR markers comprising 37 pairs of loci-specific primers were developed from the DNA fragments ranging from 300 to 1000 bp which correspond to the stable, distinctive RAPD banding patterns. Using these SCAR markers, 59 hybrid rice combinations were assessed and distinguished into 58 subgroups at the similarity coefficient of 0.97 in a genetic clustering tree based on the allele diversities of the SCAR markers. Furthermore, 13 hybrid rice combinations were reassayed with 40 randomly selected simple sequence repeat (SSR markers to evaluate the effectiveness of these SCAR markers. SSR markers produced similar results to SCAR markers as the 13 hybrid rice combinations were completely separated at the similarity coefficient of 0.91 in the clustering tree established from SSR patterns. Taken together, SCAR markers prove to be effective tools for identifying and differentiating hybrid rice combinations.

  19. Performance of Hybrids between Weedy Rice and Insect-resistant Transgenic Rice under Field Experiments: Implication for Environmental Biosafety Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-Jin Cao; Hui Xia; Xiao Yang; Bao-Rong Lu

    2009-01-01

    Transgene escape from genetically modified (GM) rice Into weedy rice via gene flow may cause undesired environmental consequences. Estimating the field performance of crop-weed hybrids will facilitate our understanding of potential introgression of crop genes (including transgenes) into weedy rice populations, allowing for effective biosafety assessment. Comparative studies of three weedy rice strains and their hybrids with two GM rice lines containing different insect-resistance transgenes (CpTl or BtlCpTI) indicated an enhanced relative performance of the crop-weed hybrids, with taller plants, more tillers, panicles, and spikelets per plant, as well as higher 1000-seed weight, compared with the weedy rice parents, although the hybrids produced less filled seeds per plant than their weedy parents. Seeds from the F1 hybrids had higher germination rates and produced more seedlings than the weedy parents, which correlated positively with 1000-seed weight. The crop-weed hybrids demonstrated a generally enhanced relative performance than their weedy rice parents in our field experiments. These findings indicate that transgenes from GM rice can persist to and introgress into weedy rice populations through recurrent crop-to-weed gene flow with the aid of slightly increased relative fitness in F1 hybrids.

  20. Comparisons of yield performance and nitrogen response between hybrid and inbred rice under different ecological conditions in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Peng; XIONG Hong; ZOU Ying-bin; XIE Xiao-bing; HUANG Min; ZHOU Xue-feng; ZHANG Rui-chun; CHEN Jia-na; WU Dan-dan; XIA Bing; XU Fu-xian

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the yield performance and nitrogen (N) response of hybrid rice under different ecological conditions in southern China, ifeld experiments were conducted in Huaiji County of Guangdong Province, Binyang of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Changsha City of Hunan Province, southern China in 2011 and 2012. Two hybrid (Liangyoupeijiu and Y-liangyou 1) and two inbred rice cultivars (Yuxiangyouzhan and Huanghuazhan) were grown under three N treatments (N1, 225 kg ha–1;N2, 112.5–176 kg ha–1;N3, 0 kg ha–1) in each location. Results showed that grain yield was higher in Changsha than in Huaiji and Binyang for both hybrid and inbred cultivars. The higher grain yield in Changsha was attribut-ed to larger panicle size (spikelets per panicle) and higher biomass production. Consistently higher grain yield in hybrid than in inbred cultivars was observed in Changsha but not in Huaiji and Binyang. Higher grain weight and higher biomass production were responsible for the higher grain yield in hybrid than in inbred cultivars in Changsha. The better crop perfor-mance of rice (especial y hybrid cultivars) in Changsha was associated with its temperature conditions and indigenous soil N. N2 had higher internal N use efifciency, recovery efifciency of applied N, agronomic N use efifciency, and partial factor productivity of applied N than N1 for both hybrid and inbred cultivars, while the difference in grain yield between N1 and N2 was relatively smal . Our study suggests that whether hybrid rice can outyield inbred rice to some extent depends on the ecological conditions, and N use efifciency can be increased by using improved nitrogen management such as site-speciifc N management in both hybrid and inbred rice production.

  1. Practice and Thought on Developing Hybrid Rice for Super High Yield by Exploiting Inter-subspecific Heterosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Since the breakthrough of grain yield owing to the development of dwarf rice and three-line system hybrid rice, rice breeding for high yield hardly had showed significant progress in the next successive two decades. It was considered that utilizing heterosis between subspecific varieties (Oryza sativa L.) would be an effective approach to increase yield further. During 1987-1993,an indica-japonica hybrid Yayou 2 yielded as high as 10.5 t/ha; however, it failed to be commercialized because of seed purity problem due to non-uniform emasculation by chemical agent in seed production, and sensitivity of seed setting in F1 plants to environmental conditions. In the past decade, two inter-subspeific hybrids, Liangyoupeijiu (Peiai 64S/9311, javanica/indica) and Liangyou E32 (Peiai 64S/E32, javanica/japonica); both of them exhibited grain yield higher than 10.5 t/ha, and were widely judged as the pioneers of super hybrid rice. Liangyoupeijiu has been successfully popularized over 4 million hectare in wide climatic areas, while Liangyou E32 made a yield record and offered a model of plant ideotype for super hybrid rice. It was considered that in combination with plant ideotype, active physiological functions, and wide-range adaptability to ecological conditions, exploitation of indica-japonica heterosis would be the key approach for super hybrid rice breeding.

  2. Comparative genome research between maize and rice using genomic in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using the genomic DNAs of maize and rice as probes respectively,the homology of maize and rice genomes was assessed by genomic in situ hybridization. When rice genomic DNAs were hybridized to maize, all chromosomes displayed many multiple discrete regions, while each rice chromosome delineated a single consecutive chromosomal region after they were hybridized with maize genomic DNAs. The results indicate that the genomes of maize and rice share high homology, and confirm the proposal that maize and rice are diverged from a common ancestor.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of carbon-silica hybrid catalyst from rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Safie, N. N.; Siambun, N. J.

    2016-07-01

    The hybrid-carbon catalyst has been studied because of its promising potential to have high porosity and surface area to be used in biodiesel production. Silica has been used as the support to produce hybrid carbon catalyst due to its mesoporous structure and high surface area properties. The chemical synthesis of silica-carbon hybrid is expensive and involves more complicated preparation steps. The presence of natural silica in rice plants especially rice husk has received much attention in research because of the potential as a source for solid acid catalyst synthesis. But study on rice straw, which is available abundantly as agricultural waste is limited. In this study, rice straw undergone pyrolysis and functionalized using fuming sulphuric acid to anchor -SO3H groups. The presence of silica and the physiochemical properties of the catalyst produced were studied before and after sulphonation. The catalytic activity of hybrid carbon silica acid catalyst, (H-CSAC) in esterification of oleic acid with methanol was also studied. The results showed the presence of silica-carbon which had amorphous structure and highly porous. The carbon surface consisted of higher silica composition, had lower S element detected as compared to the surface that had high carbon content but lower silica composition. This was likely due to the fact that Si element which was bonded to oxygen was highly stable and unlikely to break the bond and react with -SO3H ions. H-CSAC conversions were 23.04 %, 35.52 % and 34.2 7% at 333.15 K, 343.15 K and 353.15 K, respectively. From this research, rice straw can be used as carbon precursor to produce hybrid carbon-silica catalyst and has shown catalytic activity in biodiesel production. Rate equation obtained is also presented.

  4. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-28

    Because rice feeds half of the world's population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one "rice-fish system" (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers' net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  5. Fine mapping of a gene causing hybrid pollen sterility between Yunnan weedy rice and cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and phylogenetic analysis of Yunnan weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhong, Zheng Zheng; Zhao, Zhi Gang; Jiang, Ling; Bian, Xiao Feng; Zhang, Wen Wei; Liu, Ling Long; Ikehashi, H; Wan, Jian Min

    2010-02-01

    Weedy rice represents an important resource for rice improvement. The F(1) hybrid between the japonica wide compatibility rice cultivar 02428 and a weedy rice accession from Yunnan province (SW China) suffered from pollen sterility. Pollen abortion in the hybrid occurred at the early bicellular pollen stage, as a result of mitotic failure in the microspore, although the tapetum developed normally. Genetic mapping in a BC(1)F(1) population (02428//Yunnan weedy rice (YWR)/02428) showed that a major QTL for hybrid pollen sterility (qPS-1) was present on chromosome 1. qPS-1 was fine-mapped to a 110 kb region known to contain the hybrid pollen sterility gene Sa, making it likely that qPS-1 is either identical to, or allelic with Sa. Interestingly, F(1) hybrid indicated that Dular and IR36 were assumed to carry the sterility-neutral allele, Sa ( n ). Re-sequencing SaM and SaF, the two component genes present at Sa, suggested that variation for IR36 and Dular may be responsible for the loss of male sterility, and the qPS-1 sequence might be derived from wild rice or indica cultivars. A phylogenetic analysis based on microsatellite genotyping suggested that the YWR accession is more closely related to wild rice and indica type cultivars than to japonica types. Thus it is probable that the YWR accession evolved from a spontaneous hybrid between wild rice and an ancient cultivated strain of domesticated rice.

  6. High-yielding Seed Production Techniques for Two-line Good Quality Hybrid Rice Combination Y Liangyou 5866 Planted as Post-tobacco Rice%优质两系杂交稻Y两优5866烟后高产制种技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄邵荣

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we introduced the parent,s characteristics of two-line good quality hybrid rice Y Liangyou 5866. At the same time, this paper also summarized the rice high-yielding seed production technology planted as post-tobacco rice, which contained reasonable arrangements for the parents of the sowing gap stage, cultivating more tillers seedlings, scientific field management, integrated pest management, create the parents of high yield population, scientific spraying “920”, improve the outcrossing rate, strictly to miscellaneous go bad, ensure the seed quality and so on several aspects.%介绍了优质两系杂交水稻Y两优5866亲本的特征特性,结合3a制种实践,总结其烟后高产制种技术:合理安排父母本播种差期,培育多蘖壮秧、科学田管、综合防治病虫、创建父母本高产群体,科学喷施“九二○”、提高异交结实率,严格去杂去劣、确保种子质量等几个环节。

  7. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyda Chhinh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu and (i damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI. In seven of the years between 1994 and 2006 droughts damaged >1000 ha of rice in the Kampong Speu province. Furthermore, in 11 years >200 ha of rice were damaged. A critical success index of 0.66 obtained for an analysis of SPI-defined drought and area rice damage in the province indicates a strong statistical relationship. A statistically significant correlation (r = −0.455 was achieved between Niño 3.4 and 12-month SPI values lagged by three months, this indicates the importance of ENSO linkages in explaining drought in this region. Late season droughts lead to greater rice damage than early- and mid-season droughts.

  8. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  9. Resistance Evaluation of Some Hybrid Rice, Conventional Early Indica and Late Japonica Rice to Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ying; Adreit Henry; ZHU Xu-dong; Milazzo Joelle; CHEN Hong-qi; Tharreau Didier

    2003-01-01

    Thirty isolates of Magnaporthe grisea collected from 18 provinces/cities representing 21 pathotypes and 9 different lineages were inoculated to rice varieties with known resistance genes and some hybrid rices,conventional early indica and late japonica varieties cultivated recently in China.Virulence spectrum of the 30 isolates was very different,showing that they recognize numerous different resistance genes.Varieties also revealed very different resistance patterns showing that they carry different resistance genes or combinations of resistance genes.On the basis of comparisons with international differential varieties with known resistance genes,resistance genes in certain Chinese varieties could be speculated.The results indicated that some of them were resistant to most of the isolates tested and that they could be of interest as resistance sources for hybrid parents or to be planted in the field directly.

  10. Molecular Breeding of Rice Restorer Lines and Hybrids for Brown Planthopper (BPH) Resistance Using the Bph14 and Bph15 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Ye, Shengtuo; Mou, Tongmin

    2016-12-01

    The development of hybrid rice is a practical approach for increasing rice production. However, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, causes severe yield loss of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and can threaten food security. Therefore, breeding hybrid rice resistant to BPH is the most effective and economical strategy to maintain high and stable production. Fortunately, numerous BPH resistance genes have been identified, and abundant linkage markers are available for molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs. Hence, we pyramided two BPH resistance genes, Bph14 and Bph15, into a susceptive CMS restorer line Huahui938 and its derived hybrids using MAS to improve the BPH resistance of hybrid rice. Three near-isogenic lines (NILs) with pyramided Bph14 and Bph15 were obtained by molecular marker-assisted backcross (MAB) and phenotypic selection. The genomic components of these NILs were detected using the whole-genome SNP (Single nucleotide polymorphism) array, RICE6K, suggesting that the recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery of the NILs was 87.88, 87.70 and 86.62 %, respectively. BPH bioassays showed that the improved NILs and their derived hybrids carrying homozygous Bph14 and Bph15 were resistant to BPH. However, the hybrids with heterozygous Bph14 and Bph15 remained susceptible to BPH. The developed NILs showed no significant differences in major agronomic traits and rice qualities compared with the recurrent parent. Moreover, the improved hybrids derived from the NILs exhibited better agronomic performance and rice quality compared with the controls under natural field conditions. This study demonstrates that it is essential to stack Bph14 and Bph15 into both the maternal and paternal parents for developing BPH-resistant hybrid rice varieties. The SNP array with abundant DNA markers is an efficient tool for analyzing the RPG recovery of progenies and can be used to monitor the donor segments in NILs, thus being extremely important

  11. A New High-Yielding Two-line Hybrid Rice Variety - Peiliang You 981

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Peiliang You 981 (also called 98 Guangzhi 1 or Peiliang You Guangzhi 1) is a late-season two-line indica hybrid rice variety with high yield and late maturity. Pei'ai 64S is the female parent and R981 (Guang 1) is the male parent of Peiliang You 981. The hybrid showed its characters of high and stable yield and wide adaptability in the variety trials and demonstration production in the recent years, and it was released in March 2002 by Hunan Crop Varieties Release Committee.

  12. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  13. Homestyle quick-cooking rice meal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Basman, Irenei Camila V; Tinsay, Cathrina B; Tasarra, Christy G

    2002-01-01

    The study developed processes for quick-cooking rice meal products (QCRMP) paella and bringhe originally based on homestyle recipes. These QCRMPs consisted of basal quick-cooking waxy Malagkit Sungsong and non-waxy irrigated rice (IR) 42 Philippine rice cultivars, dehydrated vegetables, textured vegetable proteins (TVPs) as meat analogs, and seasonings. The rehydrated QCRMP paella and bringhe were found to be more acceptable than their conventionally prepared counterparts at 5% level of significance based on results of sensory acceptability evaluation by 50 consumer panelists. Improvement of the sensory attributes of the QCRMPs was ascribed to the use of alternate concentrates and powdered ingredients which imparted more intense flavors to the developed products than their fresh counterparts.

  14. Recent Advances in Development of Herbicide Resistant Transgenic Hybrid Rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Guo-ying

    2009-01-01

    In addition to weed control in direct seeding field of hybrid rice, herbicide resistance genes were used by Chinese scientists to increase and identify the purity of hybrid seeds, and to realize the mechanization of hybrid seed production. The elite restorer lines, such as Minghui 63, R752, T461, R402, D68 and E32 were transformed directly with herbicide resistance genes, in which D68 and E32 are restorer lines of two-line system and the others are of three-line system. Because almost all of important restorer lines are indica varieties and are recalcitrant in transformation, many herbicide resistant near-isogenic restorer lines were developed by sexual hybridization of indica and japonica varieties and backcross with indica restorer lines later, such as Ce 64, Minghui 63, Teqing, Milyang 46, R402 and 9311, in which 9311 is a restorer line of two-line system. The elite photoperiod-sensitive/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines, such as Pei'ai 64S, P88S, 4008S and 7001S, were transformed with herbicide resistance genes. A few herbicide resistant male sterile lines were developed through sexual hybridization and subsequently systemic selection, such as Bar1259S, Bar2172S, 05Z221A and 05Z227A. With the employment of herbicide resistant male sterile lines or herbicide resistant restorer lines, a few herbicide resistant hybrid rice combinations were developed, such as Xiang 125S/Bar 68-1 and Pei'ai 64S/Bar 9311. Based on herbicide resistance, the research was marching on to investigate the parental lines of hybrid rice with insect resistance, drought tolerance, etc.

  15. Character Association And Path Analysis in Inter-Racial Hybrids in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gunasekaran*, N. Nadarajan and S.V.S.R.K. Netaji

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the correlation of the traits and their relative direct and indirect effects on yield are important, as they arehelpful to adopt suitable selection procedure for yield improvement in inter-racial breeding programmes. In the present study,15 wide compatible genotypes (11 tropical japonicas and four indicas were crossed with six non-wide compatible genotypes(three each of indicas and japonicas and 90 hybrids were obtained. With an emphasis on inter sub-specific hybrids, the 90hybrids obtained as above were classified into four types viz., i tropical japonica (11 x indica (3 type hybrids (33, iitropical japonica (11 x japonica (3 type hybrids (33, iii indica (4 x indica (3 type hybrids (12 and iv indica (4 xjaponica (3 type hybrids (12. All the four types of hybrids were evaluated separately in Randomized Complete Block Designwith two replications. The findings, in general for all the four types of cross combinations, suggested that productive tillersfollowed by filled grains per panicle and 100 grain weight are the important characters to bring about the improvement inyield potential of rice. The productive tillers attains importance as it is easier to record and simultaneously will increase filledgrains thereby the grain yield.

  16. Selection of wide compatible restorer lines and their application in hybrid rice breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEXiaoba; ZHANGShanqing; FANGHongming

    1997-01-01

    Since the middle of 1980's, wide compatibility(WC) rice lines have been screened by rice breeders in China and applied in hybrid rice breeding program. Several WC fines such as Pecos, T984, Lunhui 422, and 02428 withideal agronomic characters were identified.

  17. Physiological superiority of root system of inter-subspecific hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Physiology of root system, especially root system activity,is a very important physiological trait of rice, which directly affects rice growth and development of the aerial parts and yield. Inter-subspecific hybrid rice IIyou 2070and Ilyou 419, as well as their restorer lines 2070 and Zhong419, were used to study physiological traits of rice root system. Three years research indicated that in ter-subspecific hybrid rice had root systems of physiological superiority. Results were briefly showed as the follows:

  18. Improving the phenotypic expression of rice genotypes:Rethinking“intensification”for production systems and selection practices for rice breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norman Uphoff; Vasilia Fasoula; Anas Iswandi; Amir Kassam; Amod K. Thakure

    2015-01-01

    Intensification in rice crop production is generally understood as requiring increased use of material inputs: water, inorganic fertilizers, and agrochemicals. However, this is not the only kind of intensification available. More productive crop phenotypes, with traits such as more resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and shorter crop cycles, are possible through modifications in the management of rice plants, soil, water, and nutrients, reducing rather than increasing material inputs. Greater factor productivity can be achieved through the application of new knowledge and more skill, and (initially) more labor, as seen from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), whose practices are used in various combinations by as many as 10 million farmers on about 4 million hectares in over 50 countries. The highest yields achieved with these management methods have come from hybrids and improved rice varieties, confirming the importance of making genetic improvements. However, unimproved varieties are also responsive to these changes, which induce better growth and functioning of rice root systems and more abundance, diversity, and activity of beneficial soil organisms. Some of these organisms as symbiotic endophytes can affect and enhance the expression of rice plants' genetic potential as well as their phenotypic resilience to multiple stresses, including those of climate change. SRI experience and data suggest that decades of plant breeding have been selecting for the best crop genetic endowments under suboptimal growing conditions, with crowding of plants that impedes their photosynthesis and growth, flooding of rice paddies that causes roots to degenerate and forgoes benefits derived from aerobic soil organisms, and overuse of agrochemicals that adversely affect these organisms as well as soil and human health. This review paper reports evidence from research in India and Indonesia that changes in crop and water management can improve the expression of rice

  19. Improving the phenotypic expression of rice genotypes: Rethinking “intensification” for production systems and selection practices for rice breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensification in rice crop production is generally understood as requiring increased use of material inputs: water, inorganic fertilizers, and agrochemicals. However, this is not the only kind of intensification available. More productive crop phenotypes, with traits such as more resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and shorter crop cycles, are possible through modifications in the management of rice plants, soil, water, and nutrients, reducing rather than increasing material inputs. Greater factor productivity can be achieved through the application of new knowledge and more skill, and (initially more labor, as seen from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, whose practices are used in various combinations by as many as 10 million farmers on about 4 million hectares in over 50 countries. The highest yields achieved with these management methods have come from hybrids and improved rice varieties, confirming the importance of making genetic improvements. However, unimproved varieties are also responsive to these changes, which induce better growth and functioning of rice root systems and more abundance, diversity, and activity of beneficial soil organisms. Some of these organisms as symbiotic endophytes can affect and enhance the expression of rice plants' genetic potential as well as their phenotypic resilience to multiple stresses, including those of climate change. SRI experience and data suggest that decades of plant breeding have been selecting for the best crop genetic endowments under suboptimal growing conditions, with crowding of plants that impedes their photosynthesis and growth, flooding of rice paddies that causes roots to degenerate and forgoes benefits derived from aerobic soil organisms, and overuse of agrochemicals that adversely affect these organisms as well as soil and human health. This review paper reports evidence from research in India and Indonesia that changes in crop and water management can improve the

  20. Utilization of Aromatic Rice in Improving Grain Quality of Hybrid Rice (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To improve grain quality of the high-yielding hybrid rice in China, we introduced the aromatic rice MR365, an improved Indian cultivar, from IRRI in 1984 and began to transfer its aroma and good quality characters into the existing maintainer lines. In the meantime, the research on the inheritance of aroma for increasing the breeding efficiency was also conducted.It was found that the inheritance of aroma in MR 365 and its derivatives was controlled by one pair of recessive major genes based on the KOH-soaking method. There existed disparity in aroma degree among different grains of F2 generation, and different aromatic CMS lines derived from the same aromatic donor had also a little difference in the degree of aroma, which implies that, besides the major genes, aroma may also be affected by the genetic backgrounds or minor genes.Xiangxiang 2A, developed from the cross of V20A//V20B/MR365, is the first aromatic CMS line bred in China. It is not only aromatic but also has good grain quality and combining ability. Using it as female parent, Xiangyou 63 (Xiangxiang 2A / Minghui 63), the first quasi-aromatic hybrid rice combination in China, was developed, and released to farmers in 1995. Xiangyou 63 is characteristic of quasi-aromatic or partially aromatic (because only a portion of or not all grains are aromatic), good grain quality, high-yielding ability, good blast resistance and wide adaptability.

  1. Dissection of Genetic Mechanism of Abnormal Heading in Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-jun; QU Li-jun; XIANG Chao; WANG Hui; XIA Jia-fa; LI Ze-fu; GAO Yong-ming; SHI Ying-yao

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal heading in hybrid rice production has caused great economic loss in recent years, but the genetic basis of this phenomenon remains elusive. In this study, we developed four testcross populations using 38 introgression lines (ILs) from Shuhui 527 (SH527)/Fuhui 838 (FH838)//SH527 population as male parents and four male sterile lines (MSLs; namely II-32A, Xieqingzao A, Gang 46A and Jin 23A) as female parents. Progeny testing allowed us to identify 55 abnormal heading combinations in Hefei, but had late heading date in Hangzhou and Guangzhou of China. By one-and two-way analysis of variance, a total of 21 QTLs and 31 pairs of epistatic QTLs associated with photosensitivity were identified in the four populations, respectively. Genotypic analysis showed that the IL parent of most abnormal heading combinations showed some introgressions at markers RM331 and RM3395 on chromosome 8 (strongly associated with the known genes OsHAP3H/DTH8/Ghd8/LHD1) of donor FH838 alleles, and these two markers were also identified as affecting photosensitivity. The observation that the recipient parent (SH527), donor parent (FH838), their testcross combinations with four MSLs, and the IL parents of abnormal heading combinations had normal heading date in Hefei suggested that OsHAP3H/DTH8/Ghd8/LHD1 showed no independent regulation on abnormal heading in the abnormal heading combinations. It is noteworthy that complex epistasis among RM331 or RM3395 with other loci, including dominant × additive, additive × dominant, and dominant × dominant epistases, were identified only in the four testcross populations of the current study, but not in the SH527/FH838//SH527 population, suggesting the cause of abnormal heading in abnormal heading combinations in Hefei and delayed heading in Hangzhou and Guangzhou.

  2. Development of Commercial Thermo-sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Accelerates Hybrid Rice Breeding Using the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated TMS5 Editing System

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice breeding offers an important strategy to improve rice production, in which the cultivation of a male sterile line is the key to the success of cross-breeding. CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been widely used in target-site genome editing, whereas their application for crop genetic improvement has been rarely reported. Here, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we induced specific mutations in TMS5, which is the most widely applied thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) gene in China, and ...

  3. Characterization of Interspecific Hybrids Between Oryza sativa L. and Three Wild Rice Species of China by Genomic In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Xuan Tan; Zhi-Yong Xiong; Hua-Jun Jin; Gang Li; Li-Li Zhu; Li-Hui Shu; Guang-Cun He

    2006-01-01

    In the genus Oryza, interspecific hybrids are useful bridges for transferring the desired genes from wild species to cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the present study, hybrids between O. sativa (AA genome)and three Chinese wild rices, namely O. rufipogon (AA genome), O. officinalis (CC genome), and O. meyeriana (GG genome), were produced. Agricultural traits of the F1 hybrids surveyed were intermediate between their parents and appreciably resembled wild rice parents. Except for the O. sativa × O. rufipogon hybrid,the other F1 hybrids were completely sterile. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for hybrid verification. Wild rice genomic DNAs were used as probes and cultivated rice DNA was used as a block. With the exception of O. rufipogon chromosomes, this method distinguished the other two wild rice and cultivated rice chromosomes at the stage of mitotic metaphase with different blocking ratios. The results suggest that a more distant phylogenetic relationship exists between O. meyeriana and O. sativa and that O. rufipogon and O. sativa share a high degree of sequence homology. The average mitotic chromosome length of O. officinalis and O. meyeriana was 1.25- and 1.51-fold that of O. sativa, respectively. 4',6'-Diamidino2-phenylindole staining showed that the chromosomes of O. officinalis and O. meyeriana harbored more heterochromatin, suggesting that the C and G genomes were amplified with repetitive sequences compared with the A genome. Although chromocenters formed by chromatln compaction were detected with wild rice-specific signals corresponding to the C and G genomes in discrete domains of the F1 hybrid interphase nuclei, the size and number of O. meyeriana chromocenters were bigger and greater than those of O. officinalis. The present results provide an important understanding of the genomic relationships and a tool for the transfer of useful genes from three native wild rice species in China to cultivars.

  4. Transfer of Lysozyme Gene into indica Parents of Hybrid Rice by Backcrossing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Zi-li; WANG Zi-xuan; QIN Jing-ping; JIANG Jian-xiong; TAN Yan-ning; ZHOU Qing-ming

    2006-01-01

    Alysozyme gene resistant to rice blast was transferred from the donor transgenic japonica rice Zhonghua 9 (D2-1-2) into a sterile line Pei'ai 64S(PA 64S) and restorer line 9311 of the two-line hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu, and the restorer line Minghui 63 (MH63) of three-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63 by successive backcrossing. The PCR analysis confirmed that foreign lysozyme gene was B2F2 9311, B2F2 MH63 and B1F2 PA64S, indicating that the foreign gene was stably inherited over successive generations as a dominant single copy gene. The resistance against rice blast in backcross or selfed generations and corresponding testcross combinations were investigated in 2003 and 2004. The results showed that the resistance of the transgenic rice to blast had a greater improvement than that of the corresponding recurrent parents or the corresponding check hybrid combinations. The resistance of the advanced backcross and selfed generations to rice blast is much stronger than that of the early generations. The study confirmed thattransferring the lysozyme gene into hybrid parents by backcrossing was a simple and effective approach to develop new hybrid rice resistant to rice blast.

  5. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal soil depth without restriction for rice root elongation

  6. The occurrence of arthropods in processed rice products in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariana A; Heah SK; Wong AL; Ho TM

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine distribution of arthropods in processed rice products such as rice flour and rice cereal-based infant food. Methods: Random samples of rice flour and rice cereal-based infant food purchased from commercial outlets were examined for the presence of arthropods using a modified Berlese Tullgren Funnel Method. Mites were mounted prior to identification and weevils were directly identified. Results: For non-expired products, infestation was found in 6.7%of rice flour and none was found in rice cereal-based infant food samples. The arthropods found in the flour samples were Cheyletus spp., Suidasia pontifica (S. pontifica), Tarsonemus spp., Tyrophagus putrescentiae (T. putrescentiae), Sitophilus granarius (S. granarius) and Sitophilus oryzae (S. oryzae). Others which cannot be identified were Oribatid and Prostigmatid mites. The most common mites in rice flour were Tarsonemus spp. (69.1%), followed by S. pontifica (18.2%). For expired products, only one sample of rice cereal-based infant food was infested and the infestation was by mites of the family Tydeidae. Conclusions:This study demonstrates the presence of 4 allergenic species of S. pontifica, T. putrescentiae, S. granarius and S. oryzae in rice flour. These arthropods can contribute to the incidence of anaphylaxis upon consumption by atopic individuals. There was no infestation of arthropods in rice cereal-based infant food surveyed except for an expired product in a moderate rusty tin container.

  7. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  8. Arsenic uptake in organic rice production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic in rice is known to be a problem in some rice-producing countries that have high levels of inorganic arsenic naturally occurring in water resources. However, it was never considered an issue for USA produced rice until international market surveys were published, indicating some USA rice sam...

  9. The dynamics of rice production in Indonesia 1961–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah R. Panuju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the important agricultural products in Indonesia. The production has been fully supported by infrastructure including research and development as well as government regulations in pricing. Its vulnerability to climate change requires adaptation strategies on irrigation, biotechnology and selection of alternative crops. The primary goal of this paper was to evaluate the historical perspective of the dynamics of rice production, technologies particularly in seed inventions, labour in farming and consumption of rice from 1961 to 2009 in conjunction with land capability. The study of historical rice production could be a benefit for future agricultural planning in Indonesia.

  10. 利用香稻改良杂交水稻稻米品质%Utilization of Aromatic Rice in Improving Grain Quality of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周坤炉; 廖伏明

    2004-01-01

    To improve grain quality of the high-yielding hybrid rice in China, we introduced the aromatic rice MR365, an improved Indian cultivar with aroma and other desirable grain quality characters such as long grain and low chalkiness, from IRRI in 1984 and began to transfer its aroma and good quality characters into the existing maintainer lines with good combining ability but poor grain quality. In the meantime, we also conducted the research on the inheritance of aroma for increasing the breeding efficiency. Through years of research and breeding practices, two cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines Xiangxiang 2 A and Xinxiang A and a series of quasi-aromatic hybrids mated from these aromatic CMS lines have been developed and released for commercial production in China. It was found that the inheritance of aroma in MR 365 and its derivatives including Xiangxiang 2 A, Xinxiang A and Xiang 2B S was controlled by one pair of recessive major genes based on the identification of aroma by the KOH-soaking method. We also found that there existed disparity in aroma degree among different grains of F2 generation, and different aromatic CMS lines derived from the same aromatic donor such as Xiangxiang 2 A and Xinxiang A had also a little difference in the degree of aroma, which implies that, besides the major genes, aroma may also be affected by the genetic backgrounds or minor genes. Xiangxiang 2 A, developed from the cross of V20A∥V20B/MR365, is the first aromatic CMS line bred in China. It is not only aromatic but has good grain quality and combining ability. Using it as female parent, Xiangyou 63 (Xiangxiang 2A/Minghui 63), the first quasi-aromatic hybrid rice combination in China, was developed and approved to release to farmers in 1995. Xiangyou 63 is characteristic of quasi-aromatic or partially aromatic (because only a portion of or NOT ALL grains are aromatic), good grain quality, high-yielding ability, good blast resistance and wide adaptability. However, Xiangxiang 2

  11. An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Scott; Maberly, Glen F

    2014-09-01

    Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries.

  12. [Characteristics of canopy structure of super high yielding japonica hybrid rice community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhong; Zhang, Guoping; Guo, Hengde; Mao, Guojuan

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of canopy structure, such as the numbers of seedling, panicle and grain, the distribution of dry matters in different canopy layers and different organs, and the distributions of LAI and of solar radiation in different canopy layers of super high yielding community of japonica hybrid rice were studied, in comparison with normal japonica rice. The results showed that the total the dry matter weight and the dry matter weight of layers below 40 cm, 40-60 cm, 60-80 cm and above 80 cm of japonica hybrid rice canopy were 32.29%, 29.12%, 13.95%, 16.45% and 100.17% higher those that of normal japonica rice, respectively. The ratios of dry leaf (photosynthetic organ) and of dry panicle (sink organ) weight to total dry weight were 24.8% and 12.8%, respectively, which were greater than those of normal japonica rice, while the ratios of dry sheath and stem (storage organs) weight were 33.6% and 28.9%, respectively, which were lower than those of normal japonica rice. The allotment of LAI in different layers of japonica hybrid rice canopy was reasonable, and the LAI of above 40 cm layer at full heading stage reached 5.44. The solar radiation was well-distributed inside japonica hybrid rice canopy, for example, the solar radiation in layers below 60 cm were 13.1%-37.0% higher, but 5.9%-12.2% lower above 60 cm than that of normal japonica rice. The extinction coefficients of solar radiation in layers below 20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm and 60-80 cm of japonica hybrid rice canopy were 35.1%, 13.5%, 29.1% and 17.2% lower than that of normal japonica rice, respectively.

  13. A convenient method for rapid determination of proteins in rices and rice products

    OpenAIRE

    光永, 俊郎; 安藤, ひとみ

    1990-01-01

    [Author abstract]In the biuret determination of protein in rices and rice products, starch and lipids extractable with an alkaline solution such as biuret reagent were found to interfere with the biuret method. Comparative evaluation of their effects revealed that starch, a major component of rice, has the most significant effect on the biuret method. In the presence of starch, the correlation between Kjeldahl protein and the optical density of biuret was poor. It was found that several perha...

  14. Effects of Film-Degraded Rice Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Nitrogen Uptake and Yield of the Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out to nitrogen release characteristics of rice controlled release fertilizer (RCRF) coated with natural and half natural high molecular materials, and to thereof effects on the nitrogen uptake and yield of early and late hybrid rice from 1999 to 2000, with urea as control.In experimental fields regardless of early and late seasons, the amount of N in the plants increased exponentially at the early growth stage (y=abx) and nonlinearly at the middle and late growth stages (y=a+bx+cx2).Rice controlled release fertilizer lengthened the exponential phase and increased the parameter -b/c during the nonlinear phase. Although the N amount of plants was less in rice controlled release fertilizer plots than in urea plots within 20 days after transplanting, at the heading and maturity stages, the N amount of plants in rice controlled release fertilizer plots was above two times greater than in the urea plots due to the higher N recovery, and the high absorption density of N in the nonlinear phase. Tillers pattern and achievement of the maximum tillering stage varied with fertilizer types. The maximum tillering stage in the urea plots occurred a week earlier than in the rice controlled release fertilizer plots. Yield sink size and potential sink size of the plants reflected the N absorption pattern and the amount of N in the plants. The yields of early and late rice with 90 kg N ha-1of rice controlled release fertilizer were respectively increased by 832.7 kg ha-1 and 412.8 kg ha-1 than those with 90 kg N ha-1 of urea, almost equivalent to the yield of early and late hybrid rice with 180 kg N ha-1 of urea.

  15. A long noncoding RNA regulates photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, an essential component of hybrid rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jihua; Lu, Qing; Ouyang, Yidan; Mao, Hailiang; Zhang, Pingbo; Yao, Jialing; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2012-02-14

    Hybrid rice has greatly contributed to the global increase of rice productivity. A major component that facilitated the development of hybrids was a mutant showing photoperiod-sensitive male sterility (PSMS) with its fertility regulated by day length. Transcriptome studies have shown that large portions of the eukaryotic genomic sequences are transcribed to long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, the potential roles for only a few lncRNAs have been brought to light at present. Thus, great efforts have to be invested to understand the biological functions of lncRNAs. Here we show that a lncRNA of 1,236 bases in length, referred to as long-day-specific male-fertility-associated RNA (LDMAR), regulates PSMS in rice. We found that sufficient amount of the LDMAR transcript is required for normal pollen development of plants grown under long-day conditions. A spontaneous mutation causing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the wild-type and mutant altered the secondary structure of LDMAR. This change brought about increased methylation in the putative promoter region of LDMAR, which reduced the transcription of LDMAR specifically under long-day conditions, resulting in premature programmed cell death (PCD) in developing anthers, thus causing PSMS. Thus, a lncRNA could directly exert a major effect on a trait like a structure gene, and a SNP could alter the function of a lncRNA similar to amino acid substitution in structural genes. Molecular elucidating of PSMS has important implications for understanding molecular mechanisms of photoperiod regulation of many biological processes and also for developing male sterile germplasms for hybrid crop breeding.

  16. Visit and course at Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Ceater ( HHRRC )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1992-01-01

    Invited by Prof YUAN Longping 3 Japanese scientists of the delegation of National Federation of Agricultural Cooperative Association (ZEN-NOH) led by Hibino, came to visit HHRRC. During their visit, HHRRC experts introduced to them the advances in hybrid rice research in China and the Japanese guests reported the recent progresses on improvement of grain quality and cultivation techniques for indica/japonica hybrid rice.

  17. Analysis of Heterosis, Combining Ability and Heritability of Cadmium Content in Brown Rice of Three-line Indica Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Five cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines were used as parents in an incomplete diallet cross and six restorer lines of rice design (Nc II design). Thirty hybrid combinations with the same growth period were selected as experimental ma- terials to investigate the heterosis, combined ability and heredity of Cd content in brown rice of indica hybrid rice. According to the results, Cd content in brown rice showed a significantly negative heterosis; the general combining ability and specific combination ability of Cd content in CMS and restorer lines both reached extremely significant level (P〈0.01), indicating that both genetic improvement of parents and e- valuation of combinations are important to the breeding of hybrid combinations with low accumulation of Cd; the broad-sense heritabitity and narrow-sense heritability of Cd content were both relatively high with slight differences, which respectively reached 97.73% and 80.10%, indicating that Cd content in brown rice mainly de- pends on the additive action of genes; in addition, parent improvement showed bet- ter effect on the selection of early generation.

  18. Production of Transgenic Plants of Indica Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Maintainer Line IR58025B Harboring pin2%籼型杂交水稻保持系IR58025B pin2转基因植株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈显华; A.A.Alofonso; R.A.Aldemita; E.D.Redo(n~)a; 金小萍

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid rice technology has been employed as a key approach to increasing rice production for the food demand of increasing population in China and other countries. On the other hand, average annual yield losses caused by stemborers are often estimated at 5%~10% and occasionally as much as 60%~95%[1]. The produced transgenic plants of several japonica rice varieties expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II (pin2) gene have shown significantly increased resistance to stemborer and the transgene stably inherited in the transgenic plants and subsequent generations[2]. In this paper, with a purpose of improving the stemborer resistance of hybrid rice varieties we report the efficient production of transgenic plants of the popularly used hybrid rice maintainer line IR58025B through particle bombardment with pin2 gene of primary embryogenic calli derived from mature seeds. PCR analysis confirmed the integration of the transgene into the rice genome. Expression of the transgene in the primary transgenic plants was preliminarily verified by yellow stemborer feeding assay.%杂交水稻技术在中国及其他国家已作为发展水稻生产,满足不断增加的人口对粮食需要的一条关键途径.而另一方面,据估计因螟虫危害造成水稻年均损失为5%~10%,有时高达60%~95%.应用马铃薯蛋白酶抑制剂基因 (potato proteinase inhibitor II or pin2) 进行粳稻的遗传转化实验表明,其转基因粳稻植株对螟虫的抗性显著提高,且该转基因能在后代中稳定遗传(Duan et al., 1996).为了改良杂交水稻对螟虫的抗性,以大面积应用的籼型杂交稻保持系IR58025B成熟胚为外植体材料、以pin2为目的基因、通过基因枪法高效获得了大量转基因植株. PCR检测结果表明转基因pin 2成功地整合于植株基因组中.三化螟幼虫饲喂试验结果初步证实了该转基因在转基因当代植株中的表达.

  19. Farmers’ assessment of soil quality in rice production systems

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA, A. C. R. de; Hoogmoed, W.B.; BRUSSAARD, L; Sacco dos Anjos, F.

    2011-01-01

    In the recent past there has been increasing recognition that local knowledge of farmers can yield insight into soil quality. With regard to constraints and possibilities for the production of irrigated rice in the south of Brazil there is no documentation on local soil knowledge. The goals of this study were to answer the following questions: (1) Which soil quality perceptions do rice farmers have? (2) Which soil quality indicators are most important to them? (3) Do rice farmers use their kn...

  20. [Testing of germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-nian; Jiang, Dan; Liu, Ying-ying; Ding, Wei-min; Ding, Qi-shuo; Zha, Liang-yu

    2014-06-01

    Germination rate of rice seeds was measured according to technical stipulation of germination testing for agricultural crop seeds at present. There existed many faults for this technical stipulation such as long experimental period, more costing and higher professional requirement. A rapid and non-invasive method was put forward to measure the germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two varieties of hybrid rice seeds were aged artificially at temperature 45 degrees C and humidity 100% condition for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds with different aging time were acquired individually by near-infrared spectra analyzer. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds were randomly divided into calibration set (168 samples) and prediction set (112 samples). Gormination rate of rice seed with different aging time was tested. Regression model was established by using partial least squares (PLS). The effect of the different spectral bands on the accuracy of models was analyzed and the effect of the different spectral preprocessing methods on the accuracy of models was also compared. Optimal model was achieved under the whole bands and by using standardization and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing algorithms with CM2000 software for spectral data of 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds, the coefficient of determination of the calibration set (Rc) and that of the prediction set (Rp) were 0.965 and 0.931 individually, standard error of calibration set (SEC) and that of prediction set (SEP) were 1.929 and 2.899 respectively. Relative error between tested value and predicted value for prediction set of rice seeds is below 4.2%. The experimental results show that it is feasible that rice germination rate is detected rapidly and nondestructively by using the near-infrared spectroscopy analysis technology.

  1. Quality and Testing Standards on Rice Production in China and Development Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China is the biggest country of rice production and consumption in the world; more than 50% of the population feeds chiefly on rice. The quality of rice and its role as a staple food carry much weight. The rice qualities are those aspects concerning processing,appearance, cooking, nutrition and safety of the product.The study, formulation and implementation of standards on rice qualities and testing bear heavily on the improving of rice qualities, human health, substitution of rice varieties, promoting quality rice production and regulating rice market.

  2. Survey on Contamination of Fusarium Mycotoxins in 2011-harvested Rice and Its By-products from Rice Processing Complexes in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soohyung Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate Fusarium mycotoxin contamination in rice samples from rice processing complexes (RPCs, paddy rice and rice-milling products such as husks, brown rice, blue-tinged rice, broken rice, rice bran, discolored rice, and polished rice were collected from nationwide in 2012. Three hundred seventy one samples of rice and its by-products were analyzed for three trichothethenes including nivalenol (NIV, deoxynivalenol (DON, and zearalenone (ZEA by LC/MS. Discolored rice samples were found to have the highest contamination of DON, NIV or ZEA, followed by broken rice. Polished rice samples were largely free from mycotoxins, except three samples which were contaminated with NIV or DON at safety level. The rice byproduct samples were contaminated at higher level and frequencies than polished rice samples.

  3. RICE CROSSES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spikelet sterility is the greatest barrier to rice hybridization. ... sterility, Hybridization, Duplicate recessive epis- tasis ' ... hybrid fertility of intra-subspecific crosses, i.e., indica by ..... 'Germ 59(1) 293$ ' ' male sterility and fertility restoration in rice.

  4. Studies on the Developmental Genetics of Tiller Number in Three-line Indica Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Kang-jing; LIN Wen-xiong; WANG Xue-ren; CHEN Zhi-xiong; GUO Yu-chun; LIANG Yi-yuan; CHEN Fang-yu; LI Ya-juan

    2002-01-01

    Following NC Ⅱ design, the developmental genetic behavior of tiller number (TN) in three-line indica hybrid rice was studied using additive-dominance developmental genetic models and the corresponding statistical methods. The results showed that dominance effects were predominant for TN. The expression of those additive effects were affected by environment and genotype interaction, but the expression of dominance effects were not affected. Heterosis was the strongest in the middle developmental periods of TN. Additive effects and dominance effects were selectively expressed throughout in the entire tillering developmental stage.Analysis of genetic correlation between TN at different stages and the productive panicles indicated that a close correlation appeared earlier in the populations with higher heterosis than in those with less heterosis. Utilization of heterosis at the middle tillering stage might enhance the final biomass but reduce the percentage of productive panicles.

  5. Identification and Purity Test of Super Hybrid Rice with SSR Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Five super hybrid rice combinations, i.e. HYS-1/R105, Pei'ai 64S/E32, Liangyoupeijiu (Pei'ai 64S/9311 ), 88S/0293, and J23A/Q611, and their parental lines were tested by means of SSR analysis. A total of 144 SSR primer pairs distributed on 12 rice chromosomes were used, out of which 47 detected polymorphism among the tested rice lines. Among all these primers, RM337 and RM154 produced polymorphic patterns in four or more of the tested experimental materials respectively, and they could distinguish among most rice genotypes tested. Twenty-four primer pairs, two on each rice chromosome, were selected to make a reference SSR marker-based fingerprinting for the rice lines. For most of the primer pairs, F1 hybrids mainly showed complementary pattern of both parents, which could be very useful to distinguish the F1 from its parental lines. In addition, 5 primer pairs were selected as special primer pairs for five hybrid rice combinations respectively. By combining the rapid, simple method on DNA extraction, it is suggested that SSR technique has wide prospective in variety authentication and purity identification.

  6. Correlation and Regressive Model Between Spikelet Fertilized Rate and Temperature in Inter-Subspecific Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To study the sensitivity of inter-subspecific hybrid rice to climatic conditions, the spikelet fertilized rate (SFR) of four types of rice including indica-japonica hybrid, intermediate hybrid, indica and japonica were analyzed during 2000-2004. The inter-subspecific hybrids showed lower SFR, and much higher fluctuation under various climatic conditions than indica and japonica rice, showing the inter-subspecific hybrids were sensitive to ecological conditions. Among 12 climatic factors, the key factor affecting rice SFR was temperature, with the most significant factor being the average temperature of the seven days around panicle flowering (T7). A regressive equation of SFR-temperature by T7, and a comprehensive synthetic model by four important temperature indices were put forward. The optimum temperature for inter-subspecific hybrids was estimated to be 26.1-26.6 ℃, and lower limit of safe temperature to be 22.5-23.3 ℃ for panicle flowering, showing higher by averagely 0.5℃ and 1.7℃, respectively, to be compared with indica and japonica rice. This suggested that inter-subspecific hybrids require proper climatic conditions. During panicle flowering, the suitable daily average temperature was 23.3-29.0 ℃, with the fittest one at 26.1-26.6 ℃. For an application example, optimum heading season for inter-subspecific hybrids in key rice growing areas in China was as same as common pure lines, while inferior limit for safe date of heading was about a ten-day period earlier than those of common pure lines.

  7. Development of Commercial Thermo-sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Accelerates Hybrid Rice Breeding Using the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated TMS5 Editing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai; He, Ming; Li, Jing; Chen, Liang; Huang, Zhifeng; Zheng, Shaoyan; Zhu, Liya; Ni, Erdong; Jiang, Dagang; Zhao, Bingran; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice breeding offers an important strategy to improve rice production, in which the cultivation of a male sterile line is the key to the success of cross-breeding. CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been widely used in target-site genome editing, whereas their application for crop genetic improvement has been rarely reported. Here, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we induced specific mutations in TMS5, which is the most widely applied thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) gene in China, and developed new “transgene clean” TGMS lines. We designed 10 target sites in the coding region of TMS5 for targeted mutagenesis using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and assessed the potential rates of on- and off-target effects. Finally, we established the most efficient construct, the TMS5ab construct, for breeding potentially applicable “transgene clean” TGMS lines. We also discussed factors that affect the editing efficiency according to the characteristics of different target sequences. Notably, using the TMS5ab construct, we developed 11 new “transgene clean” TGMS lines with potential applications in hybrid breeding within only one year in both rice subspecies. The application of our system not only significantly accelerates the breeding of sterile lines but also facilitates the exploitation of heterosis. PMID:27874087

  8. Effect on Rate of Unclosed Spikelets of Hybrid Rice Seed Production by Applying Formula Micronutrient Fertilizer%施用配方微肥对杂交水稻制种种子裂颖率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林生游; 陈兴总

    2014-01-01

    This study designed two treatment groups of fertilization formula micronutrient fertilizer and habits, surveyed application formula micronutrient fertilizer effect of unclosed rate of hybrid rice seed. The results showed that rate of brown rice grain decreased by 75%, unclosed rate decreased by 35.1%, seed germination rate increased by 8.9%, compared with habits fertilization. The formula micronutrient fertilizer could improve the economic benefit, expanded the demonstration.%设计施用配方微肥和习惯施肥2个处理,调查施用配方微肥对杂交水稻制种种子裂颖率的影响。结果表明:施用配方微肥比习惯施肥水稻种子糙米粒率降低75%,裂颖率降低35.1%,种子发芽率提高8.9%,可提高经济效益,扩大示范。

  9. Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Genetic Enhancement of Parental Lines of Rajalaxmi, an Elite Rice Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Amit K.; Rao, Ravi N.; Rao, G. J. N.; Verma, Ram L.; Katara, Jawahar L.; Mukherjee, Arup K.; Singh, Onkar N.; Bagchi, Torit B.

    2016-01-01

    32B lines is intact. These improved maintainer and CMS lines can directly be used in hybrid rice breeding and the new hybrids can play an important role in sustainable rice production in India. PMID:27468288

  10. Phenotypic and marker-assisted genetic enhancement of parental lines of Rajalaxmi, an elite rice hybrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Dash

    2016-07-01

    ability of the improved CRMS 32B lines is intact. These improved maintainer and CMS lines can directly be used in hybrid rice breeding and the new hybrids can play an important role in sustainable rice production in India.

  11. Crop and varietal diversification of rainfed rice based cropping systems for higher productivity and profitability in Eastern India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B Lal; Priyanka Gautam; B B Panda; R Raja; Teekam Singh; R Tripathi; M Shahid; A K Nayak

    2017-01-01

    Rice-rice system and rice fallows are no longer productive in Southeast Asia. Crop and varietal diversification of the rice based cropping systems may improve the productivity and profitability of the systems...

  12. 美国杂交水稻现状及发展前景%Current Status and Developing Prospect of Hybrid Rice in the United States of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继银; 蒋艾青

    2011-01-01

    The history and current status in research and application including the aspects of breeding, seed production and expansion of hybrid rice in the United States of America were introduced.Based on the achievements and progresses, the authors suggested that the development of hybrid rice would have a good prospect in the United States of America and other countries with similar conditions.%介绍了美国杂交水稻的发展历程及杂交水稻育种、种子生产和推广现状及发展前景.

  13. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed.

  14. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...

  15. IMPLICATIONS FOR SMALLHOLDER RICE PRODUCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    discusses trade liberalization policy effects on rice imports in. Ghana and the ... global capital where a country's access to international finance is largely determined by ... ml by subscribing to appropriate" macroeconomic and structural adjustment policies .... output, price, income and profitability of rice farmers. To discover ...

  16. Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa State Of Nigeria: A Geographic Information System (GIS) ... FUTY Journal of the Environment ... This paper demonstrated the potentials of GIS technique for mapping and ...

  17. Genetic Diversity among Parents of Hybrid Rice Based on Cluster Analysis of Morphological Traits and Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng-jun; LU Zuo-mei; WAN Jian-min

    2006-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 41 parental lines popularized in commercial hybrid rice production in China was studied by using cluster analysis of morphological traits and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Forty-one entries were assigned into two clusters (I.e. Early or medium-maturing cluster; medium or late-maturing cluster) and further assigned into six sub-clusters based on morphological trait cluster analysis. The early or medium-maturing cluster was composed of 15 maintainer lines, four early-maturing restorer lines and two thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines, and the medium or late-maturing cluster included 16 restorer lines and 4 medium or late-maturing maintainer lines. Moreover, the SSR cluster analysis classified 41 entries into two clusters (I.e. Maintainer line cluster and restorer line cluster) and seven sub-clusters. The maintainer line cluster consisted of all 19 maintainer lines, two thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines, while the restorer line cluster was composed of all 20 restorer lines. The SSR analysis fitted better with the pedigree information. From the views on hybrid rice breeding, the results suggested that SSR analysis might be a better method to study the diversity of parental lines in indica hybrid rice.

  18. Production of a saccharifying rice malt for brewing using different rice varieties and malting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Heidi; Marconi, Ombretta; Regnicoli, Gian Franco; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2014-06-11

    This study was conducted to produce rice malt suitable for beer brewing. An all-rice beer would be particularly appealing to individuals with celiac disease because rice does not contain gluten proteins. Furthermore, rice malt could also contribute to new beer flavors and brands. A screening of 10 rice varieties was conducted. The varieties Balilla and Centauro were found to be suitable for the production of an all-rice malt beer without the need of exogenous enzymes. They were characterized by a low diastatic power but nevertheless they saccharified well, likely due to other endogenous amylolytic enzymes such as limit dextrinase and α-glucosidase. The addition of CaCl2 and lactic acid during mashing lowered the pH value and increased saccharification. However, the Balilla variety saccharified without the need of these additives. We also show that the soluble nitrogen and free amino nitrogen content of rice malt wort can be increased by the incorporation of the acrospires and rootlets during mashing.

  19. Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants of Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokvibol Kea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to measure the technical efficiency and establish core factors affecting rice production in Cambodia. A four‐year dataset generated from the central government document “Profile on Economics and Social” of 25 entire provinces between 2012 and 2015 and the stochastic production frontier model (SFA was applied. The results indicated that the level of output (quantity of Cambodian rice production varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total rice actual harvested area, and technical fertilizer application within provinces. Furthermore, evidence revealed that the overall mean efficiency of rice production is 78.4%, which implies that there is still room to further improve technical efficiency given the same level of inputs and technology. More importantly, the findings revealed that irrigation, production techniques and amount of agricultural supporting staff are the most important influencing factors of rice production’s technical efficiency in Cambodia. In conclusion, the present study strongly recommends the development of irrigation systems and good water management practices to be considered and bring about more effective actions by the central government as well as related agencies for improving rice production in Cambodia in addition to capital investment and improving technical skills of supporting staff and rural farmers.

  20. Changes of fumonisin production in rice grain during ensiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, Ryuichi; Kobayashi, Hisami; Inoue, Hidehiko; Tohno, Masanori; Tsukiboshi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We assessed fumonisin production during the ensiling of rice grain. Rice grain was harvested at the full-ripe stage and prepared as rough rice, crushed rough rice, brown rice or crushed brown rice. Each material was ensiled under six conditions: (1) no fungus, anaerobic; (2) no fungus, aerobic; (3) water added, anaerobic; (4) water and fumonisin-producing fungus added, anaerobic; (5) water and fumonisin-producing fungus added, aerobic; or (6) fumonisin-producing fungus added to autoclaved material, aerobic. After 40 days of ensilage, we analyzed the silage fermentative quality and fumonisin concentration. The fermentative quality of all materials was good in treatments (3) and (4) (pH  6.5). The fumonisin concentration was low in all materials in treatments (1) to (4), slightly increased in the three materials other than rough rice in treatment (5), and enormously increased in all materials in treatment (6). The results indicate that the fumonisin-producing fungus does not produce fumonisin in anaerobic conditions. It is important that an anaerobic condition be maintained during ensiling in order to reduce the fumonisin content in rice grain silage. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Genetic Diversity of Tropical Hybrid Rice Germplasm Measured by Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zhi-zhou; XIE Fang-ming; CHEN Li-yun; Madonna Angelita DELA PAZ

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of genetic diversity and relationships among breeding lines is of great importance to facilitate parent selection in hybrid rice breeding programs.In this study,we characterized 168 hybrid rice parents from International Rice Research Institute with 207 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 353 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers.A total of 1 267 SSR and 706 SNP alleles were detected with the averages of 6.1 (SSR) and 2.0 (SNP) alleles per locus respectively across all lines.Based on the genetic distances estimated from the SSR and SNP markers separately and combined,the unrooted neighbor-joining cluster and STRUCTURE analyses consistently separated the 168 hybrid rice parents into two major groups:B-line and R-line,which is consistent with known parent pedigree information.The genetic distance matrices derived from the SSR and SNP genotyping were highly correlated (r=0.81,P 0.001),indicating that both of the SSR and SNP markers have distinguishable power to detect polymorphism and are appropriate for genetic diversity analysis among tropical hybrid rice parents.A subset of 60 SSR markers were also chosen by the Core Hunter with 368 alleles,and the cluster analysis based on the total and subset of SSR markers highly corresponded at r =0.91 (P < 0.001 ),suggesting that fewer SSR markers can be used to classify and evaluate genetic diversity among parental lines.

  2. Improving the phenotypic expression of rice genotypes:Rethinking “intensification” for production systems and selection practices for rice breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norman; Uphoff; Vasilia; Fasoula; Anas; Iswandi; Amir; Kassam; Amod; K.Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Intensification in rice crop production is generally understood as requiring increased use of material inputs: water, inorganic fertilizers, and agrochemicals. However, this is not the only kind of intensification available. More productive crop phenotypes, with traits such as more resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and shorter crop cycles, are possible through modifications in the management of rice plants, soil, water, and nutrients, reducing rather than increasing material inputs. Greater factor productivity can be achieved through the application of new knowledge and more skill, and(initially) more labor, as seen from the System of Rice Intensification(SRI), whose practices are used in various combinations by as many as 10 million farmers on about 4 million hectares in over 50 countries. The highest yields achieved with these management methods have come from hybrids and improved rice varieties, confirming the importance of making genetic improvements. However,unimproved varieties are also responsive to these changes, which induce better growth and functioning of rice root systems and more abundance, diversity, and activity of beneficial soil organisms. Some of these organisms as symbiotic endophytes can affect and enhance the expression of rice plants’ genetic potential as well as their phenotypic resilience to multiple stresses, including those of climate change. SRI experience and data suggest that decades of plant breeding have been selecting for the best crop genetic endowments under suboptimal growing conditions, with crowding of plants that impedes their photosynthesis and growth, flooding of rice paddies that causes roots to degenerate and forgoes benefits derived from aerobic soil organisms, and overuse of agrochemicals that adversely affect these organisms as well as soil and human health. This review paper reports evidence from research in India and Indonesia that changes in crop and water management can improve the expression of rice

  3. Hybrid Rice Resistant to Bacterial Leaf Blight Developed By Marker Assisted Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO; Li-yong; ZHUANG; Jie-yun; YUAN; Shou-jiang; ZHAN; Xiao-deng; ZHENG; Kang-le; CHENG; Shi-hua

    2003-01-01

    Through recurrént backcrossing in combination with molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS), restorer lines R8006 and R1176 carrying Xa-21 , a gene having broad-spectrum resistance to rice bacterial leaf blight, were selected. By crossing the two lines to CMS line Zhong 9A, two new hybrid rice combinations, Zhongyou 6 and Zhongyou 1176 were developed. The hybrids showed high resistance to diseases, good grain quality and high yielding potential in national and provincial adaptability and yield trials.

  4. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  5. Partial beta-amylolysis retards starch retrogradation in rice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Jingmin; Ding, Xiaolin

    2003-07-02

    Starch retrogradation is the main cause of quality deterioration of starch-containing foods during storage. The current work investigated the effect of partial beta-amylolysis on the retrogradation of rice starch and the potential of beta-amylase in preparing rice products with extended shelf life. Isolated amylopectin, whole rice starch, and rice flour from a regular rice cultivar were partially hydrolyzed by either reagent-grade or food-grade beta-amylase. The degree of beta-amylolysis was expressed as average external chain length () for isolated amylopectin or the degree of hydrolysis (%) for other starch systems. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was used to monitor starch retrogradation during storage at 4 degrees C. The results indicated that partial beta-amylolysis using reagent-grade beta-amylase retarded amylopectin retrogradation by shortening the of amylopectin. When was below DP 11.6, the amylopectin retrogradation was essentially inhibited. Partial beta-amylolysis had a similar effect on the amylopectin retrogradation in the whole starch system. The maltose produced in beta-amylolysis might slightly attenuate the retrogradation-retarding effect of partial beta-amylolysis. The effect of food-grade beta-amylase on starch retrogradation was also evident, although less effective than that of reagent-grade beta-amylase. The retrogradation-retarding effect of food-grade beta-amylase was also demonstrated in rice flour system, indicating a potential method for controlling the starch retrogradation of rice products.

  6. Effect of Silicon Application on Rice Growth and Production Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henghu DING; Li YANG; Maoqian WU; Jiaqiong WU; Kezhi LIU

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of silicon on the growth and production structure of rice( Oryza sativa L.),and proposes the appropriate applying amount of silicon. The results show that the application of silicon fertilizer to rice can increase specific leaf weight and leaf area index,and improve rice yield by increasing grain number,kernel number and thousand kernel weight. The growth rate of rice yield is 3. 45%-15. 69% by applying silicon. In the Jianghan Plain,the applying amount of silicon fertilizer for rice( SiO2) is recommended at 15-30 kg/ha.

  7. A simulation modeling of gathering rice straw for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Genta; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Takekura, Kazuhiro; Kato, Hitoshi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kanaigen@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    The gathering system of the rice straw as biofuel source was examined. The rice straw is byproduct of rice production. Using the GIS the calculation of total mileage of the carrying of straw and the amount of potential of the straw accumulation was made. In trial calculation of Ibaraki prefecture case in Japan, Hikari-shimotuma plant has an advantage for gathering straw than Hitachinaka or Inashiki because of geographical condition that larger paddy fields are accumulated around the plant more than others. And the total mileage of carrying was found to be in proportion to square of the covering area because of geometrical reason. (author)

  8. Studies on the Growth Habits and Characteristics of Two Polyploid Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice with Powerful Heterosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao-jian; DU Chao-qun; DAI Bing-cheng; CHEN Dong-ling; CHEN Jian-guo; CAI De-tian

    2007-01-01

    Based on a series of polyploid indica-japonica hybrid plant lines obtained from a new breeding strategy of using double predominance of wide cross and polyploidization to breed super rice, two polyploid indica-japonica hybrids, PSR073 and PSR120 were studied in their growth periods to show the powerful heterosis in a larger scale and to study the characteristics of polyploid indica-japonica hybrids more elaborately. The leaf age, tiller growth, flowering habits, and agronomic traits of them were observed to analyze their growth habits and characteristics. The results showed that the.agronomic traits of PSR073 and PSR 120, such as the plant height, panicle length, grain length, grain width, and 1000-grain weight, all acquired obvious predominance of polyploidy, and that the seed setting rate was more than 83%. No significant difference was observed between the two tetraploids and common diploids in the leaf age, tiller growth, and flowering habits. It was concluded that the characteristics of the two powerful heterosis polyploid hybrids were different from those of the polyploid rice reported earlier. Wide cross and polyploidization had no negative effects on their growth habits and characteristics; on the contrary these had powerful heterosis. This had provided theoretic and practical evidences for their application to agricultural production.

  9. Genetics and Improvement of Bacterial Blight Resistance of Hybrid Rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi

    2009-01-01

    Since 1980s, rice breeding for resistance to bacterial blight has been rapidly progressing in China. The gene Xa4 was mainly used in three-line indica hybrid and two-line hybrid rice. The disease has been 'quiet' for 20 years in China, yet in recent years it has gradually emerged and been prevalent in fields planted with newly released rice varieties in the Changjiang River valley. Under the circumstances, scientists inevitably raised several questions: what causes the resurgence and what should we do next? And/or is resistance breeding still one of the main objectives in rice improvement? Which approach do we take on resistance breeding so that the resistance will be more durable, and the resistance gene will be used more efficiently? A combined strategy involving traditional method, molecular marker-assisted selection, and transgenic technology should bring a new era to the bacterial blight resistance hybrid rice breeding program. This review also briefly discusses and deliberates on issues related to the broadening of bacterial blight resistance, and suitable utilization of resistance genes, alternate planting of available resistance genes; and understands the virulent populations of the bacterial pathogen in China even in Asia.

  10. Isolation and identification of genes expressed differentially in rice inflorescence meristem with suppression subtractive hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A subtracted cDNA library of rice (Oryza sativa L.) inflorescence meristem (IM) was constructed using the sup-pression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. The cDNAs of the rice shoot apical meristem (SAM) were used as "driver" and inflorescence meristem (IM) as "tester" in the experiment, respectively. Forty of 250 randomly chosen cDNA clones were identified by differential screening, which were IM-specific or IM-highly expressed. Most of the rice IM cDNAs cloned by SSH appear to represent rare transcripts, 40% of which were derived from truly differentially ex-pressed genes. Of all the forty sequenced cDNA inserts, eleven contain the regions with 60%-90% identity to their homolog in GenBank, eighteen are expected to be new genes, only two correspond to published rice genes.

  11. Photoinhibitive and Recovery Properties of Hybrid Rice Ⅱ You 129 under Field Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-ming; TANG Yun-lai; WANG Ying; LU Wei; DAI Xin-bin; ZHANG Rong-xian; KUANG Ting-yun

    2003-01-01

    Photoinhibitive properties of super-high-yielding hybrid rice Ⅱ you 129 and its adaptation mechanism to strong light stress were investigated by measuring the light-response curve, diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Ⅱ you 129 leaves and compared with Shanyou 63. Photoinhibition of rice flag leaves under field conditions mainly resulted from the increase of thermal dissipation, especially for thermal dissipation depended on the xanthophyll circle, but no destruction of photosynthetic apparatus occurred. Potentially super-high-yielding hybrid rice Ⅱyou 129 was more tolerant to photoinhibition than Shanyou 63, because it had higher light saturation intensity and maximum net photosynthetic rate; more active xanthophyll cycle, and more rapid recovery ability after photoinhibition.

  12. Inorganic arsenic in rice-based products for infants and young children

    OpenAIRE

    Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; CAREY,MANUS; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (Asi) is a chronic, non-threshold carcinogen. Rice and rice-based products can be the major source of Asi for many subpopulations. Baby rice, rice cereals and rice crackers are widely used to feed infants and young children. The Asi concentration in rice-based products may pose a health risk for infants and young children. Asi concentration was determined in rice-based products produced in the European Union and risk assessment associated with the consumption of these produc...

  13. Effect of System of Rice Intensification on Grain Plumpness in Association with Source-Sink Ratio in Mid-Season Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiong-hui; XU Fu-xian; WAN Bang-hui; XIONG Hong; PENG Hai-feng; ZHU Yong-chuan; LU Yan-peng; WANG Gui-xiong; LIANG Ke-qin; ZHAO Jing

    2004-01-01

    Grain plumpness under two cultivation methods, the system of rice intensification(SRI) and traditional cultivation, was examined using 18 mid-season hybrid rice combinations. There existed a highly significant negative correlation between the differences of grain plumpness under the two cultivation methods and number of spikelets per panicle. The small- or middle-panicle type hybrid rice though they showed a significant decrease in leaf-grain ratio under SRI maintained normal grain filling due to plenty of source supply,while the large-panicle hybrid rice was on the contrary. It suggested that the number of spikelets per panicle below 173 under traditional cultivation, was an index for selecting variety in application of SRI in the southern region of Sichuan Province, China.

  14. Relationship between Living Rate of Bud and Emeraence Rate of Ratoon Rice and Characteristics of the First Cropping Mid-season Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin ZHANG; Hong XIONG; Fuxian XU; Yongchuan ZHU; Xiaoyi GUO; Xingbing ZHOU; Mao LIU

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the relationship of plant characters with bud living rate and mother stem emergence rate of ratoon rice before harvest. [Method] Eighteen mid-season hybrid rice cultivators approved recently were taken as materials and relationship of plant characters including bud living rate and moth- er stem emergence rate of ratoon rice before harvest was explored, based on relat- ed data. [Result] The shorter rice with lower harvesting index is the main character of high emergence rate for first cropping rice; decline of plant height and increase of ear-bearing percentage would improve emergence of regenerative seedlings. [Conclusion] The research provided scientific reference for breeding of rice cultivars with high regenerative capacity.

  15. Adoption of Recommended Rice Production Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Also, buy-back arrangement should be introduced in order to ensure good pricing for rice producers. .... Because women generally do not own land or other assets ... bounded in the north by Kaduna State, in the west by the Federal Capital Territory. (Abuja), in the ... The multiple regression model is expressed as: = + 1 1 + 2 ...

  16. Development and Characterization of Elite Doubled Haploid Lines from Two Indica Rice Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rukmini MISHRA; Gundimeda Jwala Narashima RAO; Ravi Nageswara RAO; Pankaj KAUSHAL

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant yield advantage over inbred rice, the adoption rate of hybrid rice in India is very low due to the high seed cost and poor quality of the produce. To alleviate the problem, we initiated a doubled haploid (DH) breeding approach to develop new lines from two elite indica rice hybrids (CRHR5 and CRHR7) through rapid fixation of homozygosity in the recombinants.In vitro culture of the rice anthers resulted in 243 and 186 fertile DH lines of CRHR5 and CRHR7, respectively. Flow cytometric and pollen fertility analyses confirmed the DH ploidy status of the regenerations. Morpho-agronomic evaluation revealed 100% uniformity and stability for all the characters in the DH lines of both hybrids. Nineteen promising DH lines of each hybrid were advanced to A2 generation for yield evaluation. The yield levels of the DH lines ranged from 5 097–6 965 kg/hm2 for CRHR5 and 5 141–7 235 kg/hm2 for CRHR7, which were at par or higher than the parental hybrids. Physico-chemicalcharacterization and cooking quality analyses revealed significant and acceptable values for grain length and width, alkali spreading value, amylose content and water uptake ratio of the selected DH lines. Three DH lines, CR5-10, CR5-49, CR5-61 from CRHR5, and four DH lines, CR7-5, CR7-7, CR7-12 and CR7-52 from CRHR7, showed significant grain yield and quality characteristics and have been recommended for multi-location trials for subsequent release as new indicadoubled haploid rice varieties.

  17. Componentes de produção e produtividade de arroz híbrido de sequeiro comparado a três cultivares convencionais Production and productivity components of hybrid rice dry compared to conventional three cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimar Rodrigues Soares

    2010-10-01

    , yield in bags of 60 kg per hectare and yield of whole grains. The hybrid cultivar Ecco is the most suitable for cultivation in the two regions, because it showed better tillering, greater efficiency in grain filling, greater weight of 1000 grains and consequently higher productivity in both regions, besides a high yield of whole grains in relation to other cultivars.

  18. Hybrid Sterility in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Involves the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain Containing Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhao, Zhigang; Shi, Yanrong; Tian, Hua; Liu, Linglong; Bian, Xiaofeng; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaoming; Gan, Lu; Shen, Yumin; Wang, Chaolong; Yu, Xiaowen; Wang, Chunming; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiulin; Ikehashi, Hiroshi; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-07-01

    Intersubspecific hybrid sterility is a common form of reproductive isolation in rice (Oryza sativa L.), which significantly hampers the utilization of heterosis between indica and japonica varieties. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of S7, which specially causes Aus-japonica/indica hybrid female sterility, through cytological and genetic analysis, map-based cloning, and transformation experiments. Abnormal positioning of polar nuclei and smaller embryo sac were observed in F1 compared with male and female parents. Female gametes carrying S7(cp) and S7(i) were aborted in S7(ai)/S7(cp) and S7(ai)/S7(i), respectively, whereas they were normal in both N22 and Dular possessing a neutral allele, S7(n) S7 was fine mapped to a 139-kb region in the centromere region on chromosome 7, where the recombination was remarkably suppressed due to aggregation of retrotransposons. Among 16 putative open reading frames (ORFs) localized in the mapping region, ORF3 encoding a tetratricopeptide repeat domain containing protein was highly expressed in the pistil. Transformation experiments demonstrated that ORF3 is the candidate gene: downregulated expression of ORF3 restored spikelet fertility and eliminated absolutely preferential transmission of S7(ai) in heterozygote S7(ai)/S7(cp); sterility occurred in the transformants Cpslo17-S7(ai) Our results may provide implications for overcoming hybrid embryo sac sterility in intersubspecific hybrid rice and utilization of hybrid heterosis for cultivated rice improvement.

  19. Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yunming; Zhao, Lifeng; Niu, Baixiao; Su, Jing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Yuanling; Zhang, Qunyu; Guo, Jingxin; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Mei, Mantong; Xia, Jixing; Wang, Lan; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2008-12-01

    Sterility is common in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Although multiple loci for plant hybrid sterility have been identified, it remains unknown how alleles of the loci interact at the molecular level. Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid male sterility, Sa, comprises two adjacent genes, SaM and SaF, encoding a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase-like protein and an F-box protein, respectively. Most indica cultivars contain a haplotype SaM(+)SaF(+), whereas all japonica cultivars have SaM(-)SaF(-) that diverged by nucleotide variations in wild rice. Male semi-sterility in this heterozygous complex locus is caused by abortion of pollen carrying SaM(-). This allele-specific gamete elimination results from a selective interaction of SaF(+) with SaM(-), a truncated protein, but not with SaM(+) because of the presence of an inhibitory domain, although SaM(+) is required for this male sterility. Lack of any one of the three alleles in recombinant plants does not produce male sterility. We propose a two-gene/three-component interaction model for this hybrid male sterility system. The findings have implications for overcoming male sterility in inter-subspecific hybrid rice breeding.

  20. Effect of Temperature on Pollen Fertility in Inter-Subspecific Rice Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jie; WAN Jian-min; ZHAI Hu-qu; WANG Cai-lin; ZHONG Wei-gong; ZOU Jiang-shi

    2004-01-01

    Seventeen rice varieties and hybrids of different types (indica, japonica, javanica, indica hybrid, japonica hybrid and inter-subspecific hybrid) were evaluated to determine the effect of temperature on pollen fertility in inter-subspecfic hybrids. The pollen fertility of inter-subspecific hybrids was greatly reduced when average daily temperature dropped to 22.0 - 23.0℃ at meiosis stage, and the extent of pollen fertility reduction varied greatly with respect to different hybrids. However, the pollen fertility reduction of indica and japonica hybrids and conventional varieties was not obvious under the same regime of temperature conditions. When the average daily temperature dropped to 20℃, the pollen development of conventional varieties and hybrids was also affected. Correlation analysis revealed that there existed a positive correlation between pollen fertility and average daily temperature. A significant difference (P<0.01) was also found between the two correlation coefficients i.e. inter-subspecific hybrids and conventional varieties. Temperature at meiosis stage of pollen mother cell was a key factor in pollen developing, and the pollen fertility of inter-subspecific hybrids was more sensitive to low temperature than that of traditional variety.

  1. Developmental Analysis of Genetic Behavior of Brown Rice Width in indica-japonica Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ming; SHI Chun-hai; YE Shen-hai; QI Yong-bin

    2006-01-01

    The developmental genetic behaviors of brown rice width (BRW) have been studied in indica-japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.), in which seven indica male sterile lines and five japonica restorer lines were applied, by using the developmental genetic models and corresponding statistical approaches for quantitative traits of triploid in cereal crops. The BRW of indica-japonica hybrid rice was co-determined by gene expression of triploid endosperm, cytoplasm, diploid maternal plant and their genotype ×environmental interaction effects. Unconditional analysis showed that the endosperm additive and maternal additive effects were predominant for the development of BRW from early- to late-stage of the grain development, but the endosperm dominant effect together with maternal effect and cytoplasmic effect became the major factor determing the BRW at the ripening stage. Moreover,conditional analysis found that there were new onset and offset of gene expression at different developmental stages of BRW in indica-japonica hybrid rice. Maternal and cytoplasm general heritabilities and their interaction heritabilities were more important compared to other components of heritability for BRW at all the five developmental stages.

  2. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs.

  3. Investigation of Genetic Distance among Parental Lines of Hybrid Rice Based on Cluster Analysis of Morphological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baluch-Zehi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available conditions. Thus, these varieties could be suitable option for yield increase and an effective step toward food security. Selection of parental lines has essential role in developing ideal combinations. Therefore, it is essential to study the relationship and genetic diversity among parental lines in hybrid rice. Sixteen hybrid rice parental lines including 6 restorer lines (Poya, Sepidrud, Pajohesh, R2, R9 and IR50 and 5 CMS lines (Neda, Nemat, Dasht, Champa and Amol 3 with their 5 maintainers were studied at Research Farm of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during 2011. Analysis of variance showed significant variations for all of the studied traits, which shows great diversity among the genotypes. The number of fertile tillers and length to width ratio of grain showed positive and significant correlation with yield. But, grain width showed negative and significant correlation with yield. Results of principal component analysis revealed that 3 components explained 75.64% of the total variations. Cluster analysis at 15 genetic distance criteria grouped genotypes in 4 clusters. In exploration of heterosis phenomenon, parents must be far away from each other. So, the results of this study suggested crosses between CMS lines of Neda A, Nemat A and Champa A with each of restorer lines R9, R2, IR50 and Poya for experimental hybrid seed production.

  4. a survey of rice production and processing in south east nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    agricultural policy makers device the modalities for improving rice production and processing in the area. ... for rice production and the application method was mostly by manual broad casting over the planted area. ... 1, January 2017 228.

  5. Rice fertility affected by lower temperature in intersubspecific hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Intersubspecific hybrids of indica-japonica show strong heterosis on yield,and the partial sterility in F1 hybrids can be mitigated by using the wide-compatibility gene, S5n. In the past decade, such hybrids showed normal fertility and high level of heterosis on grain yield, but some of them showed unstable seed-setting rate at low temperature. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of low temperature on fertility of intersubspecific hybrids and to investigate the male gamete abortion at some markers.

  6. An Efficient Approach of Creating New Genetic Resources in Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is more and more important to create new genetic resources in hybrid rice breedding by using the tertiary and the forth gene pool through biotechnologic methods after the success of the utilization of inter-subspecific heterosis. We have established a simple procedure which is modified from that of Pena to transfer exogenous DAN into rice. When the recipient plant has undergone meiosis, exogenous DNA is injected into the upermost internode of a stem, the position just under the panicle base. In the next generation (D1), variants are found at a rate from 10-3to 10-1.

  7. Yield and tillering response of super hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu to tillage and establishment methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.A.Badshah; Naimei; Tu; Yingbin; Zou; M.Ibrahim; Ke; Wang

    2014-01-01

    Tillering is an important agronomic trait for rice grain production. To evaluate yield and tillering response, Liangyoupeijiu(super hybrid rice) was grown in Hunan, China during 2011–2012 under different methods of tillage(conventional and no-tillage system) and crop establishment methods(transplanting at a spacing of 20 cm × 20 cm with one seedling per hill and direct seeding at a seeding rate of 22.5 kg ha-1). Our results revealed that, at maximum tillering(Max.) and at maturity(MA) stages, direct seeding(DS) resulted in 22% more tillers than transplanting(TP) irrespective of tillage system. Tiller mortality reached a peak between panicle initiation(PI) and booting(BT) stages, and was 16% higher under conventional tillage(CT) than under no-tillage(NT). Transplanting required 29% more time for the completion of tillering and less for DS. Tillering rate was 43% higher in DS than TP under either CT or NT. There was a positive correlation between panicle number per m2and maximum tiller number per m2, but not panicle-bearing tiller rate. The panicle bearing tiller rate was higher under DS than TP and higher under NT than CT. Tiller dry weight gradually increased up to heading(HD) stage, and was 14% higher under TP than DS. Leaf area(cm2tiller-1) gradually increased from Max. to HD stage and then decreased by 34% in conventional tillage transplanting(CTTP) and 45% in no-tillage transplanting(NTTP) from 12DAH–24DAH(days after heading), but was similar(35%) under DS under either CT or NT. Grain yield was higher under CTTP owing to the larger sink size(heavier panicle, more spikelets in per cm length of panicle) than under DS.

  8. Canned rice products as Philippine military food ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2003-05-01

    Canned prototypes of rice (CR) and rice meal with pork sausage (CRM) were developed as military food ration models for evaluation by personnel in the Bonifacio Naval Station, Fort Bonifacio, Makati, Philippines. The prototypes were produced based on the assumption that a serving size equivalent to 400 g cooked rice and a meat-based viand using a 1:4 (wt/wt) viand to rice ratio was adequate as a single-serve meal for a typical Philippine military personnel. The CR and CRM prototypes were low acid products with pH values of 4.9 and 5.5, respectively. The processed rice portions of the prototypes showed about 200% volume and weight increases, moderate clumpiness and low percentage breakage. More than 90% of the respondents agreed that CR and CRM were suitable military food rations. Majority of the panelists indicated preference for meat-based and poultry-based viands. Bulk and weight portativity problems, however, were raised with the 400 g serving size of cooked products in cans.

  9. A Survey of Myanmar Rice Production and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A.A. Naing

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Although modern high yielding varieties were introduced into Myanmar in the early 1980s, the national average of rice grain yield has stagnated at 3.2-3.4 t ha-1. To identify yield constraints, input intensities and the general practices of rice cultivation in Myanmar, a survey was conducted during the wet seasons of 2001 and 2002. A total of 98 farmers from five townships in Upper Myanmar and 16 in Lower Myanmar representing the most important areas of rice production were questioned on their management practices, yields, and perceived yield constraints over the previous four years. There was a recent decrease in the overall average rate of fertilizer application, an increase in the prevalence of rice-legume cropping systems, and only localized insect pest or disease problems. Additionally, rice yields were found to be higher in Upper Myanmar, likely the results of more suitable weather conditions, better irrigation, and ready market access. Furthermore, a number of critical factors affecting production are identified and possible solutions discussed.

  10. Hybrid male sterility in rice is due to epistatic interactions with a pollen killer locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2011-11-01

    In intraspecific crosses between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) subspecies indica and japonica, the hybrid male sterility gene S24 causes the selective abortion of male gametes carrying the japonica allele (S24-j) via an allelic interaction in the heterozygous hybrids. In this study, we first examined whether male sterility is due solely to the single locus S24. An analysis of near-isogenic lines (NIL-F(1)) showed different phenotypes for S24 in different genetic backgrounds. The S24 heterozygote with the japonica genetic background showed male semisterility, but no sterility was found in heterozygotes with the indica background. This result indicates that S24 is regulated epistatically. A QTL analysis of a BC(2)F(1) population revealed a novel sterility locus that interacts with S24 and is found on rice chromosome 2. The locus was named Epistatic Factor for S24 (EFS). Further genetic analyses revealed that S24 causes male sterility when in combination with the homozygous japonica EFS allele (efs-j). The results suggest that efs-j is a recessive sporophytic allele, while the indica allele (EFS-i) can dominantly counteract the pollen sterility caused by S24 heterozygosity. In summary, our results demonstrate that an additional epistatic locus is an essential element in the hybrid sterility caused by allelic interaction at a single locus in rice. This finding provides a significant contribution to our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid sterility and microsporogenesis.

  11. Adoption of selected innovations in rice production and their effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption of selected innovations in rice production and their effect on farmers living standard in Bauchi local ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences.

  12. Farmers’ assessment of soil quality in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, A.C.R.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Brussaard, L.; Sacco dos Anjos, F.

    2011-01-01

    In the recent past there has been increasing recognition that local knowledge of farmers can yield insight into soil quality. With regard to constraints and possibilities for the production of irrigated rice in the south of Brazil there is no documentation on local soil knowledge. The goals of this

  13. Farmers’ assessment of soil quality in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, A.C.R.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Brussaard, L.; Sacco dos Anjos, F.

    2011-01-01

    In the recent past there has been increasing recognition that local knowledge of farmers can yield insight into soil quality. With regard to constraints and possibilities for the production of irrigated rice in the south of Brazil there is no documentation on local soil knowledge. The goals of this

  14. irrigated rice production system of Omor community, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cash earnings/income, experience the most adverse consequences of malaria. ... showed greater flexibility in coping with a member's loss of effective work time by ..... Table 4: Labour utilization patterns and wage rate in the rice production ...

  15. land evaluation for improved rice production in watari irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    directly related to quality and suitability of soil, and as ... mapping and monitoring land use changes. ... the consequences of land use/land cover changes is ... The ecology of the Watari Irrigation project is Sudan ... mapping units identified as suitable for irrigation by .... adequate rice production, sufficient quantity of water.

  16. Extraction of Silica and other related products from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mehta,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is the synthesis of silica from rice husk and to study its characterization studies. The alkaline method succeeded by acid precipitation is done for the extraction of silica. The optimization of the concentration of sodium hydroxide and the amount of rice husk ash that goes with it for attaining the maximum yield of silica is done. X-ray Diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry studies are executed for acquiring its characteristic. Activated carbon and silica gel are the intermediate products formed during the synthesis process of silica.

  17. 越南水稻生产与国际贸易情况分析%Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮刘青; 江云珠; 吕利湘; 林海; 庞乾林

    2011-01-01

    The natural conditions and distribution of growing areas for rice production in Vietnam were introduced.Based on the changes in the production, planting area and yield of rice and the international trade of rice in Vietnam in the last decades, it is indicated that Vietnam has made a remarkable achievement in rice production and trade since 1986, when the economic reform was implemented.However, it is found that there are still some problems in its rice development for future growth.The authors suggest that Vietnam should make full use of advanced international rice production technologies including further use of hybrid rice varieties and improvement of irrigation and water conservancy facilities to raise rice yield and production.%概述了越南水稻生产的自然条件和种植区域分布;从越南水稻总产、收获面积、单产及稻米国际贸易情况的变化可以看出,越南自1986年政策改革以来,水稻生产取得了令人瞩目的成就,但仍面临多方面的问题,今后应进一步引进和推广杂交水稻,并增强农田基础设施建设等措施,以提高水稻产量.

  18. Spatial and Spectral Hybrid Image Classification for Rice Lodging Assessment through UAV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Der Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice lodging identification relies on manual in situ assessment and often leads to a compensation dispute in agricultural disaster assessment. Therefore, this study proposes a comprehensive and efficient classification technique for agricultural lands that entails using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV imagery. In addition to spectral information, digital surface model (DSM and texture information of the images was obtained through image-based modeling and texture analysis. Moreover, single feature probability (SFP values were computed to evaluate the contribution of spectral and spatial hybrid image information to classification accuracy. The SFP results revealed that texture information was beneficial for the classification of rice and water, DSM information was valuable for lodging and tree classification, and the combination of texture and DSM information was helpful in distinguishing between artificial surface and bare land. Furthermore, a decision tree classification model incorporating SFP values yielded optimal results, with an accuracy of 96.17% and a Kappa value of 0.941, compared with that of a maximum likelihood classification model (90.76%. The rice lodging ratio in paddies at the study site was successfully identified, with three paddies being eligible for disaster relief. The study demonstrated that the proposed spatial and spectral hybrid image classification technology is a promising tool for rice lodging assessment.

  19. Responses of Yield Characteristics to High Temperature During Flowering Stage in Hybrid Rice Guodao 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Guan-fu; TAO Long-xing; SONG Jian; WANG Xi; CAO Li-yong; CHENG Shi-hua

    2008-01-01

    By sowing at different dates during 2005 and 2006 both in paddy fields and greenhouse, a super hybrid rice combination Guodao 6 and a conventional hybrid rice combination Xieyou 46 (as control) were used to analyze the differences in heat injury index, seed setting rate, grain yield and its components. Guodao 6 showed more stable yield and spikelet fertility, and lower heat injury index than Xieyou 46. Further studies indicated that the spikelet sterility is positively correlated with the average daily temperature and the maximum daily temperature, with the coefficients of 0.8604 and 0.9850 (P<0.05) respectively in Guodao 6. The effect of high temperature injury on seed setting caused by maximum daily temperature was lower than that by average daily temperature during the grain filling stage.

  20. Supplement EU maximum levels for inorganic arsenic in rice and rice products through consumption recommendations for the protection of infants, toddlers and children

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2015-01-01

    Rice and rice-based products, such as rice cakes or rice flakes for creamed rice, can contain relatively high levels of inorganic arsenic. Inorganic arsenic is classified as carcinogenic for humans by international panels and no intake quantity can be defined as safe for human health with regard to its carcinogenic effect (cf. BfR opinion 018/2015). In the European Union, the introduction of maximum levels for inorganic arsenic in rice and rice products is being discussed on the basis of the ...

  1. Preliminary study on the genes related to the fertility of indica/japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Studying the sterility of indica/japonica hybrid was a prerequisite for the utilization of heterosis in high yield rice breeding. In 1986, Ikehashi et al found that wide compatibility varieties, which possessed S5-n allele, couldovercome the sterility of indica/japonica hybrids, and thesterilitv was mainly caused by allelic interaction at S-5 lo-cus. Further studies indicated that the sterility could notbe completely overcome just by S5-n. There were must beother loci responsible for the sterility of indica/ japonicahybrids.

  2. Two neutral alleles of improving male gamete abortion in indica-japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@It was difficult to use the pronounced heterosis of indica-japonica hybrids rice due to the panicle sterility caused by male and female gamete abortion. The female gamete abortion in most of subspecific hybrids could be solved by using an abortion-neutral gene S5-n, a wide compatibility gene. The problem of male gamete abortion indicated by distorted segregation of marker genes remained to be studied. Segregation distortion via male gamete had been reported on chromosomes 3, 7, 8, 11, and 12.

  3. Photochemical properties in flag leaves of a super-high-yielding hybrid rice and a traditional hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) probed by chlorophyll a fluorescence transient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiping; Shan, YongJie; Kochian, Leon; Strasser, Reto J; Chen, GuoXiang

    2015-12-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence of flag leaves in a super-high-yielding hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) LYPJ, and a traditional hybrid rice SY63 cultivar with lower grain yield, which were grown in the field, were investigated from emergence through senescence of flag leaves. As the flag leaf matured, there was an increasing trend in photosynthetic parameters such as quantum efficiency of primary photochemistry ([Formula: see text] Po) and efficiency of electron transport from PS II to PS I (Ψ Eo). The overall photosynthetic performance index (PIABS) was significantly higher in the high-yielding LYPJ compared to SY63 during the entire reproductive stage of the plant, the same to MDA content. However, [Formula: see text] Po(=F V/F M), an indicator of the primary photochemistry of the flag leaf, did not display significant changes with leaf age and was not significantly different between the two cultivars, suggesting that PIABS is a more sensitive parameter than [Formula: see text] Po (=F V/F M) during leaf age for distinguishing between cultivars differing in yield.

  4. [Development on a rice-based food product, for children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, E; Mahecha, G; Moreno, B E; Rodríguez, G S

    1988-06-01

    An infant dehydrated rice-based food product, complemented with soybean flour, was developed. To improve its nutritional and organoleptic characteristics, fruits were also added. Ingredients were first precooked and dried in a drum-dryer, obtaining a final product, as flakes, with a 2 to 3% water content. This rehydrates easily with liquids such as milk, water or "panela" (refined and concentrated sugar cane syrup). The sensory panel did not detect any difference between formulations containing 10, 15 and 20% soybean, respectively.

  5. Progress on Transferring Elite Genes from Non-AA Genome Wild Rice into Oryza sativa through Interspecific Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The progress of research on transferring elite genes from non-AA genome wild rice into Oryza sativa through interspecific hybridization are in three respects,that is,breeding monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs),constructing introgression lines (ILs) and analyzing the heredity of the characters and mapping the related genes.There are serious reproductive barriers,mainly incrossability and hybrid sterility,in the interspecific hybridization of O.sativa with non-AA genome wild rice.These are the 'bottleneck' for transferring elite genes from wild rice to O.sativa.Combining traditional crossing method with biotechnique is a reliable way to overcome the reproductive barriers and to improve the utilizing efficiency of non-AA genome wild rice.

  6. International Conference on Sustainable Rice Production - Policy, Technology and Extension Celebration Activity for International Year of Rice and World Food Day 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of more than half of the world's population. The production, processing and management of paddy rice have provided the basic conditions for the living of mankind. The production of rice has not only created employment opportunities for one billion agricultural population in developing nations, but has also contributed to the development of the splendid culture associated with rice production. Hence, effective and productive rice systems play an influential role in development of economy and improvement of quality of life. In view of this, on 16 December,2002, the UN General Assembly declared the year of 2004 the International Year of Rice.

  7. Genome-wide disruption of gene expression in allopolyploids but not hybrids of rice subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunming; Bai, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhao, Na; Hu, Lanjuan; Gong, Zhiyun; Wendel, Jonathan F; Liu, Bao

    2014-05-01

    Hybridization and polyploidization are prominent processes in plant evolution. Hybrids and allopolyploids typically exhibit radically altered gene expression patterns relative to their parents, a phenomenon termed "transcriptomic shock." To distinguish the effects of hybridization from polyploidization on coregulation of divergent alleles, we analyzed expression of parental copies (homoeologs) of 11,608 genes using RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling in reciprocal hybrids and tetraploids constructed from subspecies japonica and indica of Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). The diploid hybrids and their derived allopolyploids differ dramatically in morphology, despite having the same suite of genes and genic proportions. Allelic and homoeolog-specific transcripts were unequivocally diagnosed in the hybrids and tetraploids based on parent-specific SNPs. Compared with the in silico hybrid (parental mix), the range of progenitor expression divergence was significantly reduced in both reciprocally generated F1 hybrids, presumably due to the ameliorating effects of a common trans environment on divergent cis-factors. In contrast, parental expression differences were greatly elaborated at the polyploid level, which we propose is a consequence of stoichiometric disruptions associated with the numerous chromosomal packaging and volumetric changes accompanying nascent polyploidy. We speculate that the emergent property of "whole genome doubling" has repercussions that reverberate throughout the transcriptome and downstream, ultimately generating altered phenotypes. This perspective may yield insight into the nature of adaptation and the origin of evolutionary novelty accompanying polyploidy.

  8. An inter-subspecies hybrid rice--Liangyou-Peijiu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Liangyou-Peijiu (65002), an inter-subspecies hybrid, was bred in Jiangsu Acad of Agri Sci (JAAS) by two-line method. The female was a low-temperature-sensitive sterile line, Pei'ai 64s (japonica), and the male was 9311.

  9. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondrade, Rosa Fe; Hondrade, Edwin; Zheng, Lianqing; Elazegui, Francisco; Duque, Jo-Anne Lynne Joy E; Mundt, Christopher C; Vera Cruz, Casiana M; Garrett, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5. Rice and mungbean intercropping treatments consisted of different combinations of two- or three-row strips of rice and mungbean. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the yield of each crop alone and in the mixture or intercropping treatments. We also evaluated a land equivalent ratio for yield, along with weed biomass (where Ageratum conyzoides was particularly abundant), the severity of disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta) abundance. We analyzed the yield ranking of each cropping system across site-year combinations to determine mean relative performance and yield stability. When weighted by their relative economic value, UPL Ri-5 had the highest mean performance, but with decreasing performance in low-yielding environments. A rice and mungbean intercropping system had the second highest performance, tied with high-value Dinorado but without decreasing relative performance in low-yielding environments. Rice and mungbean intercropped with rubber have been adopted by farmers in the Arakan Valley.

  10. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Fe Hondrade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5. Rice and mungbean intercropping treatments consisted of different combinations of two- or three-row strips of rice and mungbean. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the yield of each crop alone and in the mixture or intercropping treatments. We also evaluated a land equivalent ratio for yield, along with weed biomass (where Ageratum conyzoides was particularly abundant, the severity of disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta abundance. We analyzed the yield ranking of each cropping system across site-year combinations to determine mean relative performance and yield stability. When weighted by their relative economic value, UPL Ri-5 had the highest mean performance, but with decreasing performance in low-yielding environments. A rice and mungbean intercropping system had the second highest performance, tied with high-value Dinorado but without decreasing relative performance in low-yielding environments. Rice and mungbean intercropped with rubber have been adopted by farmers in the Arakan Valley.

  11. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazegui, Francisco; Duque, Jo-Anne Lynne Joy E.; Mundt, Christopher C.; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.

    2017-01-01

    Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5. Rice and mungbean intercropping treatments consisted of different combinations of two- or three-row strips of rice and mungbean. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the yield of each crop alone and in the mixture or intercropping treatments. We also evaluated a land equivalent ratio for yield, along with weed biomass (where Ageratum conyzoides was particularly abundant), the severity of disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta) abundance. We analyzed the yield ranking of each cropping system across site-year combinations to determine mean relative performance and yield stability. When weighted by their relative economic value, UPL Ri-5 had the highest mean performance, but with decreasing performance in low-yielding environments. A rice and mungbean intercropping system had the second highest performance, tied with high-value Dinorado but without decreasing relative performance in low-yielding environments. Rice and mungbean intercropped with rubber have been adopted by farmers in the Arakan Valley. PMID:28194318

  12. Su mmary of Seed Production Technique of Transgenic Herbicide-resistant Early Season Two-line Hybrid Rice Xiang 1 25 S/Bar68 -1%转基因抗除草剂两系杂交早稻香125 S/Bar68-1的制种技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱民; 蒋天智; 廖翠猛; 肖国樱

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the spring-sowing seed production technique of transgenic herbicide -resistant early season two-line hybrid rice Xiang 125S/Bar68-1 in Lingling District,Yongzhou City,Hunan Province.The technique ap-proaches and parameters include selection of suitable place for seed production,choice of seed production season,risk eval-uation of male sterility fluctuation of male sterile line on heading stage,characters of parental lines,arrangement of seeding interval between parental lines,ideal heading date synchronization and forecasting standard,making up suitable populations of parental lines,and gibberellin application,etc.%总结了转基因抗除草剂两系杂交早稻香125S/Bar68-1在湖南省永州市零陵区的春播制种技术,包括适宜制种基地的选择、制种季节安排、母本不育性安全性分析、亲本特性、父母本播差期安排、理想花期相遇及预测标准、父母本群体培育技术、赤霉素喷施等措施。

  13. [Effects of ozone stress on photosynthesis and dry matter production of rice II -you 084 under different Planting densities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bin; Lai, Shang-kun; Li, Pan-lin; Wang, Yun-xia; Zhu, Jian-guo; Yang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yu-long

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of ozone stress on photosynthesis, dry matter production, non-structural carbohydrate and yield formation of rice, a free air ozone concentration enrichment (FACE) experiment was conducted. A super hybrid rice cultivar II-you 084 with 3 spacing levels, low plant density (LD, 16 hills per m2), medium (MD, 24 hills per m2) and high plant density (HD, 32 hills per m2), was grown in the field at current and elevated ozone concentrations (current × 1.5). The results were as follows: Elevated ozone significantly reduced leaf SPAD value of UI-you 084 by 6%, 11% and 13%, at 63, 77, and 86 days after transplanting, respectively. The declines in leaf net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate at filling stage increased significantly on ozone stress over time. Ozone stress decreased dry matter production of rice by 46% from heading stage to plant maturity, thus reduced biomass yield by 25%. Elevated ozone decreased the concentration and accumulation of soluble carbohydrate and starch in stem of II-you 084 at jointing, heading and plant maturity, but significantly increased the dry matter transportation rate. No significant interaction was observed between ozone and planting density for photosynthesis, dry matter production and non-structural carbohydrate of rice. The above results indicated that elevated ozone reduced photosynthesis and growth of rice II-you 084 at late growth stage, which had no relationship with planting density.

  14. Effects of Plant Density and Nitrogen Application Rate on Grain Yield and Nitrogen Uptake of Super Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xian-qing; ZHU De-feng; CHEN Hui-zhe; ZHANG Yu-ping

    2009-01-01

    The nitrogen uptake, yield and its components for two super-high-yielding hybrid rice combinations, Guodao 6 and Eryou 7954 were investigated under different plant densities (15, 18, and 21 plants/m2) and different nitrogen application rates (120, 150, 180, and 210 kg/hm2). The experiment was conducted on loam soil during 2004-2006 at the experimental farm of the China National Rice Research Institute in Hangzhou, China. In these years, the two hybrid rice clearly showed higher yield at a plant density of 15 plants/m2 with a nitrogen application rate of 180 kg/hm2. Guodao 6 produced an average grain yield of 10 215.6 kg/hm2 across the three years, while the yield of Eryou 7954 was 9 633.0 kg/hm2. With fewer plants per unit-area and larger plants in the plots, the two hybrid rice produced more panicles per plant in three years. The highest nitrogen uptake of the two hybrid rice was at a plant density of 15 plants/m2 with a nitrogen application rate of 180 kg/hm2. Further increasing nitrogen application rate was not advantageous for nitrogen uptake in super-high-yielding rice under the same plant density.

  15. Enhancing disease resistances of Super Hybrid Rice with four antifungal genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A plant expression vector harboring four antifungal genes was delivered into the embryogenic calli of ‘9311’, an indica restorer line of Super Hybrid Rice, via modified biolistic particle bombardment. Southern blot analysis indicated that in the regenerated hygromycin-resistant plants, all the four anti-fungal genes, including RCH10, RAC22, β-Glu and B-RIP, were integrated into the genome of ‘9311’, co-transmitted altogether with the marker gene hpt in a Mendelian pattern. Some transgenic R1 and R2 progenies, with all transgenes displaying a normal expression level in the Northern blot analysis, showed high resistance to Magnaporthe grisea when tested in the typical blast nurseries located in Yanxi and Sanya respectively. Furthermore, transgenic F1 plants, resulting from a cross of R2 homo-zygous lines with high resistance to rice blast with the non-transgenic male sterile line Peiai 64S, showed not only high resistance to M. grisea but also enhanced resistance to rice false smut (a disease caused by Ustilaginoidea virens) and rice kernel smut (another disease caused by Tilletia barclayana).

  16. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seed Sterilization and Germination Enhancement via Atmospheric Hybrid Nonthermal Discharge Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamsen, Natthaporn; Onwimol, Damrongvudhi; Teerakawanich, Nithiphat; Dechanupaprittha, Sanchai; Kanokbannakorn, Weerawoot; Hongesombut, Komsan; Srisonphan, Siwapon

    2016-08-01

    We designed a system to produce atmospheric hybrid cold-discharge plasma (HCP) based on microcorona discharge on a single dielectric barrier and applied it to inactivate microorganisms that commonly attach the rice seed husk. The cold-plasma treatment modified the surface of the rice seeds, resulting in accelerated germination and enhanced water imbibition. The treatment can operate under air-based ambient conditions without the need for a vacuum. The cold-plasma treatment completely inactivated pathogenic fungi and other microorganisms, enhancing the germination percentage and seedling quality. The final germination percentage of the treated rice seeds was ∼98%, whereas that of the nontreated seeds was ∼90%. Microcorona discharge on a single dielectric barrier provides a nonaggressive cold plasma that can be applied to organic materials without causing thermal and electrical damage. The hybrid nonthermal plasma is cost effective and consumes relatively little power, making it suitable for the surface sterilization and disinfection of organic and biological materials with large-scale compatibility.

  17. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste).

  18. 杂交稻新品种Ⅱ优5928亲本特征特性及高产制种技术%Parent Characteristics and High-yield Seed Production Techniques for New Late Indica Hybrid Rice Combination , Ⅱ you 5928

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建平; 徐淑英

    2012-01-01

    Ⅱ You 5928 is a late indica hybrid rice combination derived from CMS line Ⅱ-32A and restore line longhui 5928 by Longyan Agricultural institution,Fujian province,and authorized by the Fujian Provincial Crop Variety Approval Committee in 2008.The characteristics of the combination was high yield,disease resistance,wide adaptability,high seed production.The parental characteristics and seed production techniques were summarized in the paper.%Ⅱ优5928是福建省龙岩市农科所用不育系Ⅱ-32A与自育恢复系龙恢5928配组育成的晚籼杂交稻新品种,2008年通过福建省农作物品种审定。具有产量高、抗病性强、广适性好、制种产量高等特色优势性状。概括了Ⅱ优5928亲本的特征特性,总结了该品种的高产制种技术。

  19. Biodiesel production from rice bran oil and supercritical methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Novy Srihartati; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Gunawan, Setiyo; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2009-04-01

    In this study, production of biodiesel from low cost raw materials, such as rice bran and dewaxed-degummed rice bran oil (DDRBO), under supercritical condition was carried out. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was employed as co-solvent to decrease the supercritical temperature and pressure of methanol. The effects of different raw materials on the yield of biodiesel production were investigated. In situ transesterification of rice bran with supercritical methanol at 30MPa and 300 degrees C for 5 min was not a promising way to produce biodiesel because the purity and yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained were 52.52% and 51.28%, respectively. When DDRBO was reacted, the purity and yield were 89.25% and 94.84%, respectively. Trans-FAMEs, which constituted about 16% of biodiesel, were found. They were identified as methyl elaidate [trans-9], methyl linoleaidate [trans-9, trans-12], methyl linoleaidate [cis-9, trans-12], and methyl linoleaidate [trans-9, cis-12]. Hydrocarbons, which constituted about 3% of the reaction product, were also detected.

  20. IMPACT OF MARKET-DETERMINED EXCHANGE RATES ON RICE PRODUCTION AND IMPORT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Aishat Ammani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an economically important food security crop, cultivated in almost all of Nigeria’s 36 States. Nigeria spends more than 356 billion naira (2.24 billion US dollars annually on rice import. This paper set out to analyze the trend in rice production, productivity, import, value of import and consumption that follows the adoption of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP in Nigeria, with emphasis on the effects of exchange rate (ER deregulation on domestic rice production and rice imports over the period 1986-2010. Relevant time series data were collected and used. A semi-log growth rate model and 2simple linear regression models were developed and estimated. Highlights of the findings include (i accelerated rate of growth in rice production (Instantaneous Growth Rate (IGR 2.2%; Cumulative Growth Rate (CGR 2.2%; rice hectarage (IGR 3.7%; CGR 3.8%; rice importation (IGR 8.5%; CGR8.9%; expenditure on rice importation (IGR 10.6%; CGR 11.2% and rice consumption (IGR 3.4%; CGR 3.5% alongside a significant deceleration in rice yield (IGR -1.4%; CGR -201.4% (ii The observed significant increase in domestic rice production cannot be confidently attributed to ER deregulation alone because it does not lead to a decrease in rice importation into Nigeria. (iii The significant increase in domestic rice importation as observed contradicts a priori expectation that ER deregulation will lead to significant decrease in rice importation. The study concluded that free market approach alone cannot stimulate local agricultural production in countries where farmers producing under low-technology-agriculture are put in direct competition with farmers from advancedtechnology-agriculture; hence governments need to restrict importation to protect local producers.

  1. Forecasting Rice Productivity and Production of Odisha, India, Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting of rice area, production, and productivity of Odisha was made from the historical data of 1950-51 to 2008-09 by using univariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models and was compared with the forecasted all Indian data. The autoregressive (p and moving average (q parameters were identified based on the significant spikes in the plots of partial autocorrelation function (PACF and autocorrelation function (ACF of the different time series. ARIMA (2, 1, 0 model was found suitable for all Indian rice productivity and production, whereas ARIMA (1, 1, 1 was best fitted for forecasting of rice productivity and production in Odisha. Prediction was made for the immediate next three years, that is, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10, using the best fitted ARIMA models based on minimum value of the selection criterion, that is, Akaike information criteria (AIC and Schwarz-Bayesian information criteria (SBC. The performances of models were validated by comparing with percentage deviation from the actual values and mean absolute percent error (MAPE, which was found to be 0.61 and 2.99% for the area under rice in Odisha and India, respectively. Similarly for prediction of rice production and productivity in Odisha and India, the MAPE was found to be less than 6%.

  2. Comparative Performance of Hybrid and Elite Inbred Rice Varieties with respect to Their Source-Sink Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Moinul Haque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rice varieties have higher yield potential over inbred varieties. This improvement is not always translated to the grain yield and its physiological causes are still unclear. In order to clarify it, two field experiments were conducted including two popular indica hybrids (BRRI hybrid dhan2 and Heera2 and one elite inbred (BRRI dhan45 rice varieties. Leaf area index, chlorophyll status, and photosynthetic rate of flag leaf, postheading crop growth rate, shoot reserve translocation, source-sink relation and yield, and its attributes of each variety were comprehensively analyzed. Both hybrid varieties outyielded the inbred. However, the hybrids and inbred varieties exhibited statistically identical yield in late planting. Both hybrids accumulated higher amount of biomass before heading and exhibited greater remobilization of assimilates to the grain in early plantings compared to the inbred variety. Filled grain (% declined significantly at delayed planting in the hybrids compared to elite inbred due to increased temperature impaired-inefficient transport of assimilates. Flag leaf photosynthesis parameters were higher in the hybrid varieties than those of the inbred variety. Results suggest that greater remobilization of shoot reserves to the grain rendered higher yield of hybrid rice varieties.

  3. STARCH RETROGRADATION AND PRODUCTION OF RESISTANT STARCH IN COOKED RICE

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    After rice cooking, retrogradation of starch in a cooked rice progresses quickly at under gelatinization temperature. Cold rice (aging rice) is tasteless, firm and digested slowly. My aim in this report is explained the relationship between cold rice tasteless and indexes of starch retrogradation. Starch gelatinization degree, starch whiteness index and resistant starch content that were indexes of starch retrogradation did not change remarkably of cold and aging rice that were very firm and ...

  4. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piera, Mireia [UNED, ETSII-Dp Ingenieria Energetica, c/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M. [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid. (author)

  5. Rice Breeding and World Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the relation of technology to the green revolution, the role of plant breeders in inducing change in stagnant agriculture and the tools required by production scientists to increase yields of basic food crops in developing countries. (BR)

  6. Male Parent Plays More Important Role in Heat Tolerance in Three-Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Guan-fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ten F1 combinations with their male and female parents were employed to evaluate their heat tolerance during the flowering and early grain filling stages. The rice plants were subjected to heat stress (39 °C–43 °C for 1–15 d during flowering. Based on the heat stress index, heat tolerance was only observed in the F1 combinations H2 (K22A × R207, H3 (Bobai A × R207 and H4 (Bobai A × Minghui 63, whereas the others received above 0.5000 of heat stress index. Both parents of the tolerant combination (heat-tolerant × heat-tolerant possessed heat tolerance, whereas the susceptible combinations were crossed by heat-tolerant (sterile lines × heat-susceptible (restorer lines, heat-susceptible × heat-tolerant, or heat-susceptible × heat-susceptible parents. This result indicated that heat tolerance in rice was controlled by recessive genes. Thus, both parents should possess high temperature tolerance to develop heat-tolerant F1 combinations. Furthermore, the heat stress index of F1 combinations was significantly correlated with the heat stress index of restorer lines but not with the heat stress index of maintainer lines. This result suggested that male parents play a more important role in heat-tolerant combinations than female parents. Therefore, the heat susceptibility of the hybrid rice in China is mainly due to the wide application of low-heat-tolerant restorer lines with high yield in three-line hybrid rice breeding.

  7. Intensification of Rice Production Systems in Southeastern Nigeria: A Policy Analysis Matrix Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert I. Ugochukwu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian rice sector has made remarkable improvementin the last decade as production has increased significantlythereby reducing the gap between domestic supply and demand.In the last three decades, rice imports make up greater proportionof Nigerian imports as rice forms a structural component ofthe Nigerian diet. Past government inconsistent policies werenot successful in securing good market share for domestic riceproducers, hence producers suffered great losses. The recentresurgence of interest by the present administration to intensifydomestic rice production has yielded positive results. The objective of this study is to analyze and assess the costs andbenefits of intensification of rice production systems in southeastern Nigeria using a policy analysis matrix approach. MultiStage sampling technique was employed in selecting 75 uplandand 75 lowland rice farmers who were interviewed withstructured and validated questionnaire. Data were analyzedusing Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The result shows thatupland; lowland and double rice cropping systems in southeasternNigeria are profitable based on the policy analysis matrix(PAM model, and rice production under various systems andtechnologies is socially profitable and financially competitive.While there exist comparative advantage in the variousproduction systems, with lowland and double cropping beinghighest, substantial tax was imposed on rice imports in Nigeriaand government investment in intensifying rice productionhad a positive impact on the output of local rice production.The study concludes with strategies for the development ofrice sub sector in Nigeri

  8. Hybrid simulation models of production networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kouikoglou, Vassilis S

    2001-01-01

    This book is concerned with a most important area of industrial production, that of analysis and optimization of production lines and networks using discrete-event models and simulation. The book introduces a novel approach that combines analytic models and discrete-event simulation. Unlike conventional piece-by-piece simulation, this method observes a reduced number of events between which the evolution of the system is tracked analytically. Using this hybrid approach, several models are developed for the analysis of production lines and networks. The hybrid approach combines speed and accuracy for exceptional analysis of most practical situations. A number of optimization problems, involving buffer design, workforce planning, and production control, are solved through the use of hybrid models.

  9. Virulence Types of Magnaporthe oryzae to Hybrid Rice in Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu-lian; ZHANG Xue-mei; FENG Hui; JI Hong-li; HUANG Yun; PENG Yun-liang

    2012-01-01

    A total of 638 isolates of rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) were isolated in 2002-2009 from different rice varieties in different regions of Sichuan,China and inoculated onto seven rice varieties (Lijiangxintuanheigu,IR24,Minghui 63,Duohui 1,Chenghui 448,Neihui 99-14 and RHR-1) to differentiate the virulence types of the fungus and trace the changes.The virulence to the seven varieties was respectively scored at 1,2,4,8,16,32 and 64.The total scores of individual M.grisea isolates which were the sum of scores infecting differential varieties could,in turn,be used for the nomenclature of the virulence types due to their accordance to the special virulence patterns.The 638 tested isolates were then differentiated into 56 different virulence types.Type 15 virulent to Lijiangxintuanheigu,IR24 and Minghui 63,and Type 127 virulent to all of the seven varieties were the most dominant virulence types respectively with the occurrence frequencies of 15.99% and 15.83%.Type 19 and other seven virulence types were not monitored during 2002-2009.Type 15 was the predominant virulence type in 2002,2003,2004 and 2007,whereas Type 127 had been the most dominant virulence type after 2005 except for the year 2007 when the province underwent severe drought.Five hundred and seven out of the 638 tested isolates were virulent to Minghui 63,and 89.58% of the 384 isolates virulent to either Duohui 1,Chenghui 448 or Neihui 99-14 were virulent to Minghui 63,which indicated the impact of the extensive plantation of hybrid rice Minghui 63 as the restorer line on the virulence evolution of M.oryzae in Sichuan.The virulence pattern of the dominant virulence types suggested that the acquiring of virulence to all the major resistant restorer lines was the main routes of the evolution in virulence of M.oryzae to hybrid rice in Sichuan.The virulence frequencies of the 638 tested isolates to IR24,Minghui 63,Duohui 1,Chenghui 448,Neihui 99-14 and RHR-1 were respectively 74.6%,79.5%,73.8%,37

  10. Virulence Types of Magnaporthe oryzae to Hybrid Rice in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-lian BAI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 638 isolates of rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae were isolated in 2002–2009 from different rice varieties in different regions of Sichuan, China and inoculated onto seven rice varieties (Lijiangxintuanheigu, IR24, Minghui 63, Duohui 1, Chenghui 448, Neihui 99-14 and RHR-1 to differentiate the virulence types of the fungus and trace the changes. The virulence to the seven varieties was respectively scored at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64. The total scores of individual M. grisea isolates which were the sum of scores infecting differential varieties could, in turn, be used for the nomenclature of the virulence types due to their accordance to the special virulence patterns. The 638 tested isolates were then differentiated into 56 different virulence types. Type 15 virulent to Lijiangxintuanheigu, IR24 and Minghui 63, and Type 127 virulent to all of the seven varieties were the most dominant virulence types respectively with the occurrence frequencies of 15.99% and 15.83%. Type 19 and other seven virulence types were not monitored during 2002–2009. Type 15 was the predominant virulence type in 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2007, whereas Type 127 had been the most dominant virulence type after 2005 except for the year 2007 when the province underwent severe drought. Five hundred and seven out of the 638 tested isolates were virulent to Minghui 63, and 89.58% of the 384 isolates virulent to either Duohui 1, Chenghui 448 or Neihui 99-14 were virulent to Minghui 63, which indicated the impact of the extensive plantation of hybrid rice Minghui 63 as the restorer line on the virulence evolution of M. oryzae in Sichuan. The virulence pattern of the dominant virulence types suggested that the acquiring of virulence to all the major resistant restorer lines was the main routes of the evolution in virulence of M. oryzae to hybrid rice in Sichuan. The virulence frequencies of the 638 tested isolates to IR24, Minghui 63, Duohui 1, Chenghui 448, Neihui 99

  11. Vegetable production after flooded rice improves soil properties in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Neeteson, J.J.; Pham Thi Thu, H.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable production in South East Asia often is in rotation with °ooded rice. The puddling of the soil with flooded rice production may result in unfavourable soil conditions for the subsequent production of dry land crops. To establish whether permanent vegetable production results in favourable s

  12. The competitiveness of domestic rice production in East Africa: A domestic resource cost approach in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kikuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of rice imports in sub-Saharan Africa under the unstable situation in the world rice market during the 2000s has made it an important policy target for the countries in the region to increase self-sufficiency in rice in order to enhance food security. Whether domestic rice production can be competitive with imported rice is a serious question in East African countries that lie close, just across the Arabian Sea, to major rice exporting countries in South Asia. This study investigates the international competitiveness of domestic rice production in Uganda in terms of the domestic resource cost ratio. The results show that rainfed rice cultivation, which accounts for 95% of domestic rice production, does not have a comparative advantage with respect to rice imported from Pakistan, the largest supplier of imported rice to Uganda. However, the degree of non-competitiveness is not serious, and a high possibility exists for Uganda’s rainfed rice cultivation to become internationally competitive by improving yield levels by applying more modern inputs and enhancing labour productivity. Irrigated rice cultivation, though very limited in area, is competitive even under the present input-output structure when the cost of irrigation infrastructure is treated as a sunk cost. If the cost of installing irrigation infrastructure and its operation and maintenance is taken into account, the types of irrigation development that are economically feasible are not large-scale irrigation projects, but are small- and microscale projects for lowland rice cultivation and rain-water harvesting for upland rice cultivation.

  13. Induction of apomixis and fixation of heterosis in Egyptian rice Hybrid1 line using colchicine mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. Gaafar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that hybrid rice yields 15–20% over inbred varieties in first generation because of heterosis. However, heterosis is normally broken due to segregation. Applying apomixis produces plants as a clone of mother plant and overcomes the problem of breaking heterosis. In order to fix heterosis in the Egyptian rice Hybrid1, their seeds were mutagenized in 0.2% colchicine for two time periods 24 and 50 h. After colchicine mutagenesis, rice seedlings were grown in the field till maturation and the resulted M1 seeds were sown in season 2 and plants were selected based on yield and homogeneity. Then, seeds were sown to be evaluated in season 3. Pollen fertility test, esterase isozyme analysis, and flow cytometry seed screening were performed to confirm the results of field selection of populations identical to control. Pollen fertility examination was performed on the populations of the third season. Pollens of populations 304, 298, 292, 284, 281, 154 and 149 were found to be completely sterile. However, these plants had high seed set percentage. The flow cytometry screening of the six yield-based identical populations and the control seeds showed that populations 220, 339, 351 and 298 have higher nuclear DNA content (C2 than untreated hybrid (C2 & C3. Results of flow cytometry clearly showed that population 298 has one peak (C2 and its endosperm was formed autonomously without fertilization. Although its pollen grains were sterile, it showed high seed set percentage. This indicates that heterosis was completely fixed by apomixis in this population.

  14. Comparative Analysis on Rice Plant Type of Two Super Hybrids and Shanyou63

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chuan-gen; ZOU Jiang-shi

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of plant type and physiological indices for photosynthesis were analyzedusing two super hybrid rices, Liangyoupeijiu and LiangyouE32 as materials, and an indica hybrid, Shan-you63 as a control. Based on the present analysis and various theories and breeding practices on rice planttype, a model of plant ideotype for super hybrid rice (indica) in the lower reaches of Yangtze River Valleywas proposed. This was: a length of 35 - 40 cm for top leaf with a width of 2 cm, and that of 50 - 55 cmand 55 - 60 crm, respectively, for the second and third leaves from top, meanwhile, having a leaf angle of5°, 10° and 15° respectively, and a curvature of 1 - 1.5 cm-1 for the leaf face at heading stage; the upper-most three leaves keeping their activities for as long as 70 d, which could lead a LAI of 3 at full ripeness;loose plant type with thin (SLW=2.5- 3 gcm-2 , dry weight) and curve-slant leaves during early growingstage, and compact plant type by thick (SLW = 4 - 5 gcm-2 ) and erect leaves during the middle and lategrowing stages; with a coefficient of light extinction of 0.3 - 0.4, which allowed for an optimal LAI high of8 - 10 during the middle growth period; plant height of 110 -120 cm, with 2 -4 cm basal internode and along uppermost internode occupying 45 % of total stem length; 25 - 28 cm panicle with 8 - 10 spikelets percentimeter showing bend-type in ripening; a rich chlorophyll which led to a high net photosynthetic rate,and tolerance to light shading and photooxidation which is of benefit to increasing the adaptability to varyinglight conditions.

  15. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects ...

  16. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...

  17. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...

  18. Improvement of Resistance to Bacterial Blight by Marker-Assisted Selection in a Wide Compatibility Restorer Line of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiu-hua; LUO Yan-chang; LIU Qiao-quan; WANG Shou-hai; WU Hsin-kan; LI Cheng-quan; WANG Zong-yang; WU Shuang; GU Ming-hong; WANG De-zheng; DU Shi-yun

    2004-01-01

    4183 is a promising wide compatibility restorer line with good grain quality. Its hybrid rice Shuangyou 4183 (Shuangjiu A/4183) was registered in Anhui Province in 2003. However, the line and its hybrid rice are susceptible to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). R4183 carrying Xa21 was developed to improve bacterial blight resistance of 4183 through introducing the broad-spectrum resistance gene Xa21 by marker-aided selection. R4183 had similar level of bacterial blight resistance to IRBB21, the resistant donor, while maintained the wide compatibility, restoring ability and other good economic traits of the recurrent parent 4183. Critical issues on improvement of bacterial blight resistance of hybrid rice and breeding strategies were also discussed.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Endosperm Proteins Separated by 2-D Electrophoresis for Two Cultivars of Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingfang Yang; Shihua Shen; Tingyun Kuang

    2006-01-01

    Liangyoupeijiu is a two-parental-line, and Shanyou63 is a three-parental-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).Although both belong to the indica subspecies, they have obvious differences with respect to morphology,physiology and grain quality. Variations in endosperm protein compositions were studied by comparing the 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE) maps for these two cultivars of hybrid rice. After matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, a 21-kDa precursor of 19-kDa globulin was identified as the major storage protein for both cultivars. Some isoforms of peroxiredoxin and seed maturation protein were found to only exist in Shanyou63, whereas aldose reductase and starch granule-bound starch synthase were only detected in Liangyoupeijiu. These data might provide a foundation for further comparative studies of these two cultivars of hybrid rice.

  20. Allele distributions at hybrid incompatibility loci facilitate the potential for gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Stephanie M; Reagon, Michael; Resnick, Lauren E; Caicedo, Ana L

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of independent mutations over time in two populations often leads to reproductive isolation. Reproductive isolation between diverging populations may be reinforced by barriers that occur either pre- or postzygotically. Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic isolation in plants. Four postzygotic sterility loci, comprising three hybrid sterility systems (Sa, s5, DPL), have been recently identified in Oryza sativa. These loci explain, in part, the limited hybridization that occurs between the domesticated cultivated rice varieties, O. sativa spp. japonica and O. sativa spp. indica. In the United States, cultivated fields of japonica rice are often invaded by conspecific weeds that have been shown to be of indica origin. Crop-weed hybrids have been identified in crop fields, but at low frequencies. Here we examined the possible role of these hybrid incompatibility loci in the interaction between cultivated and weedy rice. We identified a novel allele at Sa that seemingly prevents loss of fertility in hybrids. Additionally, we found wide-compatibility type alleles at strikingly high frequencies at the Sa and s5 loci in weed groups, and a general lack of incompatible alleles between crops and weeds at the DPL loci. Our results suggest that weedy individuals, particularly those of the SH and BRH groups, should be able to freely hybridize with the local japonica crop, and that prezygotic factors, such as differences in flowering time, have been more important in limiting weed-crop gene flow in the past. As the selective landscape for weedy rice changes due to increased use of herbicide resistant strains of cultivated rice, the genetic barriers that hinder indica-japonica hybridization cannot be counted on to limit the flow of favorable crop genes into weeds.

  1. Allele distributions at hybrid incompatibility loci facilitate the potential for gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Craig

    Full Text Available The accumulation of independent mutations over time in two populations often leads to reproductive isolation. Reproductive isolation between diverging populations may be reinforced by barriers that occur either pre- or postzygotically. Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic isolation in plants. Four postzygotic sterility loci, comprising three hybrid sterility systems (Sa, s5, DPL, have been recently identified in Oryza sativa. These loci explain, in part, the limited hybridization that occurs between the domesticated cultivated rice varieties, O. sativa spp. japonica and O. sativa spp. indica. In the United States, cultivated fields of japonica rice are often invaded by conspecific weeds that have been shown to be of indica origin. Crop-weed hybrids have been identified in crop fields, but at low frequencies. Here we examined the possible role of these hybrid incompatibility loci in the interaction between cultivated and weedy rice. We identified a novel allele at Sa that seemingly prevents loss of fertility in hybrids. Additionally, we found wide-compatibility type alleles at strikingly high frequencies at the Sa and s5 loci in weed groups, and a general lack of incompatible alleles between crops and weeds at the DPL loci. Our results suggest that weedy individuals, particularly those of the SH and BRH groups, should be able to freely hybridize with the local japonica crop, and that prezygotic factors, such as differences in flowering time, have been more important in limiting weed-crop gene flow in the past. As the selective landscape for weedy rice changes due to increased use of herbicide resistant strains of cultivated rice, the genetic barriers that hinder indica-japonica hybridization cannot be counted on to limit the flow of favorable crop genes into weeds.

  2. Two new loci for hybrid sterility in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J; Yamaguchi, Y; Kato, H; Ikehashi, H

    1996-02-01

    Female gamete abortion in Indica-Japonica crosses of rice was earlier identified to be due to an allelic interaction at the S-5 locus on chromosome 6. Recently, in other crosses of rice, similar allelic interactions were found at loci designated as S-7 and S-8, located on chromosomes 7 and 6 respectively. All of them are independent of each other. At the S-5 locus, Indica and Japonica rice have S-5 (i) and S-5 (j) alleles respectively and Javanicas, such as Ketan Nangka, have a neutral allele S-5 (n) .The S-5 (i) /S-5 (j) genotype is semi-sterile due to partial abortion of female gametes carrying S-5 (j) , but both the S-5 (n) /S-5 (i) and S-5 (n) /S-5 (j) genotypes are fertile. The S-5 (n) allele is thus a "wide-compatibility gene" (WCG), and parents homozygous for this allele are called wide-compatible varieties (WCV). Such parents when crossed with Indica or Japonica varieties do not show F1 hybrid sterility. Wide-compatible parents have been used to overcome sterility barriers in crosses between Indica and Japonica rice. However, a Javanica variety, Ketan Nangka (WCV), showed typical hybrid sterility when crossed to the Indian varieties N22 and Jaya. Further, Dular, another WCV from India, showed typical hybrid sterility when crossed to an IRRI line, IR2061-628-1-6-4-3(IR2061-628). By genetic analyses using isozyme markers, a new locus causing hybrid sterility in crosses between Ketan Nangka and the Indicas was located near isozyme loci Est-1 and Mal-1 on chromosome 4, and was designated as S-9. Another new locus for hybrid sterility in the crosses between Dular and the IR2061-628 was identified and was found linked to four isozyme loci, Sdh-1, Pox-2, Acp-1 and Acp-2, on chromosome 12. It was designated as S-15. On the basis of allelic interactions causing female-gamete abortion, two alleles were found at S-9, S-9 (kn) in Ketan Nangka and S-9 (i) in N22 and Jaya. In the heterozygote, S-9 (kn) /S-9 (i) , which was semisterile, female gametes carrying S-9 (kn

  3. Study on the Practice and High-yielding Mechanism of Super-sparse-cultivation Associated with Maximum-tiller Seedling of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; TAO Shi-shun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new cultivation practice-super-sparse-cultivation associated with maximumtiller seedling (SSCMTS) of hybrid rice was proposed and its high-yielding mechanism was studied. The results showed that the practice of SSCMTS in hybrid rice could not only increase grain yield but also save seeds and labor. It was a new high-yielding way for the late transplanting seedlings and heavy panicle type hybrid rice cultivars to further utilize the high-yielding potential of hybrid rice cultivars. The increasing number of spikelets and ideal grain -filling were the direct factors for the high yield of SSCMTS in hybrid rice, and those high-yielding factors relied on high quality seedlings, sturdy individuals, high quality population and vigorous later growth.

  4. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  5. Identification of Some Degradation Products of Golden Rice Beta- carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden Rice (GR2) is genetically modified rice, which can contain as high as 37 ug of beta-carotene per g of dry rice. It was developed to combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a major malnutrition problem in many parts of the developing world, especially in South and South Eastern Asia, where rice is ...

  6. Rice photosynthetic productivity and PSII photochemistry under nonflooded irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haibing; Yang, Ru; Jia, Biao; Chen, Lin; Fan, Hua; Cui, Jing; Yang, Dong; Li, Menglong; Ma, Fu-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM), furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN), and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI). Compared with the conventional flooding (CF) treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN), lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII). And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC). Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA) were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  7. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  8. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sibtain; Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  9. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  10. Partitioning of CH(4 and CO(2 production originating from rice straw, soil and root organic carbon in rice microcosms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan

    Full Text Available Flooded rice fields are an important source of the greenhouse gas CH(4. Possible carbon sources for CH(4 and CO(2 production in rice fields are soil organic matter (SOM, root organic carbon (ROC and rice straw (RS, but partitioning of the flux between the different carbon sources is difficult. We conducted greenhouse experiments using soil microcosms planted with rice. The soil was amended with and without (13C-labeled RS, using two (13C-labeled RS treatments with equal RS (5 g kg(-1 soil but different δ(13C of RS. This procedure allowed to determine the carbon flux from each of the three sources (SOM, ROC, RS by determining the δ(13C of CH(4 and CO(2 in the different incubations and from the δ(13C of RS. Partitioning of carbon flux indicated that the contribution of ROC to CH(4 production was 41% at tillering stage, increased with rice growth and was about 60% from the booting stage onwards. The contribution of ROC to CO(2 was 43% at tillering stage, increased to around 70% at booting stage and stayed relatively constant afterwards. The contribution of RS was determined to be in a range of 12-24% for CH(4 production and 11-31% for CO(2 production; while the contribution of SOM was calculated to be 23-35% for CH(4 production and 13-26% for CO(2 production. The results indicate that ROC was the major source of CH(4 though RS application greatly enhanced production and emission of CH(4 in rice field soil. Our results also suggest that data of CH(4 dissolved in rice field could be used as a proxy for the produced CH(4 after tillering stage.

  11. Rice Production Vulnerability to Climate Change in Indonesia: An Overview on Community-based Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaladara, A. A. S. P.; Budiasa, I. W.; Ambarawati, I. G. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Rice remains to be a major crop and staple food in Indonesia. The task to ensure that rice production meets the demand of a growing population continues to engage the attention of national planners and policy makers. However, the adverse effects of climate change on agriculture production have presented Indonesia with yet another significant challenge. The exposure of rice crops to climate-related hazards such as temperature stress, floods, and drought, may lead to lower yield and self-sufficiency rate. This study explores the vulnerability of rice production to the effects of climate change in Indonesia. Considering the vast geographical span of the country and varying exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity to climate change at regional level, this study emphasize the importance of community-based adaptation. Results from a simulation based on production and climate data from 1984 to 2014 indicates that rice production is sensitive to variation in growing season temperature and precipitation. A projection of these climate factors in 2050 has a significant impact on the major rice crop. To manage the impact of climate change, this study turns to the potential roles of farmer organizations, such as Subak, in adaptation strategies. The Subak in Bali is recognized for its cultural and organizational framework that highlights the sharing of knowledge and local wisdom in rice production. This is demonstrated by its efficient community-based irrigation management system, leading to sustainable rice production. Keywords: rice production, climate change, community-based adaptation, Indonesia

  12. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  13. Production of activated carbon from rice husk Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobochkin, V. V.; Tu, N. V.; Hieu, N. M.

    2016-09-01

    This work is dedicated to the production of activated carbon from rice husk from Delta of the Red River in Viet Nam. At the first stage, carbonization of a rice husk was carried out to obtain material containing 43.1% carbon and 25 % silica with a specific surface area of 51.5 m2/g. After separating of silica (the second stage), the specific surface area of the product increased to 204 m2/g and the silica content decreased to 1.23% by weight as well. The most important stage in the formation of the porous structure of the material is the activation. The products with the high specific surface area in the range of 800-1345 m2/g were obtained by activation of carbonized product with water vapour or carbon dioxide at temperatures of 700 °C and 850 °C, with varying the flow rate of the activating agent and activation time. The best results were achieved by activation of carbon material with water vapour at the flow rate of 0.08 dm3/min per 500 g of material and the temperature of 850 °C.

  14. Preliminary Study on The Potential of Hybrid Rice Husk with Kapok Fiber and Hybrid Rice Husk with Coconut Fiber as Landfill Liner Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azwa Muhamad Bashar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abundance of agricultural waste in Malaysia namely rice husk (RH, kapok fiber (KF and coconut fiber (CF has been increasing over the years. This cause disposal problem and air pollution problem from burning activity. In line with the Malaysian Government Policy on the application of green technology concept through the 5R's practice, this agricultural waste has a potential to be commercialized as material for landfill liner. A factor that governs the workability of landfill liner materials is the permeability should be less than 1x10-9 m/s. Therefore, a low permeability material needs to be installed to minimise the environmental impact on the leachate intrusion into groundwater. A series of standard tests to find environmental and geotechnical properties such as atterberg limit test (liquid limit, plastic limit, compaction test, permeability test (falling head method, leachate characteristics and heavy metal test were conducted at various ratio of hybrid materials (KC:RH and KC: CF in the ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 respectively. Experimental results confirmed that the hydraulic conductivity of the mixture of KC:RH:KF in the ratio of 1:1:1 is 7.29 x 10-11 m/s was less than 10-9 m/s, satisfying the requirement for landfill liner materials. Heavy metal testing showed that this hybrid material (RH:KF and RH:CF for ratio 1:2 were able to reduce at least 50 % of the leachate contaminants. The proposed hybrid materials (RH:KF and RH:CF is a green material for the landfill (as it can improve heavy metal adsorption, increase the workability of the landfill by improving the conductivity of the conventional liners, minimizing manpower on site (no need expertise for installation and reduction in cost (in terms of the use of waste materials.

  15. Mapping Rice Production in China with AVHRR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliouras, Eleni J.; Emery, William

    2001-01-01

    The study of rice agriculture is necessary for both the importance of rice as a vital food source and because of the fact that cultivating it has an unfortunate byproduct, namely methane gas. As a food source, rice is a staple for a large majority of the world's population, especially in Asia. Because the populations of many Asian nations are increasing at rapid rates, the production of rice will need to similarly increase. In 1989, it was estimated that the demand for rice would increase by 65% by the year 2019. Rice crops are considered to be one of the primary anthropogenic sources of methane gas. A reason for concern is that this gas is a so-called "greenhouse" trace gas and given its increasing levels in the atmosphere, is thought to contribute to the suspected global warming phenomenon. Some estimate that methane may contribute up to 20% to the global warming effect. Trace gas emissions from anthropogenic sources is an issue that generates great worldwide interest because of the fact that mankind is very likely affecting the current and future climate in potentially negative ways. In an effort to better understand these effects, scientists and engineers are conducting research on all of the varied fronts which relate to climate change and biosphere/atmosphere interactions. The study of global warming through increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is one area which has received much media and scientific attention. Research fueled by debates on this topic is being conducted on numerous, interrelated fronts in an effort to better understand the complex relationship between human activities and the earth's climate. The research ranges from attempting to verify if the observed data even supports the existence of an anthropogenically generated global-warming phenomenon, to identification of sources and sinks of the trace gases, to measuring the source strengths, to studies which focus on modeling the processes which generate the gases, and finally, to trying

  16. Traditional Parboiled Rice-Based Products Revisited:Current Status and Future Research Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Himjyoti DUTTA; Charu Lata MAHANTA

    2014-01-01

    Parboiling is an age old technique carried out to improve rice quality. Different grain parboiling techniques have been traditionally followed and scientifically developed for preparation and industrialization of rice. The state of Assam, India produces a large number of rice varieties, some of which are traditionally processed into peculiar parboiled rice products like Hurum, Komal chaul, Bhoja chaul and Sandahguri, which are of both ethnic and possible commercial importances. In spite of extensive research carried out on parboiled rice, these products and their special parboiling techniques have not been sufficiently explored. The status of research on parboiled rice as a whole with special attention to these lesser known speciality products of Assam is extensively reviewed. Future scope of research on these products is also identified.

  17. Assessment of the Economics and Resource-Use Efficiency of Rice Production in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad-Lawal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is a major importer of rice in the world with over 756 million USD annual expenditure on rice importation. This is probably due to insufficient domestic production occasioned by inefficient utilization of resources and other farm inputs. This study is therefore designed to estimate the costs and returns to rice production; and analyze resource use efficiency in rice production in Ogun State, Nigeria. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 120 rice farmers. Gross margin and regression analyses were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that an average small scale rice farmer realizes a gross margin of N 90, 634.35 per hectare. While farm size, labour and crop production systems account for 80.5% (coefficient of multiple determination, R2 of the changes in rice production, the study revealed that farm size, labour and seeds were grossly underutilized in rice production. The study therefore recommends the need for policy that would enhance increase in the allocation of land, seeds and labour in the production of rice.

  18. Role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yujie; WANG Xia; LOU Yonggen; CHENG Jiaan

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role in induced plant direct defense against herbivores and pathogens; however, up to now, only few researches have focused on its role in induced plant indirect defense, i.e. the release of herbivore-induced volatiles, and the results are variable.Using a model system consisting of rice plants, the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae, we examined the role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by N. lugens by measuring both the timing of herbivore-induced ethylene levels and the relationships between ethylene, rice volatiles and attraction of the parasitoid. N. lugens infestation significantly enhanced the release of ethylene during 2-24 h after infestation. Plants treated with ethephon, a compound that breaks down to release ethylene at cytoplasmic pH, released volatiles profiles similar to those released by N.lugens-infested plants,and both of them showed an equal attraction of the parasitoid. Moreover, pretreatment with 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, reduced the release of most of rice volatiles whose amount was enhanced by N.lugens infestation and decreased the attractiveness to the parasitoid. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling is required for the production of rice volatiles induced by N.lugens.

  19. Integrated Approach to Control False Smut in Hybrid Rice in Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; ZHANG Xue-mei; LI De-qiang; HUANG Fu; HU Pei-song; PENG Yun-liang

    2014-01-01

    Severe epidemic of false smut, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Takahashi (teleomorphVillosiclava virens) has been reported in different parts of Asia and America. Different fungicides or bio-control agents against false smut were applied at different times before heading on a susceptible rice variety Pu-6. A control efficiency as high as 91.92% was resulted from spraying 2.5% Wenquning, a suspension ofBacillus subtilis in solution of validamycin with 4.5 L/hm2at 6 d before heading. Among the 186 hybrid rice screened in 2010, low significant correlations between the dates of full heading, rates of infected plants and panicles as well as the number of infected florets were found, with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.2331 to 0.5212. However, significant difference in susceptibility coefficients was also found between the varieties which had the same dates of full heading. In the plot experiments to compare the susceptibility in 2011, the average rates of infected panicles of Yixiangyou 2168, Chuanxiangyou 3, Dexiang 4103, Yixiangyou 2115, Nei5you 317, Yangxinyou 1 were significantly lower than those of the control varieties Gangyou 725 and Gangyou 188 at the disease nursery located at Qionglai, Sichuan Province, China. When Neixiangyou 8156 and Nei5you 317 were sprayed with 2.5% Wenquning at 4.5 L/hm2 for two times at 6 d before and 1 d after heading, respectively, the control efficiencies of Nei5you 317 and Neixiangyou 8156 were respectively 100% and 82.24% compared to that of Gangyou 725. Satisfactory control effects had also obtained by single spray of 2.5% Wenquning at 4.5 L/hm2 at 5–6 d before heading. Therefore, less susceptible hybrid rice in combination with spraying Wenquning at 5–6 d before heading was suggested for the disease control in Sichuan Province, China.

  20. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL HOLDER RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN EBONYI STATE SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwaobiala C.U.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of Upland and Swamp rice production in Ebonyi State, South east Nigeria was studied and analyzed in 2011 farming season. Purposive and multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural blocks, circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 240 rice farmers (120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Upland rice contact farmers and 120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Swamp contact rice farmers. Data for the analysis were collected from a structured questionnaire. The result indicates that mean ages of upland rice farmers was 37.3 years while swamp rice farmers had 39.2 years. The mean farming experience for both farmers were 8.5 years (upland rice farmers and 8.8 years (swamp rice farmers with farm sizes of 1.2 and 1.1 hectares for upland rice farmers and swamp rice farmers respectively. Upland rice farmers had an annual farm income of 189,410.00 NGN (1,222USD as against 201,166.00 NGN (1,297.85USD for Swamp rice farmers. The multiple regression (Cobb Douglas estimates of the determinants of output of upland rice showed that coefficients age, farming experience, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed at given levels of probability while capital inputs was negative. The Cobb Douglas regression estimates of the determinants of output of Swamp rice showed that the coefficients of education, labour cost, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed and significant at given levels of probability as well as capital inputs which was negative. The result indicates that net profit from Upland rice cultivation was 92,800.00 NGN (598.71USD with a Benefit Cost Ratio of N1.55 (1.56USD. The net profit from Swamp rice cultivation was 132,090.00 NGN (852.19USD and a Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.75 NGN (1.75USD. Access to credit to rice farmers, subsidy on farm inputs, dissemination of improved rice technologies by extension agents and formation of farmer groups were advocated

  1. Production of rice straw hydrolysis enzymes by the fungi Trichoderma reesei and Humicola insolens using rice straw as a carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogo, Takashi; Yoshida, Yuki; Koganei, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2017-02-11

    Rice straw was evaluated as a carbon source for the fungi, Trichoderma reesei and Humicola insolens, to produce enzymes for rice straw hydrolysis. The enzyme activity of T. reesei and H. insolens cultivated in medium containing non-treated rice straw were almost equivalent to the enzyme of T. reesei cultivated in Avicel medium, a form of refined cellulose. The enzyme activity of T. reesei cultivated in medium containing NH4OH-treated rice straw was 4-fold higher than enzyme from cultures grown in Avicel medium. In contrast, H. insolens enzyme from cultures grown in NH4OH-treated rice straw had significantly lower activity compared with non-treated rice straw or Avicel. The combined use of T. reesei and H. insolens enzymes resulted in a significant synergistic enhancement in enzymatic activity. Our data suggest that rice straw is a promising low-cost carbon source for fungal enzyme production for rice straw hydrolysis.

  2. The blue, green and grey water footprint of rice from a production and consumption perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    The paper makes a global assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of rice, using a higher spatial resolution and local data on actual irrigation. The national water footprint of rice production and consumption is estimated using international trade and domestic production data. The

  3. Water saving in lowland rice production: an experimental and modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing demand for rice and decreasing water diversions to agriculture, urge for higher water productivity in rice production systems. One way to deal with this challenge is using water-saving regimes on field scale. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effects of water-saving

  4. Risk Assessment, Partition and Economic Loss Estimation of Rice Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural risk, especially the risk assessment, partition and economic loss estimation of specific and main crops, maize, wheat and rice, is widely touted in China as a means of improving the effective productivity. The main objective of this article is to perform a detailed analysis of the stability and comparative advantage of rice production in 30 provinces on the basis of relative rice production data from 2000 to 2012 in China. The non-parametric information diffusion model based on entropy theory was used to assess rice production risk. Accordingly, we divided the risk level with hierarchical cluster analysis. Then, we calculated the economic loss of rice production by the scenario analysis. The results show that, firstly, the national disaster risk of rice production is at a lower level. Secondly, there are significant differences in the stability, comparative advantage and risk probability of rice production among the 30 provinces. Thirdly, Shanxi province belongs to the high risk zone, 12 provinces belong to the middle risk zone and 17 provinces to the low risk zone. Finally, there is a proportional rate between the economic loss (yield loss and disaster area (yield loss rate of rice production. Therefore, we could obtain some significant policy suggestions.

  5. The blue, green and grey water footprint of rice from production and consumption perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The paper makes a global assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of rice, using a higher spatial resolution and local data on actual irrigation. The national water footprint of rice production and consumption is estimated using international trade and domestic production data. The glo

  6. 大米及其制品中的RS3%RS3 contents in rice and rice products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢天

    2011-01-01

    测定了英国市场上销售的Basmati(白米,糙米)(长粒米),泰国香米(长粒米),日本大米(短粒米)样品中RS3的含量,比较长粒米和短粒米在熟化过程的稳定性以及不同米制品中含量的差异.结果表明,短粒大米RS3含量高于长粒大米;熟化过程对RS3含量的影响巨大,其中白米米粉在熟化过程中RS3含量下降的程度低于糙米米粉,长粒米米粉、短粒米米粉在熟化过程中RS3含量下降的程度差异不大;保鲜米饭与同品种大米制作熟化大米粉的RS3含量基本相当.%Nine rice samples from British markets were used for measuring the RS3 content. The cooking stability of long grain and short grain was compared, as well as the content in different rice products. From the result, short grain rice had higher RS3 content compared to long grain rice. Cooking treatment strongly influenced RS3 content in all samples. The decreasing rate of RS3 content in brown rice powder was less than white rice powder. There was no big defference between short grain and long grain. Ready to eat cooked rice had similar RS3 content with freshly cooked white rice powder.

  7. A double built-in containment strategy for production of recombinant proteins in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Dongfang; Zhao, Sinan; Shen, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    Using transgenic rice as a bioreactor for mass production of pharmaceutical proteins could potentially reduce the cost of production significantly. However, a major concern over the bioreactor transgenic rice is the risk of its unintended spreading into environment and into food or feed supplies. Here we report a mitigating method to prevent unwanted transgenic rice spreading by a double built-in containment strategy, which sets a selectively termination method and a visual tag technology in the T-DNA for transformation. We created transgenic rice with an inserted T-DNA that harbors a human proinsulin gene fused with the far-red fluorescent protein gene mKate_S158A, an RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the rice bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6, and an EPSPS gene as the selection marker for transformation. Herbicide spray tests indicated that such transgenic rice plants can be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon at regular field application dosage for rice weed control. Moreover, the transgenic rice seeds were bright red in color due to the fused far-red fluorescent protein, and could be easily visualized under daylight by naked eyes. Thus, the transgenic rice plants reported in this study could be selectively killed by a commonly used herbicide during their growth stage, and their seeds may be detected visually during processing and consumption after harvest. This double built-in containment strategy may greatly enhance the confinement of the transgenic rice.

  8. Biodiesel production from rice bran by a two-step in-situ process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Pei-Jing; Gunawan, Setiyo; Hsieh, Wen-Hao; Kasim, Novy S; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2010-02-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by a two-step in-situ transesterification from two kinds of rice bran was investigated in this study. The method included an in-situ acid-catalyzed esterification followed by an in-situ base-catalyzed transesterification. Free fatty acids (FFAs) level was reduced to less than 1% for both rice bran A (initial FFAs content=3%) and rice bran B (initial FFAs content=30%) in the first step under the following conditions: 10 g rice bran, methanol to rice bran ratio 15 mL/g, H(2)SO(4) to rice bran mass ratio 0.18, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 600 rpm stirring rate, 15 min reaction time. The organic phase of the first step product was collected and subjected to a second step reaction by adding 8 mL of 5N NaOH solution and allowing to react for 60 and 30 min for rice bran A and rice bran B, respectively. FAMEs yields of 96.8% and 97.4% were obtained for rice bran A and rice bran B, respectively, after this two-step in-situ reaction.

  9. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of japonica Rice Varied with Production Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-yu; LIN Zhao-miao; LIU Zheng-hui; Md A Alim; BI Jun-guo; LI Gang-hua; WANG Qiang-sheng; WANG Shao-hua; DING Yan-feng

    2013-01-01

    Northeast of China and Jiangsu Province are major production areas of japonica rice in China. Rice from northeast of China is well-known for its good-eating and appearance quality, and that from Jiangsu Province is viewed as inferior. However, little is known concerning the difference in physicochemical and sensory properties of rice between the major two production areas. Analysis of 16 commercial rice samples showed marked differences in physicochemical properties, including chalky grain rate, contents of amylose and protein and pasting properties between the two main areas. Northeastern rice contained more short-chain amylopectin as compared with Jiangsu rice. However, Jiangsu rice is comparable to northeastern rice in terms of sensory quality including overall acceptability and textural properties of springiness, stickiness and hardness as evaluated by trained panel. Our results indicated the limitation of conventional index of physicochemical properties, and suggested the necessity of identiifcation of new factors controlling rice sensory property. In addition, the taste analyzer from Japan demonstrates limitation in distinguishing the differences between northeastern and Jiangsu rice, and therefore needs localization to ift China.

  10. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  11. Relationship of Parental Indica-Japonica Indexes with Yield and Grain Quality Traits of Japonica Hybrid Rice in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-rong; QIU Fu-lin; HUA Ze-tian; DAI Gui-jin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the main parents (10 male sterile lines and 10 restorer lines) and their 100 combinations of japonica hybrid rice in northern China as materials, the relationships of parental indica-japonica indexes determined by the methods of the Cheng's index as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with yield and grain quality traits of hybrid rice were studied. For the parents, the Cheng's index (Chi) ranged from 13.5 to 19.3 and the indica index in SSR markers (ADi) were from 0.12 to 0.38. The classification of parents by Chi was not completely consistent with that by ADi. The Chi of male parent was more closely related to hybrid traits than that of female parent, as contrasted to ADi. At the same time, the difference between parents (PD) in Chi was more closely related to hybrid traits than that in ADi. The indica-japonica indexes of parents and their difference between parents appeared quadratic relationship to hybrid traits with the critical extremum. The directions of the correlation of indica-japonica indexes of parents and their differences with hybrid yield traits were on the opposition to those with hybrid grain quality traits. Therefore, the female parent should match the male parent moderately in indica-japonica index to obtain the optimum of hybrid traits, high yield as well as good quality.

  12. Simultaneous production of trehalose, bioethanol, and high-protein product from rice by an enzymatic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Chang, Wei-Hsin; Lee, Maw-Rong; Yang, Tzung-Jie; Yu, Nu-Yi; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2010-03-10

    Rice is a starch-rich raw material that can be used for trehalose production. It can be hydrolyzed with alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and pullulanase to produce high-maltose content of rice saccharified solution for bioconversion of maltose into trehalose by trehalose synthase (TSase). For this purpose, an efficient enzymatic procedure has been successfully developed to simultaneously produce value-added trehalose, bioethanol, and high-protein product from rice as substrate. The highest maltose yield produced from the liquefied rice starch hydrolysate was 82.4 +/- 2.8% at 50 degrees C and pH 5.0 for 21-22 h. The trehalose conversion rate can reach at least 50% at 50 degrees C and pH 5.0 for 20-24 h by a novel thermostable recombinant Picrophilus torridus trehalose synthase (PTTS). All residual sugar, except trehalose, can be fully hydrolyzed by glucoamylase into glucose for further bioethanol production. The insoluble byproduct containing high yields of protein (75.99%) and dietary fiber (14.01%) can be processed as breakfast cereal product, health food, animal forage, etc. The conversion yield of bioethanol was about 98% after 64 h of fermentation time by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without any artificial culture solution addition. Ethanol can easily be separated from trehalose by distillation with a high recovery yield and purity of crystalline trehalose of 92.5 +/- 8.7% and 92.3%, respectively.

  13. OPTIMIZING SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION PARAMETERS USING AQUACROP MODEL FOR INCREASING WATER PRODUCTIVITY AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN RICE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Katambara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Producing more rice while using less water is among the calls in water scarce regions so as to feed the growing population and cope with the changing climate. Among the suitable techniques towards this achievement is the use of system of rice intensification (SRI, which has been reported as an approach that uses less water and has high water productivity and water use efficiency. Despite its promising results, the use of SRI practice in Tanzania is limited due to less knowledge with regard to the transplanting age, plant spacing, and minimum soil moisture to be allowed for irrigation, and alternate wetting and drying interval for various geographical locations. The AquaCrop crop water productivity model, which is capable of simulating crop water requirements and yield for a given parameter set, was used to identify suitable SRI parameters for Mkindo area in Morogoro region, Tanzania. Using no stress in soil fertility, plant spacings ranging from 5 cm to 50 cm were evaluated. Results suggest that the yield and biomass produced per ha increase with decreasing spacing from 50 cm to 20 cm. Preliminary field results suggest that the optimum spacing is round 25 cm. However, the model structure does not take into consideration number of tillers produced. As such, the study calls for incorporation of the tillering processes into AquaCrop model.

  14. Valorization of rice straw waste: production of porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Guzmán A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice industry generates huge amounts of rice straw ashes (RSA. This paper presents the results of an experimental research work about the incorporation of RSA waste as a new alternative raw material for production of porcelain tiles. The RSA replaces, partially or completely, the non-plastic raw materials (quartz (feldspathic sand in this research and feldspar, that together with the clays, constitute the major constituents of formulations of porcelain tiles. A standard industrial composition (0% RSA and two more compositions in which feldspar and feldspathic sand were replaced with two percentages of RSA (12.5% RSA and 60% RSA were formulated, keeping the clay content constant. The mixtures were processed, reproducing industrial porcelain tile manufacturing conditions by the dry route and fired at peak temperatures varying from 1140-1260 ºC. The results showed that additions of 12.5% RSA in replacement of feldspar and feldspathic sand allowed producing porcelain tiles that did not display marked changes in processing behaviour, in addition to obtain a microstructure and the typical mineralogical phases of porcelain tile. Thus, an alternative use of an agricultural waste material is proposed, which can be translated into economic and environmental benefits.

  15. Outsourcing Agricultural Production: Evidence from Rice Farmers in Zhejiang Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chen; Guo, Hongdong; Jin, Songqing; Yang, Jin

    2017-01-01

    China has recorded positive growth rates of grain production for the past eleven consecutive years. This is a remarkable accomplishment given that China's rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to a vast reduction of arable land and agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors. While there are many factors contributing to this happy outcome, one potential contributing factor that has received increasing attention is the emergence of agricultural production outsourcing, a new rural institution that has emerged in recent years. This study aims to contribute to the limited but growing literature on agricultural production outsourcing in China. Specifically, this study analyzes factors affecting farmers' decisions to outsource any or some production tasks using data from rice farmers in Zhejiang province. Results from a logistic model show that farm size and government subsidy encourages farmers to outsource while ownership of agricultural machines and land fragmentation have negative effects on farmers' decisions to outsource production tasks. Results also showed that determinants of outsourcing decisions vary with the production tasks that farmers outsourced.

  16. Outsourcing Agricultural Production: Evidence from Rice Farmers in Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chen; Guo, Hongdong; Jin, Songqing; Yang, Jin

    2017-01-01

    China has recorded positive growth rates of grain production for the past eleven consecutive years. This is a remarkable accomplishment given that China’s rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to a vast reduction of arable land and agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors. While there are many factors contributing to this happy outcome, one potential contributing factor that has received increasing attention is the emergence of agricultural production outsourcing, a new rural institution that has emerged in recent years. This study aims to contribute to the limited but growing literature on agricultural production outsourcing in China. Specifically, this study analyzes factors affecting farmers’ decisions to outsource any or some production tasks using data from rice farmers in Zhejiang province. Results from a logistic model show that farm size and government subsidy encourages farmers to outsource while ownership of agricultural machines and land fragmentation have negative effects on farmers’ decisions to outsource production tasks. Results also showed that determinants of outsourcing decisions vary with the production tasks that farmers outsourced. PMID:28129362

  17. Hybrid Lanczos-type product methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ressel, K.J. [Swiss Center for Scientific Computing, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    A general framework is proposed to construct hybrid iterative methods for the solution of large nonsymmetric systems of linear equations. This framework is based on Lanczos-type product methods, whose iteration polynomial consists of the Lanczos polynomial multiplied by some other arbitrary, {open_quotes}shadow{close_quotes} polynomial. By using for the shadow polynomial Chebyshev (more general Faber) polynomials or L{sup 2}-optimal polynomials, hybrid (Chebyshev-like) methods are incorporated into Lanczos-type product methods. In addition, to acquire spectral information on the system matrix, which is required for such a choice of shadow polynomials, the Lanczos-process can be employed either directly or in an QMR-like approach. The QMR like approach allows the cheap computation of the roots of the B-orthogonal polynomials and the residual polynomials associated with the QMR iteration. These roots can be used as a good approximation for the spectrum of the system matrix. Different choices for the shadow polynomials and their construction are analyzed. The resulting hybrid methods are compared with standard Lanczos-type product methods, like BiOStab, BiOStab({ell}) and BiOS.

  18. Inorganic arsenic in rice-based products for infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Carey, Manus; Meharg, Andrew A

    2016-01-15

    Inorganic arsenic (Asi) is a chronic, non-threshold carcinogen. Rice and rice-based products can be the major source of Asi for many subpopulations. Baby rice, rice cereals and rice crackers are widely used to feed infants and young children. The Asi concentration in rice-based products may pose a health risk for infants and young children. Asi concentration was determined in rice-based products produced in the European Union and risk assessment associated with the consumption of these products by infants and young children, and compared to an identical US FDA survey. There are currently no European Union or United States of America regulations applicable to Asi in food. However, this study suggests that the samples evaluated may introduce significant concentration of Asi into infants' and young children's diets. Thus, there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on Asi in food, especially for baby rice-based products. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Level on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics in Flag Leaf of Super Hybrid Rice at Late Growth Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Ji-rui; MA Guo-hui; WAN Yi-zheng; SONG Chun-fang; SUN Jian; QIN Rui-jun

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effects of slow-release nitrogen fertilizer at six different levels on the flag leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of super hybrid rice,a field fertilization experiment was conducted with super hybrid rice Y Liangyou 1 as a test material.The photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR),effective quantum yield (EQY),photochemical quenching coefficient (qp),and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) of flag leaves were measured at the initial heading,full heading,10 d after full heading and 20 d after full heading stages.Results showed that the values of ETR,EQY and qp increased with rice development from initial heading to 20 d after full heading,whereas the NPQ decreased.During the measured stages,ETR,EQY and qp increased initially and then decreased as nitrogen application amount increased,but they peaked at different nitrogen fertilizer levels.The maximum ETR and EQY values appeared at the treatment of 135 kg/hm2 N.In conclusion,the optimum nitrogen amount for chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of super hybrid rice was 135-180 kg/hm2.

  20. Comparison of Ileal Digested Production of Parental Rice and Rice Genetically Modified With Cowpeas Trypsin Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in parental rice and rice genetically modified with sck gene. Methods Six experimental swines were surgically fixed with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum and fed with parental rice and rice genetically modified with sck gene alternately. The ileum digesta were collected and analyzed for determination of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids. Results The apparent and true digestibility of protein was similar in these two types of rice. Except for the apparent digestibility of lysine, there was no difference in the apparent and true digestibility of the other 17 amino acids. Conclusion The digestibility of protein and amino acids is not changed by the insertion of foreign gene, so it can meet the request of "substantial equivalence" in digestibility of protein and amino acids.

  1. IMPACT OF ROW-PLANTING ADOPTION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF RICE FARMING IN NORTHERN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel DONKOR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper employed the endogenous switching regression and propensity score matching methods to analyse the impact of row-planting technology on rice productivity using 470 rice farms in Northern Ghana. The empirical findings showed that the adoption of row-planting technology exerted greater positive impact on rice yields of smallholder farmers. In addition, rice yields of adopters and non-adopters are driven by farm inputs, socioeconomic, institutional and technological factors. We suggest that achieving self-sufficiency in rice and rural economic transformation in sub-Saharan Africa requires promotion of agricultural technologies including row-planting. Different specific policy interventions are also required to promote rice yields for adopters and non-adopters.

  2. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, M.; Kusdiyantini, E.; Wuryanti, W.; Winarni, T. A.; Widyanto, S. A.; Muharam, H.

    2015-06-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog.

  3. Life cycle GHG evaluation of organic rice production in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodkhum, Sanwasan; Gheewala, Shabbir H; Sampattagul, Sate

    2017-03-09

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of the serious international environmental issues that can lead to severe damages such as climate change, sea level rise, emerging disease and many other impacts. Rice cultivation is associated with emissions of potent GHGs such as methane and nitrous oxide. Thai rice has been massively exported worldwide however the markets are becoming more competitive than ever since the green market has been hugely promoted. In order to maintain the same level or enhance of competitiveness, Thai rice needs to be considered for environmentally conscious products to meet the international environmental standards. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions throughout the life cycle of rice production in order to identify the major emission sources and possible reduction strategies. In this research, the rice variety considered is Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) cultivated by organic practices. The data sources were Don-Chiang Organic Agricultural Cooperative (DCOAC), Mae-teang district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand and the Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) of Thailand with onsite records and interviews of farmers in 2013. The GHG emissions were calculated from cradle-to-farm by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach and the 2006 IPCC Guideline for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The functional unit is defined as 1 kg of paddy rice at farm gate. Results showed that the total GHG emissions of organic rice production were 0.58 kg CO2-eq per kg of paddy rice. The major source of GHG emission was from the field emissions accounting for 0.48 kg CO2-eq per kg of paddy rice, about 83% of total, followed by land preparation, harvesting and other stages (planting, cultivation and transport of raw materials) were 9, 5 and 3% of total, respectively. The comparative results clearly showed that the GHG emissions of organic paddy rice were considerably lower than conventional rice production due to the advantages

  4. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems: establishing a minimum data set.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Brussaard, L.

    2008-01-01

    Soil quality, as a measure of the soil's capacity to function, can be assessed by indicators based on physical, chemical, and biological properties. Here we report on the assessment of soil quality in 21 rice (Oryza sativa) fields under three rice production systems (semi-direct, pre-germinated, and

  5. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems: establishing a minimum data set.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Brussaard, L.

    2008-01-01

    Soil quality, as a measure of the soil's capacity to function, can be assessed by indicators based on physical, chemical, and biological properties. Here we report on the assessment of soil quality in 21 rice (Oryza sativa) fields under three rice production systems (semi-direct, pre-germinated, and

  6. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijay Ramamurthi, Pooja; Cristina Fernandes, Maria; Nielsen, Per Sieverts;

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana’s energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70–90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made...

  7. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Rice Potential Productivity and Potential Yield Increment in Main Production Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-jian; TANG Liang; LIU Xiao-jun; CAO Wei-xing; ZHU Yan

    2013-01-01

    The vast area and marked variation of China make it difficult to predict the impact of climate changes on rice productivity in different regions. Therefore, analyzing the spatial and temporal characteristics of rice potential productivity and predicting the possible yield increment in main rice production regions of China is important for guiding rice production and ensuring food security. Using meteorological data of main rice production regions from 1961 to 1970 (the 1960s) and from 1996 to 2005 (the 2000s) provided by 333 stations, the potential photosynthetic, photo-thermal and climatic productivities in rice crop of the 1960s and 2000s in main rice production regions of China were predicted, and differences in the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics between two decades were analyzed. Additionally, the potential yield increment based on the high yield target and actual yield of rice in the 2000s were predicted. Compared with the 1960s, the potential photosynthetic productivity of the 2000s was seen to have decreased by 5.40%, with rates in northeastern and southwestern China found to be lower than those in central and southern China. The potential photo-thermal productivity was generally seen to decrease (2.56%) throughout main rice production regions, decreasing most in central and southern China. However, an increase was seen in northeastern and southwestern China. The potential climatic productivity was observed to be lower (7.44%) in the 2000s compared to the 1960s, but increased in parts of central and southern China. The potential yield increment from the actual yield to high yield target in the 2000s were no more than 6×103 kg ha-1 and ranged from 6×103 to 12×103 kg ha-1 in most of the single-and double-cropping rice growing regions, respectively. The yield increasing potential from the high yield target to the potential photo-thermal productivity in 2000s were less than 10×103 kg ha-1 and ranged from 10×103 to 30×103 kg ha-1 in most

  8. Rice farming in Bali: organic production and marketing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Graeme

    2011-01-01

    All is not well with agriculture in Southeast Asia. The productivity gains of the Green Revolution have slowed and even reversed and environmental problems and shortages of water and land are evident. At the same time changing world markets are shifting the dynamics of national agricultural economies. But from the point of view of farmers themselves, it is their season-to-season economic survival that is at stake. Bali is in some ways typical of other agricultural areas in the region, but it is also a special case because of its distinctive economic and cultural environment dominated by tourism. In this environment, farmers are doubly marginalized. At the same time the island offers them unique market opportunities for premium and organic produce. This article examines the ways in which these opportunities have been approached and describes their varying degrees of success. It focuses especially on one project that has been successful in reducing production costs by conversion to organic production, but less so in marketing its produce. It argues finally for the need for integrated studies of the entire rice production/marketing complex, especially from the bottom-up point of view of farmers.

  9. Effects of winter cover crop, soil amendment, and variety on organic rice production and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen supply and disease are two main challenges in organic rice production. Cover crop and soil amendment can be options to increase soil N while keeps rice health. The objective of this study was to test the effects of cover crop and soil amendment on the production of organic rice. Three popul...

  10. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  11. Predicting rice hybrid performance using univariate and multivariate GBLUP models based on North Carolina mating design II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Li, L; Yang, Z; Zheng, X; Yu, S; Xu, C; Hu, Z

    2017-03-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is more efficient than traditional phenotype-based methods in hybrid breeding. The present study investigated the predictive ability of genomic best linear unbiased prediction models for rice hybrids based on the North Carolina mating design II, in which a total of 115 inbred rice lines were crossed with 5 male sterile lines. Using 8 traits of the 575 (115 × 5) hybrids from two environments, both univariate (UV) and multivariate (MV) prediction analyses, including additive and dominance effects, were performed. Using UV models, the prediction results of cross-validation indicated that including dominance effects could improve the predictive ability for some traits in rice hybrids. Additionally, we could take advantage of GS even for a low-heritability trait, such as grain yield per plant (GY), because a modest increase in the number of top selection could generate a higher, more stable mean phenotypic value for rice hybrids. Thus this strategy was used to select superior potential crosses between the 115 inbred lines and those between the 5 male sterile lines and other genotyped varieties. In our MV research, an MV model (MV-ADV) was developed utilizing a MV relationship matrix constructed with auxiliary variates. Based on joint analysis with multi-trait (MT) or with multi-environment, the prediction results confirmed the superiority of MV-ADV over an UV model, particularly in the MT scenario for a low-heritability target trait (such as GY), with highly correlated auxiliary traits. For a high-heritability trait (such as thousand-grain weight), MT prediction is unnecessary, and UV prediction is sufficient.

  12. Cointegration analysis for rice production in the states of Perlis and Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitan, Mahendran; Ng, Yung Lerd; Karmokar, Provash Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Rice is ranked the third most important crop in Malaysia after rubber and palm oil in terms of production. Unlike the industrial crops, although its contribution to Malaysia's economy is minimal, it plays a pivotal role in the country's food security as rice is consumed by almost everyone in Malaysia. Rice production is influenced by factors such as geographical location, temperature, rainfall, soil fertility, farming practices, etc. and hence the productivity of rice may differ in different state. In this study, our particular interest is to investigate the interrelationship between the rice production of Perlis and Johor. Data collected from Department of Agriculture, Government of Malaysia are tested for unit roots by Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test while Engle-Granger (EG) procedure is used in the cointegration analysis. Our study shows that cointegrating relationship exists among the rice production in both states. The speed of adjustment coefficient of the error correction model (ECM) of Perlis is 0.611 indicating that approximately 61.1% of any deviation from the long-run path is corrected within a year by the production of rice in Johor.

  13. Increased greenhouse-gas intensity of rice production under future atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; van Kessel, Chris; Hungate, Bruce A.

    2013-03-01

    Increased atmospheric CO2 and rising temperatures are expected to affect rice yields and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions from rice paddies. This is important, because rice cultivation is one of the largest human-induced sources of the potent GHG methane (CH4) and rice is the world's second-most produced staple crop. The need for meeting a growing global food demand argues for assessing GHG emissions from croplands on the basis of yield rather than land area, such that efforts to reduce GHG emissions take into consideration the consequences for food production. However, it is unclear whether or how the GHG intensity (that is, yield-scaled GHG emissions) of cropping systems will be affected by future atmospheric conditions. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased atmospheric CO2 (ranging from 550 to 743ppmV) and warming (ranging from +0.8°C to +6°C) both increase the GHG intensity of rice cultivation. Increased atmospheric CO2 increased GHG intensity by 31.4%, because CH4 emissions are stimulated more than rice yields. Warming increased GHG intensity by 11.8% per 1°C, largely owing to a decrease in yield. This analysis suggests that rising CO2 and warming will approximately double the GHG intensity of rice production by the end of the twenty-first century, stressing the need for management practices that optimize rice production while reducing its GHG intensity as the climate continues to change.

  14. 马来西亚杂交水稻现状及发展对策%The Current Status and Developing Strategy of Hybrid Rice in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继银; 李炳华; 蒋松青

    2009-01-01

    介绍了马来西亚杂交水稻的发展现状及发展中存在的诸多障碍,提出了相关发展对策.%Based on the analysis of current status and existing barriers of hybrid rice development in Malaysia, the authors proposed the strategy and countermeasures for the development of hybrid rice in Malaysia.

  15. Production of technical silicon and silicon carbide from rice-husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Issagulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are studied physical and chemical properties of silicon-carbonic raw material – rice-husk, thermophysical characteristics of the process of rice-husk pyrolysis in nonreactive and oxidizing environment; structure and phase composition of products of the rice-husk pyrolysis in interval of temperatures 150 – 850 °С and high temperature pyrolysis in interval of temperatures 900 – 1 500 °С. There are defined the silicon-carbon production conditions, which meet the requirements applicable to charging materials at production of technical silicon and silicon carbide.

  16. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rice Production and PDSI Values in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    As world population grows, there are ever increasing demands being placed on the food production systems throughout the world. Climate change is complicating these stressors even further through more frequent severe weather events. In the developing world, where there are fewer resources to mitigate the effects of climate change, the combination of these two factors can have drastic consequences. In Sri Lanka, farmers in major rice production areas of the country are already struggling to produce enough rice, a staple food of the local diet, and a severe wet or dry spell could be ruinous. Faced with a changing climate and a growing demand for rice, it is important to be able to anticipate how climatic changes will affect rice production. By examining how extreme wet and dry spells have historically affected rice production, decision makers may be better able to predict and prepare for potential food shortages. We conducted an analysis of historic temperature, precipitation, and rice production statistics in order to determine the effects of extreme wet and dry spells on rice production. We also created a timeline of major developments in Sri Lankan agriculture in order to compare effects on rice production due to changes in agricultural practices with meteorological changes. Historical temperature and precipitation data were used to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a number of stations distributed throughout the Mahaweli river basin. The basin, the largest in the country, contains three different climatic regions - dry, intermediate, and wet - that all receive different amounts of annual precipitation. The PDSI values were used to quantify drought and wetness during the Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March) growing seasons. Analysis of historical PDSI values, agricultural advances, and rice production statistics shows great promise for anticipating and mitigating future food shortages.

  17. Improving Rice Production and Commercialization in Cambodia: Findings from a Farm Investment Climate Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia has a potential advantage in agricultural production due to significant amounts of fertile land and high levels of agricultural employment, but rice production and commercialization remain well below this potential. This study uses a farm investment climate assessment to provide evidence on key areas where government investments and policy reforms can lead to higher levels of rice production and commercialization in small farms. Improving output markets through domestic milling and i...

  18. 安徽省杂交粳稻的研究与利用%Research and Application of Japonic Hybrid Rice Combination in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德正; 王守海; 李成荃; 罗彦长

    2001-01-01

    阐述了安徽省杂交粳稻育种23a来的发展历程。介绍了BT型不育系、光(温)敏核不育系和恢复系选育的基本经验,以及主要三系、两系组合的产量、米质、抗性、高产制种技术经验和应用价值。提出了下一步研究策略。%The breeding development of Japonica hybrid rice in Anhui province for 23 years was described in the paper. In the study, there were not only some breeding experiences in breeding of BT type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility(CMS) line, Photo(thermo) Sensitive Genic Male Sterility(PGMS or TGMS) line and restore line, but also description of characteristics, high-yielding seed production techniques and application values for mainly three-line and two-line hybrids.Future reseraching strategies will be to improve morphological and phtotsynthesis characteristics of the hybrid for exploiting the heterosis of Puter -subspecific hybrids.On the other hand,the farmers' skill for planting high-yielding of Japonica hybrid should be trainned.

  19. Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pretreated Rice Straw for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripok Phitsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw (RS is an abundant, readily available agricultural waste, which shows promise as a potential feedstock for Asian ethanol production. To enhance release of glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis, RS was pretreated with aqueous ammonia (27% w/w at two pretreatment temperatures: room temperature and 60°C. Statistical analysis indicated similarity of enzymatic glucose production at both pretreatment temperatures after 3-day incubation. Chemical composition, FTIR, and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of glucan and xylan in the pretreated solid, but significant reduction of lignin (60.7% removal and silica. SEM analysis showed the disorganized surfaces and porosity of the pretreated RS fibers, thus improving cellulose accessibility for cellulase. The crystallinity index increased from 40.5 to 52.3%, indicating the higher exposure of cellulose. With 10% (w/v solid loadings of pretreated RS, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation yielded a final ethanol concentration of 24.6 g/L, corresponding to 98% of maximum theoretical yield. Taken together, aqueous ammonia pretreatment is an effective method to generate highly digestible pretreated RS for bioethanol production and demonstrates potential application in biorefinery industry.

  20. The Application of Bentazon Susceptible Gene on Seed Production of Hybrid Rice%苯达松敏感基因在杂交水稻制种技术上的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士梅; 朱启升; 汪婉琳; 张德文; 杨前进; 王云生

    2008-01-01

    The seed production of male and female parent of'Hunzhi 1' contained bentazon susceptible gene was studied.The result showed that spraying 3.375 L/hm2 48% bentazon aqua could control the self-pollinated fertilization rate below 1.0% and survival plant rate was 0.The spray of bentazon would not influence MC526 pollen vitality.Seed setting rate of female parent was not obvious different from that of control group with spraying bentazon aqua more than 3.375 L/hm2 from the sprouting appearing period to full heading stage.This demonstrated that bentazen aqua had no influence on seed setting rate during florescence of female parent.The weight ratio between male parent seeds and female parent seeds was 1 to 5,then seeds from parents with that weight ratio would be mixedly planted for seed production.With this weight ratio,relative proper structure of panicle and grain would be obtained,panicle ratio was 1 to 4.3,glumous flowers ratio was 1 to 3.5.Cross seed-setting rate of female parent was 72.6% and seed production per hm2 was 66 000 kg.

  1. Evaluation of real-time PCR detection methods for detecting rice products contaminated by rice genetically modified with a CpTI-KDEL-T-nos transgenic construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawano, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa) lines, such as insecticidal Kefeng and Kemingdao, have been developed and found unauthorised in processed rice products in many countries. Therefore, qualitative detection methods for the GM rice are required for the GM food regulation. A transgenic construct for expressing cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was detected in some imported processed rice products contaminated with Kemingdao. The 3' terminal sequence of the identified transgenic construct for expression of CpTI included an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal coding sequence (KDEL) and nopaline synthase terminator (T-nos). The sequence was identical to that in a report on Kefeng. A novel construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method for detecting the junction region sequence between the CpTI-KDEL and T-nos was developed. The imported processed rice products were evaluated for the contamination of the GM rice using the developed construct-specific real-time PCR methods, and detection frequency was compared with five event-specific detection methods. The construct-specific detection methods detected the GM rice at higher frequency than the event-specific detection methods. Therefore, we propose that the construct-specific detection method is a beneficial tool for screening the contamination of GM rice lines, such as Kefeng, in processed rice products for the GM food regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rice Products Feature Analyzing on the Base of Online Review Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the rice product features using online review mining method. The opinion mining is used to do online review data analyze. High-frequency words were extracted from non-structured online reviews text. Then the rice product features were gotten from the factor analysis on the base of high-frequency words. This provided a new method for product feature analyzing which was based on the data mining of online reviews. The proposed method can be used to compare features of rice products which were in the similar category. It also provided new views for understanding consumer brand knowledge. At the end of this study, the online review of rice products were used to verify the scientificity and rationality of this method.

  3. Shiitake (lentinula edodes production on a sterilized bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Ivan Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed to evaluate the biological efficiency (BE, mean mushroom weight (MMW, mean number of mushroom (MNM and mushroom quality of Shiitake [ Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler] when grown on a sterilized substrate composed by sugarcane bagasse enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses. The proportions of rice bran were 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse; and the concentrations of sugarcane molasses were 0, 30 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran. Four flushes were obtained during the production cycle, providing 3 accumulated productions which were used for production analysis. The substrate supplemented with 25 and 30% rice bran yielded the highest BE (98.42 and 99.84%, respectively, about 230 days after spawning and MNM and initially produced a lower MMW than the substrates supplemented with 15 and 20% rice bran. Any amount of rice bran added to the sugarcane bagasse improved mushroom quality, with the best production of marketable mushrooms obtained by the addition of 15% rice bran. The largest amount of sugarcane molasses (60 g/kg increased BE (90.3 and 23.6%, on first and second accumulated productions, respectively and MNM and no quantity affected mushroom quality.

  4. Hybrid Organization of Production and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Menard

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the central role of arrangements called “hybrids” in the organization of production and distribution in market economies. Several forms are taken into account, such as subcontracting, supply-chain systems, distribution networks, franchising, partnerships, alliances, or cooperatives. It is argued that under the apparent heterogeneity of these forms are shared characteristics qualifying them as specific “institutional structures of production”. The paper stresses that beyond their relevance for economists wishing to understand the coexistence of alternative modes of governance in market economies, hybrid arrangements provide unique opportunities for theoretical investigation on the nature of inter-firm coordination.

  5. "Molecule secret" for the high production of rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the funding support from NSFC, the research team directed by Prof. Jiaxiang Li (Member of CAS) from Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of CAS and Prof. Qian Qian from China National Rice Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences deeply studied "Rice Tillering" in the subject of Molecular Genetics, and made glorious achievement.

  6. Antioxidant properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is relatively rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds thought to co...

  7. Production of Rice Seed-Based Allergy Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant hypoallergenic derivative is the next generation of tolerogen replacing the natural allergen extract to increase safety and efficacy. Japanese cedar pollinosis is the predominant seasonal allergy disease in Japan. A rice seed-based oral vaccine containing the recombinant hypoallergens derived from these allergens was developed. Efficacy of this rice-based allergy vaccine was evaluated by oral administration in animal models.

  8. Technology for Hybrid Pepper Seed Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    History of hybrid pepper seed production, the status of annually balanced production, and innovative techniques for the large-scale seed production in China are reviewed. Helped by the technological breakthroughs in these fields, China has been the largest base for hybrid pepper seed production in the world.

  9. Biobutanol production from rice bran and de-oiled rice bran by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2012-06-01

    Rice bran (RB) and de-oiled rice bran (DRB) have been treated and used as the carbon source in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. The results showed that pretreated DRB produced more ABE than pretreated RB. Dilute sulfuric acid was the most suitable treatment method among the various pretreatment methods that were applied. The highest ABE obtained was 12.13 g/L, including 7.72 g/L of biobutanol, from sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysate of DRB (ESADRB), when treated with XAD-4 resin, resulted in an ABE productivity and yield of 0.1 g/L h and 0.44 g/g, respectively. The results also showed that the choice of pretreatment method for RB and DRB is an important factor in butanol production.

  10. Effect Of Shade Organic Materials And Varieties On Growth And Production Of Upland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Ginting

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a shade factor and low organic matter content of the soil is a problem that needs to be addressed in the development of upland rice cultivation as intercrops in the plantation area. Based on these considerations then one study that needs to be done is to conduct experiments on the effect of shade factor combined with the the provision of the organic material to the some varieties of upland rice that has been recommended nationally. The objective of experiment is to study the influence of shade organic materials and varieties on the growth and production of upland rice. This research using experimental design of Split - Split Plot Design with 3 treatment factors and 3 replications or blocks. The first factor is the treatment of shade with 3 levels shade percentage 0 20 and 40. The second factor is the dosage of organic material consists of 3 levels 0 g polybag 25 g polybag 50 g polybag and 75 g polybag. The third factor is the treatment of varieties consists of 4 types of upland rice varieties Si Kembiri Situ Patengggang Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti. The research results showed that the effect of shade on upland rice varieties decrease number of tillers number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of uplnd rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. Effect of organic matter increases number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of upland rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. It is known that the the variety of Situ Patenggang provides better growth and production compared with three other varieties Si Kembiri Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti in shaded conditions.

  11. Hybrid weakness in a rice interspecific hybrid is nitrogen-dependent, and accompanied by changes in gene expression at both total transcript level and parental allele partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Wang, Jie; Yu, Jiamiao; Sun, Yue; Miao, Yiling; Li, Qiuping; Sanguinet, Karen A.; Liu, Bao

    2017-01-01

    Background Hybrid weakness, a phenomenon opposite to heterosis, refers to inferior growth and development in a hybrid relative to its pure-line parents. Little attention has been paid to the phenomenological or mechanistic aspect of hybrid weakness, probably due to its rare occurrence. Methodology/Principal findings Here, using a set of interspecific triploid F1 hybrids between Oryza sativa, ssp. japonica (genome AA) and a tetraploid wild rice species, O. alta (genome, CCDD), we investigated the phenotypic and physiological differences between the F1 hybrids and their parents under normal and nitrogen-limiting conditions. We quantified the expression levels of 21 key genes involved in three important pathways pertinent to the assayed phenotypic and physiological traits by real-time qRT-PCR. Further, we assayed expression partitioning of parental alleles for eight genes in the F1 hybrids relative to the in silico “hybrids” (parental cDNA mixture) under both normal and N-limiting conditions by using locus-specific cDNA pyrosequencing. Conclusions/Significance We report that the F1 hybrids showed weakness in several phenotypic traits at the final seedling-stage compared with their corresponding mid-parent values (MPVs). Nine of the 21 studied genes showed contrasted expression levels between hybrids and parents (MPVs) under normal vs. N-limiting conditions. Interestingly, under N-limiting conditions, the overtly enhanced partitioning of maternal allele expression in the hybrids for eight assayed genes echo their attenuated hybrid weakness in phenotypes, an observation further bolstered by more resemblance of hybrids to the maternal parent under N-limiting conditions compared to normal conditions in a suite of measured physiological traits. Our observations suggest that both overall expression level and differential partitioning of parental alleles of critical genes contribute to condition-specific hybrid weakness. PMID:28248994

  12. A Preliminary Study on the Relationship Between the Indica-Japonica RAPD Differentiation of Parents and Heterosis in Dian Type Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Wen-hong; XU Ming-hui; ZHANG Shu-hua

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between the indica-japonica differentiation of parents and heterosis of hybridin rice was studied with 10 sterile lines, 10 maintainer lines of the sterile lines, 38 restorer lines of Dian typehybrid rice and 40 hybrids derived from the sterile lines and restorer lines. The results indicated that there wasa parabolic correlation between the indica-japonica differentiation of parents detected by RAPD markers andheterosis of hybrid rice. When certain indica-japonica differentiation of parents exists, the percentage of com-binations with positve heterosis and the mean heterosis of hybrids were high. But that didn't mean too muchdifference of parents could lead to stronger hetesosis, that meant overdiffernt parents seldom bring positve het-erotic hybrids. Suitable difference of percent of indica alleles of parents of stronger heterotic hybrid was 12 -16%.

  13. Scientific Evidence of Rice By-Products for Cancer Prevention: Chemopreventive Properties of Waste Products from Rice Milling on Carcinogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a significant global health concern affecting men and women worldwide. Although current chemopreventive drugs could inhibit the growth of cancer cells, they exert many adverse side effects. Dietary factor plays a crucial role in the management of cancers and has drawn the attention of researchers to be used as an option to combat this disease. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that rice and its by-products display encouraging results in the prevention of this disease. The mechanism of anticancer effect is suggested partly through potentiation of bioactive compounds like vitamin E, phytic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), γ-oryzanol, and phenolics. Nevertheless, the bioactivity of rice and its by-products is still incompletely understood. In this review, we present the findings from a preclinical study both in in vitro and in animal experiments on the promising role of rice by-products with focus on cancer prevention. PMID:28210630

  14. Mold counts and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in rice and its by-products from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Anthony C; Yoshizawa, Takumi

    2005-01-01

    Mold counts and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in rice and its by-products from the Philippines were examined. The average mold counts of rough rice, brown rice, and locally produced polished rice were 4.1 x 10(3), 1.0 x 10(3), and 1.1 x 10(3) CFU/g, respectively. Average Aspergillus section Flavi counts of the same samples were 3.0 x 10(2), 1.1 x 10(2), and 2.6 x 10(2) CFU/g, respectively. Twenty-seven percent of mold isolates from rough rice, polished rice, and brown rice were section Flavi spp., 31% of which were toxigenic. No section Flavi isolates were obtained from imported rice samples from Thailand and Vietnam. Aspergillus section Flavi was also isolated from rice hull, rice bran, and settled dust from rice milling operations. Toxigenic isolates of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus were present in at least one sample of each type of rice and rice by-product except settled dust. Aflatoxins produced in vitro by the isolates ranged from marketing, especially in warm and humid seasons when infestation and consequent production of aflatoxins by Aspergillus section Flavi is expected.

  15. Construction and analysis of gonad suppression subtractive hybridization libraries for the rice field eel, Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Jiaoyun; Shang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Cui; Feng, Long; Liu, Qigen

    2014-04-25

    The objective of this study was to investigate gene transcription profiles of the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus) in an attempt to uncover genes involved in sex reversal and gonad development. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed using mRNA from the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis. In total 100 positive clones from the libraries were selected at random and sequenced, and then expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to search against sequences in the GenBank database using the BLASTn and BLASTx search algorithms. High quality SSH cDNA libraries and 90 ESTs were obtained. Of these ESTs, 43 showed high homology with genes of known function and these are associated with energy metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation and so on. The remaining 47 ESTs shared no homology with any genes in GenBank and are thus considered to be hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the four genes F11, F63, R11, and R47 from the forward and reverse libraries were analyzed in gonad, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidney and muscle tissues. The results showed that the transcription of the F11 and F63 genes was significantly increased while the expression of the R11 and R47 genes was significantly decreased from IV or V ovary. In addition, the results also indicated that the four genes' expression was not gonad-tissue specific. This results strongly suggested that they may be involved in the rice field eel gonad development and/or sex reversal.

  16. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Different Involvement of Embryo and Endosperm Proteins during Aging of Yliangyou 2 Hybrid Rice Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xue; Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian M.; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Seed aging is a process that results in a delayed germination, a decreased germination percentage, and finally a total loss of seed viability. However, the mechanism of seed aging is poorly understood. In the present study, Yliangyou 2 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were artificially aged at 100% relative humidity and 40°C, and the effect of artificial aging on germination, germination time course and the change in protein profiles of embryo and endosperm was studied to understand the molecular mechanism behind seed aging. With an increasing duration of artificial aging, the germination percentage and germination rate of hybrid rice seeds decreased. By comparing the protein profiles from the seeds aged for 0, 10 and 25 days, a total of 91 and 100 protein spots were found to show a significant change of more than 2-fold (P cell defense and rescue (28%), and with storage protein (18%). In endosperms, most of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism (37%), in energy (27%), and in protein synthesis and destination (11%). The most marked change was the increased abundance of many glycolytic enzymes together with the two fermentation enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the embryos during aging. We hypothesize that the decreased viability of hybrid rice seeds during artificial aging is caused by the development of hypoxic conditions in the embryos followed by ethanol accumulation.

  17. Rice versus Shrimp Production in Thailand: Is There Really a Conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    MEKHORA, Thamrong; McCann, Laura M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Shrimp farming in Thailand has had disastrous effects on the environment in the past, which has prompted a government ban on shrimp production in inland areas. However, a new low-salinity shrimp farming system has developed that seems to have fewer disease and environmental problems than previous systems but competes with rice production for land and water resources. The present study found that shrimp farming exhibits increasing returns to scale and is much more profitable than rice farming,...

  18. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  19. Ambient insect pressure and recipient genotypes determine fecundity of transgenic crop-weed rice hybrid progeny: Implications for environmental biosafety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Xia, Hanbing; Xu, Kai; Cai, Xingxing; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2016-08-01

    Transgene introgression into crop weedy/wild relatives can provide natural selective advantages, probably causing undesirable environmental impact. The advantages are likely associated with factors such as transgenes, selective pressure, and genetic background of transgene recipients. To explore the role of the environment and background of transgene recipients in affecting the advantages, we estimated the fitness of crop-weed hybrid lineages derived from crosses between marker-free insect-resistant transgenic (Bt/CpTI) rice with five weedy rice populations under varied insect pressure. Multiway anova indicated the significant effect of both transgenes and weedy rice genotypes on the performance of crop-weed hybrid lineages in the high-insect environment. Increased fecundity was detected in most transgene-present F1 and F2 hybrid lineages under high-insect pressure, but varied among crop-weed hybrid lineages with different weedy rice parents. Increased fecundity of transgenic crop-weed hybrid lineages was associated with the environmental insect pressure and genotypes of their weedy rice parents. The findings suggest that the fitness effects of an insect-resistant transgene introgressed into weedy populations are not uniform across different environments and genotypes of the recipient plants that have acquired the transgene. Therefore, these factors should be considered when assessing the environmental impact of transgene flow to weedy or wild rice relatives.

  20. Relationship Between Changes in Leaf Endogenous Hormone Contents and Senescence During Grain Filling Stage of a Rice Hybrid and its Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jin-juan; LI Xue-mei; XU Zheng-jin; ZHANG Li-jun

    2004-01-01

    A major problem in hybrid rice production is the occurrence of leaf senescence during the grain filling stage that can result in reduction of yield. Changes in contents of several endogenous hormones are related to leaf senescence. The relationship between endogenous hormones and leaf senescence in the rice hybrid Tiyou 418 and its parents Tijin and C418, was undertaken for investigation. Indicators of leaf senescence, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and chlorophyll content, as well as the contents of abscisic acid (ABA), zeatin riboside (ZR), gibberellin (GA1/3) and auxin (IAA) in the leaves were determined. Different rates of leaf senescence were observed in the three materials. Senescence occurred earliest and fastest in Tijin, followed by Tiyou 418 and then C418. A similar trend was recorded in ABA, ZR, and IAA contents during the grain filling stage in the three materials. Changes in (GA1/3+ZR+IAA)/ABA ratios were also similar, being quite stable during the early stage of leaf senescence, and decreasing markedly during the late stage. The ratio declined more dramatically in Tijin, in accordance with its faster leaf senescence. The results suggest that the ratio of (GA1/3+ZR+IAA)/ABA regulates chlorophyll content, SOD activity, MDA content and membrane lipid peroxidation. It is postulated that endogenous hormones may play a role in the regulation of leaf senescence in a systematic way.

  1. Impact of the substitution of rice bran on rheological properties of dough and in the new product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran is a nutrient-rich co-product of the rice milling industries. The impact of adding 2-20% rice bran in wheat flour on the rheological behavior of the dough was investigated using the instruments, Farinograph, Consistograph, and Alveograph. The changes in physico-chemical properties were fo...

  2. Bioethanol Production from Indica IR.64 Rice Straw Biomass by Direct Saccharification and Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ario Betha Juanssilfero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feed stocks for bioethanol production. Indica IR.64 rice straw is one of abundant agricultural wastes in Indonesia and could be used to bioethanol production. It has several characteristics such as high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. A simple process (the direct saccharification and fermentation process to produce ethanol from rice straw was developed in order to establish an efficient bioethanol production. In this work, no harsh pre-treatment steps were applied and also use a simple one-vat reactor without the risk of losing liberated carbohydrate. The first step in using rice straw for bioethanol production is size reduction through milling and sieving process prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Direct saccharification and fermentation (DSF of Indica IR.64 rice straw was examined and compared with two type of control (systems devoid of yeast and enzyme. The experiment were carried out under anaerobic condition, where the cellulase crude enzyme and cellulosic substrates (rice straw produced glucose from the cellulose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae directly assimilated the glucose to bioethanol. The faster rate of bioethanol production during DSF by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was obtained within the first 12h. The maximum ethanol concentration, ethanol yield, and theoretical ethanol yield of untreated rice straw were 0.25 g/L, 10 and 14.88%, respectively. Nevertheless, the direct saccharification and fermentation shows the potential for lower cost and higher efficiency for bioethanol production.

  3. Production of D-lactic acid by bacterial fermentation of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuki; Sogo, Kazuaki; Miura, Shigenobu; Kimura, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-20

    D-Lactic acid was synthesized by the fermentation of rice starch using microorganisms. Two species: Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Sporolactobacillus inulinus were found to be active in producing D-lactic acid of high optical purity after an intensive screening test for D-lactic acid bacteria using glucose as substrate. Rice powder used as the starch source was hydrolyzed with a combination of enzymes: alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and pullulanase to obtain rice saccharificate consisting of maltose as the main component. Its average gross yield was 82.5%. Of the discovered D-lactic acid bacteria, only Lactobacillus delbrueckii could ferment both maltose and the rice saccharificate. After optimizing the fermentation of the rice saccharificate using this bacterium, pilot scale fermentation was conducted to convert the rice saccharificate into D-lactic acid with a D-content higher than 97.5% in a yield of 70%. With this yield, the total yield of D-lactic acid from brown rice was estimated to be 47%, which is almost equal to the L-lactic acid yield from corn. The efficient synthesis of D-lactic acid can open a way to the large scale application of high-melting poly(lactic acid) that is a stereocomplex of poly(L-lactide) and poly(D-lactide). Schematic representation of the production of D-lactic acid starting from brown rice as described here.

  4. Enhanced biogas production from rice straw with various pretreatment : a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriya Puspita Sari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is one of organic material that can be used for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels such as biogas (about 50-75% CH4 and 25-50% CO2. Out of all bioconversion technologies for biogas production, anaerobic digestion (AD is a most cost-effective bioconversion technology that has been implemented worldwide for commercial production of electricity, heat, and compressed natural gas (CNG from organic materials. However, the utilization of rice straw for biogas production via anaerobic digestion has not been widely adopted because the complicated structure of the plant cell wall makes it resistant to microbial attack. Pretreatment of recalcitrant rice straw is essential to achieve high biogas yield in the AD process. A number of different pretreatment techniques involving using physical pretreatment (hydrothermal and freeze, chemical pretreatment (sodium carbonate – sodium sulfite, hydrogen peroxide, NMMO, alkaline, and dilute acid and biological pretreatment (fungal pretreatment also combined pretretment (microwave irradiation and chemical approaches have been investigated, but there is no report that systematically compares the performance of these pretreatment methods for application on rice straw for biogas production. This paper reviews the methods that have been studied for pretreatment of rice straw for delignification, reducing sugar, and conversion to biogas. It describes the AD process, structural and compositional properties of rice straw, and various pretreatment techniques, including the pretreatment process, parameters, performance, and advantages vs. drawbacks.

  5. Extraction of Silica and other related products from Rice Husk

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Mehta,; Dr. R. P Ugwekar

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the present work is the synthesis of silica from rice husk and to study its characterization studies. The alkaline method succeeded by acid precipitation is done for the extraction of silica. The optimization of the concentration of sodium hydroxide and the amount of rice husk ash that goes with it for attaining the maximum yield of silica is done. X-ray Diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry studies are executed for acquiring its characteris...

  6. Economic assessment of different mulches in conventional and water-saving rice production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabran, Khawar; Hussain, Mubshar; Fahad, Shah; Farooq, Muhammad; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharrby, Hesham; Nasim, Wajid

    2016-05-01

    Water-saving rice production systems including alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and aerobic rice (AR) are being increasingly adopted by growers due to global water crises. Application of natural and artificial mulches may further improve water economy of water-saving rice production systems. Conventionally flooded rice (CFR) system has been rarely compared with AWD and AR in terms of economic returns. In this 2-year field study, we compared CFR with AWD and AR (with and without straw and plastic mulches) for the cost of production and economic benefits. Results indicated that CFR had a higher production cost than AWD and AR. However, application of mulches increased the cost of production of AWD and AR production systems where plastic mulch was expensive than straw mulch. Although the mulching increased the cost of production for AWD and AR, the gross income of these systems was also improved significantly. The gross income from mulched plots of AWD and AR was higher than non-mulched plots of the same systems. In conclusion, AWD and AR effectively reduce cost of production by economizing the water use. However, the use of natural and artificial mulches in such water-saving environments further increased the economic returns. The maximized economic returns by using straw mulch in water-saving rice production systems definitely have pragmatic implications for sustainable agriculture.

  7. Differential gene expression in an elite hybrid rice cultivar (Oryza sativa, L and its parental lines based on SAGE data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was proposed that differentially-expressed genes, aside from genetic variations affecting protein processing and functioning, between hybrid and its parents provide essential candidates for studying heterosis or hybrid vigor. Based our serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE data from an elite Chinese super-hybrid rice (LYP9 and its parental cultivars (93-11 and PA64s in three major tissue types (leaves, roots and panicles at different developmental stages, we analyzed the transcriptome and looked for candidate genes related to rice heterosis. Results By using an improved strategy of tag-to-gene mapping and two recently annotated genome assemblies (93-11 and PA64s, we identified 10,268 additional high-quality tags, reaching a grand total of 20,595 together with our previous result. We further detected 8.5% and 5.9% physically-mapped genes that are differentially-expressed among the triad (in at least one of the three stages with P-values less than 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. These genes distributed in 12 major gene expression patterns; among them, 406 up-regulated and 469 down-regulated genes (P Conclusion We improved tag-to-gene mapping strategy by combining information from transcript sequences and rice genome annotation, and obtained a more comprehensive view on genes that related to rice heterosis. The candidates for heterosis-related genes among different genotypes provided new avenue for exploring the molecular mechanism underlying heterosis.

  8. A Preliminary Study of the Key Technologies in Rice Seed Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guodong HUA; Guanxi LI; Delong MENG; Duoming WANG

    2015-01-01

    To study the production technology of rice seeds,with Lianjing 7 as test material,this paper explores the effects of the key rice seed production,processing and storage technologies( such as nitrogen fertilizer application and management,weeding mode in seed breeding field,temperature control of mechanical drying and water control on seed storage) on the quality of rice seeds. The results show that the optimal application proportion of tillering stage dressing and earing fertilizer is 8: 2,followed by 7 : 3; the best time of weeding is booting stage,with the highest purity; the effect of drying and germination rate is best when the temperature is controlled at 44℃ in mechanical drying process; the seed storage quality and storage costs can be guaranteed when the water content of rice seed is controlled at 18%.

  9. Sustainable rice production and its impact on the rice value chain: A case study of rural paddy farm in Kedah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Siti Norezam; Othman, Zakirah; Yaacob, Noorulsadiqin Azbiya; Hamid, Kamal Ab

    2016-08-01

    System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method had contributed towards environmental sustainability through improving paddy ecosystem, better sustainable economic due to improving paddy production and sales and social sustainability through local community development through community activity and health. This study aimed to find out whether the innovative practices of SRI affect the rice value chain and to determine the roles, activities of the actors in the value chain as well as challenges that impacted the value chain. Using interview as data collection method, case samples were selected from various SRI paddy site in Kedah. The findings indicated that implementing SRI practices in organic paddy cultivation had caused the value chain to be different from conventional paddy value chain in terms of actor and effect of middle man subject to the small scale paddy production. For organic rice value chain to become competitive, roles, activities and challenges were identified so that supports could be provided to the farmers and other related parties in the value chain.

  10. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p control. The percent total solids and suspended solids were more (though not significant) in PLR kheer and palathalikalu. Extruded product (control and PLR) showed no significant difference with length, diameter, weight and volume expansion ratio and water absorption index (WAI). Consumer acceptability was high for PLR products palathalikalu (95%), instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased (P control and PLR) showed no microbial growth during the entire storage period. Considering the poor marketability of PLRVs for consumption as staple rice, the study

  11. Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Production in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppol Arunrat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land management practices for rice productivity and carbon storage have been a key focus of research leading to opportunities for substantial greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation. The effects of land management practices on global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI from rice production within the farm gate were investigated. For the 13 study sites, soil samples were collected by the Land Development Department in 2004. In 2014, at these same sites, soil samples were collected again to estimate the soil organic carbon sequestration rate (SOCSR from 2004 to 2014. Surveys were conducted at each sampling site to record the rice yield and management practices. The carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions, Net GWP, and GHGI associated with the management practices were calculated. Mean rice yield and SOCSR were 3307 kg·ha−1·year−1 and 1173 kg·C·ha−1·year−1, respectively. The net GWP varied across sites, from 819 to 5170 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1, with an average value of 3090 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1. GHGI ranged from 0.31 to 1.68 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield, with an average value of 0.97 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield. Our findings revealed that the amount of potassium (potash, K2O fertilizer application rate is the most significant factor explaining rice yield and SOCSR. The burning of rice residues in the field was the main factor determining GHGI in this area. An effective way to reduce GHG emissions and contribute to sustainable rice production for food security with low GHGI and high productivity is avoiding the burning of rice residues.

  12. Utilization of damaged sorghum and rice grains for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.; Kiran Sree, N.; Venkateswer Rao, L. [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Microbiology

    1999-06-01

    The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of damaged grains of sorghum and rice was carried out using Aspergillus niger (NCIM 1248) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae VSJ1. More ethanol was produced from the damaged sorghum (2.90% v/v) than damaged rice (2.09% v/v) under optimal fermentation conditions. This study reveals that damaged grains can be utilized efficiently by an SSF process for the production of ethanol. (Author)

  13. COMPARISON OF TWO CHEMICAL PRETREATMENTS OF RICE STRAW FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Song,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is considered the most abundant renewable resource that has the potential to contribute remarkably in the supply of biofuel. Previous studies have shown that chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion (AD can increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and methane yield. In the present study, the effect of rice straw pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide (NH3•H2O and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the biogasification performance through AD was investigated. A self-designed, laboratory-scale, and continuous anaerobic biogas digester was used for the evaluation. Results showed that the contents of the rice straw, i.e. the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were degraded significantly after the NH3•H2O and H2O2 treatments, and that biogas production from all pretreated rice straw increased. In addition, the optimal treatments for biogas production were the 4% and 3% H2O2 treatments (w/w, which yielded 327.5 and 319.7 mL/gVS, biogas, respectively, higher than the untreated sample. Biogas production from H2O2 pretreated rice straw was more favorable than rice straw pretreated with same concentration of ammonia, ranking in the order of 4% ≈ 3% > 2% > 1%. The optimal amount of H2O2 treatment for rice straw biogas digestion is 3% when economics and biogas yields are considered.

  14. Bioethanol production from steam-exploded rice husk by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Takamitsu; Yoshiba, Yusuke; Takashina, Tomonori; Hieda, Kazuo; Shimizu, Norio

    2017-03-01

    Rice husk is one of the most abundant types of lignocellulosic biomass. Because of its significant amount of sugars, such as cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be used for the production of biofuels such as bioethanol. However, the complex structure of lignocellulosic biomass, consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is resistant to degradation, which limits biomass utilization for ethanol production. The protection of cellulose by lignin contributes to the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses to hydrolysis. Therefore, we conducted steam-explosion treatment as pretreatment of rice husk. However, recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 did not ferment the reducing sugar solution obtained by enzymatic saccharification of steam-exploded rice husk. When the steam-exploded rice husk was washed with hot water to remove inhibitory substances and M9 medium (without glucose) was used as a fermentation medium, E. coli KO11 completely fermented the reducing sugar solution obtained by enzymatic saccharification of hot water washing-treated steam-exploded rice husk to ethanol. We report here the efficient production of bioethanol using steam-exploded rice husk.

  15. Assessing energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions under bioethanol-oriented paddy rice production in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Tajima, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    To establish energetically and environmentally viable paddy rice-based bioethanol production systems in northern Japan, it is important to implement appropriately selected agronomic practice options during the rice cultivation step. In this context, effects of rice variety (conventional vs. high-yielding) and rice straw management (return to vs. removal from the paddy field) on energy inputs from fuels and consumption of materials, greenhouse gas emissions (fuel and material consumption-derived CO(2) emissions as well as paddy soil CH(4) and N(2)O emissions) and ethanol yields were assessed. The estimated ethanol yield from the high-yielding rice variety, "Kita-aoba" was 2.94 kL ha(-1), a 32% increase from the conventional rice variety, "Kirara 397". Under conventional rice production in northern Japan (conventional rice variety and straw returned to the paddy), raising seedlings, mechanical field operations, transportation of harvested unhulled brown rice and consumption of materials (seeds, fertilizers, biocides and agricultural machinery) amounted to 28.5 GJ ha(-1) in energy inputs. The total energy input was increased by 14% by using the high-yielding variety and straw removal, owing to increased requirements for fuels in harvesting and transporting harvested rice as well as in collecting, loading and transporting rice straw. In terms of energy efficiency, the variation among rice variety and straw management scenarios regarding rice varieties and rice straw management was small (28.5-32.6 GJ ha(-1) or 10.1-14.0 MJ L(-1)). Meanwhile, CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions varied considerably from scenario to scenario, as straw management had significant impacts on CH(4) emissions from paddy soils. When rice straw was incorporated into the soil, total CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions for "Kirara 397" and "Kita-aoba" were 25.5 and 28.2 Mg CO(2) ha(-1), respectively; however, these emissions were reduced notably for the two varieties when rice straw

  16. Productivity of Rice Grown on Arsenic Contaminated Soil under a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Plaganas, M.; Muehe, E. M.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Rice is the staple food for more than 50% of the global population. In South and Southeast Asia, native soil arsenic coupled with arsenic-laden irrigation water result in paddy soils having arsenic levels that decrease the quality and productivity of rice and thus compromise food security worldwide. However, it remains unknown how climate change will affect the accumulation of arsenic in rice plants, specifically grain, grown in arsenic-bearing paddy soils. We hypothesize that the bioavailability of arsenic in the paddy soil will increase with climate change leading to an even sharper decrease of rice productivity and quality than presently estimated. In order to shed light on this question, we performed greenhouse studies to simulate today's climate condition in Asian paddy soils and compare it to the conditions projected for the year 2100. We investigated climate conditions estimated in the 5th assessment report of the IPCC1, indicating up to a 5°C increase in temperature and doubled atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Under these current and future climate conditions, we examined rice physiology including plant height and biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, grain number and weight as well as contents of accumulated arsenic, and its species in the different rice tissues. We further correlate different geochemical parameters of the soil, including arsenic and other relevant metal dynamics in the soil, to plant response. In sum, our analyses will allow us to better predict the productivity of rice and its grain quality in a future climate condition, and may help to take precautions to avoid a global food crisis, particularly for South and Southeast Asia where rice is a daily staple. 1IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2013, The Physical Science Basis.

  17. Advances and Prospects in Breeding Japonica Rice for Super High Yield in the Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen-fu; XU Zheng-jin; ZHANG Wen-zhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, advances and prospects in breeding japonica rice for super high yield in the northern China were analyzed comprehensively in terms of breeding theories, techniques and practices. The author holds that developing and spreading super rice is an important way to enhance the overall yielding ability of japonica rice and attaining immense expansion of rice production. After theories and technical guidelines for super rice breeding were formulated, which involved the creation of new plant morphology and strong hybrid vigor through crossing indica with japonica subspecies, the optimization of combination of desirable traits via multiple crossing or backcrossing, the assemblage of favorable genes and the integration of ideal plant morphology with the utilization of vigor-major breakthroughs have been made in conventional breeding of japonica super rice. A batch of new super rice varieties marked by superior rice quality and high disease resistance, such as Shennong 265, Shennong 606, and Jijing 88, etc., have been developed and released. In comparison with the advancement in conventional breeding of super rice, progress in hybrid japonica super rice breeding is slower because of climatic and ecological constraint in northern China. Therefore, solving the contradictions between vigor and growth duration, between yield and rice quality, and boosting vastly seed production are still serious challenges for breeders of hybrid japonica rice. Physiological and genetic problems in japonica super rice breeding are also discussed in this paper.

  18. Proteomic Analysis of the Response of Liangyoupeijiu (Super High-Yield Hybrid Rice) Seedlings to Cold Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Fang Yang; Xiao-Juan Li; Yu Liang; Yu-Xiang Jing; Shi-Hua Shen; Ting-Yun Kuang

    2006-01-01

    Liangyoupeijiu is a super high-yield hybrid rice. Despite its advantages with respect to yield and grain quality, it is sensitive to cold, which keeps it from being widely cultivated. We subjected Liangyoupeijiu seedlings to 4 ℃ cold treatment, then extracted the leaf proteins. After 2-D gel electrophoresis separation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, a series of differentially displayed proteins were identified. Some metabolism-associated proteins were found among the downregulated proteins, such as carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, transketolase 1, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The upregulated proteins included both stress-resistance proteins such as nucleoside diphosphate kinase Ⅰ and proteins that are negative for rice growth, such as FtsH-like protein, plastid fusion and/or translocation factor (Pftf) and actin. Our results indicate that cold may inhibit Liangyoupeijiu growth through decreasing metabolic activity and damaging cell structure.

  19. The presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in rice and rice products; and evaluation of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Hanif, Usman; Zuber, Muhammad; Jinap, S

    2016-11-01

    In present study aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analysed in 208 samples of rice and products collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector. The results have shown that 35% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 19% and 24% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 19% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 14% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in brown rice samples i.e. 8.91 and 12.4μg/kg, respectively. However, white rice samples have shown the highest mean level of OTA (8.50μg/kg) with highest level of 24.9μg/kg. The high mean dietary exposure 22.2 and 24.2ngkg(-1)bwday(-1) to AFB1 and OTA, respectively poses significant health hazard for local population.

  20. Rice Production without Insecticide in Smallholder Farmer's Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Ali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Highlights:Use of perching, sweeping, and need based insecticide (IPM technique useage produce at par yields compared to prophylactic insecticide useage in rice fields.There exists a technique that can reduce 75% of insecticide useage in rice field.The results were obtained in cooperation between smallholder rice farmers and researchers of Bangladesh.Currently rice protection from insect pests solely depends on chemical pesticides which have tremendous impact on biodiversity, environment, animal, and human health. To reduce their impact from our society we need to cut pesticide use from agricultural practices. To address this issue, we did an experiment to identify realistic solutions that could help farmers build sustainable crop protection systems and minimize useage of insecticides and thus reduce the impact of pesticides in the environment. Innovations developed jointly by farmers and researchers and evaluated for their potential to be adopted by more farmers. In this paper we tested four management practices jointly with smallholder farmer fields in order to select the best one. Four management practices were used namely, T1 = Prophylactic use of insecticide where insecticide was applied in rice field at every 15 days interval without judging the infestation level; T2 = Perching (that is, placing roosting (perching sites for insectivorous birds within the rice field and concurrent sweep net samples along with need-based insecticide application; T3 = Perching only; and T4 = Farmer's own practices. The results revealed that routine application of insecticides for crop protection is not mandatory which is commonly found at use in rice farmers. In our experiment, where prophylactic method or farmers used 3–4 times insecticides without judging the insect pests infestation level, the similar pest population was found when compared to the field where insecticide was not applied. Our management system reduced by 75% the use of insecticides even

  1. Two sequence alterations, a 136 bp InDel and an A/C polymorphic site, in the S5 locus are associated with spikelet fertility of indica-japonica hybrid in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Lu, Jufei; Chao, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Meijing; Gu, Minghong; Xu, Mingliang

    2010-01-01

    The rice indica/japonica hybrid shows strong heterosis. However, such inter-subspecific hybrid can't be directly used in rice production due to its low spikelet fertility. The S5 locus was proved to be associated with fertility of indica/japonica hybrid and its S5n allele from wide-compatibility variety (WCV) is capable to overcome fertility barrier. In the present study, we reported the causal sites in the S5 locus responsible for compatibility of indica/japonica hybrid. Fine-mapping of the S5 locus using the 11 test-cross families pinpoints a candidate S5 locus encoding aspartic protease (Asp). Intragenic recombination within the Asp gene happened in a number of recombinants, resulting in chimeric S5j-S5n alleles. Just like S5n, the chimeric S5j-S5n allele displayed higher spikelet fertility when combined with the S5i allele. In the complementary test, however, the S5n allele from WCVs failed to enhance fertilities of the indica/japonica hybrids. Compared to both indica and japonica varieties, all nine WCVs from different resources are characterized with a 136 bp deletion in the Asp N-terminus, which probably renders the S5n allele non-functional. Furthermore, an A/C polymorphic site is detected 1,233 bp downstream of the Asp start codon. The heterozygous A/C site of the Asp gene in indica/japonica hybrid is believed to be the casual factor to cause partial sterility. The functional makers based on the two polymorphic sites will be broadly used in developing wide-compatibility rice varieties.

  2. Reinforcement of natural rubber hybrid composites based on marble sludge/Silica and marble sludge/rice husk derived silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A research has been carried out to develop natural rubber (NR hybrid composites reinforced with marble sludge (MS/Silica and MS/rice husk derived silica (RHS. The primary aim of this development is to scrutinize the cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of such hybrid composite. The use of both industrial and agricultural waste such as marble sludge and rice husk derived silica has the primary advantage of being eco-friendly, low cost and easily available as compared to other expensive fillers. The results from this study showed that the performance of NR hybrid composites with MS/Silica and MS/RHS as fillers is extremely better in mechanical and swelling properties as compared with the case where MS used as single filler. The study suggests that the use of recently developed silica and marble sludge as industrial and agricultural waste is accomplished to provide a probable cost effective, industrially prospective, and attractive replacement to the in general purpose used fillers like china clay, calcium carbonate, and talc.

  3. Development of Elite BPH-Resistant Wide-Spectrum Restorer Lines for Three and Two Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengfeng Fan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rice has contributed significantly to the world food security. Breeding of elite high-yield, strong-resistant broad-spectrum restorer line is an important strategy for hybrid rice in commercial breeding programs. Here, we developed three elite brown planthopper (BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines by pyramiding big-panicle gene Gn8.1, BPH-resistant genes Bph6 and Bph9, fertility restorer genes Rf3, Rf4, Rf5, and Rf6 through molecular marker assisted selection. Resistance analysis revealed that the newly developed restorer lines showed stronger BPH-resistance than any of the single-gene donor parent Luoyang-6 and Luoyang-9. Moreover, the three new restorer lines had broad spectrum recovery capabilities for Honglian CMS, Wild abortive CMS and two-line GMS sterile lines, and higher grain yields than that of the recurrent parent 9,311 under nature field conditions. Importantly, the hybrid crosses also showed good performance for grain yield and BPH-resistance. Thus, the development of elite BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines has a promising future for breeding of broad spectrum BPH-resistant high-yield varieties.

  4. Molecular basis underlying the S5-dependent reproductive isolation and compatibility of indica/japonica rice hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Zhang, Meijing; Lu, Jufei; Wang, Hongmei; Lin, Bing; Liu, Qiaoquan; Chao, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Chunxia; Gu, Minghong; Xu, Mingliang

    2012-03-01

    The S5 locus regulates spikelet fertility of indica/japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa). There are three alleles at the S5 locus, including an indica allele (S5i), a japonica allele (S5j), and a wide-compatibility allele (S5n). This study analyzed the molecular basis for S5-dependent reproductive isolation and compatibility of indica/japonica rice hybrids. Three S5 alleles were expressed at extremely low levels, and only in the ovary. S5n was more similar to S5i in both RNA and protein expression profiles. The S5 locus was not essential for embryo sac development, although deleterious interactions between S5i and S5j resulted in reduced rates of spikelet fertility. The yeast two-hybrid system was used to test direct interactions between S5-encoded proteins. The results indicated that the S5i- and S5j-encoded eukaryotic aspartyl proteases formed both homodimers and heterodimers, whereas the S5n-encoded aspartyl protease was incapable of dimerization. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that a single amino acid difference between S5i- and S5j-encoded aspartyl proteases (phenylalanine/leucine at residue 273) was primarily responsible for embryo sac abortion. The S5 locus may have promoted the subspeciation of indica and japonica, but it also enables gene flow between them.

  5. Development of Elite BPH-Resistant Wide-Spectrum Restorer Lines for Three and Two Line Hybrid Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fengfeng; Li, Nengwu; Chen, Yunping; Liu, Xingdan; Sun, Heng; Wang, Jie; He, Guangcun; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid rice has contributed significantly to the world food security. Breeding of elite high-yield, strong-resistant broad-spectrum restorer line is an important strategy for hybrid rice in commercial breeding programs. Here, we developed three elite brown planthopper (BPH)-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines by pyramiding big-panicle gene Gn8.1, BPH-resistant genes Bph6 and Bph9, fertility restorer genes Rf3, Rf4, Rf5, and Rf6 through molecular marker assisted selection. Resistance analysis revealed that the newly developed restorer lines showed stronger BPH-resistance than any of the single-gene donor parent Luoyang-6 and Luoyang-9. Moreover, the three new restorer lines had broad spectrum recovery capabilities for Honglian CMS, Wild abortive CMS and two-line GMS sterile lines, and higher grain yields than that of the recurrent parent 9,311 under nature field conditions. Importantly, the hybrid crosses also showed good performance for grain yield and BPH-resistance. Thus, the development of elite BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines has a promising future for breeding of broad spectrum BPH-resistant high-yield varieties.

  6. Development of SNP-based dCAPS markers for identifying male sterile gene tms5 in two-line hybrid rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, F S; Ni, J L; Qian, Y L; Li, L; Ni, D H; Yang, J B

    2016-08-29

    Molecular markers can increase both the efficiency and speed of breeding programs. Functional markers that detect the functional mutations causing phenotypic changes offer a precise method for genetic identification. In this study, we used newly derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to detect the functional mutations of tms5, which is a male sterile gene that is widely used in rice production in China. In addition, restriction cutting sites were designed to specifically digest amplicons of tms5 but not wild type (TMS5), in order to avoid the risk of false positive results. By optimizing the condition of the polymerase chain reaction amplifications and restriction enzyme digestions, the newly designed markers could accurately distinguish between tms5 and TMS5. These markers can be applied in marker-assisted selection for breeding novel thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) lines, as well as to rapidly identify the TGMS hybrid seed purity.

  7. Shoot Photosynthesis and Root Growth of Hybrid and Conventional Rice Cultivars as Affected by N and K Levels in the Root Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXIAOE; V.ROEMHELD; 等

    1997-01-01

    Root box experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of N and NK levels in the root zone on shoot photosynthesis and root growth of hybrid an cultivar of rice (Oryza sativa L.) on two paddy soils (clayey and silty).The results showed that dry matter yields in the hybrid and the cultivar were considerably increased by NK supply,bu the effect was greater for the hybrid.Supply of NK in the root zone significantly increased photosynthetic rate of the lower position leaf and the active green leaf area per plant,in which the effects were much more obvious in the hybrid rice than in the cultivar.High NK supply in the root zone stimulated the root growth,and decreased pH and increased the oxidation zone in the rhizosphere in both entries,but to a greater extent in the hybrid .The results indicated that higher NK levels were needed to maintain higher root activity and shoot photosynthetic capacity in rice,particularly in hybrid rice.

  8. Genetic expression and effects of the rolled leaf gene Rl(t)in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We constructed a near isogenic line of rolled leaf gene Rl(t), which expressed incompletely dominance for the character of rolled leaf(RL), with genetic background of Zhenshan 97B. Using RL Zhenshan 97B and the original Zhenshan 97B as the female parents,and Minghui 63 and Yanhui 559 as the male parents, crosses of RL Shanyou 63 (RS63) and Shanyou 63(S63), RL Shanyou 559 ( RS559) and Shanyou 559 (S559) were made. Inheritance and effects of Rl(t) in hybrid rice were studied at the flowering and at the 20 d after flowering, respectively. Results were as follows:

  9. Identification of transcriptome SNPs for assessing allele-specific gene expression in a super-hybrid rice Xieyou9308.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhai

    Full Text Available Hybridization, a common process in nature, can give rise to a vast reservoir of allelic variants. Combination of these allelic variants may result in novel patterns of gene action and is thought to contribute to heterosis. In this study, we analyzed genome-wide allele-specific gene expression (ASGE in the super-hybrid rice variety Xieyou9308 using RNA sequencing technology (RNA-Seq. We identified 9325 reliable single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distributed throughout the genome. Nearly 68% of the identified polymorphisms were CT and GA SNPs between R9308 and Xieqingzao B, suggesting the existence of DNA methylation, a heritable epigenetic mark, in the parents and their F1 hybrid. Of 2793 identified transcripts with consistent allelic biases, only 480 (17% showed significant allelic biases during tillering and/or heading stages, implying that trans effects may mediate most transcriptional differences in hybrid offspring. Approximately 67% and 62% of the 480 transcripts showed R9308 allelic expression biases at tillering and heading stages, respectively. Transcripts with higher levels of gene expression in R9308 also exhibited R9308 allelic biases in the hybrid. In addition, 125 transcripts were identified with significant allelic expression biases at both stages, of which 74% showed R9308 allelic expression biases. R9308 alleles may tend to preserve their characteristic states of activity in the hybrid and may play important roles in hybrid vigor at both stages. The allelic expression of 355 transcripts was highly stage-specific, with divergent allelic expression patterns observed at different developmental stages. Many transcripts associated with stress resistance were differently regulated in the F1 hybrid. The results of this study may provide valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of heterosis.

  10. Organic rice production in developing countries with regard to fair trade (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlin, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Henrik N.; Olsen, Lino Klit

    1999-01-01

    This report deals with the possibilities of organic rice production in developing countries under fair trade conditions - conditions which assures the producer a fair price for the delivered product.It is concluded that the following points should be worked with when carrying out such a project:1...

  11. Expression Analysis of miRNAs and Highly-expressed Small RNAs in Two Rice Subspecies and their Reciprocal Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangfang Chen; Guangming He; Hang He; Wei Chen; Xiaopeng Zhu; Manzhong Liang; Liangbi Chen; Xing Wang Deng

    2010-01-01

    Heterosis,or hybrid vigor,is the phenomenon whereby progeny of two inbred lines exhibit superior agronomic performance compared with either parent.We analyzed the expression of miRNAs and highly expressed small RNAs(defined according to Solexa sequencing results)in two rice(Oryza sativa)subspecies(japonica cv.Nipponbare and indica cv.93-11)and their reciprocal hybrids using microarrays.We found that of all the 1141 small RNAs tested,140(12%,140 of 1141)and 157(13%,157 of 1141)were identified being significantly differentially expressed in two reciprocal hybrids,respectively.All possible modes of action,including additive,high- and low- parent,above high- and below low-parent modes were exhibited.Both F1 hybrids showed non-additive expression patterns,with downregulation predominating.Interestingly,15 miRNAs displayed stark opposite expression trends relative to midparent in reciprocal hybrids.Computational prediction of targets of differentially expressed miRNAs showed that they participated in multifaceted developmental pathways,and were not distinguishable from the targets of non-differentially expressed miRNAs.Together,our findings reveal that small RNAs play roles in heterosis and add a new layer in the understanding and exploitation of molecular mechanisms of heterosis.

  12. Crop and varietal diversification of rainfed rice based cropping systems for higher productivity and profitability in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, B; Gautam, Priyanka; Panda, B B; Raja, R; Singh, Teekam; Tripathi, R; Shahid, M; Nayak, A K

    2017-01-01

    Rice-rice system and rice fallows are no longer productive in Southeast Asia. Crop and varietal diversification of the rice based cropping systems may improve the productivity and profitability of the systems. Diversification is also a viable option to mitigate the risk of climate change. In Eastern India, farmers cultivate rice during rainy season (June-September) and land leftovers fallow after rice harvest in the post-rainy season (November-May) due to lack of sufficient rainfall or irrigation amenities. However, in lowland areas, sufficient residual soil moistures are available in rice fallow in the post-rainy season (November-March), which can be utilized for raising second crops in the region. Implementation of suitable crop/varietal diversification is thus very much vital to achieve this objective. To assess the yield performance of rice varieties under timely and late sown conditions and to evaluate the performance of dry season crops following them, three different duration rice cultivars were transplanted in July and August. In dry season several non-rice crops were sown in rice fallow to constitute a cropping system. The results revealed that tiller occurrence, biomass accumulation, dry matter remobilization, crop growth rate, and ultimately yield were significantly decreased under late transplanting. On an average, around 30% yield reduction obtained under late sowing may be due to low temperature stress and high rainfall at reproductive stages of the crop. Dry season crops following short duration rice cultivars performed better in terms of grain yield. In the dry season, toria was profitable when sown earlier and if sowing was delayed greengram was suitable. Highest system productivity and profitability under timely sown rice may be due to higher dry matter remobilization from source to sink. A significant correlation was observed between biomass production and grain yield. We infer that late transplanting decrease the tiller occurrence and assimilate

  13. Construction and Testing of a Primary Microsatellite Database of Major Rice Varieties in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Jie-zheng; SHI Yong-feng; E Zhi-guo; ZENG Rui-zhen; CHEN Jie; ZHU Zhi-wei; ZHUANG Jie-yun

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-three major inbred varieties and parental lines of major F1 hybrids used in the commercial rice production in China were assayed with rice microsatellites screened in a previous study and additional microsatellites on four chromosomes. A set of 24 markers was selected and proposed for its application in the variety identification of rice, which are distributed on all the 12 rice chromosomes with 2 markers on each chromosome. The 63 major varieties and parental lines,as well as 41 major F1 hybrids, were genotyped with the markers. Alleles detected in each line at each marker locus were verified. By matching marker genotypes of corresponding F1, maternal and paternal lines of hybrid rice, high reliability of the maternal lines was verified, data on the paternal lines were modified, and a false hybrid was removed. A database containing genotype data of 103 major rice varieties and parental lines at the 24 marker loci was constructed and analyzed.

  14. Future atmospheric conditions increase the greenhouse gas intensity of rice production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Groenigen, K.; Van Kessel, C.; Hungate, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and rising temperatures are both expected to alter rice yields and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from rice paddies. This is important, because rice cultivation is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of the potent GHG methane (CH4) and rice is the world's second-most produced staple crop. Because global food demand is growing, it makes sense to assess GHG emissions from croplands on the basis of yield rather than land area, so that efforts to reduce GHG emissions occur with taking into consideration the effects on food production. However, it is unclear whether or how the GHG intensity (that is, yield-scaled GHG emissions) of cropping systems will be affected by future atmospheric conditions. Using meta-analysis, we show that elevated atmospheric CO2 (ranging from 550 to 743 ppmV) and warming (ranging from +0.8°C to +6°C) both increase the GHG intensity of rice cultivation. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increased GHG intensity by 31.4%, because CH4 emissions are stimulated more than rice yields. Warming increased GHG intensity by 11.8% per 1°C, largely due to a decrease in yield. Our findings underscore the need for mitigation and adaptation efforts to secure global food supply while at the same time keeping GHG emissions in check.

  15. Climate Change Impact and Its Contribution Share to Paddy Rice Production in Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-juan; TANG Hua-jun; QIN Zhi-hao; YOU Fei; WANG Xiu-fen; CHEN Chang-li; JI Jian-hua; LIU Xiu-mei

    2014-01-01

    In the study, an improved approach was proposed to identify the contribution shares of three group factors that are climate, technology and input, social economic factors by which the grain production is shaped. In order to calibrate the method, Jiangxi Province, one of the main paddy rice producers in China was taken as an example. Based on 50 years (1961-2010) meteorological and statistic data, using GIS and statistical analysis tools, the three group factors that in certain extent impact China’s paddy rice production have been analyzed quantitatively. The individual and interactive contribution shares of each factor group have been identiifed via eta square (η2). In the paper, two group ordinary leasr square (OLS) models, paddy models and climate models, have been constructed for further analysis. Each model group consists of seven models, one full model and six partial models. The results of paddy models show that climate factors individually and interactively contribute 11.42-15.25%explanatory power to the variation of paddy rice production in the studied province. Technology and input factors contribute 16.17%individually and another 8.46%interactively together with climate factors, totally contributing about 25%. Social economic factors contribute about 7%of which 4.65%is individual contribution and 2.49%is interactive contribution together with climate factors. The three factor groups individually contribute about 23%and interactively contribute additional 41%to paddy rice production. In addition every two of the three factor groups also function interactively and contribute about 22%. Among the three factor groups, technology and input are the most important factors to paddy rice production. The results of climate models support the results of paddy models, and display that solar radiation (indicated by sunshine hour variable) is the dominate climate factor for paddy rice production.

  16. Varietal differences in photosynthetic characters and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics parameters among intergeneric progeny derived from Oryza×Sorghum, its parents, and hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study on the photosynthetic parameters among intergeneric progenies derived from Oryza sativa L.×Sorghum vulgare L., its maternal parent Gui 630 and commercial 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63 in pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted. The morphological and photosynthetic characters of canopy leaves and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic parameters including Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, photochemical quenching coefficient and non-photochemical coefficient of canopy leaves of 3 varieties were measured. The results showed the progeny, Yuanyou 1, derived from an intergeneric cross of rice and sorghum possesses better canopy spatial architecture with thicker, heavier and bigger canopy leaf than its maternal parent Gui 630. Higher photosynthetic rate due to higher chlorophyll content, higher primary energy transformation efficiency, potential of PSII and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qE) were also measured in Yuanyou 1. These explain partly why the intergeneric progeny has higher biomass production, and better tolerance to adverse conditions and higher field yields even under stress conditions.

  17. Influence of Genetic Drift of Restoring Gene (Rf on Seed Purity of Yuetai A, a Honglian-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-feng Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed samples of Yuetai A, a Honglian (HL type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS line in hybrid rice were investigated to assess the seed purity and to analyze the cause of off-type plants by imitating the biological contaminant to Yuetai A in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province and Lingshui, Hainan Province during 2004–2006. The seed impurity of Yuetai A mainly resulted from the genetic drift of restoring fertility gene (Rf after biological contamination but not from its sterility unstability. All of the ten maintainer lines, five restorer lines and three thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines used in the study could pollinate Yuetai A and Yuetai B to produce F1 plants, directly or indirectly resulting in Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A and generating ‘iso-cytoplasm restoring-generations’. Furthermore, high outcrossing rate and similar heading date of Yuetai A with many varieties used in rice production might easily result in the biological contamination. After removing all plants with Rf-gene mixed in Yuetai A and preventing Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A, the seed purity of Yuetai A and Yuetai B had been raised to 100%.

  18. Varietal differences in photosynthetic characters and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics parameters among intergeneric progeny derived from Oryza×Sorghum, its parents, and hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KatsuyoshiShimizu; 唐建军; 陈欣

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study on the photosynthetic parameters among intergeneric progenies derived from Oryza sativa L.× Sorghum vulgare L. , its maternal parent Gui 630 and commercial 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63 in pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted. The morphological and photosynthetic characters of canopy leaves and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic pm'mneters including Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, photochemical quenching coefficient and non-photochemical coefficient of canopy leaves of 3 varieties were measured. The results showed the progeny, Yuanyou 1, derived from an intergeneric cross of rice and sorghum possesses better canopy spatial architecture with thicker, heavier and bigger canopy leaf than its maternal parent Gui 630.Higher photosynthetic rate due to higher chlorophyll content, higher primary energy transformation efficiency,potential of PSII and non-photochemieal quenching coefficient (qE) were also measured in Yuanyou 1. These explain partly why the intergeneric progeny has higher biomass production, and better tolerance to adverse conditions and higher field yields even under stress conditions.

  19. Influence of Genetic Drift of Restoring Gene (Rf) on Seed Purity of Yuetai A, a Honglian-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The seed samples of Yuetai A,a Honglian (HL) type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line in hybrid rice were investigated to assess the seed purity and to analyze the cause of off-type plants by imitating the biological contaminant to Yuetai A in Nanjing,Jiangsu Province and Lingshui,Hainan Province during 2004-2006.The seed impurity of Yuotai A mainly resulted from the genetic drift of restoring fertility gene (Rt) after biological contamination but not from its sterility unstability.All of the ten maintainer lines,five restorer lines and three thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines used in the study could pollinate Yuetai A and Yuetai B to produce F1 plants,directly or indirectly resulting in Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A and generating 'iso-cytoplasm restoring-generations'.Furthermore,high outcrossing rate and similar heading date of Yuetai A with many varieties used in rice production might easily result in the biological contamination.After removing all plants with Rf-gene mixed in Yuetai A and preventing Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A,the seed purity of Yuetai A and Yuetai B had been raised to 100%.

  20. Effects of shading on starch pasting characteristics of indica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Rice is an important staple crop throughout the world, but environmental stress like low-light conditions can negatively impact crop yield and quality. Using pot experiments and field experiments, we studied the effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity and starch content with six rice varieties for three years, using the Rapid Visco Analyser to measure starch pasting viscosity. Shading at different growth stages and in different rice varieties all affected the starch pasting characteristics of rice. The effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity at middle and later growth stages were greater than those at earlier stages. Shading enhanced breakdown but reduced hold viscosity and setback at tillering-elongation stage. Most pasting parameters changed significantly with shading after elongation stage. Furthermore, the responses of different varieties to shading differed markedly. The change scope of starch pasting viscosity in Dexiang 4103 was rather small after heading, while that in IIyou 498 and Gangyou 906 was small before heading. We observed clear tendencies in peak viscosity, breakdown, and pasting temperature of the five rice varieties with shading in 2010 and 2011. Correlation analysis indicated that the rice amylose content was negatively correlated with breakdown, but was positively correlated with setback. Based on our results, IIyou 498, Gangyou 906, and Dexiang 4103 had higher shade endurance, making these varieties most suitable for high-quality rice cultivation in low-light regions.

  1. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  2. Production of bacterial blight resistant lines from somatic hybridization between Oryza sativa L.and Oryza meyeriana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严成其; 钱凯先; 薛刚平; 吴忠长; 陈跃磊; 颜秋生; 张雪琴; 吴平

    2004-01-01

    Novel bacterial blight (BB) resistance gene(s) for rice was (were) introduced into a cultivated japonica rice variety Oryza sativa (cv. 8411), via somatic hybridization using the wild rice Oryza meyeriana as the donor of the resistance gene(s). Twenty-nine progenies of somatically hybridized plants were obtained. Seven somatically hybridized plants and their parents were used for AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) analysis using 8 primer pairs. Results confirmed that these plants were somatic hybrids containing the characteristic bands of both parents. The morphology of the regenerated rice showed characters of both O. sativa and O. meyeriana. Two somatic hybrids showed highest BB resistance and the other 8 plants showed moderate resistance. The new germplasms with highest resistance have been used in the rice bfeeding program for the improvement of bacterial blight resistance.

  3. Production of bacterial blight resistant lines from somatic hybridization between Oryza sativa L. and Oryza meyeriana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严成其; 钱凯先; 薛刚平; 吴忠长; 陈跃磊; 颜秋生; 张雪琴; 吴平

    2004-01-01

    Novel bacterial blight (BB) resistance gene(s) for rice was (were) introduced into a cultivated japonica rice variety Oryza sativa (cv. 8411), via somatic hybridization using the wild rice Oryza meyeriana as the donor of the resistance gene(s). Twenty-nine progenies of somatically hybridized plants were obtained. Seven somatically hybridized plants and their parents were used for AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) analysis using 8 primer pairs. Results confirmed that these plants were somatic hybrids containing the characteristic bands of both parents. The morphology of the regenerated rice showed characters of both O.sativa and O.meyeriana. Two somatic hybrids showed highest BB resistance and the other 8 plants showed moderate resistance. The new germplasms with highest resistance have been used in the rice breeding program for the improvement of bacterial blight resistance.

  4. Productivity improvement in Korean rice farming: parametric and non-parametric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Lee, Hyunok

    2004-01-01

    The published empirical literature on frontier production functions is dominated by two broadly defined estimation approaches – parametric and non‐parametric. Using panel data on Korean rice production, parametric and non‐parametric production frontiers are estimated and compared with estimated productivity. The non‐parametric approach employs two alternative measures based on the Malmquist index and the Luenberger indicator, while the parametric approach is closely related to the time‐varian...

  5. Rice R & D Thrusts in the Philippines%菲律宾水稻研究与发展的成就

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Philippine government recognizes the crucial role that research, development and extension play in achieving food security. PhiRice is mandated to be the lead implementing and coordinating agency for all rice R&D activities in the Philippines. The institute's activities focus on four core goals of increasing productivity, enhancing profitability, promoting sustainability of rice framing, and capacity enhancement of farmers. PhiRice implements major R&D programs on hybrid rice, transplanted irrigated lowland rice, direct-seeded rice, rice based farming systems for fragile environments, rice and rice based products, policy research and advocacy, and technology promotion. Major R&D thrusts are the development and promotion of appropriate technologies, intensification of the application of cutting-edge technologies such as biotechnology, strengthening of the manpower and facilities of the national rice R&D network, and building of a national rice information system. Recently, PhiRice has also been tasked to lead the implementation of a national hybrid rice program that targets 135,000 hectares to be planted to hybrid rice in 2002, 200,000 in 2003, and 300,000 in 2004.

  6. Soil quality and rice productivity problems in Sahelian irrigation schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    In irrigation schemes in theSahel, rice yields and cropping intens

  7. Production and identification of salt_tolerant transgenic rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@To relieve the damage of salt to the cell, many plants accumulated some low_molecular weight organic compounds, which were called osmoprotectant, such as betaine, mannitol, and sorbitol. Therefore if the gene_encoding enzyme responsible for synthesizing the osmoprotectant was transformed into rice plants, the salt_tolerance capacity of the transgenic plants would be increased, and the enormous loss caused by salinization of soil would be reduced.

  8. Evaluation of Physarum polycephalum plasmodial growth and lipid production using rice bran as a carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hanh; Stephenson, Steven; Pollock, Erik

    2015-08-01

    The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum appears to have remarkable potential as a lipid source for biodiesel production. The present study evaluated the use of rice bran as a carbon source and determined the medium components for optimum growth and lipid production for this organism. Optimization of medium components by response surface methodology showed that rice bran and yeast extract had significant influences on lipid and biomass production. The optimum medium consisted of 37.5 g/L rice bran, 0.79 g/L yeast extract and 12.5 g/L agar, and this yielded 7.5 g/L dry biomass and 0.9 g/L lipid after 5 days. The biomass and lipid production profiles revealed that these parameters increased over time and reached their maximum values (10.5 and 1.26 g/L, respectively) after 7 days. Physarum polycephalum growth decreased on the spent medium but using the latter increased total biomass and lipid concentrations to 14.3 and 1.72 g/L, respectively. An effective method for inoculum preparation was developed for biomass and lipid production by P. polycephalum on a low-cost medium using rice bran as the main carbon source. These results also demonstrated the feasibility of scaling up and reusing the medium for additional biomass and lipid production.

  9. The analysis of the quality of red fermented rice (RFR product with Monascus purpureus 3090

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUMHAWAN R. PERMANA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of red fermented rice product with Monascus purpureus 3090 was conducted on monascus floor product (MFP-264, MFP-244 and rice monascus product (RMP. Evaluation of microbiological, pigment intensity and lovastatine content analysis result was aimed to see quality differences on each production of 5 kg rice raw material. Of both product types (MFP-264, RMP which only oven dried compare to MFP-244 which is sterilized in autoclave showed a significantly difference of population level on total microorganism colonies, that is mould 26x106 propagule/ml, bacteria 13x106 cell/ml (MFP-264, mould 85x106 propagule/ml, bacteria 265x106 cell/ml (RMP. The MFP-244 produced highest absorption spectra 0.3513-0.4050 compare to MFP-264 0.3110-0.3324, rice monascus product (RMP 0.3343-0.3663. Pigment biosynthesis seems occurred at sexual developmental stage or conidia formation of M. purpureus 3090, which is produced color changes of yellow pigment, orange pigment, and red pigment. Lovastatine content of MFP-264 has Rf value 0.84 MFP-244 Rf 0.83 and RMP Rf 0.82 showed higher value compare to Rf 0.81 of the lovastatine standard solution.

  10. Seasonal Production and Emission of Methane from Rice Fields, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M. Aslam K.; Rasmussen,Reinhold A.

    2002-12-03

    B 139 - Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas regarded second only to carbon dioxide in its ability to cause global warming. Methane is important because of its relatively fast increase, and also because it is, per molecule, some 60 times more effective than carbon dioxide in causing global warming. The largest present anthropogenic sources of methane are rice fields, cattle and biomass burning. The global emissions from these sources are still not well known. In the middle 1980s there were few available data on methane emissions from rice fields leading to estimates of a global source between 100-280 Tg/yr. Extensive worldwide research during the last decade has shown that the global emissions from rice fields are more likely to be in the range of 30-80Tg/yr. While this work has led to a substantial reduction in the estimated emissions, the uncertainty is still quite large, and seriously affects our ability to include methane in integrated assessments for future climate change and environmental management.China dominated estimates of methane emissions from rice fields because it was, and is, the largest producer of rice, and major increases in rice production had taken place in the country over the last several decades. This report summarizes the work in Sichuan Province, China, in each of the following areas: the design of the experiment; the main results on methane emissions from rice fields, delineating the factors controlling emissions; production of methane in the soil; a survey of water management practices in sample of counties in Sichuan province; and results of ambient measurements including data from the background continental site. B139

  11. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail: k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  12. Comparative study on nutritional and sensory quality of barnyard and foxtail millet food products with traditional rice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Suman; Srivastava, Sarita; Tiwari, Neha

    2015-08-01

    Millets have the potential to contribute to food security and nutrition, but still these are underutilized crops. The present study was undertaken with a view to analyse the physico-chemical, functional and nutritional composition of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice and to compare the sensory quality and nutritive value of food products from foxtail and barnyard millet with rice. Analysis of physico- chemical and functional characteristics revealed that the thousand kernel weight of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 2.5, 3.0 and 18.3 g, respectively and thousand kernel volume was 1.6, 13 2.0 and 7.1 ml, respectively. The water absorption capacity of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 1.90, 1.96 and 1.98 ml/g, respectively and water solubility index was 2.8, 1.2 and 1.0 %, respectively. Viscosity was measured for foxtail millet (1650.6 cps), barnyard millet (1581 cps) and rice (1668.3 cps). Analysis of nutritional composition showed that the moisture content of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 9.35, 11.93 and 11.91 %, respectively. The total ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate of foxtail millet were 3.10, 10.29, 3.06, 4.25 and 69.95 %, respectively, for barnyard millet were 4.27, 6.93, 2.02, 2.98 and 71.87 %, respectively and the corresponding values for rice were 0.59, 6.19, 0.53, 0.21 and 80.58 %, respectively. The energy value for foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 349, 407 and 352 Kcal, respectively. The foxtail millet contained 30.10 mg/100 g calcium and 3.73 mg/100 g iron whereas barnyard millet contained 23.16 mg/100 g calcium and 6.91 mg/100 g iron. Values of 10 mg/100 g calcium and 0.10 mg/100 g iron were observed for rice. The formulated products viz. laddu, halwa and biryani from foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice (control) were analysed for their sensory qualities. Among the products prepared, there was non significant difference with regard to the

  13. Effect of Rate and Split Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components in (Bahar Hybrid Rice Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nahvi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to determinate the optimum nitrogen rate and time for split N application based on phonological stages of Bahar hybrid rice, an experiment was conducted over two years (2007-2008 using a randomized complete block design with three replications at Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII farm, Rasht. Factorial arrangement of the following factors was used: three N rates (90, 120 and 150 kg pure N in hectare and six different phonological stages (T1: using leaf color chart with number 4; T2; 1/3 base fertilizer, 1/3 in rise primary bud stage, 1/3 in booting stage; T3; 1/3 base fertilizer, 1/3 in tillering stage, 1/3 in rise primary bud stage; T4: 1/2 base fertilizer, 1/4 in tillering stage, 1/4 in booting stage; T5: 1/3base fertilizer, 1/3in tillering stage, 1/3 in booting stage; T6; 2/3 base fertilizer, 1/3 in rise primary bud stage with a control plot in each replication. After sowing in bed nursery the twenty days old seedlings were transplanted in the experimental plots. Results of analysis of variance clearly showed significant differences between different phonological stages on many characteristics. Means differences were highly significant for grain yield. The T6 treatment produced the highest yield of 8.373 and 7.920 t ha-1 in two years, respectively. However, 120 kg N ha-1 when applied as T5, produced the highest yield (8.760 t ha-1. Combined analysis of variance showed that yield and yield components.were affected by time of N application. Combined comparison of means also showed that the T5 treatment and 120 kg N ha-1 produced the highest yield of 7.925 and 7.514 t ha-1 in the first and second year, respectively. According to the results, it can be recommended that for Bahar hybrid rice maximum yield could be achieved by application of 120 kg N ha-1 when split as defined in T5 (1/3 based fertilizer + 1/3 first tillering stage + 1/3 booting stage. Keywords: Hybrid rice, Leaf Color Chart (LCC, Nitrogen fertilizer

  14. [Effects of exogenous silicon on the pollination and fertility characteristics of hybrid rice under heat stress during anthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yang; Chen, Dan; Luo, Hai-Wei; Yao, Yi-min; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Tsutomu, Matsui; Tian, Xiao-Hai

    2013-11-01

    Taking two medium-maturing indica rice hybrids Jinyou 63 and Shanyou 63 as test materials, this paper studied the effects of applying silicon fertilizer on the flag leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic properties, antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, pollen vigor, anther acid invertase activity, pollination, and seed-setting of hybrid rice under the heat stress during anthesis. This study was conducted in pots and under growth chamber. Soluble solution of silicon fertilizer applied as Na2SiO3 x 9H2O was sprayed on the growing plants after early jointing stage, with three times successively and at an interval of one week. The pots were then moved into growth chamber to subject to normal temperature vs. high temperature (termed as heat stress) for five days. In treatment normal temperature, the average daily temperature was set at 26.6 degrees C, and the maximum daily temperature was set at 29.4 degres C; in treatment high temperature, the average and the maximum daily temperature were set at 33.2 degrees C and 40.1 degrees C, respectively. As compared with the control, applying silicon increased the flag leaf chlorophyll content significantly, improved the net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, decreased the accumulative inter- cellular CO2 concentration, improved the leaf photosynthesis, reduced the MDA content, and improved the activities of SOD, POD and CAT under heat stress. In addition, applying silicon improved the anther acid invertase activity and the pollen vigor, increased the anther basal dehiscence width, total number of pollination per stigma, germinated number, germination rate of pollen, and percentage of florets with more than 10 germinated pollen grains, decreased the percentage of florets with fewer than 20 germinated pollen grains, and thus, alleviated the fertility loss of Jinyou 63 and Shanyou 63 under heat stress by 13.4% and 14.1%, respectively. It was suggested that spraying exogenous silicon in the

  15. Can exploiting natural genetic variation in leaf photosynthesis contribute to increasing rice productivity? A simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junfei; Yin, Xinyou; Stomph, Tjeerd-Jan; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Rice productivity can be limited by available photosynthetic assimilates from leaves. However, the lack of significant correlation between crop yield and leaf photosynthetic rate (A) is noted frequently. Engineering for improved leaf photosynthesis has been argued to yield little increase in crop productivity because of complicated constraints and feedback mechanisms when moving up from leaf to crop level. Here we examined the extent to which natural genetic variation in A can contribute to increasing rice productivity. Using the mechanistic model GECROS, we analysed the impact of genetic variation in A on crop biomass production, based on the quantitative trait loci for various photosynthetic components within a rice introgression line population. We showed that genetic variation in A of 25% can be scaled up equally to crop level, resulting in an increase in biomass of 22-29% across different locations and years. This was probably because the genetic variation in A resulted not only from Rubisco (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase)-limited photosynthesis but also from electron transport-limited photosynthesis; as a result, photosynthetic rates could be improved for both light-saturated and light-limited leaves in the canopy. Rice productivity could be significantly improved by mining the natural variation in existing germ-plasm, especially the variation in parameters determining light-limited photosynthesis.

  16. Genetic evidence for natural product-mediated plant-plant allelopathy in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meimei; Galhano, Rita; Wiemann, Philipp; Bueno, Emilio; Tiernan, Mollie; Wu, William; Chung, Ill-Min; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Tudzynski, Bettina; Sesma, Ane; Peters, Reuben J

    2012-02-01

    • There is controversy as to whether specific natural products play a role in directly mediating antagonistic plant-plant interactions - that is, allelopathy. If proved to exist, such phenomena would hold considerable promise for agronomic improvement of staple food crops such as rice (Oryza sativa). • However, while substantiated by the presence of phytotoxic compounds at potentially relevant concentrations, demonstrating a direct role for specific natural products in allelopathy has been difficult because of the chemical complexity of root and plant litter exudates. This complexity can be bypassed via selective genetic manipulation to ablate production of putative allelopathic compounds, but such an approach previously has not been applied. • The rice diterpenoid momilactones provide an example of natural products for which correlative biochemical evidence has been obtained for a role in allelopathy. Here, we apply reverse genetics, using knock-outs of the relevant diterpene synthases (copalyl diphosphate synthase 4 (OsCPS4) and kaurene synthase-like 4 (OsKSL4)), to demonstrate that rice momilactones are involved in allelopathy, including suppressing growth of the widespread rice paddy weed, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli). • Thus, our results not only provide novel genetic evidence for natural product-mediated allelopathy, but also furnish a molecular target for breeding and metabolic engineering of this important crop plant. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Genetic evidence for natural product mediated plant–plant allelopathy in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meimei; Galhano, Rita; Wiemann, Philipp; Bueno, Emilio; Tiernan, Mollie; Wu, William; Chung, Ill-Min; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Tudzynski, Bettina; Sesma, Ane; Peters, Reuben J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A role for specific natural products in directly mediating antagonistic plant–plant interactions –that is, allelopathy –has been controversial. If proven, such phenomena would hold considerable promise for agronomic improvement of staple food crops such as rice (Oryza sativa).However, while substantiated by the presence of phytotoxic compounds at potentially relevant levels, demonstrating a direct role for specific natural products in allelopathy has been difficult due to the chemical complexity of root and plant litter exudates. This complexity can be bypassed via selective genetic manipulation to ablate production of putative allelopathic compounds, but such an approach previously has not been applied.The rice diterpenoid momilactones provide an example of natural products for which correlative biochemical evidence has been obtained for a role in allelopathy. Here, we apply reverse genetics, using knock-outs of the relevant diterpene synthases (OsCPS4 and OsKSL4), to demonstrate that rice momilactones are involved in allelopathy, including suppressing growth of the widespread rice paddy weed, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli).Thus, our results not only provide novel genetic evidence for natural product mediated allelopathy, but also furnish a molecular target for breeding and metabolic engineering of this important crop plant. PMID:22150231

  18. Selenium inhibits sulfate-mediated methylmercury production in rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jie; Dang, Fei; Zhao, Jia-Ting; Zhong, Huan

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing interest in understanding factors controlling methylmercury (MeHg) production in mercury-contaminated rice paddy soil. Sulfate has been reported to affect MeHg biogeochemistry under anoxic conditions, and recent studies revealed that selenium (Se) could evidently reduce MeHg production in paddy soil. However, the controls of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in paddy soil under fluctuating redox conditions remain largely unknown. Microcosm experiments were conducted to explore the effects of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in rice paddy soil. Soil was added with 0-960 mg/kg sulfate, in the presence or absence of 3.0 mg/kg selenium (selenite or selenate), and incubated under anoxic (40 days) or suboxic conditions (5 days), simulating fluctuating redox conditions in rice paddy field. Sulfate addition moderately affected soil MeHg concentrations under anoxic conditions, while reoxidation resulted in evidently higher (18-40%) MeHg levels in sulfate amended soils than the control. The observed changes in net MeHg production were related to dynamics of sulfate and iron. However, Se could inhibit sulfate-mediated MeHg production in the soils: Se addition largely reduced net MeHg production in the soils (23-86%, compared to the control), despite of sulfate addition. Similarly, results of the pot experiments (i.e., rice cultivation in amended soils) indicated that soil MeHg levels were rather comparable in Se-amended soils during rice growth period, irrespective of added sulfate doses. The more important role of Se than sulfate in controlling MeHg production was explained by the formation of HgSe nanoparticles irrespective of the presence of sulfate, confirmed by TEM-EDX and XANES analysis. Our findings regarding the effects of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in rice paddy soil together with the mechanistic explanation of the processes advance our understanding of MeHg dynamics and risk in soil-rice systems.

  19. The Interactive Effect of Diversification and Farming Scale on Productivity of Family Farm:Taking Rice Cultivation as An Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Based on the diversification and cultivation scale, the rice cropping data of rural fixed observation points in 2011 were selected and the effect of diversification degree on rice productivity was analyzed by the Tobit model. The empirical results of the model show that diversification of sample farm will lead to loss of rice production efficiency. With the increase of rice planting scale, the loss of rice production efficiency will need to be further increased by diversification. Thus, we should stick to the family farm of specialized production operation. The transfer of land, the price and quantity of leasing, respecting the law of the market; the raising of funds can be considered non-subsidized capital market financing to help, while maintaining a certain degree of diversification, to avoid idle assets, low resource efficiency loss.

  20. Policy reforms, rice production and sustainable land use in China: A macro-micro analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Qu, F.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.; Tan Shuhao,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a macro¿micro analysis of the impact of policy reforms in China on agricultural production, input use and soil quality change for a major rice-producing area, namely Jiangxi province. This is done in three steps. First, a quantitative assessment is made of the impact of market

  1. Soil quality assessment of rice production systems in South of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Brussaard, L.

    2007-01-01

    Soil quality, as a measure of the soil capacity to function, can be quantified by indicators based on physical, chemical and biological properties. Maintaining soil quality at a desirable level in the rice cropping system is a very complex issue due to the nature of the production systems used. In t

  2. Prospects of using whole rice husk for the production of dense and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    can be an excellent material for brick production thereby presenting a good alternative to OPC. Key words: .... ceramics from cement kiln dust and rice husk ash through ... brick properties. .... Nevertheless though many uses had ..... Solutions to Dearth of Affordable Housing,” Vanguard Mobile Edition, ... Concrete Structures.

  3. An institutional perspective on farmers’ water management and rice production practices in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Totin, G.G.E.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is part of the wider debate about the role of institutions in agricultural innovation processes. It investigates how institutions shape rice production in inland valleys in Benin. It starts from a scoping study (prior to this research) on smallholder irrigation in Benin, which indicate

  4. Soil quality assessment of rice production systems in South of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Brussaard, L.

    2007-01-01

    Soil quality, as a measure of the soil capacity to function, can be quantified by indicators based on physical, chemical and biological properties. Maintaining soil quality at a desirable level in the rice cropping system is a very complex issue due to the nature of the production systems used. In t

  5. Can exploiting natural genetic variation in leaf photosynthesis contribute to increasing rice productivity? A simulation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, J.; Yin, X.; Stomph, T.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Rice productivity can be limited by available photosynthetic assimilates from leaves. However, the lack of significant correlation between crop yield and leaf photosynthetic rate (A) is noted frequently. Engineering for improved leaf photosynthesis has been argued to yield little increase in crop pr

  6. Soil salinity and acidity: Spatial variability and effects on rice production in West Africa's mangrove zone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylla, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the mangrove environment of West Africa, high spatial and temporal variability of soil constraints (salinity and acidity) to rice production is a problem for the transfer and adoption of new agronomic techniques, for land use planning, and for soil and water management. Recently, several National

  7. An institutional perspective on farmers’ water management and rice production practices in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Totin, G.G.E.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is part of the wider debate about the role of institutions in agricultural innovation processes. It investigates how institutions shape rice production in inland valleys in Benin. It starts from a scoping study (prior to this research) on smallholder irrigation in Benin, which

  8. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-01

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH(4)) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH(4) production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt(-1)), while observed CO(2) production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH(4) emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha(-1)) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha(-1) application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH(4) emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH(4) production rates as well as total seasonal CH(4) flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH(4) emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

  9. Effects of a GA3/4PU-30 compound (90-09) on leaf senescence of hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGRisheng

    1997-01-01

    90-09 is a cmpound made with GA3, 4PU-30 and some trace elements (B etc. ) To study the effects of 90-09 on the leaf senescence of hybrid rice leaf, the changes of activities of some degradation enzyme and the contents of endogenous hormones (ABA, ZRs, GAs, and IAA), protein, and nucleic acids were measured during leaf senescence.

  10. Efficient selection of homozy-gous lines of hybrid rice restorer with the transgene Xa21 using test cross and PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The homozygous restorer lines with a single copy of the transgene Xa21 have been obtained from the progenies of transgenic Minghui63 and Yanhui559 plants through PCR marker-assisted selection and test cross. These homozygous transgenic restorer lines can be used to breed hybrid rice with high resistance to bacterial leaf blight.

  11. Studies on the relationship between the changes of the endogenous scavengers of active oxygen and resistance in hybrid rice under temperature stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANShuyang; GUOShaochuan

    1994-01-01

    The seedlings of indica hybrid rice Weiyou 49 and Weiyou 28 were exposed to 1℃ and 40℃ .and the changes of activity (content) of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbic acid (ASA), glutathione (GSH),malondialdehyde (MDA) and leakage of electrolytes (%) were measured.

  12. Syrup production via enzymatic conversion of a byproduct (broken rice from rice industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Aparecida Spinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a hydrothermal process for the gelatinization of the rice starch, it was studied the rate of hydration, temperature and time. An incomplete 33 factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of temperature, enzyme/substrate relation and liquefaction time, with dextrose equivalent (DE as the response variable. The maximum value obtained was 14.69% DE at 89ºC, with 0.21% (w/w of enzyme to substrate in 22 minutes. For saccharification, it was studied enzyme/substrate ratios (0.6, 2.4, 4.2 and 6.0% (w/w at 60ºC at a pH of 4.30, yielding 49.23, 69.65, 65.12 and 74.67% DE, respectively, after 72 hours. The syrup had a content of 12.78, 16.87, 15.96 and 17.87% of glucose (w/v, pH 2.60 - 2.71. The starch content converted into glucose after liquefaction was 61.80% and after saccharification ranged from 75.16 to 77.05% for the relation enzymes substrate tested.

  13. Genetic and cytological analysis of a novel type of low temperature-dependent intrasubspecific hybrid weakness in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Yun Fu

    Full Text Available Hybrid weakness (HW is an important postzygotic isolation which occurs in both intra- and inter-specific crosses. In this study, we described a novel low temperature-dependent intrasubspecific hybrid weakness in the F1 plants derived from the cross between two indica rice varieties Taifeng A and V1134. HW plants showed growth retardation, reduced panicle number and pale green leaves with chlorotic spots. Cytological assay showed that there were reduced cell numbers, larger intercellular spaces, thicker cell walls, and abnormal development of chloroplast and mitochondria in the mature leaves from HW F1 plants in comparison with that from both of the parental lines. Genetic analysis revealed that HW was controlled by two complementary dominant genes Hw3 from V1134 and Hw4 from Taifeng A. Hw3 was mapped in a 136 kb interval between the markers Indel1118 and Indel1117 on chromosome 11, and Hw4 was mapped in the region of about 15 cM between RM182 and RM505 on chromosome 7, respectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed that only LOC_Os11g44310, encoding a putative calmodulin-binding protein (OsCaMBP, differentially expressed among Taifeng A, V1134 and their HW F1. No recombinant was detected using the markers designed based on the sequence of LOC_Os11g44310 in the BC1F2 (Taifeng A//Taifeng A/V1134 population. Hence, LOC_Os11g44310 was probably the candidate gene of Hw3. Gene amplification suggested that LOC_Os11g44310 was present in V1134 and absent in Taifeng A. BLAST search revealed that LOC_Os11g44310 had one copy in the japonica genomic sequence of Nipponbare, and no homologous sequence in the indica reference sequence of 9311. Our results indicate that Hw3 is a novel gene for inducing hybrid weakness in rice.

  14. Production of human alpha-1-antitrypsin from transgenic rice cell culture in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Karen A; Hong, Lo Ming; Trombly, David M; Xie, Qing; Jackman, Alan P

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic plant cell cultures offer a number of advantages over alternative host expression systems, but so far relatively low product concentrations have been achieved. In this study, transgenic rice cells are used in a two-compartment membrane bioreactor (CELLine 350, Integra Biosciences) for the production of recombinant alpha-1-antitrypsin (rAAT). Expression of rAAT is controlled by the rice alpha-amylase (RAmy3D) promoter, which is induced in the absence of sugar. The extracellular product is retained in the bioreactor's relatively small cell compartment, thereby increasing product concentration. Due to the packed nature of the cell aggregates in the cell compartment, a clarified product solution can be withdrawn from the bioreactor. Active rAAT reached levels of 100-247 mg/L (4-10% of the total extracellular protein) in the cell compartment at 5-6 days postinduction, and multiple inductions of the RAmy3D promoter were demonstrated.

  15. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of maleic acid-pretreated rice straw for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of whole slurry (pretreated lignocellulose) saccharification and fermentation for producing ethanol from maleic acid-pretreated rice straw. The optimized conditions for pretreatment were to treat rice straw at a high temperature (190 °C) with 1 % (w/v) maleic acid for a short duration (3 min ramping to 190 °C and 3 min holding at 190 °C). Enzymatic digestibility (based on theoretical glucose yield) of cellulose in the pretreated rice straw was 91.5 %. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated rice straw resulted in 83.2 % final yield of ethanol based on the initial quantity of glucan in untreated rice straw. These findings indicate that maleic acid pretreatment results in a high yield of ethanol from fermentation of whole slurry even without conditioning or detoxification of the slurry. Additionally, the separation of solids and liquid is not required; therefore, the economics of cellulosic ethanol fuel production are significantly improved. We also demonstrated whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulose, which has rarely been reported.

  16. Breeding and Application of New Tropical Hybrid Rice Combination SIRAJ with High Yield and Fine Quality%热带优质高产杂交水稻新组合SIRAJ的选育与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继银; 陈俊兴; 李柄华; 唐奕; 刘家龙

    2012-01-01

    SIRAJ, derived from SIRAJ-A(CMS line) and SIRAJ-R(restorer line) , both of which are developed by the RB Biotech Sdn. Bhd. , Malaysia, is a new hybrid rice variety for tropical areas. It is characteristic of fine grain quality, high yield, strong disease resistance and suitable maturity for the tropics. In March, 2010, it was certified and released to commercial production in Malaysia and became the first hybrid rice variety registered local-ly in Malaysia. In the paper, the breeding procedure, main characteristics and techniques for high-yielding cultiva-tion and hybrid seed production of SIRAJ were related in detail.%SIRAJ是马来西亚RB Biotech Sdn.Bhd.用自育的三系不育系SIRAJ -A与恢复系SIRAJ -R配组育成的热带杂交水稻新组合,具有米质优、产量高、抗性较强、熟期适宜、适合热带栽培等特点,2010年3月通过马来西亚国家审定,为马来西亚第1个通过审定的杂交水稻组合.介绍了其选育过程、主要特征特性及栽培、制种技术要点.

  17. Technology Adoption and Productivity Difference among Growers of New Rice for Africa in Savanna Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahji, MAY.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of New Rice for Africa (NERICA and complementary rice production technology is being promoted by Nigeria government in order to increase productivity of upland rice farming. This study examines the levels, determinants and effects of complementary technology adoption on productivity of NERICA rice farming. Data for the study were obtained from sample survey of 227 NERICA rice farmers in the guinea savanna zone using multistage sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using Tobit regression model and Cobb-Douglas production function. Results showed that the average technology score was 52.1 percent (+ 0.242. Fifty-five percent of the farmers who scored above the mean were categorized as low technology users. Tobit regression estimation shows that farmers' technology score was affected significantly (P< 0.05 by farmer's level of education (0.0127, extension visit (0.0145, farming experience (0.0085, land ownership status (0.0687, credit use (0.0698 and level of rice commercialization (0.3783. Cobb-Douglas production estimation shows a neutrally outward shift in production function as the level of complementary technology increases, indicating increasing productivity. Thus, promotion of complementary technology in NERICA rice production is a worthwhile effort and should continue to be funded. Improvement of those factors that significantly affect adoption of complementary technology is recommended.

  18. Enhanced saccharification of rice straw and hull by microwave-alkali pretreatment and lignocellulolytic enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Tuteja, Shuchi; Singh, Namita; Bishnoi, Narsi R

    2011-01-01

    In this study, statistical design of experiments was employed to plan experiments and optimize the microwave-alkali pretreatment of rice straw and hulls. Process parameters important in pretreatment of biomass were identified by a Plackett-Burman design and the parameters with significant effects were optimized using a box-behnken design (BBD). Experimental results show that alkali concentration (AC), irradiation time (IT) and substrate concentration (SC) were main factors governing the saccharification of rice straw and hulls. Optimum conditions of pretreatment were AC 2.75%, IT 22.50 min and SC 30 g/L, as optimized by BBD. The growth and production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from Aspergillus heteromorphus, solid state fermentation (SSF) was performed using rice straw and hulls pretreated under optimum conditions. Cellulases and xylanase reached the highest enzyme activity at 6th day of fermentation while maximum manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activity occurred at 12th day.

  19. Modification of Silica Rice Husk Ash to Solid Ammonium Sulphate for Second Generation Biofuels Productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Mohammed Hello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been demonstrated for the synthesis of solid ammonium sulphate attached to silica rice husk ash. The 3-(aminopropyltriethoxysilane was immobilized onto silica at room temperature to functionalize the silica with ammine end groups (–NH2. The amine group was sulphated with sulphuric acid to produce a novel micro-rod-like shaped acidic catalyst (as seen with TEM designated RHNH3SO4H (RH = rice husk. The TGA analysis shows that the catalyst is stable at temperatures below 200°C. The acidity measurement of the catalyst indicates that it has Brønsted acid sites. Cellulose extracted from waste of rice husk and cellulose extracted from office paper were hydrolysed to glucose in 6 h, and the glucose was hydrolysed afterwards to other products within 13 h. The catalyst is reusable many times without a significant loss of catalytic activity.

  20. Breeding lines with neutral genes to improve fertility of intersubspecific hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Since the sterility neutral allele S5n has been incorporated into indica or japonica varieties, many intersubspecific hybrids have been released commercially. These hybrids showed high heterosis, but some of them exhibited unstable seed setting rate under low temperature.When the hybrids flowered at low temperature, the fertility of female gamete was normal but the pollen showed sterile. To improve the stability of fertility, the effect of pollen sterility neutral gene was studied for intersubspecific hybrids.

  1. Ground cover rice production system facilitates soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice production is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, however covering paddy rice soils with films (ground cover rice production system: GCRPS can significantly reduce water demand as well as overcome temperature limitations at the beginning of the vegetation period resulting in increased grain yields in colder regions of rice production with seasonal water shortages. It has been speculated that the increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may result in losses of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks. Here we report on a regional scale experiment, conducted by sampling paired adjacent Paddy and GCRPS fields at 49 representative sites in the Shiyan region, which is typical for many mountainous areas across China. Parameters evaluated included soil C and N stocks, soil physical and chemical properties, potential carbon mineralization rates, fractions of soil organic carbon and stable carbon isotopic composition of plant leaves. Furthermore, root biomass was quantified at maximum tillering stage at one of our paired sites. Against expectations the study showed that: (1 GCRPS significantly increased soil organic C and N stocks 5–20 years following conversion of production systems, (2 there were no differences between GCRPS and Paddy in soil physical and chemical properties for the various soil depths with the exception of soil bulk density, (3 GCRPS had lower mineralization potential for soil organic C compared with Paddy over the incubation period, (4 GCRPS showed lower δ15N in the soils and plant leafs indicating less NH3 volatilization in GCRPS than in Paddy; and (5 GCRPS increased yields and root biomass in all soil layers down to 40 cm depth. Our results suggest that GCRPS is an innovative rice production technique that not only increases yields using less irrigation water, but that it also is environmentally beneficial due to increased soil C and N stocks at regional scale.

  2. Effect of Nitrogen Application from Selected Manures on Growth, Nitrogen Uptake and Biomass Production of Cultivated Forage Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusmini Gusmini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of forage rice (Oryza sativa L. in paddy field is considered as a promising way to enhanced livestock feed supply. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented cattle and poultry manures in different levels of N application on the growth, N uptake and biomass production of forage rice. Rice cv. Tachisuzuka, Kusanohoshi and Hinohikari were grown and treated with five levels of N: 0,7,14,21, and 28 g N m-2.  The results showed that the effects of manures on plant significantly with all levels of N application. The findings indicated that in forage rice cultivation, Tachisuzuka prospects as whole crop silage (WCS because of its highest straw biomass production and suitable feed with WCS quality compared with Kusanohoshi and Hinohikari.  Application of 14 g N m-2 was considered effective for high production of Tachisuzuka forage rice and useful for the reduction of N loading of the environment.

  3. In-situ biodiesel and sugar production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Rahkadima, Yulia Tri

    2015-12-01

    An integrated method of producing biodiesel and sugar using subcritical water and methanol has been employed as a potential way to reduce the high cost of single biofuel production from rice bran. The effects of temperature, methanol to water ratio and reaction time on the biodiesel yield and purity, and the concentration of sugar in hydrolysate were investigated systematically. Biodiesel with yield and purity of 65.21%and 73.53%, respectively, was obtained from rice bran with initial free fatty acid (FFA) content of 37.64% under the following conditions: T= 200 oC, P= 4.0 MPa (using CO2 as pressurizing gas), ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/2/6 (g/mL/mL), and 3 h of reaction time. FFAs level was reduced to 10.00% with crude biodiesel recovery of 88.69%. However, the highest biodiesel yield (67.39%) and crude biodiesel recovery (100.00%) were obtained by decreasing the amount of methanol so that the ratio of rice bran/water/methanol became 1/4/4, g/mL/mL. In addition, the highest sugar concentration of 0.98 g/L was obtained at 180 oC and 4.0 MPa with ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/4/4 (g/mL/mL) and reaction time of 3 h. Since no catalyst was employed and the biodiesel and reducing sugar were produced directly from rice bran with high water and FFA contents, the process was simple and environmentally friendly, which would make the production of biofuel more economical and sustainable.

  4. Investigation Energy and Economic Analysis of Three Varieties Rice Production in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlollah Eskandari Cherati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to consider the energy consuming process and factors influencing three varieties rice production (Tarom, Khazar, Neda under semi-mechanized and traditional systems, to investigate the energy consumption and economic analysis of rice in Mazandaran Province of Iran. Data used in this study were obtained from 63 farmers using a face to face questionnaire method, in farming year of 2011. The results showed that the highest total energy of labor requirements for Tarom variety rice production in Traditional and semi-mechanized systems, respectively, 2148.3 and 1547.1 MJ/ha was calculated. The Khazar and Neda varieties because of suitable genetic specifications have higher output energy in compared with Tarom local variety. Highest output energy with averages 183991.5 and 237701.70 Mj/ha of semi-mechanized system for Khazar and Neda varieties and also 161912.30 and 209173.50 Mj/ha for traditional system. The highest energy ratio of rice production was for Neda variety in traditional methods and semi-mechanized, respectively 7.03 and 7.95. The highest Energy Productivity (EP of grain for both traditional and semi-mechanized cultivation systems was for Neda variety, that respectively, 0.20 and 0.22 kg/Mj. The highest Net energy gain was for Neda variety in traditional and semi mechanized systems, respectively, 179.42 and 207.82 GJ/ha that has been calculated. Highest income of rice production with 10834 $/ha (semi-mechanized system and 9215 $/ha (traditional system observed in Neda variety. Highest profit of rice production with 10039 $/ha (semimechanized system and 8636 $/ha (traditional system observed in Neda variety and so According to the results of this research and studying the energy and economic analysis, that the condition of the management of energy consumption in producing Neda varieties are more suitable and according to the need of country about producing rice.

  5. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  6. Rice production structures in Sri Lanka: The normalized translog profit function approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatura Sewwandi Wijetunga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to estimate the output supply and input demand elasticities of rice production using the restricted normalized translog profit function for the four major paddy producing districts; Anuradhapura, Hambantota, Kurunegala and Polonnaruwa in Sri Lanka. In addition, elasticities of substitution between inputs are also estimated. The results suggest that the changes in market prices of inputs and output significantly affect the farmers’ profits, rice supply and the use of resources in paddy cultivation. The supply elasticity of rice with respect to its own price is 0.5 and the supply elasticity of output with respect to fertilizer price is -0.05 on an average. Fertilizer demand in the country is inelastic but significant to its own price. Therefore, fertilizer subsidy is one of the main factors to increase fertilizer demand as well as paddy supply in the country. In addition, the low elasticity of substitution between labour and fertilizer and other inputs indicates that there is a complementary relationship among these inputs hence their combined application increases paddy production synergistically. Overall, this study suggest that farmers are price sensitive and assures prevalence of higher output price is essential for higher rice production.

  7. Good manufacturing practices production of a purification-free oral cholera vaccine expressed in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Koji; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Suzuki, Yuji; Minakawa, Satomi; Takeyama, Natsumi; Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Masaharu; Tamura, Minoru; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    The first Good Manufacturing Practices production of a purification-free rice-based oral cholera vaccine (MucoRice-CTB) from transgenic plants in a closed cultivation system yielded a product meeting regulatory requirements. Despite our knowledge of their advantages, plant-based vaccines remain unavailable for human use in both developing and industrialized countries. A leading, practical obstacle to their widespread use is producing plant-based vaccines that meet governmental regulatory requirements. Here, we report the first production according to current Good Manufacturing Practices of a rice-based vaccine, the cholera vaccine MucoRice-CTB, at an academic institution. To this end, we established specifications and methods for the master seed bank (MSB) of MucoRice-CTB, which was previously generated as a selection-marker-free line, evaluated its propagation, and given that the stored seeds must be renewed periodically. The production of MucoRice-CTB incorporated a closed hydroponic system for cultivating the transgenic plants, to minimize variations in expression and quality during vaccine manufacture. This type of molecular farming factory can be operated year-round, generating three harvests annually, and is cost- and production-effective. Rice was polished to a ratio of 95 % and then powdered to produce the MucoRice-CTB drug substance, and the identity, potency, and safety of the MucoRice-CTB product met pre-established release requirements. The formulation of MucoRice-CTB made by fine-powdering of drug substance and packaged in an aluminum pouch is being evaluated in a physician-initiated phase I study.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Heterosis for Number of Spikelets per Panicle and Panicle Length of F1 Hybrids in japonica Rice Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xu-dong; HONG De-Lin; SHEN Ying; LENG Yan; Henri ADREIT; Julien FROUIN; Didier HARREAU

    2004-01-01

    Genetic analysis of heterosis for number of spikelets per panicle and panicle length of F1 hybrid was conducted by using japonica rice varieties Bing 8979, C Bao, their F1, F2 and triple test cross (TTC) progenies. The two traits, panicle length and number of spikelets per panicle were controlled by polygenes, which were dispersed in the two parents. The dispersion of these polygenes was the genetic basis for the heterosis. Genetic variation in panicle length was mainly due to additive and dominant effects, and the dominant component played a determinative role. For number of spikelets per panicle, the effect of non-allelic genes was highly significant (1% probability level), and there existed epistasis including effects of additive × additive, additive×dominant, and dominant × dominant.

  9. Hybrid optimization model of product concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Deficiencies of applying the simple genetic algorithm to generate concepts were specified. Based on analyzing conceptual design and the morphological matrix of an excavator, the hybrid optimization model of generating its concepts was proposed, viz. an improved adaptive genetic algorithm was applied to explore the excavator concepts in the searching space of conceptual design, and a neural network was used to evaluate the fitness of the population. The optimization of generating concepts was finished through the "evolution - evaluation" iteration. The results show that by using the hybrid optimization model, not only the fitness evaluation and constraint conditions are well processed, but also the search precision and convergence speed of the optimization process are greatly improved. An example is presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method and associated algorithms.

  10. Effects of Water Deficit and Increased Nitrogen Application in the Late Growth Stage on Physiological Characters of Anti-aging of Leaves in Different Hybrid Rice Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to explore the effects of water and fertilizer regulation on the function of leaves in the filling stage. [Method] Six hybrid rice vari- eties including prematurely aged types and non-prematurely aged ones were selected as experimental materials. Limiting water treatment (with soil water potential of about -25 kpa) and increasing nitrogen treatment (additional 10% of granular nitrogen fertiliz- er in addition to limiting water treatment) were applied after heading to analyse the rates of aging and physiological responses of anti-aging in different hybrid rice vari- eties under water deficit and increased nitrogen conditions taking regular water and fertilizer as control. [Result] The results showed that water deficit accelerated the leaf senescence, and prematurely aged types-'Zhongyou838', 'Tianyou998' and 'Long- ping601 '-were more markedly affected by water deficit, of which the rates of chloro- phyll degradation were 6%-8% higher compared to that in another three hybrids. In- creasing nitrogen treatment raised chlorophyll content and slowed down its degrada- tion. Water deficit caused the increase of abscisic acid (ABA) content to obviously varying degrees in leaves of six hybried rice varieties. Responses of ABA content in six hybried rice varieties to increased nitrogen fertilizer were not consistent. Except in 'Zhongyou838', ABA content in the other five hybrids had varying degrees of in- crease. The responses of the activity of antioxidant enzymes in different hybried rice varieties were inconsistent. In response to increased nitrogen fertilizer in combination with water deficit, the activity of each antioxidant enzyme changed differently. Water deficit enhanced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in leaves of each hybrid rice. The correlation analysis showed that chlorophyll content was extremely signifi- cantly positively correlated to the resistance of each antioxidant enzyme; SOD activity in leaves also positively

  11. Two Tightly Linked Genes at the hsa1 Locus Cause Both F1 and F2 Hybrid Sterility in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Takashi, Tomonori; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2016-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms of hybrid breakdown associated with sterility (F2 sterility) are poorly understood as compared with those of F1 hybrid sterility. Previously, we characterized three unlinked epistatic loci, hybrid sterility-a1 (hsa1), hsa2, and hsa3, responsible for the F2 sterility in a cross between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. In this study, we identified that the hsa1 locus contains two interacting genes, HSA1a and HSA1b, within a 30-kb region. HSA1a-j (japonica allele) encodes a highly conserved plant-specific domain of unknown function protein (DUF1618), whereas the indica allele (HSA1a-i(s)) has two deletion mutations that cause disruption of domain structure. The second gene, HSA1b-i(s), encodes an uncharacterized protein with some similarity to a nucleotide-binding protein. Homozygous introgression of indica HSA1a-i(s)-HSA1b-i(s) alleles into japonica showed female gamete abortion at an early mitotic stage. The fact that the recombinant haplotype HSA1a-j-HSA1b-i(s) caused semi-sterility in the heterozygous state with the HSA1a-i(s)-HSA1b-i(s) haplotype suggests that variation in the hsa1 locus is a possible cause of the wide-spectrum sterility barriers seen in F1 hybrids and successive generations in rice. We propose a simple genetic model to explain how a single causal mechanism can drive both F1 and F2 hybrid sterility.

  12. Integrated Emergy, Energy and Economic Evaluation of Rice and Vegetable Production Systems in Alluvial Paddy Fields: Implications for Agricultural Policy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation...

  13. Comparative Study on Yield Formation and Nutrient Uptake and Utilization between Super Hybrid Rice and Conventional Rice%超级杂交稻与常规稻产量形成及养分吸收利用的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏冰; 蒋鹏; 谢小兵; 赵杨; 魏颖娟; 黄敏; 邹应斌

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain the characteristics of yield formation, dry matter production and the nutrient uptake and utilization of nitrogen (N), phosphorus(P) and potassium(K) between super hybrid rice and conventional rice, taking similar panicles size of super hybrid rice(Liangyou peijiu, Y Liangyou 1) and conventional rice(Huanghuazhan, Yuxiangyouzhan) as materials, the field experiment with high N level(225(kg/hm2), medium N level(113~161 kg/hm2), and no N level(0 kg/hm2) was conducted in Changsha(N 28°12′) from 2011 to 2013. The results showed that super hybrid rice yield in average 9.55 and 9.57 t/hm 2 rice grains, produced averagely 18.05 and 18.24 t/hm2 dry matter and assimilated averagely 189.5 and 193.9 kg/hm2 N at maturity stage, of which increased signifi-cantly by 5.99%and 9.38%, 7.12%and 11.22%, 5.45%and 4.41% compared with conventional rice, respectively. Both super hybrid rice and conventional rice showed the nonlinear relationship of quadratic function between the grain yield and the N, P, K uptake rates and the multiple correlation coefficient was significant. Requirements for N, P and K of super hybrid rice were up to 19.79 and 20.09 kg, 3.90 and 4.09 kg, 20.57 and 22.37 kg, respectively, of which was significantly lower than that of conventional varieties. Un-der the condition of nitrogen application, there was a significantly linear correlation between the grain yield and the N, P, K nutrient requirements. Nitrogen recovery efficiency and its partial productivity showed the significant difference among tested varieties, but the agronomy efficiency and physiological utilization efficiency did not show the significant difference among the varieties. Nitrogen har-vest index of super hybrid rice was as high as 68.6% and 69.1% and significantly higher than that of conventional rice (62.7% and 64.0%), but no significant difference of N grain production efficiency was observed among the varieties. It is concluded that the high-yielding super hybrid rice was

  14. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  15. Effect of heavy haze and aerosol pollution on rice and wheat productions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Huang, Ru-Jin; Dai, Wenting; Cao, Junji; Long, Xin; Su, Xiaoli; Zhao, Shuyu; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui

    2016-07-01

    In China, regional haze pollution is a serious environmental problem. The impact on ecosystem, however, is not clearly understood. This study investigates the effect of regional haze pollution on the yields of rice and wheat in China. The spatial and temporal distributions of aerosol optical depth (AOD) show high particulate pollution in the North China Plain region, Yangtze River Delta region, the central eastern China, and the Si Chuan Basin, coexisted largely with crop growth in time and space. The solar irradiance reaching these regions is estimated to reduce by up to 28-49%, calculated using the AOD distributions and tropospheric ultraviolet-visible (TUV) model. Reduction of solar irradiance in these regions can depress optimal yields of about 45% of rice and 75% of wheat growth in China, leading to 2% reduction in total rice production and 8% reduction in total wheat production in China. However, there are large uncertainties of the estimate related to the diffuse solar radiation. For high diffuse radiation case, the estimate reductions of rice and wheat decrease to 1% and 4.5%, respectively. A further detailed study is needed to clearly understand this effect to meet the growing food demand in the nation in the coming decades.

  16. Effect of heavy haze and aerosol pollution on rice and wheat productions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Huang, Ru-Jin; Dai, Wenting; Cao, Junji; Long, Xin; Su, Xiaoli; Zhao, Shuyu; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui

    2016-07-08

    In China, regional haze pollution is a serious environmental problem. The impact on ecosystem, however, is not clearly understood. This study investigates the effect of regional haze pollution on the yields of rice and wheat in China. The spatial and temporal distributions of aerosol optical depth (AOD) show high particulate pollution in the North China Plain region, Yangtze River Delta region, the central eastern China, and the Si Chuan Basin, coexisted largely with crop growth in time and space. The solar irradiance reaching these regions is estimated to reduce by up to 28-49%, calculated using the AOD distributions and tropospheric ultraviolet-visible (TUV) model. Reduction of solar irradiance in these regions can depress optimal yields of about 45% of rice and 75% of wheat growth in China, leading to 2% reduction in total rice production and 8% reduction in total wheat production in China. However, there are large uncertainties of the estimate related to the diffuse solar radiation. For high diffuse radiation case, the estimate reductions of rice and wheat decrease to 1% and 4.5%, respectively. A further detailed study is needed to clearly understand this effect to meet the growing food demand in the nation in the coming decades.

  17. Monitoring paddy rice crops through remote sensing: productivity estimation by light use efficiency model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Mirco; Mauri, Emanuela; Gadda, Chiara; Busetto, Lorenzo; Confalonieri, Roberto; Bocchi, Stefano; Brivio, Pietro A.

    2004-10-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops in the whole world, providing staple food for more than 3000 million people. For this reason FAO declared the year 2004 as The International Year of Rice promoting initiatives and researches on this valuable crop. Assessing the Net Primary Production (NPP) is fundamental to support a sustainable development and to give crop yield forecast essential to food security policy. Crop growth models can be useful tools for estimating growth, development and yield but require complex spatial distributed input parameters to produce valuable map. Light use efficiency (LUE) models, using satellite-borne data to achieve daily surface parameters, represent an alternative approach able to monitor differences in vegetation compound providing spatial distributed NPP maps. An experiment aimed at testing the capability of a LUE model using daily MODIS data to estimate rice crop production was conducted in a rice area of Northern Italy. Direct LAI measurements and indirect LAI2000 estimation were collected on different fields during the growing season to define a relationship with MODIS data. An hyperspectral MIVIS image was acquired in early July on the experimental site to provide high spatial resolution information on land cover distribution. LUE-NPP estimations on several fields were compared with CropSyst model outputs and field biomass measurements. A comparison of different methods performance is presented and relative advantages and drawbacks in spatialization are discussed.

  18. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

    2016-08-30

    Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

  19. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

    2016-08-30

    Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

  20. Natural variation in the glucose content of dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated rice straw liquid hydrolysates: implications for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Takashi; Teramura, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Miki; Kanamaru, Kengo; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko; Yamasaki, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Rice straw is a promising resource for bioethanol production. Because the glucose content of pretreatment liquid hydrolysates is highly correlated with ethanol yield, the selection of appropriate rice cultivars is essential. The glucose content in liquid hydrolysates of pretreated rice straws of 208 diverse cultivars was evaluated in natural field in 2013 and 2014 using a novel high-throughput system. The glucose content of the rice straw samples varied across cultivars and was affected by environmental factors such as temperature and solar radiation. Several high-quality cultivars exhibiting high glucose content in both years were identified. The results of this study can aid in development of novel rice cultivars suitable as both feedstocks for bioethanol production and cooking.

  1. Comparative Economic Analysis of Rice Production by Adopters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (June, 2012), 20(2): 146-151. ISSN 0794-5698 ... components of improved crop production technology in Nigeria include ... productivity) to modern inputs (high productivity) is the most serious ...

  2. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jingqing [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Guohui [School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yuan, Zhenhong, E-mail: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  3. Duplication and Loss of Function of Genes Encoding RNA Polymerase III Subunit C4 Causes Hybrid Incompatibility in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao Ngoc Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive barriers are commonly observed in both animals and plants, in which they maintain species integrity and contribute to speciation. This report shows that a combination of loss-of-function alleles at two duplicated loci, DUPLICATED GAMETOPHYTIC STERILITY 1 (DGS1 on chromosome 4 and DGS2 on chromosome 7, causes pollen sterility in hybrid progeny derived from an interspecific cross between cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, and an Asian annual wild rice, O. nivara. Male gametes carrying the DGS1 allele from O. nivara (DGS1-nivaras and the DGS2 allele from O. sativa (DGS2-T65s were sterile, but female gametes carrying the same genotype were fertile. We isolated the causal gene, which encodes a protein homologous to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP III subunit C4 (RPC4. RPC4 facilitates the transcription of 5S rRNAs and tRNAs. The loss-of-function alleles at DGS1-nivaras and DGS2-T65s were caused by weak or nonexpression of RPC4 and an absence of RPC4, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gene duplication of RPC4 at DGS1 and DGS2 was a recent event that occurred after divergence of the ancestral population of Oryza from other Poaceae or during diversification of AA-genome species.

  4. Combined Effects of Nutrient and Pesticide Management on Soil Microbial Activity in Hybrid Rice Double Annual Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-mei; LIAO Min; LIU Wei-ping; Susanne KLOSE

    2004-01-01

    Combined effects on soil microbial activity of nutrient and pesticide management in hybrid rice double annual cropping system were studied. Results of field experiment demonstrated significant changes in soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents,abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria, electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity, soil protein contents under different management practices and at various growth stages. Marked depletions in the soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also induced slight changes, and the lowest microbial biomass phospholipid content was found with pesticides application alone. A decline in the bacterial abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was observed during the continuance of crop growth, while the lowest abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was found with pesticides application alone, which coincided with the decline of soil microbial biomass. A consistent increase in the electron transport system activity was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or combined with pesticides increased it, while a decline was noticed with pesticides application alone as compared with the control.The soil protein content was found to be relatively stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops undertaken, but notable changes were detected at different growth stages.

  5. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuaprakone, T.; Wongphaet, N.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-04-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 °C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 °C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m2/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  6. Combined Effect of Nutrient and Pest Management on Soil Ecological Quality in Hybrid Rice Double-Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO MIN; XIE XIAOMEI; A. SUBHANI

    2003-01-01

    The mineral fertilizers (NPK) and pesticide, including herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, were applied alone or in combination and the soil sampling was done at different growth stages during the crop cycle to study the changes in soil organic matter, microbial biomass and their activity parameters in a paddy soil with different nutrient and pest management practices in a hybrid rice double-cropping system. A consistent increase in the electron transport system (ETS) activity was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or with pesticides increased ETS activity, while a decline of ETS activity was noticed with pesticides alone as compared with the control. Nearly an increasing trend in soil phenol content was observed with the progression of crop growth stages, while the usage of pesticides alone caused maximum increments in the soil phenol content. The soil protein content was found nearly stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops taken. But notable changes were noticed at different growth stages probably because of fluctuations in moisture and temperature at particular stages, which might have their effects on N mineralization. Marked depletions in the phospholipid content were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also produced slight changes, in which a higher decline was noticed with pesticide application alone compared with the control.

  7. Biplot Analysis of Genotype by Environment for Cooking Quality in Hybrid Rice:A Tool for Line × Tester Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad H. FOTOKIAN; Kayvan AGAHI

    2014-01-01

    A study of combining ability for improving rice cooking quality was carried out via genotype plus genotype × environment (GGE) biplot. Four restorer lines and three male sterile lines were used to obtain F1 in a line × tester trial at the Rice Research Institute, Amol, Iran in 2009. GGE biplot analysis showed that Neda and IR56 were the best general combiners for amylose content (AC), whereas Nemat and IR28 had the highest general combining ability (GCA) effects for gelatinization temperature (GT), and IR58 and IR59 showed the highest GCA effects in terms of gel consistency (GC). Meanwhile, IR58 and IR59 showed large specific combining ability (SCA) effects for AC, while Neda and SA13 had high SCA effects for GT. Nemat and IR28 had large SCA effects for GC. Because intermediate levels of AC, GT and GC are ideal, Nemat × IR59 was considered as the best possible cross. Based on these results, the GGE biplot showed good potential for identifying suitable parents, heterotic crosses and the best hybrids in line × tester data.

  8. Combined Effects of Nutrient and Pesticide Management on Soil Microbial Activity in Hybrid Rice Double Annual Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEXiao-mei; LIAOMin; LIUWei-ping; SusanneKLOSE

    2004-01-01

    Combined effects on soil microbial activity of nutrient and pesticide management in hybrid rice double annual cropping system were studied. Results of field experiment demonstrated significant changes in soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents,abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria, electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity, soil protein contents under different management practices and at various growth stages. Marked depletions in the soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also induced slight changes, and the lowest microbial biomass phospholipid content was found with pesticides application alone. A decline in the bacterial abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was observed during the continuance of crop growth, while the lowest abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolyrJc bacteria was found with pesticides application alone, which coincided with the decline of soil microbial biomass. A consistent increase in the electron transport svstem activit), was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or combined with pesticides increased it, while a decline was noticed with pesticides application alone as compared with the control.The soil protein content was found to be relatively stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops undertaken, but notable changes were detected at different growrh stages

  9. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice.

  10. AGRO-CHEMICAL INPUTS USE IN INDONESIA DURING 1970-1989: IS ITS CONTRIBUTION ON RICE PRODUCTION SIGNIFICANT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Agro-chemical inputs (fertilizar and pesticides, have contributed in growing economics of Indonesia, which in 1970-1989 demonstrated a spectacular increase in rice production. Since the agro-chemical inputs prossess two contradictive characteristics of enhancing yield and preventing yield loss on one hand, and threatening human health and environment on the other hand, a study that reviews the real contribution of agro-chemical inputs on rice production in needed. The objective of the study is to determine whther or not the contribution of agro-chemical inputs on rice production in the 1970-`1989 periods is significant. Estimation is conducted by using time series data comprising four main factors of rice production: rice-planted area, nitrogen-fertilizer, chemical pesticides, and tectonogical progress. Data were compiled from GOI report. The results of estimation indicate that the increase in rice production during 1970-1989 was not caused by increasing chemical pesticide use, but by the enlargement of planted rice are, rise in nitrogenous fertilizer use, and technological progress.

  11. Productivity, Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis between Conventional and High Yielding Rice in Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yahia Bapari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was analyzed the determinants, costs and benefits and resources allocation of both conventional and high yielding rice cultivation over the Rajbari district of Bangladesh. Data were accumulated from 300 regular rice growers of conventional and high yielding varieties and random sampling technique was applied for selecting the respondents from the study area from which information was collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Cobb – Douglas production function and gross margin were mainly used to determine the productivities and profits of both rice and the marginal value of the product was highly recommended to derive the optimal use of the resources. Results obtained by applying ordinary least square method showed that the most important factors of production in the study area were irrigation, labor, fertilizer and insecticide costs whose elasticities were 0.904, 0.048, 0.045 and 0.044 respectively and insignificant factors were seed and ploughing costs whose elasticities were – 0.009 and 0.030 respectively for high yielding rice. On the other hand, irrigation, insecticide, seed and ploughing costs of elasticities 0.880, 0.589, 0.116 and – 0.127 respectively were the important factors and minor role playing factors were labor and fertilizer costs whose elasticities were 0.098 and 0.077 respectively for conventional yielding rice. The core message from productivity analysis was that the irrigation was key variable which played a positive and vital role in producing rice of both varieties. All variables (resources were economically misallocated in the production activities of both varieties along the study area but high yielding rice was more profitable than conventional one. Results also showed that the farmers of the study area produced rice of both varieties in the inefficient range of production. Continuous supply of electricity, flexible credit and improving the existing resources were the prime policy recommendations of

  12. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ning; Fan, Mingsheng; Zhang, Fusuo; Christie, Peter; Yang, Jianchang; Huang, Jianliang; Guo, Shiwei; Shi, Xiaojun; Tang, Qiyuan; Peng, Jianwei; Zhong, Xuhua; Sun, Yixiang; Lv, Shihua; Jiang, Rongfeng; Dobermann, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent) with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices-BMPs) helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield). Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double-rice system

  13. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning An

    Full Text Available Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices-BMPs helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield. Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double-rice

  14. Butachlor inhibits production and oxidation of methane in tropical rice soils under flooded condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, S R; Nayak, D R; Babu, Y J; Adhya, T K

    2004-01-01

    In laboratory incubation experiments, application of a commercial formulation of the herbicide butachlor (N-butoxymethyl-2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl acetanilide) to three tropical rice soils, widely differing in their physicochemical characteristics, under flooded condition inhibited methane (CH4) production. The inhibitory effect was concentration dependent and most remarkable in the alluvial soil. Thus, following application of butachlor at 5, 10, 50 and 100 microg g(-1) soil, respectively, cumulative CH4 production in the alluvial soil was inhibited by 15%, 31%, 91% and 98% over unamended control. Since CH4 production was less pronounced in the sandy loam and acid sulfate soil, the impact of amendment with butchalor, albeit inhibitory, was less extensive than the alluvial soil. Inhibition of CH4 production in butachlor-amended alluvial soil was related to the prevention in the drop in redox potential as well as low methanogenic bacterial population especially at high concentrations of butachlor. CH4 oxidation was also inhibited in butachlor-amended alluvial soil with the inhibitory effect being more prevalent under flooded condition. Inhibition in CH4 oxidation was related to a reduction in the population of soluble methane monooxygenase producing methanotrophs. Results demonstrate that butachlor, a commonly used herbicide in rice cultivation, even at very low concentrations can affect CH4 production and its oxidation, thereby influencing the biogeochemical cycle of CH4 in flooded rice soils.

  15. A novel epistatic interaction at two loci causing hybrid male sterility in an inter-subspecific cross of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Yamagata, Yoshiyuki; Eguchi, Maki; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2008-12-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation (RI) often arises in inter-subspecific crosses as well as inter-specific crosses of rice (Oryza sativa L.). To further understand the genetic architecture of the postzygotic RI, we analyzed genes causing hybrid sterility and hybrid breakdown in a rice inter-subspecific cross. Here we report hybrid male sterility caused by epistatic interaction between two novel genes, S24 and S35, which were identified on rice chromosomes 5 and 1, respectively. Genetic analysis using near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying IR24 (ssp. indica) segments with Asominori (ssp. japonica) genetic background revealed a complicated aspect of the epistasis. Allelic interaction at the S24 locus in the heterozygous plants caused abortion of male gametes carrying the Asominori allele (S24-as) independent of the S35 genotype. On the other hand, male gametes carrying the Asominori allele at the S35 locus (S35-as) showed abortion only when the IR24 allele at the S24 locus (S24-ir) was concurrently introgressed into the S35 heterozygous plants, indicating that the sterility phenotype due to S35 was dependent on the S24 genotype through negative epistasis between S24-ir and S35-as alleles. Due to the interaction between S24 and S35, self-pollination of the double heterozygous plants produced pollen-sterile progeny carrying the S24-ir/S24-ir S35-as/S35-ir genotype in addition to the S24 heterozygous plants. This result suggests that the S35 gene might function as a modifier of S24. This study presents strong evidence for the importance of epistatic interaction as a part of the genetic architecture of hybrid sterility in rice. In addition, it suggests that diverse systems have been developed as postzygotic RI mechanisms within the rice.

  16. The genetic and molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO JingXin; LIU YaoGuang

    2009-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited characteristic found in many (>150) plant species. CMS/restoration systems are useful tools for hybrid seed production, and are ideal models for study of the interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. CMS/restoration systems in rice have been widely used for hybrid seed production, greatly contributing to the food supply. This article reviews the progress of the studies on the genetic and molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration in rice.

  17. Managing Water and Soils to Achieve Adaptation and Reduce Methane Emissions and Arsenic Contamination in Asian Rice Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Wichelns

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice production is susceptible to damage from the changes in temperature and rainfall patterns, and in the frequency of major storm events that will accompany climate change. Deltaic areas, in which millions of farmers cultivate from one to three crops of rice per year, are susceptible also to the impacts of a rising sea level, submergence during major storm events, and saline intrusion into groundwater and surface water resources. In this paper, I review the current state of knowledge regarding the potential impacts of climate change on rice production and I describe adaptation measures that involve soil and water management. In many areas, farmers will need to modify crop choices, crop calendars, and soil and water management practices as they adapt to climate change. Adaptation measures at the local, regional, and international levels also will be helpful in moderating the potential impacts of climate change on aggregate rice production and on household food security in many countries. Some of the changes in soil and water management and other production practices that will be implemented in response to climate change also will reduce methane generation and release from rice fields. Some of the measures also will reduce the uptake of arsenic in rice plants, thus addressing an important public health issue in portions of South and Southeast Asia. Where feasible, replacing continuously flooded rice production with some form of aerobic rice production, will contribute to achieving adaptation objectives, while also reducing global warming potential and minimizing the risk of negative health impacts due to consumption of arsenic contaminated rice.

  18. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Yanghui [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Gao, Jiping [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Lan, Yu [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Li, Shuhang [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Meng, Jun [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Xu, Zhengjin, E-mail: xuzhengjin@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tl_rice@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha{sup −1}) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1}) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH{sub 4} emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha{sup −1} biochar. There were no differences in CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g{sup −1} and 11.69 mg g{sup −1} (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1} biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g{sup −1}. The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH{sub 4} emission. • Rice straw

  19. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  20. A comparative study on carbon footprint of rice production between household and aggregated farms from Jiangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Luo, Ting; Bian, Rongjun; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing; Rees, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Quantifying the carbon footprint (CF) for crop production can help identify key options to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture. In the present study, both household and aggregated farm scales were surveyed to obtain the data of rice production and farming management practices in a typical rice cultivation area of Northern Jiangxi, China. The CFs of the different rice systems including early rice, late rice, and single rice under household and aggregated farm scale were calculated. In general, early rice had the lower CF in terms of land use and grain production being 4.54 ± 0.44 t CO2-eq./ha and 0.62 ± 0.1 t CO2-eq./t grain than single rice (6.84 ± 0.79 t CO2-eq./ha and 0.80 ± 0.13 t CO2-eq./t grain) and late rice (8.72 ± 0.54 t CO2-eq./ha and 1.1 ± 0.17 t CO2-eq./t grain). The emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use accounted for 33 % of the total CF on average and the direct CH4 emissions for 57 %. The results indicated that the CF of double rice cropping under aggregated farm being 0.86 ± 0.11 t CO2-eq./t grain was lower by 25 % than that being 1.14 ± 0.25 t CO2-eq./t grain under household farm, mainly due to high nitrogen use efficiency and low methane emissions. Therefore, developing the aggregated farm scale with efficient use of agro-chemicals and farming operation for greater profitability could offer a strategy for reducing GHG emissions in China's agriculture.

  1. Subcritical water hydrolysis of rice straw for reducing sugar production with focus on degradation by-products and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Qi, Feng; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-06-01

    The competitive reactions of reducing sugar production and degradation in the subcritical water hydrolysis of rice straw were investigated to optimise reducing sugar yield. The optimised conditions (280°C, 20 MPa, rice straw concentration of 5 wt.% and agitation speed of 200 rpm) resulted in a reducing sugar yield of 0.346 g/g rice straw because of the enhanced reducing sugar production and decreased sugar degradation. The sugar yield increased when the temperature increased from 250°C to 280°C, but it decreased when the temperature further increased to 300°C because of the degradation of monosaccharides (e.g. glucose and xylose) into by-products (e.g. 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and acetic acid). A first-order reaction model was developed to elucidate the competitive reaction kinetics of sugar production and degradation at various temperatures. The highest reducing sugar yield based on the model was achieved at 280°C with the highest production and lowest degradation rates.

  2. Production and immunogenicity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIIA protein in transgenic rice callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Tae-Geum; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2017-04-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a major etiological agent that is responsible for swine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory infection that causes severe economic losses in the swine production industry. ApxIIA is one of the virulence factors in A. pleuropneumoniae and has been considered as a candidate for developing a vaccine against the bacterial infection. A gene encoding an ApxIIA fragment (amino acids 439-801) was modified based on a plant-optimized codon and constructed into a plant expression vector under the control of a promoter and the 3' UTR of the rice amylase 3D gene. The plant expression vector was introduced into rice embryogenic callus (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) via particle bombardment-mediated transformation. The integration and transcription of the ApxIIA439-801 gene were confirmed by using genomic DNA PCR amplification and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The synthesis of ApxIIA439-801 antigen protein in transgenic rice callus was confirmed by western blot analysis. The concentration of antigen protein in lyophilized samples of transgenic rice callus was 250 μg/g. Immunizing mice with protein extracts from transgenic plants intranasally elicited secretory IgA. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a transgenic plant to elicit immune responses against A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of nighttime post-anthesis warming on rice productivity and grain quality in East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Dong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of nighttime post-anthesis warming on rice productivity and grain quality in East China were evaluated for two cultivars, II You 128, an indica rice, and Wuyunjing 7, a japonica rice. Warming by 3.0 °C stimulated the nighttime respiration rate and decreased the photosynthesis rate, resulting in significant decreases of 21.2% and 24.9% in aboveground biomass accumulation for II You 128 and Wuyunjing 7, respectively. Warming significantly reduced the rates of seed setting and grain filling, especially of inferior kernels (those lower in panicles, while the filling rate of superior kernels remained almost unchanged. As a result, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were respectively 3.7% and 30.0% lower for II You 128 and 12.8% and 34.3% for Wuyunjing 7 in warmed plots than in the unwarmed control. Nighttime warming also significantly reduced the grain milling and appearance quality of both varieties. More negative effects of warming on inferior than on superior kernels were found. The above results have important implications for rice variety cultivation in East China.

  4. ESTIMATE OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM RICE FIELDS IN CHINA BY CLIMATE-BASED NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-ding; CAI Zu-cong; ZHANG Zi-heng; XIAO Peng-feng

    2004-01-01

    Rice fields provide food for over half of the world population but are also an important source of atmospheric CH4. Using the climate-based GIS empirical model and the meteorological data collected from 600 meteorological stations in China, with county as the basic unit, the net primary productivity (NPP) of rice fields in China in 1990, 1995, 1998, and 2000 were estimated to be in the range from 202.19×1012g C in 1990 to 163.46×1012g C in 2000. From the measured data of the factors affecting CH4 emission and NPP, the conversion ratio of the NPP into CH4 emission for the rice fields of China was determined to be 1.8%. Using this ratio and estimated NPP, the CH4 emissions from rice fields of China in 1990, 1995, 1998, and 2000 were estimated to be 7.24×1012, 6.31×1012, 6.77×1012 and 5.85×1012g CH4, respectively.

  5. Impacts of nighttime post-anthesis warming on rice productivity and grain quality in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjun; Dong; Jin; Chen; Lili; Wang; Yunlu; Tian; Bin; Zhang; Yongcai; Lai; Ying; Meng; Chunrong; Qian; Jia; Guo

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of nighttime post-anthesis warming on rice productivity and grain quality in East China were evaluated for two cultivars, II You 128, an indica rice, and Wuyunjing 7, a japonica rice. Warming by 3.0 °C stimulated the nighttime respiration rate and decreased the photosynthesis rate, resulting in significant decreases of 21.2% and 24.9% in aboveground biomass accumulation for II You 128 and Wuyunjing 7, respectively. Warming significantly reduced the rates of seed setting and grain filling, especially of inferior kernels(those lower in panicles), while the filling rate of superior kernels remained almost unchanged. As a result, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were respectively 3.7% and 30.0% lower for II You 128 and 12.8% and 34.3% for Wuyunjing 7 in warmed plots than in the unwarmed control. Nighttime warming also significantly reduced the grain milling and appearance quality of both varieties. More negative effects of warming on inferior than on superior kernels were found. The above results have important implications for rice variety cultivation in East China.

  6. Multivariate analysis applied to tomato hybrid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, S; Nuez, F; Palomares, G; Cuartero, J

    1984-11-01

    Twenty characters were measured on 60 tomato varieties cultivated in the open-air and in polyethylene plastic-house. Data were analyzed by means of principal components, factorial discriminant methods, Mahalanobis D(2) distances and principal coordinate techniques. Factorial discriminant and Mahalanobis D(2) distances methods, both of which require collecting data plant by plant, lead to similar conclusions as the principal components method that only requires taking data by plots. Characters that make up the principal components in both environments studied are the same, although the relative importance of each one of them varies within the principal components. By combining information supplied by multivariate analysis with the inheritance mode of characters, crossings among cultivars can be experimented with that will produce heterotic hybrids showing characters within previously established limits.

  7. Stochastic Frontier Approach and Data Envelopment Analysis to Total Factor Productivity and Efficiency Measurement of Bangladeshi Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Kamrul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Baten, Md. Azizul; Mustafa, Adli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the Translog Stochastic Frontier production model (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiencies over time and the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth rate for Bangladeshi rice crops (Aus, Aman and Boro) throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 1989–2008. Results indicate that technical efficiency was observed as higher for Boro among the three types of rice, but the overall technical efficiency of rice production was found around 50%. Although positive changes exist in TFP for the sample analyzed, the average growth rate of TFP for rice production was estimated at almost the same levels for both Translog SFA with half normal distribution and DEA. Estimated TFP from SFA is forecasted with ARIMA (2, 0, 0) model. ARIMA (1, 0, 0) model is used to forecast TFP of Aman from DEA estimation. PMID:23077500

  8. A triallelic system of S5 is a major regulator of the reproductive barrier and compatibility of indica-japonica hybrids in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiongjiong; Ding, Jihua; Ouyang, Yidan; Du, Hongyi; Yang, Jiangyi; Cheng, Ke; Zhao, Jie; Qiu, Shuqing; Zhang, Xuelian; Yao, Jialing; Liu, Kede; Wang, Lei; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xue, Yongbiao; Xia, Mian; Ji, Qing; Lu, Jufei; Xu, Mingliang; Zhang, Qifa

    2008-08-12

    Hybrid sterility is a major form of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Although reproductive isolation has been a key issue in evolutionary biology for many decades in a wide range of organisms, only very recently a few genes for reproductive isolation were identified. The Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is divided into two subspecies, indica and japonica. Hybrids between indica and japonica varieties are usually highly sterile. A special group of rice germplasm, referred to as wide-compatibility varieties, is able to produce highly fertile hybrids when crossed to both indica and japonica. In this study, we cloned S5, a major locus for indica-japonica hybrid sterility and wide compatibility, using a map-based cloning approach. We show that S5 encodes an aspartic protease conditioning embryo-sac fertility. The indica (S5-i) and japonica (S5-j) alleles differ by two nucleotides. The wide compatibility gene (S5-n) has a large deletion in the N terminus of the predicted S5 protein, causing subcellular mislocalization of the protein, and thus is presumably nonfunctional. This triallelic system has a profound implication in the evolution and artificial breeding of cultivated rice. Genetic differentiation between indica and japonica would have been enforced because of the reproductive barrier caused by S5-i and S5-j, and species coherence would have been maintained by gene flow enabled by the wide compatibility gene.

  9. Gibberellic Acid: A Key Phytohormone for Spikelet Fertility in Rice Grain Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Choon-Tak; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) has essential signaling functions in multiple processes during plant development. In the “Green Revolution”, breeders developed high-yield rice cultivars that exhibited both semi-dwarfism and altered GA responses, thus improving grain production. Most studies of GA have concentrated on germination and cell elongation, but GA also has a pivotal role in floral organ development, particularly in stamen/anther formation. In rice, GA signaling plays an important role in spikelet fertility; however, the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms of GA in male fertility remain largely unknown. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the network of GA signaling and its connection with spikelet fertility, which is tightly associated with grain productivity in cereal crops. PMID:27223278

  10. Studies on development of new functional natural materials from agricultural products - Technology developments for ceramic powders and materials from rice phytoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Kap; Kim, Yong Ik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Nang Kyu; Seong, Seo Yong [Myongseong Ceramics Com., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sang Eun [Bae Jae Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Chun [Myungji Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Based on an estimation of annual rice production of 5.2 million tons, rice husks by-production reaches to 1.17 million tons per year in Korea. Distinguished to other corns, rice contains a lot of Si; 10-20% by weight in rice husks calculated as silica. The aim of this research project is to develop technologies for ceramic powders and materials utilizing the silica in rice husks called phytoliths. In this first year research, researches of the following subjects were performed; material properties of rice husks, milling of rice husks, acid treatments, oxidations at low and high temperatures, sintering and crystalization of amorphous silica, low temperature carburization, formation of silicon carbide whiskers, and brick lightening method using milled rice husks. 11 tabs., 49 figs., 75 refs. (Author).

  11. Products and bioenergy from the pyrolysis of rice straw via radio frequency plasma and its kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wen-Kai; Shie, Je-Lung; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Sen-Yeu; Kuo, Jing T; Shaw, Dai-Gee; You, Yii-Der; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2009-03-01

    The radio frequency plasma pyrolysis technology, which can overcome the disadvantages of common pyrolysis methods such as less gas products while significant tar formation, was used for pyrolyzing the biomass waste of rice straw. The experiments were performed at various plateau temperatures of 740, 813, 843 and 880K with corresponding loading powers of 357, 482, 574 and 664W, respectively. The corresponding yields of gas products (excluding nitrogen) from rice straw are 30.7, 56.6, 62.5 and 66.5wt.% with respect to the original dried sample and the corresponding specific heating values gained from gas products are about 4548, 4284, 4469 and 4438kcalkg(-1), respectively, for the said cases. The corresponding combustible portions remained in the solid residues are about 64.7, 35, 28.2 and 23.5wt.% with specific heating values of 4106, 4438, 4328 and 4251kcalkg(-1) with respective to solid residues, while that in the original dried sample is 87.2wt.% with specific heating value of 4042kcalkg(-1). The results indicated that the amount of combustibles converted into gas products increases with increasing plateau temperature. The kinetic model employed to describe the pyrolytic conversion of rice straw at constant temperatures agrees well with the experimental data. The best curve fittings render the frequency factor of 5759.5s(-1), activation energy of 74.29kJ mol(-1) and reaction order of 0.5. Data and information obtained are useful for the future design and operation of pyrolysis of rice straw via radio frequency plasma.

  12. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-01

    A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾ 12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  13. Plant Type and Its Effects on Canopy Structure at Heading Stage in Various Ecological Areas for a Two-line Hybrid Rice Combination, Liangyoupeijiu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chuan-gen; HU Ning; YAO Ke-min; XIA Shi-jian; QI Qing-ming

    2010-01-01

    A two-line hybrid rice combination, Liangyoupeijiu, was used to estimate several factors of plant type, and environmental models for these factors at the heading stage were established using the data of eight ecological experimental sites in 2006 and 2007. According to climatic data from 1951 to 2005, the differences in those factors and their effects on plant canopy were analyzed for four rice cropping areas in China, including South China, the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Sichuan Basin, and river valley in Yunnan, China. The thickness of leaf layer (the distance from pulvinus of the third leaf from the top to the tip of flag leaf) and distribution of leaf area could be used as candidate indices for the plant type of a rice canopy.

  14. Viewing hybrid systems as products of control systems and automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, R. L.; Larson, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to show how hybrid systems may be modeled as products of nonlinear control systems and finite state automata. By a hybrid system, we mean a network of consisting of continuous, nonlinear control system connected to discrete, finite state automata. Our point of view is that the automata switches between the control systems, and that this switching is a function of the discrete input symbols or letters that it receives. We show how a nonlinear control system may be viewed as a pair consisting of a bialgebra of operators coding the dynamics, and an algebra of observations coding the state space. We also show that a finite automata has a similar representation. A hybrid system is then modeled by taking suitable products of the bialgebras coding the dynamics and the observation algebras coding the state spaces.

  15. On exotic hybrid meson production in gamma* gamma collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Anikin, I V; Szymanowski, L; Teryaev, O V; Wallon, S

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of exotic hybrid meson (JPC=1-+) production in photon-photon collisions where one of the photons is deeply virtual, including twist 2 and twist 3 contributions. We calculate the cross section of this process which turns out to be large enough to imply sizeable counting rates in the present high luminosity electron-positron colliders. We emphasize theimportance of the pi eta decay channel for the detection of the hybrid meson candidate pi_1(1400) and calculate the cross section and the angular distribution for pi eta pair production in the unpolarized case. This angular distribution is a useful tool for disentangling the hybrid meson signal from the background. Finally, we calculate the single spin asymmetry associated with one initial longitudinally polarized lepton.

  16. Variation Characteristics of Hydrothermal Resources Effectiveness Under the Background of Climate Change in Southern Rice Production Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; YANG Xiao-guang; DAI Shu-wei; LI Yong; GUO Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal characteristics of hydrothermal resources in southern rice production area of China have changed under the background of climate change, and this change would affect the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources during local rice growing period. According to the cropping system subdivision in southern rice production area of China during 1980s, this study used climate data from 254 meteorological stations and phonological data from 168 agricultural observation stations in the south of China, and adopted 6 international evaluation indices about the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of hydrothermal resources during the growing period of single cropping rice system and double cropping rice system for 16 planting zones in the whole study area. The results showed that: in southern rice production area of China, the effectiveness of thermal resources of single cropping rice area (SCRA) was less than that of double cropping rice area (DCRA), whereas the effectiveness of thermal resources of both SARA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. The index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of SCRA was higher than that of DCRA, nevertheless the index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of both SCRA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. There was a signiifcant linear relationship between effective thermal resource and water demand, likely water demand increased by 18 mm with every 100°C d increase of effective heat. Effective precipitation satisfaction index (EPSI) showed a negative correlation with effective heat, yet showed a positive correlation with effective precipitation. EPSI reduced by 1% when effective heat resource increased by 125°C d. This study could provide insights for policy makers, land managers or farmers to improve water and heat resource uses and rationally arrange rice production activities under global climate change condition.

  17. Selection of Thai starter components for ethanol production utilizing malted rice from waste paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilux Chaijamrus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixed herbs in Thai rice wine starter (Loog-pang were investigated in order to directly maintain theefficiency of the microbial community (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Amylomyces sp., Gluconobacter sp. and Pediocccuspentosaceus. The optimum formula was galanga, garlic, long pepper, licorice, and black pepper at the ratio of 0.5:8:1:4:1,respectively. Previously, waste paddy has been used directly as a renewable resource for fuel ethanol production using solidstate fermentation (SSF with Loog-pang. In this study, hydrolyzed malted rice starch was used as the sole nutrient source insubmerged fermentation (SmF to enhance the process yield. The maximum ethanol productivity (4.08 g/kg waste paddy h-1and the highest ethanol concentration (149±7.0 g/kg waste paddy were obtained after 48 hrs of incubation. The resultsindicated that starch saccharification provided a higher ethanol yield (48.38 g/100g sugar consumed than SSF. In addition,the efficiency of ethanol fermentation was 67% which is similar to that of the malted rice made from normal paddy (68%.This result suggests that waste paddy could be used as an alternative raw material for ethanol production.

  18. QTL analysis of the rice seedling cold tolerance in a double haploid population derived from anther culture of a hybrid between indica and japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A doubled haploid population,derived from anther culture of Fl hybrid between a typical indica cv.and a japonica cv.has been used to investigate the seedling cold tolerance (SCT) in growth cabinet.By dynamically analyzing every day's survival percentages of the parents and DH lines under 7-d cold plus 9-d normal temperature condition,the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SCT have been mapped based on a molecular linkage map constructed from this population.The results show that two parents had significant differences in SCT and the segregation of SCT in DH lines was basically a continuous distribution with most serious injury on the 6th d of the cold treatment.A total of 4 QTLs for SCT have been identified on chromosomes 1,2,3 and 4 respectively.The additive effects of qSCT-1,qSCT-2 and qSCT-3 have been contributed by the japonica cv JX17,but that of qSCT-4 has been contributed by the indica cv ZYQ8.The mechanism of SCT seems complicated since the above 4 QTLs detected at different stages during the treatment.Further study on the genotypes for these SCT QTLs in the DH lines shows transgressive segregation.It is demonstrated that the lines with stronger SCT over JXl7 have 3-4 loci for SCT.Integration of these QTLs into an appropriate variety may lead to a successful rice breeding program for cold tolerance.

  19. 不同栽培处理下杂交水稻渝香203的再生性分析%Analysis of Regeneration of Hybrid Rice in Different Planting Treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张现伟; 李经勇; 唐永群; 姚雄

    2012-01-01

    Chongqing is one of the major grain yield areas of ratooning rice. Development of ratooning rice actively could help to ensure food security, improve rice structure, increase income of farmers and meet the needs of urban and rural people' s living, artificial transplanting, machine transplanting, throwing transplanting, direct seeding were mainly planting patterns. The trials of artificial transplanting manual harvest, artificial transplanting machine harvest, machine transplanting manual harvest, machine transplanting machine harvest, throwing transplanting manual harvest, direct seeding manual harvest were carried out to compare the regeneration, ratooning rice yield and rice-regeneration yield under six different planting patterns of hybrid rice. The results showed that artificial transplanting manual harvest, had obvious advantages in regeneration, ratooning yield, rice-regeneration on the total production, followed by Artificial transplanting machine harvest, machine transplanting manual harvest, machine transplanting machine harvest, throwing transplanting manual harvest, direct seeding manual harvest were the lowest of all.%重庆是再生稻的主产区之一,积极发展再生稻生产对确保粮食安全,改善稻米结构、增加农民收入、满足城乡人民生活需求等都具有重要意义.手工栽秧、机栽秧、抛秧、直播是目前水稻的主要栽培方式.本研究设置了人栽人收、人栽机收、机栽人收、机栽机收、抛秧人收、直播人收6个处理,比较了不同栽培处理下杂交水稻的再生性、再生稻产量及中稻-再生稻产量.结果表明:人栽人收在再生性、再生稻产量、中稻-再生稻总产上都具有明显的优势,依次为人栽机收、机栽人收、机栽机收、抛秧人收,直播人收处理下表现最低.

  20. Limited fitness advantages of crop-weed hybrid progeny containing insect-resistant transgenes (Bt/CpTI in transgenic rice field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spread of insect-resistance transgenes from genetically engineered (GE rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea populations via gene flow creates a major concern for commercial GE rice cultivation. Transgene flow to weedy rice seems unavoidable. Therefore, characterization of potential fitness effect brought by the transgenes is essential to assess environmental consequences caused by crop-weed transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Field performance of fitness-related traits was assessed in advanced hybrid progeny of F(4 generation derived from a cross between an insect-resistant transgenic (Bt/CpTI rice line and a weedy strain. The performance of transgene-positive hybrid progeny was compared with the transgene-negative progeny and weedy parent in pure and mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants under environmental conditions with natural vs. low insect pressure. Results showed that under natural insect pressure the insect-resistant transgenes could effectively suppress target insects and bring significantly increased fitness to transgenic plants in pure planting, compared with nontransgenic plants (including weedy parent. In contrast, no significant differences in fitness were detected under low insect pressure. However, such increase in fitness was not detected in the mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants due to significantly reduced insect pressure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Insect-resistance transgenes may have limited fitness advantages to hybrid progeny resulted from crop-weed transgene flow owning to the significantly reduced ambient target insect pressure when an insect-resistant GE crop is grown. Given that the extensive cultivation of an insect-resistant GE crop will ultimately reduce the target insect pressure, the rapid spread of insect-resistance transgenes in weedy populations in commercial GE crop fields may be not likely to happen.

  1. The hebridological analysis of productivity traits in pea hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Володимирівна Коблай

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the nature of inheritance of quantitative traits that influence productivity of pea hybrids were obtained first and second generations for which sample and varieties with different leaf morphotype are served as parental form. As the results of hybridological analysis it is determined the degree of domination and revealed the heterosis combinations

  2. QTL Mapping for Hull Thickness and Related Traits in Hybrid Rice Xieyou 9308

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Li-li; ZHANG Ying-xin; CHEN Dai-bo; ZHAN Xiao-deng; SHEN Xi-hong; CHENG Shi-hua; CAO Li-yong

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of 165 rice recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Zhonghui 9308 (Z9308) and Xieqingzao B (XB) in Hainan and Hangzhou, China. Grain thickness (GT), brown rice thickness (BRT), hull thickness (HT) and milling quality were used for QTL mapping. HT was significantly and positively correlated with GT and BRT. Twenty-nine QTLs were detected with phenotypic effects ranging from 2.80% to 21.27%. Six QTLs, qGT3, qBRT3, qBRT4, qHT6.1, qHT8 and qHT11, were detected repeatedly across two environments. Inherited from XB, qHT6.1, qHT8 and qHT11 showed stable expression, explaining 9.92%, 21.27% and 10.83% of the phenotypic variances in Hainan and 9.61%, 6.40%and 6.71%in Hangzhou, respectively. Additionally, the QTL cluster between RM5944 and RM5626 on chromosome 3 was probably responsible for GT and milling quality. The cluster between RM6992 and RM6473 on chromosome 4 played an important role in grain filling. Three near isogenic lines (NILs), X345, X338 and X389, were selected because they contained homozygous fragments from Zhonghui 9308, corresponding to qHT6.1, qHT8 and qHT11, respectively. The hull of XB was thicker than those of X345, X338 and X389. In all the lines, qHT6.1, qHT8 and qHT11 that regulated rice HT were stably inherited with obvious genetic effects.

  3. Influence of the use of rice bran extract as a source of nutrients on xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Acosta Martínez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion using 2.5 or 10% (v/v rice bran extract was performed to verify the influence of this source of nutrients on Candida guilliermondii metabolism. Semisynthetic medium (SM and sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate detoxified with ion-exchange resins (HIE or with alteration in pH combined with adsorption onto activated charcoal (HAC were fermented in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks at 30 ºC and 200 rpm for 72 hours. Activated charcoal supplemented with 2.5% (v/v rice bran extract was fermented by C. guilliermondii in a MULTIGEN stirred tank reactor using pH 5.0 and 22.9/hour oxygen transfer volumetric coefficient. Higher values of xylitol productivity (0.70, 0.71, and 0.62 g.Lh-1 and xylose-to-xylitol conversion yield (0.71, 0.69, and 0.63 g.g-1 were obtained with 2.5% (v/v rice bran in semisynthetic medium, ion-exchange resins, and activated charcoal, respectively. Moreover, during batch fermentation, the xylitol volumetric productivity and fermentation efficiency values obtained were 0.53 g.Lh-1 and 61.1%, respectively.

  4. Synthesis of advanced materials for bio-oil production from rice straw by pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Dang, Tuyet; Le, Gia Hy; Thu Giang Pham, Thi; Kien Nguyen, Trung; Canh Dao, Duc; Vu, Thi Minh Hong; Thu Thuy Hoang, Thi; Hoa Tran, Thi Kim; Vu, Anh Tuan

    2011-12-01

    Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by pyrolysis with and without solid acid catalysts. Solid acid catalysts used in rice straw pyrolysis synthesis were the diatomite acidified by an 'atomic implantation method' and nano-sized porous Al-SBA1SBA: Santa Barbara Amorphous type mesoporous silica.-15. Catalysts were characterized by a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), N2 adsorption/desorption, differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA) and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The obtained results revealed that a similar bio-oil yield (liquid product) of 44-48% can be reached by pyrolysis in the presence of solid acid catalysts at 450 °C compared to that of pyrolysis without catalyst at 550 °C. Moreover, a low yield of gas product was observed. These results show significant potential applications of solid acid catalysts for the improvement of bio-oil yield in the pyrolysis of rice straw.

  5. Bioethanol Production from Liquid Waste of Rice Flour with Batch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Sari Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid waste rice flour is abundant liquid wastes but it is still underutilized. So far, it is only used for process water in factory production, wastewater, and even regarded as environment pollution. Rice flour liquid waste has higher levels of glucose, starch and protein which can be used as one of ethanol producers. This study aims to assess the process of hydrolysis, fermentation, and batch distillation process, as well as to search for alternative raw materials products of bioethanol. There are three processes of making bioethanol, namely biological hydrolysis process done by using bacillus; the process of fermentation by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; and batch distillation. After the third process was done, the results were: glucose is 5% - 10% in the process of hydrolysis; ethanol content is 11% - 16% in the fermentation process; and the levels are high enough for bio-ethanol, which is 95% - 96% in the batch distillation process. So it can be concluded that the liquid waste of rice flour can be used as raw materials for the manufacture of alternative bioethanol.

  6. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37±1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9-70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  7. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yanghui; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Lan, Yu; Li, Shuhang; Meng, Jun; Xu, Zhengjin; Tang, Liang

    2016-02-15

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha(-1)) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha(-1)) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. 'Shennong 265') was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH4 emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha(-1) biochar. There were no differences in CO2 emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha(-1) biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha(-1) biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g(-1) and 11.69 mg g(-1) (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha(-1) biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g(-1). The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China.

  8. Effects of fertilization on crop production and nutrient-supplying capacity under rice-oilseed rape rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Muhammad; Li, Jifu; Lu, Jianwei; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Fahad, Shah; Li, Xiaokun

    2017-04-28

    Incredible accomplishments have been achieved in agricultural production in China, but many demanding challenges for ensuring food security and environmental sustainability remain. Field experiments were conducted from 2011-2013 at three different sites, including Honghu, Shayang, and Jingzhou in China, to determine the effects of fertilization on enhancing crop productivity and indigenous nutrient-supplying capacity (INuS) in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)-rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) rotation. Four mineral fertilizer treatments (NPK, NP, NK and PK) were applied in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Crop yields were increased by 19-41% (rice) and 61-76% (rapeseed) during the two years of rice-rapeseed rotation under NPK fertilization compared to PK fertilization across the study sites. Yield responses to fertilization were ranked NPK > NP > NK > PK, illustrating that N deficiency was the most limiting condition in a rice-rapeseed rotation, followed by P and K deficiencies. The highest and lowest N, P and K accumulations were observed under NPK and PK fertilization, respectively. The INuS of the soil decreased to a significant extent and affected rice-rapeseed rotation productivity at each site under NP, NK, and PK fertilization when compared to NPK. Based on the study results, a balanced nutrient application using NPK fertilization is a key management strategy for enhancing rice-rapeseed productivity and environmental safety.

  9. The Nutrient Uptake Efficiency, Crop Productivity and Quality of Rice Bean in Dry Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Endang Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean is a group of beans that are rich in carbohydrates, proteins and fats. This plant is resistant to pests and diseases, as well as the broad adaptability. This study aims to obtain an efficient fertilization pattern on rice bean cultivation in dry land. The treatments consisted of 9 fertilization patterns which were RP0: no fertilizer (control; RP1: 100% recommendation fertilizer (50 kg Urea and 100 kg SP-36 ha-1; RP2: 5 Mg ha-1 manure plus 50% recommendation fertilizer; RP3: RP2 plus MVA; RP4: 5 Mg ha-1 Crotalaria sp compost plus 50% recommendation fertilizer; RP5: RP4 plus VAM; RP6: 2.5 t ha-1 manure, 2.5 Mg ha-1 Crotalaria sp compost plus 50% recommendation fertilizer; RP7: 1.5 Mg ha-1 manure, 1 Mg ha-1 Crotalaria sp compost plus 50% recommendation fertilizer; RP8: RP7 plus MVA. Fertilization treatments were arranged in RCBD and each treatment was repeated 3 times. The fertilization treatments had no significant effect on NUE. Productivity of rice bean in RP3 and RP5 reached 3.75 Mg ha-1, in RP2 and RP4 achieved 2.64 Mg ha-1, and in the control treatment reached 1.94 Mg ha-1. Carbohydrate content in seeds increased by 20% in the fertilization treatments compared to the control. Protein and anthocyanin content in all treatments were not significantly different. The combination of 5 Mg organic fertilizer (manure and / or Crotalaria compost, 50% recommendation fertilizer plus MVA was an efficient fertilization pattern to improve P fertilizer uptake efficiency (PUE, productivity and quality of rice bean crop in dry land.

  10. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to

  11. Genetic and physical fine-mapping of the Sc locus conferring indica-japonica hybrid sterility in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cunyi; CHEN Zhongzheng; ZHUANG Chuxiong; MEI Mantong; LIU Yaoguang

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid sterility is a major hindrance to utilizing the heterosis in indica-japonica hybrids. To isolate a gene Sc conferring the hybrid sterility, the locus was mapped using molecular markers and an F2 population derived from a cross between near isogenic lines. A primary linkage analysis showed that Sc was linked closely with 4 markers on chromosome 3, on which the genetic distance between a marker RG227 and Sc was 0.07 cM. Chromosome walking with a rice TAC genomic library was carried out using RG227 as a starting probe, and a contig of ca. 320 kb covering the Sc locus was constructed. Two TAC clones, M45E14 and M90J01 that might cover the Sc locus, were partially sequenced. By searching the rice sequence databases with sequences of the TACs and RG227 a japonica rice BAC sequence, OSJNBb0078P24 was identified. By comparing the TAC and BAC sequences, six new PCR-based markers were developed. With these markers the Sc locus was further mapped to a region of 46 kb. The results suggest that the BAC OSJNBb0078P24 and TAC M45E14 contain the Sc gene. Six ORFs were predicted in the focused 46-kb region.

  12. Hybrid isoprenoid secondary metabolite production in terrestrial and marine actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kelley A; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R

    2010-12-01

    Terpenoids are among the most ubiquitous and diverse secondary metabolites observed in nature. Although actinomycete bacteria are one of the primary sources of microbially derived secondary metabolites, they rarely produce compounds in this biosynthetic class. The terpenoid secondary metabolites that have been discovered from actinomycetes are often in the form of biosynthetic hybrids called hybrid isoprenoids (HIs). HIs include significant structural diversity and biological activity and thus are important targets for natural product discovery. Recent screening of marine actinomycetes has led to the discovery of a new lineage that is enriched in the production of biologically active HI secondary metabolites. These strains represent a promising resource for natural product discovery and provide unique opportunities to study the evolutionary history and ecological functions of an unusual group of secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decomposition and Products of Wheat and Rice Straw from a FACE Experiment Under Flooded Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Juan; HAN Yong; CAI Zu-Cong

    2009-01-01

    Winter wheat and rice straw produced under ambient and elevated CO2 in a China rice-wheat rotation free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment was mixed with a paddy soil at a rate of 10 g kg-1 (air-dried),and the mixture was incubated under flooded conditions at 25 ℃ to examine the differences in decomposition as well as the products of crop residues produced under elevated CO2.Results showed that the C/N ratio and the amount of soluble fraction in the amended rice straw grown under elevated CO2 (FR) were 9.8% and 73.1% greater,and the cellulose and lignin were 16.0% and 9.9% lesser than those of the amended rice straw grown under ambient CO2 (AR),respectively.Compared with those of the AR treatment,the CO2-C and CH4-C emissions in the FR treatment for 25 d were increased by 7.9% and 25.0%,respectively;a higher ratio of CH4 to CO2 emissions induced by straw in the FR treatment was also observed.In contrast,in the treatments with winter wheat straw,the CO2-C and CH4-C emissions,the ratio of straw-induced CH4 to CO2 emissions,and the straw composition were not significantly affected by elevated CO2,exdept for an 8.0% decrease in total N and a 9.7% increase in C/N ratio in the wheat straw grown under elevated CO2.Correlation analysis showed that the net CO2-C and CH4-C emission from straw and the ratio of straw-induced CH4 to CO2 emissions were all exponentially related to the amount of soluble fraction in the amended straw (P < 0.05).These indicated that under flooded conditions,the turnover and CH4 emission from crop straw incorporated into soil were dependent on the effect of elevated CO2 on straw composition,and varied with crop species.Incorporation of rice straw grown under elevated CO2 would stimulate CH4 emission from flooded rice fields,whereas winter wheat straw grown under elevated CO2 had no effect on CH4 emission.

  14. Effects of ridge tillage on photosynthesis and root characters of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yuan-zhi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important crop and breeding has not been able to improve yield. Root characteristics of hybrid rice 'Zhuliangyou 02' under conventional tillage and ridge tillage were studied in a Calcisols in Huaihua, China, from 2011 to 2013 to find better tillage methods to resolve massive water consumption, improve yield, and enhance productivity of agricultural labor for rice cultivation. Results showed ridge tillage increased photosynthetic parameters such as photosynthetic rate (P N, stomatal conductance (g s, and water use efficiency (WUE. It also significantly enhanced rice root number, root activity, and antioxidant enzyme activities; it also increased effective panicle number and actual yield by 22.12% and 15.18%, respectively, and enhanced aerenchymae during the early growth stage. Overall, ridge tillage could promote hybrid rice yields by enhancing root absorption, gas exchange, and reducing water consumption. It could be widely used in rice cultivation.

  15. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang eKun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  16. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility, and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein, and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male-sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  17. Growing rice aerobically markedly decreases mercury accumulation by reducing both Hg bioavailability and the production of MeHg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Bing; Huang, Linan; Meng, Mei; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Rice consumption represents a major route of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for those living in certain areas of inland China. In this study we investigated the effects of water management on bioavailable Hg, MeHg, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, abundance and community composition) in rhizosphere soil, and total Hg (THg) and MeHg in rice plants grown under glasshouse and paddy field conditions. Aerobic conditions greatly decreased the amount of THg and MeHg taken up by rice plants and affected their distribution in different plant tissues. There were positive correlations between bioavailable Hg and THg in brown rice and roots and between numbers of SRB and MeHg in brown rice, roots, and rhizosphere soil. Furthermore, the community composition of SRB was dramatically influenced by the water management regimes. Our results demonstrate that the greatly reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg are due to decreased SRB numbers and proportion of Hg methylators in the rhizosphere under aerobic conditions. These are the main reasons for the reduced Hg and MeHg accumulation in aerobically grown rice. Water management is indicated as an effective measure that can be used to reduce Hg and MeHg uptake by rice plants from Hg-contaminated paddy fields.

  18. A water productive and economically profitable paddy rice production method to adapt water scarcity in the Vu Gia-Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhone Nay-Htoon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Vu Gia-Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam, drought during the dry season affected negatively on rice production. High and uneven rainfall distribution cause flooding in the basin during wet season and cause severe agricultural drought during dry season.This study aimed to point out a higher water productive and economically efficient rice production method to adapt water scarcity in the region. Based on available secondary data, water productivity is calculated for different water saving rice production methods, according to Pereira, et al, (2012’s irrigation water productivity and total productivity equations. The profit of technological change is calculated by partial budget analysis of rice production in that area and a sensitivity analysis supports to point out which input factor is sensitive to farmer’s benefit. Farmer’s psychological and social beliefs are used to create fuzzy logic based decision making model. Although water productivities (ranging 0.441 kg/m3/ha to 0.504 kg/m3/ha are ranked as the second after System of Rice Intensification, we demonstrated that Alternate Wetting and Drying method is a recommendable method to the farmer after considering economic profitability and technical simplicity. The System of Rice Intensification method also could be a suitable method to adopt because this method is the highest water productive method (Water Productivities are ranging from 0.77 kg/m3/ha to 1.02 kg/m3/ha coupled with highest yield of rice, subject to certain ecosystem services and payment policies should be developed to subsidize the reduced benefit resulting from this method.

  19. Hybrid Male Sterility in Rice Controlled by Interaction between Divergent Alleles of Two Adjacent Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yunming Long; Lifeng Zhao; Baixiao Niu; Jing Su; Hao Wu; Yuanling Chen; Qunyu Zhang; Jingxin Guo; Chuxiong Zhuang; Mantong Mei; Jixing Xia; Lan Wang; Haibin Wu; Yao-Guang Liu

    2008-01-01

    .... Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid male sterility, Sa, comprises two adjacent genes, SaM and SaF, encoding a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase-like protein and an F-box protein, respectively...

  20. SAR-3——a resource of diploid true breeding hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUKaida; WANGXudong; WUXianjun; YANZhibing; ZHOUXaohe

    1997-01-01

    In 1988, we found strain 9003 from composite hybridization of iad/ca and japonica. 9003 possesses characteristics of twin seedlings with frequency of 15-20% of the investigated popu-lation. The highest frequency was 45. 68%.Afterwards, we discovered that some twin seedlings had variabilities in chromosome set.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from rice straw by liquid-state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayata, M. H. M.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyahb, T. M. I.; Aditiyac, H. B.; Mahliaa, T. M. I.; Shamsuddina, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy is the latest approach of the Malaysian government in an effort to find sustainable alternative energy sources and to fulfill the ever increasing energy demand. Being a country that thrives in the service and agricultural sector, bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass presents itself as a promising option. However, the lack of technical practicality and complexity in the operation system hinder it from being economically viable. Hence, this research acquired multiple case studies in order to provide an insight on the process involved and its implication on production as well as to obtain a cost analysis of bioethanol production. The energy input and cost of three main components of the bioethanol production which are the collection, logistics, and pretreatment of rice straw were evaluated extensively. The theoretical bioethanol yield and conversion efficiency obtained were 250 L/t and 60% respectively. The findings concluded that bioethanol production from rice straw is currently not economically feasible in Malaysia’s market due to lack of efficiency in the pretreatment phase and overbearing logistics and pretreatment costs. This work could serve as a reference to future studies of biofuel commercialization in Malaysia.

  2. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems: establishing a minimum data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues de Lima, Ana Cláudia; Hoogmoed, Willem; Brussaard, Lijbert

    2008-01-01

    Soil quality, as a measure of the soil's capacity to function, can be assessed by indicators based on physical, chemical, and biological properties. Here we report on the assessment of soil quality in 21 rice (Oryza sativa) fields under three rice production systems (semi-direct, pre-germinated, and conventional) on four soil textural classes in the Camaquã region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The objectives of our study were: (i) to identify soil quality indicators that discriminate both management systems and soil textural classes, (ii) to establish a minimum data set of soil quality indicators and (iii) to test whether this minimum data set is correlated with yield. Twenty-nine soil biological, chemical, and physical properties were evaluated to characterize regional soil quality. Soil quality assessment was based on factor and discriminant analysis. Bulk density, available water, and micronutrients (Cu, Zn, and Mn) were the most powerful soil properties in distinguishing among different soil textural classes. Organic matter, earthworms, micronutrients (Cu and Mn), and mean weight diameter were the most powerful soil properties in assessing differences in soil quality among the rice management systems. Manganese was the property most strongly correlated with yield (adjusted r2 = 0.365, P = 0.001). The merits of sub-dividing samples according to texture and the linkage between soil quality indicators, soil functioning, plant performance, and soil management options are discussed in particular.

  3. Optimization of organosolv pretreatment of rice straw for enhanced biohydrogen production using Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Nooshin; Zilouei, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Ethanol organosolv pretreated rice straw was used to produce biohydrogen using Enterobacter aerogenes. The effect of temperature (120-180°C), residence time (30-90min), and ethanol concentration (45-75%v/v) on the hydrogen yield, residual biomass, and lignin recovery was investigated using RSM. In contrast to the residual solid and lignin recovery, no considerable trend could be observed for the changes in the hydrogen yield at different treatment severities. The maximum hydrogen yield of 19.73mlg(-1) straw was obtained at the ethanol concentration of 45%v/v and 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, the potential amount of biohydrogen was estimated in the top ten rice producing nations using the experimental results. Approximately 355.8kt of hydrogen and 11.3Mt of lignin could globally be produced. Based on a Monte Carlo analysis, the production of biohydrogen from rice straw has the lowest risk in China and the highest in Japan.

  4. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study describes the emphatic use of response surface methodology for the optimized biodiesel production using chemical and enzymatic transesterification of rice bran and sunflower oils. Optimal biodiesel yields were determined to be 65.3 ± 2.0%, 73.4 ± 3.5%, 96.5 ± 1.6%, 89.3 ± 2.0% and 41.7 ± 3.9% for rice bran oil and 65.6 ± 1.2%, 82.1 ± 1.7%, 92.5 ± 2.8%, 72.6 ± 1.6% and 50.4 ± 2.5% for sunflower oil via the transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3,NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. Lipase, respectively. Based upon analysis of variance (ANOVA and Response Surface plots significant impact of reaction parameters under study was ascertained. FTIR spectroscopic and HPLC methods were employed for monitoring the transesterification reaction progress while GC-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the compositional analysis of biodiesel. The fuel properties of both the rice bran and sunflower oil based biodiesel were shown to be technically compatible with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The monitoring of exhaust emission of synthesized biodiesels and their blends revealed a marked reduction in carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM levels, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions.

  5. No-Cook Process for Ethanol Production Using Indian Broken Rice and Pearl Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Gohel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available No-cook process using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE was evaluated for Indian broken rice and pearl millet. One-factor-at-a-time optimization method was used in ethanol production to identify optimum concentration of GSHE, under yeast fermentation conditions using broken rice and pearl millet as fermentation feedstocks. An acid fungal protease at a concentration of 0.2 kg per metric ton of grain was used along with various dosages of GSHE under yeast fermentation conditions to degrade the grain proteins into free amino nitrogen for yeast growth. To measure the efficacy of GSHE to hydrolyze no-cook broken rice and pearl millet, the chemical composition, fermentation efficiency, and ethanol recovery were determined. In both feedstocks, fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery obtained through single-step no-cook process were higher than conventional multistep high-temperature process, currently considered the ideal industrial process. Furthermore, the no-cook process can directly impact energy consumption through steam saving and reducing the water cooling capacity needs, compared to conventional high-temperature process.

  6. Ethanol production potential from fermented rice noodle wastewater treatment using entrapped yeast cell sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-03-01

    Fermented rice noodle production generates a large volume of starch-based wastewater. This study investigated the treatment of the fermented rice noodle wastewater using entrapped cell sequencing batch reactor (ECSBR) compared to traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The yeast cells were applied because of their potential to convert reducing sugar in the wastewater to ethanol. In present study, preliminary treatment by acid hydrolysis was performed. A yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcium alginate cell entrapment was used. Optimum yeast cell loading in batch experiment and fermented rice noodle treatment performances using ECSBR and SBR systems were examined. In the first part, it was found that the cell loadings (0.6-2.7 × 108 cells/mL) did not play an important role in this study. Treatment reactions followed the second-order kinetics with the treatment efficiencies of 92-95%. In the second part, the result showed that ECSBR performed better than SBR in both treatment efficiency and system stability perspectives. ECSBR maintained glucose removal of 82.5 ± 10% for 5-cycle treatment while glucose removal by SBR declined from 96 to 40% within the 5-cycle treatment. Scanning electron microscopic images supported the treatment results. A number of yeast cells entrapped and attached onto the matrix grew in the entrapment matrix.

  7. Prokaryotic Expression of Rice Ospgip1 Gene and Bioinformatic Analysis of Encoded Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi-jun; LIU Xiao-wei; Zuo Si-min; MA Yu-yin; TONG Yun-hui; PAN Xue-biao; XU Jing-you

    2011-01-01

    Using the reference sequences of pgip genes in GenBank,a fragment of 930 bp covering the open reading frame (ORF) of rice Ospgip1 (Oryza sativa polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 1) was amplified.The prokaryotic expression product of the gene inhibited the growth of Rhizoctonia solani,the causal agent of rice sheath blight,and reduced its polygalacturonase activity.Bioinformatic analysis showed that OsPGIP1 is a hydrophobic protein with a molecular weight of 32.8 kDa and an isoelectric point (pl) of 7.26.The protein is mainly located in the cell wall of rice,and its signal peptide cleavage site is located between the 17th and 18th amino acids.There are four cysteines in both the N-and C-termini of the deduced protein,which can form three disulfide bonds (between the 56th and 63rd,the 278th and 298th,and the 300th and308th amino acids).The protein has a typical leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain,and its secondary structure comprises α-helices,β-sheets and irregular coils.Compared with polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) from other plants,the 7th LRR is absent in OsPGIP1.The nine LRRs could form a cleft that might associate with proteins from pathogenic fungi,such as polygalacturonase.

  8. Production of optically pure D-lactic acid from brown rice using metabolically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kenji; Hama, Shinji; Kihara, Maki; Noda, Hideo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-03-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of D-lactic acid was performed using brown rice as both a substrate and a nutrient source. An engineered Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain, in which the ʟ-lactate dehydrogenase gene was disrupted, produced 97.7 g/L D-lactic acid from 20% (w/v) brown rice without any nutrient supplementation. However, a significant amount of glucose remained unconsumed and the yield of lactic acid was as low as 0.75 (g/g-glucose contained in brown rice). Interestingly, the glucose consumption was significantly improved by adapting L. plantarum cells to the low-pH condition during the early stage of SSF (8-17 h). As a result, 117.1 g/L D-lactic acid was produced with a high yield of 0.93 and an optical purity of 99.6% after 144 h of fermentation. SSF experiments were repeatedly performed for ten times and D-lactic acid was stably produced using recycled cells (118.4-129.8 g/L). On average, D-lactic acid was produced with a volumetric productivity of 2.18 g/L/h over 48 h.

  9. Acid drainage from coal mining: Effect on paddy soil and productivity of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Burhan U; Malang, Akbar; Webster, Richard; Mohapatra, Kamal P; Verma, Bibhash C; Kumar, Manoj; Das, Anup; Islam, Mokidul; Hazarika, Samarendra

    2017-04-01

    Overburden and acid drainage from coal mining is transforming productive agricultural lands to unproductive wasteland in some parts of Northeast India. We have investigated the adverse effects of acid mine drainage on the soil of rice paddy and productivity by comparing them with non-mined land and abandoned paddy fields of Jaintia Hills in Northeast India. Pot experiments with a local rice cultivar (Myngoi) as test crop evaluated biological productivity of the contaminated soil. Contamination from overburden and acid mine drainage acidified the soil by 0.5 pH units, increased the exchangeable Al(3+) content 2-fold and its saturation on clay complexes by 53%. Available sulfur and extractable heavy metals, namely Fe, Mn and Cu increased several-fold in excess of critical limits, while the availability of phosphorus, potassium and zinc contents diminished by 32-62%. The grain yield of rice was 62% less from fields contaminated with acid mine drainage than from fields that have not suffered. Similarly, the amounts of vegetation, i.e. shoots and roots, in pots filled with soil from fields that received acid mine drainage were 59-68% less than from uncontaminated land (average shoot weight: 7.9±2.12gpot(-1); average root weight: 3.40±1.15gpot(-1)). Paddy fields recovered some of their productivity 4years after mining ceased. Step-wise multiple regression analysis affirmed that shoot weight in the pots and grain yield in field were significantly (ppots and grain yield in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  11. Inorganic arsenic in rice bran and its products are an order of magnitude higher than in bulk grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Carey, Anne-Marie; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Islam, Rafiqul M; Meharg, Andrew A

    2008-10-01

    Rice is more elevated in arsenic than all other grain crops tested to date, with whole grain (brown) rice having higher arsenic levels than polished (white). It is reported here that rice bran, both commercially purchased and specifically milled for this study, have levels of inorganic arsenic, a nonthreshold, class 1 carcinogen, reaching concentrations of approximately 1 mg/kg dry weight, around 10-20 fold higher than concentrations found in bulk grain. Although pure rice bran is used as a health food supplement, perhaps of more concern is rice bran solubles, which are marketed as a superfood and as a supplement to malnourished children in international aid programs. Five rice bran solubles products were tested, sourced from the United States and Japan, and were found to have 0.61-1.9 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. Manufactures recommend approximately 20 g servings of the rice bran solubles per day, which equates to a 0.012-0.038 mg intake of inorganic arsenic. There are no maximum concentration levels (MCLs) set for arsenic or its species in food stuffs. EU and U.S. water regulations, set at 0.01 mg/L total or inorganic arsenic, respectively, are based on the assumption that 1 L of water per day is consumed, i.e., 0.01 mg of arsenic/ day. At the manufacturers recommended rice bran solubles consumption rate, inorganic arsenic intake exceeds 0.01 mg/ day, remembering that rice bran solubles are targeted at malnourished children and that actual risk is based on mg kg(-1) day(-1) intake.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions and reactive nitrogen releases from rice production with simultaneous incorporation of wheat straw and nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Longlong; Xia, Yongqiu; Ma, Shutan; Wang, Jinyang; Wang, Shuwei; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-08-01

    Impacts of simultaneous inputs of crop straw and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and N losses from rice production are not well understood. A 2-year field experiment was established in a rice-wheat cropping system in the Taihu Lake region (TLR) of China to evaluate the GHG intensity (GHGI) as well as reactive N intensity (NrI) of rice production with inputs of wheat straw and N fertilizer. The field experiment included five treatments of different N fertilization rates for rice production: 0 (RN0), 120 (RN120), 180 (RN180), 240 (RN240), and 300 kg N ha-1 (RN300, traditional N application rate in the TLR). Wheat straws were fully incorporated into soil before rice transplantation. The meta-analytic technique was employed to evaluate various Nr losses. Results showed that the response of rice yield to N rate successfully fitted a quadratic model, while N fertilization promoted Nr discharges exponentially (nitrous oxide emission, N leaching, and runoff) or linearly (ammonia volatilization). The GHGI of rice production ranged from 1.20 (RN240) to 1.61 kg CO2 equivalent (CO2 eq) kg-1 (RN0), while NrI varied from 2.14 (RN0) to 10.92 g N kg-1 (RN300). Methane (CH4) emission dominated the GHGI with a proportion of 70.2-88.6 % due to direct straw incorporation, while ammonia (NH3) volatilization dominated the NrI with proportion of 53.5-57.4 %. Damage costs to environment incurred by GHG and Nr releases from current rice production (RN300) accounted for 8.8 and 4.9 % of farmers' incomes, respectively. Cutting N application rate from 300 (traditional N rate) to 240 kg N ha-1 could improve rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency by 2.14 and 10.30 %, respectively, while simultaneously reducing GHGI by 13 %, NrI by 23 %, and total environmental costs by 16 %. Moreover, the reduction of 60 kg N ha-1 improved farmers' income by CNY 639 ha-1, which would provide them with an incentive to change the current N application rate. Our study suggests that GHG

  13. Optical image encryption using Kronecker product and hybrid phase masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Bhaduri, Basanta

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a new technique for security enhancement in optical image encryption system. In this technique we have used the Kronecker product of two random matrices along with the double random phase encoding (DRPE) scheme in the Fresnel domain for optical image encryption. The phase masks used here are different than the random masks used in conventional DRPE scheme. These hybrid phase masks are generated by using the combination of random phase masks and a secondary image. For encryption, the input image is first randomized and then the DRPE in the Fresnel domain is performed using the hybrid phase masks. Secondly, the Kronecker product of two random matrices is multiplied with the DRPE output to get the final encoded image for transmission. The proposed technique consists of more unknown keys for enhanced security and robust against various attacks. The simulation results along with effects under various attacks are presented in support of the proposed technique.

  14. Combined Effect of Nutrient and Pest Managements on Substrate Utilization Pattern of Soil Microbial Population in Hybrid Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the combined effect of nutrient and pest managements on soil biomass phospholipid contents, functional biodiversity and substrate utilization patterns of soil microbial populations in hybrid rice cropping system. The mineral N, P and K fertilizers (as urea, calcium superphosphate and KCl respectively) were incorporated at 100, 25, and 100 kg ha-1, respectively, and the various pesticides were applied at the recommended rates. The results of the experiment demonstrated a decline in the microbial abundance and soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents with the advancement of crop growth, and significant changes in substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial population studied were observed with different management practices and at different growth stages. The principal component analysis (PGA) using all 95-carbon sources (BIOLOG plates) gave good differentiation among the treatments, indicating that they have different patterns of carbon utilization under different habitats. The data showed that diversity in microbial community continuously changed with the progression in crop stage, particularly at physiological maturity (PM) stage that was evident from the utilization of different carbon sources at various crop stages.

  15. Biogas production from rice straw by solid-state anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitophyta, Lukhi Mulia; Budiyono, Fuadi, Ahmad M.

    2015-12-01

    Biogas production from lignocellulosic biomass can be used as an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuels. Lignocellulose can be obtained from agricultural crop residues, such as rice straw. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of F/I ratio, total solid content, and physical pretreatment on biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion. The kinetics of biogas production were also examined in this study. The results showed that the biogas yield decreased by the increasing of F/I ratio. Meanwhile, the increase TS content of 22% to 24% also decreased the biogas yield. Physical pretreatment had no a significant effect on biogas yield (p > 0.05). The highest biogas yield of 248.4 L/kg VS was obtained at an F/I ratio of 2, TS content of 22%, and particle size of 2 mm. The kinetics of biogas production from rice straw followed the first-order kinetic model with the highest rate constant (k) of 0.0861 day-1.

  16. Production of sake from rice material exposed to {gamma}-radiation and technical development for its production. Characterization of low-dose exposed rice and small-scale brewing with it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuta, Takashi; Aramaki, Isao; Hashizume, Katsumi [National Research Institute of Brewing, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The effects of {gamma}-ray radiation have been studied on rice materials for sake production. Previous studies showed that the radiation caused to decrease the viscosity as well as the gelatinization heat of those rice and also decrease the chain length of amylose in its endosperm starch. Therefore, it is possible that a new kind sake with excellent quality might be produced by exposing raw material to radiation at an appropriate dose. Here, it was demonstrated that even a low-dose radiation with {gamma}-ray may change various properties of rice including milling characteristics, water absorbing capacity, digestibility, viscosity etc. However, the characteristics as to fermentation were not affected so much and significant changes were observed only in the degree of coloring of the products. The effects of radiation on the constituents of sake were found to be comparatively small. For the production of matured sake, {gamma}-ray radiation was evaluated to be much effective, because the period of maturation was significantly shortened by using irradiated rice material. Thus, a fragrant matured-like sake could be easily produced from {gamma}-ray radiated rice. There remains a trouble in the coloring of the product. (M.N.)

  17. Extracellular protease derived from lactic acid bacteria stimulates the fermentative lactic acid production from the by-products of rice as a biomass refinery function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanori; Techapun, Charin; Kuntiya, Ampin; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Takenaka, Shinji; Maeda, Isamu; Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kozo

    2017-02-01

    A lactic acid producing bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus M-23, newly isolated from a rice washing drainage storage tank was found to produce l-(+)-lactic acid from a non-sterilized mixture of rice washing drainage and rice bran without any additions of nutrients under the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. This strain has the ability to utilize the non-sterilized rice washing drainage and rice bran as a source of carbohydrate, saccharifying enzymes and nutrients for lactic acid production. Observation of extracellular protease activity in SSF culture broth showed that a higher protease activity was present in strain M-23 than in other isolated lactic acid producing bacteria (LABs). To investigate the structural changes of solid particles of rice washing drainage throughout LAB cultivation, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation and Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis were performed. The results of the SEM observation showed that the surface material could be removed from solid particles of rice washing drainage treated by culture broth (supernatant) of strain M-23, thus exposing the crystal structure of the starch particle surface. The results of the FT-IR analysis revealed that the specific transmittance decrease of the CC and CO stretching and OH group of the solid particles of the rice washing drainage were highly correlated with the produced lactic acid concentration and extracellular protease activity, respectively. These results demonstrate the high lactic acid producing ability of strain M-23 from a non-sterilized mixture of rice washing drainage and rice bran under the SSF condition due to the removal of proteinaceous material and exposure of the starch particle surface by extracellular protease.

  18. Analysis of adoption of improved rice production technologies in Jeer local government area of Borno state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha, S.B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed adoption of improved rice production technologies in Jere Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that 98.12% of the respondents were male, 57.5% were within 41-50 years and most (33.12% of the respondents had adult education. The study revealed that majority (56.25% of the respondents was aware of the rice production technologies in the study area. Majority of the respondents tried rice production technologies with respect to high yielding varieties (77.50%, early maturing varieties (69.37%, use of weedicides (93.75%, broadcasting method (55.00%, manual harvesting (75.00% and bagging (63.75%. The study revealed that unavailability of fertilizer was the major (96.25% constraint affecting the adoption of rice production technologies by respondents. The study recommends that extension services should be strengthened with necessary inputs for improved adoption of rice production technologies by respondents.

  19. Pricing of Traffic Light Options and other Hybrid Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers derivatives with payoffs that depend on a stock index and underlying LIBOR rates. A traffic light option pricing formula is derived under lognormality assumptions on the underlying processes. The traffic light option is aimed at the Danish life and pension sector to help comp...... the pricing of a hybrid derivative known as the EUR Sage Note. The approach can be used to price many existing structured products....

  20. Open fermentative production of L-lactic acid using white rice bran by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Cai, Di; He, Meiling; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-12-01

    To reduce raw material cost for lactic acid production, white rice bran as an important byproduct in rice milling, was used in l-lactic acid production by open simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Although one thermotolerant strain was used at a temperature as high as 50°C, the open fermentation was still inefficient due to the indigenous thermophilic bacteria from corn steep liquor powder. A stepwise controlled pH was proposed in open SSF process, and no complicated pretreatment or sterilization was needed before fermentation. In batch fermentation, 117 gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained, and the productivity and yield reached 2.79 gL(-1) h(-1) and 98.75%, respectively. These results showed an efficient way to develop high value-added products from white rice bran. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Enhanced carboxymethylcellulase production by a newly isolated marine bacterium, Cellulophaga lytica LBH-14, using rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wa; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Un; Li, Jianhong; Chung, Chung-Han; Lee, Jin-Woo

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to establish the optimal conditions for production of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) by a newly isolated marine bacterium using response surface methodology (RSM). A microorganism producing CMCase, isolated from seawater, was identified as Cellulophaga lytica based 16S rDNA sequencing and the neighborjoining method. The optimal conditions of rice bran, ammonium chloride, and initial pH of the medium for cell growth were 100.0 g/l, 5.00 g/l, and 7.0, respectively, whereas those for production of CMCase were 79.9 g/l, 8.52 g/l, and 6.1. The optimal concentrations of K2HPO4, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O, and (NH4)2SO4 for cell growth were 6.25, 0.62, 0.28, and 0.42 g/l, respectively, whereas those for production of CMCase were 3.72, 0.54, 0.70, and 0.34 g/l. The optimal temperature for cell growth and the CMCase production by C. lytica LBH-14 were 35 degrees C and 25 degrees C, respectively. The maximal production of CMCase under optimized condition for 3 days was 110.8 U/ml, which was 5.3 times higher than that before optimization. In this study, rice bran and ammonium chloride were developed as carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of CMCase by C. lytica LBH-14. The time for production of CMCase by a newly isolated marine bacterium with submerged fermentations reduced to 3 days, which resulted in enhanced productivity of CMCase and a decrease in its production cost.

  2. Combining ability studies for yield and yield components trait in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Padmavathi, P.V. Satyanarayana , Lal Ahamed M.,Y. Ashoka Rani and V. Srinivasa Rao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifty two hybrids were generated from crossing four CMS lines and thirteen restorer lines in line x tester design. Crosses along with parents were evaluated for yield and yield component traits during rabi, 2011 at RARS, Jagtial, Andhra Pradesh. Predominance of non additive gene action was recorded for all the characters. Among CMS lines APMS 9A andAPMS 10A and in testers viz., MTU II-110-9-1-1-1-1, MTU II -187-6-1-1, MTU II-143-26-2, MTU II-290-42-1 and MTU II-283-7-1-1 were found to be good general combiners for grain yield and yield component traits. The crosses APMS 10A x MTU II-290-42-1, APMS 6A x MTU II -187-6-1-1 and PMS 6A x MTU II-110-9-1-1-1-1 were identified as most promising hybrids for grain yield plant-1. These hybrids can be tested over locations before their commercial cultivation.

  3. Electricity production potential and social benefits from rice husk, a case study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaidullah Mohiuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan has been experiencing energy crisis owing to its sole dependence on fossil fuels. Reduction in local fossil fuel reserves has led to an increase in their prices, thereby increasing the cost of electricity. Since the tariff remains the same, Pakistan is over-burdened with circular debts and observes a daily power shortfall of about 12–14 h. Being an Agra-economic country, many major and minor crops are produced and exported in large quantities. This results in a bulk of the agricultural waste which are not utilized. The waste can be utilized to meet the country’s energy demand while mitigating climate change and its impact. The study examines the electricity production potential and social benefits of rice husk in Pakistan. It is estimated in this study that if 70% of rice husk residues are utilized, there will be annual electricity production of 1,328 GWh and the cost of per unit electricity by rice husk is found at 47.36 cents/kWh as compared to 55.22 cents/kWh of electricity generated by coal. Importantly, the study will increase the awareness of the benefits of utilizing agricultural waste for useful products such as silica, with several social and environmental benefits such as a reduction of 36,042 tCO2e/yr of methane, reducing carbon dioxide emissions, improving the air quality, and providing 4.5 k new jobs. The paper concludes with the policy recommendations based on this study.

  4. Development of flaxseed fortified rice – corn flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ganorkar, P. M.; Jain, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Flaxseed imparted the evidence of health benefits in human being. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to develop flaxseed fortified rice – corn flour blend based extruded product using twin screw extruder. The effect of roasted flaxseed flour (RFF) fortification (15–25 %), moisture content of feed (12–16 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (120–140 °C) and screw speed (300–330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), bulk density (BD) and overall acceptability (OAA) s...

  5. Optimization of extrusion variables for the production of snacks from by-products of rice and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairy Silva Coutinho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to define the process conditions to obtain snacks from the by-products of rice and soybean with physical characteristics suitable for marketing. Therefore, the effects of moisture and extrusion temperature on the expansion and color of the products obtained experimentally obtained were evaluated, and the proximate composition of the by-products and that of the snack with greater desirability were determined. Response surface methodology and rotational central composite design were used, and desirability test based on the regression models adjusted was applied. The most desirable snack, with the highest expansion index (3.39, specific volume (13.5 mL.g-1, and the chromaticity coordinate a* (2.79, was obtained under 12 g.100 g-1 moisture and 85ºC of temperature in the third zone of the extruder. The snack produced under these conditions attained content of protein and lipid content 41 and 64% higher than that of the traditional corn snack. It can be concluded that producing extruded snack made form a mixture of broken grains, rice bran, and soybean okara (81:9:10 is technologically feasible, enabling the development of a new product with good nutritional value that can improve the diet of children, the main consumers of this type of food.

  6. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states.

  7. 安哥拉发展水稻生产的自然条件、现状及潜力分析%Analysis of Natural Condition,Present Situation and Potential of Rice Production Development in Angola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨前进

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to make analysis on natural condition,present situation,and potential of rice production development in Angola.[Method] Conclusion and analysis of rice development in Angola were conducted from natural condition,production status,present problem and development potential.[Result] In Angola,about 30 million hectares agricultural lands enjoy fresh water,temperature,and light resources which are requirement for rice development.Presently,however,some disadvantages have harassed the nation,such as outdated production mode and technology,small cultivated area and low level of per unit yield.In addition,about 98% of consumed rice was imported from other countries.The government has attached high importance to food production,and rice production was a priority of national investment.Per unit rice yield would achieve 7 500 kg/hm2 if Angola introduces hybrid rice species and high-yield cultivation techniques from China.[Conclusion] The research provided technical reference for enterprises or individuals ready to invest in rice development in Angola.%[目的]对安哥拉发展水稻生产的自然条件、现状及潜力进行分析研究。[方法]从安哥拉安哥拉发展水稻生产的自然条件、生产现状、存在问题和发展潜力等方面进行总结与分析。[结果]安哥拉共和国尚有3000万公顷宜农耕待开垦土地,具有发展水稻生产必备的淡水、温度和光照资源;现阶段全国水稻生产的方式和技术落后、栽培面积小、单产水平很低、稻米消费总量的98%左右需要进口;政府对发展粮食生产非常重视,水稻生产属于国家的优先投资领。引用中国的杂交水稻品种和高产栽培技术,能够达到单产7500kg/hm^2的高产水平。[结论]为将对安哥拉投资发展水稻产业的企业或个人提供技术参考。

  8. Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinje; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Among many uses of rice straw, application of its biochar from pyrolysis to the soil is receiving greater interest for increased crop productivity and sequestration of CO2. This study investigated slow pyrolysis of rice straw at 300-700°C to characterize the yields and detailed composition of the biochar, bio-oil and non-condensable gases. Biochar was analyzed for pH, microscopic surface area and pore volume distribution. Although the mass yield for the organic fraction was only about 25% above 500°C, biochar was the primary product of pyrolysis containing 40% of energy and 45% of carbon from the straw. The utilization of by-products (bio-oil and gases) as energy resources was essential, since the sum of energy yield was about 60%. The gases could be burned to produce the heat for an auto-thermal pyrolysis process, but the heat balance was significantly influenced by the moisture content of the raw material.

  9. Organosolv pretreatment of rice straw for efficient acetone, butanol, and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hamid; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zilouei, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) was produced from rice straw using a process containing ethanol organosolv pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum bacterium. Pretreatment of the straw with 75% (v/v) aqueous ethanol containing 1% w/w sulfuric acid at 150 °C for 60 min resulted in the highest total sugar concentration of 31 g/L in the enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the highest ABE concentration and productivity (10.5 g/L and 0.20 g/Lh, respectively) were obtained from the straw pretreated at 180 °C for 30 min. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the straw pretreated at 180 °C for 30 min with 5% solid loading resulted in glucose yield of 46.2%, which was then fermented to 80.3 g butanol, 21.1 g acetone, and 22.5 g ethanol, the highest overall yield of ABE production. Thus, the organosolv pretreatment can be applied for efficient production of the solvents from rice straw. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of rice straw for laccase production by Streptomyces psammoticus in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niladevi, Kizhakkedathu Narayanan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Prema, Parukuttyamma

    2007-10-01

    Laccase production from a novel actinobacterial strain, Streptomyces psammoticus, MTCC 7334 was optimized in solid-state fermentation. The process parameters were initially optimized by the conventional "one factor at a time" approach, and the optimal levels of the factors that had considerable influence on enzyme production were identified by response surface methodology. Rice straw was identified as a suitable substrate for laccase production (17.3 U/g), followed by coffee pulp (15.8 U/g). Other optimized conditions were particle size, 500-1,000 mum (21.2 U/g); initial moisture content, 65% (26.8 U/g); pH of moistening solution, 8.0 (26.9 U/g); incubation temperature, 32 degrees C (27.6 U/g) and inoculum size, 1.5 x 10(7) CFU (33.8 U/g). Yeast extract served as the best nitrogen source (34.8 U/g). No enhancement in enzyme yield was observed with carbon supplementation. The level of yeast extract, inoculum size and copper sulphate were optimized statistically. Statistical optimization performed using a central composite design resulted in threefold increase in laccase activity (55.4 U/g) as compared to the unoptimized medium (17.3 U/g). The upgrading of fermented rice straw for fodder enhancement is also discussed briefly.

  11. Light affects fumonisin production in strains of Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides isolated from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Slavica; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2013-09-16

    Three Fusarium species associated with bakanae disease of rice (Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides) were investigated for their ability to produce fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) under different light conditions, and for pathogenicity. Compared to darkness, the conditions that highly stimulated fumonisin production were yellow and green light in F. verticillioides strains; white and blue light, and light/dark alternation in F. fujikuroi and F. proliferatum strains. In general, all light conditions positively influenced fumonisin production with respect to the dark. Expression of the FUM1 gene, which is necessary for the initiation of fumonisin production, was in accordance with the fumonisin biosynthetic profile. High and low fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi strains showed typical symptoms of bakanae disease, abundant fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides strains exhibited chlorosis and stunting of rice plants, while fumonisin-producing F. proliferatum strains were asymptomatic on rice. We report that F. fujikuroi might be an abundant fumonisin producer with levels comparable to that of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, highlighting the need of deeper mycotoxicological analyses on rice isolates of F. fujikuroi. Our results showed for the first time the influence of light on fumonisin production in isolates of F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides from rice.

  12. A feasibility study of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for multi-production of solid fuel and liquid fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnang, S.; Prawisudha, P.; Pasek, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Energy use has increased steadily over the last century due to population and industry increase. With the growing of GHG, biomass becomes an essential contributor to the world energy need. Indonesia is the third rice producer in the world. Rice straw has been converted to solid fuel by Hydrothermal Treatment (HT) for electricity generation. HT is a boiling solid organic or inorganic substance in water at high pressure and temperature within a holding time. HT converts high moisture content biomass into dried, uniform, pulverized, and higher energy density solid fuels. HT can effectively transport nutrient components in biomass into a liquid product known as fertilizer. This paper deals with an evaluation of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for solid fuel and liquid fertilizer. An investigation of rice straw characteristics were completed for Bandung rice straw with various condition of temperature, biomass-water ratio, and holding time in the purpose to find the changes of calorific value for solid product and (N, P, K, and pH) for liquid product. The results showed that solid product at 225 °C and 90 min consists in a heating value 13.8 MJ/kg equal to lignite B. Liquid product at 225 °C and 90 min had the NPK content similar to that of micronutrients compound liquid fertilizer. The dried solid product should be useful for Coal Fire Power Plant, and the liquid product is suitable for plants. This research proves that hydrothermal process can be applied to rice straw to produce solid fuel and liquid fertilizer with adequate quality.

  13. Do fragmented landholdings have higher production costs? Evidence from rice farmers in Northeastern Jiangxi province, P.R. China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.; Heerink, N.; Kruseman, G.; Qu, F.

    2008-01-01

    Land fragmentation is generally seen as an obstacle to agricultural productivity improvements, but it can also facilitate labor smoothing and risk diversification. In this paper we examine the impact of land fragmentation on the variable production costs of rice farmers in three villages in Jiangxi

  14. Analysis of seed and maternal genetic effects on cooking quality characters in indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIChunhai; ZHUJun

    1994-01-01

    We analysed seed and maternal genetic effects on characters of cooking quality in indica hybrid riceby using the model for quantitative characters of seeds of cereal crops. IncompLete dialiel crosses were made by using six male sterile lines (Zhenshan 97A, Erjiuqing A, Erjiunan 1A, V2OA, Zhe'nan |A and Zhe'nan 3A)as females and three restorer lines (Cezao 2-2, T49 and 26715) as males. Sampled seeds were used to measure the cooking quality characters ncluding amylose content (%), gelatinization temperature (alkali spreading score)and gelconsistency(ram).

  15. Multi-site production planning in hybrid make-to-stock/make-to-order production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Hamed; Rabbani, Masoud; Kokabi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    Today competitive environment has enforced practitioners and researchers to pay great attention to issues enhancing both production and marketing competitiveness. To do so, it has been obligatory for the firms to consider production side activities while customer requirements are on the other side of competition. In this regard, hybrid make-to-stock (MTS)/make-to-order (MTO) production systems have revealed outstanding results. This paper addresses multi-site production planning of a hybrid manufacturing firm for the first time in the hybrid systems' body of literature. In this regard, a network of suppliers, manufacturers and customers is considered for which a mixed-integer mathematical model is proposed. Objective function of the proposed mathematical model seeks to maximize profitability of the manufacturing firm. Because of computational complexity of the developed mathematical model, a genetic algorithm is developed upon which numerical experiments are reported in order to show validity and applicability of the proposed model.

  16. Butanol production from alkali-pretreated rice straw by co-culture of Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyoshi, Keiji; Furukawa, Masataka; Seyama, Tomoko; Kadokura, Toshimori; Nakazato, Atsumi; Nakayama, Shunichi

    2015-06-01

    The co-culture of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum NBRC 103400 and butanol-producing Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum strain N1-4 produced 5.5 g/L of butanol from 40 g/L of delignified rice straw pretreated with 1% (wt/vol) NaOH. The addition of cellulase (100 U/g biomass) in a co-culture system significantly increased butanol production to 6.9 g/L using 40 g/L of delignified rice straw. Compared to the control, this increase in butanol production was attributed to the enhancement of exoglucanase activity on lignocellulose degradation in experimental samples. The results showed that the co-culture system in conjunction with enhanced exoglucanase activity resulted in cost-effective butanol production from delignified rice straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of volunteer rice infestation on yield and grain quality of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Burgos, Nilda R; Singh, Shilpa; Gealy, David R; Gbur, Edward E; Caicedo, Ana L

    2017-03-01

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains may differ in physicochemical traits from cultivated rice, which may reduce the quality of harvested rice grain. To evaluate the effect of volunteer rice on cultivated rice, fields were surveyed in Arkansas in 2012. Cropping history that included hybrid cultivars in the previous two years (2010 and 2011) had higher volunteer rice infestation (20%) compared with fields planted previously with inbred rice (5.5%). The total grain yield of rice was reduced by 0.4% for every 1% increase in volunteer rice density. The grain quality did not change in fields planted with the same cultivar for three years. Volunteer rice density of at least 7.6% negatively impacted the head rice and when infestation reached 17.7%, it also reduced the rice grain yield. The protein and amylose contents of rice were not affected until volunteer rice infestation exceeded 30%. Crop rotation systems that include hybrid rice are expected to have higher volunteer rice infestation than systems without hybrid rice. It is predicted that, at 8% infestation, volunteer rice will start to impact head rice yield and will reduce total yield at 18% infestation. It could alter the chemical quality of rice grain at >30% infestation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Climate change impacts on irrigated rice and wheat production in Gomti River basin of India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysingha, N S; Singh, Man; Islam, Adlul; Sehgal, V K

    2016-01-01

    Potential future impacts of climate change on irrigated rice and wheat production and their evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements in the Gomti River basin were assessed by integrating a widely used hydrological model "Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)" and climate change scenario generated from MIROC (HiRes) global climate model. SWAT model was calibrated and validated using monthly streamflow data of four spatially distributed gauging stations and district wise wheat and rice yields data for the districts located within the basin. Simulation results showed an increase in mean annual rice yield in the range of 5.5-6.7, 16.6-20.2 and 26-33.4 % during 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively. Similarly, mean annual wheat yield is also likely to increase by 13.9-15.4, 23.6-25.6 and 25.2-27.9 % for the same future time periods. Evapotranspiration for both wheat and rice is projected to increase in the range of 3-9.6 and 7.8-16.3 %, respectively. With increase in rainfall during rice growing season, irrigation water allocation for rice is likely to decrease (<5 %) in future periods, but irrigation water allocation for wheat is likely to increase by 17.0-45.3 % in future periods.

  19. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  20. Application of rice rhizosphere microflora for hydrogen production from apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Tetsuya [Institute for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem Services (ISAS), Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan); Nishihara Environment Technology Inc., Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan); Matsumoto, Hisami [Nishihara Environment Technology Inc., Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan); Abe, Jun [AE-Bio, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Morita, Shigenori [Institute for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem Services (ISAS), Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    The combination of substrate materials and bacteria is an important factor affecting conversion technology for biological hydrogen production. We performed anaerobic hydrogen fermentation of apple pomace wastes using rhizosphere bacterial microflora of rice as the parent inoculum. In the vial test, the optimal condition for hydrogen fermentation was initial pH 6.0, 35 C, and 73.4 g pomace per liter of medium (equivalent to 10 g-hexose/L). In the batch experiment (pH 6.0, temperature 35 C) the hydrogen yield reached 2.3 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-hexose. The time course of biogas production and PCR-DGGE analysis suggest that Clostridium spp. decomposed degradable carbohydrates rapidly and a part of the refractory carbohydrate (e.g. pectin) gradually in the apple pomace slurry. In addition to hydrogen, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced in the anaerobic fermentation of apple pomace, which can be a substrate for methane fermentation. The rice rhizosphere can be a promising source of inoculum bacteria for hydrogen fermentation in combination with plant material waste like apple pomace. (author)

  1. Methane production from rice straw with acclimated anaerobic sludge: effect of phosphate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhongfang; Chen, Jiayi; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio

    2010-06-01

    Rice straw particles were directly used as substrate for anaerobic digestion with acclimated sludge under room temperature and different levels of phosphate. Two obvious biogas production peaks were observed for all reactors, with biogas or methane yields of (0.33-0.35)m(3)/kg-VS loaded or (0.27-0.29)m(3) CH(4)/kg-VS loaded and average methane contents of 75.9-78.2%. A separated two-stage first-order kinetic model was developed in this study and showed a good fit to the experimental data when this complicated process was divided into two stages. The average biogas and methane production rate constants were (0.027-0.031)d(-1) and (0.028-0.033)d(-1), respectively, increased by 2-3 times in the second stages than those in the first. The results indicated that an adequate level of phosphate addition (465 mg-P/L) could accelerate the biogasification process: 7-13 days earlier appearance of the two peaks and shorter time needed for complete biogasification of rice straw.

  2. Development of flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganorkar, P M; Jain, R K

    2015-08-01

    Flaxseed imparted the evidence of health benefits in human being. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to develop flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product using twin screw extruder. The effect of roasted flaxseed flour (RFF) fortification (15-25 %), moisture content of feed (12-16 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (120-140 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), bulk density (BD) and overall acceptability (OAA) score of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Increased RFF level decreased the ER and OAA score significantly while increased BS and BD of extrudates (p extruder feed was positively related to ER (p Extruder barrel temperature was found to be negatively related to ER and OAA (p rice flour, 16 % moisture content (wb) of extruder feed, 120 °C extruder barrel temperature and 330 RPM of screw speed gave an optimized product of high desirability with corresponding responses as 3.08 ER, 0.53 kgf BS, 0.106 g.cm(-3) BD and 7.86 OAA.

  3. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da J.J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being

  4. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centeno da Silva, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being recorded. T

  5. 籼型杂交稻光合特性的杂种优势分析%Heterosis Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics in Indica Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 周新跃; 陈杰; 李海林; 邱颖波; 刘建丰

    2014-01-01

    To verify the heterosis of photosynthetic characteristics of flag leaves,thirty hybrid rice combinations and their parents′were tested. The result were as follows,there were significant differences (P<0. 01) for the pho-tosynthetic characteristics in both the hybrid rice combinations and their parents. Among those parameters,photosyn-thetic rate had the biggest coefficient of variation in parents but stomatal conductance had the biggest in hybird rice cornbinations. And the rate of chlorophyll content ( a) and chlorophyll ( b) had the smallest both in parent and hy-bird rice combinations. The average of photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of hybrid rice combinations were bigger than that of the parents. It indicated that it is conducive to breed high photosynthetic rate of hybrid rice combinations. Mid-parent heterosis were found in photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance and tran-spiration rate,over high-parent heterosis were found in photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance,below low-par-ent heterosis was found in intercellular CO2 concentration,positive competitive advantages were found in transpira-tion rate and the rate of chlorophyll content( a) and chlorophyll ( b) . Transpiration rate of hybrid rice combinations were positively correlated with that parameters of male parent and mid-parents ( P<0 . 05 ) .%为探明籼型杂交稻光合特性的杂种优势,以30个杂交稻组合及其亲本为材料,对其功能叶片的光合特性进行了测定和分析,结果表明:亲本间和杂交稻组合的光合性状均存在极显著的差异,其中亲本间变异系数最大的是净光合速率,组合间变异系数最大的是气孔导度,亲本和组合间的变异系数均以叶绿素a/b比值为最小;杂交稻组合净光合速率、气孔导度和蒸腾速率的平均数均大于亲本的平均数,有利于高光合速率杂交稻品种(组合)的选育;净光合速率、气孔导度和蒸腾速率

  6. Application of nanostuctured materials as acid-catalysts in rice straw pyrolysis for bio-oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong T.; Le, Hy G.; Dinh, Thang C.; Hoang, Thang V.; Bui, Linh H. T.; Hoang, Yen; Tran, Hoa K. T.; Vu, Tuan A.

    2008-12-01

    Rice straw, a waste agro-byproduct, which is abundant lignocellulose products from rice production, is a renewable energy sources in Vietnam. Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by thermal and catalytic pyrolysis using a fixed-bed reactor with heating rate 15oC/min, nitrogen as sweeping gas with flow rate 120ml/min. Final temperature of the pyrolysis reaction is a significantly influence on product yield. The gas yield increased and the solid yield decreased as the pyrolysis temperature increasing from 400oC to 600oC. The bio-oil yield reached a maximum of 48.3 % at the pyrolysis temperature of 550oC. Mesoporous Al-SBA-15 was used as acid catalyst in pyrolysis of rice straw. The obtained results showed that, in the presence of catalyst, yield of gas products increased, whereas liquid yield decreased and solid product remained the same as compared to the non-catalytic experiments. The effect of nanostructured catalysts on the product yields and distribution was investigated.

  7. SPE HG-AAS method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in rice--results from method validation studies and a survey on rice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rie R; Qian, Yiting; Sloth, Jens J

    2013