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Sample records for hybrid power reactor

  1. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  2. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  3. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  4. Neutronic analysis of a high power density hybrid reactor using innovative coolants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Senay Yalçin; Mustafa Übeylı; Adem Acir

    2005-08-01

    In this study, neutronic investigation of a deuterium–tritium (DT) driven hybrid reactor using ceramic uranium fuels, namely UC, UO2 or UN under a high neutron wall load (NWL) of 10 MW/m2 at the first wall is conducted over a period of 24 months for fissile fuel breeding for light water reactors (LWRs). New substances, namely, Flinabe or Li20Sn80 are used as coolants in the fuel zone to facilitate heat transfer out of the blanket. Natural lithium is also utilized for comparison to these two innovative coolants. Neutron transport calculations are performed on a simple experimental hybrid blanket with cylindrical geometry with the help of the SCALE 4·3 System by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with the XSDRNPM code in 238 neutron groups and an S8-P3 approximation. The investigated blanket using Flinabe or Li20Sn80 shows better fissile fuel breeding and fuel enrichment characteristics compared to that with natural lithium which shows that these two innovative coolants can be used in hybrid reactors for higher fissile fuel breeding performance. Furthermore, using a high NWL of 10 MW/m2 at the first wall of the investigated blanket can decrease the time for fuel rods to reach the level for charging in LWRs.

  5. Study on the selection of nuclear fuel type for a hybrid power extraction reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Dong Han; Park, Won Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    The development of a subcritical transmutation reactor concept is emerging for reducing the amounts of actinides and long-lived nuclides in the spent fuel from nuclear power plants. This technology may make contribution to reduce the human risks associated with constructing radio-waste disposal facilities. One of the important issues for the design of the reactor is the selection of a suitable nuclear fuel type. Choosing the best nuclear fuel type for the reactor may not be easy since there exist several criteria associated with neutronic aspects, thermal performance, safety problem, cost problem, radiation damage in the reactor, etc. The best option should be chosen based on the maximization of our needs in this situation. This study presents a logical decision model for this issue using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Hierarchy is a representation of a system to study the functional relations of its components and its impact on the entire system. The study shows first how to construct hierarchy representing their relations and then measure the individual element's impact to the entire system for a quantitative decision making. Current four fuel types; metal, oxide, molten salt, and nitride, were selected and analyzed based on several characteristics with respect to overall comparison. Based on the decision model developed, the study concludes that the metal fuel type is the best choice for the transmutation reactor. The proposed approach is intended to help people be rational and logical in making decisions such complex task. 13 refs., 16 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  6. Study on the selection of nuclear fuel type for a hybrid power extration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, D. H.; Park, W. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    In order to solve the problem related to long-lived radioactive nuclides in spent fuel, development of a subcritical transmutation reactor concept is emerging. One of the important issues for the design of the reactor may be the selection of a suitable nuclear fuel type. This study presents a logical decision model for this issue using an analytic hierachy process (AHP). Hierarchy is a representation of a system to study the functional relations of its components and its impact on the entire system. The study shows first how to construct hierachy representing their relations and then measure the individual element's impact to the entire system for a quantitative decision making. Current four fuel types; metal, oxide, molten salt, and nitride, were selected and analyzed based on several characteristics with respect to overall comparison. Based on the decision model, the study concludes that the metal fuel type is the best choice for the transmutation reactor.

  7. Reference mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.

    1977-06-08

    The status of the reference mirror hybrid reactor design being performed by LLL and General Atomic is summarized. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing fissile fuel for consumption in fission power reactors. The design draws on the experience developed at LLL in previous hybrid reactor conceptual designs and on GA expertise in gas-cooling technology and fission reactor mechanical design. As in the past, we have emphasized the use of existing technology where possible and a minimum extrapolation of technology otherwise. We consider our projections for the plasma physics parameters to be conservative, in that they are well-founded on the experiments in 2XIIB and the interpretation of these experiments.

  8. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

  9. Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-05-22

    This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel (/sup 239/Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket.

  10. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  11. Investigating the breeding capabilities of hybrid soliton reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catsaros, N., E-mail: nicos@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 27, Neapoleos Str., 15341 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Gaveau, B., E-mail: bernardgaveau@orange.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jaekel, M.-T., E-mail: jaekel@lpt.ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure (CNRS), 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jejcic, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure (CNRS), 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Maillard, J., E-mail: maillard@idris.fr [Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (CNRS), 3 rue Michel Ange, 75794 Paris Cedex 16 (France); Institut du Développement et des Ressources en Informatique Scientifique (CNRS), Campus Universitaire d’Orsay, rue John Von Neumann, Bat 506, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France); Maurel, G., E-mail: gerard.maurel@sat.aphp.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Savva, P., E-mail: savvapan@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 27, Neapoleos Str., 15341 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Silva, J., E-mail: jorge.silva@upmc.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • ANET code simulates innovative reactor designs including Accelerator Driven Systems. • Preliminary analysis of thermal hybrid soliton reactor examines breeding capabilities. • Subsequent studies will aim at optimizing parameters examined in this analysis. • Breeding capacity could be obtained while preserving efficiency and reactor stability. -- Abstract: Nuclear energy industry asks for an optimized exploitation of available natural resources and a safe operation of reactors. A closed fuel cycle requires the mass of fissile material depleted in a reactor to be equal to or less than the fissile mass produced in the same or in other reactors. In this work, a simple closed cycle scheme is investigated, grounded on the use of a conceptual thermal water-cooled and moderated subcritical hybrid soliton reactor (HSR). The concept is a specific Accelerator Driven System (ADS) operating at lower power than usual pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This type of reactor can be inherently safe, since shutdown is achieved by simply interrupting the accelerator's power supply. In this work a preliminary investigation is attempted concerning the existence of conditions under which the operation of a thermal HSR in breeding regime is possible. For this purpose, a conceptual encapsulated core has been defined by choosing the magnitude of a set of parameters which are important from the neutronic point of view, such as core geometry and fuel composition. Indications of breeding operation regime for thermal HSR systems are sought by performing preliminary simulations of this core. For this purpose, the Monte Carlo code ANET, which is being developed based on the high energy physics code GEANT is utilized, as being capable of simulating particles’ transport and interactions produced, including also simulation of low energy neutrons transport. A simple analytical model is also developed and presented in order to investigate the conditions under which

  12. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  13. Hybrid power semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-10-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  14. Preconceptual design and assessment of a Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Leonard, B.R. Jr.; Aase, D.T.

    1980-09-01

    The preconceptual design of a commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (THR) power plant has been performed. The tokamak fusion driver for this hybrid is operated in the ignition mode. The D-T fusion plasma, which produces 1140 MW of power, has a major radius of 5.4 m and a minor radius of 1.0 m with an elongation of 2.0. Double null poloidal divertors are assumed for impurity control. The confining toroidal field is maintained by D-shaped Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting magnets with a maximum field of 12T at the coil. Three blankets with four associated fuel cycle alternatives have been combined with the ignited tokamak fusion driver. The engineering, material, and balance of plant design requirements for the THR are briefly described. Estimates of the capital, operating and maintenance, and fuel cycle costs have been made for the various driver/blanket combinations and an assessment of the market penetrability of hybrid systems is presented. An analysis has been made of the nonproliferation aspects of the hybrid and its associated fuel cycles relative to fission reactors. The current and required level of technology for both the fusion and fission components of the hybrid system has been reviewed. Licensing hybrid systems is also considered.

  15. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes; Reactores biologico hibrido innovadores utilizando membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  16. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piera, Mireia [UNED, ETSII-Dp Ingenieria Energetica, c/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M. [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid. (author)

  17. Simulations of fusion chamber dynamics and first wall response in a Z-pinch driven fusion–fission hybrid power reactor (Z-FFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, J.M., E-mail: qjm06@sina.com [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Wang, Z., E-mail: wangz_es@caep.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Chu, Y.Y., E-mail: chuyanyun@caep.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Li, Z.H., E-mail: lee_march@sina.com [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Z-FFR utilizes DT neutrons to drive a sub-critical fission blanket to produce energy. • A metal shell and Ar gas are employed in the fusion chamber for shock mitigation. • Massive materials can effectively mitigate the thermal heats on the chamber wall. • The W-coated Zr-alloy first wall exhibits good viability as a long-lived component. - Abstract: In a Z-pinch driven fusion–fission hybrid power reactor (Z-FFR), the fusion target will produce enormous energy of ∼1.5 GJ per pulse at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Almost 20% of the fusion energy yield, approximately 300 MJ, is released in forms of pulsed X-rays. To prevent the first wall from fatal damages by the intense X-rays, a thin spherical metal shell and rare Ar buffer gas are introduced to mitigate the transient X-ray bursts. Radiation hydrodynamics in the fusion chamber were investigated by MULTI-1D simulations, and the corresponding thermal and mechanical loads on the first wall were also obtained. The simulations indicated that by optimizing the design parameters of the metal shell and Ar buffer gas, peak power flux of the thermal heats on the first wall could be mitigated to less than 10{sup 4} W/cm{sup 2} within a time scale of several milliseconds, while peak overpressures of the mechanical loads varying from 0.6 to 0.7 MPa. In addition, the thermomechanical response in a W–coated Zr-alloy first wall was performed by FWDR1D calculations using the derived thermal and mechanical loads as inputs. The temperature and stress fields were analyzed, and the corresponding elastic strains were conducted for primary lifetime estimations by using the Coffin–Manson relationships of both W and Zr-alloy. It was shown that the maximum temperature rises and stresses in the first wall were less than 50 K and 130 MPa respectively, and lifetime of the first wall would be in excess of 10{sup 9} cycles. The chamber exhibits good viability as a long-lived component to sustain the Z-FFR conceptual

  18. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  19. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  20. Power Control Method for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baang, Dane; Suh, Yongsuk; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Considering safety-oriented design concept and other control environment, we developed a simple controller that provides limiting function of power change- rate as well as fine tracking performance. The design result has been well-proven via simulation and actual application to a TRIGA-II type research reactor. The proposed controller is designed to track the PDM(Power Demand) from operator input as long as maintaining the power change rate lower than a certain value for stable reactor operation. A power control method for a TRIGA-II type research reactor has been designed, simulated, and applied to actual reactor. The control performance during commissioning test shows that the proposed controller provides fine control performance for various changes in reference values (PDM), even though there is large measurement noise from neutron detectors. The overshoot at low power level is acceptable in a sense of reactor operation.

  1. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  2. Thyristor Controlled Reactor for Power Factor Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mahapatra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Power factor improvement is the essence of any power sector for reliable operation. This paper provides Thyristor Controlled Reactor regulated by programmed microcontroller which aids in improving power factor and retaining it close to unity under various loading conditions. The implementation is done on 8051 microcontrollerwhich isprogrammed using Keil software. To determine time lag between current and voltage PSpice softwareis used and to display power factor according tothe variation in loadProteus software is used. Whenever a capacitive load is connected to the transmission linea shunt reactor is connected which injects lagging reactive VARs to the power system. As a result the power factor is improved. The results given in this paper provides suitable microcontroller based reactive power compensation and power factor improvement technique using a Thyristor Controlled Reactor module.

  3. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  4. Reactor mixing angle from hybrid neutrino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal

    2014-01-01

    In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small deviations, as demanded by data. If neutrino masses originate from at least two different mechanisms, referred to as "hybrid neutrino masses", the experimentally observed structure naturally emerges provided one mechanism accounts for the dominant tribimaximal structure while the other is responsible for the deviations. We demonstrate the feasibility of this picture in a fairly model-independent way by using lepton-number-violating effective operators, whose structure we assume becomes dictated by an underlying $A_4$ flavor symmetry. We show that if a second mechanism is at work, the requirement of generating a reactor angle within its experimental range always fixes the solar and atmospheric angles in agreement with data, in contrast to the case where the deviations are induced by next-to-leading ...

  5. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaznov, Georgii M.; Zhabotinskii, Evgenii E.; Serbin, Victor I.; Zrodnikov, Anatolii V.; Pupko, Victor Ia.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Usov, V. A.; Nikolaev, Iu. V.

    Compact thermionic nuclear reactor systems with satisfactory mass performance are competitive with space nuclear power systems based on the organic Rankine and closed Brayton cycles. The mass characteristics of the thermionic space nuclear power system are better than that of the solar power system for power levels beyond about 10 kWe. Longlife thermionic fuel element requirements, including their optimal dimensions, and common requirements for the in-core thermionic reactor design are formulated. Thermal and fast in-core thermionic reactors are considered and the ranges of their sensible use are discussed. Some design features of the fast in-core thermionic reactors cores (power range to 1 MWe) including a choice of coolants are discussed. Mass and dimensional performance for thermionic nuclear power reactor system are assessed. It is concluded that thermionic space nuclear power systems are promising power supplies for spacecrafts and that a single basic type of thermionic fuel element may be used for power requirements ranging to several hundred kWe.

  6. Introduction to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Tyror, J G; Grant, P J

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to the Neutron Kinetics of Nuclear Power Reactors introduces the reader to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors. Topics covered include the neutron physics of reactor kinetics, feedback effects, water-moderated reactors, fast reactors, and methods of plant control. The reactor transients following faults are also discussed, along with the use of computers in the study of power reactor kinetics. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the reactor physics characteristics of a nuclear power reactor and their influence on system design and

  7. Compact reactor/ORC power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, K.L.; Kirchner, W.L.; Willcutt, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite moderated reactor by heat pipes operating at 500/sup 0/C. Outside the reactor vessel and connected to the heat pipes are vaporizers in which the toluene ORC working fluid is heated to 370/sup 0/C. In the turbine-alternator-pump (TAP) combined-rotating unit, the thermal energy of the toluene is converted to 25 kWe of electric power. Lumped parameter systems analyses combined with a finite element thermal analysis have aided in the power source design. The analyses have provided assurance of reliable multiyear normal operation as well as full power operation with upset conditions, such as failed heat pipes and inoperative ORC vaporizers. Because of inherent high reliability, long life, and insensitivity to upset conditions, this power source is especially suited for use in remote, inaccessible locations where fuel delivery and maintenance costs are high. 10 refs.

  8. Estimates of power requirements for a manned Mars rover powered by a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Cataldo, Robert; Bloomfield, Harvey

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses the power requirement for a Manned Mars Rover vehicle. Auxiliary power needs are fulfilled using a hybrid solar photovoltaic/regenerative fuel cell system, while the primary power needs are met using an SP-100 type reactor. The primary electric power needs, which include 30-kWe net user power, depend on the reactor thermal power and the efficiency of the power conversion system. Results show that an SP-100 type reactor coupled to a Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) yields the lowest total vehicle mass and lowest specific mass for the power system. The second lowest mass was for a SP-100 reactor coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) using He/Xe as the working fluid. The specific mass of the nuclear reactor power systrem, including a man-rated radiation shield, ranged from 150-kg/kWe to 190-kg/kWe and the total mass of the Rover vehicle varied depend upon the cruising speed.

  9. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  10. Power Flattening and Rejuvenation of PWR Spent Fuel Blanket for Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor%功率展平的压水堆乏燃料发电包层中子学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马续波; 陈义学; 王继亮; 王悦; 韩静茹; 陆道纲

    2011-01-01

    The hybrid fusion-fission reactor has advantages of breeding of the nuclear fuel and transmutation of the long-life nuclear waste and having inherent safety. Meanwhile, the engineering and technological demand of hybrid reactor is significantly reduced comparing with that of pure fusion reactor. A generating electricity blanket concept using the PWR spent fuel directly was proposed, which was based on ITER parameter level achieved. Different volume fractions of the fuel in blanket enabled to realize a power flattening in the fissile zone. The results show that the peak-to-average power factor becomes less than no power flattening, and the output power of the fuel zone raises more than 21. 7%. At the end of the operation, the maximum fuel enrichment is 5. 23%. The blanket is feasible from the neutronics viewpoint.%聚变裂变混合堆在增殖核燃料、嬗变长寿命核废料及固有安全性等方面具有较大优势,同时,它比纯聚变堆在工程及技术方面要求低,因此较聚变堆更易实现.本工作基于目前国际聚变实验堆(ITER)所能达到的技术水平,提出一种直接利用乏燃料进行发电的聚变裂变混合堆包层概念,利用在不同位置放置不同乏燃料体积分数的方法对燃料增殖区实现了功率展平.计算结果表明:功率展平后的包层功率不均匀系数更小,且包层中燃料区的能量输出要比不展平情况下的能量输出高约21.7%.燃料富集度到运行末期最大可达5.23%.从中子学角度初步论证了该包层的可行性.

  11. Heat pipe reactors for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D. R.; Ranken, W. A.; Salmi, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of heat pipe reactors design concepts has been developed to provide heat to a variety of electrical conversion systems. Three power plants are described that span the power range 1-500 kWe and operate in the temperature range 1200-1700 K. The reactors are fast, compact, heat-pipe cooled, high-temperature nuclear reactors fueled with fully enriched refractory fuels, UC-ZrC or UO2. Each fuel element is cooled by an axially located molybdenum heat pipe containing either sodium or lithium vapor. Virtues of the reactor designs are the avoidance of single-point failure mechanisms, the relatively high operating temperature, and the expected long lifetimes of the fuel element components.

  12. The Swedish Zero Power Reactor R0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landergaard, Olof; Cavallin, Kaj; Jonsson, Georg

    1961-05-15

    The reactor R0 is a critical facility built for heavy water and natural uranium or fuel of low enrichment,, The first criticality was achieved September 25, 1959. During a first period of more than two years the R0 will be operated as a bare reactor in order to simplify interpretation of results. The reactor tank is 3. 2 m high and 2. 25 m in diameter. The fuel suspension system is quite flexible in order to facilitate fuel exchange and lattice variations. The temperature of the water can be varied between about 10 and 90 C by means of a heater and a cooler placed in the external circulating system. The instrumentation of the reactor has to meet the safety requirements not only during operation but also during rearrangements of the core in the shut-down state. Therefore, the shut-down state is always defined by a certain low 'safe' moderator level in the reactor tank. A number of safety rods are normally kept above the moderator ready for action. For manual or automatic control of the reactor power a specially designed piston pump is needed, by which the moderator level is varied. The pump speed is controlled from the reactor power error by means of a Ward-Leonard system. Moderator level measurement is made by means of a water gauge with an accuracy of {+-} 0. 1 mm.

  13. Hybrid power plants; Thermische Hybridkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschy, I. [ALSTOM Power Support, Mannheim (Germany). Bereiche Forschung und Entwicklung/Ingenieurdienstleistungen; Franke, U. [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany). Thermodynamik

    2002-07-01

    New German laws concerning the use of biomass and other renewable energy sources have improved the conditions for power generation with renewable energies. A promising alternative to common small-scale (combined-heat-and-) power plants could be found in so-called hybrid power plants which use renewable energies and fossil fuels in combination. A thermodynamic process analysis shows how to determine the renewable energies' portion of a hybrid power plant's total output. [German] Mit den veraenderten gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen erhoeht sich die Motivation, regenerative Energiequellen zur Stromerzeugung zu nutzen. Neben dem exklusiven Einsatz in kleineren (Heiz-) Kraftwerken bietet sich die gemeinsame Nutzung mit fossilen Energietraegern in sogenannten Hybridkraftwerken an. Hier stellt sich die Frage, wie der Anteil der regenerativen Energien an der Gesamt-Stromproduktion des Hybridkraftwerkes zu ermitteln ist. Eine thermodynamische Prozessanalyse kann darueber Aufschluss geben.

  14. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    A hybrid magnetic approach, merging two different magnetic core properites such as ferrite and iron powder cores, is an effective solution for power converter applications. It can offer similar magnetic properties to that of magnetic powder cores but showing less copper loss than powder cores...

  15. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    . In order to prevent ferrite core saturation, placing an effective air gap within the ferrite core is a key method to obtain optimum hybrid magnetic performance. Furthermore, a relatively large inductance at low loading current is an excellent way to minimze power loss in order to achieve high efficiency...

  16. Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzberg, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    The conceptual design is for a liquid metal (LM) cooled nuclear reactor that would provide heat to a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion subsystem to provide electricity for electric propulsion thrusters and spacecraft power. The baseline power level is 100 kWe to the user. For long term power generation, UN pin fuel with Nb1Zr alloy cladding was selected. As part of the SP-100 Program this fuel demonstrated lifetime with greater than six atom percent burnup, at temperatures in the range of 1400-1500 K. The CBC subsystem was selected because of the performance and lifetime database from commercial and aircraft applications and from prior NASA and DOE space programs. The high efficiency of the CBC also allows the reactor to operate at relatively low power levels over its 15-year life, minimizing the long-term power density and temperature of the fuel. The scope of this paper is limited to only the nuclear components that provide heated helium-xenon gas to the CBC subsystem. The principal challenge for the LM reactor concept was to design the reactor core, shield and primary heat transport subsystems to meet mission requirements in a low mass configuration. The LM concept design approach was to assemble components from prior programs and, with minimum change, determine if the system met the objective of the study. All of the components are based on technologies having substantial data bases. Nuclear, thermalhydraulic, stress, and shielding analyses were performed using available computer codes. Neutronics issues included maintaining adequate operating and shutdown reactivities, even under accident conditions. Thermalhydraulic and stress analyses calculated fuel and material temperatures, coolant flows and temperatures, and thermal stresses in the fuel pins, components and structures. Using conservative design assumptions and practices, consistent with the detailed design work performed during the SP-100 Program, the mass of the reactor, shield, primary heat

  17. Conceptual design of Z-pinch driven fusion-fission hybrid power reactor%Z箍缩驱动聚变-裂变混合堆总体概念研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正宏; 周林; 黄洪文; 王真; 陈晓军; 祁建敏; 郭海兵; 马纪敏; 肖成建; 褚衍运

    2014-01-01

    Z箍缩驱动聚变-裂变混合能源堆(Z-FFR)在核安全、经济、持久和环境友好等方面具有优良的品质,有望成为有效应对未来能源危机和环境、气候问题的新能源。从 Z箍缩驱动聚变方案与聚变靶设计、重复频率驱动器、次临界包层及产氚包层设计、燃料循环等关键问题方面,对Z-FFR工程概念总体研究情况进行了介绍。%The Z-pinch driven fusion-fission hybrid power reactor(Z-FFR)has remarkable advantages in nuclear security,e-conomy,permanence and environment-friendliness,it can promisingly be millennial energy source dealing effectively with future energy crisis and climate problem.This article introduces the status quo of the conceptual research on Z-FFR from aspects of fu-sion-target physics,low-repetitive Z-pinch driver development,sub-critical fission reactor design and fuel cycle analysis.

  18. Assessment of the thorium fuel cycle in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Homan, F.J.; Allen, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate the role of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors. Three thermal reactor systems were considered: Light Water Reactors (LWRs); High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs); and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) of the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU) type; most of the effort was on these systems. A summary comparing thorium and uranium fuel cycles in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) was also compiled.

  19. Transients in reactors for power systems compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Haziah

    This thesis describes new models and investigations into switching transient phenomena related to the shunt reactors and the Mechanically Switched Capacitor with Damping Network (MSCDN) operations used for reactive power control in the transmission system. Shunt reactors and MSCDN are similar in that they have reactors. A shunt reactor is connected parallel to the compensated lines to absorb the leading current, whereas the MSCDN is a version of a capacitor bank designed as a C-type filter for use in the harmonic-rich environment. In this work, models have been developed and transient overvoltages due to shunt reactor deenergisation were estimated analytically using MathCad, a mathematical program. Computer simulations used the ATP/EMTP program to reproduce both single-phase and three-phase shunt reactor switching at 275 kV operational substations. The effect of the reactor switching on the circuit breaker grading capacitor was also examined by considering various switching conditions.. The main original achievement of this thesis is the clarification of failure mechanisms occurring in the air-core filter reactor due to MSCDN switching operations. The simulation of the MSCDN energisation was conducted using the ATP/EMTP program in the presence of surge arresters. The outcome of this simulation shows that extremely fast transients were established across the air-core filter reactor. This identified transient event has led to the development of a detailed air-core reactor model, which accounts for the inter-turn RLC parameters as well as the stray capacitances-to-ground. These parameters are incorporated into the transient simulation circuit, from which the current and voltage distribution across the winding were derived using electric field and equivalent circuit modelling. Analysis of the results has revealed that there are substantial dielectric stresses imposed on the winding insulation that can be attributed to a combination of three factors. (i) First, the

  20. Dynamical Safety Analysis of the SABR Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Tyler; Stacey, Weston; Ghiaassian, Seyed

    2009-11-01

    A hybrid fusion-fission reactor for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is being developed at Georgia Tech. The Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) is a 3000 MWth sodium-cooled, metal TRU-Zr fueled fast reactor driven by a tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER physics and technology. We are investigating the accident dynamics of SABR's coupled fission, fusion and heat removal systems to explore the safety characteristics of a hybrid reactor. Possible accident scenarios such as loss of coolant mass flow (LOFA), of power (LOPA) and of heat sink (LOHSA), as well as inadvertent reactivity insertions and fusion source excursion are being analyzed using the RELAP5-3D code, the ATHENA version of which includes liquid metal coolants.

  1. 78 FR 73898 - Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... COMMISSION Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... available for public comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-1021, Revision 10, ``Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors.'' DATES: Submit comments by February 7, 2014. Comments received after...

  2. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 Dye in Two Hybrid Plasma Discharge Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongjun; LEI Lecheng; ZHANG Xingwang; DING Jiandong

    2014-01-01

    To get an optimized pulsed electrical plasma discharge reactor and to increase the energy utilization efficiency in the removal of pollutants,two hybrid plasma discharge reactors were designed and optimized.The reactors were compared via the discharge characteristics,energy transfer efficiency,the yields of the active species and the energy utilization in dye wastewater degradation.The results showed that under the same AC input power,the characteristics of the discharge waveform of the point-to-plate reactor were better.Under the same AC input power,the two reactors both had almost the same peak voltage of 22 kV.The peak current of the point-to-plate reactor was 146 A,while that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor was only 48.8 A.The peak powers of the point-to-plate reactor and the wire-to-cylinder reactor were 1.38 MW and 1.01 MW,respectively.The energy per pulse of the point-to-plate reactor was 0.2221 J,which was about 29.4% higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (0.1716 J).To remove 50% Acid Orange 7 (AO7),the energy utilizations of the point-to-plate reactor and the wireto-cylinder reactor were 1.02×10-9 mol/L and 0.61×10-9 mol/L,respectively.In the point-to-plate reactor,the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in pure water was 3.6 mmol/L after 40 min of discharge,which was higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (2.5 mmol/L).The concentration of liquid phase ozone in the point-to-plate reactor (5.7×10-2 mmol/L) was about 26.7% higher than that in the wire-to-cylinder reactor (4.5× 10-2 mmol/L).The analysis results of the variance showed that the type of reactor and reaction time had significant impacts on the yields of the hydrogen peroxide and ozone.The main degradation intermediates of AO7 identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS) were acetic acid,maleic anhydride,pbenzoquinone,phenol,benzoic acid,phthalic anhydride,coumarin and 2-naphthol.Proposed degradation pathways were elucidated in light of the analyzed

  3. Wastewater Treatment in a Hybrid Biological Reactor (HBR) :Nitrification Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; LI-BO WU

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the nitrifying characteristics of both suspended- and attached- biomass in a hybrid bioreactor. Methods The hybrid biological reactor was developed by introducing porous ceramic particles into the reactor to provide the surface for biomass attachment. Microorganisms immobilized on the ceramics were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analyses were performed in accordance with standard methods. Results The suspended- and attached-biomass had approximately the same nitrification activity. The nitrifying kinetic was independent of the initial biomass concentration, and the attached-biomass had a stronger ability to resist the nitrification inhibitor. Conclusion The attached biomass is superior to suspended-biomass for nitrifying wastewater, especially that containing toxic organic compounds. The hybrid biological reactor consisting of suspended- and attached-biomass is advantageous in such cases.

  4. Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Frye, J. G.; Riley, Brian J.; Rappe, Kenneth G.

    2011-04-06

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed an assessment of a Hybrid Plasma/Filter system as an alternative to conventional methods for collective protection. The key premise of the hybrid system is to couple a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor with reactive adsorption to provide a broader envelope of protection than can be provided through a single-solution approach. The first step uses highly reactive species (e.g. oxygen radicals, hydroxyl radicals, etc.) created in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor to destroy the majority (~75% - 90%) of an incoming threat. Following the NTP reactor an O3 reactor/filter uses the O3 created in the NTP reactor to further destroy the remaining organic materials. This report summarizes the laboratory development of the Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter to protect against a ‘worst-case’ simulant, methyl bromide (CH3Br), and presents a preliminary engineering assessment of the technology to Joint Expeditionary Collective Protection performance specifications for chemical vapor air purification technologies.

  5. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  6. Power reactor noise studies and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzhanov, V

    2002-03-01

    The present thesis deals with the neutron noise arising in power reactor systems. Generally, it can be divided into two major parts: first, neutron noise diagnostics, or more specifically, novel methods and algorithms to monitor nuclear industrial reactors; and second, contributions to neutron noise theory as applied to power reactor systems. Neutron noise diagnostics is presented by two topics. The first one is a theoretical study on the possibility to use a newly proposed current-flux (C/F) detector in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) for the localisation of anomalies. The second topic concerns various methods to detect guide tube impacting in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The significance of these problems comes from the operational experience. The thesis describes a novel method to localise vibrating control rods in a PWR by using only one C/F detector. Another novel method, based on wavelet analysis, is put forward to detect impacting guide tubes in a BWR. Neutron noise theory is developed for both Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and traditional reactors. By design the accelerator-driven systems would operate in a subcritical mode with a strong external source. This calls for a revision of many concepts and methods that have been developed for traditional reactors and also it poses a number of new problems. As for the latter, the thesis investigates the space-dependent neutron noise caused by a fluctuating source. It is shown that the frequency-dependent spatial behaviour exhibits some new properties that are different from those known in traditional critical systems. On the other hand, various reactor physics approximations (point kinetic, adiabatic etc.) have not been defined yet for the subcritical systems. In this respect the thesis presents a systematic formulation of the above mentioned approximations as well as investigations of their properties. Another important problem in neutron noise theory is the treatment of moving boundaries. In this case one

  7. U.S. Nuclear Power Reactor Plant Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — Demographic data on U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors, including: plant name/unit number, docket number, location, licensee, reactor/containment type, nuclear...

  8. Multisphere measurements in power reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherpelz, R.I.; Tanner, J.E.; Soldat, K.L.; Endres, G.W.R.; Brackenbush, L.W. (Battelle-Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    For more than 12 years, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has performed neutron measurements in commercial nuclear power plants to determine the response of the plant's personnel dosimeters and survey meters. The multisphere spectrometer system has been used in many of these studies because it covers a wide range of neutron energies and is widely used in the nuclear industry. The system used by PNL employs a 1.27- x 1.27-cm LiI crystal in seven moderated configurations with moderating sphere sizes ranging up to 30.5 cm in diameter. The collected count rates are unfolded using the computer code SPUNIT and a modification of the Sanna response functions. Multisphere measurements have been performed in eight different light water reactors (LWRs), including both boiling water reactor (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Unfolded energy distributions are typically low with average energies often <100 keV. Spectra in BWRs frequently show higher average energies than those in PWRs. The most useful application of multisphere measurements in LWR containments is for measuring energy distributions for comparisons to other multisphere measurements.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF MIEX® RESIN FOR WATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCYIN A HYBRID MEMBRANE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Rajca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies related to the effectiveness of removal of natural organic matter (NOM from water using hybrid membrane reactor in which ion exchange and ultrafiltration processes were performed. MIEX® resin by Orica Watercare and immersed ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride capillary module ZeeWeed 1 (ZW 1 by GE Power&Water operated at negative pressure were used. The application of multifunctional reactor had a positive effect on the removal of contaminants and enabled the production of high quality water. Additionally, in refer to single stage ultrafiltration it minimalized the occurrence of membrane fouling.

  10. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  12. Neutron measurements at nuclear power reactors [55

    CERN Document Server

    Scherpelz, R I

    2002-01-01

    Staff from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute), have performed neutron measurements at a number of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Neutron radiation fields at light water reactor (LWR) power plants are typically characterized by low-energy distributions due to the presence of large amounts of scattering material such as water and concrete. These low-energy distributions make it difficult to accurately monitor personnel exposures, since most survey meters and dosimeters are calibrated to higher-energy fields such as those produced by bare or D sub 2 O-moderated sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf sources. Commercial plants typically use thermoluminescent dosimeters in an albedo configuration for personnel dosimetry and survey meters based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator for dose rate assessment, so their methods of routine monitoring are highly dependent on the energy of the neutron fields. Battelle has participate...

  13. Scoping and sensitivity analyses for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sink, D.A.; Gibson, G.

    1979-03-01

    The results of an extensive set of parametric studies are presented which provide analytical data of the effects of various tokamak parameters on the performance and cost of the DTHR (Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor). The studies were centered on a point design which is described in detail. Variations in the device size, neutron wall loading, and plasma aspect ratio are presented, and the effects on direct hardware costs, fissile fuel production (breeding), fusion power production, electrical power consumption, and thermal power production are shown graphically. The studies considered both ignition and beam-driven operations of DTHR and yielded results based on two empirical scaling laws presently used in reactor studies. Sensitivity studies were also made for variations in the following key parameters: the plasma elongation, the minor radius, the TF coil peak field, the neutral beam injection power, and the Z/sub eff/ of the plasma.

  14. Wastewater treatment in a hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tizghadam, Mostafa [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Dagot, Christophe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)], E-mail: dagot@ensil.unilim.fr; Baudu, Michel [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2008-06-15

    A novel hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor (HASBR), which contained both suspended and attached-growth biomass perfect mixing cells in series, was developed by installing standing and hanging baffles and introducing plastic brushes into a conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactor. It was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effects on the operational performance of developing the suspended and attached-growth biomass and reactor configuration were investigated. The change of the flow regime from complete-mix to plug-flow, and the addition of plastic brushes as a support for biofilm, resulted in considerable improvements in the COD, nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater and sludge settling properties. In steady state, approximately 98 {+-} 2% of the total COD and 98 {+-} 2% of the ammonia of the influent were removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 593 {+-} 11 mg COD/L and 43 {+-} 5 mg N/L, respectively, at a HRT of 10 h. These results were 93 {+-} 3 and 6 {+-} 3% for the CAS reactor, respectively. Approximately 90 {+-} 7% of the total COD was removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 654 {+-} 16 mg COD/L at a 3 h HRT, and in the organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.36 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1}. The result for the CAS reactor was 60 {+-} 3%. Existing CAS plants can be upgraded by changing the reactor configuration and introducing biofilm support media into the aeration tank.

  15. Hybrid fusion–fission reactor with a thorium blanket: Its potential in the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmelev, A. N., E-mail: shmelan@mail.ru; Kulikov, G. G., E-mail: ggkulikov@mephi.ru; Kurnaev, V. A., E-mail: kurnaev@yandex.ru; Salahutdinov, G. H., E-mail: saip07@mail.ru; Kulikov, E. G., E-mail: egkulikov@mephi.ru; Apse, V. A., E-mail: apseva@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Discussions are currently going on as to whether it is suitable to employ thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle. This work demonstrates that the {sup 231}Pa–{sup 232}U–{sup 233}U–Th composition to be produced in the thorium blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor (HTR) as a fuel for light-water reactors opens up the possibility of achieving high, up to 30% of heavy metals (HM), or even ultrahigh fuel burnup. This is because the above fuel composition is able to stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties in the process of high fuel burnup. In addition, it allows the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) to be better protected against unauthorized proliferation of fissile materials owing to an unprecedentedly large fraction of {sup 232}U (several percent!) in the uranium bred from the Th blanket, which will substantially hamper the use of fissile materials in a closed NFC for purposes other than power production.

  16. Hybrid fusion-fission reactor with a thorium blanket: Its potential in the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Salahutdinov, G. H.; Kulikov, E. G.; Apse, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Discussions are currently going on as to whether it is suitable to employ thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle. This work demonstrates that the 231Pa-232U-233U-Th composition to be produced in the thorium blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor (HTR) as a fuel for light-water reactors opens up the possibility of achieving high, up to 30% of heavy metals (HM), or even ultrahigh fuel burnup. This is because the above fuel composition is able to stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties in the process of high fuel burnup. In addition, it allows the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) to be better protected against unauthorized proliferation of fissile materials owing to an unprecedentedly large fraction of 232U (several percent!) in the uranium bred from the Th blanket, which will substantially hamper the use of fissile materials in a closed NFC for purposes other than power production.

  17. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  18. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In contrast, generation III reactors, which are ...

  19. Hybrid Adsorption-Membrane Biological Reactors for Improved Performance and Reliability of Perchlorate Removal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    carbon supply for the autotrophic perchlorate reducing bacteria. The membrane used in the reactor is a hollow-fiber microfiltration membrane made from...1 HYBRID ADSORPTION- MEMBRANE BIOLOGICAL REACTORS FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY OF PERCHLORATE REMOVAL PROCESSES L.C. Schideman...Center Champaign, IL 61826, USA ABSTRACT This study introduces the novel HAMBgR process (Hybrid Adsorption Membrane Biological Reactor) and

  20. Tokamak power reactor ignition and time dependent fractional power operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, E.L.; Mau, T.K.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-06-01

    A flexible time-dependent and zero-dimensional plasma burn code with radial profiles was developed and employed to study the fractional power operation and the thermal burn control options for an INTOR-sized tokamak reactor. The code includes alpha thermalization and a time-dependent transport loss which can be represented by any one of several currently popular scaling laws for energy confinement time. Ignition parameters were found to vary widely in density-temperature (n-T) space for the range of scaling laws examined. Critical ignition issues were found to include the extent of confinement time degradation by alpha heating, the ratio of ion to electron transport power loss, and effect of auxiliary heating on confinement. Feedback control of the auxiliary power and ion fuel sources are shown to provide thermal stability near the ignition curve.

  1. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid arrays applicable to current drive in fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, G.; Helou, W.; Goniche, M.; Hillaret, J.; Ragona, R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents concepts for Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Current Drive arrays applicable to fusion reactors and based on periodically loaded line power division. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactor applications, these schemes can offer, in principle, a number of practical advantages, compared with currently adopted ones, such as in-blanket operation at significantly reduced power density, lay out suitable for water cooling, single ended or balanced power feed, simple and load independent impedance matching In addition, a remote and accurate real time measurement of the complex impedance of all array elements as well as detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of a single arc occurring anywhere in the structure is possible.

  2. Hybrid estimation technique for predicting butene concentration in polyethylene reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ali, Jarinah; Hussain, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    A component of artificial intelligence (AI), which is fuzzy logic, is combined with the so-called conventional sliding mode observer (SMO) to establish a hybrid type estimator to predict the butene concentration in the polyethylene production reactor. Butene or co-monomer concentration is another significant parameter in the polymerization process since it will affect the molecular weight distribution of the polymer produced. The hybrid estimator offers straightforward formulation of SMO and its combination with the fuzzy logic rules. The error resulted from the SMO estimation will be manipulated using the fuzzy rules to enhance the performance, thus improved on the convergence rate. This hybrid estimation is able to estimate the butene concentration satisfactorily despite the present of noise in the process.

  3. The hybrid reactor project based on the straight field line mirror concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Moiseenko, V. E.; Hagnestâl, A.; Källne, J.; Anglart, H.

    2012-06-01

    The straight field line mirror (SFLM) concept is aiming towards a steady-state compact fusion neutron source. Besides the possibility for steady state operation for a year or more, the geometry is chosen to avoid high loads on materials and plasma facing components. A comparatively small fusion hybrid device with "semi-poor" plasma confinement (with a low fusion Q factor) may be developed for industrial transmutation and energy production from spent nuclear fuel. This opportunity arises from a large fission to fusion energy multiplication ratio, Qr = Pfis/Pfus>>1. The upper bound on Qr is primarily determined by geometry and reactor safety. For the SFLM, the upper bound is Qr≈150, corresponding to a neutron multiplicity of keff=0.97. Power production in a mirror hybrid is predicted for a substantially lower electron temperature than the requirement Te≈10 keV for a fusion reactor. Power production in the SFLM seems possible with Q≈0.15, which is 10 times lower than typically anticipated for hybrids (and 100 times smaller than required for a fusion reactor). This relaxes plasma confinement demands, and broadens the range for use of plasmas with supra-thermal ions in hybrid reactors. The SFLM concept is based on a mirror machine stabilized by qudrupolar magnetic fields and large expander tanks beyond the confinement region. The purpose of the expander tanks is to distribute axial plasma loss flow over a sufficiently large area so that the receiving plates can withstand the heat. Plasma stability is not relying on a plasma flow into the expander regions. With a suppressed plasma flow into the expander tanks, a possibility arise for higher electron temperature. A brief presentation will be given on basic theory for the SFLM with plasma stability and electron temperature issues, RF heating computations with sloshing ion formation, neutron transport computations with reactor safety margins and material load estimates, magnetic coil designs as well as a discussion on

  4. Liquid metal cooled reactors for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Van Hoomissen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The technology basis for evaluation of liquid metal cooled space reactors is summarized. Requirements for space nuclear power which are relevant to selection of the reactor subsystem are then reviewed. The attributes of liquid metal cooled reactors are considered in relation to these requirements in the areas of liquid metal properties, neutron spectrum characteristics, and fuel form. Key features of typical reactor designs are illustrated. It is concluded that liquid metal cooled fast spectrum reactors provide a high confidence, flexible option for meeting requirements for SP-100 and beyond.

  5. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  6. Numerical Research on Hybrid Fuel Locking Device for Upward Flow Core-Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Yoo, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Jeong-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The assembly must be held firmly against these forces, but cannot be permanently attached to the support stand because periodic refueling of the reactor requires removal or relocation of each assembly. There are so many kinds of fuel locking device, but they are operated manually. As a part of a new project, we have investigated a hybrid fuel locking device (HFLD) for research reactor which is operated automatically. Prior method of holding down the fuel assembly includes a hybrid zero electromagnet consisting of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet. The role of an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by controlling the coil current. At this time, a HFLD is an unlocking state. On the contrary, it is locking state that only a permanent magnet works when the power of an electromagnet is off. The results of a FEM in this work lead to the following conclusions: (1) It is possible that an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by remote controlling the coil current. (2) At this time, it is able to detect remotely using proximity sensor whether a HFLD is latched or not.

  7. Contributions of each isotope in structural material on radiation damage in a hybrid reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, Mehtap

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the fluids were used in the liquid first-wall, blanket and shield zones of the designed hybrid reactor system. In this study, salt-heavy metal mixtures consisting of 93-85% Li20Sn80 + 5% SFG-PuO2 and 2-10% UO2, 93-85% Li20Sn80 + 5% SFG-PuO2 and 2-10% NpO2, and 93-85% Li20Sn80 + 5% SFG-PuO2 and 2-10% UCO were used as fluids. In this study, the effect on the radiation damage of spent fuel-grade (SFG)-PuO2, UO2, NpO2 and UCO contents was investigated in the structural material of a designed fusion-fission hybrid reactor system. In the designed hybrid reactor system were investigated the effect on the radiation damage of the selected fluid according to each isotopes of structural material in the structural material for 30 full power years (FPYs). Three-dimensional analyses were performed using the most recent MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo radiation transport code and the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library.

  8. Role of research reactors for nuclear power program in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soentono, S.; Arbie, B. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Batan (Indonesia)

    1994-12-31

    The main objectives of nuclear development program in Indonesia are to master nuclear science and technology, as well as to utilise peaceful uses of nuclear know-how, aiming at stepwisely socioeconomic development. A Triga Mark II, previously of 250 kW, reactor in Bandung has been in operation since 1965 and its design power has been increased to 1000 kW in 1972. Using core grid of the Triga 250 kW, BATAN designed and constructed the Kartini Reactor in Yogyakarta which started its operation in 1979. Both of these Triga reactors have served a wide spectrum of utilisation, such as training of manpower in nuclear engineering as well as radiochemistry, isotope production and beam research activities in solid state physics. In order to support the nuclear power development program in general and to suffice the reactor experiments further, simultaneously meeting the ever increasing demand for radioisotope, the third reactor, a multipurpose reactor of 30 MW called GA. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS) has been in operation since 1987 at Serpong near Jakarta. Each of these reactors has strong cooperation with Universities, namely the Bandung Institute of Technology at Bandung, the Gadjah Mada University at Yogyakarta, and the Indonesia University at Jakarta and has facilitated the man power development required. The role of these reactors, especially the multipurpose GA. Siwabessy reactor, as essential tools in nuclear power program are described including the experience gained during preproject, construction and commissioning, as well as through their operation, maintenance and utilisation.

  9. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  10. Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Petrochenko; Georgy Toshinsky

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral) design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing...

  11. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  12. LMFBR type reactor and power generation system using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsubo, Akira.

    1994-02-25

    A reactor core void reactivity of a reactor main body is set to negative or zero. A heat insulation structure is disposed on the inner wall surface of a reactor container. Oxide fuels or nitride fuels are used. A fuel pin cladding tube has a double walled structure having an outer side of stainless steel and an inner side of niobium alloy. Upon imaginary event, boiling is allowed. Even if boiling of coolants should occur by temperature elevation of fuels upon imaginary event, since reactor core fuels comprises oxides or nitrides, they have a heat resistance, further, and since the fuel pin cladding tube has super heat resistance, it has a high temperature strength, so that it is not ruptured and durable to the coolant boiling temperature. Since the reactor core void reactivity is negative or zero, the reactor core is in a subcritical state by the boiling, and the reactor core power is reduced to several % of the rated power. Accordingly, boiling and non-boiling are repeated substantially permanently in the reactor core, during which safety can be kept with no operator's handling. Further, heat generated in the reactor core is gradually removed by an air cooling system for the reactor container. (N.H.).

  13. Wind-solar Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fei

    2014-01-01

    In the development and utilization of new energy sources, the solar energy and wind energy are paid more attention by various countries, and have become a new field of energy development and utilization of the highest level, the most mature technology, the most widely used and commercial development conditions for new energy. But both the traditional wind power system and solar power system have the characteristic of energy instability. Therefore, wind-solar hybrid power system was proposed i...

  14. Power Quality Application of Hybrid Drivetrain

    OpenAIRE

    Rassõlkin, Anton; Hõimoja, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the power conditioning features of hybrid powertrain, especially regarding diesel-electric locomotives. Equipped with an embarked energy buffer for diesel generator support and utility grid interface, such a locomotive can be considered as a plug-in series hybrid vehicle. The driveline inductive components, like generator and motor windings, and capacitive components like dc link capacitors can be used to provide STATCOM functions, and the energy buffer can be u...

  15. Power distribution control of CANDU reactors based on modal representation of reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Lingzhi, E-mail: lxia4@uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Jiang, Jin, E-mail: jjiang@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Luxat, John C., E-mail: luxatj@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Linearization of the modal synthesis model of neutronic kinetic equations for CANDU reactors. • Validation of the linearized dynamic model through closed-loop simulations by using the reactor regulating system. • Design of a LQR state feedback controller for CANDU core power distribution control. • Comparison of the results of this new controller against those of the conventional reactor regulation system. - Abstract: Modal synthesis representation of a neutronic kinetic model for a CANDU reactor core has been utilized in the analysis and synthesis for reactor control systems. Among all the mode shapes, the fundamental mode of the power distribution, which also coincides with the desired reactor power distribution during operation, is used in the control system design. The nonlinear modal models are linearized around desired operating points. Based on the linearized model, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control approach is used to synthesize a state feedback controller. The performance of this controller has been evaluated by using the original nonlinear models under load-following conditions. It has been demonstrated that the proposed reactor control system can produce more uniform power distribution than the traditional reactor regulation systems (RRS); in particular, it is more effective in compensating the Xenon induced transients.

  16. Facility for a Low Power Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalker, R. G.

    1949-09-14

    Preliminary investigation indicates that a reactor facility with ample research provisions for use by University or other interested groups, featuring safety in design, can be economically constructed in the Los Angeles area. The complete installation, including an underground gas-tight reactor building, with associated storage and experiment assembly building, administration offices, two general laboratory buildings, hot latoratory and lodge, can be constructed for approxinately $1,500,000. This does not include the cost of the reactor itself or of its auxiliary equipment,

  17. Design of the 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz ultra-wideband 3 dB high power hybrid coupler for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating in fusion grade reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Rana Pratap, E-mail: ranayadav97@gmail.com; Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S. V. [Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab 147004, India and Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.

  18. Assessment of tritium breeding requirements for fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents an assessment of tritium-breeding requirements for fusion power reactors. The analysis is based on an evaluation of time-dependent tritium inventories in the reactor system. The method presented can be applied to any fusion systems in operation on a steady-state mode as well as on a pulsed mode. As an example, the UWMAK-I design was analyzed and it has been found that the startup inventory requirement calculated by the present method significantly differs from those previously calculated. The effect of reactor-parameter changes on the required tritium breeding ratio is also analyzed for a variety of reactor operation scenarios.

  19. Conceptual Study for development of a low power research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C.; Kim, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Chae, H. T.; Lee, B. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Even though the nuclear society is again facing with difficult situations after Fukusima accident, some countries still continues to consider nuclear power as one option of national energy sources and to introduce nuclear energy. As a research reactor has been regarded as a step-stone to establish infrastructures for the nuclear power development program, some countries that have plan to introduce the nuclear power energy are considering to construct a research reactor. Particularly, a low power research reactor whose main purpose is basic researches on the nuclear technology and education/training would be of interest to developing countries when taking the economy and level of science and technology into consideration. And many low power research reactors at operation are obsolescent and their numbers are decreasing. Hence, some concepts on a low power research reactor are being studied for the future needs. This paper presents the conceptual study on the basic requirements and the preliminary design features of a low power research reactor.

  20. Gas core reactor power plants designed for low proliferation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, L.L. (comp.)

    1977-09-01

    The feasibility of gas core nuclear power plants to provide adequate power while maintaining a low inventory and low divertability of fissile material is studied. Four concepts were examined. Two used a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and helium in the reactor cavities, and two used a uranium-argon plasma, held away from the walls by vortex buffer confinement. Power levels varied from 200 to 2500 MWth. Power plant subsystems were sized to determine their fissile material inventories. All reactors ran, with a breeding ratio of unity, on /sup 233/U born from thorium. Fission product removal was continuous. Newly born /sup 233/U was removed continuously from the breeding blanket and returned to the reactor cavities. The 2500-MWth power plant contained a total of 191 kg of /sup 233/U. Less than 4 kg could be diverted before the reactor shut down. The plasma reactor power plants had smaller inventories. In general, inventories were about a factor of 10 less than those in current U.S. power reactors.

  1. High power density reactors based on direct cooled particle beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. R.; Horn, F. L.

    Reactors based on direct cooled High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) type particle fuel are described. The small diameter particle fuel is packed between concentric porous cylinders to make annular fuel elements, with the inlet coolant gas flowing inwards. Hot exit gas flows out along the central channel of each element. Because of the very large heat transfer area in the packed beds, power densities in particle bed reactors (PBRs) are extremely high resulting in compact, lightweight systems. Coolant exit temperatures are high, because of the ceramic fuel temperature capabilities, and the reactors can be ramped to full power and temperature very rapidly. PBR systems can generate very high burst power levels using open cycle hydrogen coolant, or high continuous powers using closed cycle helium coolant. PBR technology is described and development requirements assessed.

  2. The new hybrid thermal neutron facility at TAPIRO reactor for BNCT radiobiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J; Rosi, G; Agosteo, S

    2007-01-01

    A new thermal neutron irradiation facility, devoted to carry out both dosimetric and radiobiological studies on boron carriers, which are being developed in the framework of INFN BNCT project, has been installed at the ENEA Casaccia TAPIRO research fast reactor. The thermal column, based on an original, hybrid, neutron spectrum shifter configuration, has been recently become operative. In spite of its low power (5 kW), the new facility is able to provide a high thermal neutron flux level, uniformly distributed inside the irradiation cavity, with a quite low gamma background. The main features and preliminary benchmark measurements of the Beam-shaping assembly are here presented and discussed.

  3. COUPLED FAST-THERMAL POWER BREEDER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, R.

    1961-07-18

    A nuclear reactor having a region operating predominantly on fast neutrons and another region operating predominantly on slow neutrons is described. The fast region is a plutonium core and the slow region is a natural uranium blanket around the core. Both of these regions are free of moderator. A moderating reflector surrounds the uranium blanket. The moderating material and thickness of the reflector are selected so that fissions in the uranium blanket make a substantial contribution to the reactivity of the reactor.

  4. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA. In contrast, generation III reactors, which are an evolution of generation II reactors, incorporate passive or inherent safety features that require no active controls or operational intervention to avoid accidents in the event of malfunction, and may rely on gravity, natural convection or resistance to high temperatures. Today, partly due to the high capital cost of large power reactors generating electricity and partly due to the consideration of public perception, there is a shift towards the development of smaller units. These may be built independently or as modules in a larger complex, with capacity added incrementally as required. Small reactors most importantly benefit from reduced capital costs, simpler units and the ability to produce power away from main grid systems. These factors combined with the ability of a nuclear power plant to use process heat for co-generation, make the small reactors an attractive option. Generally, modern small reactors for power generation are expected to have greater simplicity of design, economy of mass production and reduced installation costs. Many are also designed for a high level of passive or inherent safety in the event of malfunction. Generation III+ designs are generally extensions of the generation III concept, which include advanced passive safety features. These designs can maintain the safe state without the use of any active control components. Generation IV reactors, which are future designs that are currently under research and development, will

  5. Investigation of materials for fusion power reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaddane, A.; Slugeň, V.; Sojak, S.; Veterníková, J.; Petriska, M.; Bartošová, I.

    2014-06-01

    The possibility of application of nuclear-physical methods to observe radiation damage to structural materials of nuclear facilities is nowadays a very actual topic. The radiation damage to materials of advanced nuclear facilities, caused by extreme radiation stress, is a process, which significantly limits their operational life as well as their safety. In the centre of our interest is the study of the radiation degradation and activation of the metals and alloys for the new nuclear facilities (Generation IV fission reactors, fusion reactors ITER and DEMO). The observation of the microstructure changes in the reactor steels is based on experimental investigation using the method of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The experimental part of the work contains measurements focused on model reactor alloys and ODS steels. There were 12 model reactor steels and 3 ODS steels. We were investigating the influence of chemical composition on the production of defects in crystal lattice. With application of the LT 9 program, the spectra of specimen have been evaluated and the most convenient samples have been determined.

  6. Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    An important niche for nuclear energy is the need for power at remote locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. Nuclear energy has potential applications at strategic defense locations, theaters of battle, remote communities, and emergency locations. With proper safeguards, a 1 to 10-MWe (megawatt electric) mobile reactor system could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term power in any environment. Heat pipe-cooled fast-spectrum nuclear reactors have been identified as a candidate for these applications. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than “traditional” reactors. The goal of this project was to develop a scalable conceptual design for a compact reactor and to identify scaling issues for compact heat pipe cooled reactors in general. Toward this goal two detailed concepts were developed, the first concept with more conventional materials and a power of about 2 MWe and a the second concept with less conventional materials and a power level of about 5 MWe. A series of more qualitative advanced designs were developed (with less detail) that show power levels can be pushed to approximately 30 MWe.

  7. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  8. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  9. Analysis of Nigeria research reactor-1 thermal power calibration methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbo, Sunday Arome; Ahmed, Yusuf Aminu; Ewa, Ita Okon; Jibrin, Yahaya [Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes the accuracy of the methods used in calibrating the thermal power of Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1), a low-power miniature neutron source reactor located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The calibration was performed at three different power levels: low power (3.6 kW), half power (15 kW), and full power (30 kW). Two methods were used in the calibration, namely, slope and heat balance methods. The thermal power obtained by the heat balance method at low power, half power, and full power was 3.7 ± 0.2 kW, 15.2 ± 1.2 kW, and 30.7 ± 2.5 kW, respectively. The thermal power obtained by the slope method at half power and full power was 15.8 ± 0.7 kW and 30.2 ± 1.5 kW, respectively. It was observed that the slope method is more accurate with deviations of 4% and 5% for calibrations at half and full power, respectively, although the linear fit (slope method) on average temperature-rising rates during the thermal power calibration procedure at low power (3.6 kW) is not fitting. As such, the slope method of power calibration is not suitable at lower power for NIRR-1.

  10. Nuclear Power from Fission Reactors. An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Technical Information Center.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a basic understanding of nuclear fission energy and different fission reaction concepts. Topics discussed are: energy use and production, current uses of fuels, oil and gas consumption, alternative energy sources, fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, the light…

  11. Laser fusion power reactor system (LFPRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, W. P.

    1977-12-19

    This report gives detailed information for each of the following areas: (1) reference concept description, (2) nuclear design, (3) structural design, (4) thermal and fluid systems design, (5) materials design and analysis, (6) reactor support systems and balance of plant, (7) instrumentation and control, (8) environment and safety, (9) economics assessment, and (10) development requirements. (MOW)

  12. Protective actions as a factor in power reactor siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gant, K.S.; Schweitzer, M.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the relationship between a power reactor site and the ease of implementing protective actions (emergency measures a serious accident). Limiting populating density around a reactor lowers the number of people at risk but cannot assure that all protective actions are possible for those who reside near the reactor. While some protective measures can always be taken (i.e., expedient respiratory protection, sheltering) the ability to evacuate the area or find adequate shelter may depend on the characteristics of the area near the reactor site. Generic siting restrictions designed to identify and eliminate these site-specific constraints would be difficult to formulate. The authors suggest identifying possible impediments to protective actions at a proposed reactor site and addressing these problems in the emergency plans. 66 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  13. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  14. Total loss of AC power analysis for EPR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnowski, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.darnowski@itc.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Heat Engineering, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Skrzypek, Eleonora, E-mail: eleonora.skrzypek@ncbj.gov.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Heat Engineering, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), A. Sołtana 7, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Mazgaj, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.mazgaj@itc.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Heat Engineering, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Świrski, Konrad [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Heat Engineering, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Gandrille, Pascal [AREVA NP SAS, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Total loss of AC power (Station Blackout) was simulated for the EPR reactor model. • In-vessel phase of the accident is under consideration. • Comparison of MELCOR and MAAP results is presented. • MELCOR and MAAP results are comparable. - Abstract: In this paper the results of severe accident simulations for the EPR reactor in the case of loss of offsite power combined with total failure of all diesel generators (total loss of AC power) are presented. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 2.1 computer code for in-vessel phase of the accident. In this scenario, the unavailability of all offsite and onsite power sources and the lack of cooling leads directly to core degradation, material relocation to the lower plenum and rupture of the reactor pressure vessel. MELCOR results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with MAAP4 code results and show a good agreement.

  15. Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing: Mechanical Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klima, B. B.

    1959-07-01

    The major events in the mechanical phase of the Power Reactor fuels reprocessing program during June were: 1. Feasibility of shearing of fuel elements without disassembly has been demonstrated in tests using porcelain-loaded prototype fuel elements. 2. Further work with the Manco shear was not deemed tb be advisable since permission has been granted to use another shear for cutting UO{sub 2}-loaded fuel elements. 3. Necessity to strip the windows in Building 3048, to sandblast, and repaint them has seriously disrupted occupancy of the cell by July 1. Start of installation probably will not be before August 1. 4. A cold SRE element should be received during July which will permit a direct look a t the problems associated with processing of these irradiated fuel elements. 5. Concurrence with AEC, Atomics International, and ORNL people on the fabrication of a poisoned carrier was obtained and all criteria for the carrier were released and the design was completed. 6. A decision was made to install and use a 24-inch Ty-Sa-Man saw which is on hand and was originally purchased for use in the Segmenting Facility for the SRE reprocessing. This will be used instead of the multipurpose saw to allow more time to refine the design of that saw. The multipurpose saw will be installed for use in subsequent reprocessing programs. This report will chronicle the changes in status which occurred during the calendar month of June. A complete description of each item is not included and may be found in the parent report. The dates indicated on the schedule have slipped since the last report primarily due to increase in scope of the work and postponement on all phases of the work except for the SRE preparations. Twenty-four new items have been added to the schedule. The status of procurement is shown. A total of 93 purchase requests have been turned in to t% Purchasing Department. A total of $199,261.83 has been committed by purchase orders, and a total of 56 purchase orders have been

  16. Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products - Part 1: General requirements and tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    This International Standard deals with safety aspects of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products such as electrical, thermal and mechanical safety. This standard covers the following types of dry-type transformers, power supplies, including switch mode power supplies, and reactors, the windings of which may be encapsulated or non-encapsulated. It has the status of a group safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

  17. Technological Transfer from Research Nuclear Reactors to New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Laura; Pavelescu, Margarit

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the analysis of the technological transfer role in the nuclear field, with particular emphasis on nuclear reactors domain. The presentation is sustained by historical arguments. In this frame, it is very important to start with the achievements of the first nuclear systems, for instant those with natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, following in time through the history until the New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors. Starting with 1940, the accelerated development of the industry has implied the increase of the global demand for energy. In this respect, the nuclear energy could play an important role, being essentially an unlimited source of energy. However, the nuclear option faces the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide, a significant amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience gained is a strong basis for further improvements. Actually, the nuclear programs of many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors, which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability, improved safety, and proliferation-resistant characteristics in order to overcome the current concerns about nuclear power. Advanced reactors, now under development, may help to meet the demand for energy power of both developed and developing countries as well as for district heating, desalination and for process heat. The paper gives historical examples that illustrate the steps pursued from first research nuclear reactors to present advanced power reactors. Emphasis was laid upon the fact that the progress is due to the great discoveries of the nuclear scientists using the technological transfer.

  18. Hybrid power technology for remote military facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.N.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) operates hundreds of test, evaluation, and training facilities across the US and abroad. Due to the nature of their missions, these facilities are often remote and isolated from the utility grid. The preferred choice for power at these facilities has historically been manned diesel generators. The DoD Photovoltaic Review Committee, estimates that on the order of 350 million gallons of diesel fuel is burned each year to generate the 2000 GWh of electricity required to operate these remote military facilities. Other federal agencies, including the National Park Service and the USDA Forest Service use diesel generators for remote power needs as well. The generation of power diesel generators is both expensive and detrimental to the environment. The augmentation of power from diesel generators with power processing and battery energy storage enhances the efficiency and utilization of the generator resulting in lower fuel consumption and lower generator run- time in proportion to the amount of renewables added. The hybrid technology can both reduce the cost of power and reduce environmental degradation at remote DoD facilities. This paper describes the expected performance and economics of photovoltaic/diesel hybrid systems. Capabilities and status of systems now being installed at DoD facilities are presented along with financing mechanisms available within DoD.

  19. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  20. Search for axions at a power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaignac, J.F.; Hoummada, A.; Koang, D.H.; Ost, B.; Vignon, B.; Wilson, R. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France). Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires); Declais, Y.; Girardi, G.; de Kerret, H.; Pessard, H.

    1983-01-27

    A search has been conducted for the axion at the Bugey reactor which is owned and operated by Electricite de France. The axion production should be proportional to the magnetic transition of np capture, and be detectable by its decay into 2..gamma.. rays. No signal was observed in this measurement. Also no axion signal was seen from a single proton magnetic transition of /sup 97/Nb. Using those two results, the axion can be excluded with a mass up to 1 MeV in the Peccei-Quinn formalism.

  1. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  2. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-30

    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage.

  3. Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Petrochenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing mode. The reactor is distinct in that it has a high level of self-protection and passive safety, it is factory manufactured and the assembled reactor can be transported by railway. Multipurpose application of the reactor is presumed, primarily, it can be used for regional power to produce electricity, heat and for water desalination. The Project is being realized within the framework of state-private partnership with joint venture OJSC “AKME-Engineering” established on a parity basis by the State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” and the Limited Liability Company “EuroSibEnergo”.

  4. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  5. Background Radiation Measurements at High Power Research Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ashenfelter, J; Baldenegro, C X; Band, H R; Barclay, G; Bass, C D; Berish, D; Bowden, N S; Bryan, C D; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, R; Classen, T; Davee, D; Dean, D; Deichert, G; Dolinski, M J; Dolph, J; Dwyer, D A; Fan, S; Gaison, J K; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilje, K; Glenn, A; Green, M; Han, K; Hans, S; Heeger, K M; Heffron, B; Jaffe, D E; Kettell, S; Langford, T J; Littlejohn, B R; Martinez, D; McKeown, R D; Morrell, S; Mueller, P E; Mumm, H P; Napolitano, J; Norcini, D; Pushin, D; Romero, E; Rosero, R; Saldana, L; Seilhan, B S; Sharma, R; Stemen, N T; Surukuchi, P T; Thompson, S J; Varner, R L; Wang, W; Watson, S M; White, B; White, C; Wilhelmi, J; Williams, C; Wise, T; Yao, H; Yeh, M; Yen, Y -R; Zhang, C; Zhang, X

    2016-01-01

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including $\\gamma$-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  6. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashenfelter, J. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Balantekin, B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Baldenegro, C.X. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Band, H.R. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Barclay, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bass, C.D. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Le Moyne College, Syracuse, NY 13214 (United States); Berish, D. [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States); Bowden, N.S., E-mail: nbowden@llnl.gov [Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bryan, C.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Cherwinka, J.J. [Physical Sciences Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Chu, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Classen, T. [Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Davee, D. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Dean, D.; Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dolinski, M.J. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dolph, J. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Dwyer, D.A. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fan, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); and others

    2016-01-11

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  7. RTC-control of power transients in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratemi, Wajdi Mohamed [Alfateh University, PO Box 13040, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the new Reactivity Trace Curve (RTC) method (Ratemi 1993,1994), which is based on the dynamic period studies (Bernard et al.,1984), has been studied for maneuvering of the nuclear reactor power without power shooting. The reactor is modeled with one group of delayed neutrons with temperature feedback effect, as well as, Xenon feedback effect. A precursors concentration model is used to provide for the effective dynamic decay constant (in one group case, it is a static one). The RTC-identifier which is given by a differential equation is then solved at each sampling time (for one group, it has an analytical solution). Its solution is what is called the Reactivity Trace Curve which keeps the power steady at the desired power. An inverse kinetic model which uses the on-line power data for reactivity calculation is used to provide initial condition (initial reactivity) for the RTC- power controller. Also feedback model are needed to evaluate both the temperature and Xenon reactivities which when subtracted from the RTC-value, one then can determine the reactivity required to keep the reactor power steady without power shooting. (authors)

  8. Specific power of liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-10-01

    Calculations of the core specific power for conceptual space-based liquid-metal-cooled reactors, based on heat transfer considerations, are presented for three different fuel types: (1) pin-type fuel; (2) cermet fuel; and (3) thermionic fuel. The calculations are based on simple models and are intended to provide preliminary comparative results. The specific power is of interest because it is a measure of the core mass required to produce a given amount of power. Potential problems concerning zero-g critical heat flux and loss-of-coolant accidents are also discussed because these concerns may limit the core specific power. Insufficient experimental data exists to accurately determine the critical heat flux of liquid-metal-cooled reactors in space; however, preliminary calculations indicate that it may be a concern. Results also indicate that the specific power of the pin-type fuels can be increased significantly if the gap between the fuel and the clad is eliminated. Cermet reactors offer the highest specific power because of the excellent thermal conductivity of the core matrix material. However, it may not be possible to take fuel advantage of this characteristic when loss-of-coolant accidents are considered in the final core design. The specific power of the thermionic fuels is dependent mainly on the emitter temperature. The small diameter thermionic fuels have specific powers comparable to those of pin-type fuels. 11 refs., 12 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. Power flow control using distributed saturable reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D.

    2016-02-13

    A magnetic amplifier includes a saturable core having a plurality of legs. Control windings wound around separate legs are spaced apart from each other and connected in series in an anti-symmetric relation. The control windings are configured in such a way that a biasing magnetic flux arising from a control current flowing through one of the plurality of control windings is substantially equal to the biasing magnetic flux flowing into a second of the plurality of control windings. The flow of the control current through each of the plurality of control windings changes the reactance of the saturable core reactor by driving those portions of the saturable core that convey the biasing magnetic flux in the saturable core into saturation. The phasing of the control winding limits a voltage induced in the plurality of control windings caused by a magnetic flux passing around a portion of the saturable core.

  10. Safety status of space radioisotope and reactor power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The current overall safety criterion for both radioisotope and reactor power sources is containment or immobilization in the case of a reentry accident. In addition, reactors are designed to remain subcritical under conditions of land impact or water immersion. A very extensive safety test and analysis program was completed on the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) in use on the Galileo spacecraft and planned for use on the Ulysses spacecraft. The results of this work show that the RTGs will pose little or no risk for any credible accident. The SP-100 space nuclear reactor program has begun addressing its safety criteria, and the design is planned to be such as to ensure meeting the various safety criteria. Preliminary mission risk analyses on SP-100 show the expected value population dose from postulated accidents on the reference mission to be very small. It is concluded that the current US nuclear power sources are the safest flown.

  11. Conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor fueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matney, K.D.; Donnert, H.J.; Yang, T.F.

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design of a fuel injection system for CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor) is discussed. Initially, relative merits of the cold-fueling concept are compared with those of the hot-fueling concept; that is, fueling where the electron is below 1 eV is compared with fueling where the electron temperature exceeds 100 eV. It is concluded that cold fueling seems to be somewhat more free of drawbacks than hot fueling. Possible implementation of the cold-fueling concept is exploited via frozen-pellet injection. Several methods of achieving frozen-pellet injection are discussed and the light-gas-gun approach is chosen from these possibilities. A modified version of the ORNL Neutral Gas Shielding Model is used to simulate the pellet injection process. From this simulation, the penetration-depth dependent velocity requirement is determined. Finally, with the velocity requirement known, a gas-pressure requirement for the proposed conceptual design is established. The cryogenic fuel-injection and fuel-handling systems are discussed. A possible way to implement the conceptual device is examined along with the attendant effects on the total system.

  12. Conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor fueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matney, K D; Donnert, H J; Yang, T F

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design of a fuel injection system for CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor) is discussed. Initially, relative merits of the cold-fueling concept are compared with those of the hot-fueling concept; that is, fueling where the electron temperature is below 1 eV is compared with fueling where the electron temperature exceeds 100 eV. It is concluded that cold fueling seems to be somewhat more free of drawbacks than hot fueling. Possible implementation of the cold-fueling concept is exploited via frozen-pellet injection. Several methods of achieving frozen-pellet injection are discussed and the light-gas-gun approach is chosen from these possibilities. A modified version of the ORNL Neutral Gas Shielding Model is used to simulate the pellet injection process. From this simulation, the penetration-depth dependent velocity requirement is determined. Finally, with the velocity requirement known, a gas-pressure requirement for the proposed conceptual design is established. The cryogenic fuel-injection and fuel-handling systems are discussed. A possible way to implement the conceptual device is examined along with the attendant effects on the total system.

  13. Investigation of (n,γ) reaction in hybrid reactor zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenay, Mehtap [Inoenue Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the fluids were composed with increased mole fractions of a mixture of molten salt: heavy metals 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80{sup -}}1-5 % SFG-Pu, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80{sup -}}1-5 % SFG-PuF{sub 4}, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80{sup -}}1-5 % SFG-PuO{sub 2}. In this study, the effect on conversion of each isotope ({sup 238-242}Pu) in spent fuel grade plutonium by (n,γ) reactions was investigated in liquid first wall, blanket and shield zones of the designed hybrid reactor system. Beryllium (Be) is the neutron multiplier by (n,2n) reactions. The Be zone used was 3 cm thick. 9Cr2WVT, a ferritic steel, is used as structural material. Three-dimensional nucleonic calculations were performed by using the most recent versions of the MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo code and the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0.

  14. Status report on the conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor (CTHR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    A preliminary conceptual design is presented for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants. The study has been made in sufficient depth to indicate no insurmountable technical problems exist and has provided a basis for valid cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources.

  15. Acrylic acid and electric power cogeneration in an SOFC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Baofeng; Wang, Jibo; Chu, Wenling; Yang, Weishen; Lin, Liwu

    2009-04-21

    A highly efficient catalyst, MoV(0.3)Te(0.17)Nb(0.12)O, used for acrylic acid (AA) production from propane, was used as an anodic catalyst in an SOFC reactor, from which AA and electric power were cogenerated at 400-450 degrees C.

  16. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  17. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

  18. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  19. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hajizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  20. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems; La physique des reacteurs sous-critiques des systemes hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapira, J.P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS 91 - Orsay (France); Vergnes, J. [Electricite de France, EDF, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [and others

    1998-03-12

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  1. Hybrid high power femtosecond laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Petrov, V. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a high-power femtosecond laser system based on hybrid chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique developed by us is presented. The goal of the hybrid principle is the use of the parametric and laser amplification methods in chirped pulse amplifiers. It makes it possible to amplify the low-cycle pulses with a duration of <= fs to terawatt power with a high contrast and high conversion efficiency of the pump radiation. In a created system the Ti:Sapphire laser with 10 fs pulses at 810 nm and output energy about 1-3 nJ will be used like seed source. The oscillator pulses were stretched to duration of about 500 ps by an all-reflective grating stretcher. Then the stretched pulses are injected into a nondegenerate noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) on the two BBO crystals. After amplification in NOPA the residual pump was used in a bow-tie four pass amplifier with hybrid active medium (based on Al II0 3:Ti 3+ and BeAl IIO 4:Ti 3+ crystals). The final stage of the amplification system consists of two channels, namely NIR (820 nm) and short-VIS (410 nm). Numerical simulation has shown that the terawatt level of output power can be achieved also in a short-VIS channel at the pumping of the double-crystal BBO NOPA by the radiation of the fourth harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. Experimentally parametric amplification in BBO crystals of 30-50 fs pulses were investigated and optimized using SPIDER technique and single-shot autocomelator for the realization of shortest duration 40 fs.

  2. Hybrid reactors: recent progress of a demonstration pilot; Reacteurs hybrides: avancees recentes pour un demonstrateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, Annick [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie IN2P3-CNRS/UJF/INPG, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    Accelerator driven sub-critical reactors are subject of many research programmes since more than ten years, with the aim of testing the feasibility of the concept as well as their efficiency as a transmutation tool. Several key points like the accelerator, the spallation target, or neutronics in a subcritical medium were investigated extensively these last years, allowing for technological choices and the design of a low power European demonstration ADS (a few tens of MWth). Programmes dedicated to subcritical reactor piloting proposed a monitoring procedure to be validated in forthcoming experiments. Accelerator R and D provided the design of a LINAC for an ADS and research work on accelerator reliability is going on. A spallation target was operated at PSI and the design of a windowless target is in progress. All this research work converges to the design of a European demonstration ADS, the ETD/XT-ADS, which could be the Belgian MYRRHA project. (author)

  3. Light weight space power reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewig, H.; Mughabghab, S.; Lazareth, O.; Perkins, K.; Schmidt, E.; Powell, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) unit capable of propelling a manned vehicle to MARS will be required to have a value of {alpha} (kg/kWe) which is less than five. In order to meet this goal the reactor mass, and thus its contribution to the value of {alpha} will have to be minimized. In this paper a candidate for such a reactor is described. It consists of a gas cooled Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), with specially chosen materials which allow it to operate at an exit temperature of approximately 2000 K. One of the unique features of a PBR is the direct cooling of particulate fuel by the working fluid. This feature allows for high power densities, highest possible gas exit temperatures, for a given fuel temperature and because of the thin particle bed a low pressure drop. The PBR's described in this paper will have a ceramic moderator (Be{sub 2}C), ZrC coated fuel particles and a carbon/carbon hot frit. All the reactors will be designed with sufficient fissile loading to operate at full power for seven years. The burn up possible with particulate fuel is approximately 30%--50%. These rector designs achieve a value of {alpha} less than unity in the power range of interest (5 MWe). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  4. High density operation for reactor-relevant power exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmeier, M.

    2015-08-01

    With increasing size of a tokamak device and associated fusion power gain an increasing power flux density towards the divertor needs to be handled. A solution for handling this power flux is crucial for a safe and economic operation. Using purely geometric arguments in an ITER-like divertor this power flux can be reduced by approximately a factor 100. Based on a conservative extrapolation of current technology for an integrated engineering approach to remove power deposited on plasma facing components a further reduction of the power flux density via volumetric processes in the plasma by up to a factor of 50 is required. Our current ability to interpret existing power exhaust scenarios using numerical transport codes is analyzed and an operational scenario as a potential solution for ITER like divertors under high density and highly radiating reactor-relevant conditions is presented. Alternative concepts for risk mitigation as well as strategies for moving forward are outlined.

  5. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vernon, Milton E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at

  6. Adaptive control using a hybrid-neural model: application to a polymerisation reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of a hybrid-neural model for predictive control of a plug flow polymerisation reactor. The hybrid-neural model (HNM is based on fundamental conservation laws associated with a neural network (NN used to model the uncertain parameters. By simulations, the performance of this approach was studied for a peroxide-initiated styrene tubular reactor. The HNM was synthesised for a CSTR reactor with a radial basis function neural net (RBFN used to estimate the reaction rates recursively. The adaptive HNM was incorporated in two model predictive control strategies, a direct synthesis scheme and an optimum steady state scheme. Tests for servo and regulator control showed excellent behaviour following different setpoint variations, and rejecting perturbations. The good generalisation and training capacities of hybrid models, associated with the simplicity and robustness characteristics of the MPC formulations, make an attractive combination for the control of a polymerisation reactor.

  7. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.''...

  8. Delayed gamma power measurement for sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R., E-mail: romain.coulon@cea.f [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Normand, S., E-mail: stephane.normand@cea.f [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ban, G., E-mail: ban@lpccaen.in2p3.f [ENSICAEN, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Barat, E.; Montagu, T.; Dautremer, T. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Modelisation Simulation et Systemes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Brau, H.-P. [ICSM, Centre de Marcoule, BP 17171 F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Dumarcher, V. [AREVA NP, SET, F-84500 Bollene (France); Michel, M.; Barbot, L.; Domenech, T.; Boudergui, K.; Bourbotte, J.-M. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jousset, P. [CEA, LIST, Departement des Capteurs, du Signal et de l' Information, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Barouch, G.; Ravaux, S.; Carrel, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Modelisation Simulation et Systemes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saurel, N. [CEA, DAM, Laboratoire Mesure de Dechets et Expertise, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Frelin-Labalme, A.-M.; Hamrita, H. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: {sup 20}F and {sup 23}Ne tagging agents are produced by fast neutron flux. {sup 20}F signal has been measured at the SFR Phenix prototype. A random error of only 3% for an integration time of 2 s could be achieved. {sup 20}F and {sup 23}Ne power measurement has a reduced temperature influence. Burn-up impact could be limited by simultaneous {sup 20}F and {sup 23}Ne measurement. - Abstract: Previous works on pressurized water reactors show that the nitrogen 16 activation product can be used to measure thermal power. Power monitoring using a more stable indicator than ex-core neutron measurements is required for operational sodium-cooled fast reactors, in order to improve their economic efficiency at the nominal operating point. The fluorine 20 and neon 23 produced by (n,{alpha}) and (n,p) capture in the sodium coolant have this type of convenient characteristic, suitable for power measurements with low build-up effects and a potentially limited temperature, flow rate, burn-up and breeding dependence. This method was tested for the first time during the final tests program of the French Phenix sodium-cooled fast reactor at CEA Marcoule, using the ADONIS gamma pulse analyzer. Despite a non-optimal experimental configuration for this application, the delayed gamma power measurement was pre-validated, and found to provide promising results.

  9. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  10. Hybrid reactor safety study. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    A preliminary generic safety evaluation of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor concept has been performed and a hybrid reactor safety program plan for guiding future safety work has been proposed. The emphasis of the work was limited to accident analysis where the main concern is for the health and safety of the public. Major radioactive sources in the hybrid were identified and their inventories compared to those of fission reactors. The means for accidental release of radioactivity to the public were identified, as were the barriers which preclude such accidental releases. Consequence analyses of hypothetical bounding accidents potentially defining the upper bound envelope of risk/consequence to the population and environment surrounding the hybrid site were performed.

  11. COMPARING THE EFFICIENCY OF UAFF AND UASB WITH HYBRID REACTOR IN TREATING WOOD FIBER WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ayati, H. Ganjidoust

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several kinds of anaerobic systems that are widely used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. Upflow Anaerobic Fixed Film (UAFF, Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB and hybrid reactor (combination of UASB and UAFF are the mostly used in treating industrial wastewater. As several operational problems have normally been experienced in both UASB and UAFF systems such as long start-up periods and instability, a hybrid reactor has been conceptualized which addressed these problems but retained the positive aspects of these reactors, such as, high cell concentration, good mixing and tolerance to high loading rates. The wastewater has been obtained from Iran Wood Fiber Company which is located in Hassan Rood city, Gilan Province. After period of starting up the reactors and adaptation, the amount of influent COD was being increased stepwise. After the removal rate was reached to its maximum, the next period for increased load was started as after six months, the reactors could accept about 15 Kg/m3.d with high COD removal rate of about 58.5, 58.9 and 65 percent after 3 days detention time. After 5 and 6 months, maximum growth of granule and biofilm was observed. Diameter of 6 mm and mass to surface and COD removal of 0.25 g/cm2 were the highest measured parameters. The comparison of three studied systems showed that their efficiencies were close to each other. As the effective part of UAFF in hybrid reactor was only one third of the reactor, it acted as a separator of solidliquid-gas phases and UASB had the most effect on treatment. In each UAFF and UASB, all percent removal was resulted by each reactor. It can be concluded that hybrid reactor do have the advantages of both systems with at least half of the height of two reactors. Similar results could be obtained with each UAFF or UASB if higher height can be used.

  12. Radioactive waste management and disposal scenario for fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabara, Takashi; Yamano, Naoki [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Seki, Yasushi; Aoki, Isao

    1997-10-01

    The environmental and economic impact of radioactive waste (radwaste) generated from fusion power reactors using five types of structural materials and a light water reactor (LWR) have been evaluated and compared. At first, the amount and the radioactive level of the radwaste generated in five fusion reactors ware evaluated by an activation calculation code. Next, a possible radwaste disposal scenario applicable to fusion radwaste in Japan is considered and the disposal cost evaluated under certain assumptions. The exposure doses are evaluated for the skyshine of gamma-rays during the disposal operation, groundwater migration scenario during the institutional control period of 300 years and future site use scenario after the institutional period. The radwaste generated from a typical LWR was estimated based on a literature survey and the disposal cost was evaluated using the same assumptions as for the fusion reactors. It is found that the relative cost of disposal is strongly dependent on the cost for interim storage of medium level waste of fusion reactors and the cost of high level waste for the LWR. (author)

  13. Selection of power plant elements for future reactor space electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Bennett, G.A.; Copper, K.

    1979-09-01

    Various types of reactor designs, electric power conversion equipment, and reject-heat systems to be used in nuclear reactor power plants for future space missions were studied. The designs included gas-cooled, liquid-cooled, and heat-pipe reactors. For the power converters, passive types such as thermoelectric and thermionic converters and dynamic types such as Brayton, potassium Rankine, and Stirling cycles were considered. For the radiators, heat pipes for transfer and radiating surface, pumped fluid for heat transfer with fins as the radiating surface, and pumped fluid for heat transfer with heat pipes as the radiating surface were considered. After careful consideration of weights, sizes, reliabilities, safety, and development cost and time, a heat-pipe reactor design, thermoelectric converters, and a heat-pipe radiator for an experimental program were selected.

  14. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  15. High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 9-11 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER CONVERTERS FOR MILITARY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES ABSTRACT...SUBTITLE High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...public release High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles Page 2 of 8 I. INTRODUCTION Today, wide bandgap devices

  16. Recent activities at the zero-power teaching reactor CROCUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardin, G.; Chawla, R., E-mail: gaetan.girardin@epfl.ch [Swiss Polytechnical School of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    CROCUS is a zero-power critical facility used mainly for educational purposes at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland. It is a low-enriched-uranium fuelled, light-water moderated reactor, with the fission power limited to 100 W. The presentation will discuss the crucial role of CROCUS in teaching -- both as framework for reactor practicals offered to physics students at EPFL and as key educational tool in the recently established Swiss Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. Regular development work is needed for the various instruments and components associated with the facility. As illustration, the recently completed refurbishment of the control rod system and the related calibration experiments will also be discussed.

  17. Characteristics of a reactor with power reactivity feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The point-reactor model with power reactivity feedback becomes a nonlinear system. Its dynamic characteristic shows great complexity. According to the mathematic definition of stability in differential equa-tion qualitative theory, the model of a reactor with power reactivity feedback is judged unstable. The equilib-rium point is a saddle-node point. A portion of the trajectory in the neighborhood of the equilibrium point is parabolic fan curve, and the other is hyperbolic fan curve. Based on phase locus near the equilibrium point, it is pointed out that the model is still stable within physical limits. The difference between stabilities in the mathematical sense and in the physical sense is indicated.

  18. Recent Work in Hybrid Radiation Transport Methods with Applications to Commercial Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesza, Joel A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    This talk will begin with an overview of hybrid radiation transport methods followed by a discussion of the author’s work to advance current capabilities. The talk will then describe applications for these methods in commercial nuclear power reactor analyses and techniques for experimental validation. When discussing these analytical and experimental activities, the importance of technical standards such as those created and maintained by ASTM International will be demonstrated.

  19. Summary of space nuclear reactor power systems, 1983--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1993-08-11

    This report summarizes major developments in the last ten years which have greatly expanded the space nuclear reactor power systems technology base. In the SP-100 program, after a competition between liquid-metal, gas-cooled, thermionic, and heat pipe reactors integrated with various combinations of thermoelectric thermionic, Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling energy conversion systems, three concepts:were selected for further evaluation. In 1985, the high-temperature (1,350 K), lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectric conversion was selected for full scale development. Since then, significant progress has been achieved including the demonstration of a 7-y-life uranium nitride fuel pin. Progress on the lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics has progressed from a concept, through a generic flight system design, to the design, development, and testing of specific components. Meanwhile, the USSR in 1987--88 orbited a new generation of nuclear power systems beyond the, thermoelectric plants on the RORSAT satellites. The US has continued to advance its own thermionic fuel element development, concentrating on a multicell fuel element configuration. Experimental work has demonstrated a single cell operating time of about 1 1/2-y. Technology advances have also been made in the Stirling engine; an advanced engine that operates at 1,050 K is ready for testing. Additional concepts have been studied and experiments have been performed on a variety of systems to meet changing needs; such as powers of tens-to-hundreds of megawatts and highly survivable systems of tens-of-kilowatts power.

  20. Circuit for power variation rate measurements in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisin, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    An asychronous digital circuit for the power variation rate of a nuclear reactor is proposed. The circuit is based on the fact that the variation rate can be obtained by a simple division between the difference of two time normalized adjacent measurements of the neutron flux and the total value of the first measurement. The circuit maintains a constant precision of the counting rate due to the effect of an automatic time constant switch. 4 references.

  1. Reactor Power for Large Displacement Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-24

    This is a PentaChart on reactor power for large displacement autonomous underwater vehicles. Currently AUVs use batteries or combinations of batteries and fuel cells for power. Battery/fuel cell technology is limited by duration. Batteries and cell fuels are a good match for some missions, but other missions could benefit greatly by a longer duration. The goal is the following: to design nuclear systems to power an AUV and meet design constraints including non-proliferation issues, power level, size constraints, and power conversion limitations. The action plan is to continue development of a range of systems for terrestrial systems and focus on a system for Titan Moon as alternative to Pu-238 for NASA.

  2. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  3. Disk magnetohydrodynamic power conversion system for NERVA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W.D. (HMJ Corporation. 10400 Connecticut Ave., Kensington, Maryland 20895 (United States)); Bernard, F.E. (Westinghouse Corp., P.O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15230 (United States)); Holman, R.R. (HMJ Corporation, 10400 Connecticut Ave., Kensington, Maryland 20895 (United States)); Maxwell, C.D. (STD Research Corp., P.O. Box C, Arcadia, California 91006 (United States)); Seikel, G.R. (SeiTec, Inc., P.O. Box 81264, Cleveland, Ohio 44181 (United States))

    1993-01-15

    The combination of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator of the disk type with a NERVA reactor yields an advanced power system particularly suited to space applications with the capability of producing up to gigawatt pulses and multi-megawatt continuous operation. Several unique features result from the combination of this type of reactor and a disk MHD generator in which hydrogen serves as the plasma working fluid. Cesium seedings is utilized under conditions which enable the generator to operate stably in the non-equilibrium electrical conduction mode. In common with all practical MHD generators, the disk output is DC and voltages in the range 20--100 kV are attainable. This leads to a simplification of the power conditioning system and a major reduction in specific mass. Taken together with the high performance capabilities of the NERVA reactor, the result is an attractively low overall system specific mass. Further, the use of non-equilibrium ionization enables system specific enthalpy extractions in excess of 40% to be attained. This paper reports the results of a study to establish the basis for the design of a cesium seeded hydrogen MHD disk generator. Generator performance results are presented in terms of a stability factor which is related to cesium seeded hydrogen plasma behavior. It is shown that application of the results already obtained with cesium seeded noble gases (argon and helium) to the case of hydrogen as the working fluid in a disk MHD generator enables a high performance power system to be defined.

  4. Gravity Scaling of a Power Reactor Water Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert S.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2008-01-01

    Water based reactor shielding is being considered as an affordable option for use on initial lunar surface power systems. Heat dissipation in the shield from nuclear sources must be rejected by an auxiliary thermal hydraulic cooling system. The mechanism for transferring heat through the shield is natural convection between the core surface and an array of thermosyphon radiator elements. Natural convection in a 100 kWt lunar surface reactor shield design has been previously evaluated at lower power levels (Pearson, 2007). The current baseline assumes that 5.5 kW are dissipated in the water shield, the preponderance on the core surface, but with some volumetric heating in the naturally circulating water as well. This power is rejected by a radiator located above the shield with a surface temperature of 370 K. A similarity analysis on a water-based reactor shield is presented examining the effect of gravity on free convection between a radiation shield inner vessel and a radiation shield outer vessel boundaries. Two approaches established similarity: 1) direct scaling of Rayleigh number equates gravity-surface heat flux products, 2) temperature difference between the wall and thermal boundary layer held constant on Earth and the Moon. Nussult number for natural convection (laminar and turbulent) is assumed of form Nu = CRa(sup n). These combined results estimate similarity conditions under Earth and Lunar gravities. The influence of reduced gravity on the performance of thermosyphon heat pipes is also examined.

  5. IDLING AND NATURAL POWER TRANSFER LOSS SAVING BY MEANS OF SHUNT REACTORS AND REACTIVE POWER SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsiuk V.I

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The closed formulas for definition of the steady–state values of voltages, currents, active and reactive power in a line with the distributed and lumped constants are shown. The influence of the shunt reactors and reactive power sources in the form of capacitor banks on losses of idling with various wave lengths is investigated. For the half-wave transmissions line the optimal parameters (which allow increasing of the output during the natural-power transfer of the shunt reactors were obtained.

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  7. Power regulating range broadening of the WWER-type reactor power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dement' ev, B.A.; Petrov, V.A.; Proskuryakov, A.G.; Puchkov, V.V. (Moskovskij Ehnergeticheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-02-01

    Calculational studies on the use of sliding pressure (SP) regime to expand the regulating range of the WWER-440 reactor power units are presented. Two operation regimes of a power unit have been considered: according to weekly and daily load swings in electrical grids. The conclusion is made that the use of SP regime in the secondary circuit improves manoeuvable characterstics of the power unit in the second half of operating cycle. T of the reactor (0.6 power regulating range broadening of the reactor. Besides, the use of SP regime during power unit operation with decreased loadings is the more efficient the smaller is the load. The range of operating cycle 0.8 <= T <= 1 makes the greatest contribution to regulating range broadening as a result of SP regime use. Conclusions of the calculational studies can be also applied to WWER reactors of other types as well as to RBMK reactors.

  8. SABR fusion-fission hybrid transmutation reactor design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston

    2009-11-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a sub-critical advanced burner reactor (SABR) consisting of i) a sodium cooled fast reactor fueled with the transuranics (TRU) from spent nuclear fuel, and ii) a D-T tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER physics and technology. Subcritical operation enables more efficient transmutation fuel cycles in TRU fueled reactors (without compromising safety), which may be essential for significant reduction in high-level waste repository requirements. ITER will serve as the prototype for the fusion neutron source, which means SABRs could be implemented to help close the nuclear fuel cycle during the 2^nd quarter of the century.

  9. Automated power control system for reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Anith Khairunnisa; Minhat, Mohd Sabri; Hassan, Mohd Khair

    2017-01-01

    Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) Mark II type undergoes safe operation for more than 30 years and the only research reactor exists in Malaysia. The main safety feature of Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system design is such that any failure in the electronic, or its associated components, does not lead to an uncontrolled rate of reactivity. The existed controller using feedback approach to control the reactor power. This paper introduces proposed controllers such as Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) and Proportional Integral Derivatives (PID) controller for the RTP simulation. In RTP, the most important considered parameter is the reactor power and act as nervous system. To design a controller for complex plant like RTP is quite difficult due to high cost and safety factors cause by the failure of the controller. Furthermore, to overcome these problems, a simulator can be used to replace functions the hardware and test could then be simulated using this simulator. In order to find the best controller, several controllers were proposed and the result will be analysed for study the performances of the controller. The output result will be used to find out the best RTP power controller using MATLAB/Simulink and gives result as close as the real RTP performances. Currently, the structures of RTP was design using MATLAB/Simulink tool that consist of fission chamber, controller, control rod position, height-to-worth of control rods and a RTP model. The controller will control the control rod position to make sure that the reactivity still under the limitation parameter. The results given from each controller will be analysed and validated through experiment data collected from RTP.

  10. Supercritical Water Reactor Cycle for Medium Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BD Middleton; J Buongiorno

    2007-04-25

    Scoping studies for a power conversion system based on a direct-cycle supercritical water reactor have been conducted. The electric power range of interest is 5-30 MWe with a design point of 20 MWe. The overall design objective is to develop a system that has minimized physical size and performs satisfactorily over a broad range of operating conditions. The design constraints are as follows: Net cycle thermal efficiency {ge}20%; Steam turbine outlet quality {ge}90%; and Pumping power {le}2500 kW (at nominal conditions). Three basic cycle configurations were analyzed. Listed in order of increased plant complexity, they are: (1) Simple supercritical Rankine cycle; (2) All-supercritical Brayton cycle; and (3) Supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating. The sensitivity of these three configurations to various parameters, such as reactor exit temperature, reactor pressure, condenser pressure, etc., was assessed. The Thermoflex software package was used for this task. The results are as follows: (a) The simple supercritical Rankine cycle offers the greatest hardware simplification, but its high reactor temperature rise and reactor outlet temperature may pose serious problems from the viewpoint of thermal stresses, stability and materials in the core. (b) The all-supercritical Brayton cycle is not a contender, due to its poor thermal efficiency. (c) The supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating affords acceptable thermal efficiency with lower reactor temperature rise and outlet temperature. (d) The use of a moisture separator improves the performance of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and allows for a further reduction of the reactor outlet temperature, thus it was selected for the next step. Preliminary engineering design of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and moisture separation was performed. All major components including the turbine, feedwater heater, feedwater pump, condenser, condenser pump

  11. A hybrid electromechanical solid state switch for ac power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Bidirectional thyristor coupled to a series of actuator driven electromechanical contacts generates hybrid electromechanical solid state switch for ac power control. Device is useful in power control applications where zero crossover switching is required.

  12. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C

    2013-11-26

    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  13. High power ring methods and accelerator driven subcritical reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahar, Malek Haj [Univ. of Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-07

    High power proton accelerators allow providing, by spallation reaction, the neutron fluxes necessary in the synthesis of fissile material, starting from Uranium 238 or Thorium 232. This is the basis of the concept of sub-critical operation of a reactor, for energy production or nuclear waste transmutation, with the objective of achieving cleaner, safer and more efficient process than today’s technologies allow. Designing, building and operating a proton accelerator in the 500-1000 MeV energy range, CW regime, MW power class still remains a challenge nowadays. There is a limited number of installations at present achieving beam characteristics in that class, e.g., PSI in Villigen, 590 MeV CW beam from a cyclotron, SNS in Oakland, 1 GeV pulsed beam from a linear accelerator, in addition to projects as the ESS in Europe, a 5 MW beam from a linear accelerator. Furthermore, coupling an accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor is a challenging proposition: some of the key issues/requirements are the design of a spallation target to withstand high power densities as well as ensure the safety of the installation. These two domains are the grounds of the PhD work: the focus is on the high power ring methods in the frame of the KURRI FFAG collaboration in Japan: upgrade of the installation towards high intensity is crucial to demonstrate the high beam power capability of FFAG. Thus, modeling of the beam dynamics and benchmarking of different codes was undertaken to validate the simulation results. Experimental results revealed some major losses that need to be understood and eventually overcome. By developing analytical models that account for the field defects, one identified major sources of imperfection in the design of scaling FFAG that explain the important tune variations resulting in the crossing of several betatron resonances. A new formula is derived to compute the tunes and properties established that characterize the effect of the field imperfections on the

  14. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); O' Sullivan, G. (Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  15. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  16. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  17. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing water filtration device has features that can be developed to be more useful and functional during emergency situations. The project’s development has been aided by following provisions in PEC, NEC, NEMA and Philippine National Standard for Safe Drinking Water provide standards for the construction of the project. These standards protect both the prototype and the user. These also served as guide for the maintenance of every component. The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar cells and manually operated generator. This also shows its effectiveness and reliability based on the results of discharging test, water quality test and water production test. Based on analysis of the overall financial aspects, the machine can be profitable and the amount of revenue and operating cost will increase as years pass. Using the proper machine/ tools and methods of fabrication helps in easy assembly of the project. The materials and components used are cost effective and efficient. The best time for charging the battery using solar panel is 9:00 am onwards while the hand crank generator is too slow because the generated current is little. The water filtration device is very efficient regarding the operating hours and water production. The machine may have a great effect to society and economy in generation of clean available water at less cost.

  18. PR-EDB: Power Reactor Embrittlement Database - Version 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Subramani, Ranjit [ORNL

    2008-03-01

    The aging and degradation of light-water reactor pressure vessels is of particular concern because of their relevance to plant integrity and the magnitude of the expected irradiation embrittlement. The radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel materials depends on many factors, such as neutron fluence, flux, and energy spectrum, irradiation temperature, and preirradiation material history and chemical compositions. These factors must be considered to reliably predict pressure vessel embrittlement and to ensure the safe operation of the reactor. Large amounts of data from surveillance capsules are needed to develop a generally applicable damage prediction model that can be used for industry standards and regulatory guides. Furthermore, the investigations of regulatory issues such as vessel integrity over plant life, vessel failure, and sufficiency of current codes, Standard Review Plans (SRPs), and Guides for license renewal can be greatly expedited by the use of a well-designed computerized database. The Power Reactor Embrittlement Database (PR-EDB) is such a comprehensive collection of data for U.S. designed commercial nuclear reactors. The current version of the PR-EDB lists the test results of 104 heat-affected-zone (HAZ) materials, 115 weld materials, and 141 base materials, including 103 plates, 35 forgings, and 3 correlation monitor materials that were irradiated in 321 capsules from 106 commercial power reactors. The data files are given in dBASE format and can be accessed with any personal computer using the Windows operating system. "User-friendly" utility programs have been written to investigate radiation embrittlement using this database. Utility programs allow the user to retrieve, select and manipulate specific data, display data to the screen or printer, and fit and plot Charpy impact data. The PR-EDB Version 3.0 upgrades Version 2.0. The package was developed based on the Microsoft .NET framework technology and uses Microsoft Access for

  19. Hybrid simulation: an active power filter case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Garcés

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid simulation concept consisting of a combination of computer simulation and laboratory tests. This approach is a cost effective alternative to physically testing the whole system and allows better understanding of complex coupled systems.This paper describes implementing an active power filter (APF hybrid prototype where the source system and load are implemented as a real-time simulation and the system of static power converter acting as an active power filter is implemented in physical hardware. It also confirmed the hybrid simulation results by implementing the simulation in MATLAB-Simulink regarding the same system implemented during the active power filter analysis and design stage.

  20. HYBRID SULFUR FLOWSHEETS USING PEM ELECTROLYSIS AND A BAYONET DECOMPOSITION REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M; William Summers, W

    2008-05-30

    A conceptual design is presented for a Hybrid Sulfur process for the production of hydrogen using a high-temperature nuclear heat source to split water. The process combines proton exchange membrane-based SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer technology being developed at Savannah River National Laboratory with silicon carbide bayonet decomposition reactor technology being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Both are part of the US DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The flowsheet otherwise uses only proven chemical process components. Electrolyzer product is concentrated from 50 wt% sulfuric acid to 75 wt% via recuperative vacuum distillation. Pinch analysis is used to predict the high-temperature heat requirement for sulfuric acid decomposition. An Aspen Plus{trademark} model of the flowsheet indicates 340.3 kJ high-temperature heat, 75.5 kJ low-temperature heat, 1.31 kJ low-pressure steam, and 120.9 kJ electric power are consumed per mole of H{sub 2} product, giving an LHV efficiency of 35.3% (41.7% HHV efficiency) if electric power is available at a conversion efficiency of 45%.

  1. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

  2. Neutron dose estimation in a zero power nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño, S.; Vedelago, J.; Cantargi, F.; Keil, W.; Figueroa, R.; Mattea, F.; Chautemps, A.; Santibañez, M.; Valente, M.

    2016-10-01

    This work presents the characterization and contribution of neutron and gamma components to the absorbed dose in a zero power nuclear reactor. A dosimetric method based on Fricke gel was implemented to evaluate the separation between dose components in the mixed field. The validation of this proposed method was performed by means of direct measurements of neutron flux in different positions using Au and Mg-Ni activation foils. Monte Carlo simulations were conversely performed using the MCNP main code with a dedicated subroutine to incorporate the exact complete geometry of the nuclear reactor facility. Once nuclear fuel elements were defined, the simulations computed the different contributions to the absorbed dose in specific positions inside the core. Thermal/epithermal contributions of absorbed dose were assessed by means of Fricke gel dosimetry using different isotopic compositions aimed at modifying the sensitivity of the dosimeter for specific dose components. Clear distinctions between gamma and neutron capture dose were obtained. Both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results provided reliable estimations about neutron flux rate as well as dose rate during the reactor operation. Simulations and experimental results are in good agreement in every positions measured and simulated in the core.

  3. HAZARDS SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE ARMY PACKAGE POWER REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1955-07-27

    The APPR-I is described and the various hazards are reviewed. Because of the reactor's location near the nation's Capitol, containment is of the utmost importance. The maximum energy release in any possible accident is 7.4 million Btu's which is completely contained within a 7/8 inch thick steel cylindrical shell with hemispherical ends. The vapor container is 60 ft high and 32 ft in diameter and is lined on the inside with 2 ft of reinforced concrete which provides missile protection and is part of the secondary shield. All possible nuclear excursions are reviewed and the energy from any of these is insignificant compared to the stored energy in the water. The maximum credible accident is caused hy the reactor running constantly at its maximum power of 10 Mw and through an extremely unlikely sequence of failures, causing the temperature of the water in the primary and secondary systeras to rise to saturation; whereupon a rupture occurs releasing the stored energy of 7.4 million Btu's into the vapor container. If the reactor core melts during the incident, a maximum of 10/sup 8/ curies of activity is released. While it appears impossible for a rupture of the vapor container to oecur except by sabotage or bombing, the hazards to the surrounding area are discussed in the event of such a rupture occurring simultaneously with the maximum credible accident. (auth)

  4. The Power Quality Compensation Strategy for Power Distribution System Based on Hybrid Parallel Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid DEHINI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main aim is to confront the performance of shunt active power filter (SAPF and the shunt hybrid active power filter (SHAPF to achieve flexibility and reliability of the filter devices. Both of the two devices used the classical proportional-integral controller for pulse generation to trigger the inventers MOSFET’s. In the adopted hybrid active filter there is a passive power filter with high power rating to filter the low order harmonies and one active filter with low power rating to filter the other high order harmonies. In order to investigate the effectiveness of (SHAPF, the studies have been accomplished using simulation with the MATLAB-SIMULINK. The results show That (SHAPF is more effective than (SAPF, and has lower cost.

  5. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a /sup 233/U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed.

  6. Utilization of Minor Actinides (Np, Am, Cm) in Nuclear Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, A.; Bergelson, B.; Tikhomirov, G.

    2014-06-01

    Calculation research of the utilization process of minor actinides (transmutation with use of power released) is performed for specialized power reactor of the VVER type operating on the level of electric power of 1000 MW. Five subsequent cycles are considered for the reactor with fuel elements containing minor actinides along with enriched uranium. It was shown that one specialized reactor for the one cycle (900 days) can utilize minor actinides from several VVER-1000 reactors without any technological and structural modifications. Power released because of minor actinide fission is about 4% with respect to the total power

  7. Hybrid Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor for the biodegradation of benzotriazoles and hydroxy-benzothiazole in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazioti, Aikaterini A.; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.; Psoma, Aikaterini K.;

    2017-01-01

    A laboratory scale Hybrid Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (HMBBR) was used to study the removal of five benzotriazoles and one benzothiazole from municipal wastewater. The HMBBR system consisted of two serially connected fully aerated bioreactors that contained activated sludge (AS) and K3-biocarriers...

  8. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution for a fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-Hua; GUO Hai-Ping; MOU Yun-Feng; ZHENG Pu; LIU Rong; YANG Xiao-Fei; YANG Jian

    2013-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor is established.It consists of a DT neutron source and a spherical shell of depleted uranium and hydrogen lithium.The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in the conceptual reactor was measured by DT neutrons using two sets of lithium glass detectors with different thicknesses in the hole in the vertical direction with respect to the D+ beam of the Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator in direct current mode.The measured TPR distribution is compared with the calculated results obtained by the threedimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-Ⅵ data file.The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values can be attributed to the neutron data library of the hydrogen lithium lack S(α,β) thermal scattering model,so we show that a special database of low-energy and thermal neutrons should be established in the physics design of fusion-fission hybrid reactors.

  9. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhenhua [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles. (author)

  10. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  11. Robust reactor power control system design by genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sin [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The H{sub {infinity}} robust controller for the reactor power control system is designed by use of the mixed weight sensitivity. The system is configured into the typical two-port model with which the weight functions are augmented. Since the solution depends on the weighting functions and the problem is of nonconvex, the genetic algorithm is used to determine the weighting functions. The cost function applied in the genetic algorithm permits the direct control of the power tracking performances. In addition, the actual operating constraints such as rod velocity and acceleration can be treated as design parameters. Compared with the conventional approach, the controller designed by the genetic algorithm results in the better performances with the realistic constraints. Also, it is found that the genetic algorithm could be used as an effective tool in the robust design. 4 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  12. Oak Ridge Tokamak experimental power reactor study scoping report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.

    1977-03-01

    This report presents the scoping studies performed as the initial part of the program to produce a conceptual design for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor (EPR). The EPR as considered in this study is to employ all systems necessary for significant electric power production at continuous high duty cycle operation; it is presently scheduled to be the final technological step before a Demonstration Reactor Plant (Demo). The scoping study tasks begin with an exploration and identification of principal problem areas and then concentrate on consideration and evaluation of alternate design choices for each of the following major systems: Plasma Engineering and Physics, Nuclear, Electromagnetics, Neutral Beam Injection, and Tritium Handling. In addition, consideration has been given to the integration of these systems and requirements arising out of their incorporation into an EPR. One intent of this study is to document the paths explored in search of the appropriate EPR characteristics. To satisfy this intent, the explorations are presented in chart form outlining possible options in key areas with extensive supporting footnotes. An important result of the scoping study has been the development and definition of an EPR reference design to serve as (1) a common focus for the continuing design study and (2) a guide for associated development programs. In addition, the study has identified research and development requirements essential to facilitate the successful conceptual design, construction, and operation of an EPR.

  13. Review of the status of low power research reactors and considerations for its development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, In Cheol; Wu, Sang Ik; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Jae Joo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    At present, 232 research reactors in the world are in operation and two thirds of them have a power less than 1 MW. Many countries have used research reactors as the tools for educating and training students or engineers and for scientific service such as neutron activation analysis. As the introduction of a research reactor is considered a stepping stone for a nuclear power development program, many newcomers are considering having a low power research reactor. The IAEA has continued to provide forums for the exchange of information and experiences regarding low power research reactors. Considering these, the Agency is recently working on the preparation of a guide for the preparation of technical specification possibly for a member state to use when wanting to purchase a low power research reactor. In addition, ANS has stated that special consideration should be given to the continued national support to maintain and expand research and test reactor programs and to the efforts in identifying and addressing the future needs by working toward the development and deployment of next generation nuclear research and training facilities. Thus, more interest will be given to low power research reactors and its role as a facility for education and training. Considering these, the status of low power research reactors was reviewed, and some aspects to be considered in developing a low power research reactor were studied.

  14. Compensation by RGMS for misreading reactor power in case of D2O dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Hoon; Park, Jae Yoon; Choi, Young San; Kim, Young Ki [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In a research reactor Neutron Measurement System (NMS) which uses wide range fission chamber as neutron detector is applied to measure the reactor power. This system has rapid response to power and stable accuracy for wide range. But this has some concerns of relative measured values depending on the installed location of neutron detector and also may cause the loss of accuracy when dilution of heavy water in the D2O tank happens. The NMS is not only used for reactor control and but also used for reactor protection system. Accordingly faulted reactor power with high deviation for second case may lead unexpected increase of the reactor power. In order to prevent this occurrence, Reactor Gamma Measurement System (RGMS) is necessarily applied. Herein the structure, measuring method and application of RGMS will be introduced.

  15. New applications of neutron noise theory in power reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzhanov, Vasiliy

    2000-04-01

    The present thesis deals with neutron noise theory as applied to three comparatively different topics (or problems) in power reactor physics. Namely they are: theoretical investigation of the possibility to use a newly proposed current-flux (C/F) detector in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) for the localisation of anomalies; both definition and studies on the point kinetic and adiabatic approximations for the relatively recently proposed Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS); development of the general theory of linear reactor kinetics and neutron noise in systems with varying size. One important practical problem is to detect and localise a vibrating control rod pin. The significance comes from the operational experience which indicates that individual pins can execute excessive mechanical vibrations that may lead to damage. Such mechanical vibrations induce neutron noise that can be detected. While the detection is relatively easy, the localisation of a vibrating control rod is much more complicated because only one measuring position is available and one needs to have at least three measured quantities. Therefore it has currently been proposed that the fluctuations of the neutron current vector, called the current noise, can be used in addition to the scalar noise in reactor diagnostic problems. The thesis investigates the possibility of the localization of a vibrating control rod pin in a PWR control assembly by using the scalar neutron noise and the 2-D radial current noise as measured at one central point in the control assembly. An explicit localisation technique is elaborated in which the searched position is determined as the absolute minimum of a minimisation function. The technique is investigated in numerical simulations. The results of the simulation tests show the potential applicability of the method. By design accelerator-driven systems would operate in a subcritical mode with a strong external source. This calls for a revision of many concepts and

  16. System aspects of a Space Nuclear Reactor Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1988-01-01

    Selected systems aspects of a 300 kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been studied. The approach included examination of two candidate missions and their associated spacecraft, and a number of special topics dealing with the power system design and operation. The missions considered were a reusable orbital transfer vehicle and a space-based radar. The special topics included: power system configuration and scaling, launch vehicle integration, operating altitude, orbital storage, start-up, thawing, control, load following, procedures in case of malfunction, restart, thermal and nuclear radiation to other portions of the spacecraft, thermal stresses between subsystems, boom and cable designs, vibration modes, altitude control, reliability, and survivability. Among the findings are that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly. The power system design evolved during the study and has continued to evolve; the current design differs somewhat from that examined in this paper.

  17. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  18. A preliminary investigation of the Topaz II reactor as a lunar surface power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polansky, G.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Houts, M.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Reactor power supplies offer many attractive characteristics for lunar surface applications. The Topaz II reactor resulted from an extensive development program in the former Soviet Union. Flight quality reactor units remain from this program and are currently under evaluation in the United States. This paper examines the potential for applying the Topaz II, originally developed to provide spacecraft power, as a lunar surface power supply.

  19. Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    None From the ion chromatography results we can calculate the concentration of HNO3 in the gas leaving the plasma reactor. The small NO3- detected...resistant to decomposition by O3. Carbon and polymeric adsorbents were not considered because they would react with O3 and decompose . Potential...nor any ability to decompose ozone. A SAC-13 catalyst was obtained from Engelhard for testing also. This material is an H- Nafion Ion Exchange

  20. 77 FR 38338 - Dairyland Power Cooperative; La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Dairyland Power Cooperative; La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security Requirements 1.0 Background The La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR) is owned and was operated by the..., which utilized a forced-circulation, direct-cycle boiling water reactor as its heat source. The plant is...

  1. Improvement of system code importing evaluation of Life Cycle Analysis of tokamak fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobori, Hikaru [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hiwatari, Ryoji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We incorporated the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code. • We calculated CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. • We found that the objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. • The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. • The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant. - Abstract: This study incorporate the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code to calculate CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. Competitiveness of tokamak fusion power reactors is expected to be evaluated by the cost and environmental impact represented by the CO{sub 2} emissions, compared with present and future power generating systems such as fossil, nuclear and renewables. Result indicated that (1) The objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. (2) The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. (3) The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant.

  2. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  3. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Mellor, Matthew P.; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors. PMID:26450669

  4. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Mellor, Matthew P.; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J.

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors.

  5. CARDIOGRAMA: a stochastic, semi-empirical methodology for power-reactor surveillance and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, J.A.; deSaussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of stochastic methods (reactor noise) for power reactor diagnostics and surveillance applications is by now a relatively well-established technique. In this technique, the power spectral density (PSD) of the fluctuations of a specified state variable is often used to define the reactor's signature at a given configuration. The purpose of the present work is to address the problem of handling efficiently the substantial amount of information involved in the application of reactor surveillance and diagnostics methods. Specifically, a methodology is described for: (a) representing the PSDs parametrically, and (b) detecting changes from the reactor's baseline PSD (normal signature).

  6. Activities in the field of small nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranaev, Yu.D.; Dolgov, V.V.; Sergeev, Yu.A. [Physics and Power Eng. Inst., Obninsk (Russian Federation). State Res. Centre

    1997-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been undertaken for development, design, construction and operation of small nuclear power plants (SNPP) in Russia. Systematic work in this area was started in the mid-1950s. The driving force for this activity was the awareness that the use of nuclear fuel would practically solve the problem of fuel transportation. As far as the remote northern regions are concerned, this provides the key advantage of nuclear over conventional energy sources. The activity in the field of SNPP has included pre-design analytical feasibility studies and experimental research including large-scale experiments on critical assemblies, thermal and hydraulic test facilities, research and development work, construction and operation of pilot and demonstration SNPPs, and finally, construction and more than 20 years of operation of the commercial SNPP, namely Bilibino nuclear co-generation plant (NCGP) located in Chukotka autonomous district, which is one of the most remote regions in the far north-east of Russia. In recent years, studies have been carried out on the development of several new SNPP designs using advanced reactors of the new generation. Among these are the second stage of Bilibino NCGP, floating NCGP VOLNOLOM-3, designated for siting in the Arctic sea coast area, and a nuclear district heating plant for the town of Apatity, in the Murmansk region. In this paper, the background and current status of the SNPPs are given, and the problems as well as prospects of small nuclear reactors development and implementation are considered. (orig.) 20 refs.

  7. Power conversion systems based on Brayton cycles for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, J.I., E-mail: linares@upcomillas.es [Rafael Marino Chair on New Energy Technologies. Comillas Pontifical University, Alberto Aguilera, 25-28015 Madrid (Spain); Herranz, L.E. [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research. CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Moratilla, B.Y.; Serrano, I.P. [Rafael Marino Chair on New Energy Technologies. Comillas Pontifical University, Alberto Aguilera, 25-28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    This paper investigates Brayton power cycles for fusion reactors. Two working fluids have been explored: helium in classical configurations and CO{sub 2} in recompression layouts (Feher cycle). Typical recuperator arrangements in both cycles have been strongly constrained by low temperature of some of the energy thermal sources from the reactor. This limitation has been overcome in two ways: with a combined architecture and with dual cycles. Combined architecture couples the Brayton cycle with a Rankine one capable of taking advantage of the thermal energy content of the working fluid after exiting the turbine stage (iso-butane and steam fitted best the conditions of the He and CO{sub 2} cycles, respectively). Dual cycles set a specific Rankine cycle to exploit the lowest quality thermal energy source, allowing usual recuperator arrangements in the Brayton cycle. The results of the analyses indicate that dual cycles could reach thermal efficiencies around 42.8% when using helium, whereas thermal performance might be even better (46.7%), if a combined CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O cycle was set.

  8. Photochemical/Microchannel Plasma Reactors Driven By High Power Vacuum Ultraviolet Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chul; Park, Sung-Jin; Eden, Gary

    2016-09-01

    Experiments are being conducted in which molecular dissociation or other chemical reactions in microchannel plasmas are accelerated by the introduction of vacuum ultraviolet photons. Initial emphasis is being placed on recently-developed Xe2 lamps that are efficient sources of 172 nm (h ν 7.2 eV) photons. Thin, flat lamps, fabricated from fused silica and having microcavity arrays internal to the lamp, have been developed by the University of Illinois and Eden Park Illumination and produce intensities above 200 mW/cm2. Integrating such lamps into a microcavity plasma reactor yields a hybrid photochemical/plasma system in which product yield and power consumption can be optimized. The selectivity of photodissociation in generating radicals and atomic fragments offers new synergies in plasma processing. Data concerning CO2 dissociation in arrays of microchannel plasmas, and the modification of this process by external 172 nm radiation, will be presented.

  9. Hybrid Engine Powered City Car: Fuzzy Controlled Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, AKM; Hawlader, MNA; Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a fuzzy controlled hybrid engine powered car. The car is powered by the lithium ion battery capacity of 1000 Wh is charged by the 50 cc hybrid engine and power regenerative mode. The engine is operated with lean mixture at 3000 rpm to charge the battery. The regenerative mode that connects with the engine generates electrical power of 500-600 W for the deceleration of car from 90 km/h to 20 km/h. The regenerated electrical power has been used to power the air-conditioning system and to meet the other electrical power. The battery power only used to propel the car. The regenerative power also found charging the battery for longer operation about 40 minutes and more. The design flexibility of this vehicle starts with whole-vehicle integration based on radical light weighting, drag reduction, and accessory efficiency. The energy efficient hybrid engine cut carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (N2O) emission about 70-80% as the loads on the crankshaft such as cam-follower and its associated rotating components are replaced by electromagnetic systems, and the flywheel, alternator and starter motor are replaced by a motor generator. The vehicle was tested and found that it was able to travel 70 km/litre with the power of hybrid engine.

  10. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  11. Preliminary Development of Thermal Power Calculation Code H-Power for a Supercritical Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SCWR (Supercritical Water Reactor is one of the promising Generation IV nuclear systems, which has higher thermal power efficiency than current pressurized water reactor. It is necessary to perform the thermal equilibrium and thermal power calculation for the conceptual design and further monitoring and calibration of the SCWR. One visual software named H-Power was developed to calculate thermal power and its uncertainty of SCWR, in which the advanced IAPWS-IF97 industrial formulation was used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of water and steam. The ISO-5167-4: 2003 standard was incorporated in the code as the basis of orifice plate to compute the flow rate. New heat balance model and uncertainty estimate have also been included in the code. In order to validate H-Power, an assessment was carried out by using data published by US and Qinshan Phase II. The results showed that H-Power was able to estimate the thermal power of SCWR.

  12. Radioactivity effects of Pb-17Li in fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.; Rocco, P. (Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)); Zucchetti, M. (Dipt. di Energetica, Politecnico Turin (Italy))

    1991-12-01

    Research on the eutectic Pb-17Li is part of the blanket studies carried out in Europe for fusion power reactors. The use of this breeder makes easier some safety problems as compared to the case of lithium as a consequence of the lower chemical reactivity of Pb-17Li. On the other hand, it increases the radioactivity problems due to the neutron activation of lead and impurities. This paper presents both short-term (accidents) and long-term (waste disposal and recycling) aspects of the Pb-17Li activation products. They include the production, mobilization, release and environmental impact. Concerning accidents, a particular attention is given to Po-210 and Hg-203. Questions related to waste management are also revised. The most attractive solution seems that of recycling the spent Pb-17Li. This will be possible about 20 y after removal from service. As an alternative to recycling, the breeder disposal as radioactive waste is discussed. (orig.).

  13. Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience.

  14. A Basic LEGO Reactor Design for the Provision of Lunar Surface Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Darrell Bess

    2008-06-01

    A final design has been established for a basic Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor using current and near-term technologies. The LEGO Reactor is a modular, fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled, clustered-reactor system for lunar-surface power generation. The reactor is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched with lunar shipments from Earth, and then emplaced directly into holes drilled into the lunar regolith to form a critical reactor assembly. The regolith would not just provide radiation shielding, but serve as neutron-reflector material as well. The reactor subunits are to be manufactured using proven and tested materials for use in radiation environments, such as uranium-dioxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and structural support, and liquid-sodium heatpipes. The LEGO Reactor system promotes reliability, safety, and ease of manufacture and testing at the cost of an increase in launch mass per overall rated power level and a reduction in neutron economy when compared to a single-reactor system. A single unshielded LEGO Reactor subunit has an estimated mass of approximately 448 kg and provides approximately 5 kWe. The overall envelope for a single subunit with fully extended radiator panels has a height of 8.77 m and a diameter of 0.50 m. Six subunits could provide sufficient power generation throughout the initial stages of establishing a lunar outpost. Portions of the reactor may be neutronically decoupled to allow for reduced power production during unmanned periods of base operations. During later stages of lunar-base development, additional subunits may be emplaced and coupled into the existing LEGO Reactor network, subject to lunar base power demand. Improvements in reactor control methods, fuel form and matrix, shielding, as well as power conversion and heat rejection techniques can help generate an even more competitive LEGO Reactor design. Further modifications in the design could provide power generative opportunities for

  15. Irradiation Tests Supporting LEU Conversion of Very High Power Research Reactors in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolstenhulme, N. E.; Cole, J. I.; Glagolenko, I.; Holdaway, K. K.; Housley, G. K.; Rabin, B. H.

    2016-10-01

    The US fuel development team is developing a high density uranium-molybdenum alloy monolithic fuel to enable conversion of five high-power research reactors. Previous irradiation tests have demonstrated promising behavior for this fuel design. A series of future irradiation tests will enable selection of final fuel fabrication process and provide data to qualify the fuel at moderately-high power conditions for use in three of these five reactors. The remaining two reactors, namely the Advanced Test Reactor and High Flux Isotope Reactor, require additional irradiation tests to develop and demonstrate the fuel’s performance with even higher power conditions, complex design features, and other unique conditions. This paper reviews the program’s current irradiation testing plans for these moderately-high irradiation conditions and presents conceptual testing strategies to illustrate how subsequent irradiation tests will build upon this initial data package to enable conversion of these two very-high power research reactors.

  16. Power monitoring in space nuclear reactors using silicon carbide radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Frank H.; Patel, Jagdish U.; Williams, John G.

    2005-01-01

    Space reactor power monitors based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor neutron detectors are proposed. Detection of fast leakage neutrons using SiC detectors in ex-core locations could be used to determine reactor power: Neutron fluxes, gamma-ray dose rates and ambient temperatures have been calculated as a function of distance from the reactor core, and the feasibility of power monitoring with SiC detectors has been evaluated at several ex-core locations. Arrays of SiC diodes can be configured to provide the required count rates to monitor reactor power from startup to full power Due to their resistance to temperature and the effects of neutron and gamma-ray exposure, SiC detectors can be expected to provide power monitoring information for the fill mission of a space reactor.

  17. Outline of the safety research results, in the power reactor field, fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has promoted the safety research in fiscal year of 1996 according to the Fundamental Research on Safety Research (fiscal year 1996 to 2000) prepared on March, 1996. Here is described on the research results in fiscal year 1996, the first year of the 5 years programme, and whole outline of the fundamental research on safety research, on the power reactor field (whole problems on the new nuclear converter and the fast breeder reactor field and problems relating to the power reactor in the safety for earthquake and probability theoretical safety evaluation field). (G.K.)

  18. Monitoring the Thermal Power of Nuclear Reactors with a Prototype Cubic Meter Antineutrino Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, A; Misner, A; Palmer, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate how quickly and how precisely a reactor's operational status and thermal power can be monitored over hour to month time scales, using the antineutrino rate as measured by a cubic meter scale detector. Our results are obtained from a detector we have deployed and operated at 25 meter standoff from a reactor core. This prototype can detect a prompt reactor shutdown within five hours, and monitor relative thermal power to three percent within seven days. Monitoring of short-term power changes in this way may be useful in the context of International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Reactor Safeguards Regime, or other cooperative monitoring regimes.

  19. 聚变-裂变混合堆高功率密度包层的设计研究%High Power Density Blanket Design Study for Fusion-fission Hybrid Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锦华; 邓培智

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual design study of a high power density blanket was carried out. The blanket is cooled by high-pressure helium in tubes in the form of cooling panels. A great number of cooling panels is arranged inside the blanket yet maintaining a fairly simple configuration. The module is robust and fabricable. The concept of LiPb eutectic/transuranium oxide suspension is adopted. The neutronics design is performed giving a flattened power density distribution with the peak value of 70 W/cm3. Thermal analysis shows the design can satisfy technical requirements. Preliminary structural analysis has also been done.%进行了高功率密度包层的概念设计研究。包层冷却采用管道承压的氦气。虽然引入了众多的氦冷却管道,包层结构仍然比较简单、坚固并便于制造。采用了超铀氧化物颗粒悬浮在锂铅共熔体的方案,中子学计算给出峰值功率密度为70 MW*m-3,功率密度分布比较平坦。热工分析计算表明设计能满足技术要求。此外,进行了初步的结构分析计算。

  20. Optimization of hybrid power system composed of SMES and flywheel MG for large pulsed load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiyama, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2008-09-01

    A superconducting magnetic storage system (SMES) has some advantages such as rapid large power response and high storage efficiency which are superior to other energy storage systems. A flywheel motor generator (FWMG) has large scaled capacity and high reliability, and hence is broadly utilized for a large pulsed load, while it has comparatively low storage efficiency due to high mechanical loss compared with SMES. A fusion power plant such as International Thermo-Nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) requires a large and long pulsed load which causes a frequency deviation in a utility power system. In order to keep the frequency within an allowable deviation, we propose a hybrid power system for the pulsed load, which equips the SMES and the FWMG with the utility power system. We evaluate installation cost and frequency control performance of three power systems combined with energy storage devices; (i) SMES with the utility power, (ii) FWMG with the utility power, (iii) both SMES and FWMG with the utility power. The first power system has excellent frequency power control performance but its installation cost is high. The second system has inferior frequency control performance but its installation cost is the lowest. The third system has good frequency control performance and its installation cost is attained lower than the first power system by adjusting the ratio between SMES and FWMG.

  1. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44... FACILITIES Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.44 Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions—(1) Inerted atmosphere means a containment atmosphere...

  2. Development of a Robust Tri-Carbide Fueled Reactor for Multimegawatt Space Power and Propulsion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim Anghaie; Travis W. Knight; Johann Plancher; Reza Gouw

    2004-08-11

    An innovative reactor core design based on advanced, mixed carbide fuels was analyzed for nuclear space power applications. Solid solution, mixed carbide fuels such as (U,Zr,Nb)c and (U,Zr, Ta)C offer great promise as an advanced high temperature fuel for space power reactors.

  3. Effect of Different Structural Materials on Neutronic Performance of a Hybrid Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Übeyli, Mustafa; Tel, Eyyüp

    2003-06-01

    Selection of structural material for a fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor is very important by taking into account of neutronic performance of the blanket. Refractory metals and alloys have much higher operating temperatures and neutron wall load (NWL) capabilities than low activation materials (ferritic/martensitic steels, vanadium alloys and SiC/SiC composites) and austenitic stainless steels. In this study, effect of primary candidate refractory alloys, namely, W-5Re, T111, TZM and Nb-1Zr on neutronic performance of the hybrid reactor was investigated. Neutron transport calculations were conducted with the help of SCALE 4.3 System by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with code XSDRNPM. Among the investigated structural materials, tantalum had the worst performance due to the fact that it has higher neutron absorption cross section than others. And W-5Re and TZM having similar results showed the best performance.

  4. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ninić Neven; Klarin Branko; Tolj Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen usi...

  5. Issues and future direction of thermal-hydraulics research and development in nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, P., E-mail: pradip.saha@ge.com [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States); Aksan, N. [GRNSPG Group, University of Pisa (Italy); Andersen, J. [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States); Yan, J. [Westinghouse Electric Co., Columbia, SC (United States); Simoneau, J.P. [AREVA, Lyon (France); Leung, L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Bertrand, F. [CEA, DEN, DER, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aoto, K.; Kamide, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    The paper archives the proceedings of an expert panel discussion on the issues and future direction of thermal-hydraulic research and development in nuclear power reactors held at the NURETH-14 conference in Toronto, Canada, in September 2011. Thermal-hydraulic issues related to both operating and advanced reactors are presented. Advances in thermal-hydraulics have significantly improved the performance of operating reactors. Further thermal-hydraulics research and development is continuing in both experimental and computational areas for operating reactors, reactors under construction or ready for near-term deployment, and advanced Generation-IV reactors. As the computing power increases, the fine-scale multi-physics computational models, coupled with the systems analysis code, are expected to provide answers to many challenging problems in both operating and advanced reactor designs.

  6. Ultralight Solar Powered Hybrid Research Drone

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    A planetary research drone is proposed, which is capable for vertical takeoff and landing. A hybrid flight concept utilizing static lift enables the exploration over ground. The static lift is achieved with a lighter than CO2 gas like air, He or H2.

  7. A hybrid approach to space power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholdston, E. W.; Janik, D. F.; Newton, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional control systems have traditionally been utilized for space-based power designs. However, the use of expert systems is becoming important for NASA applications. Rocketdyne has been pursuing the development of expert systems to aid and enhance control designs of space-based power systems. The need for integrated expert systems is vital for the development of autonomous power systems.

  8. Control approach for comfortable power shifting in hybrid transmissions - ML 450 hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger Zetina, Siegfried; Neiss, Konstantin [Daimler AG, Hybrid Development Center, Troy, MI (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The comfortable shifting control in a luxury class vehicle is extremely important, due to competitive automatic transmissions with torque converters; clutch automated manual transmissions and dual clutch transmissions. Hybrid transmissions play a key role in comfort and performance enhancement while at the same time being fuel efficient with the aid of electric machines and battery packs. Here, the alternative to conventional add-on hybrid power head transmissions: the power split hybrid transmission is studied. As a practical example, the Two Mode of the Hybrid Development Center is used within the ML450 Hybrid. For achieving a smooth shifting, there are model based algorithms needed. As objective measure to evaluate the shifting the VDV (Vibration Dose Value) is used. (orig.)

  9. Design and implementation of a novel portable atomic layer deposition/chemical vapor deposition hybrid reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan; Jursich, Gregory; Takoudis, Christos G

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a novel portable atomic layer deposition chemical vapor deposition (ALD/CVD) hybrid reactor setup. Unique feature of this reactor is the use of ALD/CVD mode in a single portable deposition system to fabricate multi-layer thin films over a broad range from "bulk-like" multi-micrometer to nanometer atomic dimensions. The precursor delivery system and control-architecture are designed so that continuous reactant flows for CVD and cyclic pulsating flows for ALD mode are facilitated. A custom-written LabVIEW program controls the valve sequencing to allow synthesis of different kinds of film structures under either ALD or CVD mode or both. The entire reactor setup weighs less than 40 lb and has a relatively small footprint of 8 × 9 in., making it compact and easy for transportation. The reactor is tested in the ALD mode with titanium oxide (TiO2) ALD using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and water vapor. The resulting growth rate of 0.04 nm/cycle and purity of the films are in good agreement with literature values. The ALD/CVD hybrid mode is demonstrated with ALD of TiO2 and CVD of tin oxide (SnOx). Transmission electron microscopy images of the resulting films confirm the formation of successive distinct TiO2-ALD and SnO(x)-CVD layers.

  10. Design and implementation of a novel portable atomic layer deposition/chemical vapor deposition hybrid reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan; Jursich, Gregory; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a novel portable atomic layer deposition chemical vapor deposition (ALD/CVD) hybrid reactor setup. Unique feature of this reactor is the use of ALD/CVD mode in a single portable deposition system to fabricate multi-layer thin films over a broad range from "bulk-like" multi-micrometer to nanometer atomic dimensions. The precursor delivery system and control-architecture are designed so that continuous reactant flows for CVD and cyclic pulsating flows for ALD mode are facilitated. A custom-written LabVIEW program controls the valve sequencing to allow synthesis of different kinds of film structures under either ALD or CVD mode or both. The entire reactor setup weighs less than 40 lb and has a relatively small footprint of 8 × 9 in., making it compact and easy for transportation. The reactor is tested in the ALD mode with titanium oxide (TiO2) ALD using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and water vapor. The resulting growth rate of 0.04 nm/cycle and purity of the films are in good agreement with literature values. The ALD/CVD hybrid mode is demonstrated with ALD of TiO2 and CVD of tin oxide (SnOx). Transmission electron microscopy images of the resulting films confirm the formation of successive distinct TiO2-ALD and SnOx-CVD layers.

  11. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to operate at net electrical power conditions with a plant capacity factor of 50 percent for 10 years. The EPR operates in a pulsed mode at a frequency of approximately 1/min., with an approximate 75 percent duty cycle, is capable of producing approximately 72 MWe and requires 42 MWe. The annual tritium consumption is 16 kg. The EPR vacuum chamber is 6.25 m in major radius and 2.4 m in minor radius, is constructed of 2-cm thick stainless steel, and has 2-cm thick detachable, beryllium-coated coolant panels mounted on the interior. An 0.28 m stainless steel blanket and a shield ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 m surround the vacuum vessel. The coolant is H/sub 2/O. Sixteen niobium-titanium superconducting toroidal-field coils provide a field of 10 T at the coil and 4.47 T at the plasma. Superconducting ohmic-heating and equilibrium-field coils provide 135 V-s to drive the plasma current. Plasma heating is accomplished by 12 neutral beam-injectors, which provide 60 MW. The energy transfer and storage system consists of a central superconducting storage ring, a homopolar energy storage unit, and a variety of inductor-converters.

  12. Plasma engineering studies for Tennessee Tokamak (TENTOK) fusion power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, K.E.; Lacatski, J.T.; Miller, J.B.; Bryan, W.E.; King, P.W.; Santoro, R.T.; Uckan, N.A.; Shannon, T.E.

    1984-02-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the plasma engineering and systems analysis studies for the Tennessee Tokamak (TENTOK) fusion power reactor. TENTOK is a 3000-MW(t) central station power plant that uses deuterium-tritium fuel in a D-shaped tokamak plasma configuration with a double-null poloidal divertor. The major parameters are R/sub 0/ = 6.4 m, a = 1.6 m, sigma (elongation) = 1.65, (n) = 1.5 x 10/sup 20/ m/sup -3/, (T) = 15 keV, (..beta..) = 6%, B/sub T/ (on-axis) = 5.6 T, I/sub p/ = 8.5 MA, and wall loading = 3 MW/m/sup 2/. Detailed analyses are performed in the areas of (1) transport simulation using the one-and-one-half-dimensional (1-1/2-D) WHIST transport code, (2) equilibrium/poloidal field coil systems, (3) neutral beam and radiofrequency (rf) heating, and (4) pellet fueling. In addition, impurity control systems, diagnostics and controls, and possible microwave plasma preheating and steady-state current drive options are also considered. Some of the major features of TENTOK include rf heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, superconducting equilibrium field coils outside the superconducting toroidal field coils, a double-null poloidal divertor for impurity control and alpha ash removal, and rf-assisted plasma preheating and current startup.

  13. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renier, J.A.

    2002-04-17

    Burnable poisons are used in all modern nuclear reactors to permit higher loading of fuel without the necessity of an overly large control rod system. This not only permits a longer core life but can also be used to level the power distribution. Commercial nuclear reactors commonly use B{sub 4}C in separate non-fueled rods and more recently, zirconium boride coatings on the fuel pellets or gadolinium oxide mixed with the fuel. Although the advantages are great, there are problems with using these materials. Boron, which is an effective neutron absorber, transmutes to lithium and helium upon absorption of a neutron. Helium is insoluble and is eventually released to the interior of the fuel rod, where it produces an internal pressure. When sufficiently high, this pressure stress could cause separation of the cladding from the fuel, causing overly high centerline temperatures. Gadolinium has several very strongly absorbing isotopes, but not all have large cross sections and result in residual burnable poison reactivity worth at the end of the fuel life. Even if the amount of this residual absorber is small and the penalty in operation small, the cost of this penalty, even if only several days, can be very high. The objective of this investigation was to study the performance of single isotopes in order to reduce the residual negative reactivity left over at the end of the fuel cycle. Since the behavior of burnable poisons can be strongly influenced by their configuration, four forms for the absorbers were studied: homogeneously mixed with the fuel, mixed with only the outer one-third of the fuel pellet, coated on the perimeter of the fuel pellets, and alloyed with the cladding. In addition, the numbers of fuel rods containing burnable poison were chosen as 8, 16, 64, and 104. Other configurations were chosen for a few special cases. An enrichment of 4.5 wt% {sup 235}U was chosen for most cases for study in order to achieve a 4-year fuel cycle. A standard pressurized

  14. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Associate Directorate for Advanced Reactors and License Renewal

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC`s ``Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants`` (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC`s preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant`s research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified.

  15. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  16. Power Quality Improvement Using Hybrid Power Flow Controller in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manidhar Thula ,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the applicability of Hybrid Power Flow Controller (HPFC as an alternative to Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC for improvement of power system performance. UPFC is a flexible AC transmission system (FACTS device containing two switching converters, one in series and one in shunt. To configure the HPFC, one of the switching converters of the UPFC is replaced by thyristor controlled variable impedances, thus reducing the cost. In this paper, the HPFC has been configured by multilevel Voltage Source Converter (VSC used for the shunt compensation branches and a thyristor controlled variable impedance used for series compensation. It is shown that with suitable control the HPFC can inject a voltage of required magnitude in series with the line at any desired angle, just like UPFC. This helps in providing compensation equivalent to UPFC and improving the steady state stability limits of the power system.

  17. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  18. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during t...

  19. Anaerobic treatment of a chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater in a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem, Yalcin Askin; Ince, Orhan; Sallis, Paul; Donnelly, Tom; Ince, Bahar Kasapgil

    2008-03-01

    In this study, performance of a lab-scale hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, treating a chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater, was evaluated under different operating conditions. This study consisted of two experimental stages: first, acclimation to the pharmaceutical wastewater and second, determination of maximum loading capacity of the hybrid UASB reactor. Initially, the carbon source in the reactor feed came entirely from glucose, applied at an organic loading rate (OLR) 1 kg COD/m(3) d. The OLR was gradually step increased to 3 kg COD/m(3) d at which point the feed to the hybrid UASB reactor was progressively modified by introducing the pharmaceutical wastewater in blends with glucose, so that the wastewater contributed approximately 10%, 30%, 70%, and ultimately, 100% of the carbon (COD) to be treated. At the acclimation OLR of 3 kg COD/m(3) d the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 2 days. During this period of feed modification, the COD removal efficiencies of the anaerobic reactor were 99%, 96%, 91% and 85%, and specific methanogenic activities (SMA) were measured as 240, 230, 205 and 231 ml CH(4)/g TVS d, respectively. Following the acclimation period, the hybrid UASB reactor was fed with 100% (w/v) pharmaceutical wastewater up to an OLR of 9 kg COD/m(3) d in order to determine the maximum loading capacity achievable before reactor failure. At this OLR, the COD removal efficiency was 28%, and the SMA was measured as 170 ml CH(4)/g TVS d. The hybrid UASB reactor was found to be far more effective at an OLR of 8 kg COD/m(3) d with a COD removal efficiency of 72%. At this point, SMA value was 200 ml CH(4)/g TVS d. It was concluded that the hybrid UASB reactor could be a suitable alternative for the treatment of chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater.

  20. The synthesis of a copper/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid nanowire in a microfluidic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yitian; Chen, Quanfang

    2009-06-01

    Metallic nanowires are promising as components in nanoscale systems including nanoelectronics. However, the application of nanowires made of a single material is limited by the properties of the material used. We report here an effort to fabricate a hybrid copper-coated carbon nanotube (CNT)—Cu/CNT nanowire, using a microfluidic reactor. The fabrication of copper/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid nanowires was realized by an electroless copper deposition technique in which MWCNT templates and an electrolyte were introduced separately into the microfluidic reactor. The morphology and structure of the Cu/MWCNT hybrid nanowire were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), as well as XRD. Results reveal that the fabricated Cu/MWCNT hybrid nanowires are continuously covered by crystallized copper with a preferred crystal orientation along the (111) planes in the radial direction of the MWCNTs. These structural properties are attributed to the unique reaction environment including laminar flow and diffusion-controlled reaction.

  1. Hybrid reactor based on combined cavitation and ozonation: from concept to practical reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, P R; Mededovic-Thagard, S; McGuire, D; Chapas, G; Blackmon, J; Cathey, R

    2014-03-01

    The present work gives an in depth discussion related to the development of a hybrid advanced oxidation reactor, which can be effectively used for the treatment of various types of water. The reactor is based on the principle of intensifying degradation/disinfection using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation, acoustic cavitation, ozone injection and electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Theoretical studies have been presented to highlight the uniform distribution of the cavitational activity and enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals in the cavitation zone, as well as higher turbulence in the main reactor zone. The combination of these different oxidation technologies have been shown to result in enhanced water treatment ability, which can be attributed to the enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals, enhanced contact of ozone and contaminants, and the elimination of mass transfer resistances during electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Compared to the use of individual approaches, the hybrid reactor is expected to intensify the treatment process by 5-20 times, depending on the application in question, which can be confirmed based on the literature illustrations. Also, the use of Ozonix® has been successfully proven while processing recycled fluids at commercial sites on over 750 oil and natural gas wells during hydraulic operations around the United States. The superiority of the hybrid process over conventional chemical treatments in terms of bacteria and scale reduction as well as increased water flowability and better chemical compatibility, which is a key requirement for oil and gas applications, has been established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  3. Probabilistic Wind Power Forecasting with Hybrid Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Song, Yonghua; Xu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    probabilities of prediction errors provide an alternative yet effective solution. This article proposes a hybrid artificial neural network approach to generate prediction intervals of wind power. An extreme learning machine is applied to conduct point prediction of wind power and estimate model uncertainties...... via a bootstrap technique. Subsequently, the maximum likelihood estimation method is employed to construct a distinct neural network to estimate the noise variance of forecasting results. The proposed approach has been tested on multi-step forecasting of high-resolution (10-min) wind power using...... actual wind power data from Denmark. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid artificial neural network approach is effective and efficient for probabilistic forecasting of wind power and has high potential in practical applications....

  4. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Ejea, J. B.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper explores a power conditioning unit for photovoltaic/hydrogen based energy systems. Similar power conversion techniques, compared to traditional space power systems, are applied. An S4R regulator is devised with an unregulated battery bus as primary output and a secondary path to feed and electrolyser. A modular fuel cell converter completes the system and it operates when photovoltaic energy is not available or load demand exceeds solar power, i. e. like a traditional BDR. An ancillary battery keeps the unregulated bus voltage distributed in the system and it also aids the fuel cell during transients or start-up due to its limited speed. A 1kW breadboard has been designed and implemented to corroborate the proposed system.

  5. Civilian Power Program. Part 1, Summary, Current status of reactor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Author, Not Given

    1959-09-01

    This study group covered the following: delineation of the specific objectives of the overall US AEC civilian power reactor program, technical objectives of each reactor concept, preparation of a chronological development program for each reactor concept, evaluation of the economic potential of each reactor type, a program to encourage the the development, and yardsticks for measuring the development. Results were used for policy review by AEC, program direction, authorization and appropriation requests, etc. This evaluation encompassed civilian power reactors rated at 25 MW(e) or larger and related experimental facilities and R&D. This Part I summarizes the significant results of the comprehensive effort to determine the current technical and economic status for each reactor concept; it is based on the 8 individual technical status reports (Part III).

  6. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Power Cutting System for Roadheader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrohydraulic hybrid power cutting transmission system for roadheader under specific working condition was proposed in this paper. The overall model for the new system composed of an electric motor model, a hydraulic pump-motor model, a torsional planetary set model, and a hybrid power train model was established. The working mode characteristics were simulated under the conditions of taking the effect of cutting picks into account. The advantages of new hybrid power cutting system about the dynamic response under shock load were investigated compared with the traditional cutting system. The results illustrated that the hybrid power system had an obvious cushioning in terms of the dynamic load of cutting electric motor and planetary gear set. Besides, the hydraulic motor could provide an auxiliary power to improve the performance of the electric motor. With further analysis, a dynamic load was found to have a high relation to the stiffness and damping of coupling in the transmission train. The results could be a useful guide for the design of cutting transmission of roadheader.

  7. Representativeness elements of an hybrid reactor demonstrator; Elements de representativite d'un demonstrateur de reacteur hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerdraon, D.; Billebaud, A.; Brissot, R.; David, S.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O

    2000-11-01

    This document deals with the quantification of the minimum thermal power level for a demonstrator and the definition of the physical criteria which define the representative character of a demonstrator towards a power reactor. Solutions allowing to keep an acceptable flow in an industrial core, have also been studied. The document is divided in three parts: the representativeness elements, the considered solutions and the characterization of the neutrons flows at the interfaces and the dose rates at the outer surface of the vessel. (A.L.B.)

  8. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion in Space Nuclear Reactor Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    contrasted with nuclear thermal rockets which use the heat from a nuclear fission reactor to heat propellant to provide rocket thrust and radioisotope...K. Note that the highest temperature (2550 K by the Pewee reactor) was for a nuclear thermal rocket application and has the shortest duration (40 min

  9. Degradation of Benzene by Using a Silent-Packed Bed Hybrid Discharge Plasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2012-02-01

    In this work, a novel gas phase silent-packed bed hybrid discharge plasma reactor has been proposed, and its ability to control a simulative gas stream containing 240 ppm benzene is experimentally investigated. In order to optimize the geometry of the reactor, the benzene conversion rate and energy yield (EY) were compared for various inner electrode diameters and quartz tube shapes and sizes. In addition, benzene removal efficiency in different discharge regions was qualitatively analyzed and the gas parameter (space velocity) was systematically studied. It has been found that silent-packed bed hybrid discharge plasma reactor can effectively decompose benzene. Benzene removal proved to achieve an optimum value of 60% with a characteristic energy density of 255 J/L in this paper with a 6 mm bolt high-voltage electrode and a 13 mm quartz tube. The optimal space velocity was 188.1 h-1, which resulted in moderate energy yield and removal efficiency. Reaction by-products such as hydroquinone, heptanoic acid, 4-nitrocatechol, phenol and 4-phenoxy-phenol were identified by mean of GC-MS. In addition, based on these organic by-products, a benzene destruction pathway was proposed.

  10. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  11. Characterization of the TRIGA Mark II reactor full-power steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammi, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.cammi@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano – Department of Energy, CeSNEF (Enrico Fermi Center for Nuclear Studies), via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Zanetti, Matteo [Politecnico di Milano – Department of Energy, CeSNEF (Enrico Fermi Center for Nuclear Studies), via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Pozzi, Stefano; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica [University of Milano-Bicocca, Physics Department “G. Occhialini” and INFN Section, Piazza dell’Ateneo Nuovo, 20126 Milan (Italy); Magrotti, Giovanni; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea [University of Pavia, Applied Nuclear Energy Laboratory (L.E.N.A.), Via Gaspare Aselli 41, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Full-power steady state characterization of the TRIGA Mark II reactor. • Monte Carlo and Multiphysics simulation of the TRIGA Mark II reactor. • Sub-cooled boiling effects in the TRIGA Mark II reactor. • Thermal feedback effects in the TRIGA Mark II reactor. • Experimental data based validation. - Abstract: In this paper, the characterization of the full-power steady state of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at the University of Pavia is achieved by coupling the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for neutronics with the “Multiphysics” model for thermal-hydraulics. Neutronic analyses have been carried out with a MCNP5 based MC model of the entire reactor system, already validated in fresh fuel and zero-power configurations (in which thermal effects are negligible) and using all available experimental data as a benchmark. In order to describe the full-power reactor configuration, the temperature distribution in the core must be established. To evaluate this, a thermal-hydraulic model has been developed, using the power distribution results from the MC simulation as input. The thermal-hydraulic model is focused on the core active region and takes into account sub-cooled boiling effects present at full reactor power. The obtained temperature distribution is then entered into the MC model and a benchmark analysis is carried out to validate the model in fresh fuel and full-power configurations. An acceptable correspondence between experimental data and simulation results concerning full-power reactor criticality proves the reliability of the adopted methodology of analysis, both from the perspective of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics.

  12. Photovoltaic / Diesel / Battery Hybrid Power Supply System

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available electricity being allocated to the more important urban sector. The relatively low energy demand in rural areas does not compensate the cost of long-range transmission lines from the national grid. This justifies the use of more decentralised forms of power...

  13. Design and control of hybrid active power filters

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Chi-Seng

    2014-01-01

    Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters presents an overview of the current quality problems and their compensators. To get a balance between the system cost and performance, hybrid active power filters (HAPFs) are valuable. The book presents the coverage of resonance phenomena prevention capability, filtering performance and system robustness analysis of HAPF; nonlinear inverter current slope characteristics and their linear operation region requirement analysis of the hysteresis PWM for the HAPF; minimum inverter capacity design procedure of HAPF, adaptive dc-link voltage controller for the HAPF and the real design example of a 220V 10kVA HAPF, in which the system performance analysis method, minimum dc voltage deduction concept and adaptive dc voltage idea can be further extended into the other active compensators, such as APF, static synchronous compensator STATCOM, etc. This book will benefit researchers, graduate students, and electrical power engineers in the field of power-quality compensati...

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  15. THERMOELECTRIC AND MICROBATTERY HYBRID SYSTEM WITH ITS POWER MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920); International audience; Integration of a power source with a MEMS to obtain an autonomous or remote system is a very challenging task. Such a device is currently being developed. It consists in hybriding an energy storage system (thin film solid state battery) with a scavenging energy system (thermogenerator) in a very small volume. It requires also power management to both control charge of the batt...

  16. HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE FLOWSHEETS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.

    2011-07-06

    Two hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle process flowsheets intended for use with high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are presented. The flowsheets were developed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, and couple a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer for the SO2-depolarized electrolysis step with a silicon carbide bayonet reactor for the high-temperature decomposition step. One presumes an HTGR reactor outlet temperature (ROT) of 950 C, the other 750 C. Performance was improved (over earlier flowsheets) by assuming that use of a more acid-tolerant PEM, like acid-doped poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI), instead of Nafion{reg_sign}, would allow higher anolyte acid concentrations. Lower ROT was accommodated by adding a direct contact exchange/quench column upstream from the bayonet reactor and dropping the decomposition pressure. Aspen Plus was used to develop material and energy balances. A net thermal efficiency of 44.0% to 47.6%, higher heating value basis is projected for the 950 C case, dropping to 39.9% for the 750 C case.

  17. Load flow computations in hybrid transmission - distributed power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wobbes, E.D.; Lahaye, D.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    We interconnect transmission and distribution power systems and perform load flow computations in the hybrid network. In the largest example we managed to build, fifty copies of a distribution network consisting of fifteen nodes is connected to the UCTE study model, resulting in a system consisting

  18. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the "energy hub" formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case.

  19. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos [Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the ''energy hub'' formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case. (author)

  20. ADОPTIVE CONTROL OF THE HYBRID VEHICLE POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive control of the hybrid vehicle power unit, which makes it possible to minimize the quality criterion under constraints on the state parameters and the control vector is considered. A formal statement of the optimization problem is given. The solution of this problem by the method of neural network control based on the adaptive criticism is considered.

  1. Bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS) for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Mourad, S.; Have, P. ten

    1999-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) the requirements on batteries for energy storage are completely different from those in battery powered electric vehicles (BEV's). In order to come to a succesful development of HEV's, beside fullfilling the technical requirements, the battery has to have a long

  2. Bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS) for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Mourad, S.; Have, P. ten

    1999-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) the requirements on batteries for energy storage are completely different from those in battery powered electric vehicles (BEV's). In order to come to a succesful development of HEV's, beside fullfilling the technical requirements, the battery has to have a long l

  3. Bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS) for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.

    1998-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) the requirements on batteries for energy storage are completely different from those in battery powered electric vehicles (BEV's). In order to come to a succesful development of HEV's, beside fullfilling the technical requirements, the battery has to have a long l

  4. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, J.; Kwok, P.

    2017-04-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices, such as emergency devices or remote sensors that need to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries sometimes require more than 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources are needed to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper, the development of a hybrid reserve power source that is constructed by integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery to provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  5. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Jahangir; Pereira, Carlos M.; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices such as emergency devices or remote sensors that have to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries require sometimes in excess of 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources have to be provided to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper the development of a hybrid reserve power source obtained by the integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery that can provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is also provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS FOR PASSIVE AFTERHEAT REMOVAL FROM REACTOR CONTAINMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WITH WATER-COOLED POWER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A classification on systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment has been developed in the paper.  The classification permits to make a detailed analysis of various concepts pertaining to systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment of new generation. The paper considers main classification features of the given systems.

  7. Heat pipe cooled reactors for multi-kilowatt space power supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranken, W.A.; Houts, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) to radiator heat pipes.

  8. Heat pipe cooled reactors for multi-kilowatt space power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranken, W. A.; Houts, M. G.

    Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFE's) to radiator heat pipes.

  9. Searching for full power control rod patterns in a boiling water reactor using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Jose Luis [Departamento Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jlmt@nuclear.inin.mx; Ortiz, Juan Jose [Departamento Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx; Requena, Ignacio [Departamento Ciencias Computacion e I.A. ETSII, Informatica, Universidad de Granada, C. Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es; Perusquia, Raul [Departamento Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: rpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-11-01

    One of the most important questions related to both safety and economic aspects in a nuclear power reactor operation, is without any doubt its reactivity control. During normal operation of a boiling water reactor, the reactivity control of its core is strongly determined by control rods patterns efficiency. In this paper, GACRP system is proposed based on the concepts of genetic algorithms for full power control rod patterns search. This system was carried out using LVNPP transition cycle characteristics, being applied too to an equilibrium cycle. Several operation scenarios, including core water flow variation throughout the cycle and different target axial power distributions, are considered. Genetic algorithm fitness function includes reactor security parameters, such as MLHGR, MCPR, reactor k{sub eff} and axial power density.

  10. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commercial electric power cost studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume contains the drawings, equipment list and site description.

  11. Phosphorus removal by a fixed-bed hybrid polymer nanocomposite biofilm reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, M.; A.L. Rodrigues; Ribeiro, D.C.; Nogueira, R.; Machado, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication is one of the main challenges regarding the ecological quality of surface waters, phosphorus bioavailability being its main driver. In this context, a novel hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPN-Pr) biofilm reactor aimed at integrated chemical phosphorus adsorption and biological removal was conceived. The assays pointed to removal of 1.2 mg P/g of reactive phosphorus and 1.01 mg P/g of total phosphorus under steady-state conditions. A mathematical adsorption–biological model was a...

  12. Phosphorus removal by a fixed-bed hybrid polymer nanocomposite biofilm reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, M.; Rodrigues,A.L.; Ribeiro, D. C.; Nogueira, R.; Machado, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication is one of the main challenges regarding the ecological quality of surface waters, phosphorus bioavailability being its main driver. In this context, a novel hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPN-Pr) biofilm reactor aimed at integrated chemical phosphorus adsorption and biological removal was conceived. The assays pointed to removal of 1.2 mg P/g of reactive phosphorus and 1.01 mg P/g of total phosphorus under steady-state conditions. A mathematical adsorption–biological model was a...

  13. Low-power lead-cooled fast reactor loaded with MOX-fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitdikov, E. R.; Terekhova, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Fast reactor for the purpose of implementation of research, education of undergraduate and doctoral students in handling innovative fast reactors and training specialists for atomic research centers and nuclear power plants (BRUTs) was considered. Hard neutron spectrum achieved in the fast reactor with compact core and lead coolant. Possibility of prompt neutron runaway of the reactor is excluded due to the low reactivity margin which is less than the effective fraction of delayed neutrons. The possibility of using MOX fuel in the BRUTs reactor was examined. The effect of Keff growth connected with replacement of natural lead coolant to 208Pb coolant was evaluated. The calculations and reactor core model were performed using the Serpent Monte Carlo code.

  14. Conceptual Design of Low Fusion Power Hybrid System for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    DRUP (Direct Reuse of Used PWR) fuel has same process with DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel Into CANDU reactor). There are 2 big benefits by using DRUP fuel in Hybrid system. One is fissile production during operating period. Required power is decreased by fissile production from DRUP fuel. When the fusion power is reduced, integrity of structure materials is not significantly weakened due to reduction of 14.1MeV high energy neutrons. In addition, required amount of tritium for self-sufficiency TBR (Tritium Breeding Ratio ≥ 1.1) is decreased. Therefore, it is possible to further loading the SNF as much as the amount of lithium decreased. It is effective in transmutation. The other one is that DRUP fuel is also SNF. Therefore, using DRUP fuel is reusing of SNF, as a result it makes reduction of SNF from PWR. However, thermal neutron system is suitable for using DRUP fuel compared to fast neutron system. Therefore, transmutation zone designed (U-TRU)Zr fuel and fissile production zone designed DRUP fuel are separated in this study. In this paper, using DRUP fuel for low fusion power in hybrid system is suggested. Fusion power is decreased by using DRUP fuel. As a result, TBR is satisfied design condition despite of using natural lithium. In addition, not only (U-TRU)Zr fuel but also DRUP fuel are transmuted.

  15. 77 FR 38339 - Dairyland Power Cooperative, La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Dairyland Power Cooperative, La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security... Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC). The LACBWR was a nuclear power plant of nominal 50 Mw electrical output... from the regulations in part 73 as it determines are authorized by law and will not endanger life...

  16. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  17. Reactor G1: high power experiments; Experiences a forte puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laage, F. de; Teste du Baillet, A.; Veyssiere, A.; Wanner, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Retel, H. [Societe Rateau, D.E.A. (France)

    1957-07-01

    The experiments carried out in the starting-up programme of the reactor G1 comprised a series of tests at high power, which allowed the following points to be studied: 1- Effect of poisoning by Xenon (absolute value, evolution). 2- Temperature coefficients of the uranium and graphite for a temperature distribution corresponding to heating by fission. 3- Effect of the pressure (due to the coiling system) on the reactivity. 4- Calibration of the security rods as a function of their position in the pile (1). 5- Temperature distribution of the graphite, the sheathing, the uranium and the air leaving the canals, in a pile running normally at high power. 6- Neutron flux distribution in a pile running normally at high power. 7- Determination of the power by nuclear and thermodynamic methods. These experiments have been carried out under two very different pile conditions. From the 1. to the 15. of August 1956, a series of power increases, followed by periods of stabilisation, were induced in a pile containing uranium only, in 457 canals, amounting to about 34 tons of fuel. A knowledge of the efficiency of the control rods in such a pile has made it possible to measure with good accuracy the principal effects at high temperatures, that is, to deal with points 1, 2, 3, 5. Flux charts giving information on the variations of the material Laplacian and extrapolation lengths in the reflector have been drawn up. Finally the thermodynamic power has been measured under good conditions, in spite of some installation difficulties. On September 16, the pile had its final charge of 100 tons. All the canals were loaded, 1,234 with uranium and 53 (i.e. exactly 4 per cent of the total number) with thorium uniformly distributed in a square lattice of 100 cm side. Since technical difficulties prevented the calibration of the control rods, the measurements were limited to the determination of the thermodynamic power and the temperature distributions (points 5 and 7). This report will

  18. Solar central receiver hybrid - A cost effective future power alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshore, D. G.; Bolton, C. N.; Montague, J. E.

    1980-05-01

    System analyses and conceptual designs of solar central receiver hybrid concepts using molten salt (60% NaNO3, 40% KNO3 by weight) and fossil fired nonsolar energy sources (coal, oil, or gas) have been performed. Analyses have developed plant configurations with various solar energy storage capacities and fossil fuels. Economic analyses support the final configuration selection based on minimization of the cost of energy produced from the plant. A 500 MWe commercial plant size installed for a 1990 initial year of operation is competitive with new coal, oil, and nuclear power generation sources. This hybrid plant will save an estimated 5 million barrels of oil per year.

  19. Wide-range structurally optimized channel for monitoring the certified power of small-core reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, A. S., E-mail: alexsander.coshelev@yandex.ru; Kovshov, K. N.; Ovchinnikov, M. A.; Pikulina, G. N.; Sokolov, A. B. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center—All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The results of tests of a prototype version of a channel for monitoring the certified power of small-core reactors performed at the BR-K1 reactor at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics are reported. An SNM-11 counter and commercial KNK-4 and KNK-3 compensated ion chambers were used as neutron detectors in the tested channel, and certified NCMM and CCMM measurement modules controlled by a PC with specialized software were used as measuring instruments. The specifics of metrological assurance of calibration of the channel in the framework of reactor power monitoring are discussed.

  20. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... generated from the chemical reaction of the cladding with water or steam shall not exceed 0.01 times the... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium oxide...

  1. A Hybrid Optimization Method for Reactive Power and Voltage Control Considering Power Loss Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengxi; Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method to optimally control the voltage and reactive power with minimum power loss in transmission grid. This approach is used for the Danish automatic voltage control (AVC) system which is typically a non-linear non-convex problem mixed with both continu...

  2. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in a combined heat and power generation (CHP case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency as well as economic parameters show that hybrid power plants are more efficient compared to conventional CHP concepts or separate use of the energy sources.

  3. Catalysis with Soluble Hybrids of Highly Branched Macromolecules with Palladium Nanoparticles in a Continuously Operated Membrane Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The continuous recovery and recycling of soluble metal nanoparticles by means of ultrafiltration is described, employing hybrids of palladium nanoparticles with highly branched amphiphilic polyglycerol as a catalyst for cyclohexene hydrogenation as a model reaction. In a continuously operated membrane reactor a productivity of 29000 TO over 30 exchanged reactor volumes was observed for nanoparticles of 2.2 nm size, with a maximum rate of 1200 TO h-1. Catalysis by soluble metal complexes can b...

  4. Thermodynamic exergy analysis for small modular reactor in nuclear hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldon Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs provide a unique opportunity for future nuclear development with reduced financial risks, allowing the United States to meet growing energy demands through safe, reliable, clean air electricity generation while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the reliance on unstable fossil fuel prices. A nuclear power plant is comprised of several complex subsystems which utilize materials from other subsystems and their surroundings. The economic utility of resources, or thermoeconomics, is extremely difficult to analyze, particularly when trying to optimize resources and costs among individual subsystems and determine prices for products. Economics and thermodynamics cannot provide this information individually. Thermoeconomics, however, provides a method of coupling the quality of energy available based on exergy and the value of this available energy – “exergetic costs”. For an SMR exergy analysis, both the physical and economic environments must be considered. The physical environment incorporates the energy, raw materials, and reference environment, where the reference environment refers to natural resources available without limit and without cost, such as air input to a boiler. The economic environment includes market influences and prices in addition to installation, operation, and maintenance costs required for production to occur. The exergetic cost or the required exergy for production may be determined by analyzing the physical environment alone. However, to optimize the system economics, this environment must be coupled with the economic environment. A balance exists between enhancing systems to improve efficiency and optimizing costs. Prior research into SMR thermodynamics has not detailed methods on improving exergetic costs for an SMR coupled with storage technologies and renewable energy such as wind or solar in a hybrid energy system. This process requires balancing technological efficiencies and

  5. Thermodynamic exergy analysis for small modular reactor in nuclear hybrid energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Boldon Lauren; Sabharwall Piyush; Rabiti Cristian; Bragg-Sitton Shannon M.; Liu Li

    2016-01-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) provide a unique opportunity for future nuclear development with reduced financial risks, allowing the United States to meet growing energy demands through safe, reliable, clean air electricity generation while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the reliance on unstable fossil fuel prices. A nuclear power plant is comprised of several complex subsystems which utilize materials from other subsystems and their surroundings. The economic utility of resources, or ...

  6. Power distributions in fresh and depleted LEU and HEU cores of the MITR reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.H.; Horelik, N.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Newton, T.H., Jr.; Hu, L.; Stevens, J.G. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (2MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory and Nuclear Science and Engineering Department)

    2012-04-04

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like the MITR-II reactor. Toward this goal, core geometry and power distributions are presented. Distributions of power are calculated for LEU cores depleted with MCODE using an MCNP5 Monte Carlo model. The MCNP5 HEU and LEU MITR models were previously compared to experimental benchmark data for the MITR-II. This same model was used with a finer spatial depletion in order to generate power distributions for the LEU cores. The objective of this work is to generate and characterize a series of fresh and depleted core peak power distributions, and provide a thermal hydraulic evaluation of the geometry which should be considered for subsequent thermal hydraulic safety analyses.

  7. Study of nitrogen and organics removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Tran-Hung; Chung, Yun-Chul; Ahn, Dae-Hee

    2003-03-01

    The removal of nitrogen and organics in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media were investigated in this work. The hybrid media was made by the use of polyurethane foam (PU) cubes and powdered activated carbon (PAC). The function of activated carbon of hybrid media was to offer a suitable active site, which was able to absorb organic substances and ammonia, as well as that of PU was to provide an appropriated surface onto which biomass could be attached and grown. A laboratory-scale moving-bed sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for investigating the efficiency of hybrid media. The removal of nitrogen and organics for synthetic wastewater (COD; 490-1,627 mg/L, NH4(+)-N; 180-210 mg/L) were evaluated at different COD/N ratio and different anoxic phase conditions, respectively. The system was operated with the organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.1, 0.16, 0.24, and 0.28 kg COD/m3 day, respectively. Each mode based on OLR was divided as the periods of 45 days of operation time, except for third mode that was operated during 30 days. After acclimatization period, effluent total COD concentrations slightly decreased and the removal efficiency of organics increased to about 90% (COD; 70 mg/L) after 60 days and achieved 98% (COD; 30 mg/L) at the end of experiments. The organics reduction seemed to be less affected by shock loading since high organic loads did not affect the removal efficiency. The NIH4(+)-N concentrations in effluent showed almost lower than 1 mg/L and NO3(-)-N concentrations were high (150 mg/L) during a very low C/N ratio (C/N=2). Over 90% of T-N removal efficiency (T-N; 16 mg/L) was obtained during the last 20 days of the operation after controlling the COD/N ratio (C/N=7). The mixing condition and COD/N ratio at anoxic phase were determined as a main operating factors. In future, the optimal operating conditions of SBR system with hybrid media will be investigated from the view of maintaining a sufficient biomass to the hybrid media under

  8. Empirical Risk Analysis of Severe Reactor Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants after Fukushima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christian Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are reexamining the risks connected with nuclear power generation after the Fukushima accidents. To provide updated information for the corresponding discussion a simple empirical approach is applied for risk quantification of severe reactor accidents with International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES level ≥5. The analysis is based on worldwide data of commercial nuclear facilities. An empirical hazard of 21 (95% confidence intervals (CI 4; 62 severe accidents among the world’s reactors in 100,000 years of operation has been estimated. This result is compatible with the frequency estimate of a probabilistic safety assessment for a typical pressurised power reactor in Germany. It is used in scenario calculations concerning the development in numbers of reactors in the next twenty years. For the base scenario with constant reactor numbers the time to the next accident among the world's 441 reactors, which were connected to the grid in 2010, is estimated to 11 (95% CI 3.7; 52 years. In two other scenarios a moderate increase or decrease in reactor numbers have negligible influence on the results. The time to the next accident can be extended well above the lifetime of reactors by retiring a sizeable number of less secure ones and by safety improvements for the rest.

  9. Research on hybrid power filter of 6 kV power grid in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-feng; LI Jian

    2010-01-01

    Studied the harmonic control of the 6 kV power grid in a coal mine substation.Taking harmonic suppression and reactive power compensation into account, and complying with the economic and efficient technical line of the smart grid, a new hybrid active filter was proposed and applied to the power grid in the coal mine with the advantages such as large capacity, low cost and low loss. In order to improve detection speed and reduce the succeeding errors to improve the filtering performance of the active power filter,the DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) sliding window algorithm based on coordinate transformation and improved hysteresis control method was proposed. The Matlab simulation results show that the hybrid active filter is satisfactory, can improve the grid power factor and can meet the requirements of improving the power quality in the coal mine.

  10. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapernick, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dixon, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James [INL; Qualls, Louis [ORNL; Radel, Ross [SNL

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO{sub 2}-fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  11. Multi-reactor configurations for multi-megawatt spacecraft power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    Several conceptual designs for a multimegawatt space nuclear power supply system were developed on the basis of hardware and technology from the existing multihundred kilowatt-class SP-100 reactor program. It is shown that net power outputs in the multimegawatt range can be achieved by using a modular multireactor configuration of several SP-100-derived nuclear power supplies. A variety of geometries were examined for their applicability to the multireactor configuration, showing that modular multireactor systems have the advantage of an increased redundancy in the power system, as compared with a single-reactor system, allowing higher reliabilities than those achievable with single-reactor systems. Results are presented on the Mars Cargo Mission analysis, showing that modularity allows the option of redeployment of power systems in Mars and facilitates refurbishment and turnaround of NEP transfer vehicles.

  12. THE IMPACT OF POWER COEFFICIENT OF REACTIVITY ON CANDU 6 REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. KASTANYA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of reactivity coefficients, along with other core nuclear characteristics, determine reactor core behavior in normal operation and accident conditions. The Power Coefficient of Reactivity (PCR is an aggregate indicator representing the change in reactor core reactivity per unit change in reactor power. It is an integral quantity which captures the contributions of the fuel temperature, coolant void, and coolant temperature reactivity feedbacks. All nuclear reactor designs provide a balance between their inherent nuclear characteristics and the engineered reactivity control features, to ensure that changes in reactivity under all operating conditions are maintained within a safe range. The CANDU® reactor design takes advantage of its inherent nuclear characteristics, namely a small magnitude of reactivity coefficients, minimal excess reactivity, and very long prompt neutron lifetime, to mitigate the demand on the engineered systems for controlling reactivity and responding to accidents. In particular, CANDU reactors have always taken advantage of the small value of the PCR associated with their design characteristics, such that the overall design and safety characteristics of the reactor are not sensitive to the value of the PCR. For other reactor design concepts a PCR which is both large and negative is an important aspect in the design of their engineered systems for controlling reactivity. It will be demonstrated that during Loss of Regulation Control (LORC and Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA events, the impact of variations in power coefficient, including a hypothesized larger than estimated PCR, has no safety-significance for CANDU reactor design. Since the CANDU 6 PCR is small, variations in the range of values for PCR on the performance or safety of the reactor are not significant.

  13. Robust Power Management Control for Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Elkhatib; Adouane, Lounis; Aitouche, Abdel; Mohammed, Walaa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust fuzzy control of energy management strategy for the stand-alone hybrid power systems. It consists of two levels named centralized fuzzy supervisory control which generates the power references for each decentralized robust fuzzy control. Hybrid power systems comprises: a photovoltaic panel and wind turbine as renewable sources, a micro turbine generator and a battery storage system. The proposed control strategy is able to satisfy the load requirements based on a fuzzy supervisor controller and manage power flows between the different energy sources and the storage unit by respecting the state of charge and the variation of wind speed and irradiance. Centralized controller is designed based on If-Then fuzzy rules to manage and optimize the hybrid power system production by generating the reference power for photovoltaic panel and wind turbine. Decentralized controller is based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and permits us to stabilize each photovoltaic panel and wind turbine in presence of disturbances and parametric uncertainties and to optimize the tracking reference which is given by the centralized controller level. The sufficient conditions stability are formulated in the format of linear matrix inequalities using the Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness of the proposed Strategy is finally demonstrated through a SAHPS (stand-alone hybrid power systems) to illustrate the effectiveness of the overall proposed method.

  14. Acclimatization process of tofu wastewater on hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor using polyvinyl chloride rings as a growth medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanqoritha, Nyimas; Turmuzi, Muhammad; Derlini

    2017-05-01

    The appropriate process to resolve sewage contamination which have a high organic using anaerobic technology. Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor is one of the anaerobic process which consists of a suspended growth media and attached growth media. The reactor has the ability to work at high load rate, sludge produced easily settles, high biomass and the separation of gas, solid and liquid excelent. The purpose of research is to study the acclimatization process in the reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket using a polyvinl chloride ring as the attached growth medium. Reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket use a working volume of 8.6 L. The operation consisting of 3 L suspended reactor and 5.6 L attached reactor. Acclimatization is conducted by providing the substrate from the smallest concentration of COD up to a concentration that will be processed. During the 50th day, acclimatization process assumed the bacteria begin to work, indicated by the dissolved COD and VSS decrease and biogas production. Due to the wastewater containing the high of protein in consequence operational parameters should be controlled and some precautions should be taken to prevent process partially or totally inhibited.

  15. Studies on advanced water-cooled reactors beyond generation Ⅲ for power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu

    2007-01-01

    China's ambitious nuclear power program motivates the country's nuclear community to develop advanced reactor concepts beyond generation Ⅲ to ensure a long-term, stable, and sustainable development of nuclear power. The paper discusses some main criteria for the selection of future water-cooled reactors by considering the specific Chinese situation. Based on the suggested selection criteria, two new types of water-cooled reactors are recommended for future Chinese nuclear power generation. The high conversion pressurized water reactor utilizes the present PWR technology to a large extent. With a conversion ratio of about 0.95, the fuel utilization is increased about 5 times. This significantly improves the sustainability of fuel resources. The supercritical water-cooled reactor has favorable features in economics,sustainability and technology availability. It is a logical extension of the generation Ⅲ PWR technology in China.The status of international R&D work is reviewed. A new supercritieal water-cooled reactor (SCWR) core structure (the mixed reactor core) and a new fuel assembly design (two-rows FA) are proposed. The preliminary analysis using a coupled neutron-physics/thermal-hydranlics method is carded out. It shows good feasibility for the new design proposal.

  16. Reactive power control of wind-diesel-micro-hydro hybrid power systems using matlab/simulink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, R.C.; Bhatti, T.S.; Kothari, D.P.; Bhat, S. [Birla Inst. of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies; Visvesvaraya National Inst. of Technology, Nagpur (IN). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents reactive power control of isolated wind-diesel-micro-hydro hybrid power system for realistic load disturbance using matlab/simulink. The mathematical model of the system based on matlab/simulink is developed. Reactive power control performance is compared using three different types of Static VAR Compensators (SVC). Transient responses for step plus normally distributed or band limited white noise random change in load have also been presented in this paper. (Author)

  17. Conceptual studies of toroidal field magnets for the tokamak (fusion) experimental power reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    This report presents the results of ''Conceptual Studies of Toroidal Field Magnets for the Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor'' performed for the Energy Research and Development Administration, Oak Ridge Operations. Two conceptual coil designs are developed. One design approach to produce a specified 8 Tesla maximum field uses a novel NbTi superconductor design cooled by pool-boiling liquid helium. For a highest practicable field design, a unique NbSn/sub 3/ conductor is used with forced-flow, single-phase liquid helium cooling to achieve a 12 Tesla peak field. Fabrication requirements are also developed for these approximately 7 meter horizontal bore by 11 meter vertical bore coils. Cryostat design approaches are analyzed and a hybrid cryostat approach selected. Structural analyses are performed for approaches to support in-plane and out-of-plane loads and a structural approach selected. In addition to the conceptual design studies, cost estimates and schedules are prepared for each of the design approaches, major uncertainties and recommendations for research and development identified, and test coil size for demonstration recommended.

  18. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SERIES HYBRID ACTIVE POWER FILTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Some important factors for designing a series hybrid active power filter (SHAPF) are presented in this paper for the case when the load is varied in a wide range and/or the source voltage is seriously distorted. Special design of passive filters, adaptive control of parameter and multi variant control are discussed in detail. The filter is stable, has good performance, and causes small capacitive reactive current. The simulation and experimental results accorded with the theoretical analysis results.

  19. Hybrid HVDC circuit breaker with self-powered gate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Effah, Francis Boafo; Watson, Alan James; Ji, Chao; Amankwah, Emmanuel K.; Johnson, Christopher Mark; Davidson, Colin; Clare, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing electric power demand and the advent of renewable energy sources have revived the interest in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) multi-terminal networks. However, the absence of a suitable circuit breaker or fault tolerant VSC station topologies with the required characteristics (such as operating speed) have, until recently, been an obstacle in the development of large scale multi-terminal networks for HVDC. This paper presents a hybrid HVDC circuit breaker concept which...

  20. Hybrid HVDC circuit breaker with self-powered gate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Effah, Francis Boafo; Watson, Alan James; Ji, Chao; Amankwah, Emmanuel K.; Johnson, Christopher Mark; Davidson, Colin; Clare, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing electric power demand and the advent of renewable energy sources have revived the interest in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) multi-terminal networks. However, the absence of a suitable circuit breaker or fault tolerant VSC station topologies with the required characteristics (such as operating speed) have, until recently, been an obstacle in the development of large scale multi-terminal networks for HVDC. This paper presents a hybrid HVDC circuit breaker concept which ...

  1. Synthesis of Model Based Robust Stabilizing Reactor Power Controller for Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Habib Malik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nominal SISO (Single Input Single Output model of PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor type nuclear power plant is developed based on normal moderator pump-up rate capturing the moderator level dynamics using system identification technique. As the plant model is not exact, therefore additive and multiplicative uncertainty modeling is required. A robust perturbed plant model is derived based on worst case model capturing slowest moderator pump-up rate dynamics and moderator control valve opening delay. Both nominal and worst case models of PHWR-type nuclear power plant have ARX (An Autoregressive Exogenous structures and the parameters of both models are estimated using recursive LMS (Least Mean Square optimization algorithm. Nominal and worst case discrete plant models are transformed into frequency domain for robust controller design purpose. The closed loop system is configured into two port model form and H? robust controller is synthesized. The H?controller is designed based on singular value loop shaping and desired magnitude of control input. The selection of desired disturbance attenuation factor and size of the largest anticipated multiplicative plant perturbation for loop shaping of H? robust controller form a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. The performance and robustness of the proposed controller is tested under transient condition of a nuclear power plant in Pakistan and found satisfactory.

  2. DynMo: Dynamic Simulation Model for Space Reactor Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2005-02-01

    A Dynamic simulation Model (DynMo) for space reactor power systems is developed using the SIMULINK® platform. DynMo is modular and could be applied to power systems with different types of reactors, energy conversion, and heat pipe radiators. This paper presents a general description of DynMo-TE for a space power system powered by a Sectored Compact Reactor (SCoRe) and that employs off-the-shelf SiGe thermoelectric converters. SCoRe is liquid metal cooled and designed for avoidance of a single point failure. The reactor core is divided into six equal sectors that are neutronically, but not thermal-hydraulically, coupled. To avoid a single point failure in the power system, each reactor sector has its own primary and secondary loops, and each loop is equipped with an electromagnetic (EM) pump. A Power Conversion assembly (PCA) and a Thermoelectric Conversion Assembly (TCA) of the primary and secondary EM pumps thermally couple each pair of a primary and a secondary loop. The secondary loop transports the heat rejected by the PCA and the pumps TCA to a rubidium heat pipes radiator panel. The primary loops transport the thermal power from the reactor sector to the PCAs for supplying a total of 145-152 kWe to the load at 441-452 VDC, depending on the selections of the primary and secondary liquid metal coolants. The primary and secondary coolant combinations investigated are lithium (Li)/Li, Li/sodium (Na), Na-Na, Li/NaK-78 and Na/NaK-78, for which the reactor exit temperature is kept below 1250 K. The results of a startup transient of the system from an initial temperature of 500 K are compared and discussed.

  3. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  4. Improvement of Power Quality Using a Hybrid Interline UPQC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K.Elango

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed the reduced rating star connected transformer based interline unified power quality conditioner. This work comprises of unified power quality conditioner connected between the two feeders, star connected transformer and LC filter. This hybrid approach significantly improves the performance of UPQC under unbalance source voltage condition. The UPQC adopted to compensate current and voltage-quality problems of sensitive loads and suppressing the load current harmonics under distorted supply conditions. The series converter control strategy is based on the fuzzy-logic controller. The extensive simulation results have carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment power system blockset toolboxes. From the results it has shown that hybrid interline UPQC achieves superior capability of mitigating the effects of voltage sag/swell and suppressing the load current harmonics, phase current harmonics and neutral current under distorted supply conditions. To validate the results produced by the proposed method, it is compared with the conventional UPQC method and better results obtained from the hybrid approach.

  5. SVBR-100 module-type fast reactor of the IV generation for regional power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrodnikov, A. V.; Toshinsky, G. I.; Komlev, O. G.; Stepanov, V. S.; Klimov, N. N.

    2011-08-01

    In the report the following is presented: basic conceptual provisions of the innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on modular fast reactors (FR) SVBR-100, summarized results of calculations of the reactor, analysis of the opportunities of multi-purpose application of such reactor facilities (RF) including export potentials with due account of nonproliferation requirements. The most important features of the proposed NPT analyzed in the report are as follows: (1) integral (monoblock) arrangement of the primary circuit equipment with entire elimination of the primary circuit pipelines and valves that considerably reduces the construction and assembly works period and coupling with high boiling point of lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) deterministically eliminates accidents of the LOCA type, (2) option for 100 MWe power and dimensions of the reactor provide: on the one hand, an opportunity to transport the reactor monoblock in factory-readiness by railway as well as other kinds of transport, on the other hand, core breeding ratio (CBR) exceeds 1 while MOX-fuel is used. The preferable area of application of RF SVBR-100 is regional and small power requiring power-units of electric power in a range of (100-600) MW, which could be used for cogeneration-based district heating while locating them nearby cities as well as for generation of electric power in a mode of load tracking in the regions with low network systems.

  6. Scalable and Power Efficient Data Analytics for Hybrid Exascale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Alok [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Samatova, Nagiza [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liao, Wei-keng [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-19

    This project developed a generic and optimized set of core data analytics functions. These functions organically consolidate a broad constellation of high performance analytical pipelines. As the architectures of emerging HPC systems become inherently heterogeneous, there is a need to design algorithms for data analysis kernels accelerated on hybrid multi-node, multi-core HPC architectures comprised of a mix of CPUs, GPUs, and SSDs. Furthermore, the power-aware trend drives the advances in our performance-energy tradeoff analysis framework which enables our data analysis kernels algorithms and software to be parameterized so that users can choose the right power-performance optimizations.

  7. Optimal Power Scheduling for an Islanded Hybrid Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid is a system that integrates energy generation, energy storage, and loads and it is able to operate either in interconnected or islanded mode. Energy resources should be scheduled to supply the load properly in order to coordinate optimally the power exchange within the microgrid...... according to a defined objective function. In this paper, an optimal power scheduling for generation and demand side is presented to manage an islanded hybrid PV-wind-battery microgrid implemented in Shanghai-China. The optimization is addressed through a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) mathematical......SPACE1006) in which a scaled down model of this microgrid is emulated....

  8. 10-75-kWe-reactor-powered organic Rankine-cycle electric power systems (ORCEPS) study. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-30

    This 10-75 kW(e) Reactor-ORCEPS study was concerned with the evaluation of several organic Rankine cycle energy conversion systems which utilized a /sup 235/U-ZrH reactor as a heat source. A liquid metal (NaK) loop employing a thermoelectric converter-powered EM pump was used to transfer the reactor energy to the organic working fluid. At moderate peak cycle temperatures (750/sup 0/F), power conversion unit cycle efficiencies of up to 25% and overall efficiencies of 20% can be obtained. The required operating life of seven years should be readily achievable. The CP-25 (toluene) working fluid cycle was found to provide the highest performance levels at the lowest system weights. Specific weights varies from 100 to 50 lb/kW(e) over the power level range 10 to 75 kW(e). (DLC)

  9. PEFC stacks as power sources for hybrid propulsion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O. [Istituto Motori of Italian National Research Council, Via Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    In this paper the performance of two polymeric electrolyte fuel cell systems (FCS) for hybrid power trains are presented and discussed. In particular, an experimental analysis was effected on 2.4 and 20 kW stacks with the aim to investigate the energy management issues of the two FCSs for utilization as power sources in electric power trains for scooter and minibus, respectively. The stack characterizations permitted the effect of the main operative variables (temperature, pressure and stoichiometric ratio) on mean power density of cells to be evaluated. The FCS efficiency was evaluated and compared for the two traction systems, individuating the optimal operative conditions for automotive application and specifying the energy losses of the auxiliary components. The efficiency of both fuel cell systems resulted higher than 40% in a wide range of loads (100-600 mA/cm{sup 2}), with maximum values close to 50%. The experimental characterization of the two power trains was carried out on dynamic test benches, able to simulate the behaviour of the two vehicles on the European R40 driving cycle. The characterization of the two propulsion systems on R40 driving cycle evidenced that the overall efficiency was not affected significantly by the hybrid configuration adopted, as the efficiency values ranged from 27 to 29% in the different procedures analyzed. (author)

  10. Research on Power Ramp Testing Method for PWR Fuel Rod at Research Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to develop high performance fuel assembly for domestic nuclear power plant, it is necessary to master some fundamental test technology. So the research on the power ramp testing methods is proposed. A tentative power ramp test for short PWR fuel rod has been conducted at the heavy water research reactor (HWRR) in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) in May of 2001. The in-pile test rig was placed into the central channel of the reactor . The test rig consists of pressure pipe assembly, thimble, solid neutron absorbing screen and its driving parts, etc.. The test

  11. A computer program to determine the specific power of prismatic-core reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-05-01

    A computer program has been developed to determine the maximum specific power for prismatic-core reactors as a function of maximum allowable fuel temperature, core pressure drop, and coolant velocity. The prismatic-core reactors consist of hexagonally shaped fuel elements grouped together to form a cylindrically shaped core. A gas coolant flows axially through circular channels within the elements, and the fuel is dispersed within the solid element material either as a composite or in the form of coated pellets. Different coolant, fuel, coating, and element materials can be selected to represent different prismatic-core concepts. The computer program allows the user to divide the core into any arbitrary number of axial levels to account for different axial power shapes. An option in the program allows the automatic determination of the core height that results in the maximum specific power. The results of parametric specific power calculations using this program are presented for various reactor concepts.

  12. Irradiation effects on Zr-2.5Nb in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C., E-mail: Carol.Song@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Zirconium alloys are widely used as structural materials in nuclear applications because of their attractive properties such as a low absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, excellent corrosion resistance in water, and good mechanical properties at reactor operating temperatures. Zr-2.5Nb is one of the most commonly used zirconium alloys and has been used for pressure tube materials in CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) and RBMK (Reaktor Bolshoy Moshchnosti Kanalnyy, 'High Power Channel-type Reactor') reactors for over 40 years. In a recent report from the Electric Power Research Institute, Zr-2.5Nb was identified as one of the candidate materials for use in normal structural applications in light-water reactors owing to its increased resistance to irradiation-induced degradation as compared with currently used materials. Historically, the largest program of in-reactor tests on zirconium alloys was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Over many years of in-reactor testing and CANDU operating experience with Zr- 2.5Nb, extensive research has been conducted on the irradiation effects on its microstructures, mechanical properties, deformation behaviours, fracture toughness, delayed hydride cracking, and corrosion. Most of the results on Zr-2.5Nb obtained from CANDU experience could be used to predict the material performance under light water reactors. This paper reviews the irradiation effects on Zr-2.5Nb in power reactors (including heavy-water and light-water reactors) and summarizes the current state of knowledge. (author)

  13. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  14. Materials technology for an advanced space power nuclear reactor concept: Program summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Watson, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a materials technology program for a long-life (50,000 hr), high-temperature (950 C coolant outlet), lithium-cooled, nuclear space power reactor concept are reviewed and discussed. Fabrication methods and compatibility and property data were developed for candidate materials for fuel pins and, to a lesser extent, for potential control systems, reflectors, reactor vessel and piping, and other reactor structural materials. The effects of selected materials variables on fuel pin irradiation performance were determined. The most promising materials for fuel pins were found to be 85 percent dense uranium mononitride (UN) fuel clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf).

  15. PREMOR: a point reactor exposure model computer code for survey analysis of power plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1979-10-01

    The PREMOR computer code was written to exploit a simple, two-group point nuclear reactor power plant model for survey analysis. Up to thirteen actinides, fourteen fission products, and one lumped absorber nuclide density are followed over a reactor history. Successive feed batches are accounted for with provision for from one to twenty batches resident. The effect of exposure of each of the batches to the same neutron flux is determined.

  16. Ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor-MHD system for space nuclear electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Isaac; Anghaie, Samim; Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.

    1991-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear space power system based on the ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor with MHD energy conversion is presented. This UF4 fueled gas core cavity reactor operates at 4000 K maximum core temperature and 40 atm. Materials experiments, conducted with UF4 up to 2200 K, demonstrate acceptable compatibility with tungsten-molybdenum-, and carbon-based materials. The supporting nuclear, heat transfer, fluid flow and MHD analysis, and fissioning plasma physics experiments are also discussed.

  17. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohanda, Anis [Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety – BATAN Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Gd. No. 80 Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15310 (Indonesia); Waris, Abdul [Physics Department of ITB, Indonesia anis-rohanda@yahoo.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  18. Temperature coefficients in the Dragon low-enriched power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U.

    1972-05-15

    The temperature coefficient of the fuel and of the moderator have been evaluated for the Dragon HTR design for different stages in reactor life, initial core, end of no-refuelling period and equilibrium conditions. The investigation has shown the low-enriched HTR to have a strong, positive moderator coefficient. In some cases and for special operating conditions, even leading to a positive total temperature coefficient. This does not imply, however, that the HTR is an unsafe reactor system. By adequate design of the control system, safe and reliable operating characteristics can be achieved. This has already been proved satisfactory through many years of operation of other graphite moderated systems, such as the Magnox stations.

  19. Optimization of the core configuration design using a hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Afshin, E-mail: ahedayat@aut.ac.i [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor Research and Development School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), End of North Karegar Street, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davilu, Hadi [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barfrosh, Ahmad Abdollahzadeh [Department of Computer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepanloo, Kamran [Reactor Research and Development School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), End of North Karegar Street, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To successfully carry out material irradiation experiments and radioisotope productions, a high thermal neutron flux at irradiation box over a desired life time of a core configuration is needed. On the other hand, reactor safety and operational constraints must be preserved during core configuration selection. Two main objectives and two safety and operational constraints are suggested to optimize reactor core configuration design. Suggested parameters and conditions are considered as two separate fitness functions composed of two main objectives and two penalty functions. This is a constrained and combinatorial type of a multi-objective optimization problem. In this paper, a fast and effective hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm is introduced and developed to reach a Pareto optimal set. The hybrid algorithm is composed of a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a fast fitness function evaluating system based on the cascade feed forward artificial neural networks (ANNs). A specific GA representation of core configuration and also special GA operators are introduced and used to overcome the combinatorial constraints of this optimization problem. A software package (Core Pattern Calculator 1) is developed to prepare and reform required data for ANNs training and also to revise the optimization results. Some practical test parameters and conditions are suggested to adjust main parameters of the hybrid algorithm. Results show that introduced ANNs can be trained and estimate selected core parameters of a research reactor very quickly. It improves effectively optimization process. Final optimization results show that a uniform and dense diversity of Pareto fronts are gained over a wide range of fitness function values. To take a more careful selection of Pareto optimal solutions, a revision system is introduced and used. The revision of gained Pareto optimal set is performed by using developed software package. Also some secondary operational

  20. Fuel supply of nuclear power industry with the introduction of fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraviev, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The results of studies conducted for the validation of the updated development strategy for nuclear power industry in Russia in the 21st century are presented. Scenarios with different options for the reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal reactors and large-scale growth of nuclear power industry based on fast reactors of inherent safety with a breeding ratio of ˜1 in a closed nuclear fuel cycle are considered. The possibility of enhanced fuel breeding in fast reactors is also taken into account in the analysis. The potential to establish a large-scale nuclear power industry that covers 100% of the increase in electric power requirements in Russia is demonstrated. This power industry may be built by the end of the century through the introduction of fast reactors (replacing thermal ones) with a gross uranium consumption of up to ˜1 million t and the termination of uranium mining even if the reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal reactors is stopped or suffers a long-term delay.

  1. Neutronic predesign tool for fusion power reactors system assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaboulay, J.-C., E-mail: jean-charles.jaboulay@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Li Puma, A. [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martínez Arroyo, J. [ETSEIB, Internship in CEA (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    SYCOMORE, a fusion reactor system code based on a modular approach, is under development at CEA. In this framework, this paper describes a methodology developed to build the neutronic module of SYCOMORE. This neutronic module aims to evaluate main neutronic parameters characterising a fusion reactor (tokamak): tritium breeding ratio, multiplication factor, nuclear heating as a function of the reactor main geometrical parameters (major radius, elongation, etc.), of the radial build, Li enrichment, blanket and shield thickness, etc. It is based on calculations carried out with APOLLO2 and TRIPOLI-4 CEA transport code on simplified 1D and 2D neutronic models. These models are validated versus a more detailed 3D Monte-Carlo model (using TRIPOLI-4). To ease the integration of this neutronic module in SYCOMORE and provide results instantly, a surrogate model that replicates the 1D and 2D neutronic model results was used. Among the different surrogate models types (polynomial interpolation, responses functions, interpolating by Kriging, artificial neural network, etc.) the neural networks were selected for their efficiency and flexibility. The methodology described in this paper to build SYCOMORE neutronic module is devoted to HCLL blanket, but it could be applied to any breeder blanket concept provided that appropriate validation could be carried out.

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh

    2005-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC2601NT40779 for the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine. A conceptual hybrid system design was selected for analysis and evaluation. The selected system is estimated to have over 65% system efficiency, a first cost of approximately $650/kW, and a cost of electricity of 8.4 cents/kW-hr. A control strategy and conceptual control design have been developed for the system. A number of SOFC module tests have been completed to evaluate the pressure impact to performance stability. The results show that the operating pressure accelerates the performance degradation. Several experiments were conducted to explore the effects of pressure on carbon formation. Experimental observations on a functioning cell have verified that carbon deposition does not occur in the cell at steam-to-carbon ratios lower than the steady-state design point for hybrid systems. Heat exchanger design, fabrication and performance testing as well as oxidation testing to support heat exchanger life analysis were also conducted. Performance tests of the prototype heat exchanger yielded heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics consistent with the heat exchanger specification. Multicell stacks have been tested and performance maps were obtained under hybrid operating conditions. Successful and repeatable fabrication of large (>12-inch diameter) planar SOFC cells was demonstrated using the tape calendering process. A number of large area cells and stacks were successfully performance tested at ambient and pressurized conditions. A 25 MW plant configuration was

  3. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power...

  4. Sludge granulation in an UASB-moving bed biofilm hybrid reactor for efficient organic matter removal and nitrogen removal in biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M; Rao, Surampalli

    2017-03-15

    A hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-moving bed biofilm (MBB) and rope bed biofilm (RBB) reactor was designed for treatment of sewage. Possibility of enhancing granulation in an UASB reactor using moving media to improve sludge retention was explored while treating low-strength wastewater. The presence of moving media in the top portion of the UASB reactor allowed a high solid retention time even at very short hydraulic retention times and helped in maintaining selection pressure in the sludge bed to promote formation of different sized sludge granules with an average settling velocity of 67 m/h. These granules were also found to contain plenty of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) such as 58 mg of polysaccharides (PS) per gram of volatile suspended solids (VSS) and protein (PN) content of 37 mg/g VSS. Enriched sludge of nitrogen-removing bacteria forming a porous biofilm on the media in RBB was also observed in a concentration of around 894 g/m(2). The nitrogen removing sludge also had a high EPS content of around 22 mg PS/g VSS and 28 mg PN/g VSS. This hybrid UASB-MBB-RBB reactor with enhanced anaerobic granular sludge treating both carbonaceous and nitrogenous matter may be a sustainable solution for decentralized sewage treatment.

  5. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  6. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendices VII, VIII, IX, and X. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the release of radioactivity in reactor accidents; physical processes in reactor meltdown accidents; safety design rationale for nuclear power plants; and design adequacy.

  7. Development and Demonstration of a 25 Watt Thermophotovoltaic Power Source for a Hybrid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Edward; Shukla, Kailash; Metcalfe, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The development of a propane-fueled, 25 W thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power source for use in a hybrid power system is described. The TPV power source uses a platinum emitting surface with an anti-reflective coating to radiate to gallium antimonide photocells, which converts the radiation to electric power. The development program started with the design and fabrication of an engineering prototype system. This was used as a component development vehicle to develop the technologies for the various components. A 25 W demonstration prototype was then designed and fabricated using the most advanced component approaches. The designs and test results from this development program are discussed.

  8. Study of thorium-uranium based molten salt blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing, E-mail: zhao_jing@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang Yongwei; Zhou Zhiwei [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A molten salt blanket has been designed for the fusion-fission hybrid reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of Thorium in the molten salt fuels has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molten salt was consisted of F-Li-Be and with the thickness of 40 cm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of {sup 6}Li was chosen to be the natural enrichment ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result shows that TBR is greater than 1, M is about 15-16. - Abstract: Not only solid fuels, but also liquid fuels can be used for the fusion-fission symbiotic reactor blanket. The operational record of the molten salt reactor with F-Li-Be was very successful, so the F-Li-Be blanket was chosen for research. The molten salt has several features which are suited for the fusion-fission applications. The fuel material uranium and thorium were dissolved in the F-Li-Be molten salt. A combined program, COUPLE, was used for neutronics analysis of the molten salt blanket. Several cases have been calculated and compared. Not only the influence of the different fuels have been studied, but also the thickness of the molten salt, and the concentration of the {sup 6}Li in the molten salt. Preliminary studies indicate that when thorium-uranium-plutonium fuels were added into a F-Li-Be molten salt blanket and with a component of 71% LiF-2% BeF{sub 2}-13.5% ThF{sub 4}-8.5% UF{sub 4}-5% PuF{sub 3}, and also with the molten salt thickness of 40 cm and natural concentration of {sup 6}Li, the appropriate blanket energy multiplication factor and TBR can be obtained. The result shows that thorium-uranium molten salt can be used in the blanket of a fusion-fission symbiotic reactor. The research on the molten salt blanket must be valuable for the design of fusion-fission symbiotic reactor.

  9. Influence of DC Supply Systems on Unplanned Reactor Trips in Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君利; 童节娟; 茆定远

    2001-01-01

    Operational experience has shown that some components in nuclearpower plants are so important that their failures, which would be a single failure, may cause the entire plant to shutdown. Such shutdowns have often occurred in the past in commercial nuclear power plants. Nuclear power plant authorities try to avoid such unplanned plant shutdowns because of the large economic loss. Unfortunately, it is difficult to identify all the important components from the numerous components in each complex nuclear power plant system. FMEA and FTA methods, which are often applied to probabilistic risk assessments, are used in this paper to identify the key components that may cause unplanned reactor trips. As an example, the 48 V DC power supply system in a typical Chinese nuclear power plant, which is a major cause of many unplanned reactor trips, was analyzed to show how to identify these key components and the causes for nuclear power plant trips.

  10. Novel Gas-liquid Hybrid Discharge Reactor for 4-CP Containing Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve 4-CP degradation efficiency, a novel gas-liquid hybrid discharge (HD) reactor was developed. Removal of 4-CP with spark-spark discharge (SSD) was higher than that with spark-corona discharge (SCD). Amount of H2O2 and O3 produced with SSD were larger than that with SCD. ·OH formation was increased by the combination of H2O2 and O3.The contribution of ·OH (38 % formed by O3 conversion) oxidation on removal of 4-CP accounted for nearly 60 %. The other effects of ultraviolet radiation, intense shock waves and pyrolysis,played partial roles in about 40 % of removal rate.

  11. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Heberle; Dieter Brüggemann

    2014-01-01

    We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in a combined heat and power generation (CHP) case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency...

  12. Start-up of membrane bioreactor and hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; Poyatos, J M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBR) system was studied as an alternative solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. This paper shows the results obtained from three laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants working in parallel in the start-up and steady states. The first wastewater treatment plant was a MBR, the second one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system containing carriers both in anoxic and aerobic zones of the bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBRa), and the last one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system which contained carriers only in the aerobic zone (hybrid MBBR-MBRb). The reactors operated with a hydraulic retention time of 30.40 h. A kinetic study for characterizing heterotrophic biomass was carried out and organic matter and nutrients removals were evaluated. The heterotrophic biomass of the hybrid MBBR-MBRb showed the best kinetic performance in the steady state, with yield coefficient for heterotrophic biomass=0.30246 mg volatile suspended solids per mg chemical oxygen demand, maximum specific growth rate for heterotrophic biomass=0.00308 h(-1) and half-saturation coefficient for organic matter=3.54908 mg O2 L(-1). The removal of organic matter was supported by the kinetic study of heterotrophic biomass.

  13. Multi-reactor power system configurations for multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A modular, multi-reactor power system and vehicle configuration for piloted nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) missions to Mars is presented. Such a design could provide enhanced system and mission reliability, allowing a comfortable safety margin for early manned flights, and would allow a range of piloted and cargo missions to be performed with a single power system design. Early use of common power modules for cargo missions would also provide progressive flight experience and validation of standardized systems for use in later piloted applications. System and mission analysis are presented to compare single and multi-reactor configurations for piloted Mars missions. A conceptual design for the Hydra modular multi-reactor NEP vehicle is presented.

  14. A simple dynamic model and transient simulation of the nuclear power reactor on microcomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yang Gee; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A simple dynamic model is developed for the transient simulation of the nuclear power reactor. The dynamic model includes the normalized neutron kinetics model with reactivity feedback effects and the core thermal-hydraulics model. The main objective of this paper demonstrates the capability of the developed dynamic model to simulate various important variables of interest for a nuclear power reactor transient. Some representative results of transient simulations show the expected trends in all cases, even though no available data for comparison. In this work transient simulations are performed on a microcomputer using the DESIRE/N96T continuous system simulation language which is applicable to nuclear power reactor transient analysis. 3 refs., 9 figs. (Author)

  15. Calculated power distribution of a thermionic, beryllium oxide reflected, fast-spectrum reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, W.; Lantz, E.

    1973-01-01

    A procedure is developed and used to calculate the detailed power distribution in the fuel elements next to a beryllium oxide reflector of a fast-spectrum, thermionic reactor. The results of the calculations show that, although the average power density in these outer fuel elements is not far from the core average, the power density at the very edge of the fuel closest to the beryllium oxide is about 1.8 times the core avearge.

  16. Fusion-power-core design of a Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhaver, C.; Schnurr, N. M.; Krakowski, R. A.; Hagenson, R. L.; Mynard, R. C.; Cappiello, C.; Lujan, R. E.; Davidson, J. W.; Chaffee, A. D.; Battat, M. E.

    A conceptual design of a fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, coils) based on a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) has been completed. After a brief statement of rationale and description of the reactor configuraton, the FPC integration is described in terms of power balance, thermal-hydraulics, and mechanical design. The engineering versatility, promise, and problems of this high-power-density approach to fusion are addressed.

  17. Design Study of Modular Nuclear Power Plant with Small Long Life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors Utilizing MOX Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilham, Muhammad; Su’ud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Growing energy needed due to increasing of the world’s population encourages development of technology and science of nuclear power plant in its safety and security. In this research, it will be explained about design study of modular fast reactor with helium gas cooling (GCFR) small long life reactor, which can be operated over 20 years. It had been conducted about neutronic design GCFR with Mixed Oxide (UO2-PuO2) fuel in range of 100-200 MWth NPPs of power and 50-60% of fuel fraction variation with cylindrical pin cell and cylindrical balance of reactor core geometry. Calculation method used SRAC-CITATION code. The obtained results are the effective multiplication factor and density value of core reactor power (with geometry optimalization) to obtain optimum design core reactor power, whereas the obtained of optimum core reactor power is 200 MWth with 55% of fuel fraction and 9-13% of percentages.

  18. Predictive functional control of temperature in a pharmaceutical hybrid nonlinear batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štampar Simon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, in times of recession, we are forced by competitiveness and the optimization of production to lower the costs of the temperature control in pharmaceutical batch reactors and increase the quantity and quality of the produced pharmaceutical product (active pharmaceutical substances. Therefore, a control algorithm is needed which provides us rapid and precise temperature control. This paper deals with the development of a control algorithm, where two predictive functional controllers are connected in a cascade for heating and cooling the content of the hybrid batch reactor. The algorithm has to be designed to cope with the constraints and the mixed discrete and continuous nature of the process of heating and cooling. The main goal of the control law is to achieve rapid and exact tracking of the reference temperature, good disturbance rejection and, in particular, a small number of heating and cooling medium switchings. The simulation results of the proposed algorithm give us much better performance compared to a conventional cascade PI algorithm.

  19. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  20. Comparative CFD analyses of liquid metal cooled reactor for lunar surface power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriener, Timothy M. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); El-Genk, Mohamed S., E-mail: mgenk@unm.edu [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mechanical Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Performed 3-D thermal-hydraulics analyses of a NaK-56 cooled, sector core reactor for lunar surface power. • Investigated effects mesh refinements and choice of two-layer k–ε and SST k–ω models on results. • Choice of turbulence model slightly affects calculated temperatures and velocities. • Estimates of pressure losses require a finer mesh for convergence than temperature and velocities fields. • SST k–ω model provides more details of mixing eddies, but requires more computation time. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of comparative CFD and thermal-hydraulics analyses of the Solid Core–Sectored Compact Reactor (SC-SCoRe) for lunar surface power. This fast-neutron spectrum, liquid NaK-56 cooled reactor is loaded with highly enriched UN fuel. It nominally generates 1.0 MW{sub th} for ∼21 full-power years at NaK-56 inlet and exit temperatures of 850 K and 900 K. The analyses examine the realizable two-layer k–ε and the Shear Stress Transport (SST) k–ω turbulence models, with different numerical mesh refinements, for simulating the performance of the SC-SCoRe core during nominal operation as well as investigate the effect on the computation time and calculated parameters. In addition, the results calculated for a single tri-lobe flow channel are compared to those obtained using the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES), a hybrid LES and RANS turbulence model. The numerical mesh refinement beyond 2 × 10{sup 7} cells in the flow channels and the choice of turbulence model slightly affect the calculated fuel, core structure, and liquid metal temperatures. They more strongly affect the pressure losses and the intensity of flow mixing and the formation of turbulence eddies in the inlet and exit plenums and exit duct. With the same numerical mesh refinements, the total computation time with the k–ω model is 40–120% longer than with the k-ε model, while the calculated operation parameters are almost identical. The flow

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  2. Thermal limits validation of gamma thermometer power adaption in CFE Laguna Verde 2 reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas V, G.; Banfield, J. [GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Global Nuclear Fuel, Americas LLC, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmingtonm, North Carolina (United States); Avila N, A., E-mail: Gabriel.Cuevas-Vivas@ge.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    This paper presents the status of GEH work on Gamma Thermometer (GT) validation using the signals of the instruments installed in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. The long-standing technical collaboration between Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas LLC (GNF) and GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC (GEH) is moving forward with solid steps to a final implementation of GTs in a nuclear reactor core. Each GT is integrated into a slightly modified Local Power Range Monitor (LPRM) assembly. Six instrumentation strings are equipped with two gamma field detectors for a total of twenty-four bundles whose calculated powers are adapted to the instrumentation readings in addition to their use as calibration instruments for LPRMs. Since November 2007, the six GT instrumentation strings have been operable with almost no degradation by the strong neutron and gamma fluxes in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. In this paper, the thermal limits, Critical Power Ratio (CPR) and maximum Linear Heat Generation Rate (LHGR), of bundles directly monitored by either Traverse In-core Probes (TIPs) or GTs are used to establish validation results that confirm the viability of TIP system replacement with automatic fixed in-core probes (AFIPs, GTs, in a Boiling Water Reactor. The new GNF steady-state reactor core simulator AETNA02 is used to obtain power and exposure distribution. Using this code with an updated methodology for GT power adaption, a reduced value of the GT interpolation uncertainty is obtained that is fed into the LHGR calculation. This new method achieves margin recovery for the adapted thermal limits for use in the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) or any other BWR in the future that employs a GT based AFIP system for local power measurements. (Author)

  3. Reactor units for power supply to the Russian Arctic regions: Priority assessment of nuclear energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of competitiveness of small nuclear power plants (SNPP and feasibility of their use to supply power to remote and inaccessible regions the competition occurs between nuclear energy sources, which is caused by a wide range of proposals for solving the problem of power supply to different consumers in the decentralized area of the Russian Arctic power complex. The paper suggests a methodological approach for expert assessment of the priority of small power reactor units based on the application of the point system. The priority types of the reactor units have been determined based on evaluation of the unit's conformity to the following criteria: the level of referentiality and readiness degree of reactor units to implementation; duration of the fuel cycle, which largely determines an autonomy level of the nuclear energy source; the possibility of creating a modular block structure of SNPP; the maximum weight of a transported single equipment for the reactor unit; service life of the main equipment. Within the proposed methodological approach the authors have performed a preliminary ranking of the reactor units according to various criteria, which allows quantitatively determining relative difference and priority of the small nuclear power plants projects aimed at energy supply to the Russian Arctic. To assess the sensitivity of the ranking results to the parameters of the point system the authors have observed the five-point and ten-point scales under variations of importance (weights of different criteria. The paper presents the results of preliminary ranking, which have allowed distinguishing the following types of the reactor units in order of their priority: ABV-6E (ABV-6M, "Uniterm" and SVBR-10 in the energy range up to 20 MW; RITM-200 (RITM-200M, KLT-40S and SVBR-100 in the energy range above 20 MW.

  4. The role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor in the future of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaway, W.R.; Lidsky, L.M.; Miller, M.M.

    1990-12-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the potential role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) in the future of nuclear power. The development of a usable actinide burning strategy could be an important factor in the acceptance and implementation of a next generation of nuclear power. First, the need for nuclear generating capacity is established through the analysis of energy and electricity demand forecasting models which cover the spectrum of bias from anti-nuclear to pro-nuclear. The analyses take into account the issues of global warming and the potential for technological advances in energy efficiency. We conclude, as do many others, that there will almost certainly be a need for substantial nuclear power capacity in the 2000--2030 time frame. We point out also that any reprocessing scheme will open up proliferation-related questions which can only be assessed in very specific contexts. The focus of this report is on the fuel cycle impacts of actinide burning. Scenarios are developed for the deployment of future nuclear generating capacity which exploit the advantages of actinide partitioning and actinide burning. Three alternative reactor designs are utilized in these future scenarios: The Light Water Reactor (LWR); the Modular Gas-Cooled Reactor (MGR); and the Integral Fast Reactor (FR). Each of these alternative reactor designs is described in some detail, with specific emphasis on their spent fuel streams and the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Four separation and partitioning processes are utilized in building the future nuclear power scenarios: Thermal reactor spent fuel preprocessing to reduce the ceramic oxide spent fuel to metallic form, the conventional PUREX process, the TRUEX process, and pyrometallurgical reprocessing.

  5. Power quality analysis of hybrid renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinchin W. Mosobi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid renewable energy sources consisting of solar photovoltaic, wind energy system, and a microhydro system is proposed in this paper. This system is suitable for supplying electricity to isolated locations or remote villages far from the grid supply. The solar photovoltaic system is modeled with two power converters, the first one being a DC-DC converter along with an maximum power point tracking to achieve a regulated DC output voltage and the second one being a DC-AC converter to obtain AC output. The wind energy system is modeled with a wind-turbine prime mover with varying wind speed and fixed pitch angle to drive an self excited induction generator (SEIG. Owing to inherent drooping characteristics of the SEIG, a closed loop turbine input system is incorporated. The microhydro system is modeled with a constant input power to drive an SEIG. The three different sources are integrated through an AC bus and the proposed hybrid system is supplied to R, R-L, and induction motor loads. A static compensator is proposed to improve the load voltage and current profiles; it also mitigates the harmonic contents of the voltage and current. The static synchronous compensator is realized by means of a three-phase IGBT-based current-controlled voltage source inverter with a self-supporting DC bus. The complete system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results obtained illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and are found to be satisfactory.

  6. Rotating-bed reactor as a power source for EM gun applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approx. 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th)), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approx. 300/sup 0/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it, the RBR can generate electric power (up to approx. 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications.

  7. The design and simulation of TCR(thyristor control reactor) reactive power compensation system based on Arene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-fang; ZHANG Li; JIANG Jian-guo; WANG Ru-lin

    2004-01-01

    Inevitably, the question of reactive power compensation was aroused by applied of power electronics. Based on the study of the instantaneous reactive power theory, the designs of TCR(thyristor control reactor) thyristor control reactor reactive power compensation system and TCR single closed loop strategy was proposed. In addition, as digital simulation software, Arene was applied to simulate the Jining coal mine No.2 system. The simulation results validate that the design is effective to improve power factor and stabilization of the system.

  8. Hybrid-Circuit Module For Dc-To-Dc Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorperian, Vatche; Detwiler, Robert; Karmon, Dan

    1996-01-01

    Power hybrid module is general-purpose power-switching module providing flexibility in design and application. Complete dc-to-dc power converter constructed by adding input/output filters and feedback circuitry to module to suit specific application.

  9. POWER OPTIMIZED DATAPATH UNITS OF HYBRID EMBEDDED CORE ARCHITECTURE USING CLOCK GATING TECHNIQUE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T.Subhashini; M.Kamaraju

    2015-01-01

    ...% of the total power dissipation. The main goal of this work is to implement a prototype power optimized datapath unit and ALU of Hybrid Embedded Controller Architecture targeted on to the FPGA chip and analyze the power consumption...

  10. Cost based reactive power participation for voltage control in multi units based isolated hybrid power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Saxena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi units of wind and diesel based generators in isolated hybrid power system have technical and operational advantages over single units system. They require dynamic reactive power compensation for fast recovery of voltage under load and input changes. In developing countries like India, investors’ prime concern is to provide continuous electricity at low rate while quality degradation can be permitted within pre defined acceptable range. The use of static compensator along with dynamic compensator may give cost effective reactive power participation for system. This paper presented pricing of reactive power compensation under steady state and transient conditions of system with fixed capacitor and STATCOM. The main contributions of the paper are; (i evaluating reactive power balance equation for generalized multi units of wind and diesel based isolated hybrid power system, (ii reactive power compensation using fixed capacitor and STATCOM in presence of composite load model, (ii fast recovery of voltage response using genetic algorithm based tuning of STATCOM controller, (iii evaluation of reactive power compensation cost for steady and dynamic conditions due to probabilistic change in load and/or input demand and (iv comparison of results with existing reference compensation method.

  11. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITs of 950 and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITs ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo-generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  12. Power level effects on thorium-based fuels in pressure-tube heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, B.P.; Edwards, G.W.R., E-mail: blair.bromley@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Sambavalingam, P. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Lattice and core physics modeling and calculations have been performed to quantify the impact of power/flux levels on the reactivity and achievable burnup for 35-element fuel bundles made with Pu/Th or U-233/Th. The fissile content in these bundles has been adjusted to produce on the order of 20 MWd/kg burnup in homogeneous cores in a 700 MWe-class pressure-tube heavy water reactor, operating on a once-through thorium cycle. Results demonstrate that the impact of the power/flux level is modest for Pu/Th fuels but significant for U-233/Th fuels. In particular, high power/flux reduces the breeding and burnup potential of U-233/Th fuels. Thus, there may be an incentive to operate reactors with U-233/Th fuels at a lower power density or to develop alternative refueling schemes that will lower the time-average specific power, thereby increasing burnup.(author)

  13. Gas Cooled, Natural Uranium, D20 Moderated Power Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, R.C.; Beasley, E.G.; DeBoer, T.K.; Evans, T.C.; Molino, D.F.; Rothwell, W.S.; Slivka, W.R.

    1956-08-01

    The attractiveness of a helium cooled, heavy water moderated, natural uranium central station power plant has been investigated. A fuel element has been devised which allows the D20 to be kept at a low pressure while the exit gas temperature is high. A preliminary cost analysis indicates that, using currently available materials, competitive nuclear power in foreign countries is possible.

  14. Power Beaming to Space Using a Nuclear Reactor-Pumped Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Monroe, David K.; Pickard, Paul S.

    1994-07-01

    The present political and environmental climate may slow the inevitable direct utilization of nuclear power in space. In the meantime, there is another approach for using nuclear energy for space power. That approach is to let nuclear energy generate a laser beam in a ground-based nuclear reactor-pumped laser (RPL), and then beam the optical energy into space. Potential space applications for a ground-based RPL include (1) illuminating geosynchronous communication satellites in the earth's shadow to extend their lives, (2) beaming power to orbital transfer vehicles, (3) providing power (from earth) to a lunar base during the long lunar night, and (4) removing space debris. FALCON is a high-power, steady-state, nuclear reactor-pumped laser (RPL) concept which is being developed by the Department of Energy with Sandia National Laboratories as the lead laboratory. The FALCON program has experimentally demonstrated reactor-pumped lasing in various mixtures of xenon, argon, neon, and helium at wavelengths of 585, 703, 725, 1271, 1733, 1792, 2032, 2630, 2650, and 3370 nm with intrinsic efficiency as high as 2.5%. Frequency-doubling the 1733-nm line would yield a good match for photovoltaic arrays at 867 nm. Preliminary designs of an RPL suitable for power beaming have been completed. The MW- class laser is fairly simple in construction, self-powered, closed-cycle (no exhaust gases), and modular. This paper describes the FALCON program accomplishments and power-beaming applications.

  15. Power Management of Hybrid Power Systems with Li-Fe Batteries and Supercapacitors for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy management strategy of a Li-Fe battery and supercapacitor hybrid power system to provide both high power density and energy density for mobile robots with fluctuating workloads. A two-phase power-optimization approach is proposed to exploit the high power density of supercapacitors and the high energy density of Li-Fe batteries. With our strategy, large peak power can be provided for a short time period whenever needed, while low power can be provided for very long time. A set of experiments have been conducted. The experimental results show that our strategy can effectively improve the performance of mobile robots and extend the lifetime of batteries.

  16. Design and Analysis of the Power Control System of the Fast Zero Energy Reactor FR-0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuh, N.J.H.

    1966-12-15

    This report describes the power control by means of the fine-control rod and the design of the control system of the fast zero energy reactor FR-0 located in Studsvik, Sweden. System requirements and some operational conditions were used as design criteria. Manual and automatic control is possible. Variable electronic end-stops for the control rod have been designed, because of the special construction of the reactor and control rod. Noise in the control system caused by the reactor, detector and electronics caused disturbances of the control system at the lower power levels. The noise power-spectrum was measured. Statistical design methods, using the measured noise power spectrum, were used to design filters, which will reduce the influence of the noise at the lower power levels. Root Loci sketches and Bode diagrams were used for stability analyses. The system was simulated on an analogue computer, taking into account even nonlinearities of the control system and noise. Typical cases of reactor operation were simulated and stability analysis performed.

  17. Characterization of the TRIGA Mark II reactor full-power steady state

    CERN Document Server

    Cammi, Antonio; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Pozzi, Stefano; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica; Magrotti, Giovanni; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the characterization of the full-power steady state of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor of the University of Pavia is performed by coupling Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for neutronics with "Multiphysics" model for thermal-hydraulics. Neutronic analyses have been performed starting from a MC model of the entire reactor system, based on the MCNP5 code, that was already validated in fresh fuel and zero-power configuration (in which thermal effects are negligible) using the available experimental data as benchmark. In order to describe the full-power reactor configuration, the temperature distribution in the core is necessary. To evaluate it, a thermal-hydraulic model has been developed, using the power distribution results from MC simulation as input. The thermal-hydraulic model is focused on the core active region and takes into account sub-cooled boiling effects present at full reactor power. The obtained temperature distribution is then introduced in the MC model and a benchmark analysis is carr...

  18. Delayed Neutrons Effect on Power Reactor with Variation of Fluid Fuel Velocity at MSR Fuji-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncoro Aji, Indarta; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Novitrian; Irwanto, Dwi; Waris, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    As the nuclear reactor operate with liquid fuel, controlling velocity of the fuel flow on the Molten salt reactor very influence on the neutron kinetics in that reactor system. The effect of the pace fuel changes to the populations number of neutrons and power density on vertical direction (1 dimension) from the first until fifth year reactor operating had been analyzed on this research. This research had been conducted on MSR Fuji-12 with a two meters core high, and LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 as fuel composition respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section obtained from ouput of SRAC (neutronic calculation code has been developed by JAEA, with JENDL-4.0 as data library on the SRAC calculation) was being used for the calculation process of this research. The calculation process of this research had been performed numerically by SOR (successive over relaxation) and finite difference methode, as well as using C programing language. From the calculation, regarding to the value of power density resulting from delayed neutrons, concluded that 20 m/s is the optimum fuel flow velocity in all the years reactor had operated. Where the increases number of power are inversely proportional with the fuel flow speed.

  19. Intelligent uninterruptible power supply system with back-up fuel cell/battery hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yuedong; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Hua

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with a hybrid power source that comprises a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a battery. Attention is focused on the architecture of the UPS hybrid system and the data acquisition and control of the PEMFC. Specifically, the hybrid UPS system consists of a low-cost 60-cell 300 W PEMFC stack, a 3-cell lead-acid battery, an active power factor correction ac-dc rectifier, a half-bridge dc-ac inverter, a dc-dc converter, an ac-dc charger and their control units based on a digital signal processor TMS320F240, other integrated circuit chips, and a simple network management protocol adapter. Experimental tests and theoretical studies are conducted. First, the major parameters of the PEMFC are experimentally obtained and evaluated. Then an intelligent control strategy for the PEMFC stack is proposed and implemented. Finally, the performance of the hybrid UPS system is measured and analyzed.

  20. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  1. Hybrid Solar: A Review on Photovoltaic and Thermal Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. In the building sector in particular, the limited building space for the accommodation of solar devices has driven a demand on the use of hybrid solar technology for the multigeneration of active power and/or passive solar devices. The importance is escalating with the worldwide trend on the development of low-carbon/zero-energy buildings. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collector systems had been studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally in depth in the past decades. Together with alternative means, a range of innovative products and systems has been put forward. The final success of the integrative technologies relies on the coexistence of robust product design/construction and reliable system operation/maintenance in the long run to satisfy the user needs. This paper gives a broad review on the published academic works, with an emphasis placed on the research and development activities in the last decade.

  2. Novel, Integrated Reactor / Power Conversion System (LMR-AMTEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablo Rubiolo, Principal Investigator

    2003-03-21

    The main features of this project were the development of a long life (up to 10 years) Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) and a static conversion subsystem comprising an Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric (AMTEC) topping cycle and a ThermoElectric (TE) Bottom cycle. Various coupling options of the LMR with the energy conversion subsystem were explored and, base in the performances found in this analysis, an Indirect Coupling (IC) between the LMR and the AMTEC/TE converters with Alkali Metal Boilers (AMB) was chosen as the reference design. The performance model of the fully integrated sodium-and potassium-AMTEC/TE converters shows that a combined conversion efficiency in excess of 30% could be achieved by the plant. (B204)

  3. Modeling and simulation of a hybrid ship power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorcik, Christopher J.

    2011-12-01

    Optimizing the performance of naval ship power systems requires integrated design and coordination of the respective subsystems (sources, converters, and loads). A significant challenge in the system-level integration is solving the Power Management Control Problem (PMCP). The PMCP entails deciding on subsystem power usages for achieving a trade-off between the error in tracking a desired position/velocity profile, minimizing fuel consumption, and ensuring stable system operation, while at the same time meeting performance limitations of each subsystem. As such, the PMCP naturally arises at a supervisory level of a ship's operation. In this research, several critical steps toward the solution of the PMCP for surface ships have been undertaken. First, new behavioral models have been developed for gas turbine engines, wound rotor synchronous machines, DC super-capacitors, induction machines, and ship propulsion systems. Conventional models describe system inputs and outputs in terms of physical variables such as voltage, current, torque, and force. In contrast, the behavioral models developed herein express system inputs and outputs in terms of power whenever possible. Additionally, the models have been configured to form a hybrid system-level power model (HSPM) of a proposed ship electrical architecture. Lastly, several simulation studies have been completed to expose the capabilities and limitations of the HSPM.

  4. Power maximization for pyroelectric, piezoelectric, and hybrid energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Murtadha A.

    The goal of this dissertation consists of improving the efficiency of energy harvesting using pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials in a system by the proper characterization of electrical parameters, widening frequency, and coupling of both effects with the appropriate parameters. A new simple stand-alone method of characterizing the impedance of a pyroelectric cell has been demonstrated. This method utilizes a Pyroelectric single pole low pass filter technique, PSLPF. Utilizing the properties of a PSLPF, where a known input voltage is applied and capacitance C p and resistance Rp can be calculated at a frequency of 1 mHz to 1 Hz. This method demonstrates that for pyroelectric materials the impedance depends on two major factors: average working temperature, and the heating rate. Design and implementation of a hybrid approach using multiple piezoelectric cantilevers is presented. This is done to achieve mechanical and electrical tuning, along with bandwidth widening. In addition, a hybrid tuning technique with an improved adjusting capacitor method was applied. An toroid inductor of 700 mH is shunted in to the load resistance and shunt capacitance. Results show an extended frequency range up to 12 resonance frequencies (300% improvement) with improved power up to 197%. Finally, a hybrid piezoelectric and pyroelectric system is designed and tested. Using a voltage doubler, circuit for rectifying and collecting pyroelectric and piezoelectric voltages individually is proposed. The investigation showed that the hybrid energy is possible using the voltage doubler circuit from two independent sources for pyroelectrictity and piezoelectricity due to marked differences of optimal performance.

  5. Safety and Environment aspects of Tokamak- type Fusion Power Reactor- An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Bharat; Reddy, D. Chenna

    2017-04-01

    Naturally occurring thermonuclear fusion reaction (of light atoms to form a heavier nucleus) in the sun and every star in the universe, releases incredible amounts of energy. Demonstrating the controlled and sustained reaction of deuterium-tritium plasma should enable the development of fusion as an energy source here on Earth. The promising fusion power reactors could be operated on the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle with fuel self-sufficiency. The potential impact of fusion power on the environment and the possible risks associated with operating large-scale fusion power plants is being studied by different countries. The results show that fusion can be a very safe and sustainable energy source. A fusion power plant possesses not only intrinsic advantages with respect to safety compared to other sources of energy, but also a negligible long term impact on the environment provided certain precautions are taken in its design. One of the important considerations is in the selection of low activation structural materials for reactor vessel. Selection of the materials for first wall and breeding blanket components is also important from safety issues. It is possible to fully benefit from the advantages of fusion energy if safety and environmental concerns are taken into account when considering the conceptual studies of a reactor design. The significant safety hazards are due to the tritium inventory and energetic neutron fluence induced activity in the reactor vessel, first wall components, blanket system etc. The potential of release of radioactivity under operational and accident conditions needs attention while designing the fusion reactor. Appropriate safety analysis for the quantification of the risk shall be done following different methods such as FFMEA (Functional Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) and HAZOP (Hazards and operability). Level of safety and safety classification such as nuclear safety and non-nuclear safety is very important for the FPR (Fusion

  6. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  7. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  8. Nuclear resurrection: Must Ontario fire up more reactors to power its future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, E.

    2005-06-01

    An extensive historical review of Canada's nuclear reactor program is provided. The author also examines the role of nuclear power generation in Ontario's energy future, concluding that given the limited capacity for additional hydro power, and the uncertainty of natural gas supply, nuclear power will likely remain a significant source of energy for Ontario for the foreseeable future. Nevertheless, the challenge to bring nuclear power generation under control remains, considering that despite the best efforts of generations of nuclear engineers, politicians and regulators the industry appears close to being unmanageable, and Ontario taxpayers are likely to be paying its old debt far into the future. The current contingent of reactors is rapidly aging and the disposal of used nuclear fuel still defies a satisfactory solution. These formidable challenges notwithstanding, best estimates are that Ontario has few viable alternatives, and will have to embark on a new cycle of nuclear construction before the end of this decade.

  9. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monado, Fiber; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Ariani, Menik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  10. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monado, Fiber [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia and Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Su' ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Ariani, Menik [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [CRINES, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okoyama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-09-30

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  11. Research reactor power controller design using an output feedback nonlinear receding horizon control method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etchepareborda, Andres [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche 8400 (Argentina)]. E-mail: etche@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Lolich, Jose [INVAP S.E., Moreno 1089, Bariloche 8400 (Argentina)

    2007-02-15

    A constrained, output feedback nonlinear receding horizon control (NRHC) method is applied to design a research reactor power controller. The method uses a nonlinear plant model subject to state, control and terminal set constraints; a nonlinear cost function; and a high gain observer. The controller regulates reactor power from 1% to 100% of full power; considers known disturbances, such as reactivity insertions and changes in core inlet flow and temperature; and includes upper limits constraints on neutron flux, neutron flux rate, core outlet temperature and core inlet-outlet temperature difference. Simulation results show an excellent performance for power regulation and known disturbances rejection: all process variables are kept within the admissible limits avoiding the actuation of the safety systems.

  12. Controlling the power output of a nuclear reactor with fuzzy logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruan, D.; Wal, A.J. van der

    1998-01-01

    The application of fuzzy logic control (FLC) in the domain of nuclear industry presents a tremendous challenge. The main reason for this is the public awareness of the risks of nuclear reactors and the very strict safety regulations in force for nuclear power plants. The very same regulations preven

  13. Controlling the Power Output of a Nuclear Reactor with Fuzzy Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruan, D.; Wal, A.J. van der

    1997-01-01

    The application of fuzzy logic control (FLC) in the domain of nuclear industry presents a tremendous challenge. The main reason for this is the public awareness of the risks of nuclear reactors and the very strict safety regulations in force for nuclear power plants. The very same regulations preven

  14. Controlling the power output of a nuclear reactor with fuzzy logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruan, D.; Wal, A.J. van der

    1998-01-01

    The application of fuzzy logic control (FLC) in the domain of nuclear industry presents a tremendous challenge. The main reason for this is the public awareness of the risks of nuclear reactors and the very strict safety regulations in force for nuclear power plants. The very same regulations preven

  15. Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactor research for multimegawatt power in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, K.; Schneider, R. T.; Helmick, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    In the gaseous-fuel reactor concept, the fissile material is contained in a moderator-reflector cavity and exists in the form of a flowing gas or plasma separated from the cavity walls by means of fluid mechanical forces. Temperatures in excess of structural limitations are possible for low-specific-mass power and high-specific-impulse propulsion in space. Experiments have been conducted with a canister filled with enriched UF6 inserted into a beryllium-reflected cavity. A theoretically predicted critical mass of 6 kg was measured. The UF6 was also circulated through this cavity, demonstrating stable reactor operation with the fuel in motion. Because the flowing gaseous fuel can be continuously processed, the radioactive waste in this type of reactor can be kept small. Another potential of fissioning gases is the possibility of converting the kinetic energy of fission fragments directly into coherent electromagnetic radiation, the nuclear pumping of lasers. Numerous nuclear laser experiments indicate the possibility of transmitting power in space directly from fission energy. The estimated specific mass of a multimegawatt gaseous-fuel reactor power system is from 1 to 5 kg/kW while the companion laser-power receiver station would be much lower in specific mass.

  16. Thermal-hydraulics and safety analysis of sectored compact reactor for lunar surface power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriener, T. M. [Inst. for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); El-Genk, M. S. [Inst. for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mechanical Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The liquid NaK-cooled, fast-neutron spectrum, Sectored Compact Reactor (SCoRe-N 5) concept has been developed at the Univ. of New Mexico for lunar surface power applications. It is loaded with highly enriched UN fuel pins in a triangular lattice, and nominally operates at exit and inlet coolant temperatures of 850 K and 900 K. This long-life reactor generates up to 1 MWth continuously for {>=} 20 years. To avoid a single point failure in reactor cooling, the core is divided into 6 sectors that are neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically independent. This paper performs a 3-D the thermal-hydraulic analysis of SCoRe--N 5 at nominal operation temperatures and a power level of 1 MWth. In addition, the paper investigates the potential of continuing reactor operation at a lower power in the unlikely event that one sector in the core experiences a loss of coolant (LOC). Redesigning the core with a contiguous steel matrix enhances the cooling of the sector experiencing a LOC. Results show that with a core sector experiencing a LOC, SCORE-N 5 could continue operating safely at a reduced power of 166.6 kWth. (authors)

  17. Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactor research for multimegawatt power in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, K.; Schneider, R. T.; Helmick, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    In the gaseous-fuel reactor concept, the fissile material is contained in a moderator-reflector cavity and exists in the form of a flowing gas or plasma separated from the cavity walls by means of fluid mechanical forces. Temperatures in excess of structural limitations are possible for low-specific-mass power and high-specific-impulse propulsion in space. Experiments have been conducted with a canister filled with enriched UF6 inserted into a beryllium-reflected cavity. A theoretically predicted critical mass of 6 kg was measured. The UF6 was also circulated through this cavity, demonstrating stable reactor operation with the fuel in motion. Because the flowing gaseous fuel can be continuously processed, the radioactive waste in this type of reactor can be kept small. Another potential of fissioning gases is the possibility of converting the kinetic energy of fission fragments directly into coherent electromagnetic radiation, the nuclear pumping of lasers. Numerous nuclear laser experiments indicate the possibility of transmitting power in space directly from fission energy. The estimated specific mass of a multimegawatt gaseous-fuel reactor power system is from 1 to 5 kg/kW while the companion laser-power receiver station would be much lower in specific mass.

  18. Oxygen transport membrane reactor based method and system for generating electric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Chakravarti, Shrikar; Li, Juan

    2017-02-07

    A carbon capture enabled system and method for generating electric power and/or fuel from methane containing sources using oxygen transport membranes by first converting the methane containing feed gas into a high pressure synthesis gas. Then, in one configuration the synthesis gas is combusted in oxy-combustion mode in oxygen transport membranes based boiler reactor operating at a pressure at least twice that of ambient pressure and the heat generated heats steam in thermally coupled steam generation tubes within the boiler reactor; the steam is expanded in steam turbine to generate power; and the carbon dioxide rich effluent leaving the boiler reactor is processed to isolate carbon. In another configuration the synthesis gas is further treated in a gas conditioning system configured for carbon capture in a pre-combustion mode using water gas shift reactors and acid gas removal units to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich fuel gas that fuels an integrated gas turbine and steam turbine system to generate power. The disclosed method and system can also be adapted to integrate with coal gasification systems to produce power from both coal and methane containing sources with greater than 90% carbon isolation.

  19. Introduction to Nuclear Fusion Power and the Design of Fusion Reactors. An Issue-Oriented Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, J. A.

    This three-part module focuses on the principles of nuclear fusion and on the likely nature and components of a controlled-fusion power reactor. The physical conditions for a net energy release from fusion and two approaches (magnetic and inertial confinement) which are being developed to achieve this goal are described. Safety issues associated…

  20. Introduction to Nuclear Fusion Power and the Design of Fusion Reactors. An Issue-Oriented Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, J. A.

    This three-part module focuses on the principles of nuclear fusion and on the likely nature and components of a controlled-fusion power reactor. The physical conditions for a net energy release from fusion and two approaches (magnetic and inertial confinement) which are being developed to achieve this goal are described. Safety issues associated…

  1. Hybrid LC filter for power electronic drives. Theory and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhankhotov, V.

    2009-07-01

    Power electronic converter drives use, for the sake of high efficiency, pulse-width modulation that results in sequences of high-voltage high-frequency steep-edged pulses. Such a signal contains a set of high harmonics not required for control purposes. Harmonics cause reflections in the cable between the motor and the inverter leading to faster winding insulation ageing. Bearing failures and problems with electromagnetic compatibility may also result. Electrical du/dt filters provide an effective solution to problems caused by pulse-width modulation, thereby increasing the performance and service life of the electrical machines. It is shown that RLC filters effectively decrease the reflection phenomena in the cable. Improved (simple, but effective) solutions are found for both differential- and common-mode signals; these solutions use a galvanic connection between the RLC filter star point and the converter DC link. Foil chokes and film capacitors are among the most widely used components in high-power applications. In actual applications they can be placed in different parts of the cabinet. This fact complicates the arrangement of the cabinet and decreases the reliability of the system. In addition, the inductances of connection wires may prevent filtration at high frequencies. This thesis introduces a new hybrid LC filter that uses a natural capacitance between the turns of the foil choke based on integration of an auxiliary layer into it. The main idea of the hybrid LC filter results from the fact that both the foil choke and the film capacitors have the same roll structure. Moreover, the capacitance between the turns ('intra capacitance') of the foil inductors is the reason for the deterioration of their properties at high frequencies. It is shown that the proposed filter has a natural cancellation of the intra capacitance. A hybrid LC filter may contain two or more foil layers isolated from each other and coiled on a core. The core material can be

  2. Annual report of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This was the Annual Report of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Fiscal Year of 1994. In this report, the following 12 items are described: (1) Development of the fast breeding reactor; (a) operation of the fast experimental reactor, `Joyo`, (b) construction and trial operation of the fast breeding prototype reactor, `Monju`, and (c) R and D of FBR; (2) Development of the new type conversion reactor; (a) operation of prototype reactor, `Fugen`, and (b) R and D of ATR; (3) Development of uranium mining and conversion; (4) Development of uranium concentration technology; (5) Development of plutonium fuel; (a) preparation of the MOX fuel, (b) preparation facility construction of the MOX fuel, (c) R and D of plutonium fuel. and (d) technical development of plutonium mixing and conversion; (6) Reprocessing of spent fuel; (7) Environmental technology development of radioactive waste; (8) Creative and innovative R and D; (9) Management and nuclear non-proliferation countermeasure of nuclear matter; (10) Safety management and safety study; (11) Related common business; and (12) General management business. (G.K.)

  3. Optimization of the self-sufficient thorium fuel cycle for CANDU power reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergelson Boris R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of optimization calculations for CANDU reactors operating in the thorium cycle are presented in this paper. Calculations were performed to validate the feasibility of operating a heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in a self-sufficient thorium cycle. Two modes of operation were considered in the paper: the mode of preliminary accumulation of 233U in the reactor itself and the mode of operation in a self-sufficient cycle. For the mode of accumulation of 233U, it was assumed that enriched uranium or plutonium was used as additional fissile material to provide neutrons for 233U production. In the self-sufficient mode of operation, the mass and isotopic composition of heavy nuclei unloaded from the reactor should provide (after the removal of fission products the value of the multiplication factor of the cell in the following cycle K>1. Additionally, the task was to determine the geometry and composition of the cell for an acceptable burn up of 233U. The results obtained demonstrate that the realization of a self-sufficient thorium mode for a CANDU reactor is possible without using new technologies. The main features of the reactor ensuring a self-sufficient mode of operation are a good neutron balance and moving of fuel through the active core.

  4. Low-power hybrid wireless network for monitoring infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D I; Shin, K H; Kim, I K; Park, K S; Lee, T S; Kim, S I; Lim, K S; Huh, S J

    2005-10-01

    We have created a pilot wireless network for the convenient monitoring of temperature and humidity of infant incubators. This system combines infrared and radio frequency (RF) communication in order to minimize the power consumption of slave devices, and we therefore call it a hybrid wireless network. The slave module installed in the infant incubator receives the calling signal from the host with an infrared receiver, and sends temperature and humidity data to the host with an RF transmitter. The power consumption of the host system is not critical, and hence it uses the maximum power of infrared transmission and continuously operating RF receiver. In our test implementation, we included four slave devices. The PC calls each slave device every second and then waits for 6 s, resulting in a total scan period of 10 s. Slave devices receive the calling signals and transmit three data values (temperature, moisture, and skin temperature); their power demand is 1 mW, and can run for about 1000 h on four AA-size nickel-hydride batteries.

  5. Dynamic neutronic and stability analysis of a burst mode, single cavity gas core reactor Brayton cycle space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Edward T.; Kutikkad, Kiratadas

    The conceptual, burst-mode gaseous-core reactor (GCR) space nuclear power system presently subjected to reactor-dynamics and system stability studies operates on a closed Brayton cycle, via disk MHD generator for energy conversion. While the gaseous fuel density power coefficient of reactivity is found to be capable of rapidly stabilizing the GCR system, the power of this feedback renders standard external reactivity insertions inadequate for significant power-level changes during normal operation.

  6. A modular gas-cooled cermet reactor system for planetary base power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahshan, Salim N.; Borkowski, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Fission nuclear power is foreseen as the source for electricity in planetary colonization and exploration. A six module gas-cooled, cermet-fueled reactor is proposed that can meet the design objectives. The highly enriched core is compact and can operate at high temperature for a long life. The helium coolant powers six modular Brayton cycles that compare favorably with the SP-100-based Brayton cycle.

  7. A neutron tomography facility at a low power research reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Körner, S; Von Tobel, P; Rauch, H

    2001-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NR) provides a very efficient tool in the field of non-destructive testing as well as for many applications in fundamental research. A neutron beam penetrating a specimen is attenuated by the sample material and detected by a two-dimensional (2D) imaging device. The image contains information about materials and structure inside the sample because neutrons are attenuated according to the basic law of radiation attenuation. Contrary to X-rays, neutrons can be attenuated by some light materials, as for example, hydrogen and boron, but penetrate many heavy materials. Therefore, NR can yield important information not obtainable by more traditional methods. Nevertheless, there are many aspects of structure, both quantitative and qualitative, that are not accessible from 2D transmission images. Hence, there is an interest in three-dimensional neutron imaging. At the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Atominstitut in Austria a neutron tomography facility has been installed. The neutron flux at ...

  8. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Weaver, Kevan Dean

    2002-01-01

    The use of supercritical temperature and pressure light water as the coolant in a direct-cycle nuclear reactor offers potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to 46%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type recirculation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If a tight fuel rod lattice is adopted, it is possible to significantly reduce the neutron moderation and attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions. In this project a supercritical water reactor concept with a simple, blanket-free, pancake-shaped core will be developed. This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain the hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity.

  9. Standard Practice for Design of Surveillance Programs for Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing a surveillance program for monitoring the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials in light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels. This practice includes the minimum requirements for the design of a surveillance program, selection of vessel material to be included, and the initial schedule for evaluation of materials. 1.2 This practice was developed for all light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels for which the predicted maximum fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) at the end of license (EOL) exceeds 1 × 1021 neutrons/m2 (1 × 1017 n/cm2) at the inside surface of the reactor vessel. 1.3 This practice applies only to the planning and design of surveillance programs for reactor vessels designed and built after the effective date of this practice. Previous versions of Practice E185 apply to earlier reactor vessels. 1.4 This practice does not provide specific procedures for monitoring the radiation induced cha...

  10. Space Molten Salt Reactor Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, M.; Flanders, J.; McMurray, N.; Denning, R.; Sun, X.; Windl, W.; Blue, T.

    Students at The Ohio State University working under the NASA Steckler Grant sought to investigate how molten salt reactors with fissile material dissolved in a liquid fuel medium can be applied to space applications. Molten salt reactors of this kind, built for non-space applications, have demonstrated high power densities, high temperature operation without pressurization, high fuel burn up and other characteristics that are ideal for space fission systems. However, little research has been published on the application of molten salt reactor technology to space fission systems. This paper presents a conceptual design of the Space Molten Salt Reactor (SMSR), which utilizes molten salt reactor technology for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power at the 100 kWe to 15 MWe level. Central to the SMSR design is a liquid mixture of LiF, BeF2 and highly enriched U235F4 that acts as both fuel and core coolant. In brief, some of the positive characteristics of the SMSR are compact size, simplified core design, high fuel burn up percentages, proliferation resistant features, passive safety mechanisms, a considerable body of previous research, and the possibility for flexible mission architecture.

  11. Development of TSC SAMG for Nuclear Power Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGDong-xing; PUSheng-di; ZHAOShou-zhi; LIJi-gen

    2003-01-01

    Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) is developed to prevent the severe accident progress and mitigate the consequences of severe accident in nuclear power plant. Technical Support Center (TSC) SAMG is one of important components of the strategies. It contains Severe Accident Guidelines (SAGs) and Severe Challenge Guidelines (SCGs).

  12. Oak Ridge Tokamak experimental power reactor study. Part 5. Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, T.E.; Reid, R.L. (eds.)

    1977-02-01

    The results of the past year's effort in the engineering areas are documented in this report. The discussion covers system identification and overall description, power conversion, plant layout, structural design, remote maintenance and assembly, program planning, and schedules. Five companion reports being issued as parts of this composite report present information in the other discipline areas.

  13. Divertor power spreading in DEMO reactor by impurity seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagórski, Roman, E-mail: Roman.Zagorski@ipplm.pl; Gałązka, Krzysztof; Ivanova-Stanik, Irena

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The COREDIV code has been used to simulate DEMO inductive discharges with different impurity seeding (Ne, Ar, Kr) and different sputtering models (with and w/o prompt re-deposition process). • It has been shown that only for Ar and Kr seeding it is possible to achieve H-mode plasma operation with acceptable level of the power to the tungsten target plates. • For neon seeding, such regime of operation seems not to be possible. • Prompt re-deposition model extends the DEMO operation window. - Abstract: Numerical simulation with COREDIV code of DEMO H-mode discharges (tungsten divertor and wall) are performed considering the influence of seeding impurities with different atomic numbers: Ne, Ar and Kr on the DEMO scenarios. The approach is based on integrated numerical modeling using the COREDIV code, which self-consistently solves radial transport equations in the core region and 2D multi-fluid transport in the SOL. In this paper we focus on investigations how the operational domain of DEMO can be influenced by seeding gasses. Simulations with the updated prompt re-deposition model implemented in the code show that only for Ar and Kr, for high enough radial diffusion in the SOL, it is possible to achieve H-mode plasma operation (power to the SOL> L-H transition threshold power) with acceptable level of the power to the target plates. For neon seeding such regime of operation seems not to be possible.

  14. Evaluation of a hybrid anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks as biofilm carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Mohamed Ali; Habouzit, Frédéric; Bernet, Nicolas; Jedidi, Naceur; Escudié, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Wine production processes generate large amount of both winery wastewater and solid wastes. Furthermore, working periods, volumes and pollution loads greatly vary over the year. Therefore, it is recommended to develop a low-cost treatment technology for the treatment of winery effluents taking into account the variation of the organic loading rate (OLR). Accordingly, we have investigated the sequential operation of an anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks (GSs) as biofilm carrier with an OLR ranging from 0.65 to 27 gCOD/L/d. The result showed that, during the start-up with wastewater influent, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate ranged from 83% to 93% and was about 91% at the end of the start-up period that lasted for 40 days. After 3 months of inactivity period of the reactor (no influent feeding), we have succeeded in restarting-up the reactor in only 15 days with a COD removal of 82% and a low concentration of volatile fatty acids (1 g/L), which confirms the robustness of the reactor. As a consequence, GSs can be used as an efficient carrier support, allowing a fast reactor start-up, while the biofilm conserves its activity during a non-feeding period. The proposed hybrid reactor thus permits to treat both winery effluents and GSs.

  15. Sliding Mode Controller for Three-Phase Hybrid Active Power Filter with Photovoltaic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Blorfan, Ayman; Merckle, Jean; Flieller, Damien; Wira, Patrice; Sturtzer, Guy

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new three-phase hybrid active power filter configuration that interconnects a passive high-pass filter in parallel with an active power filter and a photovoltaic system. The proposed configuration can improves the filtering performance of the conventional active power filter, as well as simultaneously supply the power from the photovoltaic arrays to the load and utility. This paper will describe the proposed hybrid active power filter control usin...

  16. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Farouk Odeim; Jürgen Roes; Angelika Heinzel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, ...

  17. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Cellulose degradation, volatile fatty acid formation and biological sulphate removal operating and anaerobic hybrid reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available and sulphide rich effluent of the biological reactor in a 1:1 ratio, to increase the pH and to precipitate the metals as metalsulphides. The feed water entered FR at the top to get into contact with the grass cuttings. A recycle stream (360 ℓ.../d) was installed from the fermentation part of the reactor to the top of the reactor for mixing purposes. The effluent left FR at the bottom. (Figure 2). Reactor System and Biomass A 20 ℓ perspex one stage anaerobic hybrid reactor system operating at 37...

  18. high power facto high power factor high power factor hybrid rectifier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    increase in the number of electrical loads that some kind of ... application, the rectifiers, particularly in Gr setting, are .... Copyright© Faculty of Engineering, sity of Nigeria ... PRINCIPLE OF THE PROPOSED HYBRID RECTIFIER. PRINCIPLE OF ...

  19. Utilization of stable isotopes in power reactor; Utilisation des isotopes stables dans les reacteurs de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmoulins, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-12-31

    The stable isotopes, besides uranium, used in EDF power nuclear reactors are mainly the boron 10 and the lithium 7. Boron is used in reactors as a neutrophagous agent for core reactivity control, and lithium, and more especially lithium 7, is extensively used as a solution in PWR moderators for primary fluid pH control. Boron and lithium ore reserves and producers are presented; industrial isotopic separation techniques are described: for the boron 10, they include dissociative distillation (Sulzer process) and separation on anionic resins, and for lithium 7, ion exchange columns (Cogema). 1 tab.

  20. Review on Application of Control Algorithms to Power Regulations of Reactor Cores

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This research is to solve the stability analysis issue of nonlinear pressurized water reactor cores. On the basis of modeling a nonlinear pressurized water reactor core using the lumped parameter method, its linearized model is achieved via the small perturbation linearization way. Linearized models of the nonlinear core at six power levels are selected as local models of this core. The T-S fuzzy idea for the core is exploited to construct the T-S fuzzy model of the nonlinear core based on th...

  1. Electronic imaging system for neutron radiography at a low power research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, F.J.O., E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Caixa Postal 68550, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, A.X.; Crispim, V.R. [PEN/COPPE-DNC/POLI CT, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    This paper describes an electronic imaging system for producing real time neutron radiography from a low power research reactor, which will allow inspections of samples with high efficiency, in terms of measuring time and result analysis. This system has been implanted because of its potential use in various scientific and industrial areas where neutron radiography with photographic film could not be applied. This real time system is installed in neutron radiography facility of Argonauta nuclear research reactor, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, in Brazil. It is adequate to perform real time neutron radiography of static and dynamic events of samples.

  2. Desalination of seawater with nuclear power reactors in cogeneration; Desalacion de agua de mar con reactores nucleares de potencia en cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores E, R.M

    2004-07-01

    The growing demand for energy and hydraulic resources for satisfy the domestic, industrial, agricultural activities, etc. has wakened up the interest to carry out concerning investigations to study the diverse technologies guided to increase the available hydraulic resources, as well as to the search of alternatives of electric power generation, economic and socially profitable. In this sense the possible use of the nuclear energy is examined in cogeneration to obtain electricity and drinkable water for desalination of seawater. The technologies are analysed involved in the nuclear cogeneration (desalination technology, nuclear and desalination-nuclear joining) available in the world. At the same time it is exemplified the coupling of a nuclear reactor and a process of hybrid desalination that today in day the adult offers and economic advantages. Finally, the nuclear desalination is presented as a technical and economically viable solution in regions where necessities of drinkable water are had for the urban, agricultural consumption and industrial in great scale and that for local situations it is possible to satisfy it desalinating seawater. (Author)

  3. Hybrid parallel code acceleration methods in full-core reactor physics calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courau, T.; Plagne, L.; Ponicot, A. [EDF R and D, 1, Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Sjoden, G. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    When dealing with nuclear reactor calculation schemes, the need for three dimensional (3D) transport-based reference solutions is essential for both validation and optimization purposes. Considering a benchmark problem, this work investigates the potential of discrete ordinates (Sn) transport methods applied to 3D pressurized water reactor (PWR) full-core calculations. First, the benchmark problem is described. It involves a pin-by-pin description of a 3D PWR first core, and uses a 8-group cross-section library prepared with the DRAGON cell code. Then, a convergence analysis is performed using the PENTRAN parallel Sn Cartesian code. It discusses the spatial refinement and the associated angular quadrature required to properly describe the problem physics. It also shows that initializing the Sn solution with the EDF SPN solver COCAGNE reduces the number of iterations required to converge by nearly a factor of 6. Using a best estimate model, PENTRAN results are then compared to multigroup Monte Carlo results obtained with the MCNP5 code. Good consistency is observed between the two methods (Sn and Monte Carlo), with discrepancies that are less than 25 pcm for the k{sub eff}, and less than 2.1% and 1.6% for the flux at the pin-cell level and for the pin-power distribution, respectively. (authors)

  4. Design of an anaerobic hybrid reactor for industrial wastewater treatment; Diseno de reactores hibridos anaerobios para el tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroa del Campo, S.; Lopetegui Garnika, J.; Almandoz Peraita, A.; Garcia de las Heras, J. L.

    2005-07-01

    The application of the European legislation has promoted different strategies aimed at minimizing the biological sludge production during wastewater treatment. Anaerobic biological treatment is the clearest choice from a technical and economical point of view regarding industrial wastewater. In this context, a semi-industrial anaerobic hybrid reactor has been developed as an alternative technology to other anaerobic systems well-established in the market for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater. The The results have demonstrated that it is an effective, robust and easy to operate system. The sludge production has been reduced below 0.12 kg VS/kg COD removed, for COD removal efficiencies above 95%. (Author) 12 refs.

  5. Setting Limits On The Power Of A Geo-reactor With Kamland Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Maricic, J

    2005-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field has existed for at least 3 billion years with high and on average stable intensity, though with many fluctuations and reversals. One of the models, albeit rather controversial, proposed as the energy source of the Earth's magnetic field is a natural nuclear reactor inside the Earth's core [1] and [2]. This author maintains that this is the only model that generates sufficient power to energize the geo-magnetic field for 3 billion years. Even more, the reactor's ability to produce variable power levels including stops and restarts in its operations, provides a viable explanation, according to [2], for the random reversals of the geo-magnetic field that have been recorded numerous times during the Earth's history. In this study, Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) is used to set limits on the power of the putative geo-reactor. KamLAND is designed to detect anti-neutrinos from reactors around Japan, and thus can make a direct measurement of the anti-neutrino ra...

  6. Nonlinear Adaptive Dynamic Output-Feedback Power-Level Control of Nuclear Heating Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high safety performance of small nuclear reactors, there is a promising future for small reactors. Nuclear heating reactor (NHR is a small reactor that has many advanced safety features such as the integrated arrangement, natural circulation at any power levels, self-pressurization, hydraulic control rod driving, and passive residual heating removing and can be applied to the fields of district heating, seawater desalination, and electricity production. Since the NHR dynamics has strong nonlinearity and uncertainty, it is meaningful to develop the nonlinear adaptive power-level control technique. From the idea of physically based control design method, a novel nonlinear adaptive power-level control is given for the NHR in this paper. It is theoretically proved that this newly built controller does not only provide globally asymptotic closed-loop stability but is also adaptive to the system uncertainty. Numerical simulation results show the feasibility of this controller and the relationship between the performance and controller parameters.

  7. NASA's Kilopower Reactor Development and the Path to Higher Power Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marc A.; Oleson, Steven R.; Poston, David I.; McClure, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The development of NASAs Kilopower fission reactor is taking large strides toward flight development with several successful tests completed during its technology demonstration trials. The Kilopower reactors are designed to provide 1-10 kW of electrical power to a spacecraft which could be used for additional science instruments as well as the ability to power electric propulsion systems. Power rich nuclear missions have been excluded from NASA proposals because of the lack of radioisotope fuel and the absence of a flight qualified fission system. NASA has partnered with the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration to develop the Kilopower reactor using existing facilities and infrastructure to determine if the design is ready for flight development. The 3-year Kilopower project started in 2015 with a challenging goal of building and testing a full-scale flight prototypic nuclear reactor by the end of 2017. As the date approaches, the engineering team shares information on the progress of the technology as well as the enabling capabilities it provides for science and human exploration.

  8. Control of a hybrid HVDC link to increase inter-regional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a hybrid HVDC link in a two area power system with the purpose of increasing the inter-regional power transfer. A hybrid HVDC system combines both LCCs and VSCs, and hence it is capable of combining the benefits of both converter technologies, such as reduced...... cost and power losses due to the LCCs, and ability to connect to weak AC grids due to the VSCs. The mathematical model of the power system including the HVDC link is presented. The increase in inter-area power transfer is demonstrated and compared to the case when the hybrid HVDC link is not used....... Furthermore, the transient stability of the AC/DC power system was enhanced using auxiliary controllers for Power Oscillation Damping (POD). The results show the ability of the hybrid HVDC link to increase the unidirectional inter-area power transfer, while enhancing the transient stability of the power...

  9. Dynamic Power Management for Portable Hybrid Power-Supply Systems Utilizing Approximate Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyoung Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the optimization of power flows in portable hybrid power-supply systems (HPSSs has become an important issue with the advent of a variety of mobile systems and hybrid energy technologies. In this paper, a control strategy is considered for dynamically managing power flows in portable HPSSs employing batteries and supercapacitors. Our dynamic power management strategy utilizes the concept of approximate dynamic programming (ADP. ADP methods are important tools in the fields of stochastic control and machine learning, and the utilization of these tools for practical engineering problems is now an active and promising research field. We propose an ADP-based procedure based on optimization under constraints including the iterated Bellman inequalities, which can be solved by convex optimization carried out offline, to find the optimal power management rules for portable HPSSs. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is tested through dynamic simulations for smartphone workload scenarios, and simulation results show that the proposed strategy can successfully cope with uncertain workload demands.

  10. Recent progress in battery models for hybrid wind power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwell, J.F.; McGowan, J.G.; Baring-Gould, I.; Stein, W. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes the latest University of Massachusetts work on the analytical modeling and experimental testing of battery component models for hybrid power systems. An extension of the Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM), developed at the University of Massachusetts is presented. The original model was based on a combination of phenomenological and physical considerations. As described in this paper, the modified KiBaM can now model the sharp increase in voltage near the end of charging, and the sharp drop in voltage when the battery is nearly empty. This model may readily be coupled with a DC load or charging source (such as a DC wind turbine or photovoltaic panels) to determine the corresponding DC bus voltage. For example, it is now an integral part of the DC bus section of the University of Massachusetts HYBRID simulation models. The paper describes the development of the extensions to the KiBaM model and the method of determining the constants from test data. On the experimental/applications side, it includes an illustration of how the constants are obtained from representative data (using a specially developed testing apparatus), and an example of how the model can be used.

  11. Nuclear design of the burst power ultrahigh temperature UF4 vapor core reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahook, Samer D.; Dugan, Edward T.

    1991-01-01

    Static and dynamic neutronic analyses are being performed, as part of an integrated series of studies, on an innovative burst power UF4 Ultrahigh Temperature Vapor Core Reactor (UTVR)/Disk Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator for space nuclear power applications. This novel reactor concept operates on a direct, closed Rankine cycle in the burst power mode (hundreds of MWe for thousands of seconds). The fuel/working fluid is a mixture of UF4 and metal fluoride. Preliminary calculations indicate high overall system efficiencies (≊20%), small radiator size (≊5 m2/MWe), and high specific power (≊5 kWe/kg). Neutronic analysis has revealed a number of attractive features for this novel reactor concept. These include some unique and very effective inherent negative reactivity control mechanisms such as the vapor-fuel density power coefficient of reactivity, the direct neutronic coupling among the multiple fissioning core regions (the central vapor core and the surrounding boiler columns), and the mass flow coupling feedback between the fissioning cores.

  12. Vital area identification for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power reactor licensees and new reactor applicants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Varnado, G. Bruce

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant licensees and new reactor applicants are required to provide protection of their plants against radiological sabotage, including the placement of vital equipment in vital areas. This document describes a systematic process for the identification of the minimum set of areas that must be designated as vital areas in order to ensure that all radiological sabotage scenarios are prevented. Vital area identification involves the use of logic models to systematically identify all of the malicious acts or combinations of malicious acts that could lead to radiological sabotage. The models available in the plant probabilistic risk assessment and other safety analyses provide a great deal of the information and basic model structure needed for the sabotage logic model. Once the sabotage logic model is developed, the events (or malicious acts) in the model are replaced with the areas in which the events can be accomplished. This sabotage area logic model is then analyzed to identify the target sets (combinations of areas the adversary must visit to cause radiological sabotage) and the candidate vital area sets (combinations of areas that must be protected against adversary access to prevent radiological sabotage). Any one of the candidate vital area sets can be selected for protection. Appropriate selection criteria will allow the licensee or new reactor applicant to minimize the impacts of vital area protection measures on plant safety, cost, operations, or other factors of concern.

  13. Adaptive Current Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Minh Thuyen

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive current control method for Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF). It consists of a fuzzy-neural controller, identification and prediction model and cost function. The fuzzy-neural controller parameters are adjusted according to the cost function minimum criteria. For this reason, the proposed control method has a capability on-line control clings to variation of the load harmonic currents. Compared to the single fuzzy logic control method, the proposed control method shows the advantages of better dynamic response, compensation error in steady-state is smaller, able to online control is better and harmonics cancelling is more effective. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  14. Shape changing thin films powered by DNA hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Tae Soup; Estephan, Zaki G.; Qian, Zhaoxia; Prosser, Jacob H.; Lee, Su Yeon; Chenoweth, David M.; Lee, Daeyeon; Park, So-Jung; Crocker, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Active materials that respond to physical and chemical stimuli can be used to build dynamic micromachines that lie at the interface between biological systems and engineered devices. In principle, the specific hybridization of DNA can be used to form a library of independent, chemically driven actuators for use in such microrobotic applications and could lead to device capabilities that are not possible with polymer- or metal-layer-based approaches. Here, we report shape changing films that are powered by DNA strand exchange reactions with two different domains that can respond to distinct chemical signals. The films are formed from DNA-grafted gold nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer deposition process. Films consisting of an active and a passive layer show rapid, reversible curling in response to stimulus DNA strands added to solution. Films consisting of two independently addressable active layers display a complex suite of repeatable transformations, involving eight mechanochemical states and incorporating self-righting behaviour.

  15. Adaptive fuzzy control of neutron power of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; Control difuso adaptable de la potencia neutronica del reactor Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas R, E.

    2014-07-01

    The design and implementation of an identification and control scheme of the TRIGA Mark III research nuclear reactor of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) of Mexico is presented in this thesis work. The identification of the reactor dynamics is carried out using fuzzy logic based systems, in which a learning process permits the adjustment of the membership function parameters by means of techniques based on neural networks and bio-inspired algorithms. The resulting identification system is a useful tool that allows the emulation of the reactor power behavior when different types of insertions of reactivity are applied into the core. The identification of the power can also be used for the tuning of the parameters of a control system. On the other hand, the regulation of the reactor power is carried out by means of an adaptive and stable fuzzy control scheme. The control law is derived using the input-output linearization technique, which permits the introduction of a desired power profile for the plant to follow asymptotically. This characteristic is suitable for managing the ascent of power from an initial level n{sub o} up to a predetermined final level n{sub f}. During the increase of power, a constraint related to the rate of change in power is considered by the control scheme, thus minimizing the occurrence of a safety reactor shutdown due to a low reactor period value. Furthermore, the theory of stability in the sense of Lyapunov is used to obtain a supervisory control law which maintains the power error within a tolerance region, thus guaranteeing the stability of the power of the closed loop system. (Author)

  16. A Wind Power and Load Prediction Based Frequency Control Approach for Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Peng; Zhenzhen Zhang; Jia Wu

    2015-01-01

    A frequency control approach based on wind power and load power prediction information is proposed for wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system (WDBHPS). To maintain the frequency stability by wind power and diesel generation as much as possible, a fuzzy control theory based wind and diesel power control module is designed according to wind power and load prediction information. To compensate frequency fluctuation in real time and enhance system disturbance rejection ability, a battery energy ...

  17. Decommissioning strategy and schedule for a multiple reactor nuclear power plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Deiglys Borges; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Maiorino, Jose Rubens, E-mail: deiglys.monteiro@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    The decommissioning is an important part of every Nuclear Power Plant life cycle gaining importance when there are more than one plant at the same site due to interactions that can arise from the operational ones and a decommissioning plant. In order to prevent undesirable problems, a suitable strategy and a very rigorous schedule should implemented and carried. In this way, decommissioning tasks such as fully decontamination and dismantling of activated and contaminated systems, rooms and structures could be delayed, posing as an interesting option to multiple reactor sites. The present work aims to purpose a strategy and a schedule for the decommissioning of a multiple reactor site highlighting the benefits of delay operational tasks and constructs some auxiliary services in the site during the stand by period of the shutdown plants. As a case study, will be presented a three-reactor site which the decommissioning process actually is in planning stage and that should start in the next decade. (author)

  18. Hybrid Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor for the biodegradation of benzotriazoles and hydroxy-benzothiazole in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazioti, Aikaterini A; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Psoma, Aikaterini K; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Andersen, Henrik R

    2017-02-05

    A laboratory scale Hybrid Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (HMBBR) was used to study the removal of five benzotriazoles and one benzothiazole from municipal wastewater. The HMBBR system consisted of two serially connected fully aerated bioreactors that contained activated sludge (AS) and K3-biocarriers and a settling tank. The average removal of target compounds ranged between 41% (4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole; 4TTR) and 88% (2-hydroxybenzothiazole; OHBTH). Except for 4TTR, degradation mainly occurred in the first bioreactor. Calculation of biodegradation constants in batch experiments and application of a model for describing micropollutants removal in the examined system showed that AS is mainly involved in biodegradation of OHBTH, 1H-benzotriazole (BTR) and xylytriazole (XTR), carriers contribute significantly on 4TTR biodegradation, while both types of biomass participate on elimination of 5-chlorobenzotriazole (CBTR) and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (5TTR). Comparison of the HMBBR system with MBBR or AS systems from literature showed that the HMBBR system was more efficient for the biodegradation of the investigated chemicals. Biotransformation products of target compounds were identified using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with a quadrupole-time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QToF-MS). Twenty two biotransformation products were tentatively identified, while retention time denoted the formation of more polar transformation products than the parent compounds.

  19. Development of Subspace-based Hybrid Monte Carlo-Deterministric Algorithms for Reactor Physics Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Zhang, Qiong [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2014-05-20

    The development of hybrid Monte-Carlo-Deterministic (MC-DT) approaches, taking place over the past few decades, have primarily focused on shielding and detection applications where the analysis requires a small number of responses, i.e. at the detector locations(s). This work further develops a recently introduced global variance reduction approach, denoted by the SUBSPACE approach is designed to allow the use of MC simulation, currently limited to benchmarking calculations, for routine engineering calculations. By way of demonstration, the SUBSPACE approach is applied to assembly level calculations used to generate the few-group homogenized cross-sections. These models are typically expensive and need to be executed in the order of 103 - 105 times to properly characterize the few-group cross-sections for downstream core-wide calculations. Applicability to k-eigenvalue core-wide models is also demonstrated in this work. Given the favorable results obtained in this work, we believe the applicability of the MC method for reactor analysis calculations could be realized in the near future.

  20. Data bases for rapid response to power reactor problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskewitz, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    The urgency of the TMI-2 incident demanded prompt answers to an imperious situation. In responding to these challenging circumstances, both government and industry recognized deficiencies in both availability of essential retrievable data and calculational capabilities designed to respond immediately to actual abnormal events. Each responded by initiating new programs to provide a remedy for the deficiencies and to generally improve all safety measures in the nuclear power industry. Many data bases and information centers offer generic data and other technology resources which are generally useful in support of nuclear safety programs. A few centers can offer rapid access to calculational methods and associated data and more will make an effort to do so. As a beneficial spin-off from the lessons learned from TMI-2, more technical effort and financial resources will be devoted to the prevention of accidents, and to improvement of safety measures in the immediate future and for long term R and D programs by both government and the nuclear power industry.

  1. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid energy systems and an overview of energy storage technologies for renewable energy systems are presented. This paper also highlights the future trends of Hybrid energy systems, which represent a promising sustainable solution for power generation.

  2. Thermal analysis of heat and power plant with high temperature reactor and intermediate steam cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fic Adam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal analysis of a heat and power plant with a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The main aim of the considered system is to supply a technological process with the heat at suitably high temperature level. The considered unit is also used to produce electricity. The high temperature helium cooled nuclear reactor is the primary heat source in the system, which consists of: the reactor cooling cycle, the steam cycle and the gas heat pump cycle. Helium used as a carrier in the first cycle (classic Brayton cycle, which includes the reactor, delivers heat in a steam generator to produce superheated steam with required parameters of the intermediate cycle. The intermediate cycle is provided to transport energy from the reactor installation to the process installation requiring a high temperature heat. The distance between reactor and the process installation is assumed short and negligable, or alternatively equal to 1 km in the analysis. The system is also equipped with a high temperature argon heat pump to obtain the temperature level of a heat carrier required by a high temperature process. Thus, the steam of the intermediate cycle supplies a lower heat exchanger of the heat pump, a process heat exchanger at the medium temperature level and a classical steam turbine system (Rankine cycle. The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the system considered and to assess whether such a three cycle cogeneration system is reasonable. Multivariant calculations have been carried out employing the developed mathematical model. The results have been presented in a form of the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system as a function of the temperature drop in the high temperature process heat exchanger and the reactor pressure.

  3. Axial power distribution calculation using a neural network in the nuclear reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. H.; Cha, K. H.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is concerned with an algorithm based on neural networks to calculate the axial power distribution using excore detector signals in the nuclear reactor core. The fundamental basis of the algorithm is that the detector response can be fairly accurately estimated using computational codes. In other words, the training set, which represents relationship between detector signals and axial power distributions, for the neural network can be obtained through calculations instead of measurements. Application of the new method to the Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 3 (YGN-3) shows that it is superior to the current algorithm in place. 7 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  4. Testing of Passive Safety System Performance for Higher Power Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    brian G. Woods; Jose Reyes, Jr.; John Woods; John Groome; Richard Wright

    2004-12-31

    This report describes the results of NERI research on the testing of advanced passive safety performance for the Westinghouse AP1000 design. The objectives of this research were: (a) to assess the AP1000 passive safety system core cooling performance under high decay power conditions for a spectrum of breaks located at a variety of locations, (b) to compare advanced thermal hydraulic computer code predictions to the APEX high decay power test data and (c) to develop new passive safety system concepts that could be used for Generation IV higher power reactors.

  5. Reliability and safety of the electrical power supply complex of the Hanford production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, F.D.

    1960-09-15

    Safety has been and must continue to be the inviolable modulus by which the operation of a nuclear reactor must be judged. A malfunction in any reactor may well result in a release of fission products which may dissipate over a wide geographical area. Such dissipation may place the health, happiness and even the lives of the people in the region in serious jeopardy. As a result, the property damage and liability cost may reach astronomical values in the order of magnitude of billions of dollars. Reliability of the electrical network is an indispensable factor in attaining a high order of safety assurance. Progress in the peaceful use of atomic energy may take the form of electrical power generation using the nuclear reactor as a source of thermal energy. In view of these factors it seems appropriate and profitable that a critical engineering study be made of the safety and reliability of the Hanford reactors without regard to cost economics. This individual and independent technical engineering analysis was made without regard to Hanford traditional engineering and administration assignments. The main objective has been to focus attention on areas which seem to merit further detailed study on conditions which seem to need adjustment but most of all on those changes which will improve reactor safety. This report is the result of such a study.

  6. ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

    2010-11-01

    An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

  7. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ibrahim; Abul Khair

    2015-01-01

    Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid ...

  8. Nonlinear control for core power of pressurized water nuclear reactors using constant axial offset strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Ansarifar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important operations in nuclear power plants is load following, in which an imbalance of axial power distribution induces xenon oscillations. These oscillations must be maintained within acceptable limits otherwise the nuclear power plant could become unstable. Therefore, bounded xenon oscillation is considered to be a constraint for the load following operation. In this paper, the design of a sliding mode control (SMC, which is a robust nonlinear controller, is presented. SMC is a means to control pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR power for the load following operation problem in a way that ensures xenon oscillations are kept bounded within acceptable limits. The proposed controller uses constant axial offset (AO strategy to ensure xenon oscillations remain bounded. The constant AO is a robust state constraint for the load following problem. The reactor core is simulated based on the two-point nuclear reactor model with a three delayed neutron groups. The stability analysis is given by means of the Lyapunov approach, thus the control system is guaranteed to be stable within a large range. The employed method is easy to implement in practical applications and moreover, the SMC exhibits the desired dynamic properties during the entire output-tracking process independent of perturbations. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in terms of performance, robustness, and stability. Results show that the proposed controller for the load following operation is so effective that the xenon oscillations are kept bounded in the given region.

  9. Nonlinear control for core power of pressurized water nuclear reactors using constant axial offset strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansarifar, Gholam Reza; Saadatzi, Saeed [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    One of the most important operations in nuclear power plants is load following, in which an imbalance of axial power distribution induces xenon oscillations. These oscillations must be maintained within acceptable limits otherwise the nuclear power plant could become unstable. Therefore, bounded xenon oscillation is considered to be a constraint for the load following operation. In this paper, the design of a sliding mode control (SMC), which is a robust nonlinear controller, is presented. SMC is a means to control pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR) power for the load following operation problem in a way that ensures xenon oscillations are kept bounded within acceptable limits. The proposed controller uses constant axial offset (AO) strategy to ensure xenon oscillations remain bounded. The constant AO is a robust state constraint for the load following problem. The reactor core is simulated based on the two-point nuclear reactor model with a three delayed neutron groups. The stability analysis is given by means of the Lyapunov approach, thus the control system is guaranteed to be stable within a large range. The employed method is easy to implement in practical applications and moreover, the SMC exhibits the desired dynamic properties during the entire output-tracking process independent of perturbations. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in terms of performance, robustness, and stability. Results show that the proposed controller for the load following operation is so effective that the xenon oscillations are kept bounded in the given region.

  10. An evaluation of the ecological consequences of partial-power operation of the K Reactor, SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.B.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Specht, W.L.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W.

    1991-06-01

    The K Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) shut-down in spring 1988 for maintenance and safety upgrades. Since that time the receiving stream for thermal effluent, Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch, have undergone a pattern of post-thermal recovery that is typical of other SRS streams following removal of thermal stress. Divesity of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities has increased and available habitats have been colonized by numerous species of herbaceous and woody plants. K Reactor is scheduled to resume operation in 1991 and operate through 1992 without a cooling tower to cool the discharge. It is likely that the reactor will operate at approximately one-third to one-half of full power (800--1200 MW thermal) during this period and effluent temperatures will be substantially lower than earlier operation at full power. Monthly average discharge temperatures at half-power operation will range from approximately 42{degrees}C in winter to 49{degrees}C in summer. The volume of water discharged will not be affected by altered power levels and will average approximately 10--11 m{sup 3}/s. The ecological consequences of this mode of operation on the Indian Grave/Pen Branch stream system have been evaluated.

  11. Testing of an Integrated Reactor Core Simulator and Power Conversion System with Simulated Reactivity Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Hervol, David S.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    A Direct Drive Gas-Cooled (DDG) reactor core simulator has been coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) for integrated system testing at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio. This is a closed-cycle system that incorporates an electrically heated reactor core module, turboalternator, recuperator, and gas cooler. Nuclear fuel elements in the gas-cooled reactor design are replaced with electric resistance heaters to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel in the corresponding fast spectrum nuclear reactor. The thermodynamic transient behavior of the integrated system was the focus of this test series. In order to better mimic the integrated response of the nuclear-fueled system, a simulated reactivity feedback control loop was implemented. Core power was controlled by a point kinetics model in which the reactivity feedback was based on core temperature measurements; the neutron generation time and the temperature feedback coefficient are provided as model inputs. These dynamic system response tests demonstrate the overall capability of a non-nuclear test facility in assessing system integration issues and characterizing integrated system response times and response characteristics.

  12. Fiscal impacts associated with power reactor siting: a paired case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.

    1977-01-19

    The paper examines the fiscal impacts associated with siting nuclear-powered electrical stations. First, a framework for examining fiscal impacts is constructed. This framework consists of four elements: the ability of a local community to raise revenues, the degree to which this ability is used, the uses to which tax revenues are applied, and the effect of tax/expenditure decisions on the local economy. Changes in these four elements caused by the siting are termed fiscal impacts. Second, this framework is applied to two communities, Waterford, Connecticut and Plymouth, Massachusetts, which host operating reactors. In each community the ability to raise revenues through the property tax--the prime local revenue source--approximately doubled. As a result both communities chose ultimately to reduce tax rates. Moreover, it appears that the annual revenues raised through the public sector as a result of the reactor siting exceeded income changes that resulted from increased local employment associated with each reactor's operation. It therefore appears that for these two towns, the primary economic impact occurred through the public sector. The report concludes with suggestions for further research into local fiscal and economic effects associated with power reactor siting.

  13. Decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors with high burnup at long-term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovykh, Mikhail; Tikhomirov, Georgy; Saldikov, Ivan; Gerasimov, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Decay heat power of actinides and fission products from spent nuclear fuel of power VVER-1000 type reactors at long-term storage is calculated. Two modes of storage are considered: mode in which single portion of actinides or fission products is loaded in storage facility, and mode in which actinides or fission products from spent fuel of one VVER reactor are added every year in storage facility during 30 years and then accumulated nuclides are stored without addition new nuclides. Two values of fuel burnup 40 and 70 MW·d/kg are considered for the mode of storage of single fuel unloading. For the mode of accumulation of spent fuel with subsequent storage, one value of burnup of 70 MW·d/kg is considered. Very long time of storage 105 years accepted in calculations allows to simulate final geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Heat power of fission products decreases quickly after 50-100 years of storage. The power of actinides decreases very slow. In passing from 40 to 70 MW·d/kg, power of actinides increases due to accumulation of higher fraction of 244Cm. These data are important in the back end of fuel cycle when improved cooling system of the storage facility will be required along with stronger radiation protection during storage, transportation and processing.

  14. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles "exhaust" momentum can be used directly to produce high ISP thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p- 11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  15. Intrinsic borohydride fuel cell/battery hybrid power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jian; Fang, Bin; Wang, Chunsheng; Currie, Kenneth [Center for Manufacturing Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of NaBH{sub 4} on Zn, Zn-MH, and MH (metal-hydride) electrodes were investigated, and an intrinsic direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC)/battery hybrid power source using MH (or Zn-MH) as the anode and MnO{sub 2} as the cathode was tested. Borohydride cannot be effectively oxidized on Zn electrodes at the Zn oxidation potential because of the poor electrocatalytic ability of Zn for borohydride oxidation and the high overpotential, even though borohydride has the same oxidation potential of Zn in an alkaline solution. The borohydride can be electrochemically oxidized on Ni and MH electrodes through a 4e reaction at a high overpotential. Simply adding borohydride into an alkaline electrolyte of a Zn/air or MH/air battery can greatly increase the capacity, while an intrinsic DBFC/MH(or Zn)-MnO{sub 2} battery can deliver a higher peak power than regular DBFCs. (author)

  16. Hybrid aqueous capacitors with improved energy/power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Menzel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on a high-voltage, hybrid capacitor involving two separate redox reactions. Aqueous solutions of Mg(NO32 and KI have been used for negative and positive electrode, respectively. Adjusting pH=2 for electrode (+ with KI solution and modifying Mg(NO32 solution to pH=9 for negative side play a crucial role for a stable long-term operation of capacitor at enhanced voltage. A benefit from such a construction is a pseudocapacitive contribution from hydrogen sorption reaction on the negative electrode and high iodine/iodide activity on the positive electrode, enhancing the energy with no remarkable impact on the power profile. Proposed solution allows a high voltage (1.8 V to be reached and thereby high power and energy performance (~20 W h/kg at 1 kW/kg to be obtained. High long-term stability has been confirmed by floating and galvanostatic tests.

  17. Large-scale synthesis of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles using a multi-inlet vortex reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ronnie H; Chen, Kevin N H; Aryal, Santosh; Hu, Che-Ming J; Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Liangfang

    2012-10-02

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles combine the advantages of both polymeric and liposomal drug carriers and have shown great promise as a controlled drug delivery platform. Herein, we demonstrate that it is possible to adapt a multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR) for use in the large-scale synthesis of these hybrid nanoparticles. Several parameters, including formulation, polymer concentration, and flow rate, are systematically varied, and the effects of each on nanoparticle properties are studied. Particles fabricated from this process display characteristics that are on par with those made on the lab-scale such as small size, low polydispersity, and excellent stability in both PBS and serum. Using this approach, production rates of greater than 10 g/h can readily be achieved, demonstrating that use of the MIVR is a viable method of producing hybrid nanoparticles in clinically relevant quantities.

  18. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  19. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  20. Analysis of Possible Application of High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors to Contemporary Large-Output Steam Power Plants on Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk T.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analysis of possible application of helium to cooling high-temperature nuclear reactor to be used for generating steam in contemporary ship steam-turbine power plants of a large output with taking into account in particular variable operational parameters. In the first part of the paper types of contemporary ship power plants are presented. Features of today applied PWR reactors and proposed HTR reactors are discussed. Next, issues of load variability of the ship nuclear power plants, features of the proposed thermal cycles and results of their thermodynamic calculations in variable operational conditions, are presented.

  1. Outage Performance of Hybrid FSO/RF System with Low-Complexity Power Adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2016-02-26

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO) / radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data- rate wireless communication systems. We consider truncated channel inversion based power adaptation strategy for coherent and non- coherent hybrid FSO/RF systems, employing an adaptive combining scheme. Specifically, we activate the RF link along with the FSO link when FSO link quality is unacceptable, and adaptively set RF transmission power to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio at receiver terminal. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are derived. Numerical examples show that, the hybrid FSO/RF systems with power adaptation achieve considerable outage performance improvement over conventional hybrid FSO/RF systems without power adaptation. © 2015 IEEE.

  2. Status of R&D Activities on Materials for Fusion Power Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baluc, N.; Abe, K.; Boutard, J. L.; Chernov, V. M.; Diegele, E.; Jitsukawa, S.; Kimura, Akihiko; Klueh, R. L.; Kohyama, Akira; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lasser, R.; Matsui, H.; Moslang, A.; Muroga, T.; Odette, George R.; Tran, M. Q.; van der Schaaf, B.; Wu, Y.; Yu, J.; Zinkle, Steven J.

    2007-09-19

    Current R&D activities on materials for fusion power reactors are mainly focused on plasma facing, structural and tritium breeding materials for plasma facing (first wall, divertor) and breeding blanket components. Most of these activities are being performed in Europe, Japan, P.R. China, Russia and the USA. They relate to development of new high temperature, radiation resistant materials, development of coatings that shall act as erosion, corrosion, permeation or electrical/MHD barriers, characterization of the whole candidate materials in terms of mechanical and physical properties, assessment of irradiation effects, compatibility experiments, development of reliable joints, and development and/or validation of design rules. Priorities defined worldwide in the field of materials for fusion power reactors are summarized, as well as the main achievements obtained during the last few years and the near-term perspectives in the different investigation areas.

  3. Fuel pin and subassembly heterogeneity effect on neutronics properties of a fast power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, T.; Yoshida, T. [Nippon Atomic Industry Group Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-09-15

    Heterogeneous structure of a fuel pin subassembly may exert influence on the neutronic properties of a fast power reactor such as criticality factor, sodium void reactivity, and Doppler coefficient. Study was performed to examine this effect quantitatively for a typical 1000 MW(e) power reactor. The heterogeneity effect was evaluated in two steps. One is for the heterogeneity of fuel pin cell loaded inside wrapper tubes. Another is for the gross heterogeneity of a subassembly, namely the lumped fuel-pins in the central part and the peripheral wrapper tube region. It is shown that the combined heterogeneity effect on k/sub eff/ is as large as 0.6%{Delta}/k. This large heterogeneity is mainly caused by the {sup 238}U resonance self-shielding effect.

  4. The nuclear battery: a very small reactor power supply for remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K.S. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment)

    The Nuclear Battery is a small reactor power supply being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for use in locations that are remote from utility grids and natural gas pipelines. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel, and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy that may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine, or used to produce a high-pressure steam. The reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years without refueling. (author).

  5. The nuclear battery: a very small reactor power supply for remote locations; Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K.S. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.)

    1992-08-01

    The Nuclear Battery is a small reactor power supply being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for use in locations that are remote from utility grids and natural gas pipelines. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy that may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine, or used to produce high-pressure steam. The reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 500 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years without refuelling. (orig.).

  6. Assessment of radiological releases to the environment from a fusion reactor power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shank, K.E.; Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.

    1978-05-01

    This report summarizes the expected tritium and activation-product inventories and presents an assessment of the potential radiological releases from a fusion reactor power plant, hypothetically located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Routine tritium releases and the resulting dose assessment are discussed. Uncertainties associated with the conversion of tritium gas to tritium oxide and the global tritium cycling are evaluated. The difficulties of estimating releases of activated materials and the subsequent dose commitment are reviewed.

  7. Self powered neutron detectors as in-core detectors for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, V.; Barbot, L.; Filliatre, P.; Hellesen, C.; Jammes, C.; Svärd, S. Jacobsson

    2017-07-01

    Neutron flux monitoring system forms an integral part of the design of a Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor. Diverse possibilities of detector system installation must be studied for various locations in the reactor vessel in order to detect any perturbations in the core. Results from a previous paper indicated that it is possible to detect changes in neutron source distribution initiated by an inadvertent withdrawal of outer control rod with in-vessel fission chambers located azimuthally around the core. It is, however, not possible to follow inner control rod withdrawal and precisely know the location of the perturbation in the core. Hence the use of complimentary in-core detectors coupled with the peripheral fission chambers is proposed to enable robust core monitoring across the radial direction. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of using self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) as in-core detectors in fast reactors for detecting local changes in the power distribution when the reactor is operated at nominal power. We study the neutron and gamma contributions to the total output current of the detector modelled with Platinum as the emitter material. It is shown that this SPND placed in an SFR-like environment would give a sufficiently measurable prompt neutron induced current of the order of 600 nA/m. The corresponding induced current in the connecting cable is two orders of magnitude lower and can be neglected. This means that the SPND can follow in-core power fluctuations. This validates the operability of an SPND in an SFR-like environment.

  8. Power up-grading study for the first Egyptian research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sawy Temraz, H.; Ashoub, N. E-mail: nageeb@pcn.aea.sci.eg; Fathallah, A

    2001-09-01

    In the present work, power up-grading study is performed, for the first Egyptian Research Reactor (ET-RR-1), using the present fuel basket with 4x4 fuel rods, (17.5 mm pitch), and a proposed fuel basket with 5x5 fuel rods, (14.0 mm pitch), without violating the thermal hydraulic safety criteria. These safety criteria are; fuel centerline temperature (fuel melting), clad surface temperature (surface boiling), outlet coolant temperature, and maximum heat flux (critical heat flux ratio). Different thermal reactor powers (2-10 MW) and different core coolant flow rates (450, 900, 1350 m{sup 3} h{sup -1}) are considered. The thermal hydraulic analysis was performed using the subchannel code COBRA-IIIC for the estimation of temperatures, coolant velocities and critical heat flux. The neutronic calculations were performed using WIMS-D4 code with 5-group neutron cross section library. These cross sections were adapted to use in the two-dimensional (2-D) diffusion code DIXY for core calculations. The study concluded that ET-RR-1 power can be upgraded safely up to 4 MW with the present 4x4-fuel basket and with the proposed 5x5-fuel basket up to 5 MW with the present coolant flow rate (900 m{sup 3} h{sup -1}). With the two fuel arrays, the reactor power can be upgraded to 6 MW with coolant flow rate of 1350 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} without violating the safety criterion. It is also concluded that, loading the ET-RR-1 core with the proposed fuel basket (5x5) increases the excess reactivity of the reactor core than the present 4x4 fuel matrix with equal U-235 mass load and gave better fuel economy of fuel utilization.

  9. New hybrid active power filter for harmonic current suppression and reactive power compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biricik, Samet; Cemal Ozerdem, Ozgur; Redif, Soydan; Sezai Dincer, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    In the case of undistorted and balanced grid voltages, low ratio shunt active power filters (APFs) can give unity power factors and achieve current harmonic cancellation. However, this is not possible when source voltages are distorted and unbalanced. In this study, the cost-effective hybrid active power filter (HAPF) topology for satisfying the requirements of harmonic current suppression and non-active power compensation for industry is presented. An effective strategy is developed to observe the effect of the placement of power capacitors and LC filters with the shunt APF. A new method for alleviating the negative effects of a nonideal grid voltage is proposed that uses a self-tuning filter algorithm with instantaneous reactive power theory. The real-time control of the studied system was achieved with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture, which was developed using the OPAL-RT system. The performance result of the proposed HAPF system is tested and presented under nonideal supply voltage conditions.

  10. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  11. Thermal and neutron-physical features of the nuclear reactor for a power pulsation plant for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, É. G.; Kaminskii, A. S.; Konyukhov, G. V.; Pavshuk, V. A.; Turbina, T. A.

    2012-05-01

    We have explored the possibility of creating small-size reactors with a high power output with the provision of thermal stability and nuclear safety under standard operating conditions and in emergency situations. The neutron-physical features of such a reactor have been considered and variants of its designs preserving the main principles and approaches of nuclear rocket engine technology are presented.

  12. Boiling water reactor in a prestressed reinforced concrete vessel for an atomic central heating-and-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarev, Yu.I.; Sokolov, I.N.; Skvortsov, S.A.; Sidorov, A.M.; Krauze, L.V.

    1978-04-01

    The possibility of using a boiling water reactor in a prestressed reinforced concrete vessel for an atomic central heating-and-power plant (CHPP) was considered, with design features of the reactor intended for a two-purpose plant. A prestressed reinforced concrete vessel and integral arrangement of the primary circuit ensured reliability of the atomic CHPP using various CHPP flowsheets.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of Convective Heat Transfer in a Water Shield for a Surface Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson J. Boise; Reid, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Vision for Space Exploration, the end of the next decade will bring man back to the surface of the moon. A crucial issue for the establishment of human presence on the moon will be the availability of compact power sources. This presence could require greater than 10's of kWt's in follow on years. Nuclear reactors are well suited to meet the needs for power generation on the lunar or Martian surface. Radiation shielding is a key component of any surface power reactor system. Several competing concepts exist for lightweight, safe, robust shielding systems such as a water shield, lithium hydride (LiH), and boron carbide. Water offers several potential advantages, including reduced cost, reduced technical risk, and reduced mass. Water has not typically been considered for space reactor applications because of the need for gravity to fix the location of any vapor that could form radiation streaming paths. The water shield concept relies on the predictions of passive circulation of the shield water by natural convection to adequately cool the shield. This prediction needs to be experimentally evaluated, especially for shields with complex geometries. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed the experience and facilities necessary to do this evaluation in its Early Flight Fission - Test Facility (EFF-TF).

  14. Development of Liquid-Vapor Core Reactors with MHD Generator for Space Power and Propulsion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim Anghaie

    2002-08-13

    Any reactor that utilizes fuel consisting of a fissile material in a gaseous state may be referred to as a gaseous core reactor (GCR). Studies on GCRs have primarily been limited to the conceptual phase, mostly due to budget cuts and program cancellations in the early 1970's. A few scientific experiments have been conducted on candidate concepts, primarily of static pressure fissile gas filling a cylindrical or spherical cavity surrounded by a moderating shell, such as beryllium, heavy water, or graphite. The main interest in this area of nuclear power generation is for space applications. The interest in space applications has developed due to the promise of significant enhancement in fuel utilization, safety, plant efficiency, special high-performance features, load-following capabilities, power conversion optimization, and other key aspects of nuclear power generation. The design of a successful GCR adapted for use in space is complicated. The fissile material studied in the pa st has been in a fluorine compound, either a tetrafluoride or a hexafluoride. Both of these molecules have an impact on the structural material used in the making of a GCR. Uranium hexafluoride as a fuel allows for a lower operating temperature, but at temperatures greater than 900K becomes essentially impossible to contain. This difficulty with the use of UF6 has caused engineers and scientists to use uranium tetrafluoride, which is a more stable molecule but has the disadvantage of requiring significantly higher operating temperatures. Gas core reactors have traditionally been studied in a steady state configuration. In this manner a fissile gas and working fluid are introduced into the core, called a cavity, that is surrounded by a reflector constructed of materials such as Be or BeO. These reactors have often been described as cavity reactors because the density of the fissile gas is low and criticality is achieved only by means of the reflector to reduce neutron leakage from the

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrid Power System for Advanced Aero-propulsion and Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/ gas turbine hybrid power systems (HPSs) have been recognized by federal agencies and other entities as having the potential to operate...

  16. The outlook for application of powerful nuclear thermionic reactor - powered space electric jet propulsion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semyonov, Y.P.; Bakanov, Y.A.; Synyavsky, V.V.; Yuditsky, V.D. [Rocket-Space Corp. `Energia`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes main study results for application of powerful space electric jet propulsion unit (EJPUs) which is powered by Nuclear Thermionic Power Unit (NTPU). They are combined in Nuclear Power/Propulsion Unit (NPPU) which serves as means of spacecraft equipment power supply and spacecraft movement. Problems the paper deals with are the following: information satellites delivery and their on-orbit power supply during 10-15 years, removal of especially hazardous nuclear wastes, mining of asteroid resources and others. Evaluations on power/time/mass relationship for this type of mission are given. EJPU parameters are compatible with Russian existent or being under development launch vehicle. (author)

  17. Formulation and experimental evaluation of closed-form control laws for the rapid maneuvering of reactor neutronic power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Nuclear Reactor Lab.)

    1989-09-01

    This report describes both the theoretical development and the experimental evaluation of a novel, robust methodology for the time-optimal adjustment of a reactor's neutronic power under conditions of closed-loop digital control. Central to the approach are the MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws' which determine the rate at which reactivity should be changed in order to cause a reactor's neutronic power to conform to a specified trajectory. Using these laws, reactor power can be safely raised by five to seven orders of magnitude in a few seconds. The MIT-SNL laws were developed to facilitate rapid increases of neutronic power on spacecraft reactors operating in an SDI environment. However, these laws are generic and have other applications including the rapid recovery of research and test reactors subsequent to an unanticipated shutdown, power increases following the achievement of criticality on commercial reactors, power adjustments on commercial reactors so as to minimize thermal stress, and automated startups. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the Sandia National Laboratories. Support was also provided by the US Department of Energy's Division of University and Industry Programs. The work described in this report is significant in that a novel solution to the problem of time-optimal control of neutronic power was identified, in that a rigorous description of a reactor's dynamics was derived in that the rate of change of reactivity was recognized as the proper control signal, and in that extensive experimental trials were conducted of these newly developed concepts on actual nuclear reactors. 43 refs., 118 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Cutting Technology for Decommissioning of the Reactor Pressure Vessels in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kim, Geun Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Byung Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Lots of nuclear power plants have been decommissioned during the last 2 decades. An essential part of this work is the dismantling of the Reactor Pressure Vessel and its Internals. For this purpose a wide variety of different cutting technologies have been developed, adapted and applied. A detailed introduction to Plasma Arc cutting, Contact Arc Metal cutting and Abrasive Water Suspension Jet cutting is given, as it turned out that these cutting technologies are particularly suitable for these type of segmentation work. A comparison of these technologies including gaseous emissions, cutting power, manipulator requirements as well as selected design approaches are given. Process limits as well as actual limits of application are presented

  19. Harmonics and voltage stability analysis in power systems including thyristor-controlled reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Uzunoglu

    2005-02-01

    In this study, non-sinusoidal quantities and voltage stability, both known as power quality criteria, are examined together in detail. The widespread use of power electronics elements cause the existence of significant non-sinusoidal quantities in the system. These non-sinusoidal quantities can create serious harmonic distortions in transmission and distribution systems. In this paper, harmonic generation of a static VAR compensator with thyristor-controlled reactor and effects of the harmonics on steady-state voltage stability are examined for various operational conditions.

  20. ORNL R and D on advanced small and medium power reactors: Selected topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.D.; Trauger, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    From 1984-1985, ORNL studied several innovative small and medium power nuclear concepts with respect to viability. Criteria for assessment of market attractiveness were developed and are described here. Using these criteria and descriptions of selected advanced reactor concepts, and assessment of their projected market viability in the time period 2000-2010 was made. All of these selected concepts could be considered as having the potential for meeting the criteria but, in most cases, considerable RandD would be required to reduce uncertainties. This work and later studies of safety and licensing of advanced, passively safe reactor concepts by ORNL are described. The results of these studies are taken into account in most of the current (FY 1989) work at ORNL on advanced reactors. A brief outline of this current work is given. One of the current RandD efforts at ORNL which addresses the operability and safety of advanced reactors is the Advanced Controls Program. Selected topics from this Program are described. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Nuclear power pilot plant for district heating on tne base of the ARBUS reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsykanov, V.A.; Chechetkin, Yu.V.; Kormushkin, Yu.P.; Polivanov, I.F.; Pochechura, V.P.; Yakshin, E.K.; Makin, R.S.; Rozhdestvenskaya, L.N.; Buntushkin, V.P.

    1981-06-01

    Problems and perspectives of using reactors with organic coolant for district heating are discussed. Data obtained during plant operation on the base of ARBUS reactor, in which ditolylmethane is used as a coolant, are presented. The principal flow sheet and main parameters of the plant and characteristics of the reactor during operation at different levels thermal power are given. It is concluded that the plant, with the ARBUS reactor is simple and convenient in operation, it permits to quickly increase and decrease loadings and does not require numerous personnel. Standard equipment and accessories used in oil-chemical industry can be the basis for development of plant equipment. Low vapour pressure of the coolant and its weak corrosion activity permit to successfully apply thin-wall tubes and equipment made of carbon steels for the primary circuit. Level of radiation fields from the equipment is not essential during operation and shut-down of the plant and it does not create additional difficulties in operation and maintenance.

  2. Status on the Searches of Neutrino Magnetic Moment at the Kuo-Sheng Power Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, H T

    2002-01-01

    The TEXONO collaboration has been built up among scientists from Taiwan and China to pursue an experimental program in neutrino and astro-particle physics. The flagship efforts have been the study of low energy neutrino physics at the Kuo-Sheng Power Reactor Plant in Taiwan. The Reactor Laboratory is equipped with flexibly-designed shieldings, cosmic veto systems, electronics and data acquisition systems which can function with different detector schemes. Data are taken during the Reactor Period June-01 till April-02 with a high purity germanium detector and 46 kg of CsI(Tl) crystal scintillator array operating in parallel. A threshold of 5 keV has been achieved for the germanium detector, and the background level comparable to those of Dark Matter experiments underground is achieved. Based on 62/46 days of analyzed Reactor ON/OFF data, a preliminary result of $\\rm{(\\munue / 10^{-10} \\mub)^2 = - 1.1 \\pm 2.5}$ can be derived for neutrino magnetic moment $\\munue$. Sensitivity region on neutrino radiative decay ...

  3. Fuel rod behavior under normal operating conditions in Super Fast Reactor with high power density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Haitao, E-mail: haitaoju@gmail.com [Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Laboratory, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Ishiwatari, Yuki [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Oka, Yoshiaki [Joint Department of Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, Totsukamachi, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The improved core of Super Fast Reactor with high power density is analyzed. • We analyzed four types of the limiting fuel rods. • The influence of Pu enrichment and compressive stress to yield strength ratio are analyzed. • The improved fuel rod design of the new core is suggested. - Abstract: A Super Fast Reactor is a pressure-vessel type, fast spectrum SuperCritical Water Reactor (SCWR) which is presently researched in a Japanese project. A preliminary core has an average power density of 158.8 W/cc. However one of the most important advantages of the Super Fast Reactor is the higher power density compared to the thermal spectrum SCWR, which reduces the capital cost. After the sensitivity analyses on the fuel rod configurations, the fuel assembly configurations and the core configurations, an improved core with an average power density of 294.8 W/cc is designed by 3-D neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled calculations. In order to ensure the fuel rod integrity of new core design with high power density, the fuel rod behaviors under normal operating condition are analyzed using fuel performance code FEMAXI-6. The power histories of each fuel rod are taken from the neutronics calculation results in the core design. The cladding surface temperature histories are generated from the thermal-hydraulic calculation results in the core design. Four types of the limiting fuel rods, individually with the Maximum Cladding Surface Temperature (MCST), Maximum Power Peak (MPP), Maximum Discharge Burnup (MDB) and Different Coolant Flow Pattern (DCFP), are chosen to cover all the fuel rods in the core. The available design range of the fuel rod design parameters, such as initial gas plenum pressure, gas plenum position, gas plenum length, grain size and gap size, are found out in order to satisfy the following design criteria: (1) Maximum fuel centerline temperature should be less than 1900 °C. (2) Maximum cladding stress in circumferential direction should

  4. 76 FR 17160 - Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs... Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-021 titled ``Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs... Nuclear Power Plants,'' March 2007, Standard Review Plan (SRP), Section 8.3.1 and Sections 9.5.4 through...

  5. 75 FR 5632 - Office of New Reactors; Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using... Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using a Gas Turbine Driven Standby Emergency Alternating Current... for Nuclear Power Plants (LWR Edition),'' June 2007. Background: Emergency diesel generators...

  6. Inquiry into the radiological consequences of power uprates at light-water reactors worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilic Zabric, Tea; Tomic, Bojan; Lundgren, Klas; Sjoeberg, Mats

    2007-05-15

    In Sweden, most of the nuclear power plants are planning power uprates within the next few years. The Dept. of Occupational and Medical Exposures at the Swedish Radiation Protection Agency, SSI, has initiated a research project to investigate the radiological implications of power uprates on light-water reactors throughout the world. The project was divided into three tasks: 1. A compilation of power uprates of light-water reactors worldwide. The compilation contains a technical description in brief of how the power uprates were carried out. 2. An analysis of the radiological consequences at four selected Nuclear Power Plants, which was the main objective of the inquiry. Affects on the radiological and chemical situation due to the changed situation were discussed. 3. Review of technical and organisational factors to be considered in uprate projects to keep exposures ALARA. The project was carried out, starting with the collecting of information on the implemented and planned uprates on reactors internationally. The information was catalogued in accordance with criteria focusing on radiological impact. A detailed analysis followed of four plants selected for uprates chosen according to established criteria, in line with the project requirements. The selected plants were Olkiluoto 1 and 2, Cofrentes, Asco and Tihange. The plants were selected with design and operation conditions close to the Swedish plants. All information was compiled to identify good and bad practices that are impacting on the occupational exposure. Important factors were discussed concerning BWRs and PWRs which affect radiation levels and occupational exposures in general, and especially at power uprates. Conclusions related to each task are in detail presented in a particular chapter of the report. Taking into account the whole project and its main objective the following conclusions are considered to be emphasized: Optimisation of the work processes to limit the duration of the time spent in

  7. Preliminary conceptual design of a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR). Status report, January 1978--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.L. (ed.)

    1978-03-01

    The DTHR preliminary conceptual design consists of a magnetically confined fusion reactor fitted with a fertile thorium blanket. The fusion driver concept is based on a beam driven plasma, but at sufficiently high plasma densities that neutrons originating from the interactions of bulk plasma ions contribute significantly to the wall loading. The tokamak has a major radius of 5.2 m, a minor radius of 1.2 m, and the elongation is 1.6. All of the magnetic coil systems are superconducting Nb/sub 3/Sn based on the Large Coil Project (LCP) technology. The toroidal field (TF) coils employ an innovative concept, the ''compact D'' configuration. An engineered bundle divertor concept has been developed based on the bundle divertor design techniques developed for TNS and ISX-B. A thermal power of 150MW of 200 keV deuterium is injected into the plasma through six ducts of a positive ion, neutral beam injection system (NBIS). A water cooled, 316 stainless steel vacuum vessel concept was developed and initial scoping analyses look encouraging. The fusile fuel handling system was evaluated and defined. Details of the tritium injection system remain to be developed. Tritium breeding will be assessed in subsequent phases of the DTHR operation. The fusion driver provides a neutron first wall loading of 2MW/m/sup 2/ for fissile production in the blanket.

  8. Demonstrative study for the wind and solar hybrid power system. 2; Furyoku taiyoko hybrid hatsuden system ni kansuru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Sakuma, H.; Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to verify the complementary relationship between wind and solar energy, the long-term field test of the hybrid power system was conducted at the natural energy square of Ashikaga Institute of Technology. The solar cell blade windmill composed of a Savonius windmill and flexible solar cells applied to swept buckets was also prepared. As a result, the wind power generation was promising mainly in the winter period including the late fall and early spring, while solar one was stable all the year through although it was slightly poor in winter. Stable power generation was thus achieved by combining wind energy with solar energy. As the whole data of other wind and solar power generation systems at the square were analyzed for every month, the same conclusion as the solar cell blade windmill was obtained as follows: the wind power generation in Ashikaga area is promising in Nov.-March from the field test result for 16 months, solar power generation is stable all the year through, the hybrid power system is effective in Nov.-April, and the solar cell blade windmill is equivalent to the hybrid power system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A WATER SHIELD FOR A SURFACE POWER REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REID, ROBERT S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PEARSON, J. BOSIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEWART, ERIC T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-16

    Water based reactor shielding is being investigated for use on initial lunar surface power systems. A water shield may lower overall cost (as compared to development cost for other materials) and simplify operations in the setup and handling. The thermal hydraulic performance of the shield is of significant interest. The mechanism for transferring heat through the shield is natural convection. Natural convection in a 100 kWt lunar surface reactor shield design is evaluated with 2 kW power input to the water in the Water Shield Testbed (WST) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental data from the WST is used to validate a CFD model. Performance of the water shield on the lunar surface is then predicted with a CFD model anchored to test data. The experiment had a maximum water temperature of 75 C. The CFD model with 1/6-g predicts a maximum water temperature of 88 C with the same heat load and external boundary conditions. This difference in maximum temperature does not greatly affect the structural design of the shield, and demonstrates that it may be possible to use water for a lunar reactor shield.

  11. Design considerations regarding slug ruptures in the intermediate power level reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, W.L.; Pursel, C.A.

    1954-11-01

    The minimum shutdown time, to permit accessibility, for the Intermediate Power Reactor is estimated to be 38 hours. In case the reactor were shutdown following each rupture this long shutdown period would have serious disadvantages. The desirability of being able to make firm power commitments (independent of slug ruptures) has led to a study of the possibility of continuous operation following a rupture. There is evidence to indicate that, at the proposed water temperature, the rate of corrosion of uranium may be so high that at least a major portion of the rupture products may have entered the system before the reactor can be shutdown. A pushout of the affected column would then be a pushout of only those slugs which are still intact and the problem would still remain of removing the rupture products from the system. The first portion of this report is concerned with the rate of corrosion of a slug following rupture and the possible limitations to the principle of non-shutdown operation. These limitations include a flow stoppage by the ruptured can, undue increase in gamma activity, increased corrosion by the rupture products, and adherence of rupture products to the piping. The latter portion of the document is concerned with design considerations of the shielding and water plant so as to eliminate or minimize the effects of the introduction of rupture products into the cooling system. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Hybrid propulsion with highest electric power density for the ML 450 BlueHYBRID; Hybridantrieb mit hoechster elektrischen Leistungsdichte fuer den ML 450 BlueHYBRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Michael; Armstrong, Neil; Schenk, Juergen; Nietfeld, Franz; Inderka, Robert [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The ML 450 BlueHYBRID is an elementary milestone in the strategy to the sustainable mobility at Daimler AG (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany). This hybrid system based on the current M-class and is equipped with the innovative Two-Mode-Hybrid-System AHS-C with two high speed electrical engines. The entire propulsion system, the battery and power electronics and the strategy of operation particularly developed for this vehicle integrally provide for a significant reduction of consumption and emission. At the same time, the comfort of the total vehicle increases. In the ML 450 BlueHYBRID, a high volt battery on basis of nickel metal hydride is used. This battery consists of an extremely compact building method and enables an optimal packaging in the vehicle. For the first time, the cooling is performed with a liquid. This enables a stable operation in all situations. For the first time, the cooling takes place with a liquid and enables a stable enterprise in all situations. In connection with the AHS-C Two-Mode-Hybrid system, the battery system enables all hybrid-specific operation conditions such as a purely electrical tour, engine start stop, recupation, boosting. The ML 450 BlueHYBRID serially is produced in Tuscaloose (Alabama, USA). The manufacturing of the hybrid vehicle completely is integrated in the operation of work and is based on the existing serial production plants with hybrid-specific supplements and adjustments in assembly stations.

  13. Minimization of the external heating power by long fusion power rise-up time for self-ignition access in the helical reactor FFHR2m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, O.; Sagara, A.; Chikaraishi, H.; Imagawa, S.; Watanabe, K.; Shishkin, A. A.; Motojima, O.

    2007-11-01

    Minimization of the external heating power to access self-ignition is advantageous to increase the reactor design flexibility and to reduce the capital and operating costs of the plasma heating device in a helical reactor. In this work we have discovered that a larger density limit leads to a smaller value of the required confinement enhancement factor, a lower density limit margin reduces the external heating power and over 300 s of the fusion power rise-up time makes it possible to reach a minimized heating power. While the fusion power rise-up time in a tokamak is limited by the OH transformer flux or the current drive capability, any fusion power rise-up time can be employed in a helical reactor for reducing the thermal stresses of the blanket and shields, because the confinement field is generated by the external helical coils.

  14. Development of technology-neutral safety requirements for the regulation of future nuclear power reactors: Back to basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tronea, Madalina, E-mail: madalina.tronea@gmail.co [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-03-15

    This paper explores the current trends as regards the development of technology-neutral safety requirements to be used in the regulation of future nuclear power reactors and the role of the quantitative safety goals in the design of reactor safety systems. The use of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on protection against potential exposure could form the basis of a technology-neutral framework for safety requirements on new reactor designs and could contribute to international harmonisation of nuclear safety assessment practices as part of the licensing processes for future nuclear power plants.

  15. Development of a system based in a digital signal processor (DSP) for a simulator of power regulation in a reactor: first stage; Desarrollo de un sistema basado en un DSP para un simulador de regulacion de potencia en un reactor: 1. etapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez R, J.S.; Perez C, B. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Municipio de Ocoyoacac, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The first stage of the development of a digital system based on a DSP is presented which forms part of an hybrid simulator for the power regulation in am model of the punctual kinetics of a TRIGA reactor type. The DSP performs the regulation, using a Mandami type algorithm of diffuse control. In the algorithm, the universe of the output variable is discretized for performing in an unique stage the aggregation functions and dis-diffusization. (Author)

  16. Transmutation performance analysis on coolant options in a hybrid reactor system design for high level waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong-Hee; Siddique, Muhammad Tariq; Kim, Myung Hyun, E-mail: mhkim@khu.ac.kr

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Waste transmutation performance was compared and analyzed for seven different coolant options. • Reactions of fission and capture showed big differences depending on coolant options. • Moderation effect significantly affects on energy multiplication, tritium breeding and waste transmutation. • Reduction of radio-toxicities of TRUs showed different trend to coolant choice from performance of waste transmutation. - Abstract: A fusion–fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) is one of the most attractive candidates for high level waste transmutation. The selection of coolant affects the transmutation performance of a FFHR. LiPb coolant, as a conventional coolant for a FFHR, has problems such as reduction in neutron economic and magneto-hydro dynamics (MHD) pressure drop. Therefore, in this work, transmutation performance is evaluated and compared for various coolant options such as LiPb, H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, Na, PbBi, LiF-BeF{sub 2} and NaF-BeF{sub 2} applicable to a hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT). Design parameters measuring performance of a hybrid reactor were evaluated by MCNPX. They are k{sub eff}, energy multiplication factor, neutron absorption ratio, tritium breeding ratio, waste transmutation ratio, support ratio and radiotoxicity reduction. Compared to LiPb, H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O are not suitable for waste transmutation because of neutron moderation effect. Waste transmutation performances with Na and PbBi are similar to each other and not different much from LiPb. Even though molten salt such as LiF-BeF{sub 2} and NaF-BeF{sub 2} is good for avoiding MHD pressure drop problem, waste transmutation performance is dropped compared with LiPb.

  17. A New Control Method to Mitigate Power Fluctuations for Grid Integrated PV/Wind Hybrid Power System Using Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, N. S.; Gaonkar, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The output power obtained from solar-wind hybrid system fluctuates with changes in weather conditions. These power fluctuations cause adverse effects on the voltage, frequency and transient stability of the utility grid. In this paper, a control method is presented for power smoothing of grid integrated PV/wind hybrid system using ultracapacitors in a DC coupled structure. The power fluctuations of hybrid system are mitigated and smoothed power is supplied to the utility grid. In this work both photovoltaic (PV) panels and the wind generator are controlled to operate at their maximum power point. The grid side inverter control strategy presented in this paper maintains DC link voltage constant while injecting power to the grid at unity power factor considering different operating conditions. Actual solar irradiation and wind speed data are used in this study to evaluate the performance of the developed system using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that output power fluctuations of solar-wind hybrid system can be significantly mitigated using the ultracapacitor based storage system.

  18. Nuclear reactor power for a space-based radar. SP-100 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Harvey; Heller, Jack; Jaffe, Leonard; Beatty, Richard; Bhandari, Pradeep; Chow, Edwin; Deininger, William; Ewell, Richard; Fujita, Toshio; Grossman, Merlin

    1986-01-01

    A space-based radar mission and spacecraft, using a 300 kWe nuclear reactor power system, has been examined, with emphasis on aspects affecting the power system. The radar antenna is a horizontal planar array, 32 X 64 m. The orbit is at 61 deg, 1088 km. The mass of the antenna with support structure is 42,000 kg; of the nuclear reactor power system, 8,300 kg; of the whole spacecraft about 51,000 kg, necessitating multiple launches and orbital assembly. The assembly orbit is at 57 deg, 400 km, high enough to provide the orbital lifetime needed for orbital assembly. The selected scenario uses six Shuttle launches to bring the spacecraft and a Centaur G upper-stage vehicle to assembly orbit. After assembly, the Centaur places the spacecraft in operational orbit, where it is deployed on radio command, the power system started, and the spacecraft becomes operational. Electric propulsion is an alternative and allows deployment in assembly orbit, but introduces a question of nuclear safety.

  19. Nuclear reactor power for a space-based radar. SP-100 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Harvey; Heller, Jack; Jaffe, Leonard; Beatty, Richard; Bhandari, Pradeep; Chow, Edwin; Deininger, William; Ewell, Richard; Fujita, Toshio; Grossman, Merlin

    1986-01-01

    A space-based radar mission and spacecraft, using a 300 kWe nuclear reactor power system, has been examined, with emphasis on aspects affecting the power system. The radar antenna is a horizontal planar array, 32 X 64 m. The orbit is at 61 deg, 1088 km. The mass of the antenna with support structure is 42,000 kg; of the nuclear reactor power system, 8,300 kg; of the whole spacecraft about 51,000 kg, necessitating multiple launches and orbital assembly. The assembly orbit is at 57 deg, 400 km, high enough to provide the orbital lifetime needed for orbital assembly. The selected scenario uses six Shuttle launches to bring the spacecraft and a Centaur G upper-stage vehicle to assembly orbit. After assembly, the Centaur places the spacecraft in operational orbit, where it is deployed on radio command, the power system started, and the spacecraft becomes operational. Electric propulsion is an alternative and allows deployment in assembly orbit, but introduces a question of nuclear safety.

  20. Design of a Low Power, Fast-Spectrum, Liquid-Metal Cooled Surface Reactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcille, T. F.; Dixon, D. D.; Fischer, G. A.; Doherty, S. P.; Poston, D. I.; Kapernick, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    In the current 2005 US budget environment, competition for fiscal resources make funding for comprehensive space reactor development programs difficult to justify and accommodate. Simultaneously, the need to develop these systems to provide planetary and deep space-enabling power systems is increasing. Given that environment, designs intended to satisfy reasonable near-term surface missions, using affordable technology-ready materials and processes warrant serious consideration. An initial lunar application design incorporating a stainless structure, 880 K pumped NaK coolant system and a stainless/UO2 fuel system can be designed, fabricated and tested for a fraction of the cost of recent high-profile reactor programs (JIMO, SP-100). Along with the cost reductions associated with the use of qualified materials and processes, this design offers a low-risk, high-reliability implementation associated with mission specific low temperature, low burnup, five year operating lifetime requirements.

  1. Research on pressure control of pressurizer in pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling; Yang, Xuhong; Liu, Gang; Ye, Jianhua; Qian, Hong; Xue, Yang

    2010-07-01

    Pressurizer is one of the most important components in the nuclear reactor system. Its function is to keep the pressure of the primary circuit. It can prevent shutdown of the system from the reactor accident under the normal transient state while keeping the setting value in the normal run-time. This paper is mainly research on the pressure system which is running in the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. A conventional PID controller and a fuzzy controller are designed through analyzing the dynamic characteristics and calculating the transfer function. Then a fuzzy PID controller is designed by analyzing the results of two controllers. The fuzzy PID controller achieves the optimal control system finally.

  2. A New Hybrid Power Configuration Used In HEV And Development of Its Driving BLDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Xu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV that has the advantages of high performance, high fuel efficiency, low emissions, and long operating range is focused on nowadays. A new hybrid power configuration used in HEV is presented with different control strategies and HEV performances when equipping different weight of fuel power and battery one. In order to realize the new hybrid power configuration especially in the refitted HEV, fractional-slot concentrated-wingding BLDC with higher rated spinning speed is given and the prototyped one is developed and fabricated which satisfy successfully the requirements of high performance and demission restriction for the refitted HEV.

  3. Annual Report for Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems—Phase 1B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Rappe, Kenneth G.; Frye, John G.

    2009-06-01

    Annual report covering the development of a hybrid nonthermal plasma single-pass filtration system for collective protection. This report covers NTP destruction testing on a high priority Toxic Industrial Material and an surrogate for a sulfur containing chemical agent (e.g. mustard), Effects of catalysts in the nonthermal plasma and catalyst poisoning by the sulfur are presented. Also presented are proof-of-principle data for utilizing ozone created in the NTP as a beneficial reactant to destroy adsorbed contaminants in-situ. Catalysts to decompose the ozone within the adsorbent bed are necessary to convert the adsorber into an ozone reactor.

  4. Hybrid centralized-distributed power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator with high energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min;

    2013-01-01

    The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized-distribu......The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized...... the proposed system, which benefits for implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A hybrid MPPT control strategy is proposed for this HCD power conditioning system. The characteristics, circuit implementation and operation principles of the proposed system are presented...

  5. A Numerical Approach for Hybrid Simulation of Power System Dynamics Considering Extreme Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lizheng; Zhang, Hengxu; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    The global climate change leads to more extreme meteorological conditions such as icing weather, which have caused great losses to power systems. Comprehensive simulation tools are required to enhance the capability of power system risk assessment under extreme weather conditions. A hybrid...... numerical simulation scheme integrating icing weather events with power system dynamics is proposed to extend power system numerical simulation. A technique is developed to efficiently simulate the interaction of slow dynamics of weather events and fast dynamics of power systems. An extended package for PSS....../E enabling hybrid simulation of icing event and power system disturbance is developed, based on which a hybrid simulation platform is established. Numerical studies show that the functionality of power system simulation is greatly extended by taking into account the icing weather events....

  6. Strategy for nuclear wastes incineration in hybrid reactors; Strategies pour l'incineration de dechets nucleaires dans des reacteurs hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre, F

    1998-12-11

    The transmutation of nuclear wastes in accelerator-driven nuclear reactorsoffers undeniable advantages. But before going into the detailed study of a particular project, we should (i) examine the possible applications of such systems and (ii) compare the different configurations, in order to guide technological decisions. We propose an approach, answering both concerns, based on the complete description of hybrid reactors. It is possible, with only the transmutation objective and a few technological constraints chosen a posteriori, to determine precisely the essential parameters of such reactors: number of reactors, beam current, size of the core, sub-criticality... The approach also clearly pinpoints the strategic decisions, for which the scientist or engineer is not competent. This global scheme is applied to three distinct nuclear cycles: incineration of solid fuel without recycling, incineration of liquid fuel without recycling and incineration of liquid fuel with on-line recycling; and for two spectra, either thermal or fast. We show that the radiotoxicity reduction with a solid fuel is significant only with a fast spectrum, but the incineration times range from 20 to 30 years. The liquid fuel is appropriate only with on-line recycling, at equilibrium. The gain on the radiotoxicity can be considerable and we describe a number of such systems. The potential of ADS for the transmutation of nuclear wastes is confirmed, but we should continue the description of specific systems obtained through this approach. (author)

  7. New functional biocarriers for enhancing the performance of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lijuan; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhang, Qionghua; Chen, Rong

    2016-05-01

    In this study, new sponge modified plastic carriers for moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was developed. The performance and membrane fouling behavior of a hybrid MBBR-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system were also evaluated. Comparing to the MBBR with plastic carriers (MBBR), the MBBR with sponge modified biocarriers (S-MBBR) showed better effluent quality and enhanced nutrient removal at HRTs of 12h and 6h. Regarding fouling issue of the hybrid systems, soluble microbial products (SMP) of the MBR unit greatly influenced membrane fouling. The sponge modified biocarriers could lower the levels of SMP in mixed liquor and extracellular polymeric substances in activated sludge, thereby mitigating cake layer and pore blocking resistances of the membrane. The reduced SMP and biopolymer clusters in membrane cake layer were also observed. The results demonstrated that the sponge modified biocarriers were capable of improving overall MBBR performance and substantially alleviated membrane fouling of the subsequent MBR unit.

  8. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A preliminary economic analysis of a hybrid geothermal/coal power plant has been completed for four geothermal Resource areas: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Coso Hot Springs, East Mesa and Long Valley. A hybrid plant would be economically viable at Roosevelt Hot Springs and somewhat less so at Coso Hot Springs. East Mesa and Long Valley show no economic promise. A well-designed hybrid plant could use geothermal energy for boiler feedwater heating, auxiliary power, auxiliary heating, and cooling water. Construction and operation of a hybrid plant at either Roosevelt Hot Springs or Coso Hot Springs is recommended. Brown University provided the theoretical basis for the hybrid study. A modified version of the Lawrence Berkeley Livermore GEOTHM Program is the major analytical tool used in the analysis. The Intermountain Power Project is the reference all coal-fired plant. Costing methods followed recommendations issued by the Energy research and Development Administration.

  9. Optimization of power-cycle arrangements for Supercritical Water cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizon-A-Lugrin, Laure

    The world energy demand is continuously rising due to the increase of both the world population and the standard of life quality. Further, to assure both a healthy world economy as well as adequate social standards, in a relatively short term, new energy-conversion technologies are mandatory. Within this framework, a Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was established by the participation of 10 countries to collaborate for developing nuclear power reactors that will replace the present technology by 2030. The main goals of these nuclear-power reactors are: economic competitiveness, sustainability, safety, reliability and resistance to proliferation. As a member of the GIF, Canada has decided to orient its efforts towards the design of a CANDU-type Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR). Such a system must run at a coolant outlet temperature of about 625°C and at a pressure of 25 MPa. It is obvious that at such conditions the overall efficiency of this kind of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) will compete with actual supercritical water-power boilers. In addition, from a heat-transfer viewpoint, the use of a supercritical fluid allows the limitation imposed by Critical Heat Flux (CHF) conditions, which characterize actual technologies, to be removed. Furthermore, it will be also possible to use direct thermodynamic cycles where the supercritical fluid expands right away in a turbine without the necessity of using intermediate steam generators and/or separators. This work presents several thermodynamic cycles that could be appropriate to run SCWR power plants. Improving both thermal efficiency and mechanical power constitutes a multi-objective optimization problem and requires specific tools. To this aim, an efficient and robust evolutionary algorithm, based on genetic algorithm, is used and coupled to an appropriate power plant thermodynamic simulation model. The results provide numerous combinations to achieve a thermal efficiency higher than 50% with a

  10. Xenon-induced power oscillations in a generic small modular reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitcher, Evans Damenortey

    As world demand for energy continues to grow at unprecedented rates, the world energy portfolio of the future will inevitably include a nuclear energy contribution. It has been suggested that the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) could play a significant role in the spread of civilian nuclear technology to nations previously without nuclear energy. As part of the design process, the SMR design must be assessed for the threat to operations posed by xenon-induced power oscillations. In this research, a generic SMR design was analyzed with respect to just such a threat. In order to do so, a multi-physics coupling routine was developed with MCNP/MCNPX as the neutronics solver. Thermal hydraulic assessments were performed using a single channel analysis tool developed in Python. Fuel and coolant temperature profiles were implemented in the form of temperature dependent fuel cross sections generated using the SIGACE code and reactor core coolant densities. The Power Axial Offset (PAO) and Xenon Axial Offset (XAO) parameters were chosen to quantify any oscillatory behavior observed. The methodology was benchmarked against results from literature of startup tests performed at a four-loop PWR in Korea. The developed benchmark model replicated the pertinent features of the reactor within ten percent of the literature values. The results of the benchmark demonstrated that the developed methodology captured the desired phenomena accurately. Subsequently, a high fidelity SMR core model was developed and assessed. Results of the analysis revealed an inherently stable SMR design at beginning of core life and end of core life under full-power and half-power conditions. The effect of axial discretization, stochastic noise and convergence of the Monte Carlo tallies in the calculations of the PAO and XAO parameters was investigated. All were found to be quite small and the inherently stable nature of the core design with respect to xenon-induced power oscillations was confirmed. Finally, a

  11. Feasibility study of the University of Utah TRIGA reactor power upgrade in respect to control rod system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutic, Avdo

    The objectives of this thesis are twofold: to determine the highest achievable power levels of the current University of Utah TRIG Reactor (UUTR) core configuration with the existing three control rods, and to design the core for higher reactor power by optimizing the control rod worth. For the current core configuration, the maximum reactor power, eigenvalue keff, shutdown margin, and excess reactivity have been measured and calculated. These calculated estimates resulted from thermal power calibrations, and the control rod worth measurements at various power levels. The results were then used as a benchmark to verify the MCNP5 core simulations for the current core and then to design a core for higher reactor power. This study showed that the maximum achievable power with the current core configuration and control rod system is 150kW, which is 50kW higher than the licensed power of the UUTR. The maximum achievable UUTR core power with the existing fuel is determined by optimizing the core configuration and control rod worth, showing that a power upgrade of 500 kW is achievable. However, it requires a new control rod system consisting of a total of four control rods. The cost of such an upgrade is $115,000.

  12. A New Starting Method of the Hybrid Power Filter for Wind Power Generation Systems with Soft Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    This paper proposes a new method of starting the hybrid power filter for wind power generation systems with soft starter. In the proposed method, an active filter of the hybrid power filter behaves a resistor for the source current under the starting condition. Thus the inrush phenomena of the passive filter are perfectly suppressed. The basic principle of the proposed starting method is discussed, and then confirmed by digital computer simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed starting method can overcome the inrush currents for the passive filter, building up the dc voltage of the active filter.

  13. Post 9-11 Security Issues for Non-Power Reactor Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaffuts, P. J.

    2003-02-25

    This paper addresses the legal and practical issues arising out of the design and implementation of a security-enhancement program for non power reactor nuclear facilities. The security enhancements discussed are derived from the commercial nuclear power industry's approach to security. The nuclear power industry's long and successful experience with protecting highly sensitive assets provides a wealth of information and lessons that should be examined by other industries contemplating security improvements, including, but not limited to facilities using or disposing of nuclear materials. This paper describes the nuclear industry's approach to security, the advantages and disadvantages of its constituent elements, and the legal issues that facilities will need to address when adopting some or all of these elements in the absence of statutory or regulatory requirements to do so.

  14. Concept of a nuclear powered submersible research vessel and a compact reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Odano, Naoteru; Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Ishida, Toshihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Teruo [Energis, Co., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hajime [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Tokunaga, Sango [Japan Deep Sea Technology Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A conceptual design study of a submersible research vessel navigating in 600 m depth and a compact nuclear reactor were carried out for the expansion of the nuclear power utilization. The mission of the vessel is the research of mechanism of the climate change to predict the global environment. Through conditions of the Arctic Ocean and the sea at high latitude have significant impacts on the global environmental change, it is difficult to investigate those areas by ordinary ships because of thick ice or storm. Therefore the research vessel is mainly utilized in the Arctic Ocean and the sea at high latitude. By taking account of the research mission, the basic specifications of the vessel are decided; the total weight is 500 t, the submersible depth is 600 m, the maximum speed is 12 knots (22.2 km/h), and the number of crews is 16. Nuclear power has an advantage in supplying large power of electricity in the sea for long period. Based on the requirements, it has been decided that two sets of submersible compact reactor, SCR, which is light-weighted and of enhanced safety characteristics of supply the total electricity of 500 kW. (author)

  15. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex NASA space power electronic systems can be configured using a small number of qualified hybrid DC-DC converter and...

  16. Power Adaptation Based on Truncated Channel Inversion for Hybrid FSO/RF Transmission With Adaptive Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-07-23

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless communications. In this paper, we consider power adaptation strategies based on truncated channel inversion for the hybrid FSO/RF system employing adaptive combining. Specifically, we adaptively set the RF link transmission power when FSO link quality is unacceptable to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. Two adaptation strategies are proposed. One strategy depends on the received RF SNR, whereas the other one depends on the combined SNR of both links. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are obtained. Numerical examples show that the hybrid FSO/RF system with power adaptation achieves a considerable outage performance improvement over the conventional system.

  17. NEURAL NETWORKS CONTROL OF THE HYBRID POWER UNIT BASED ON THE METHOD OF ADAPTIVE CRITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formal statement of the optimization problem of hybrid vehicle power unit control is given. Its solving by neural networks method application on the basis of adaptive critic is considered.

  18. Collaborative investigations of in-service irradiated material from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, W.R.; Broadhead, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Suzuki, M.; Kohsaka, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel that has been irradiated during normal service. Just such an evaluation is currently being conducted on material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). The research is being jointly performed at the Tokai Research Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-funded Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  19. Conceptual studies of toroidal field magnets for the tokamak experimental power reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buncher, B.R.; Chi, J.W.H.; Fernandez, R.

    1976-10-26

    This report documents the principal results of a Conceptual Design Study for the Superconducting Toroidal Field System for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor. Two concepts are described for peak operating fields at the windings of 8 tesla, and 12 tesla, respectively. The design and manufacturing considerations are treated in sufficient detail that cost and schedule estimates could be developed. Major uncertainties in the design are identified and their potential impact discussed, along with recommendations for the necessary research and development programs to minimize these uncertainties. The minimum dimensions of a sub-size test coil for experimental qualification of the full size design are developed and a test program is recommended.

  20. Interactive Virtual Reactor and Control Room for Education and Training at Universities and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Yoshinori; Li, Ye; Zhu, Xuefeng; Rizwan, Uddin [University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Efficient and effective education and training of nuclear engineering students and nuclear workers are critical for the safe operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. With an eye toward this need, we have focused on the development of 3D models of virtual labs for education, training as well as to conduct virtual experiments. These virtual labs, that are expected to supplement currently available resources, and have the potential to reduce the cost of education and training, are most easily developed on game-engine platforms. We report some recent extensions to the virtual model of the University of Illinois TRIGA reactor.

  1. Vibration behavior of fuel-element vibration suppressors for the advanced power reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. W.; Fiero, I. B.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary shock and vibration tests were performed on vibration suppressors for the advanced power reactor for space application. These suppressors position the fuel pellets in a pin type fuel element. The test determined the effect of varying axial clearance on the behavior of the suppressors when subjected to shock and vibratory loading. The full-size suppressor was tested in a mockup model of fuel and clad which required scaling of test conditions. The test data were correlated with theoretical predictions for suppressor failure. Good agreement was obtained. The maximum difference with damping neglected was about 30 percent. Neglecting damping would result in a conservative design.

  2. Dose rate distribution in the containment of the CAREM-25 reactor during full power operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, Fabian E. [Investigacion Aplicada SE (INVAP), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    1997-12-01

    The estimation of dose rates in the containment of the CAREM-25 reactor during full power (100 MW) operation was performed in order to: (i) verify the ordinary concrete biological shieldings proposed, and (ii) classify the different rooms from the radiation protection viewpoint. Thirteen relevant radiation sources were characterized, and the dose rate distribution corresponding to each of the most relevant reported in the form of isodose maps. The results show the utmost importance of the N-16 source due to the exposed layout of the pressure vessel. (author). 7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Operation of CANDU power reactor in thorium self-sufficient fuel cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Bergelson; A S Gerasimov; G V Tikhomirov

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents the results of calculations for CANDU reactor operation in thorium fuel cycle. Calculations are performed to estimate the feasibility of operation of heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in self-sufficient thorium cycle. Parameters of active core and scheme of fuel reloading were considered to be the same as for standard operation in uranium cycle. Two modes of operations are discussed in the paper: mode of preliminary accumulation of 233U and mode of operation in self-sufficient cycle. For the mode of accumulation of 233U it was assumed for calculations that plutonium can be used as additional fissile material to provide neutrons for 233U production. Plutonium was placed in fuel channels, while 232Th was located in target channels. Maximum content of 233U in target channels was estimated to be ∼ 13 kg/t of ThO2. This was achieved by irradiation for six years. The start of the reactor operation in the self-sufficient mode requires 233U content to be not less than 12 kg/t. For the mode of operation in self-sufficient cycle, it was assumed that all channels were loaded with identical fuel assemblies containing ThO2 and certain amount of 233U. It is shown that nonuniform distribution of 233U in fuel assembly is preferable.

  4. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Konzek, G.J.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Safety and cost information was developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1175 MW(e)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. Two approaches to decommissioning, Immediate Dismantlement and Safe Storage with Deferred Dismantlement, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. Immediate Dismantlement was estimated to require about six years to complete, including two years of planning and preparation prior to final reactor shutdown, at a cost of $42 million, and accumulated occupational radiation dose, excluding transport operations, of about 1200 man-rem. Preparations for Safe Storage were estimated to require about three years to complete, including 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years for planning and preparation prior to final reactor shutdown, at a cost of $13 million and an accumulated occupational radiation dose of about 420 man-rem. The cost of continuing care during the Safe Storage period was estimated to be about $80 thousand annually. Accumulated occupational radiation dose during the Safe Storage period was estimated to range from about 10 man-rem for the first 10 years to about 14 man-rem after 30 years or more. The cost of decommissioning by Safe Storage with Deferred Dismantlement was estimated to be slightly higher than Immediate Dismantlement. Cost reductions resulting from reduced volumes of radioactive material for disposal, due to the decay of the radioactive containments during the deferment period, are offset by the accumulated costs of surveillance and maintenance during the Safe Storage period.

  5. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

  6. PR-EDB: Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base, Version 2. Revision 2, Program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Wang, J.A.; Kam, F.B.K.; Taylor, B.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Investigations of regulatory issues such as vessel integrity over plant life, vessel failure, and sufficiency of current codes Standard Review Plans (SRP`s) and Guides for license renewal can be greatly expedited by the use of a well-designed computerized data base. Also, such a data base is essential for the validation of embrittlement prediction models by researchers. The Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB) is such a comprehensive collection of data for US commercial nuclear reactors. The current version of the PR-EDB contains the Charpy test data that were irradiated in 252 capsules of 96 reactors and consists of 207 data points for heat-affected-zone (HAZ) materials (98 different HAZ), 227 data points for weld materials (105 different welds), 524 data points for base materials (136 different base materials), including 297 plate data points (85 different plates), 119 forging data points (31) different forging), and 108 correlation monitor materials data points (3 different plates). The data files are given in dBASE format and can be accessed with any computer using the DOS operating system. ``User-friendly`` utility programs are used to retrieve and select specific data, manipulate data, display data to the screen or printer, and to fit and plot Charpy impact data. The results of several studies investigated are presented in Appendix D.

  7. The mode of operation of CANDU power reactor in thorium self-sufficient fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergelson Boris R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of calculations for CANDU reactor operation in the thorium fuel cycle. The calculations were performed to estimate feasibility of operation of a heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in the self-sufficient thorium cycle. The parameters of the active core and the scheme of fuel reloading were considered to be the same as for the standard operation in the uranium cycle. Two modes of operation are discussed in the paper: the mode of preliminary accumulation of 233U and the mode of operation in the self-sufficient cycle. For calculations for the mode of accumulation of 233U, it was assumed that plutonium was used as the additional fissile material to provide neutrons for 233U production. Plutonium was placed in fuel channels, while 232Th was located in target channels. The maximum content of 233U in the target channels was about 13 kg/t of ThO2. This was achieved by six year irradiation. The start of reactor operation in the self-sufficient mode requires content of 233U not less than 12 kg/t. For the mode of operation in the self-sufficient cycle, it was assumed that all the channels were loaded with the identical fuel assemblies containing ThO2 and a certain amount of 233U. It was shown that the non-uniform distribution of 233U in a fuel assembly is preferable.

  8. R&D on high-power dc reactor prototype for ITER poloidal field converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuan [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Song, Zhiquan; Fu, Peng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Ming, E-mail: zhangming@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu, Kexun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Qin, Xiuqi [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new prototype design structure of dry-type air-core water-cooling reactor with epoxy resin casting technique is presented. • Theoretical analysis, finite-element simulation and prototype test verification are applied on the design. • The results of temperature rise and transient fault current test of prototypes are introduced and analyzed. • The success of tests demonstrates that the proposed structure is of high reliability and availability. - Abstract: This paper mainly introduces the research and development (R&D) of the high-power dc reactor prototype, whose functions are to limit the circulating current and ripple current in the ITER poloidal field (PF) converter. It needs to operate at rated large direct current 27.5 kA and withstand peak fault current up to 175 kA. Therefore, in order to meet the special requirements of the dynamic and thermal stability, a new prototype design structure of dry-type air-core water-cooling reactor with epoxy resin casting technique is presented, which is based on the theoretical analysis, finite-element simulation calculation and small prototype test verification. Now the full prototype has been fabricated by China industry, and the dynamic and thermal stability tests of the prototype have also been accomplished successfully. The test results are in compliance with the design and it shows the availability and feasibility of the proposed design, which may be a reference for relevant applications.

  9. Energy Optimization for a Weak Hybrid Power System of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Quan, Shuhai; Xie, Changjun; Tang, Xinfeng; Ran, Bin; Jiao, Yatian

    2017-07-01

    An integrated starter generator (ISG)-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scheme is proposed based on the automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG). An eddy current dynamometer is used to simulate the vehicle's dynamic cycle. A weak ISG hybrid bench test system is constructed to test the 48 V output from the power supply system, which is based on engine exhaust-based heat power generation. The thermoelectric power generation-based system must ultimately be tested when integrated into the ISG weak hybrid mixed power system. The test process is divided into two steps: comprehensive simulation and vehicle-based testing. The system's dynamic process is simulated for both conventional and thermoelectric powers, and the dynamic running process comprises four stages: starting, acceleration, cruising and braking. The quantity of fuel available and battery pack energy, which are used as target vehicle energy functions for comparison with conventional systems, are simplified into a single energy target function, and the battery pack's output current is used as the control variable in the thermoelectric hybrid energy optimization model. The system's optimal battery pack output current function is resolved when its dynamic operating process is considered as part of the hybrid thermoelectric power generation system. In the experiments, the system bench is tested using conventional power and hybrid thermoelectric power for the four dynamic operation stages. The optimal battery pack curve is calculated by functional analysis. In the vehicle, a power control unit is used to control the battery pack's output current and minimize energy consumption. Data analysis shows that the fuel economy of the hybrid power system under European Driving Cycle conditions is improved by 14.7% when compared with conventional systems.

  10. Hybrid Model for Cascading Outage in a Power System: A Numerical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susuki, Yoshihiko; Takatsuji, Yu; Hikihara, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of cascading outages in power systems is important for understanding why large blackouts emerge and how to prevent them. Cascading outages are complex dynamics of power systems, and one cause of them is the interaction between swing dynamics of synchronous machines and protection operation of relays and circuit breakers. This paper uses hybrid dynamical systems as a mathematical model for cascading outages caused by the interaction. Hybrid dynamical systems can combine families of fl...

  11. Study Neutronic of Small Pb-Bi Cooled Non-Refuelling Nuclear Power Plant Reactor (SPINNOR) with Hexagonal Geometry Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Krisna, Dwita; Su'ud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear reactor technology is growing rapidly, especially in developing Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The utilization of nuclear energy in power generation systems has been progressing phase of the first generation to the fourth generation. This final project paper discusses the analysis neutronic one-cooled fast reactor type Pb-Bi, which is capable of operating up to 20 years without refueling. This reactor uses Thorium Uranium Nitride as fuel and operating on power range 100-500MWtNPPs. The method of calculation used a computer simulation program utilizing the SRAC. SPINNOR reactor is designed with the geometry of hexagonal shaped terrace that radially divided into three regions, namely the outermost regions with highest percentage of fuel, the middle regions with medium percentage of fuel, and most in the area with the lowest percentage. SPINNOR fast reactor operated for 20 years with variations in the percentage of Uranium-233 by 7%, 7.75%, and 8.5%. The neutronic calculation and analysis show that the design can be optimized in a fast reactor for thermal power output SPINNOR 300MWt with a fuel fraction 60% and variations of Uranium-233 enrichment of 7%-8.5%.

  12. Dynamic parameters test of Haiyang Nuclear Power Engineering in reactor areas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N.; Zhao, S.; Sun, L.

    2012-12-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Project is located in Haiyang city, China. It consists of 6×1000MW AP1000 Nuclear Power generator sets. The dynamic parameters of the rockmass are essential for the design of the nuclear power plant. No.1 and No.2 reactor area are taken as research target in this paper. Sonic logging, single hole and cross-hole wave velocity are carried out respectively on the site. There are four types of rock lithology within the measured depth. They are siltstone, fine sandstone, shale and allgovite. The total depth of sonic logging is 409.8m and 2049 test points. The sound wave velocity of the rocks are respectively 5521 m/s, 5576m/s, 5318 m/s and 5576 m/s. Accroding to the statistic data, among medium weathered fine sandstone, fairly broken is majority, broken and relatively integrity are second, part of integrity. Medium weathered siltstone, relatively integrity is mojority, fairly broken is second. Medium weathered shale, fairly broken is majority, broken and relatively integrity for the next and part of integrity. Slight weathered fine sandstone, siltstone, shale and allgovite, integrity is the mojority, relatively integrity for the next, part of fairly broken.The single hole wave velocity tests are set in two boreholesin No.1 reactor area and No.2 reactor area respectively. The test depths of two holes are 2-24m, and the others are 2-40m. The wave velocity data are calculated at different depth in each holes and dynamic parameters. According to the test statistic data, the wave velocity and the dynamic parameter values of rockmass are distinctly influenced by the weathering degree. The test results are list in table 1. 3 groups of cross hole wave velocity tests are set for No.1 and 2 reactor area, No.1 reactor area: B16, B16-1, B20(Direction:175°, depth: 100m); B10, B10-1, B11(269°, 40m); B21, B21-1, B17(154°, 40m); with HB16, HB10, HB21 as trigger holes; No.2 reactor area: B47, B47-1, HB51(176°, 100m); B40, B40-1, B41(272°, 40m); B42, B42-1, B

  13. EOIL power scaling in a 1-5 kW supersonic discharge-flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.; Lee, Seonkyung; Oakes, David B.; Haney, Julie; Magill, John C.; Paulsen, Dwane A.; Cataldi, Paul; Galbally-Kinney, Kristin L.; Vu, Danthu; Polex, Jan; Kessler, William J.; Rawlins, Wilson T.

    2008-02-01

    Scaling of EOIL systems to higher powers requires extension of electric discharge powers into the kW range and beyond with high efficiency and singlet oxygen yield. We have previously demonstrated a high-power microwave discharge approach capable of generating singlet oxygen yields of ~25% at ~50 torr pressure and 1 kW power. This paper describes the implementation of this method in a supersonic flow reactor designed for systematic investigations of the scaling of gain and lasing with power and flow conditions. The 2450 MHz microwave discharge, 1 to 5 kW, is confined near the flow axis by a swirl flow. The discharge effluent, containing active species including O II(a1Δ g, b1Σ g +), O( 3P), and O 3, passes through a 2-D flow duct equipped with a supersonic nozzle and cavity. I2 is injected upstream of the supersonic nozzle. The apparatus is water-cooled, and is modular to permit a variety of inlet, nozzle, and optical configurations. A comprehensive suite of optical emission and absorption diagnostics is used to monitor the absolute concentrations of O II(a), O II(b), O( 3P), O 3, I II, I(2P 3/2), I(2P 1/2), small-signal gain, and temperature in both the subsonic and supersonic flow streams. We discuss initial measurements of singlet oxygen and I* excitation kinetics at 1 kW power.

  14. The scalability of OTR (out-of-core thermionic reactor) space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallup, D.R.

    1990-03-01

    In this document, masses of the STAR-C power system and an optimized out-of-core thermionic reactor (OTR) power system versus power level are investigated. The impacts of key system parameters on system performance are also addressed. The STAR-C is mass competitive below about 15 kWe, but at higher power levels the scalability is relatively poor. An optimized OR is the least massive space nuclear power system below 25 kWe, and scales well to 50 kWe. The system parameters that have a significant impact on the scalability of the STAR-C are core thermal flux, thermionic converter efficiency, and core length to diameter ratio. The emissivity of the core surface is shown to be a relatively unimportant parameter. For an optimized OR power system, the most significant system parameter is the maximum allowable fuel temperature. It is also shown that if advanced radiation-hardened electronics are used in the satellite payload, a very large mass savings is realized. 10 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then......, a multiple-input power conversion system including a decoupled dual-input converter and a three-phase neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter is proposed. The system can operate in both stand-alone and grid-connected modes. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed...

  16. Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karbaschian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better utilized with an appropriate power management. In this paper, different types of power management algorithms like off-line and on-line methods are briefly reviewed and classified. Finally, the algorithms are evaluated and compared. Therefore, different related criteria are evaluated and applied.

  17. Application of Hybrid Optimization-Expert System for Optimal Power Management on Board Space Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Basheer, Omar Ali AL

    1996-01-01

    The space power system has two sources of energy: photo-voltaic blankets and batteries. The optimal power management problem on-board has two broad operations: off-line power scheduling to determine the load allocation schedule of the next several hours based on the forecast of load and solar power availability. The nature of this study puts less emphasis on speed requirement for computation and more importance on the optimality of the solution. The second category problem, on-line power rescheduling, is needed in the event of occurrence of a contingency to optimally reschedule the loads to minimize the 'unused' or 'wasted' energy while keeping the priority on certain type of load and minimum disturbance of the original optimal schedule determined in the first-stage off-line study. The computational performance of the on-line 'rescheduler' is an important criterion and plays a critical role in the selection of the appropriate tool. The Howard University Center for Energy Systems and Control has developed a hybrid optimization-expert systems based power management program. The pre-scheduler has been developed using a non-linear multi-objective optimization technique called the Outer Approximation method and implemented using the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). The optimization model has the capability of dealing with multiple conflicting objectives viz. maximizing energy utilization, minimizing the variation of load over a day, etc. and incorporates several complex interaction between the loads in a space system. The rescheduling is performed using an expert system developed in PROLOG which utilizes a rule-base for reallocation of the loads in an emergency condition viz. shortage of power due to solar array failure, increase of base load, addition of new activity, repetition of old activity etc. Both the modules handle decision making on battery charging and discharging and allocation of loads over a time-horizon of a day divided into intervals of 10

  18. Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of VVER type reactors at long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of the spent nuclear fuel of VVER-1000 type reactors are calculated during storage time up to 300,000 y. Decay heat power of radioactive waste (radwaste) determines parameters of the heat removal system for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel. Radiotoxicity determines the radiological hazard of radwaste after its leakage and penetration into the environment.

  19. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-06-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

  20. A design study of reactor core optimization for direct nuclear heat-to-electricity conversion in a space power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Makoto; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Takeoka, Satoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Nakagawa, Masayuki; Kugo, Teruhiko

    1998-01-01

    To propose a new design concept of a nuclear reactor used in the space, research has been conducted on the conceptual design of a new nuclear reactor on the basis of the following three main concepts: (1) Thermionic generation by thermionic fuel elements (TFE), (2) reactivity control by rotary reflector, and (3) reactor cooling by liquid metal. The outcomes of the research are: (1) A calculation algorithm was derived for obtaining convergent conditions by repeating nuclear characteristic calculation and thermal flow characteristic calculation for the space nuclear reactor. (2) Use of this algorithm and the parametric study established that a space nuclear reactor using 97% enriched uranium nitride as the fuel and lithium as the coolant and having a core with a radius of about 25 cm, a height of about 50 cm and a generation efficiency of about 7% can probably be operated continuously for at least more than ten years at 100 kW only by reactivity control by rotary reflector. (3) A new CAD/CAE system was developed to assist design work to optimize the core characteristics of the space nuclear reactor comprehensively. It is composed of the integrated design support system VINDS using virtual reality and the distributed system WINDS to collaboratively support design work using Internet. (N.H.)