WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid photovoltaic research

  1. Current Challenges and Prospective Research for Upscaling Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Spencer T; Rajagopal, Adharsh; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2016-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photovoltaics (PSCs) are poised to push toward technology translation, but significant challenges complicating commercialization remain. Though J-V hysteresis and ecotoxicity are uniquely imposing issues at scale, CH3NH3PbI3 degradation is by far the sharpest limitation to the technology's potential market contribution. Herein, we offer a perspective on the practical market potential of PSCs, the nature of fundamental PSC challenges at scale, and an outline of prospective solutions for achieving module scale PSC production tailored to intrinsic advantages of CH3NH3PbI3. Although integrating PSCs into the energy grid is complicated by CH3NH3PbI3 degradation, the ability of PSCs to contribute to consumer electronics and other niche markets like those organic photovoltaics have sought footing in rests primarily upon the technology's price point. Thus, slot die, roll-to-roll processing has the greatest potential to enable PSC scale-up, and herein, we present a perspective on the research necessary to realize fully printable PSCs at scale.

  2. Performance of hybrid photovoltaic collector

    OpenAIRE

    Garbisu Eugui, Josu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present project is the study of the performance of a combined photovoltaic-thermal plant, called also hybrid system, located in south Italy, evaluating the efficiency of the photovoltaic and thermal systems and the advantage respect to the two single plants (photovoltaic and thermal ). This research project has two objectives fundamentals of efficiency improvement energy from solar photovoltaic panels. On one hand, increase photovoltaic efficiency, at the same time an...

  3. Combined photovoltaic and thermal hybrid collector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.; Russell, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Solar energy collectors that produce both electric and thermal energy are an attractive alternative to individual thermal and photovoltaic collectors for certain applications and climates. Economic results from a system analysis indicate that hybrid collector systems are attractive in small buildings that have substantial heating loads. Passively cooled photovoltaic panels are best suited for structures located in regions where year-round air conditioning and small, low-grade, thermal energy demands predominate. Hybrid collectors are to be tested according to ASHRAE standards and a full-system experiment incorporating a photovoltaic array installed at the Solar Energy Research Facility of the University of Texas will be conducted by Lincoln Laboratory.

  4. Research and practice of designing hydro/photovoltaic hybrid power system in microgrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yibo; Xu Honghua

    2013-01-01

    Small-hydro power station is often used in remote areas beside a river,but it doesn't match electricity demand so well,especially in dry seasons.A photovoltaic (PV) system with battery is a suitable option to complement the electricity gap.In this paper,a new structure of megawatt-class PV system integrating battery at DC-bus (DC:direct current) is proposed to be used in hydro/PV hybrid power system,and 4 main designing considerations and several key equipments are discussed.In 2011,a 2 MWp PV station with the proposed structure was built up in Yushu,China.From stability analysis,the station shows a strong stability under load cut-in/off and solar irradiance' s fluctuation.

  5. Hybrid Nanocomposite Photovoltaics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop an innovative solar cell design that combines nanotechnology with conducting polymer...

  6. Photovoltaic research needs industry perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K. V.

    1982-01-01

    An industries perspective of photovoltaic research needs is presented. Objectives and features of industry needs are discussed for the materials, devices, processes, and reliability research categories.

  7. High Efficiency and Long Life Hybrid Photovoltaic Research for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-05

    fabrication, a thin active layer is deposited onto ZnO nanorods by using spin coating . The thin active layer was used as hole transporting and light...absorbing material. The device was then fabricated by spin - coating a layer of PEDOT:PSS with an effective thickness of 50 nm before thermal...P3HT) and Sample C (ZnO/P3HT:TiO2) represent the composites by spin coating neat P3HT and P3HT:TiO2 nanorods hybrid thin active layers onto the

  8. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  10. Integration of thermal photovoltaic hybrid sensors to the building. Final report july 2004. Integrated research project 6.2; Integration de capteurs hybrides photovoltaiques thermiques au bati. Rapport final juillet 2004. Projet de recherche integre 6.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The electricity and the heat are two complementary energies necessary for the accommodation. A thermal solar installation needs the electric power for the coolant fluid flow. This research project concerns the optimization of integrated solutions to the building, providing simultaneously these two energies. This document presents the proposed researches programs: analysis of the socio-economic aspects, the physical phenomena knowledge, simulation of the behavior, experimentation, hybrid components integration, simulation of the photovoltaic modules operating and thermal simulation of an electric converter. (A.L.B.)

  11. Lossless hybridization between photovoltaic and thermoelectric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwang-Tae; Shin, Sun-Mi; Tazebay, Abdullah S; Um, Han-Don; Jung, Jin-Young; Jee, Sang-Won; Oh, Min-Wook; Park, Su-Dong; Yoo, Bongyoung; Yu, Choongho; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The optimal hybridization of photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) devices has long been considered ideal for the efficient harnessing solar energy. Our hybrid approach uses full spectrum solar energy via lossless coupling between PV and TE devices while collecting waste energy from thermalization and transmission losses from PV devices. Achieving lossless coupling makes the power output from the hybrid device equal to the sum of the maximum power outputs produced separately from individual PV and TE devices. TE devices need to have low internal resistances enough to convey photo-generated currents without sacrificing the PV fill factor. Concomitantly, a large number of p-n legs are preferred to drive a high Seebeck voltage in TE. Our simple method of attaching a TE device to a PV device has greatly improved the conversion efficiency and power output of the PV device (~30% at a 15°C temperature gradient across a TE device).

  12. Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Padova, Paola; Lucci, Massimiliano; Olivieri, Bruno; Quaresima, Claudio; Priori, Sandro; Francini, Roberto; Grilli, Antonio; Hricovini, Karol; Davoli, Ivan

    2009-06-01

    Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices based on TiO 2 have been realized. Chlorophyll A (from anacystis nidulans algae), chlorophyll B (from spinach), carmic acid (from insect Coccus cacti L.), synthetic trans- β-carotene, natural fresh picked Morus nigra, and their mixtures have been used as an organic photo active layer to fabricate photovoltaic prototypes. In order to reduce the charge's interfacial recombination, different thicknesses (5-45 nm) of Si layers, subsequently oxidized in air, were inserted between the TiO 2 and chlorophyll B. Scanning electron microscopy of TiO 2 and Si/TiO 2 systems shows the coexistence at least of four classes of nanoparticles of 60, 100, 150 and 250 nm in size. Auger electron spectroscopy of the Si L 2,3V V transition demonstrates the presence of silica and SiO x suboxides. Photocurrent measurements versus radiation wavelength in the range 300-800 nm exhibit different peaks according to the absorption spectra of the organic molecules. All realized photovoltaic devices are suitable for solar light electric energy conversion. Those made of a blend of all organic molecules achieved higher current and voltage output. The Si/TiO 2-based devices containing chlorophyll B exhibited an enhanced photocurrent response with respect to those with TiO 2 only.

  13. Photovoltaic research and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available t & S t r a t e g i c R e l a t i o n s h i p M a n a g e m e n t National Cleaner Production Centre (NCPC) Finance Human Resources Management Services Communications Aerospace Industry Support Initiative (AISI) EMERGING... buyers. Introduction to Photovoltaics © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2right Solar powered lights and other solar powered products are very easy to install. This is because there are few wiring issues and little need to ever...

  14. Photovoltaic research opportunities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macaleer, B.; Bowers, J.; Hurlburt, B.

    1985-11-19

    The purpose of this study is to identify opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) research projects to capitalize on related but non-PV research. The study is performed under the assumption that a considerable body of ongoing semiconductor research in non-PV areas could be of value to its PV Program and the PV community in general. Research related to III-V compounds, thin films, and crystalline silicon materials is included. Research that is known to be PV-related or sponsored by DOE was excluded from consideration. The study resulted in 11 recommendations (research areas) and a subset of 58 specific research projects. In addition, over 75 non-PV research managers in the semiconductor field are identified as potential sources of ideas which could benefit photovoltaics.

  15. Photovoltaic research opportunities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macaleer, B.; Bowers, J.; Hurlburt, B.

    1985-11-19

    The purpose of this study is to identify opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) research projects to capitalize on related but non-PV research. The study is performed under the assumption that a considerable body of ongoing semiconductor research in non-PV areas could be of value to its PV Program and the PV community in general. Research related to III-V compounds, thin films, and crystalline silicon materials is included. Research that is known to be PV-related or sponsored by DOE was excluded from consideration. The study resulted in 11 recommendations (research areas) and a subset of 58 specific research projects. In addition, over 75 non-PV research managers in the semiconductor field are identified as potential sources of ideas which could benefit photovoltaics.

  16. Hybrid Solar: A Review on Photovoltaic and Thermal Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. In the building sector in particular, the limited building space for the accommodation of solar devices has driven a demand on the use of hybrid solar technology for the multigeneration of active power and/or passive solar devices. The importance is escalating with the worldwide trend on the development of low-carbon/zero-energy buildings. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collector systems had been studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally in depth in the past decades. Together with alternative means, a range of innovative products and systems has been put forward. The final success of the integrative technologies relies on the coexistence of robust product design/construction and reliable system operation/maintenance in the long run to satisfy the user needs. This paper gives a broad review on the published academic works, with an emphasis placed on the research and development activities in the last decade.

  17. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  18. Review of photovoltaic research in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R D

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes US research efforts to develop new generations of photovoltaic technologies having the potential for lower cost and better performance than the older generations of crystalline silicon technologies. The newer generations consist primarily of single and multijunction thin film devices destined for either flat plate or concentrator photovoltaic systems. The principal sponsors for the research are the US Department of Energy, US photovoltaic companies, the Electric Power Research Institute, and those US government agencies interested in the use of photovoltaics in space. The paper concludes with a description of future research activities in the areas of amorphous silicon, polycrystalline thin films, high efficiency concepts, and fundamental research.

  19. Interface Modifications for Applications in Organic and Hybrid Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Katherine A.

    Considerable research has been conducted in the area of organic photovoltaics due to several intrinsic advantages, including their high throughput solution processability, light weight, and their applicability on flexible substrates. Product development has been limited, however, due to the low mobilities and short exciton diffusion lengths of organic materials relative to inorganic materials used for photovoltaics. In this dissertation, we look at interfacial phenomena in attempt to control the charge transport dynamics in different parts of photovoltaic systems. The first chapter provides an overview of the field of organic photovoltaics, including their benefits, operating procedures, and a brief history of materials and device development. Chapter 2 examines some donor-acceptor small molecules as the electron donors in all organic bulk heterojunction solar cells with soluble fullerene derivatives as the electron acceptors. The donor-acceptor small molecules are unique because their energy levels agree well with the theoretical optimal HOMO and LUMO energy levels required for high efficiency organic photovoltaics. Even with energy level matching, however, we found that we were only able to obtain modest device efficiencies due to the formation of large domains that are greater than the exciton diffusion length and result in large interfacial areas. In chapter 3 we examine some of the optical, physical, and charge transport properties of a series of fully conjugated brush copolymers that are comprised of a carbazole-diketopyrrolorpyrrole donor-acceptor backbone copolymerized with different lengths of poly(3-hexylthiophene) pendant chains. It was found that there was a sufficient break in conjugation between the two copolymers such that the absorbance characteristics of both could be realized independently. In addition, the physical and charge transport properties could be tuned to primarily show influence from either the ambipolar low band gap backbone or the p

  20. Photovoltaic/diesel hybrid systems: The design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. J.; Chapman, R. N.

    A photovoltaic/storage system by itself may be uneconomical for stand-alone applications with large energy demands. However, by combining the PV system with a back-up energy source, such as a diesel, gasoline, or propane/thermoelectric generator, system economics can be improved. Such PV/fossil hybrid systems are being used, but their design has required detailed modeling to determine the optimal mix of photovoltaics and back-up energy. Recent data on diesel field reliability and a new design technique for stand-alone systems have overcome this problem. The approach provides the means for sizing the photovoltaic system to obtain a near optimal hybrid system, with about a 90% savings in back-up fuel costs. System economics are determined by comparing PV capital cost to the present value of the displaced diesel operation and maintenance costs.

  1. A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. A.

    1983-12-01

    A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems provides a combination of components to realize zero downtime and minimum initial or life-cycle cost. Using Dayton, OH as a test site for weather data, cost advantages in the neighborhood of four are predicted for a hybrid system with battery storage when compared to a wind-energy-only system for the same electrical load.

  2. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Ejea, J. B.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper explores a power conditioning unit for photovoltaic/hydrogen based energy systems. Similar power conversion techniques, compared to traditional space power systems, are applied. An S4R regulator is devised with an unregulated battery bus as primary output and a secondary path to feed and electrolyser. A modular fuel cell converter completes the system and it operates when photovoltaic energy is not available or load demand exceeds solar power, i. e. like a traditional BDR. An ancillary battery keeps the unregulated bus voltage distributed in the system and it also aids the fuel cell during transients or start-up due to its limited speed. A 1kW breadboard has been designed and implemented to corroborate the proposed system.

  3. 双模式风光互补发电系统结构研究%Research on Structure of Photovoltaic and Wind Hybrid Generation System with Dual-Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴威; 张吉; 崔琛; 范秋杰; 张帆

    2012-01-01

    介绍了小型风光互补发电系统的运行原理,分析了并网型和离网型系统的常用结构,并针对系统离网运行可能存在的极端情况,提出一种双模式智能切换运行的风光互补系统结构,实现智能离/并网运行功能,引入双向电能表,记录电能在系统与电网间的双向流动,实现新能源发电在电力市场的流通,对风光互补发电系统的研究提供了一定的借鉴作用。%Introduction was made to the operational principle of photovoltaic and wind hybrid generation system. Analysis was made to the common structures of grid-on and grid-off systems. This paper raised a kind of photovoltaic and wind hybrid generation system with dual-mode, which could change the grid-on and grid-off mode intelligently under extreme conditions. What is more, a dual-direction electric meter was used to record the mutual power flow between hybrid system and grid, which aimed to imply the new power generation in the flow of the electricity market, providing a reference for the research ofphotovoltaic and wind hybrid generation system.

  4. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  5. Basic research challenges in crystalline silicon photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, J.H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    Silicon is abundant, non-toxic and has an ideal band gap for photovoltaic energy conversion. Experimental world record cells of 24 % conversion efficiency with around 300 {mu}m thickness are only 4 % (absolute) efficiency points below the theoretical Auger recombination-limit of around 28 %. Compared with other photovoltaic materials, crystalline silicon has only very few disadvantages. The handicap of weak light absorbance may be mastered by clever optical designs. Single crystalline cells of only 48 {mu}m thickness showed 17.3 % efficiency even without backside reflectors. A technology of solar cells from polycrystalline Si films on foreign substrates arises at the horizon. However, the disadvantageous, strong activity of grain boundaries in Si could be an insurmountable hurdle for a cost-effective, terrestrial photovoltaics based on polycrystalline Si on foreign substrates. This talk discusses some basic research challenges related to a Si based photovoltaics.

  6. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  7. Solar photovoltaic/thermal (hybrid) energy project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, D. B.

    1981-09-01

    Development of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and residential heat pump systems is reported. Candidate collector and residential heat pump systems were evaluated using the TRNSYS computer program. It is found that combined heat pump and PV array is a promising method for achieving economical solar cooling. Where the cooling load is dominant, exclusively PV collectors rather than PV/T collectors are preferred. Where the heating load is dominant, the thermal component of PV/T collectors makes a significant contribution to heating a residence. PV/T collectors were developed whose combined efficiency approaches the efficiency of a double glazed, exclusively thermal collector. The design and operational problems of air source heat pumps are reviewed. Possible effects of compressor startup transients on PV power system operation are discussed.

  8. Merging photovoltaic hardware development with hybrid applications in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W.

    1993-11-01

    The use of multi-source power systems, ``hybrids,`` is one of the fastest growing, potentially significant markets for photovoltaic (PV) system technology today. Cost-effective applications today include remote facility power, remote area power supplies, remote home and village power, and power for dedicated electrical loads such as communications systems. This market sector is anticipated to be one of the most important growth opportunities for PV over the next five years. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are currently engaged in an effort to accelerate the adoption of market-driven PV hybrid power systems and to effectively integrate PV with other energy sources. This paper provides details of this development and the ongoing hybrid activities in the United States. Hybrid systems are the primary focus of this paper.

  9. Merging photovoltaic hardware development with hybrid applications in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W.

    The use of multi-source power systems, 'hybrids,' is one of the fastest growing, potentially significant markets for photovoltaic (PV) system technology today. Cost-effective applications today include remote facility power, remote area power supplies, remote home and village power, and power for dedicated electrical loads such as communications systems. This market sector is anticipated to be one of the most important growth opportunities for PV over the next five years. The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are currently engaged in an effort to accelerate the adoption of market-driven PV hybrid power systems and to effectively integrate PV with other energy sources. This paper provides details of this development and the ongoing hybrid activities in the United States. Hybrid systems are the primary focus of this paper.

  10. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  11. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  12. Silicon nanowires in polymer nanocomposites for photovoltaic hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Dkhil, S., E-mail: sadok.bendekhil@gmail.com [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bourguiga, R. [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Davenas, J. [Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Cornu, D. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR CNRS 5635, Ecole Nationale superieure de Chimie, Universite de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, F34000 Montpellier (France)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and silicon nanowires have been fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the charge transfer between PVK and SiNWs by the way of the quenching of the PVK photoluminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between SiNWs and PVK has been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the effects of SiNWs concentration on the photovoltaic characteristics leading to the optimization of a critical SiNWs concentration. - Abstract: Hybrid thin films combining the high optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer film and the electronic properties of silicon fillers have been investigated in the perspective of the development of low cost solar cells. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic materials based on blends of a semiconductor polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as electron acceptor have been studied. Composite PVK/SiNWs films were cast from a common solvent mixture. UV-visible spectrometry and photoluminescence of the composites have been studied as a function of the SiNWs concentration. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) shows the existence of a critical SiNWs concentration of about 10 wt % for PL quenching corresponding to the most efficient charge pair separation. The photovoltaic (PV) effect has been studied under illumination. The optimum open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} and short-circuit current density J{sub sc} are obtained for 10 wt % SiNWs whereas a degradation of these parameters is observed at higher SiNWs concentrations. These results are correlated to the formation of aggregates in the composite leading to recombination of the photogenerated charge pairs competing with the dissociation mechanism.

  13. Improved efficiency of hybrid organic photovoltaics by pulsed laser sintering of silver nanowire network transparent electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, Joshua A; Nagamatsu, Ken A; Sturm, James C; Arnold, Craig B

    2015-05-20

    In this Research Article, we demonstrate pulsed laser processing of a silver nanowire network transparent conductor on top of an otherwise complete solar cell. The macroscopic pulsed laser irradiation serves to sinter nanowire-nanowire junctions on the nanoscale, leading to a much more conductive electrode. We fabricate hybrid silicon/organic heterojunction photovoltaic devices, which have ITO-free, solution processed, and laser processed transparent electrodes. Furthermore, devices which have high resistive losses show up to a 35% increase in power conversion efficiency after laser processing. We perform this study over a range of laser fluences, and a range of nanowire area coverage to investigate the sintering mechanism of nanowires inside of a device stack. The increase in device performance is modeled using a simple photovoltaic diode approach and compares favorably to the experimental data.

  14. Hybrid photovoltaics based on semiconductor nanocrystals and amorphous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoquan; Findikoglu, Alp T; Sykora, Milan; Werder, Donald J; Klimov, Victor I

    2009-03-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are promising materials for applications in photovoltaic (PV) structures that could benefit from size-controlled tunability of absorption spectra, the ease of realization of various tandem architectures, and, perhaps, increased conversion efficiency in the ultraviolet region through carrier multiplication. The first practical step toward utilization of the unique properties of NCs in PV technologies could be through their integration into traditional silicon-based solar cells. Here, we demonstrate an example of such hybrid PV structures that combine colloidal NCs with amorphous silicon. In these structures, NCs and silicon are electronically coupled, and the regime of this coupling can be tuned by altering the alignment of NC energy states with regard to silicon band edges. For example, using wide-gap CdSe NCs we demonstrate a photoresponse which is exclusively due to the NCs. On the other hand, in devices comprising narrow-gap PbS NCs, both the NCs and silicon contribute to photocurrent, which results in PV response extending from the visible to the near-infrared region. The hybrid silicon/PbS NC solar cells show external quantum efficiencies of approximately 7% at infrared energies and 50% in the visible and a power conversion efficiency of up to 0.9%. This work demonstrates the feasibility of hybrid PV devices that combine advantages of mature silicon fabrication technologies with the unique electronic properties of semiconductor NCs.

  15. Monitoring and remote control of a hybrid photovoltaic microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Tiggemann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The search of new alternatives for energy supply in island communities has always been a challenge in scientific and social context. In order to attend these communities, in January 2013 a photovoltaic hybrid microgrid project had its beginning at Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS. This paper presents the characterization and the development of such microgrid, monitored remotely via internet, which allows visualizing the electrical measurements, energy production and performing remote control actions. This work also aims increasing the interaction between students of universities to perform laboratory practices. The system consists of two photovoltaic modules technologies, mono and multicrystalline, totaling 570 Wp, connected to an energy storage bank of 200 Ah in 24 V and a pure sinusoidal inverter of 1 kW to supply AC voltage loads of 220 V. All acquisition components of data, conversion and management system are located in a control cabinet. Currently, the microgrid uses the utility grid as an auxiliary generator, simulating an alternative source of energy, which can be further replaced by fuel cell, biodiesel generator, etc.

  16. The Research on Capacity Optimization of "Wind-Photovoltaic" Hybrid Power System Based on GBMMAS Algorithm%基于GBMMAS算法的"风-光"互补系统容量优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢磊; 王飞; 余世杰; 陈晓高

    2011-01-01

    在保证"风-光"互补系统供电可靠性的前提下,对系统各组件的容量大小进行优化.提出一种基于有向图思想的"最大-最小"蚂蚁系统算法,在满足一定负载失电率(LPSP)的前提下,对系统能量均摊成本(ICE)进行优化,从而得出对应于最小LCE的系统各组件的容量大小.仿真及运算结果表明,该优化算法运算效率很高,得出的优化结果是合理可行的.%The research focus on the optimization of components capacity of "Wind-Photovoltaic" hybrid system under the premise of reliable power supply. A Graph-based "Max-Min" Ant System algorithm (GBMMAS) has been proposed to optimize levelized cost of energy (LCE) of system under the premise of certain loss power supply probability ( LPSP), and finally figured out system components capacity corresponding to minimized LCE. The simulation and operation results show that the optimization algorithm proposed is effective, the optimization results is reasonable and feasible.

  17. Understanding the physical properties of hybrid perovskites for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinsong; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Yan, Yanfa

    2017-07-01

    New photovoltaic materials have been searched for in the past decades for clean and renewable solar energy conversion with an objective of reducing the levelized cost of electricity (that is, the unit price of electricity over the course of the device lifetime). An emerging family of semiconductor materials — organic-inorganic halide perovskites (OIHPs) — are the focus of the photovoltaic research community owing to their use of low cost, nature-abundant raw materials, low-temperature and scalable solution fabrication processes, and, in particular, the very high power conversion efficiencies that have been achieved within the short time of their development. In this Review, we summarize and critically assess the most recent advances in understanding the physical properties of both 3D and low-dimensional OIHPs that favour a small open-circuit voltage deficit and high power conversion efficiency. Several prominent topics in this field on the unique properties of OIHPs are surveyed, including defect physics, ferroelectricity, exciton dissociation processes, carrier recombination lifetime and photon recycling. The impact of ion migration on solar cell efficiency and stability are also critically analysed. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges in the commercialization of OIHP photovoltaics.

  18. Sizing wind/photovoltaic hybrids for households in inner Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, C.D.; Lew, D.J.; Flowers, L.T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Approximately 140,000 wind turbines currently provide electricity to about one-third of the non-grid-connected households in Inner Mongolia. However, these households often suffer from a lack of power during the low-wind summer months. This report describes an analysis of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV) systems for such households. The sizing of the major components is based on a subjective trade-off between the cost of the system and the percent unmet load, as determined by the Hybrid2 software in conjunction with a simplified time-series model. Actual resource data (wind speed and solar radiation) from the region are processed so as to best represent the scenarios of interest. Small wind turbines of both Chinese and U.S. manufacture are considered in the designs. The results indicate that combinations of wind and PV are more cost-effective than either one alone, and that the relative amount of PV in the design increases as the acceptable unmet load decreases and as the average wind speed decreases.

  19. Review on Recent Development Micro Gas Turbine -Trigeneration System and Photovoltaic Based Hybrid Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand MRR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on distributed power generation as an alternative method to the conventional power generation system continue to be developed to improve its commercialization capabilities. The cogeneration system and trigeneration system are technological improved alternatives in distributed generation where they offer enhancement and reliability in term of efficiency, emission performances and economic benefits. However, it is more feasible to implement the trigeneration system for most commercial and domestic distributed generations as the cooling demand is deliberately high compared to heating demand especially in hot and humid climate locations. Moreover, micro gas turbine is observed to be a beneficial prime mover in cogeneration and trigeneration system based on several criteria such as ability on acquiring high heat to power ratio characteristic as well as lower greenhouse gas emission. On the other hand, the role photovoltaic in building integrated system provides opportunities for renewable energy system engagement in trigeneration based distributed generation systems. This paper emphasize on summarizing the research work perform on cogeneration system or trigeneration system in hybrid mode with photovoltaic. There are also preceding sections on overviewing the state of art of cogeneration system and the trigeneration system as well as photovoltaic technologies in power generation.

  20. Sliding Mode Controller for Three-Phase Hybrid Active Power Filter with Photovoltaic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Blorfan, Ayman; Merckle, Jean; Flieller, Damien; Wira, Patrice; Sturtzer, Guy

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new three-phase hybrid active power filter configuration that interconnects a passive high-pass filter in parallel with an active power filter and a photovoltaic system. The proposed configuration can improves the filtering performance of the conventional active power filter, as well as simultaneously supply the power from the photovoltaic arrays to the load and utility. This paper will describe the proposed hybrid active power filter control usin...

  1. Analysis of merits of hybrid wind/photovoltaic concept for stand-alone systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, J. A.; Kallis, J. M.; Moite, S. M.; Marshall, N. A.

    Methods for evaluating the merits of hybrid wind/photovoltaic systems for use in stand-alone applications were developed. The optimum mix of wind and photovoltaic power with an electrochemical storage system, with or without fossil fuel generator backup, depends upon the individual subsystem economics. A computer code was developed to calculate the optimum subsystem sizes that minimize the levelized energy cost. The actual merits of a hybrid system over a pure photovoltaic or wind system depend upon many factors: load profile; wind regime; insolation; cost and availability of backup power; the relative costs of wind rotor area, array area, and storage; and subsystem efficiency factors. Examples of optimized hybrid systems for a range of photovoltaic costs and estimated wind and storage costs are shown for an Ely, NV, application, where backup power is allowed to supply 5% of the total annual load.

  2. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  3. NREL Photovoltaic Research -- Extensive Capabilities and Experience Under One Roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    NREL's high-impact photovoltaic successes in fundamental research, advanced materials and devices, and technology development contribute to: 1) boosting solar cell conversion efficiencies, 2) Lowering the cost of solar cells, modules, and systems, and 3) improving the reliability of photovoltaic (PV) components and systems.

  4. Solution processable organic/inorganic hybrid ultraviolet photovoltaic detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photodetector is a kind of important optoelectronic device which can be widely used in scientific and engineering fields including astronomical research, environmental monitoring, forest-fire prevention, medical analysis, and missile approach warning etc. The development of UV detector is hindered by the acquirement of stable p-type materials, which makes it difficult to realize large array, low-power consumption UV focal plane array (FPA detector. Here, we provide a novel structure (Al/Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfuorenyl-2,7-diyl(PFO/ZnO/ITO to demonstrate the UV photovoltaic (PV response. A rather smooth surface (RMS roughness: 0.28 nm may be reached by solution process, which sheds light on the development of large-array, light-weight and low-cost UV FPA detectors.

  5. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  6. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  7. Organic and Hybrid Organic Solid-State Photovoltaic Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    conductive polyarylene ethynylene polymers for photovoltaic applications. The structure at the molecular scale was characterized using X-ray scattering...Processing of Thin Film Flexible Solar Cells” who exchanged knowledge about device-level questions and capabilities of simulations. The Ohio Department of...Indianapolis, IN, May, 2011. (2) “Hybrid Photovoltaic Materials: Characterization of Polymer -Nanoparticle composites” Lama, B.; Espe, M. P.; Central Regional

  8. 可逆流光伏与市电联合供电能量管理研究%Research on photovoltaic and grid hybrid power system with reversible currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付敏玲; 胡天友; 胡蓉; 杨攀; 王臻

    2013-01-01

    According to the energy volatility of dc photovoltaic power supply system,grid as the sources of energy compensation for load is proposed.It is composed of solar cells,grid,the phase shifting full bridge converter and PWM rectifier.When photovoltaic energy more than the load needed,the excess energy feed to grid,and when photovoltaic energy shortage,the grid added energy for load.The key point of power management is to achieve energy management among photovoltaic,grid and the load.This paper analyses the whole power system,then discusses different running condition of the system,and put forward the compensation control strategy.Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed system architecture and control strategy can achieve photovoltaic and grid hybrid power supply.%针对光伏直流供电系统的能量变动性,提出了使用市电作为直流负载的能量补偿来源.系统由光伏电池、市电、移相全桥变换器、PWM整流器组成.在光伏发电能量大于负载所需时,将多余的能量馈送电网;在光伏发电能量不足时,由市网补充.系统的核心是实现光伏、市电、负载三者之间的能量管理.文章首先对整个供电系统进行了分析,然后讨论了系统的不同工作模式,最后提出了市电的能量补偿控制策略.仿真和实验表明所提的系统结构和控制策略能够实现市电与光伏供电系统的稳定联合供电.

  9. Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells for enhanced conversion efficiency in UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlugun, Evren; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2008-03-17

    We propose and demonstrate semiconductor nanocrystal based photovoltaic scintillators integrated on solar cells to enhance photovoltaic device parameters including spectral responsivity, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, and solar conversion efficiency in the ultraviolet. Hybridizing (CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots of 2.4 nm in diameter on multi-crystalline Si solar cells for the first time, we show that the solar conversion efficiency is enhanced 2 folds under white light illumination similar to the solar spectrum. Such nanocrystal scintillators provide the ability to extend the photovoltaic activity towards UV.

  10. ZnO-based nanocrystalline powders with applications in hybrid photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damonte, L.C. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Donderis, V. [Dto. De Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Ferrari, S.; Meyer, M. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Orozco, J. [Dto. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Materiales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Hernandez-Fenollosa, M.A. [Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development of hybrid photovoltaic cells consisting of new materials, such as devices based on the combination of a wide gap semiconductor and an organic dye (dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSC). In this paper we obtain nano-zinc oxide particles whose optical and electrical properties have been modified by the presence of small amounts of Al or In acting as dopants. The aim of this study is to improve the compatibility of each of the compounds present in the photovoltaic solar cell. The knowledge gained will provide input to guide the processes in the manufacture of hybrid solar cells. (author)

  11. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami; Mehdi Ali Ehyaei; Marc A. Rosen; Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid sy...

  12. A Hybrid Spline Metamodel for Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    ZAIBI, Malek; LAYADI, Toufik Madani; Champenois, Gérard; ROBOAM, xavier; Sareni, Bruno; Belhadj, Jamel

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a metamodel design for a Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy System. The modeling of a hybrid PV/wind generator coupled with two kinds of storage i.e. electric (battery) and hydraulic (tanks) devices is investigated. A metamodel is carried out by hybrid spline interpolation to solve the relationships between several design variables i.e. the design parameters of different subsystems and their associate response variables i.e. system indicators performance. The developed model...

  13. Dynamic modeling of hybrid energy storage systems coupled to photovoltaic generation in residential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maclay, JD; J. Brouwer; Samuelsen, GS

    2007-01-01

    A model of a photovoltaic (PV) powered residence in stand-alone configuration was developed and evaluated. The model assesses the sizing, capital costs, control strategies, and efficiencies of reversible fuel cells (RFC), batteries, and ultra-capacitors (UC) both individually, and in combination, as hybrid energy storage devices. The choice of control strategy for a hybrid energy storage system is found to have a significant impact on system efficiency, hydrogen production and component utili...

  14. Demand response impacts on off-grid hybrid photovoltaic-diesel generator microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron St. Leger

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid microgrids consisting of diesel generator set(s) and converter based power sources, such as solar photovoltaic or wind sources, offer an alternative to generator based off-grid power systems. The hybrid approach has been shown to be economical in many off-grid applications and can result in reduced generator operation, fuel requirements, and maintenance. However, the intermittent nature of demand and renewable energy sources typically require energy storage, such as batteries, to prope...

  15. A Review on Suitable Standards for Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivar, Marta; Clarke, Matthew; Ratcliff, Tom; Everett, Vernie

    2011-12-01

    This paper will present an evaluation of the available standards and their considerations when using active-cooled CPV systems, along with an initial assessment of the most appropriate tests, including additional test requirements, for hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal (PV-T) systems in order to guarantee their long-time electrical and thermal performance.

  16. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  17. Photovoltaics: Highly Efficient Hybrid Photovoltaics Based on Hyperbranched Three-Dimensional TiO 2 Electron Transporting Materials (Adv. Mater. 18/2015)

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed hybrid photovoltaics are a potentially disruptive third-generation solar cell technology. On page 2859, A. Amassian and co-workers demonstrate that an electrospun hyperbranched electron-transporting material is capable of achieving highly efficient hybrid solar cells across different platforms, including lead-halide perovskites (15.5%) and dye-sensitized solar cells (11.2%).

  18. ZnO hybrid photovoltaics with variable side-chain lengths of thienothiophene polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, SeungJin [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Fei, Zhuping [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, South Kensington SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jayawardena, K.D.G.I.; Beliatis, Michail J. [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Hahn, Yoon-Bong [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeon-ju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Adikaari, A.A.D.T. [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Heeney, Martin J. [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, South Kensington SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Silva, S. Ravi P., E-mail: s.silva@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-02

    The effect of the side-chain length of poly(3,6-dialkylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene-co-bithiophene) (pATBT) on the performance of hybrid polymer-metal oxide photovoltaics (PVs) utilizing zinc oxide (ZnO) acceptor is investigated. The pATBT attached with a dodecyl side chain (pATBT-C{sub 12}) in hybrid photovoltaics with ZnO was compared to pATBT with a hexadecyl side chain (pATBT-C{sub 16}). Atomic force microscopic analysis reveals a smoother surface for the pATBT-C{sub 16} photoactive layer compared to the pATBT-C{sub 12}. For hybrid PVs using pATBT-C{sub 16}, the relative intensity of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) increased particularly in wavelength region associated with the ZnO. Furthermore, the EQE spectrum shows a red shift for pATBT-C{sub 16} indicating better structural ordering compared to hybrid PVs with pATBT-C{sub 12}. As a result, the hybrid PV utilizing pATBT-C{sub 16}:ZnO blend layer is observed to display a better performance with a power conversion efficiency of 1.02% compared to 0.672% of pATBT-C{sub 12}:ZnO PV. - Highlights: • The effect of polymer side-chain length on hybrid photovoltaics is investigated. • Longer side chains positively influence structural and optical properties of hybrid films. • Longer side-chain length leads to better photovoltaic performance.

  19. Interplay of Nanoscale, Hybrid P3HT/ZTO Interface on Optoelectronics and Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jian-Jhong; Li, Yu-Hsun; Feng, Bo-Rui; Tang, Shiow-Jing; Jian, Wen-Bin; Fu, Chuan-Min; Chen, Jiun-Tai; Wang, Xu; Lee, Pooi-See

    2017-09-05

    Photovoltaic effects in poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) attract much attention recently. Here natively p-type doped P3HT nanofibers and n-type doped zinc tin oxide (ZTO) nanowires are used for making not only field-effect transistors but also p-n nanoscale diodes. The hybrid P3HT/ZTO p-n heterojunction shows applications in many directions and it also facilitates the investigation of photoelectrons and photovoltaic effects at the nanoscale. As for applications, the heterojunction device shows simultaneously high on/off ratio of n- and p-type field-effect transistors, gatable p-n junction diodes, tri-state buffer device, gatable photodetectors, and gatable solar cells. On the other hand, P3HT nanofibers are taken as a photoactive layer and the role of p-n heterojunction playing on the photoelectric and photovoltaic effects is investigated. It is found that the hybrid P3HT/ZTO p-n heterojunction assists to increase photocurrents and to enhance photovoltaic effects. Through the controllable gating of the heterojunction, we can discuss the background mechanisms of photocurrent generation and photovoltaic energy harvest.

  20. Exergetic evaluation on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel; Taiyoko netsu hybrid panel no exergy hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaki, H.; Morita, Y.; Fujisawa, T.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel (PV/T) is an energy converter that was designed for the composite use of electricity and heat. In this paper, the validity of PV/T designed for trial was evaluated based on an exergetic theory. As the result of an experiment, the electric exergetic value of PV/T and PV is each 65.8 kWh/m{sup 2} and 58.6 kWh/m{sup 2}. The former is higher than the latter by 11.2%. The total exergetic value of PV/T is also 1.2 and 8.2 times as high as those of a PV and solar collector (SC), respectively. The calculation result of the optimum temperature operation showed that the exergetic value of PV/T is 3.1 times as high as the electric exergetic value. Therefore, the operation must be performed with the electric and thermal exergetic values set in a ratio of 3.1 to 1. In this paper, the operating mode is handled in which importance was more attached to the electric exergy than the thermal exergy. The flow rate of a heating medium on PV/T is not thus the flow control that maximizes the PV/T exergy. In the future, studies including these points will be promoted. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchuan Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  2. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-04-02

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  3. New helio-photocatalytic-photovoltaic hybrid system for simultaneous water decontamination and solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarria, Victor; Kenfack, Simeon; Pulgarin, Cesar [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Environementale, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julian [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas, 04200 Almeria (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    Test results for a designed and installed hybrid photocatalytic-photovoltaic system (HPPS) are presented in this paper. The HPPS consists of one device with dual functions: The photocatalytic system uses UV radiation to promote degradation of organic pollutants, and beside it absorbs the IR radiation. The photovoltaic (PV) system converts the visible radiation into electricity, which can either be used directly by the recirculation pump or stored in a battery for other purposes. The suggested design aims to achieve an autonomous, environmentally friendly method for the treatment of biorecalcitrant pollutants. Two prototypes were erected: HPPS{sub P}, using Plexiglas and HPPS{sub G} using commercial glass. Both were tested outdoors to determine their impact on photovoltaic power production. Test results showed that PV power diminished to 14% and 22% for HPPS{sub G} and HPPS{sub P} respectively, compared to a PV panel alone. (author)

  4. Anomalous photovoltaic effect in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Li, Tao; Wang, Qi; Xing, Jie; Gruverman, Alexei; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) have been demonstrated to be highly successful photovoltaic materials yielding very-high-efficiency solar cells. We report the room temperature observation of an anomalous photovoltaic (APV) effect in lateral structure OIHP devices manifested by the device’s open-circuit voltage (VOC) that is much larger than the bandgap of OIHPs. The persistent VOC is proportional to the electrode spacing, resembling that of ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. However, the APV effect in OIHP devices is not caused by ferroelectricity. The APV effect can be explained by the formation of tunneling junctions randomly dispersed in the polycrystalline films, which allows the accumulation of photovoltage at a macroscopic level. The formation of internal tunneling junctions as a result of ion migration is visualized with Kelvin probe force microscopy scanning. This observation points out a new avenue for the formation of large and continuously tunable VOC without being limited by the materials’ bandgap. PMID:28345043

  5. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid system in Tehran is 0.62 US$/kWh, which is 78% less expensive than a wind turbine system and 34% less expensive than a photovoltaic system.

  6. High Efficiency and Long Life Photovoltaic Research for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-05

    the photovoltaic device fabrication, a thin active layer is deposited onto ZnO nanorods by using spin coating . The thin active layer was used as...hole transporting and light absorbing material. The device was then fabricated by spin - coating a layer of PEDOT:PSS with an effective thickness of 50...substrate. Sample B (ZnO/P3HT) and Sample C (ZnO/P3HT:TiO2) represent the composites by spin coating neat P3HT and P3HT:TiO2 nanorods hybrid thin

  7. An Operating Method Using Prediction of Photovoltaic Power for a Photovoltaic-Diesel Hybrid Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shigehiro; Sumi, Kazuyoshi; Nishikawa, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    This paper describes a novel operating method using prediction of photovoltaic (PV) power for a photovoltaic-diesel hybrid power generation system. The system is composed of a PV array, a storage battery, a bi-directional inverter and a diesel engine generator (DG). The proposed method enables the system to save fuel consumption by using PV energy effectively, reducing charge and discharge energy of the storage battery, and avoiding low-load operation of the DG. The PV power is simply predicted from a theoretical equation of solar radiation and the observed PV energy for a constant time before the prediction. The amount of fuel consumption of the proposed method is compared with that of other methods by a simulation based on measurement data of the PV power at an actual PV generation system for one year. The simulation results indicate that the amount of fuel consumption of the proposed method is smaller than that of any other methods, and is close to that of the ideal operation of the DG.

  8. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Rahim; Sheikh, Arif D; Abdelsamie, Maged; Hu, Hanlin; Yu, Liyang; Zhao, Kui; Kim, Taesoo; Tall, Omar El; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Amassian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  9. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, Rahim

    2016-11-07

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  10. Modeling, control, and simulation of grid connected intelligent hybrid battery/photovoltaic system using new hybrid fuzzy-neural method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Alireza; Khalili, Abbas; Mazareie, Alireza; Gandomkar, Majid

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) generation is growing increasingly fast as a renewable energy source. Nevertheless, the drawback of the PV system is its dependence on weather conditions. Therefore, battery energy storage (BES) can be considered to assist for a stable and reliable output from PV generation system for loads and improve the dynamic performance of the whole generation system in grid connected mode. In this paper, a novel topology of intelligent hybrid generation systems with PV and BES in a DC-coupled structure is presented. Each photovoltaic cell has a specific point named maximum power point on its operational curve (i.e. current-voltage or power-voltage curve) in which it can generate maximum power. Irradiance and temperature changes affect these operational curves. Therefore, the nonlinear characteristic of maximum power point to environment has caused to development of different maximum power point tracking techniques. In order to capture the maximum power point (MPP), a hybrid fuzzy-neural maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied in the PV system. Obtained results represent the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method, and the average tracking efficiency of the hybrid fuzzy-neural is incremented by approximately two percentage points in comparison to the conventional methods. It has the advantages of robustness, fast response and good performance. A detailed mathematical model and a control approach of a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system have been proposed using Matlab/Simulink.

  11. Grid-connected Photovoltaic Micro-inverter with New Hybrid Control LLC Resonant Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Qingbo, Ke;

    2016-01-01

    A high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter consisting of two power stages i.e. a LLC resonant converter with a new hybrid control scheme and a dc-ac inverter is proposed, studied and designed in this paper. In the first power stage, the new hybrid control combining pulse...... power of 250W and output voltage of 220VAC/50Hz. The experiment shows that the peak efficiency of the PVMI is 95.5%, where efficiency of LLC converter is up to 97.7%, and the MPPT accuracy is more than 99%. Thus the validity of the proposed system structure, design and control method is verified....

  12. Study of applying a hybrid standalone wind-photovoltaic generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Dahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of applying a hybrid system wind/photovoltaic to supply a community in southern Algeria. Diesel generators are always used to provide such remote regions with energy. Using renewable energy resources is a good alternative to overcome such pollutant generators. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software is used to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed configuration. Assessment of renewable resources consisting in wind and solar potentials, load profile determination and sensitivity of different parameters analysis were performed. The cost of energy (COE of 0.226 $/kWh is very competitive with those found in literature.

  13. Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic (PV) -battery-hydropower microgrids can be considered to enhance electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. However, the coexistence of different renewable energy sources with different inertias and control strategies may affect system stability. In this paper......, a hierarchical controller for hybrid PV-battery-hydropower microgrid is proposed in order to achieve the parallel operation of hydropower and PV-battery system with different rates, and to guarantee power sharing performance among PV voltage controlled inverters, while the required power to hydropower...... is derived to analyze the system stability of the hybrid microgrid. The simulation results show system frequency and voltage stability for a hybrid microgrid demonstration which includes 2 MWp PV installations, a 15.2 MWh battery system, and a 12.8 MVA hydropower plant. Experimental results on a small...

  14. Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Hyun; Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Sung Chul; Song, Myungkwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Shin, Won Suk; Moon, Sang-Jin; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Kotov, Nicholas A; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2011-04-26

    A systematic approach has been followed in the development of a high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device that has a combination of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) in the active layer using the bulk heterojunction concept. The active layer is modified by utilizing a binary solvent system for blending. In addition, the solvent evaporation process after spin-coating is changed and an Ag NWs is incorporated to improve the performance of the hybrid photovoltaic device. Hybrid photovoltaic devices were fabricated by using a 1:0.7 weight ratio of P3HT to PCBM in a 1:1 weight ratio of o-dichlorobenzene and chloroform solvent mixture, in the presence and absence of 20 wt % of Ag NWs. We also compared the photovoltaic performance of Ag NWs embedded in P3HT:PCBM to that of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmittance electron microscopy, UV-visible absorption, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency, and time-of-flight measurements are performed in order to characterize the hybrid photovoltaic devices. The optimal hybrid photovoltaic device composed of Ag NWs generated in this effort exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 3.91%, measured by using an AM 1.5G solar simulator at 100 mW/cm(2) light illumination intensity.

  15. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid systems for remote power supply. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document include the papers of the RIER Workshop that was hold in Cancun, Mexico, on 21-25 April 1997. This Workshop was organized by the Non-Conventional Energy Unit of the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), with the financial contributions from the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) and the Iberoamerican Network for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy (RIER) of the Program Science and Technology for Development (CYTED). The purpose of this Workshop was to present works developed on the technology of Photovoltaic-Wind Hybrid Systems, and to discuss both technical and non-technical factors that could foster or inhibit the widespread application this technology [Espanol] Este documento incluye los articulos tecnicos del taller de trabajo RIER, realizado en Cancun, Mexico, del 21 al 25 de abril de 1997. Este taller de trabajo fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), con la contribucion financiera del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT) y de la Red de Trabajo Iberoamericana para la Electrificacion Rural con Energia Renovable (RIER) del programa Ciencia y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo (CYTED). El proposito de este taller fue presentar trabajos desarrollados sobre la tecnologia de sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos y de viento, y discutir los factores tecnicos y no tecnicos que pudieran fomentar o detener la amplia aplicacion de esta tecnologia

  16. Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/multiwalled carbon hybrid coaxial nanotubes: nanoscale rectification and photovoltaic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Shin, Ji Won; Lee, Yong Baek; Cho, Mi Yeon; Lee, Suk Ho; Park, Dong Hyuk; Jang, Dong Kyu; Lee, Cheol Jin; Joo, Jinsoo

    2010-07-27

    We fabricate hybrid coaxial nanotubes (NTs) of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with light-emitting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The p-type P3HT material with a thickness of approximately 20 nm is electrochemically deposited onto the surface of the MWCNT. The formation of hybrid coaxial NTs of the P3HT/MWCNT is confirmed by a transmission electron microscope, FT-IR, and Raman spectra. The optical and structural properties of the hybrid NTs are characterized using ultraviolet and visible absorption, Raman, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra where, it is shown that the PL intensity of the P3HT materials decreases after the hybridization with the MWCNTs. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the outer P3HT single NT show the semiconducting behavior, while ohmic behavior is observed for the inner single MWCNT. The I-V characteristics of the hybrid junction between the outer P3HT NT and the inner MWCNT, for the hybrid single NT, exhibit the characteristics of a diode (i.e., rectification), whose efficiency is clearly enhanced with light irradiation. The rectification effect of the hybrid single NT has been analyzed in terms of charge tunneling models. The quasi-photovoltaic effect is also observed at low bias for the P3HT/MWCNT hybrid single NT.

  17. Solar photovoltaics: Stand alone applications. [NASA Lewis Research Center research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center involvement in space photovoltaic research and development and in using photovoltaics for terrestrial applications is described with emphasis on applications in which the normal source of power may be a diesel generator, batteries, or other types of power not connected to a utility grid. Once an application is processed, technology is developed and demonstrated with a user who participates in the cost and furnishes the site. Projects completed related to instruments, communication, refrigeration, and highways, are described as well as warning systems, weather stations, fire lookouts, and village power systems. A commercially available photovoltaic powered electric fence charger is the result of Lewis research and development.

  18. SERI photovoltaic advanced research and development project: FY 1984 accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Photovoltaics research and development and a bibliography of technical publications are summarized and several management highlights are included. Single function thin films, high efficiency multijunction concepts, innovative concepts, silicon materials, flat plate collectors, and system experiments are reported. Subcontract program categories are amorphous thin films, high efficiency concepts, polycrystalline thin films, crystalline silicon, and innovative concepts subdivided into new ideas and photoelectrochemical cells. The PV devices and measurements, solid state research, insolution resource assessment, advanced PV systems research, and solar electric research activities are included. The bibliography is a compilation of the technical publications resulting from all SERI research during FY 1983 and FY 1984. The entries are presented alphabetically by author.

  19. Mathematical model and characteristic analysis of hybrid photovoltaic/piezoelectric actuation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Xiaonan; Ding, Jincheng; Yue, Honghao; Deng, Zongquan

    2016-12-01

    Photovoltaic materials can turn light energy into electric energy directly, and thus have the advantages of high electrical output voltages and the ability to realize remote or non-contact control. When high-energy ultraviolet light illuminates polarized PbLaZrTi (PLZT) materials, high photovoltages will be generated along the spontaneous polarization direction due to the photovoltaic effect. In this paper, a novel hybrid photovoltaic/piezoelectric actuation mechanism is proposed. PLZT ceramics are used as a photovoltaic generator to drive a piezoelectric actuator. A mathematical model is established to define the time history of the actuation voltage between two electrodes of the piezoelectric actuator, which is experimentally validated by the test results of a piezoelectric actuator with different geometrical parameters under irradiation at different light intensities. Some important characteristics of this novel actuation mechanism are analyzed and it can be concluded that (1) it is experimentally validated that there is no hysteresis between voltage and deformation which exists in a PLZT actuator; (2) the saturated voltage and response speed can be improved by using a multi-patch PLZT generator to drive the piezoelectric actuator; and (3) the initial voltage of the piezoelectric actuator can be acquired by controlling the logical switch between the PLZT and the piezoelectric actuator while the initial voltages increase with the rise of light intensity.

  20. Grid-connected Photovoltaic Micro-inverter with New Hybrid Control LLC Resonant Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Qingbo, Ke;

    2016-01-01

    A high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter consisting of two power stages i.e. a LLC resonant converter with a new hybrid control scheme and a dc-ac inverter is proposed, studied and designed in this paper. In the first power stage, the new hybrid control combining pulse-frequency modulat......A high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter consisting of two power stages i.e. a LLC resonant converter with a new hybrid control scheme and a dc-ac inverter is proposed, studied and designed in this paper. In the first power stage, the new hybrid control combining pulse......-frequency modulation (PFM) and phase-shift pulse-width modulation (PS-PWM) is employed on a full-bridge LLC dc-dc converter, in order to achieve high efficiency when PV output voltage varies in a wide range. Moreover, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method based on power perturbation is implemented in the dc......-ac inverter. Therefore, the complexity of regulating LLC converter can be reduced effectively, and efficiency optimal design can be carried out through the proposed designing procedure for the resonant tank of LLC converter. Finally, a prototype of the proposed PV micro-inverter (PVMI) is developed with rated...

  1. Stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic power generation systems optimal sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crǎciunescu, Aurelian; Popescu, Claudia; Popescu, Mihai; Florea, Leonard Marin

    2013-10-01

    Wind and photovoltaic energy resources have attracted energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. A drawback, common to these options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on day time and meteorological conditions. Fortunately, the problems caused by the variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating the two resources in proper combination, using the strengths of one source to overcome the weakness of the other. The hybrid systems that combine wind and solar generating units with battery backup can attenuate their individual fluctuations and can match with the power requirements of the beneficiaries. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the hybrid energy system, one optimum match design sizing method is necessary. In this way, literature offers a variety of methods for multi-objective optimal designing of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (WG/PV) generating systems, one of the last being genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In this paper, mathematical models of hybrid WG/PV components and a short description of the last proposed multi-objective optimization algorithms are given.

  2. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the installation of real time test bed with a small electric generator and dynamic solar panels with battery backups.

  3. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid autonomous generation systems in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dei, Tsutomu; Ushiyama, Izumi

    2005-01-01

    Two hybrid stand-alone (autonomous) power systems, each with wind and PV generation, were studied as installed at health clinics in semi-desert and mountainous region in Mongolia. Meteorological and system operation parameters, including power output and the consumption of the system, were generally monitored by sophisticated monitoring. However, where wind and solar site information was lacking, justifiable estimates were made. The results show that there is a seasonal complementary relationship between wind and solar irradiation in Tarot Sum. The users understood the necessity of Demand Side Management of isolated wind-PV generation system through technology transfer seminars and actually executed DSM at both sites. (author)

  4. Theoretical insights into multibandgap hybrid perovskites for photovoltaic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Even, Jacky; Sapori, Daniel; Pedesseau, Laurent; Rolland, Alain; Kepenekian, Mikael; Robles, Roberto; Wang, Shijian; Huang, Yong; Beck, Alexandre; Durand, Olivier; Katan, Claudine

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper reviews some of the recent theoretical investigations on the Rashba Dresselhaus spin effects and dielectric properties of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 hybrid perovskites and CsPbI 3 all-inorganic perovskites using Density functional theory. The spin vectors rotate in the non-centrosymmetric P4mm tetragonal phase, respectively clockwise and counterclockwise, in a manner that is characteristic of a pure Rashba effect. The high frequency dielectric constants ε ∞ of MAPbI 3 ...

  5. Analysis of the Primary Constraint Conditions of an Efficient Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical efficiency can be increased by combining photovoltaic (PV and the thermoelectric (TE systems. However, a simple and cursory combination is unsuitable because the negative impact of temperature on PV may be greater than its positive impact on TE. This study analyzed the primary constraint conditions based on the hybrid system model consisting of a PV and a TE generator (TEG, which includes TE material with temperature-dependent properties. The influences of the geometric size, solar irradiation and cold side temperature on the hybrid system performance is discussed based on the simulation. Furthermore, the effective range of parameters is demonstrated using the image area method, and the change trend of the area with different parameters illustrates the constraint conditions of an efficient PV-TE hybrid system. These results provide a benchmark for efficient PV-TEG design.

  6. Coupled thermal model of photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid panel for sample cities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Sera, Dezso; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    generation by the TEG is insignificant compared to electrical output by the PV panel, and the TEG plays only a small role on power generation in the hybrid PV/TEG panel. However, contribution of the TEG in the power generation can be improved via higher ZT thermoelectric materials and geometry optimization......In general, modeling of photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV/TEG) hybrid panels have been mostly simplified and disconnected from the actual ambient conditions and thermal losses from the panel. In this study, a thermally coupled model of PV/TEG panel is established to precisely predict performance...... of the hybrid system under different weather conditions. The model takes into account solar irradiation, wind speed and ambient temperature as well as convective and radiated heat losses from the front and rear surfaces of the panel. The model is developed for three sample cities in Europe with different...

  7. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm.

  8. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm. PMID:28329015

  9. Design and Fabrication of a Novel Hybrid-Structure Heat Pipe for a Concentrator Photovoltaic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiu-Jou Shaw

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a design method to fabricate a novel hybrid-structure flat plate heat pipe (NHSP heat pipe for a concentrator photovoltaic. The NHSP heat pipe is composed of a flattened copper pipe and a sintered wick structure, and a coronary-stent-like rhombic copper mesh supports the structure. The coronary-stent-like supporting structure enhances the mechanical strength and shortens the reflux path of the working fluid. Experiments demonstrate that the sintered capillary heat pipe reduces the thermal resistance by approximately 72%, compared to a traditional copper mesh-screen heat pipe. Furthermore, it can reduce thermal resistance by 65% after a supporting structure is added to the heat pipe. The results show that the NHSP heat pipe provided the best performance for the concentrator photovoltaic, which can increase photoelectric conversion efficiency by approximately 3.1%, compared to an aluminum substrate.

  10. Nanostructured solid-state hybrid photovoltaic cells fabricated by electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniprath, Rolf; McLeskey, James T.; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Kirstein, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    We report on the fabrication of hybrid organic/inorganic photovoltaic cells utilizing layer-by-layer deposition of water-soluble polyions and nanocrystals. A bulk heterojunction structure was created consisting of alternating layers of the p-conductive polythiophene derivative poly[2-(3-thienyl)-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] and n-conductive TiO2 nanoparticles. We fabricated working devices with the heterostructure sandwiched between suitable charge carrier blocking layers and conducting oxide and metal electrodes, respectively. We analyzed the influence of the thickness and nanostructure of the active layer on the cell performance and characterized the devices in terms of static and transient current response with respect to illumination and voltage conditions. We observed reproducible and stable photovoltaic behavior with photovoltages of up to 0.9 V.

  11. A Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverter with Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñambres-Marcos, Víctor Manuel; Guerrero-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Barrero-González, Fermín; Milanés-Montero, María Isabel

    2017-08-11

    The power generation from renewable power sources is variable in nature, and may contain unacceptable fluctuations, which can be alleviated by using energy storage systems. However, the cost of batteries and their limited lifetime are serious disadvantages. To solve these problems, an improvement consisting in the collaborative association of batteries and supercapacitors has been studied. Nevertheless, these studies don't address in detail the case of residential and large-scale photovoltaic systems. In this paper, a selected combined topology and a new control scheme are proposed to control the power sharing between batteries and supercapacitors. Also, a method for sizing the energy storage system together with the hybrid distribution based on the photovoltaic power curves is introduced. This innovative contribution not only reduces the stress levels on the battery, and hence increases its life span, but also provides constant power injection to the grid during a defined time interval. The proposed scheme is validated through detailed simulation and experimental tests.

  12. Feasibility and parametric evaluation of hybrid concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2017-01-01

    feasibility of the hybrid system over wide range of solar concentrations and different types of heat sinks. The model takes into account critical design parameters in the CPV and the TEG module. The results of this study show that for thermoelectric materials with ZT ≈ 1, the CPV/TEG system is more efficient......Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system integrated with thermoelectric generators (TEGs) is a novel technology that has potential to offer high efficient system. In this study, a thermally coupled model of concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelctric (CPV/TEG) system is established to investigate...... than CPV-only system. The results indicate that contribution of the TEG in power generation enhances at high sun concentrations. Depending to critical design parameters of the CPV and the TEG, there are optimal values for heat transfer coefficient in the heat sink that offer minimum energy cost....

  13. Charge extraction from nanostructured hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chiatzun

    Conjugated polymers are attractive for use in photovoltaic (PV) cells because they are highly absorptive, their absorption spectrum can be tuned to match various regions of the solar spectrum and their solubility in common solvents enables the use of low-cost printing technique to mass produce PV panels. Photoexcitation of conjugated polymers forms excitons, which are bound electron-hole pairs. In order to convert these excitons into free carriers, the polymers have to be blended with an electron acceptor in close promixity of ˜10 nm. The charge transfer process at the donor-acceptor interface provides the necessary driving force to split excitons, while the close proximity guarantees excitons reaching an interface before decaying. Once the carriers are split, they have to be transported to their respective electrodes before recombining. Ordered nanostructured titania (TiO2) matrix infiltrated with conjugated polymers is a promising acceptor-donor system, which can potentially meet these requirements. In this work, several optimizations are shown to be essential for increasing the performance of TiO2/polymer cells. First, we measure the hole mobility of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in a thin film diode in the space-charge limited regime. We show that the mobility increases with the polymer molecular weight and can be correlated to the film morphology. The anisotropy in P3HT chain packing suggests that its diode mobility of 10-4 cm 2/Vs can be further enhanced upon chain alignment in straight nanopores. Second, we investigate the use of molecular surface modification to control the interfacial energetics and charge transfer dynamics. By introducing dipoles at the TiO2/P3HT interface, the interfacial energy offset can be changed resulting in a concomitant change in the open circuit voltage. In addition, certain modifiers improve exciton harvesting by mediating charge transfer from the polymer to TiO2. We further show that the use of an amphiphilic molecule

  14. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained

  15. Theoretical insights into hybrid perovskites for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Jacky; Boyer-Richard, Soline; Carignano, Marcelo; Pedesseau, Laurent; Jancu, Jean-Marc; Katan, Claudine

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we examine recent theoretical investigations on 3D hybrid perovskites (HOP) that combine concepts developed for classical bulk solid-state physics and empirical simulations of their optoelectronic properties. In fact, the complexity of HOP calls for a coherent global view that combines usually disconnected concepts. For the pseudocubic high temperature reference perovskite structure that plays a central role for 3D HOP, we introduce a new tight-binding Hamiltonian, which specifically includes spin-orbit coupling. The resultant electronic band structure is compared to that obtained using state of the art density functional theory (DFT). Next, recent experimental investigations of excitonic properties in HOP will be revisited within the scope of theoretical concepts already well implemented in the field of conventional semiconductors. Last, possible plastic crystal and orientational glass behaviors of HOP will be discussed, building on Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. The Role of Nanocrystal Size in Solution Processable CdSe:P3HT Hybrid Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Susnata; Ray, Samit K

    2016-05-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic devices were fabricated using different sizes of CdSe quantum dots with different loading concentrations in P3HT matrix. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized chemically using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. The efficiency of hybrid poly-(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) P3HT:CdSe photovoltaic device was found to depend on the size as well as the loading of the nanocrystals. A maximum power conversion efficiency of -0.8% was achieved under AM1.5G solar illumination for the device with -5.3 nm CdSe nanocrystals. A hybrid photovoltaic device was demonstrated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates paving the way to achieve flexible,transparent and printable devices.

  17. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  18. Economic and technical study of a hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel) for rural electrification in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Koussa, D.; Belhamel, M. [Centre of Development of Renewable energies, Route de l' observatoire, BP.62 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique E. N. P, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-07-15

    This paper deals with design of hybrid energy system consisting of wind and photovoltaic with battery storage. A diesel generator is added to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic. The paper reports results of the technical-economic optimization study of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage in Algeria. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the appropriate dimension of stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel with battery storage that guarantee the energy autonomy of typical remote consumer with lowest cost of energy. A secondary aim is to study the impact of renewable energy potential quality on the system size. The optimum dimensions of the system are defined for six sites in Algeria. In this context, a complete sizing model is developed in Matlab/Simulink V.6.5, able to predict the optimum system configuration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study. Thus, it provides higher system performance than photovoltaic or wind alone. It s shown that the principal advantage of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage are used all together, the reliability of the system is enhanced. The economic analysis has resulted in the calculation of kWh cost of energy for different types of resources and optimized cost of hybrid energy system. It s revealed too that the energy cost depends largely on the renewable energy potential quality. So, our objective for the optimization parameters is not the production cost but the offered service. (author)

  19. PHOTO: A computer simulation program for photovoltaic and hybrid energy systems. Document and user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, L. M.; Lund, P. D.; Virkkula, A.

    1990-11-01

    The version 3.0 is described of the program package PHOTO for the simulation and sizing of hybrid power systems (photovoltaic and wind power plants) on IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2 and compatibles. The minimum memory requirement is 260 kB. Graphical output is created with HALO'88 graphics subroutine library. In the simulation model, special attention is given to the battery storage unit. A backup generator can also be included in the system configuration. The dynamic method developed uses accurate system component models accounting for component interactions and losses in e.g. wiring and diodes. The photovoltaic array can operate in a maximum power mode or in a clamped voltage mode together with the other subsystems. Various control strategies can also be considered. Individual subsystem models were verified against real measurements. Illustrative simulation example is also discussed. The presented model can be used to simulate various system configurations accurately and evaluate system performance, such as energy flows and power losses in photovoltaic array, wind generator, backup generator, wiring, diodes, maximum power point tracking device, inverter and battery. Energy cost is also an important consideration.

  20. The Configuration Research of the Battery and Fuel Cell in Hybrid Power Generation System of Photovoltaic and Fuel Cell%太阳能光伏-燃料电池联合发电系统蓄电池和燃料电池的配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王侃宏; 侯佳松; 肖静静; 戚高启; 胡翠华; 白华夏; 刘少亮

    2011-01-01

    建立了联合系统的太阳能光伏阵列、燃料电池、电解槽、蓄电池等模块的数学模型,并对每个模块进行matlab/simulink仿真模拟,重点模拟了在1 kW光伏条件下,蓄电池、燃料电池以不同功率(0 W/1000 W,200 W/800W,500 W/500 W,800 W/200 W,1000 W/0 W)分配时,输出功率特性以及各个情况下的费用问题,并通过实验进行验证,可知蓄电池、燃料电池按照200 W/800 W功率分配时,其效率、费用总体优于其他方案.%This paper established the mathematical model of a hybrid system, which includes solar photovoltaic array, fuel cells, electrolytic cell, batteries. Each module was simulated through matlab/simulink, and the output power characteristics, as well as the expense problem were simulated under the conditions that the photovoltaic power was lkw, and battery, fuel cell with different power allocation, namely, 0 W/1000 W, 200 W/800 W, 500 W/500 W, 800 W/200 W, 1000 W/0 W. Finally, through experimental research , a conclusion can be drawn that when battery was 200 W, and fuel cells was 800 W, the whole efficiency and the cost were superior to other schemes.

  1. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    OpenAIRE

    Lingguo Kong; Guowei Cai; Sidney Xue; Shaohua Li

    2015-01-01

    An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV)/energy storage (ES) hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS) and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC), is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static sy...

  2. Hybrid lead halide perovskites for light energy conversion: Excited state properties and photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Joseph S.

    travel 220 nm over the course of 2 ns after photoexcitation, with an extrapolated diffusion length greater than one micrometer over the full excited state lifetime. The solution-processability of metal halide perovskites necessarily raises questions as to the properties of the solvated precursors and their connection to the final solid-state perovskite phase. Through structural and steady-state and time-resolved absorption studies, the important link between the excited state properties of the precursor components, composed of solvated and solid-state halometallate complexes, and CH3NH3PbI3 is evinced. This connection provides insight into optical nonlinearities and electronic properties of the perovskite phase. Fundamental studies of CH 3NH3PbI3 ultimately serve as a foundation for application of this and other related materials in high-performance devices. In the final chapter, the operation of CH3NH3PbI 3 solar cells in a tandem architecture is presented. The quest for economic, large scale hydrogen production has motivated the search for new materials and device designs capable of splitting water using only energy from the sun. In light of this, we introduce an all solution-processed tandem water splitting assembly composed of a BiVO4 photoanode and a single-junction CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid perovskite solar cell. This unique configuration allows efficient solar photon management, with the metal oxide photoanode selectively harvesting high energy visible photons and the underlying perovskite solar cell capturing lower energy visible-near IR wavelengths in a single-pass excitation. Operating without external bias under standard terrestrial one sun illumination, the photoanode-photovoltaic architecture, in conjunction with an earthabundant cobalt phosphate catalyst, exhibits a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 2.5% at neutral pH. The design of low-cost tandem water splitting assemblies employing single-junction hybrid perovskite materials establishes a potentially

  3. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of organic/silicon nanowire hybrid solar cells by solution-evacuated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Li; Zou, Xian-Shao; Zhang, Bin; Dong, Jun; Niu, Qiao-Li; Yin, Yi-An; Zhang, Yong

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells based on n-type silicon nanowire (SiNW) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid structures by evacuating the PEDOT:PSS solution with dip-dropping on the top of SiNWs before spin-coating (solution-evacuating). The coverage and contact interface between PEDOT:PSS and SiNW arrays can be dramatically enhanced by optimizing the solution-evacuated time. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaches 9.22% for a solution-evacuated time of 2 min compared with 5.17% for the untreated pristine device. The improvement photovoltaic performance is mainly attributed to better organic coverage and contact with an n-type SiNW surface.

  4. Assessment of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Antimony Sulfides for Earth-Abundant Photovoltaic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruo Xi; Butler, Keith T; Walsh, Aron

    2015-12-17

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar absorbers are currently the subject of intense interest; however, the highest-performing materials contain Pb. Here we assess the potential of three Sb-based semiconductors: (i) Sb2S3, (ii) Cs2Sb8S13, and (iii) (CH3NH3)2Sb8S13. While the crystal structure of Sb2S3 is composed of 1D chains, 2D layers are formed in the ternary cesium and hybrid methylammonium antimony sulfide compounds. In each case, a stereochemically active Sb 5s(2) lone pair is found, resulting in a distorted coordination environment for the Sb cations. The bandgap of the binary sulfide is found to increase, while the ionization potential also changes, upon transition to the more complex compounds. Based on the predicted electronic structure, device configurations are suggested to be suitable for photovoltaic applications.

  5. Photovoltaic/thermal solar hybrid system with bifacial PV module and transparent plane collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles-Ocampo, B. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya 11111, Guanajuato (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Ruiz-Vasquez, E.; Canseco-Sanchez, H. [Instituto Tecnologico de Oaxaca, Oaxaca 68030, Oaxaca (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Cornejo-Meza, R.C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Tepic, av. Tecnologico 2595, Tepic 63175, Nayarit (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Trapaga-Martinez, G.; Vorobiev, Y.V. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Garcia-Rodriguez, F.J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya 11111, Guanajuato (Mexico); Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. [CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2007-12-14

    Electric energy production with photovoltaic (PV)/thermal solar hybrid systems can be enhanced with the employment of a bifacial PV module. Experimental model of a PV/thermal hybrid system with such a module was constructed and studied. To make use of both active surfaces of the bifacial PV module, we designed and made an original water-heating planar collector and a set of reflecting planes. The heat collector was transparent in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions, which makes it compatible with the PV module made of crystalline Si. The estimated overall solar energy utilization efficiency for the system related to the direct radiation flux is of the order of 60%, with an electric efficiency of 16.4%. (author)

  6. Photovoltaic Rudorffites: Lead-Free Silver Bismuth Halides Alternative to Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevych, Ivan; Kazaoui, Said; Ito, Eisuke; Urano, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Koji; Tomiyasu, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Hideo; Kondo, Michio; Aramaki, Shinji

    2017-06-28

    Hybrid CPbX3 (C: Cs, CH3 NH3 ; X: Br, I) perovskites possess excellent photovoltaic properties but are highly toxic, which hinders their practical application. Unfortunately, all Pb-free alternatives based on Sn and Ge are extremely unstable. Although stable and non-toxic C2 ABX6 double perovskites based on alternating corner-shared AX6 and BX6 octahedra (A=Ag, Cu; B=Bi, Sb) are possible, they have indirect and wide band gaps of over 2 eV. However, is it necessary to keep the corner-shared perovskite structure to retain good photovoltaic properties? Here, we demonstrate another family of photovoltaic halides based on edge-shared AX6 and BX6 octahedra with the general formula Aa Bb Xx (x=a+3 b) such as Ag3 BiI6 , Ag2 BiI5 , AgBiI4 , AgBi2 I7 . As perovskites were named after their prototype oxide CaTiO3 discovered by Lev Perovski, we propose to name these new ABX halides as rudorffites after Walter Rüdorff, who discovered their prototype oxide NaVO2 . We studied structural and optoelectronic properties of several highly stable and promising Ag-Bi-I photovoltaic rudorffites that feature direct band gaps in the range of 1.79-1.83 eV and demonstrated a proof-of-concept FTO/c-m-TiO2 /Ag3 BiI6 /PTAA/Au (FTO: fluorine-doped tin oxide, PTAA: poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine], c: compact, m: mesoporous) solar cell with photoconversion efficiency of 4.3 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Study of Micro Grid Hybrid System of Photovoltaic and Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitasari Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundant potentials of new and renewable energy that can be used for electricity generation, especially in rural areas which have no access for grid electricity yet. The energy resources can be from solar, water, biomass or biofuel. Many villagers still use diesel generators to produce electricity in their villages. It is considered expensive because fuel price in rural areas increases 2-3 times than the normal price due to transportation cost. Hybrid system using renewable energy resources is one of the solutions to produce electricity in affordable cost for rural area. The idea is to combine diesel generators and photovoltaic toproduce electricity. Moreover, the diesel engine fuel can be replaced with biofuel. This study will analyze the hybrid system in a small scale which consists of 1kWp photovoltaic and 3 kW diesel engine. Electric load power will vary. The system is controlled by a single bidirectional inverter whichconverts power from DC to AC and vice versa

  8. A high temperature hybrid photovoltaic-thermal receiver employing spectral beam splitting for linear solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojiri, Ahmad; Stanley, Cameron; Rosengarten, Gary

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV-T) solar collectors are capable of delivering heat and electricity concurrently. Implementing such receivers in linear concentrators for high temperature applications need special considerations such as thermal decoupling of the photovoltaic (pv) cells from the thermal receiver. Spectral beam splitting of concentrated light provides an option for achieving this purpose. In this paper we introduce a relatively simple hybrid receiver configuration that spectrally splits the light between a high temperature thermal fluid and silicon pv cells using volumetric light filtering by semi-conductor doped glass and propylene glycol. We analysed the optical performance of this device theoretically using ray tracing and experimentally through the construction and testing of a full scale prototype. The receiver was mounted on a commercial parabolic trough concentrator in an outdoor experiment. The prototype receiver delivered heat and electricity at total thermal efficiency of 44% and electrical efficiency of 3.9% measured relative to the total beam energy incident on the primary mirror.

  9. Design and development of hybrid energy generator (photovoltaics) with solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Sabarudin, Mohamad Syabil Bin; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Izan Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This paper is the outcome of a small scale hybrid energy generator (hydro and photovoltaic) project. It contains the photovoltaics part of the project. The demand of energy resources is increasing day by day. That is why people nowadays tend to move on and changes their energy usage from using fossil fuels to a cleaner and green energy like hydro energy, solar energy etc. Nevertheless, energy is hard to come by for people who live in remote areas and also campsites in the remote areas which need continuous energy sources to power the facilities. Thus, the purpose of this project is to design and develop a small scale hybrid energy generator to help people that are in need of power. This main objective of this project is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of solar trackers in order to increase the electricity generation from solar energy. Software like Solidworks and Arduino is used to sketch and construct the design and also to program the microcontroller respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the designed solar tracker sytem.

  10. Carbon nanotube charge collectors for nanoimprinted hybrid perovskite photovoltaics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Haroldson, Ross; Saranin, Danila; Martinez, Patricia; Ishteev, Artur

    2017-06-01

    The hybrid (organo-inorganic) lead-halide perovskites revolutionized the field of solar cell research due to the impressive power conversion efficiencies of up to 21% recently reported in perovskite based solar cells. This talk will present first the general concepts of excitonic photovoltaics, as compared to conventional Si-type solar cells, asking a question: is hybrid perovskite PV an excitonic solar cell or not? Do we need excitons dissociation at D-A interfaces or CNT charge collectors? Then I will show our recent experimental results on the fast spectroscopy of excitons, magnetic field effect on generation of correlated (e-h) pairs. Also will discuss our Hall effect results, that allows to evaluate intrinsic charge carrier transport and direct measurements of mobility in these materials performed for the first time in steady-state dc transport regime. From these measurements, we have obtained the electron-hole recombination coefficient, the carrier diffusion length and lifetime. Our main results include the intrinsic Hall carrier mobility reaching up to 60 cm2V-1s-1 in perovskite single crystals, carrier lifetimes of up to 3 ms (surprisingly too long!), and carrier diffusion lengths as long as 650 μm (huge if compared to organic and even best inorganic materials). Our results also demonstrate that photocarrier recombination in these disordered solution-processed perovskites is as weak as in the best (high-purity single crystals) of conventional direct-band inorganic semiconductors. Moreover, as we show in our experiment, carrier trapping in perovskites is also strongly suppressed, which accounts for such long carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths, significantly longer than similar parameters in the best inorganic semiconductors, such e.g. as GaAs. All these remarkable transport properties of hybrid perovskites need to be understood from fundamental physics point of view. Looks like we need some new concepts to explain the mysterious properties of

  11. Demand response impacts on off-grid hybrid photovoltaic-diesel generator microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron St. Leger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid microgrids consisting of diesel generator set(s and converter based power sources, such as solar photovoltaic or wind sources, offer an alternative to generator based off-grid power systems. The hybrid approach has been shown to be economical in many off-grid applications and can result in reduced generator operation, fuel requirements, and maintenance. However, the intermittent nature of demand and renewable energy sources typically require energy storage, such as batteries, to properly operate the hybrid microgrid. These batteries increase the system cost, require proper operation and maintenance, and have been shown to be unreliable in case studies on hybrid microgrids. This work examines the impacts of leveraging demand response in a hybrid microgrid in lieu of energy storage. The study is performed by simulating two different hybrid diesel generator—PV microgrid topologies, one with a single diesel generator and one with multiple paralleled diesel generators, for a small residential neighborhood with varying levels of demand response. Various system designs are considered and the optimal design, based on cost of energy, is presented for each level of demand response. The solar resources, performance of solar PV source, performance of diesel generators, costs of system components, maintenance, and operation are modeled and simulated at a time interval of ten minutes over a twenty-five year period for both microgrid topologies. Results are quantified through cost of energy, diesel fuel requirements, and utilization of the energy sources under varying levels of demand response. The results indicate that a moderate level of demand response can have significant positive impacts to the operation of hybrid microgrids through reduced energy cost, fuel consumption, and increased utilization of PV sources.

  12. Dynamic hybrid life cycle assessment of energy and carbon of multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Pei; Williams, Eric D

    2010-10-15

    This paper advances the life cycle assessment (LCA) of photovoltaic systems by expanding the boundary of the included processes using hybrid LCA and accounting for the technology-driven dynamics of embodied energy and carbon emissions. Hybrid LCA is an extended method that combines bottom-up process-sum and top-down economic input-output (EIO) methods. In 2007, the embodied energy was 4354 MJ/m(2) and the energy payback time (EPBT) was 2.2 years for a multicrystalline silicon PV system under 1700 kWh/m(2)/yr of solar radiation. These results are higher than those of process-sum LCA by approximately 60%, indicating that processes excluded in process-sum LCA, such as transportation, are significant. Even though PV is a low-carbon technology, the difference between hybrid and process-sum results for 10% penetration of PV in the U.S. electrical grid is 0.13% of total current grid emissions. Extending LCA from the process-sum to hybrid analysis makes a significant difference. Dynamics are characterized through a retrospective analysis and future outlook for PV manufacturing from 2001 to 2011. During this decade, the embodied carbon fell substantially, from 60 g CO(2)/kWh in 2001 to 21 g/kWh in 2011, indicating that technological progress is realizing reductions in embodied environmental impacts as well as lower module price.

  13. Dynamic modeling of hybrid energy storage systems coupled to photovoltaic generation in residential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclay, James D.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    A model of a photovoltaic (PV) powered residence in stand-alone configuration was developed and evaluated. The model assesses the sizing, capital costs, control strategies, and efficiencies of reversible fuel cells (RFC), batteries, and ultra-capacitors (UC) both individually, and in combination, as hybrid energy storage devices. The choice of control strategy for a hybrid energy storage system is found to have a significant impact on system efficiency, hydrogen production and component utilization. A hybrid energy storage system comprised of batteries and RFC has the advantage of reduced cost (compared to using a RFC as the sole energy storage device), high system efficiency and hydrogen energy production capacity. A control strategy that preferentially used the RFC before the battery in meeting load demand allows both grid independent operation and better RFC utilization compared to a system that preferentially used the battery before the RFC. Ultra-capacitors coupled with a RFC in a hybrid energy storage system contain insufficient energy density to meet dynamic power demands typical of residential applications.

  14. Flexible silver nanowire meshes for high-efficiency microtextured organic-silicon hybrid photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Gang; Huang, Bo-Yu; Liu, Hsiao-Wei; Huang, Yang-Yue; Pan, Huai-Te; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Yu, Peichen

    2012-12-01

    Hybrid organic-silicon heterojunction solar cells promise a significant reduction on fabrication costs by avoiding energy-intensive processes. However, their scalability remains challenging without a low-cost transparent electrode. In this work, we present solution-processed silver-nanowire meshes that uniformly cover the microtextured surface of hybrid heterojunction solar cells to enable efficient carrier collection for large device area. We systematically compare the characteristics and device performance with long and short nanowires with an average length/diameter of 30 μm/115 nm and 15 μm/45 nm, respectively, to those with silver metal grids. A remarkable power conversion efficiency of 10.1% is achieved with a device area of 1 × 1 cm(2) under 100 mW/cm(2) of AM1.5G illumination for the hybrid solar cells employing long wires, which represents an enhancement factor of up to 36.5% compared to the metal grid counterpart. The high-quality nanowire network displays an excellent spatial uniformity of photocurrent generation via distributed nanowire meshes and low dependence on efficient charge transport under a high light-injection condition with increased device area. The capability of silver nanowires as flexible transparent electrodes presents a great opportunity to accelerate the mass deployment of high-efficiency hybrid silicon photovoltaics via simple and rapid soluble processes.

  15. Platinum nanoparticle interlayer promoted improvement in photovoltaic performance of silicon/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xiao-Qing; Liu, L.F., E-mail: lifeng.liu@inl.int

    2015-01-15

    Inorganic–organic hybrid solar cells have attracted considerable interest in recent years for their low production cost, good mechanical flexibility and ease of processing of polymer films over a large area. Particularly, silicon/conducting polymer hybrid solar cells are extensively investigated and widely believed to be a low-cost alternative to the crystalline silicon solar cells. However, the power conversion efficiency of silicon/conducting polymer solar cells remains low in case hydrogen-terminated silicon is used. In this paper, we report that by introducing a platinum nanoparticle interlayer between the hydrogen-terminated silicon and the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate), namely PEDOT:PSS, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be improved by a factor of 2–3. The possible mechanism responsible for the improvement has been investigated using different techniques including impedance spectroscopy, Mott–Schottky analysis and intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). The results show that with a platinum nanoparticle interlayer, both the series resistance and charge transport/transfer resistance of the Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells are reduced leading to an increased short circuit current density, and the built-in voltage at the space charge region is raised facilitating electron-hole separation. Moreover, the lifetime of charge carriers in the Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells is extended, namely, the recombination is effectively suppressed which also contributes to the improvement of photovoltaic performance. - Graphical abstract: A platinum nanoparticle interlayer electrolessly deposited between the n-Si:H and PEDOT:PSS can markedly improve the photovoltaic performance of the resulting Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. - Highlights: • A Pt nanoparticle layer is introduced between the Si and PEDOT:PSS in hybrid cells. • The Pt interlayer

  16. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  17. Superior Valley photovoltaic power processing and system controller evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, R.; Ginn, J.; Zirzow, J.; Sittler, G.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management, conducts the photovoltaic balance-of-system program. Under this program, Sandia supports the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research Development Plan, SERDP, which is advancing the use of photovoltaics in operational DoD facilities. This report details the acceptance testing of the first of these photovoltaic hybrid systems: the Superior Valley photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system. This is the first of several photovoltaic installations for the Department of Defense. The system hardware tested at Sandia included an inverter, maximum power trackers, and a system controller.

  18. Research on hybrid energy storage for a stand-alone photovoltaic system%采用混合储能装置的独立光伏系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易芳; 易灵芝; 杜小娟

    2013-01-01

    The instability of the external environment affect the output power of photovoltaic system. In order to improve the stable power supply capacity of photovoltaic system, an independent photovoltaic system with battery and supercapacitors serving as its energy storage unit was established. Through the control of the Bi Buck-Boost converter, the energy flow between the DC bus with supercapacitor and battery was realized, which could effectively stabilize the output voltage of the power supply system. In addition, according to the structural characteristics of the battery, a nonlinear model was established. Through the PID control to change the duty cycle of converter and control charging current, battery charging current was adjusted to track maximum charging current, reduce battery charging time and extend battery life, and keep the battery charge and discharge in the optimal state.%外部环境的不稳定性,对光伏发电系统的输出电能造成影响,为了提高光伏发电系统的稳定供电能力,建立了一个以超级电容器和蓄电池为混合储能单元的独立光伏发电供电系统,通过对双管双向变流器的控制,实现光伏发电系统直流母线与超级电容器和蓄电池之间的能量流动,有效地稳定了供电系统的输出电压;另外根据蓄电池的结构特性,建立了非线性数学模型,通过PID控制改变双向功率变换器的占空比来控制蓄电池组的充电电流,实现分段恒流充电,使蓄电池始终处于优化的充放电状态.

  19. Acceptance Testing of a Satellite SCADA Photovoltaic-Diesel Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A.; Emrich, C.; Ventre, G.; Wilson, W.; Acosta, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Satellite Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) of a Photovoltaic (PV)/diesel hybrid system was tested using NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) and Ultra Small Aperture Terminal (USAT) ground stations. The setup consisted of a custom-designed PV/diesel hybrid system, located at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), which was controlled and monitored at a "remote" hub via Ka-band satellite link connecting two 1/4 Watt USATs in a SCADA arrangement. The robustness of the communications link was tested for remote monitoring of the health and performance of a PV/diesel hybrid system, and for investigating load control and battery charging strategies to maximize battery capacity and lifetime, and minimize loss of critical load probability. Baseline hardware performance test results demonstrated that continuous two-second data transfers can be accomplished under clear sky conditions with an error rate of less than 1%. The delay introduced by the satellite (1/4 sec) was transparent to synchronization of satellite modem as well as to the PV/diesel-hybrid computer. End-to-end communications link recovery times were less than 36 seconds for loss of power and less than one second for loss of link. The system recovered by resuming operation without any manual intervention, which is important since the 4 dB margin is not sufficient to prevent loss of the satellite link during moderate to heavy rain. Hybrid operations during loss of communications link continued seamlessly but real-time monitoring was interrupted. For this sub-tropical region, the estimated amount of time that the signal fade will exceed the 4 dB margin is about 10%. These results suggest that data rates of 4800 bps and a link margin of 4 dB with a 1/4 Watt transmitter are sufficient for end-to-end operation in this SCADA application.

  20. MODELING, SIMULATON AND SIZING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC/WIND/FUEL CELL HYBRID GENERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.LATHA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The depleting fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern towards global warming have created the need to surge for the alternative power generation options. Renewable energy sources like Wind, Solar-PV, Biomass and fuel cells are gaining prominence nowadays, as they are more energy efficient, reduce pollution and also they serveas a promising solution to the toughest energy crisis faced during the recent years. This paper focuses on the modeling and simulation of solar – photovoltaic, wind and fuel cell hybrid energy systems using MATLAB/Simulink software. The intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources make them unreliable. Hence Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT is used to extract maximum power from the wind and sunwhen it is available. The standard perturb and observe method of MPPT is used for the PV system and for the wind generation system. The simulation results of the PV/Wind /Fuel cell hybrid system are presented in graph showing the effectiveness of the proposed system model. Also, hardware implementation of microcontroller based MPPT for solar-PV alone and unit sizing of the hybrid system for the PG simulation lab in EEE Dept. of Thiagarajar College of Engineering is depicted in the paper.

  1. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric system for concentrated solar energy conversion: Experimental realization and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeri, Ofer; Rotem, Oded; Hazan, Eden; Katz, Eugene A.; Braun, Avi; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2015-09-01

    An experimental demonstration of the combined photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric conversion of concentrated sunlight (with concentration factor, X, up to ˜300) into electricity is presented. The hybrid system is based on a multi-junction PV cell and a thermoelectric generator (TEG). The latter increases the electric power of the system and dissipates some of the excessive heat. For X ≤ 200, the system's maximal efficiency, ˜32%, was mostly due to the contribution from the PV cell. With increasing X and system temperature, the PV cell's efficiency decreased while that of the TEG increased. Accordingly, the direct electrical contribution of the TEG started to dominate in the total system power, reaching ˜20% at X ≈ 290. Using a simple steady state finite element modeling, the cooling effect of the TEG on the hybrid system's efficiency was proved to be even more significant than its direct electrical contribution for high solar concentrations. As a result, the total efficiency contribution of the TEG reached ˜40% at X ≈ 200. This suggests a new system optimization concept that takes into account the PV cell's temperature dependence and the trade-off between the direct electrical generation and cooling capabilities of the TEG. It is shown that the hybrid system has a real potential to exceed 50% total efficiency by using more advanced PV cells and TE materials.

  2. Simulation of Hybrid Photovoltaic Solar Assisted Loop Heat Pipe/Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid photovoltaic solar assisted loop heat pipe/heat pump (PV-SALHP/HP water heater system has been developed and numerically studied. The system is the combination of loop heat pipe (LHP mode and heat pump (HP mode, and the two modes can be run separately or compositely according to the weather conditions. The performances of independent heat pump (HP mode and hybrid loop heat pipe/heat pump (LHP/HP mode were simulated and compared. Simulation results showed that on typical sunny days in spring or autumn, using LHP/HP mode could save 40.6% power consumption than HP mode. In addition, the optimal switchover from LHP mode to HP mode was analyzed in different weather conditions for energy saving and the all-year round operating performances of the system were also simulated. The simulation results showed that hybrid LHP/HP mode should be utilized to save electricity on sunny days from March to November and the system can rely on LHP mode alone without any power consumption in July and August. When solar radiation and ambient temperature are low in winter, HP mode should be used

  3. Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Studies of Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michael; Whitfield, Pamela; Jalarvo, Niina; Ehlers, Georg; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Herron, Norman; Johnson, Lynda; Guise, William; Milas, Ivan; Cheng, Yongqiang; Daemen, Luke; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal; Page, Katharine; Wang, Xiaoping; Ye, Feng

    Hybrid perovskites (ABX3) have attracted a great deal of attention recently as light absorbers for photovoltaics. In these materials the A site is occupied by organic cations, for example methyl ammonium (MA) or formamidinium (FA) cations, the B site is occupied by metals, for example Pb or Sn, and the X anions are halogens (I, Br, or Cl). Typical of perovskites, these materials exhibit a series of structural phase transitions involving rotations or tilts of the BX6 octahedra, but with the added complexity that the inorganic framework is coupled to order-disorder transitions of the organic cations. We have used neutron scattering techniques to characterize the structures and dynamics of several of these compounds as a function of temperature. In addition, high resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to investigate the structural phase transitions. These studies yield a detailed picture of the structures, dynamics, and structural phase transitions of these compounds, and provide a firm basis for understanding their excellent photovoltaic properties.

  4. Modeling low cost hybrid tandem photovoltaics with the potential for efficiencies exceeding 20%

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that for photovoltaics to reach grid parity around the planet, they must be made with costs under $0.50 per W p and must also achieve power conversion efficiencies above 20% in order to keep installation costs down. In this work we explore a novel solar cell architecture, a hybrid tandem photovoltaic (HTPV), and show that it is capable of meeting these targets. HTPV is composed of an inexpensive and low temperature processed solar cell, such as an organic or dye-sensitized solar cell, that can be printed on top of one of a variety of more traditional inorganic solar cells. Our modeling shows that an organic solar cell may be added on top of a commercial CIGS cell to improve its efficiency from 15.1% to 21.4%, thereby reducing the cost of the modules by ∼15% to 20% and the cost of installation by up to 30%. This suggests that HTPV is a promising option for producing solar power that matches the cost of existing grid energy. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. A new concept of hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector with natural circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Longsheng; Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Xiaokang

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) technology refers to the integration of a photovoltaic module into a conventional solar thermal collector. Generally, the traditional design of a PVT collector has solar cells fixed on the top surface of an absorber in a flat-plate solar thermal collector. In this work, we presented a new concept of water-based PVT collector in which solar cells were directly placed on the bottom surface of its glass cover. A dynamic numerical model of this new PVT is developed and validated by experimental tests. With numerical analysis, it is found that at same covering factor, the electricity conversion efficiency of solar cells of the new PVT exceed that of the traditional PVT by nearly 10% while its thermal efficiency is approximately 30% lower than that of the traditional PVT. When the covering factor changes from 0.05 to 1, the thermal efficiency of the new PVT drops nearly 70%. The thermal efficiency of both the new PVT and the traditional PVT rise up as the water mass in tank increases. Meanwhile, the final water temperature in tank of the traditional PVT collector declines more than 17 °C, whereas that of the new PVT declines less than 6 °C, when the water mass increases from 100 to 300 kg.

  6. A Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverter with Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Barrero-González, Fermín

    2017-01-01

    The power generation from renewable power sources is variable in nature, and may contain unacceptable fluctuations, which can be alleviated by using energy storage systems. However, the cost of batteries and their limited lifetime are serious disadvantages. To solve these problems, an improvement consisting in the collaborative association of batteries and supercapacitors has been studied. Nevertheless, these studies don’t address in detail the case of residential and large-scale photovoltaic systems. In this paper, a selected combined topology and a new control scheme are proposed to control the power sharing between batteries and supercapacitors. Also, a method for sizing the energy storage system together with the hybrid distribution based on the photovoltaic power curves is introduced. This innovative contribution not only reduces the stress levels on the battery, and hence increases its life span, but also provides constant power injection to the grid during a defined time interval. The proposed scheme is validated through detailed simulation and experimental tests. PMID:28800102

  7. Effects of Photovoltaic and Fuel Cell Hybrid System on Distribution Network Considering the Voltage Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABYANEH, H. A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of distribution network and power consumption growth, increase voltage drop on the line impedance and therefore voltage drop in system buses. In some cases consumption is so high that voltage in some buses exceed from standard. In this paper, effect of the fuel cell and photovoltaic hybrid system on distribution network for solving expressed problem is studied. For determining the capacity of each distributed generation source, voltage limitation on the bus voltages under different conditions is considered. Simulation is done by using DIgSILENT software on the part of the 20 kV real life Sirjan distribution system. In this article, optimum location with regard to system and environmental conditions are studied in two different viewpoints.

  8. Model-based optimal control of a hybrid power generation system consisting of photovoltaic arrays and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, P. L.; Sarimveis, H.; Palyvos, J. A.; Markatos, N. C. G.

    Hybrid renewable energy systems are expected to become competitive to conventional power generation systems in the near future and, thus, optimization of their operation is of particular interest. In this work, a hybrid power generation system is studied consisting of the following main components: photovoltaic array (PV), electrolyser, metal hydride tanks, and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The key advantage of the hybrid system compared to stand-alone photovoltaic systems is that it can store efficiently solar energy by transforming it to hydrogen, which is the fuel supplied to the fuel cell. However, decision making regarding the operation of this system is a rather complicated task. A complete framework is proposed for managing such systems that is based on a rolling time horizon philosophy.

  9. Density Functional Theory Simulations of Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Applications: Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites and III/V Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Even

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentialities of density functional theory (DFT based methodologies are explored for photovoltaic materials through the modeling of the structural and optoelectronic properties of semiconductor hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites and GaAs/GaP heterostructures. They show how the properties of these bulk materials, as well as atomistic relaxations, interfaces, and electronic band-lineups in small heterostructures, can be thoroughly investigated. Some limitations of available standard DFT codes are discussed. Recent improvements able to treat many-body effects or based on density-functional perturbation theory are also reviewed in the context of issues relevant to photovoltaic technologies.

  10. Molecular photovoltaic system based on fullerenes and carotenoids co-assembled in lipid/alkanethiol hybrid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixia; Zhan, Wei

    2012-03-13

    A hybrid molecular photovoltaic system, based on fullerene C(60) and lutein (a natural photosynthetic carotenoid pigment) that are assembled in a phospholipid/alkanethiol bilayer matrix, is described here. The assembly and photoconversion behaviors of such a system were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, photoelectrochemical action spectroscopy, and photocurrent generation. While lutein itself is inefficient in generating photocurrent, it can strongly modulate photocurrents produced by fullerenes when coassembled in the lipid bilayer matrix presumably via photoinduced electron transfer. Our results thus provide a successful example of combining both synthetic and natural photoactive components in building molecular photovoltaic systems.

  11. Electrical research on solar cells and photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic study of the properties of various polymer pottant materials and of the electrochemical corrosion mechanisms in solar cell materials is required for advancing the technology of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. The items of specific concern in this sponsored research activity involve: (1) kinetics of plasticizer loss in PVB, (2) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in PVB, (3) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in EVA, (4) the electrical properties at PVB as a function of temperature and humidity, (5) the electrical properties of EVA as a function of temperature and humidity, (6) solar cell corrosion characteristics, (7) water absorption effects in PVB and EVA, and (8) ion implantation and radiation effects in PVB and EVA.

  12. Current status of silicon materials research for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszek, T F

    1985-04-01

    The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

  13. Bright future of photovoltaic-hybrid systems as main option for electricity generation in remote communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, Ahmad [Solar Energy Applications Research Group (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    The most common power option for remotely located communities, facilities, schools, etc., is the engine generator powered by diesel fuel. Over the past 15 years, many remote communities with limited and costly site access for maintenance and fuel delivery have had their engine-based power systems modified to photovoltaic hybrid power systems. As a result, hybrid power systems with photovoltaic as the main generator are becoming the preferred power option. The reasons for this change are simple: the engine-based power systems require regular oil and filter changes (in average after 150 hrs of operation); the maintenance cost is relatively high; the cost of travel to and from the site to perform maintenance is restricted during certain time of the year and can be more expensive than the actual maintenance itself. Photovoltaic generators are gradually replacing the diesel generators and thus are becoming the primary source in remote communities. As electricity is required for 24 hours of operation and photovoltaic are not able to generate power for 24 h, batteries are added to the system as storage units, and the diesel generators are used as a back-up power supply. The objective of this paper is to present the results obtained from a study which has been carried out on a PV-hybrid power system from the desired performance point of view. [Spanish] La opcion mas comun de energia para las comunidades, instalaciones, escuelas, etc. localizadas en lugares remotos, es el generador que utiliza diesel como combustible. En los ultimos 15 anos, muchas comunidades remotas con acceso limitado y costoso para el mantenimiento y la entrega de combustible han modificado sus sistemas de energia basados en motores por sistemas de energia hibridos fotovoltaicos. Como resultado, los sistemas hibridos de energia con generadores fotovoltaicos como principal generador se estan convirtiendo en la opcion preferida de generacion de electricidad. Las razones para este cambio son simples: los

  14. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  15. SERI photovoltaics advanced research and development: FY 1983 accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains the technical highlights of SERI's program in photovoltaics research and development and a bibliography of resulting publications for FY 1983, SERI's participation in a Thin Film Research Task Force appointed by the U.S. Department of Energy led to the formation of technology offices having broad program and implementation responsibilities. This kind of an office was begun at SERI in the amorphous silicon area. A multiyear cost-sharing (federal-industry) initiative was also begun to spur industrial R and D in high-efficiency, single-junction and multijunction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, and steps were taken to further develop measurement and device analysis capablities of solar cells. The FY 1983 accomplishments are categorized according to SERI's subcontract R and D areas: amorphous thin films, advanced high-efficiency concepts, polycrystalline thin flms, polycrystalline silicon, and photoelectrochemical cells. These accomplishments are also broken down according to SERI's internal PV tasks: PV devices and measurements, solid state research, insulation resource assessment, advanced PV systems research, and performance criteria/test methods development.

  16. Hybrid Neural Network Approach Based Tool for the Modelling of Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Laudani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid neural network approach based tool for identifying the photovoltaic one-diode model is presented. The generalization capabilities of neural networks are used together with the robustness of the reduced form of one-diode model. Indeed, from the studies performed by the authors and the works present in the literature, it was found that a direct computation of the five parameters via multiple inputs and multiple outputs neural network is a very difficult task. The reduced form consists in a series of explicit formulae for the support to the neural network that, in our case, is aimed at predicting just two parameters among the five ones identifying the model: the other three parameters are computed by reduced form. The present hybrid approach is efficient from the computational cost point of view and accurate in the estimation of the five parameters. It constitutes a complete and extremely easy tool suitable to be implemented in a microcontroller based architecture. Validations are made on about 10000 PV panels belonging to the California Energy Commission database.

  17. In situ formation of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sebastian; Garnett, Oliver; Tokmoldin, Nurlan; Tsoi, Wing C; Haque, Saif A; Kim, Ji-Seon

    2014-01-01

    The performance of hybrid (organic-inorganic) photovoltaic devices is critically dependent on the thin film morphology. This work studies the film formation process using the in situ thermal decomposition of a soluble precursor to form a well-distributed network of CdS nanoparticles within a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer matrix. Resonant Raman spectroscopy is used to probe the formation of the inorganic nanoparticles and the corresponding changes in the molecular order of the polymer. We find that the CdS precursor decomposes rapidly upon heating to 160 °C, but that this has a disruptive effect on the P3HT. The extent of this disruption can be controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature, and nanowire aggregates of P3HT are found to have increased susceptibility. Atomic force microscopy reveals that at high temperatures (>200 °C), cracks form in the film, resulting in a 'plateau'-like microstructure. In order to retain the preferable 'granular' microstructure and to control the molecular disruption, low decomposition temperatures are needed. This work identifies a particular problem for optimising the hybrid thin film morphology and shows how it can be partially overcome.

  18. Development of a hybrid photovoltaic-liquid fueled thermoelectric generator for Arctic locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, H. (Global Thermoelectric Power Systems Ltd., Bassano, AB (Canada))

    1988-08-01

    The solar irradiation levels in arctic and antarctic regions vary dramatically from summer to winter. It was the objective of this project to develop a photovoltaic-liquid fueled thermoelectric hybrid power system that will take advantage of the available solar irradiation during the period during which the levels are high and switch to a liquid fueled thermoelectric generator during periods when the solar irradiation levels are low. In addition, the system is to provide heating to keep electronics and batteries above a preset minimum temperature. A remote start feature was designed and built into an existing liquid fueled thermoelectric generator. A prototype system was then assembled with a panel factor of about 4.88. Arctic summer conditions of solar irradiation were simulated by adjustment of the panel tilt angle. The performance of the liquid fueled generator was disappointing, numerous failures of the generator were a major impediment to the complete success of the project. It was found that the panel factor should be increased by about 15 to 20% and that the constant voltage battery recharge method is not efficient for this type of system. A cost comparison of the hybrid versus two other alternative remote power systems indicates that it is a cost-effective system. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Lead-free Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaic Applications: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zejiao; Guo, Jia; Chen, Yonghua; Li, Qi; Pan, Yufeng; Zhang, Haijuan; Xia, Yingdong; Huang, Wei

    2017-02-03

    Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites (e.g., MAPbI3 ) have recently emerged as novel active materials for photovoltaic applications with power conversion efficiency over 22%. Conventional perovskite solar cells (PSCs); however, suffer the issue that lead is toxic to the environment and organisms for a long time and is hard to excrete from the body. Therefore, it is imperative to find environmentally-friendly metal ions to replace lead for the further development of PSCs. Previous work has demonstrated that Sn, Ge, Cu, Bi, and Sb ions could be used as alternative ions in perovskite configurations to form a new environmentally-friendly lead-free perovskite structure. Here, we review recent progress on lead-free PSCs in terms of the theoretical insight and experimental explorations of the crystal structure of lead-free perovskite, thin film deposition, and device performance. We also discuss the importance of obtaining further understanding of the fundamental properties of lead-free hybrid perovskites, especially those related to photophysics.

  20. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    This talk will describe an approach to create architecturally compatible and decorative thin-film-based hybrid photovoltaics [1]. Most current solar panels are fabricated via complex processes using expensive semiconductor materials, and they are rigid and heavy with a dull, black appearance. As a result of their non-aesthetic appearance and weight, they are primarily installed on rooftops to minimize their negative impact on building appearance. Recently we introduced dual-function solar cells based on ultra-thin dopant-free amorphous silicon embedded in an optical cavity that not only efficiently extract the photogenerated carriers but also display distinctive colors with the desired angle-insensitive appearances [1,2]. The angle-insensitive behavior is the result of an interesting phase cancellation effect in the optical cavity with respect to angle of light propagation [3]. In order to produce the desired optical effect, the semiconductor layer should be ultra-thin and the traditional doped layers need to be eliminated. We adopted the approach of employing charge transport/blocking layers used in organic solar cells to meet this demand. We showed that the ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell can transmit desired wavelength of light and that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges. This is because the a-Si layer thickness is smaller than the charge diffusion length, therefore the electron-hole recombination is strongly suppressed in such ultra-thin layer. Reflective colored PVs can be made in a similar fashion. Light-energy-harvesting colored signage was demonstrated. Furthermore, a cascaded photovoltaics scheme based on tunable spectrum splitting can be employed to increase power efficiency by absorbing a broader band of light energy. Our work provides a guideline for optimizing a photoactive layer thickness in high efficiency hybrid PV design, which can be

  1. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System Constructed by High Step-Up Converter with Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Hwu, K. I.; Tu, W. C.; Wang, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    A photovoltaic energy conversion system, constructed by high step-up converter with hybrid maximum power point tracking (HMPPT), is presented. A voltage converter with a high voltage conversion ratio is proposed, which is simple in circuit and easy in control. After this, such a converter operating with a suitable initial duty cycle of the pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) control signal, together with the proposed HMPPT algorithm combining the fractional open-circuit voltage method and the incremen...

  2. Novel High Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Materials: Final Summary of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sam

    2002-07-01

    The objectives and goals of this project were to investigate and develop high efficient, lightweight, and cost effective materials for potential photovoltaic applications, such as solar energy conversion or photo detector devices. Specifically, as described in the original project proposal, the target material to be developed was a block copolymer system containing an electron donating (or p-type) conjugated polymer block coupled to an electron withdrawing (or n-type) conjugated polymer block through a non-conjugated bridge unit. Due to several special requirements of the targeted block copolymer systems, such as electron donating and withdrawing substituents, conjugated block structures, processing requirement, stability requirement, size controllability, phase separation and self ordering requirement, etc., many traditional or commonly used block copolymer synthetic schemes are not suitable for this system. Therefore, the investigation and development of applicable and effective synthetic protocols became the most critical and challenging part of this project. During the entire project period, and despite the lack of a proposed synthetic polymer postdoctoral research associate due to severe shortage of qualified personnel in the field, several important accomplishments were achieved in this project and are briefly listed and elaborated. A more detailed research and experimental data is listed in the Appendix.

  3. Research on Active Power Control Strategy for Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Power System and Its Engineering Application%风光储联合发电系统有功控制策略研究及工程应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洛卿; 白泽洋; 于昌海; 王银明; 郑立; 任巍曦

    2014-01-01

    综合分析风光储联合发电系统的结构特点和控制特性,设计了可灵活组态的联合控制模式和场站控制模式,实现风、光、储独立控制和互补控制的无缝切换。针对联合发电出力平滑、跟踪目标控制和频率调节的不同应用需求,提出了考虑储能荷电状态反馈的改进平滑控制策略和“风光捆绑、储能解耦”的协调跟踪策略。提出的控制模式及策略已在国家风光储示范工程得到应用,被验证是可行和有效的。%The structure and control characteristics of wind/photovoltaic/energy storage hybrid power system are comprehensively analyzed,and flexible combination control modes and single plant control modes are proposed to realize seamless switching between independent control and complementary control of the wind,photovoltaic and energy storage system.Aimed at meeting various application demands including smooth generation output,control of target tracking and frequency adjustment,an improved smooth control strategy and a coordinated strategy of binding wind power with photovoltaic power and decoupling energy storage system are proposed,with the feedback of state of charge taken into account.The proposed control mode and strategy have been applied in the national wind,photovoltaic,energy storage and transmission demonstration proj ect,the viability and effectiveness are verified.

  4. Feasibility of pico-hydro and photovoltaic hybrid power systems for remote villages in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nfah, E.M. [Laboratoire d' Automatique et d' Informatique Appliquee, I.U.T. Fotso Victor, P.O. Box 134, Bandjoun, University of Dschang (Cameroon); Ngundam, J.M. [Automation and Control Laboratory, School of Engineering, P.O. Box 8390, University of Yaounde I (Cameroon)

    2009-06-15

    Pico-hydro (pH) and photovoltaic (PV) hybrid systems incorporating a biogas generator have been simulated for remote villages in Cameroon using a load of 73 kWh/day and 8.3 kWp. Renewable energy systems were simulated using HOMER, the load profile of a hostel in Cameroon, the solar insolation of Garoua and the flow of river Mungo. For a 40% increase in the cost of imported power system components, the cost of energy was found to be either 0.352 EUR/kWh for a 5 kW pico-hydro generator with 72 kWh storage or 0.396 EUR/kWh for a 3 kWp photovoltaic generator with 36 kWh storage. These energy costs were obtained with a biomass resource cost of 25 EUR/tonne. The pH and PV hybrid systems both required the parallel operation of a 3.3 kW battery inverter with a 10 kW biogas generator. The pH/biogas/battery systems simulated for villages located in the south of Cameroon with a flow rate of at least 92 l/s produced lower energy costs than PV/biogas/battery systems simulated for villages in the north of Cameroon with an insolation level of at least 5.55 kWh/m{sup 2}/day. For a single-wire grid extension cost of 5000 EUR/km, operation and maintenance costs of 125 EUR/yr/km and a grid power price of 0.1 EUR/kWh, the breakeven grid extension distances were found to be 12.9 km for pH/biogas/battery systems and 15.2 km for PV/biogas/battery systems respectively. Investments in biogas based renewable energy systems could thus be considered in the National Energy Action Plan of Cameroon for the supply of energy to key sectors involved in poverty alleviation. (author)

  5. Layer-by-layer self-assembled active electrodes for hybrid photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniprath, Rolf

    2008-11-18

    Solar cells based on thin organic/inorganic heterofilms are currently in the focus of research, since they represent promising candidates for cost-efficient photovoltaic energy conversion. In this type of cells, charges are separated at a heterointerface between dissimilar electrode materials. These materials either absorb light themselves, or they are sensitized by an additional absorber layer at the interface. The present work investigates photovoltaic cells which are composed of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} combined with conjugated polymers and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The method of layer-by-layer self-assembly of oppositely charged nanoparticles and polymers is used for the fabrication of such devices. This method allows to fabricate nanoporous films with controlled thicknesses in the range of a few hundred nanometers to several micrometers. Investigations with scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveal that the surface morphology of the films depends only on the chemical structure of the polyions used in the production process, and not on their molecular weight or conformation. From dye adsorption at the internal surface of the electrodes one can estimate that the internal surface area of a 1 {mu}m thick film is up to 120 times larger than the projection plane. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to demonstrate that during the layer-by-layer self-assembly at least 40% of the TiO{sub 2} surface is covered with polymers. This feature allows to incorporate polythiophene derivatives into the films and to use them as sensitizers for TiO{sub 2}. Further, electrodes containing CdSe or CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers are fabricated. For the fabrication of photovoltaic cells the layer-by-layer grown films are coated with an additional polymer layer, and Au back electrodes are evaporated on top. The cells are illuminated through transparent doped SnO{sub 2} front electrodes. The I/V curves of all fabricated cells show diode

  6. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  7. Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV- wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  8. Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  9. Ab initio calculation of pentacene-PbSe hybrid interface for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P; Nguyen, Thao P

    2016-07-21

    We perform density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical calculations for the pentacene-PbSe hybrid interface at both molecular and crystal levels. At the interface, the parallel orientation of pentacene on the PbSe surface is found to be the most favorable, analogous to a pentacene-gold interface. The molecule-surface distance and the value of charge transfer from one pentacene molecule to the PbSe surface are estimated at around 4.15 Å and 0.12 e(-) respectively. We found that, standard-LDA/GGA-PBE/hybrid/meta-GGA xc-functionals incorrectly determine the band gaps of both pentacene and PbSe and leads to a failed prediction of the energy alignment in this system. So, we use a relativistic G0W0 functional and accurately model the electronic properties of pentacene and PbSe in both bulk material and near the interface. An energy shift of 0.23 eV, due to the difference in work function at the interface was supplemented after a detailed analysis of the electrostatic potential. The highest occupied molecular orbital level of pentacene is 0.01 eV above PbSe while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of pentacene lies 1.70 eV above PbSe, allowing both electrons and holes to transfer along the donor-acceptor junction. Our results provide additional insights into the electronic structure properties of the pentacene-PbSe heterojunction and establish it as a promising and efficient candidate for photovoltaic applications.

  10. Hybrid nanocomposites based on conducting polymer and silicon nanowires for photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehata, Nadia, E-mail: nadiachehata2@gmail.com [Equipe Dispositifs Electroniques Organiques et Photovoltaïque Moléculaire, Laboratoire de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Ltaief, Adnen [Equipe Dispositifs Electroniques Organiques et Photovoltaïque Moléculaire, Laboratoire de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Ilahi, Bouraoui [Laboratoire de Micro-optoélectronique et Nanostructures, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Salem, Bassem [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique (LTM), UMR 5129 CNRS - UJF, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bouazizi, Abdelaziz [Equipe Dispositifs Electroniques Organiques et Photovoltaïque Moléculaire, Laboratoire de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Maaref, Hassen [Laboratoire de Micro-optoélectronique et Nanostructures, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Baron, Thierry [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique (LTM), UMR 5129 CNRS - UJF, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); and others

    2014-12-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites based on a nanoscale combination of organic and inorganic semiconductors are a promising way to enhance the performance of solar cells through a higher aspect ratio of the interface and the good processability of polymers. Nanocomposites are based on a heterojunction network between poly (2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyhexyl-oxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) as an organic electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as an inorganic electron acceptor. Nanowires (NWs) seem to be a promising material for this purpose, as they provide a large surface area for contact with the polymer and a designated conducting pathway whilst their volume is low. In this paper, silicon nanowires are introduced by mixing them into the polymer matrix. Hybrid nanocomposites films were deposited onto ITO substrate by spin coating method. Optical properties and photocurrent response were investigated. Charge transfer between the polymer and SiNWs has been demonstrated through photoluminescence measurements. The photocurrent density of ITO/MEH-PPV:SiNWs/Al structures have been obtained by J–V characteristics. The J{sub sc} value is about 0.39 µA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • SiNWs synthesis by Vapor–Liquid–Solid (VLS) mechanism. • SiNWs contribution to absorption spectra enhancement of MEH-PPV:SiNWs nanocomposites. • Decrease of PL intensity of MEH-PPV by addition of SiNWs. • Charge transfer process was taken place. • ITO/MEH-PPV:SiNWs/Al structure shows a photovoltaic effect, with a FF of 0.32.

  11. Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaics: Charge-Carrier Recombination, Diffusion, and Radiative Efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2016-01-19

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices that harvest the energy provided by the sun have great potential as renewable energy sources, yet uptake has been hampered by the increased cost of solar electricity compared with fossil fuels. Hybrid metal halide perovskites have recently emerged as low-cost active materials in PV cells with power conversion efficiencies now exceeding 20%. Rapid progress has been achieved over only a few years through improvements in materials processing and device design. In addition, hybrid perovskites appear to be good light emitters under certain conditions, raising the prospect of applications in low-cost light-emitting diodes and lasers. Further optimization of such hybrid perovskite devices now needs to be supported by a better understanding of how light is converted into electrical currents and vice versa. This Account provides an overview of charge-carrier recombination and mobility mechanisms encountered in such materials. Optical-pump-terahertz-probe (OPTP) photoconductivity spectroscopy is an ideal tool here, because it allows the dynamics of mobile charge carriers inside the perovskite to be monitored following excitation with a short laser pulse whose photon energy falls into the range of the solar spectrum. We first review our insights gained from transient OPTP and photoluminescence spectroscopy on the mechanisms dominating charge-carrier recombination in these materials. We discuss that mono-molecular charge-recombination predominantly originates from trapping of charges, with trap depths being relatively shallow (tens of millielectronvolts) for hybrid lead iodide perovskites. Bimolecular recombination arises from direct band-to-band electron-hole recombination and is found to be in significant violation of the simple Langevin model. Auger recombination exhibits links with electronic band structure, in accordance with its requirement for energy and momentum conservation for all charges involved. We further discuss charge-carrier mobility

  12. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI is introduced as a parameter to predict PV power. AQI, which is an indication of how polluted the air is, has been known to have a strong correlation with power generated by the PV panels. In this paper, a hybrid method based on the model of conventional back propagation (BP neural network for clear weather and BP AQI model for haze weather is used to forecast PV power with conventional parameters like temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and an extra parameter of AQI as input. The results show that the proposed method has less error under haze condition as compared to conventional model of neural network.

  13. Optimization of Performance Characteristics of Hybrid Wind Photovoltaic System with Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kathirvel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on the Design and Implementation of a multi source hybrid Wind-Photovoltaic stand alone system with proposed energy management strategy. The method of investigation concerned with the definition of the system topology, interconnection of the various sources with maximum energy transfer, optimum control and energy management in order to maintain the DC bus voltage into a fixed value. An Energy management strategy was proposed using the Fuzzy logic controller such that enhancement in the performance of the system and optimization can be done. The Fuzzy logic controller takes the input from Solar (irradiation, Wind (speed, Power demand and the battery voltage which controls the respective subsystem and formulates into different operational modes of energy management. The role of Fuzzy threshold controller is to adjust continuously the threshold value for optimal performance based on expected wind, solar conditions, battery voltage and power demand. It is shown that when the fuzzy logic controller is used, the proposed DC bus voltage regulation strategy with different modes of operation have fast response and efficient operation which leads to a reduced operating cost.

  14. Hybrid Microgrid Model based on Solar Photovoltaics with Batteries and Fuel Cells system for intermittent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Maxx

    Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home is collected for use elsewhere within the microgrid footprint. The surplus power that would have been discarded becomes a community asset, and is used to run intermittent services. In this paper, the modeled community does not have parking adjacent to each home allowing for the installment of a privately owned slower Level 2 charger, making EV ownership option untenable. A solution is to provide a Level 3 DC Quick Charger (DCQC) as the intermittent service. The addition of batteries and Fuel Cells are meant to increase load leveling, reliability, and instill limited island capability.

  15. Evaluation of hybrid inverters for strategic environmental research and development program applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginn, J.W. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The photovoltaic systems test facility at Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating the performance of large hybrid power-processing centers (PPC`s). The primary customer for this work has been the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. One of the goals of SERDP is to develop power-processing hardware to be used in photovoltaic-hybrid power systems at remote military installations. Power for these installations is presently provided by engine-generators. Currently, hardware for twelve such sites is in various stages of procurement. The subject of this talk is testing of the PPC for the first SERDP system, a 300-kW unit for Superior Valley, a US Navy site at China Lake, California.

  16. Directing Hybrid Structures by Combining Self-Assembly of Functional Block Copolymers and Atomic Layer Deposition: A Demonstration on Hybrid Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Moshe; Frey, Gitti L

    2015-11-24

    The simplicity and versatility of block copolymer self-assembly offers their use as templates for nano- and meso-structured materials. However, in most cases, the material processing requires multiple steps, and the block copolymer is a sacrificial building block. Here, we combine a self-assembled block copolymer template and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a metal oxide to generate functional hybrid films in a simple process with no etching or burning steps. This approach is demonstrated by using the crystallization-induced self-assembly of a rod-coil block copolymer, P3HT-b-PEO, and the ALD of ZnO. The block copolymer self-assembles into fibrils, ∼ 20 nm in diameter and microns long, with crystalline P3HT cores and amorphous PEO corona. The affinity of the ALD precursors to the PEO corona directs the exclusive deposition of crystalline ZnO within the PEO domains. The obtained hybrid structure possesses the properties desired for photovoltaic films: donor-acceptor continuous nanoscale interpenetrated networks. Therefore, we integrated the films into single-layer hybrid photovoltaics devices, thus demonstrating that combining self-assembly of functional block copolymers and ALD is a simple approach to direct desired complex hybrid morphologies.

  17. Pure Cubic-Phase Hybrid Iodobismuthates AgBi2 I7 for Thin-Film Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghoon; Yang, Zhenyu; Jain, Ankit; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Liu, Min; Quan, Li Na; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Comin, Riccardo; Fan, James Z; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-08-08

    Bismuth-based hybrid perovskites are candidates for lead-free and air-stable photovoltaics, but poor surface morphologies and a high band-gap energy have previously limited these hybrid perovskites. A new materials processing strategy to produce enhanced bismuth-based thin-film photovoltaic absorbers by incorporation of monovalent silver cations into iodobismuthates is presented. Solution-processed AgBi2 I7 thin films are prepared by spin-coating silver and bismuth precursors dissolved in n-butylamine and annealing under an N2 atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the pure cubic structure (Fd3m) with lattice parameters of a=b=c=12.223 Å. The resultant AgBi2 I7 thin films exhibit dense and pinhole-free surface morphologies with grains ranging in size from 200-800 nm and a low band gap of 1.87 eV suitable for photovoltaic applications. Initial studies produce solar power conversion efficiencies of 1.22 % and excellent stability over at least 10 days under ambient conditions.

  18. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  19. Atomistic simulations of thiol-terminated modifiers for hybrid photovoltaic interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloci, G. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Unità di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Petrozza, A. [Center for Nano Science and Technology @Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Mattoni, A., E-mail: mattoni@iom.cnr.it [Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Unità di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2014-06-02

    Small aromatic molecules such as benzene or pyridine derivatives are often used as interface modifiers (IMs) at polymer/metal oxide hybrid interfaces. We performed a theoretical investigation on prototypical thiol-terminated IMs aimed at improving the photovoltaic performances of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/TiO{sub 2} devices. By means of first-principles calculations in the framework of the density functional theory we investigate 3-furanthiol (3FT), 4-mercaptobenzoicacid (4MB), and 6-isoquinolinethiol (6QT) molecules. We discuss the role of these molecules as modifiers alternative to 4-mercaptopyridine (4MP) which has recently shown to induce a large improvement in the overall power conversion efficiency of mesoporous films of TiO{sub 2} infiltrated by poly(3-hexylthiophene). The IMs investigated are expected to keep the beneficial features of 4MP giving at the same time the possibility to further tune the interlayer properties (e.g., its thickness, stability, and density). Dense interlayers of 6QT turn out to be slightly unstable since the titania substrate induces a compressive strain in the molecular film. On the contrary, we predict very stable films for both 3FT and 4MB molecules, which makes them interesting candidates for future experimental investigations. - Highlights: • We performed a theoretical investigation on thiol-terminated interface modifiers. • We investigate 3-furanthiol (3FT), 4-mercaptobenzoicacid (4MB), and 6-isoquinolinethiol molecules. • We discuss the role of these molecules as modifiers alternative to 4-mercaptopyridine. • Dense interlayers of 6-isoquinolinethiol turn out to be slightly unstable. • We predict very stable self-assembled thin-films for both 3FT and 4MB molecules.

  20. New architectures and designs for organic photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Alley, Nigel John

    2012-01-01

    The field of organic photovoltaics has seen many significant findings over the last two decades. It is now a very active area of research generating thousands of publications, resulting in advancements in a multi-disciplinary setting. The research described in the body of this thesis aims to investigate the use of new materials and architectures in the fabrication of organic photovoltaics. An approach to incorporate carbon nanotube-Buckminster fullerene hybrid materials into the blended activ...

  1. Effects of oriented surface dipole on photoconversion efficiency in an alkane/lipid-hybrid-bilayer-based photovoltaic model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixia; Xie, Hong; Bostic, Heidi E; Jin, Limei; Best, Michael D; Zhang, X Peter; Zhan, Wei

    2013-08-26

    When a phospholipid monolayer containing a zinc-coordinated porphyrin species formed atop a self-assembled monolayer of heptadecafluoro-1-decanethiol (CF3(CF2)7(CH2)2SH) is subjected to photoelectrochemical current generation, a significant modulation effect is observed. Compared with devices that contain similar photoactive lipid monolayers but formed on 1-dodecanethiol SAMs, these fluorinated hybrid bilayers produce a >60% increase in cathodic currents and a similar decrease in anodic currents. Photovoltages recorded from these hybrid bilayers are found to vary in the same fashion. The modulation of photovoltaic responses in these hybrid-bilayer-based devices is explained by the opposite surface dipoles associated with the thiols employed in this study, which in one case (fluorothiol) increase and in another (alkanethiol) decrease the work function of the underlying gold substrates. A similar trend of photovoltage/photocurrent modulation is also observed if fullerene is used as the photoagent in these devices. Our results reveal the intricacy of orientated surface dipole in influencing the photovoltaic processes, and its subtle interplay with other factors related to the photoagents, such as their location and orientation within the organic matrix.

  2. Effects of Oriented Surface Dipole on Photoconversion Efficiency in an Alkane/Lipid-Hybrid-Bilayer-Based Photovoltaic Model System

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lixia

    2013-06-21

    When a phospholipid monolayer containing a zinc-coordinated porphyrin species formed atop a self-assembled monolayer of heptadecafluoro-1-decanethiol (CF3(CF2)7(CH2)2SH) is subjected to photoelectrochemical current generation, a significant modulation effect is observed. Compared with devices that contain similar photoactive lipid monolayers but formed on 1-dodecanethiol SAMs, these fluorinated hybrid bilayers produce a >60 % increase in cathodic currents and a similar decrease in anodic currents. Photovoltages recorded from these hybrid bilayers are found to vary in the same fashion. The modulation of photovoltaic responses in these hybrid-bilayer-based devices is explained by the opposite surface dipoles associated with the thiols employed in this study, which in one case (fluorothiol) increase and in another (alkanethiol) decrease the work function of the underlying gold substrates. A similar trend of photovoltage/photocurrent modulation is also observed if fullerene is used as the photoagent in these devices. Our results reveal the intricacy of orientated surface dipole in influencing the photovoltaic processes, and its subtle interplay with other factors related to the photoagents, such as their location and orientation within the organic matrix. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Passive hybridization of a photovoltaic module with lithium-ion battery cells: A model-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Stella; Weißhar, Björn; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2017-04-01

    Standard photovoltaic battery systems based on AC or DC architectures require power electronics and controllers, including inverters, MPP tracker, and battery charger. Here we investigate an alternative system design based on the parallel connection of a photovoltaic module with battery cells without any intermediate voltage conversion. This approach, for which we use the term passive hybridization, is based on matching the solar cell's and battery cell's respective current/voltage behavior. A battery with flat discharge characteristics can allow to pin the solar cell to its maximum power point (MPP) independently of the external power consumption. At the same time, upon battery full charge, voltage increase will drive the solar cell towards zero current and therefore self-prevent battery overcharge. We present a modeling and simulation analysis of passively hybridizing a 5 kWp PV system with a 5 kWh LFP/graphite lithium-ion battery. Dynamic simulations with 1-min time resolution are carried out for three exemplary summer and winter days using historic weather data and a synthetic single-family household consumer profile. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system. The passive hybrid allows for high self-sufficiencies of 84.6% in summer and 25.3% in winter, which are only slightly lower than those of a standard system.

  4. Modeling and control of hybrid wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell distributed generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caisheng

    Due to ever increasing energy consumption, rising public awareness of environmental protection, and steady progress in power deregulation, alternative (i.e., renewable and fuel cell based) distributed generation (DG) systems have attracted increased interest. Wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation are two of the most promising renewable energy technologies. Fuel cell (FC) systems also show great potential in DG applications of the future due to their fast technology development and many merits they have, such as high efficiency, zero or low emission (of pollutant gases) and flexible modular structure. The modeling and control of a hybrid wind/PV/FC DG system is addressed in this dissertation. Different energy sources in the system are integrated through an AC bus. Dynamic models for the main system components, namely, wind energy conversion system (WECS), PV energy conversion system (PVECS), fuel cell, electrolyzer, power electronic interfacing circuits, battery, hydrogen storage tank, gas compressor and gas pressure regulator, are developed. Two types of fuel cells have been modeled in this dissertation: proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Power control of a grid-connected FC system as well as load mitigation control of a stand-alone FC system are investigated. The pitch angle control for WECS, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for PVECS, and the control for electrolyzer and power electronic devices, are also addressed in the dissertation. Based on the dynamic component models, a simulation model for the proposed hybrid energy system has been developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The overall power management strategy for coordinating the power flows among the different energy sources is presented in the dissertation. Simulation studies have been carried out to verify the system performance under different scenarios using a practical load profile and real weather data. The results show that the overall power

  5. Photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with polyvinylidene fluoride–polyacrylonitrile–silicondioxide hybrid composite membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethupathy, Malaisamy; Pandey, Priyanka; Manisankar, Paramasivam, E-mail: pms11@rediffmail.com

    2014-02-14

    Electrospun fibrous membranes of hybrid composites of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) (PVdF–PAN–SiO{sub 2}) are prepared with different proportions of SiO{sub 2} (3, 5 and 7% w/w). The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) reveals that these membranes have three-dimensional, fully interconnected network structures, which are combined with micropores of fine SiO{sub 2} distribution. The surface roughness of the membranes increases with increasing the SiO{sub 2} content. It is found that 7 wt% SiO{sub 2}/PVdF–PAN electrolyte membrane has the highest ionic conductivity (6.96 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1}) due to the large liquid electrolyte uptake (about 570%). As the concentration of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles increase, the contact angle value also increases, ranging from 135.70° to 140.60° which indicates that the membrane has higher hydrophobicity. The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated using the hybrid composite membrane with PVdF–PAN with 7 wt % SiO{sub 2}. Its photovoltaic performance exhibits an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.79 V and a short circuit current 11.6 mA cm{sup −2} at an incident light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup −2}, producing an efficiency of 5.61%. DSSC, using the hybrid composite electrospun membrane which shows more stable photovoltaic performance than other assembled DSSCs. - Highlights: • Electrospun poly (vinylidine–acrylonitrile) silicon dioxide membrane was prepared. • This membrane has good conductivity, porosity and electrolyte uptake. • It has higher hydrophobicity and interconnected network with plenty of cavities. • DSSCs fabricated with polymer electrolyte exhibited good photovoltaic efficiency.

  6. Enhancing the efficiency of solution-processed polymer:colloidal nanocrystal hybrid photovoltaic cells using ethanedithiol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjia; Stalder, Romain; Xie, Dongping; Cao, Weiran; Zheng, Ying; Yang, Yixing; Plaisant, Marc; Holloway, Paul H; Schanze, Kirk S; Reynolds, John R; Xue, Jiangeng

    2013-06-25

    Advances in colloidal inorganic nanocrystal synthesis and processing have led to the demonstration of organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells using low-cost solution processes from blends of conjugated polymer and colloidal nanocrystals. However, the performance of such hybrid PV cells has been limited due to the lack of control at the complex interfaces between the organic and inorganic hybrid active materials. Here we show that the efficiency of hybrid PV devices can be significantly enhanced by engineering the polymer-nanocrystal interface with proper chemical treatment. Using two different conjugated polymers, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT), we show that treating the polymer:nanocrystal hybrid film in an ethanedithiol-containing acetonitrile solution can increase the efficiency of the hybrid PV devices by 30-90%, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 5.2 ± 0.3% was obtained in the PCPDTBT:CdSe devices at 0.2 sun (AM 1.5G), which was slightly reduced to 4.7 ± 0.3% at 1 sun. The ethanedithiol treatment did not result in significant changes in the morphology and UV-vis optical absorption of the hybrid thin films; however, infrared absorption, NMR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies revealed the effective removal of organic ligands, especially the charged phosphonic acid ligands, from the CdSe nanorod surface after the treatment, accompanied by the possible monolayer passivation of nanorod surfaces with Cd-thiolates. We attribute the hybrid PV cell efficiency increase upon the ethanedithiol treatment to the reduction in charge and exciton recombination sites on the nanocrystal surface and the simultaneous increase in electron transport through the hybrid film.

  7. Summary results of an assessment of research projects in the National Photovoltaics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Office of Energy Research (OER) undertook an assessment of 115 research projects (listed in Appendix A) sponsored by the National Photovoltaics Program. The Program is located within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). This report summarizes the results of that review. The Office of Solar Energy Conversion is responsible for the management of the National Photovoltaics Program. This program focuses on assisting US industry in development of fundamental technology to bring advanced photovoltaic energy systems to commercial use. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the following: (1) the quality of research of individual projects; (2) the impact of these individual projects on the mission of the program; and (3) the priority of future research opportunities.

  8. Modeling materials and processes in hybrid/organic photovoltaics: from dye-sensitized to perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Over the last 2 decades, researchers have invested enormous research effort into hybrid/organic photovoltaics, leading to the recent launch of the first commercial products that use this technology. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have shown clear advantages over competing technologies. The top certified efficiency of DSCs exceeds 11%, and the laboratory-cell efficiency is greater than 13%. In 2012, the first reports of high efficiency solid-state DSCs based on organohalide lead perovskites completely revolutionized the field. These materials are used as light absorbers in DSCs and as light-harvesting materials and electron conductors in meso-superstructured and flat heterojunction solar cells and show certified efficiencies that exceed 17%. To effectively compete with conventional photovoltaics, emerging technologies such as DSCs need to achieve higher efficiency and stability, while maintaining low production costs. Many of the advances in the DSC field have relied on the computational design and screening of new materials, with researchers examining material characteristics that can improve device performance or stability. Suitable modeling strategies allow researchers to observe the otherwise inaccessible but crucial heterointerfaces that control the operation of DSCs, offering the opportunity to develop new and more efficient materials and optimize processes. In this Account, we present a unified view of recent computational modeling research examining DSCs, illustrating how the principles and simulation tools used for these systems can also be adapted to study the emerging field of perovskite solar cells. Researchers have widely applied first-principles modeling to the DSC field and, more recently, to perovskite-based solar cells. DFT/TDDFT methods provide the basic framework to describe most of the desired materials and interfacial properties, and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics allow researchers the further ability to sample local minima and

  9. A Research on Airborne Squint Hybrid SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIANYong; ZHOUYinqing; LIChunsheng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the squint mode hybrid SAR (Synthetic aperture radar) geometry. Based on the squint mode SAR geometry, the hybrid SAR signal model in squint case is derived. Based on this signal model, the hybrid SAR imaging process parameter is discussed. Aimed at the squint case, we analyze not only the relationship between the resolution and SAR system parameters, but also the relation between the time extension of the maximum azimuth signal and SAR system parameters. This research establishes the theoretical foundation for the design of squint hybrid SAR and serves as a good guide for the future work of improving the resolution of squint hybrid SAR. Based on the two-step algorithm, by considering the squint angle and cubic phase term, we are going to use the deramp SC-Chirp Scaling algorithm for squint hybrid SAR imaging. This algorithm uses the deramp method for the first step processing, and the SC-Chirp Scaling algorithm for the second step processing. The process procedure of this algorithm includes the squint angle, has the explicit physical meaning, therefore is convenient for analysis. The computer simulation result proves the validity of the analysis.

  10. Ultralight Solar Powered Hybrid Research Drone

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    A planetary research drone is proposed, which is capable for vertical takeoff and landing. A hybrid flight concept utilizing static lift enables the exploration over ground. The static lift is achieved with a lighter than CO2 gas like air, He or H2.

  11. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  12. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  13. Analysis of a utility-interactive wind-photovoltaic hybrid system with battery storage using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Francois

    1999-10-01

    This dissertation investigates the application of neural network theory to the analysis of a 4-kW Utility-interactive Wind-Photovoltaic System (WPS) with battery storage. The hybrid system comprises a 2.5-kW photovoltaic generator and a 1.5-kW wind turbine. The wind power generator produces power at variable speed and variable frequency (VSVF). The wind energy is converted into dc power by a controlled, tree-phase, full-wave, bridge rectifier. The PV power is maximized by a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), a dc-to-dc chopper, switching at a frequency of 45 kHz. The whole dc power of both subsystems is stored in the battery bank or conditioned by a single-phase self-commutated inverter to be sold to the utility at a predetermined amount. First, the PV is modeled using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). To reduce model uncertainty, the open-circuit voltage VOC and the short-circuit current ISC of the PV are chosen as model input variables of the ANN. These input variables have the advantage of incorporating the effects of the quantifiable and non-quantifiable environmental variants affecting the PV power. Then, a simplified way to predict accurately the dynamic responses of the grid-linked WPS to gusty winds using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is investigated. The RNN is a single-output feedforward backpropagation network with external feedback, which allows past responses to be fed back to the network input. In the third step, a Radial Basis Functions (RBF) Network is used to analyze the effects of clouds on the Utility-Interactive WPS. Using the irradiance as input signal, the network models the effects of random cloud movement on the output current, the output voltage, the output power of the PV system, as well as the electrical output variables of the grid-linked inverter. Fourthly, using RNN, the combined effects of a random cloud and a wind gusts on the system are analyzed. For short period intervals, the wind speed and the solar radiation are considered as

  14. Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T Air and Water Based Solar Collectors Suitable for Building Integrated Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of mass flow rates on the electrical, thermal and combined of photovoltaic thermal efficiencies of the hybrid collectors. Approach: Two photovoltaic thermal solar collectors were designed and fabricated. The first collector, known as spiral flow absorber collector, designed to generate hot water and electricity. The second collector, known as single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector designed to generate hot air and electricity. Both absorber collectors were fixed underneath the flat plate single glazing sheet of polycrystalline silicon PV module. Water was used as a heat transfer medium in spiral flow absorber collector and air for the Single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector respectively. Results: The experiment results showed that the single flow absorber collector generates combined PV/T efficiency of 64%, electrical efficiency of 11% and power maximum achieved at 25.35 W. Moreover, Single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector generated combined PV/T efficiency of 55%, electrical efficiency of 10% and maximum power of 22.45 W. Conclusion/Recommendations: The best mass flow rate achieved for spiral flow absorber collector is 0.011 kg sec-1 at surface temperature of 55% and 0.0754 kg sec-1 at surface temperature of 39°C for single pass rectangular collector absorber. It was recommended for PV/T system to further improve its efficiency by optimizing the contact surfaces between the solar panel (photovoltaic module and the tubes underneath and also recommended to use other type of photovoltaic cell such as amorphous silicon cell that posses the black mat surfaces property that will improve it thermal absorption.

  15. Orientation and morphology of self-assembled oligothiophene semiconductors and development of hybrid nanostructures for photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevis, Ian David

    This dissertation examines the self-assembly of electronically active small molecules for heterojunction photovoltaic devices and the synthesis of nanoscale hybrid materials with a focus on orientation and morphology. A hairpin-shaped self-assembling molecule featuring two semiconducting sexithiophene arms connected through a diamidocyclohexane linker was found to form p-type semiconducting nanowires through H-aggregation as well as J-aggregated bundles. This molecule was incorporated into heterojunction photovoltaics with phenyl-(C61/C71)-butyric acid methyl ester through spin-coating. The sexithiophene assembled during drying to form a percolating network of nanowires and fullerenes. Thermal annealing enhanced efficiencies by increasing domain sizes and organizing the fullerenes into the groves of the nanofibers to produce 0.48% efficient devices. A p-type quarterthiophene derivative was designed and synthesized to assemble through pi-pi stacking and hydrogen bonding and its assembly was explored. Solutions of the quarterthiophene drop-cast on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) dried quickly to form bundled fibers parallel to the substrate. Slower drying and higher concentrations led to the formation of rhombohedra and randomly oriented hexagonal prisms, respectively. Liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation was used with a porous aluminum oxide membrane between a solution of quarterthiophene and toluene to orient the hexagonal prisms perpendicular to the membrane. Depositing the molecule from solution onto a UV/Ozone treated transparent conducting oxide subtrated affored prisms and sheets with perpendicular pi-pi stacking was anisotropy observed by 2D-GISAXS. This perpendicular pi-pi stacking orientation and sheet formation on a planar electrode shortens charge transport distances and minimizes film defects, which could lead to improved photovoltaic devices. Interpenetrating donor and acceptor hybrid materials with perpendicular orientation for enhanced morphological

  16. Enhanced UV photoresponse of KrF-laser-synthesized single-wall carbon nanotubes/n-silicon hybrid photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, V; Gautier, L A; Castrucci, P; Del Gobbo, S; De Crescenzi, M; El Khakani, M A

    2012-06-01

    We report on the KrF-laser ablation synthesis, purification and photocurrent generation properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The thermally purified SWCNTs are integrated into hybrid photovoltaic (PV) devices by spin-coating them onto n-Si substrates. These novel SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are shown to generate significant photocurrent (PC) over the entire 250-1050 nm light spectrum with external quantum efficiencies (EQE) reaching up to ~23%. Our SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are not only photoactive in the traditional spectral range of Si solar cells, but generate also significant PC in the UV domain (below 400 nm). This wider spectral response is believed to be the result of PC generation from both the SWCNTs themselves and the tremendous number of local p-n junctions created at the nanotubes/Si interface. To assess the prevalence of these two contributions, the EQE spectra and J-V characteristics of these hybrid devices were investigated in both planar and top-down configurations, as a function of SWCNTs' film thickness. A sizable increase in EQE in the near UV with respect to the silicon is observed in both configurations, with a more pronounced UV photoresponse in the planar mode, confirming thereby the role of SWCNTs in the photogeneration process. The PC generation is found to reach its maximum for an optimal the SWCNT film thickness, which is shown to correspond to the best trade-off between lowest electrical resistance and highest optical transparency. Finally, by analyzing the J-V characteristics of our SWCNTs/n-Si devices with an equivalent circuit model, we were able to point out the contribution of the various electrical components involved in the photogeneration process. The SWCNTs-based devices demonstrated here open up the prospect for their use in highly effective photovoltaics and/or UV-light sensors.

  17. Fabrication and interfacial electronic structure studies on polypyrrole/TiO2 nano hybrid systems for photovoltaic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ganesan Mohan; Kawakita, Jin; Jayavel, Ramasamy

    2011-05-01

    The progress in studying the interfacial electronic structures of the developing new class of hybrid organic/inorganic material systems have envisaged a new dimension into the field of photovoltaics, which could be of great help in understanding the nature of charge transfer in them. In this regard, electropolymerization of pyrrole monomers have been carried out at room temperature on the surface of TiO2 working electrodes (assisted by UV radiations) and their interfacial electronic structure has been studied as a function of the applied photo anodic potentials. The formation of polypyrrole deposits has been ensured using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Surface analysis of the hybrid matrix revealed the tendency of polymer molecules to cover up the spherical surface of TiO2 nanoparticles that could help in improving the light absorption rate. Signals (bands) corresponding to pyrrole molecules observed in the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements have been correlated with the polaronic states formed and identified to shift as a function of the applied photo anodic potentials, revealing the decrease in work function of the hybrid system to take place (confirmed using cyclic voltammetry measurements). The decreasing trend in the work function elucidates the adjustment in electronic structure of the system (hybrid materials possessing smaller work functions are generally preferred for photovoltaic studies). The aforementioned behavioural aspects have been reasoned with the increase in overpotential values for polarization, from the decrease in up-take rate of the anionic dopant, which increases the current density values, thereby modifying the conductivity of the systems.

  18. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind Power System in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind power systems.

  19. A technical, economic, and environmental performance of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power system in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems.

  20. The influence of poly(phenyleneethynylene) side chain structure on single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jie; Liu, Qian; Wang, Shujing; Lv, Xin; Huang, Yi; Ma, Yanfeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Yin, Shougen

    2008-07-01

    A novel poly(phenyleneethynylene)/single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) donor-acceptor nanohybrid system was constructed based on the bulk heterojunction concept, and their photovoltaic (PV) properties were studied. Comparing with that of the pristine polymer poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE) device, the PV performance of the SWNTs/PPE hybrid is dramatically improved. The origin of open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of the pristine polymer PPE device and SWNTs/PPE device was explained by metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode model and pinning mechanism, respectively. Furthermore, incorporation of sensitizing groups to the side chain of PPE has great effect on the photovoltaic cell performance based on these hybrid materials and both the short-circuit current density (I(sc)) and power conversion efficiency are significantly enhanced. It is proposed that the main reason for the increase of short circuit current is due to efficient transfer of holes by sensitizer to PPE backbone and the transfer of electrons to the SWNTs. The power conversion efficiency is enhanced by approximately 1 order magnitude to 0.031% for the device based on the PPE3 with anthracene sensitizer group on the side chain compared with that (4.2 x 10(-3)% for SWNTs/PPE1 and 6.2 x 10(-3)% for SWNTs/PPE2) of the device without anthracene sensitizer on the side chain.

  1. Eco green flexible hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric solar cells with nanoimprint technology and roll-to-roll manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Choi, Sang H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores the technical and commercial feasibility of nanotechnology based, high-efficiency, photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid solar cells as an environmentally-friendly, renewable energy source for residential and commercial buildings. To convert as much as possible of the usable photovoltaic (58% of the Energy Density) and thermoelectric (42% of the Energy Density) solar spectrum into electricity, a hybrid multilayer system is presented which comprises of 1) carbon nanotube (CNT) embedded in conducting polymers such as P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene) or P3OT (poly3-octylthiophene), 2) 3D gold nanostructures exhibiting plasmonic resonances for energy conversion, 3) nanoantenna architecture to capture IR energy, 4) a composite of Bi2Te3, SiGe nanocrystals and Au nanoshells as thermoelectric energy conversion layer, 5) configuration of the above items engineered in the form of meta-material designs that by virtue of their 3D structures ensure that incident light is neither reflected nor transmitted, but is rather all absorbed, 6) a multilayer arrangement of the above layers in a fractal architecture to capture all the wavelengths from 200 to 3000 nm8 and the matching electronic interface for each layer. The roll-to-roll manufacturing method presented will enable economical large-scale production of solar panels. This potentially transformational technology has the ability to replace the Si solar cell technology by reducing costs from 0.18/KWh to 0.003/KWh while introducing a more environmentally-friendly manufacturing process.

  2. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind) Power System in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems. PMID:24489488

  3. A Hybrid Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Photovoltaic Solar Plant Location Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. I. Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to decaying fossil resource and increasing environmental consciousness, the demand of renewable energy resources is escalating these days. Photovoltaic solar energy is one of the most popular renewable energy resources in places where sunlight is abundant. The selection of a desirable location for constructing a photovoltaic solar plant is the first and one of the most important stages in the plant construction to provide a long-term energy production. In this paper, a comprehensive multiple-criteria decision-making model, which incorporates the interpretive structural modeling (ISM, fuzzy analytic network process (FANP and VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska OptimizacijaI Kompromisno Resenje in Serbian,meaning multi-criteria optimization and compromise solution, is proposed to select the most suitable photovoltaic solar plant location. The ISM is applied first to determine the interrelationships among the criteria and among the sub-criteria,andtheresults are used to construct a decision-making network. The FANP is applied next to solve the network and to calculate the importance weights of the sub-criteria. Finally, the VIKOR is adopted to determine the ranking of the photovoltaic solar plant locations. The proposed model is applied in a case study in evaluating photovoltaic solar plant locations in Taiwan. By applying the proposed model, decision makers can have a better thinking process and make more appropriate decisions justifiably.

  4. EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1981-06-01

    The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.

  5. EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1981-06-01

    The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.

  6. Two-loop controller for maximizing performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic - fuel cell hybrid power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoungsoo

    The study started with the requirement that a photovoltaic (PV) power source should be integrated with other supplementary power sources whether it operates in a stand-alone or grid-connected mode. First, fuel cells for a backup of varying PV power were compared in detail with batteries and were found to have more operational benefits. Next, maximizing performance of a grid-connected PV-fuel cell hybrid system by use of a two-loop controller was discussed. One loop is a neural network controller for maximum power point tracking, which extracts maximum available solar power from PV arrays under varying conditions of insolation, temperature, and system load. A real/reactive power controller (RRPC) is the other loop. The RRPC meets the system's requirement for real and reactive powers by controlling incoming fuel to fuel cell stacks as well as switching control signals to a power conditioning subsystem. The RRPC is able to achieve more versatile control of real/reactive powers than the conventional power sources since the hybrid power plant does not contain any rotating mass. Results of time-domain simulations prove not only effectiveness of the proposed computer models of the two-loop controller, but also their applicability for use in transient stability analysis of the hybrid power plant. Finally, environmental evaluation of the proposed hybrid plant was made in terms of plant's land requirement and lifetime COsb2 emissions, and then compared with that of the conventional fossil-fuel power generating forms.

  7. FEASIBILITY STUDY AND OPTIMIZATION OF AN HYBRID SYSTEM (EOLIAN- PHOTOVOLTAIC - DIESEL WITH PROVISION OF ELECTRIC ENERGY COMPLETELY INDEPENDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Saheb-Koussa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available      In engineering, simulation is an effective and economical, commonly used to make preliminary or comparative studies, both during development (design and normal operation of systems. Currently, several simulation tools, using HOMER, are used in academia. Thus, in this work, we present the principle of feasibility study and optimization of a stand alone hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel. Furthermore, we determined the price per kWh of electricity supplied by the stand alone hybrid system, which amounts to $ 1417 / kWh. The site considered in this study represents the Adrar site located in the south west Algeria. Thus, we have inferred from this work as part of a configuration of the stand alone hybrid system obviously depends on available energy resources and constraints. On the other hand we have highlighted the role of the renewable energy uses in reducing emissions of greenhouse gas (CO2 rate = 16086 kg / year for a system using only the generator diesel and is 599 kg / year for the stand alone hybrid system studied.

  8. University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Education: Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.; Crotty, G.; Cai, L.; Sana, P.; Doolittle, A.; Ropp, M.; Krygowski, T.; Narasimha, S. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-09-01

    This is a second annual report since the University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Education was established at Georgia Tech. The major focus of the center is crystalline silicon, and the mission of the Center is to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and technology of advanced photovoltaic devices and materials, to fabricate high-efficiency cells, and develop low-cost processes, to provide training and enrich the equational experience of students in this field, and to increase US competitiveness by providing guidelines to industry and DOE to achieve cost-effective and high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. This report outlines the work of the Center from July 1993--June 1994.

  9. Final Technical Report for Photovoltaic Power Electronics Research Initiative (PERI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Jordan, Charlie [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); batarseh, Issa [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The Power Electronics team at the University of Central Florida (UCF) has developed a novel three-phase micro-inverter for photovoltaic (PV) distributed applications. Based on a new advanced topology and control methodology, the developed inverter is small in size, and achieved DoE targeted power density, cost and efficiency specifications. Today’s inverters are widely used in PV based energy harvesting systems, but are based on single-phase design with limited application to large installations. These micro-inverters have been shown to have advantageous over their string inverter counterparts in both grid-tied PV energy harvesting and standalone micro-grid systems with energy storage. Some of these are simplified installation, no high voltage DC wiring, no single point of failure and improved energy harvesting. Several patents have been issued and this new solar conversion technology has been licensed to the private sector.

  10. Numerical analysis of using hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar water heater in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi Sarduei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electrical performance of solar cells decreases with increasing cell temperature, basically because of growth of the internal charge carrier recombination rates, caused by increased carrier concentrations. Hybrid Photovoltaic/thermal (PVT systems produce electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. PVT solar collectors convert the heat generated in the solar cells to low temperature useful heat energy and so they provide a lower working temperature for solar cells which subsequently leads to a higher electrical efficiency. Recently, in Iran, the reforming government policy in subsidy and increasing fossil fuels price led to growing an interest in use of renewable energies for residual and industrial applications. In spite of this, the PV power generator investment is not economically feasible, so far. Hybrid PVT devices are well known as an alternative method to improve energy performance and therefore economic feasibility of the conventional PV systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of a PVT solar water heater in four different cities of Iran using TRNSYS program. Materials and Methods The designed PVT solar water system consists of two separate water flow circuits namely closed cycle and open circuit. The closed cycle circuit was comprised of a solar PVT collector (with nominal power of 880 W and area of 5.6 m2, a heat exchanger in the tank (with volume of 300 L, a pump and connecting pipes. The water stream in the collector absorbs the heat accumulated in the solar cells and delivers it to the water in the tank though the heat exchanger. An on/off controller system was used to activate the pump when the collector outlet temperature was higher than that of the tank in the closed cycle circuit. The water in the open circuit, comes from city water at low temperature, enters in the lower part of the storage tank where the heat transfer occurs between the two separate circuits. An auxiliary heater, connected

  11. Synthesis, characterization and functionalization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials for photovoltaic and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zejing

    Silicon nanoparticles are attractive candidates for biological, photovoltaic and energy storage applications due to their size dependent optoelectronic properties. These include tunable light emission, high brightness, and stability against photo-bleaching relative to organic dyes (see Chapter 1). The preparation and characterization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials and their relevance to photovoltaic and biological applications are described. The surface-passivated silicon nanoparticles were produced in one step from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with various organic ligands. The surface structure and optical properties of the passivated silicon nanoparticles were systematically characterized. Fast approaches for purifying and at the same time size separating the silicon nanoparticles using a gravity GPC column were developed. The hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution of these size-separated silicon nanoparticles were determined using GPC and Diffusion Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) as fast, reliable alternative approaches to TEM. Water soluble silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by grafting PEG polymers onto functionalized silicon nanoparticles with distal alkyne or azide moieties. The surface-functionalized silicon nanoparticles were produced from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with a mixture of either 5-chloro-1-pentyne in 1-pentyne or 1,7 octadiyne in 1-hexyne to afford air and water stable chloroalkyl or alkynyl terminated nanoparticles, respectively. Nanoparticles with the ω-chloroalkyl substituents were easily converted to ω-azidoalkyl groups through the reaction of the silicon nanoparticles with sodium azide in DMF. The azido terminated nanoparticles were then grafted with monoalkynyl-PEG polymers using a copper catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to afford core-shell silicon nanoparticles with a covalently attached PEG shell. Covalently

  12. Understanding the electronic structure of CdSe quantum dot-fullerene (C60) hybrid nanostructure for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sunandan; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Sarkar, Pranab

    2014-09-01

    By using the density-functional tight binding method, we studied the electronic structure of CdSe quantum dot(QD)-buckminsterfullerene (C60) hybrid systems as a function of both the size of the QD and concentration of the fullerene molecule. Our calculation reveals that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level of the hybrid CdSeQD-C60 systems lies on the fullerene moiety, whereas the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level lies either on the QD or the fullerene depending on size of the CdSe QD. We explored the possibility of engineering the energy level alignment by varying the size of the CdSe QD. With increase in size of the QD, the HOMO level is shifted upward and crosses the HOMO level of the C60-thiol molecule resulting transition from the type-I to type-II band energy alignment. The density of states and charge density plot support these types of band gap engineering of the CdSe-C60 hybrid systems. This type II band alignment indicates the possibility of application of this nanohybrid for photovoltaic purpose.

  13. A metallocene molecular complex as visible-light absorber for high-voltage organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ayumi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2014-04-14

    A thin solid-state dye-sensitized photovoltaic cell is fabricated by composing organic and inorganic heterojunctions in which the visible-light sensitizers are cyclopentadiene derivatives (Cp*) coordinated to a metal oxide, typically TiO2. The coordination bonds of the metallocene molecular complex (Ti-Cp*) create a new LMCT (ligand-to-metal charge transfer) absorption band and induce a rectified charge transfer from the organic ligands to TiO2, leading to photocurrent generation. Photovoltaic junctions are completed by coating crystalline organic molecules (perylene) as a hole-transport layer on the Cp*-coordinated TiO2 surface by using the vapor deposition method. The molecular plane of Cp* on the TiO2 surfaces seems to help the hole-transport layer to form ordered structures, which effectively improve carrier conductivities and minimize interfacial resistance. The organic-inorganic hybrid thin-film photocell with metallocene molecular complexes is capable of generating high open-circuit voltages exceeding 1.2 V. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A novel coordinated control strategy considering power smoothing for a hybrid photovoltaic/battery energy storage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAUD Muhamad Zalani; MOHAMED Azah; HANNAN M A

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a novel coordinated control strategy of a hybrid photovoltaic/battery energy storage (PV/BES) system. Different controller operation modes are simulated considering normal, high fluctuation and emergency conditions. When the system is grid-connected, BES regulates the fluctuated power output which ensures smooth net injected power from the PV/BES system. In islanded operation, BES system is transferred to single master operation during which the frequency and voltage of the islanded microgrid are regulated at the desired level. PSCAD/EMTDC simulation validates the proposed method and obtained favorable results on power set-point tracking strategies with very small deviations of net output power compared to the power set-point. The state-of-charge regulation scheme also very effective with SOC has been regulated between 32% and 79% range.

  15. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  16. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  17. Photovoltaic characterization of hybrid solar cells using surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(3-hexyl)thiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günes, Serap; Marjanovic, Nenad; Nedeljkovic, Jovan M.; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2008-10-01

    We report on the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using novel nanoparticles of 6-palmitate ascorbic acid surface modified TiO2 as an electron acceptor embedded into the donor poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT) matrix. Devices were fabricated by using P3HT with varying amounts of red TiO2 nanoparticles (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 w-w ratio). The devices were characterized by measuring current-voltage characteristics under simulated AM 1.5 conditions. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) was spectrally resolved. The nanoscale morphology of such organic/inorganic hybrid blends was also investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  18. Alkali Metal Halide Salts as Interface Additives to Fabricate Hysteresis-Free Hybrid Perovskite-Based Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Moghe, Dhanashree; Hafezian, Soroush; Chen, Pei; Young, Margaret; Elinski, Mark; Martinu, Ludvik; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane; Lunt, Richard R

    2016-09-07

    A new method was developed for doping and fabricating hysteresis-free hybrid perovskite-based photovoltaic devices by using alkali metal halide salts as interface layer additives. Such salt layers introduced at the perovskite interface can provide excessive halide ions to fill vacancies formed during the deposition and annealing process. A range of solution-processed halide salts were investigated. The highest performance of methylammonium lead mixed-halide perovskite device was achieved with a NaI interlayer and showed a power conversion efficiency of 12.6% and a hysteresis of less than 2%. This represents a 90% improvement compared to control devices without this salt layer. Through depth-resolved mass spectrometry, optical modeling, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, this enhancement is attributed to the reduction of iodide vacancies, passivation of grain boundaries, and improved hole extraction. Our approach ultimately provides an alternative and facile route to high-performance and hysteresis-free perovskite solar cells.

  19. Erroneous efficiency reports harm organic solar cell research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eugen; Ehrenreich, Philipp; Pfadler, Thomas; Dorman, James A.; Weickert, Jonas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2014-09-01

    Mischaracterization of solar cell power conversion efficiencies and widespread publication of inconsistent data in scientific journals threatens to undermine progress in organic and hybrid photovoltaics research.

  20. 10.5% efficient polymer and amorphous silicon hybrid tandem photovoltaic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeehwan; Hong, Ziruo; Li, Gang; Song, Tze-bin; Chey, Jay; Lee, Yun Seog; You, Jingbi; Chen, Chun-Chao; Sadana, Devendra K; Yang, Yang

    2015-03-04

    Thin-film solar cells made with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) or organic semiconductors are considered as promising renewable energy sources due to their low manufacturing cost and light weight. However, the efficiency of single-junction a-Si:H or organic solar cells is typically photovoltaic cell by employing an a-Si:H film as a front sub-cell and a low band gap polymer:fullerene blend film as a back cell on planar glass substrates. Monolithic integration of 6.0% efficienct a-Si:H and 7.5% efficient polymer:fullerene blend solar cells results in a power conversion efficiency of 10.5%. Such high-efficiency thin-film tandem cells can be achieved by optical management and interface engineering of fully optimized high-performance front and back cells without sacrificing photovoltaic performance in both cells.

  1. 10.5% efficient polymer and amorphous silicon hybrid tandem photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeehwan; Hong, Ziruo; Li, Gang; Song, Tze-Bin; Chey, Jay; Lee, Yun Seog; You, Jingbi; Chen, Chun-Chao; Sadana, Devendra K.; Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Thin-film solar cells made with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) or organic semiconductors are considered as promising renewable energy sources due to their low manufacturing cost and light weight. However, the efficiency of single-junction a-Si:H or organic solar cells is typically photovoltaic cell by employing an a-Si:H film as a front sub-cell and a low band gap polymer:fullerene blend film as a back cell on planar glass substrates. Monolithic integration of 6.0% efficienct a-Si:H and 7.5% efficient polymer:fullerene blend solar cells results in a power conversion efficiency of 10.5%. Such high-efficiency thin-film tandem cells can be achieved by optical management and interface engineering of fully optimized high-performance front and back cells without sacrificing photovoltaic performance in both cells.

  2. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Idris Khan; Honglu Zhu; Jianxi Yao; Danish Khan; Tahir Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV) power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI) is introduced as a parameter to predi...

  3. University Photovoltaic Research, Education, and Collaboration. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Ebong, Abasifreke; Kim, Dong Seop; Yelundur, Vijay; Hilali, Mohamed M.; Rounsaville, Brian; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Meemongkolkiat, Vichai

    2007-03-30

    This report summarizes the progress made by Georgia Tech in the 2000-2006 period towards high-efficiency low-cost crystalline silicon solar cells. The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology in order to make photovoltaics more competitive with the conventional energy sources. A combination of material characterization, device modeling, low-cost technology development, cell fabrication and analysis have been used to achieve the goals of this program. Quality enhancement techniques have been developed to achieve high lifetime in commercial substrates. At the same time, advanced concepts and cell designs were developed to achieve high-efficiency cells on low-cost substrates. Low-cost in-line processing, novel diffusion techniques, and improved and screen-printed contacts were used to incorporate advanced design features in commercial cells. The program has also focused on the development of screen-printing pastes and contact firing to obtain high fill factors on high sheet resistance emitters with narrow grid lines. This report is divided into seven sections that summarize our work on i) high-efficiency monocrystalline cells through the achievement of ohmic contacts to high sheet resistance emitters by screen printing (Sections 1 and 2); ii) process and material factors that limit the potential of the Al-doped back surface field (Sections 3 and 4); iii) high-efficiency cells on low-cost multicrystalline wafers through defect gettering and passivation (Section 5); iv) low-cost phosphorus emitter diffusion in a novel in-line furnace (Section 6); and iv) the development of a 2D model to determine the effects of physical cell parameters on the performance of IBC (interdigitated back contact) solar cells (Section 7).

  4. Life Cycle Assessment Projection of Photovoltaic Cells: A Case Study on Energy Demand of Quantum Wire Based Photovoltaic Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shilpi

    With increasing clean-energy demand, photovoltaic (PV) technologies have gained attention as potential long-term alternative to fossil fuel energy. However, PV research and manufacture still utilize fossil fuel-powered grid electricity. With continuous enhancement of solar conversion efficiency, it is imperative to assess whether overall life cycle efficiency is also being enhanced. Many new-material PV technologies are still in their research phase, and life cycle analyses of these technologies have not yet been performed. For best results, grid dependency must be minimized for PV research, and this can be accomplished by an analytical instrument called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is the study of environmental impacts of a product throughout its life cycle. While there are some non-recoverable costs of research, energy is precious, and the PV research community should be aware of its energy consumption. LCA can help identify options for energy conservation through process optimization. A case study was conducted on the energy demand of a test-bed emerging PV technology using life cycle assessment methodology. The test-bed system chosen for this study was a new-material PV cell. The objective was to quantify the total energy demand for the research phase of the test-bed solar cell's life cycle. The objective was accomplished by collecting primary data on energy consumption for each process in the development of this solar cell. It was found that 937 kWh of energy was consumed for performing research on a single sample of the solar cell. For comparison, this energy consumption is 83% of Arkansas's average monthly residential electricity consumption. Life cycle inventory analysis showed that heating, ventilation, and air conditioning consumed the bulk of the energy of research. It is to be noted that the processes studied as part of the solar cell test-bed system are representative of a research process only. Life cycle thinking can identify energy hot-spots and

  5. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2007. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids and PV environmental health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 22 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  6. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2008. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids as well as health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  7. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2006. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications and hybrid systems within mini-grids. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  8. Proceedings of the 12th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    The Twelfth Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology conference was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center from 20 to 22 Oct. 1992. The papers and workshops presented in this volume report substantial progress in a variety of areas in space photovoltaics. Topics covered include: high efficiency GaAs and InP solar cells, GaAs/Ge cells as commercial items, flexible amorphous and thin film solar cells (in the early stages of pilot production), high efficiency multiple bandgap cells, laser power converters, solar cell and array technology, heteroepitaxial cells, betavoltaic energy conversion, and space radiation effects in InP cells. Space flight data on a variety of cells were also presented. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  9. Design, Operation, Control, and Economics of a Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Renewable Energy System for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S. Whiteman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Meeting rapidly growing global energy demand—without producing greenhouse gases or further diminishing the availability of non-renewable resources—requires the development of affordable low-emission renewable energy systems. Here, we develop a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for automotive applications—specifically, a roof-installed photovoltaic (PV array combined with a PEM fuel cell/NiCd battery bus currently operating shuttle routes on the University of Delaware campus. The system’s overall operating objectives—meeting the total power demand of the bus and maintaining the desired state of charge (SOC of the NiCd battery—are achieved with appropriately designed controllers: a logic-based “algebraic controller” and a standard PI controller. The design, implementation, and performance of the hybrid system are demonstrated via simulation of real shuttle runs under various operating conditions. The results show that both control strategies perform equally well in enabling the HRES to meet its objectives under typical operating conditions, and under sudden cloud cover conditions; however, at consistently high bus speeds, battery SOC maintenance is better, and the system consumes less hydrogen, with PI control. An economic analysis of the PV investment necessary to realize the HRES design objectives indicates a return on investment of approximately 30% (a slight, but nonetheless positive, ~$550 profit over the bus lifetime in Newark, DE, establishing the economic viability of the proposed addition of a PV array to the existing University of Delaware fuel cell/battery bus.

  10. Self-assembled CNTs/CdS/dehydrogenase hybrid-based amperometric biosensor triggered by photovoltaic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Longhua; Zhu, Yihua; Yang, Xiaoling; Sun, Jinjie; Li, Chunzhong

    2008-10-15

    A novel multi-components hybrid material, self-assembled quantum dots (CdS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) onto multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs), was designed for amperometric biosensing system. The zeta-potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses confirmed the uniform growth of the CdS/GDH onto carboxyl-functionalized CNTs. Compared with the single CdS, the resulting hybrid material showed more efficient generation of photocurrent upon illumination. The incident light excites CdS and generates charge carriers, and then CNTs facilitates the charge transfer. For dehydrogenase-based biosensor, normally, the cofactor of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) or beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)) is necessary. Furthermore, we found the photovoltaic effect of CNTs/CdS/GDH can trigger the dehydrogenase enzymatic reaction in the absence of the NAD(+) or NADP(+) cofactors. The electrochemical experiment results also demonstrate that the cofactor-independent dehydrogenase biosensing system had series attractive characteristics, such as a good sensitivity (11.9 nA/microM), lower detection limit (up to 50 nM), an acceptable reproducibility and stability. These studies aid in understanding the combination of the semiconductor nanohybrids (CNTs/QDs, etc.) and biomolecules (enzymes, etc.), which has potential for the applications in biosensor, biofuel cell, biomedical and other bioelectronics field.

  11. The fabrication and analysis of a PbS nanocrystal:C(60) bilayer hybrid photovoltaic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, D M N M; Hatton, R A; Lutz, T; Curry, R J; Silva, S R P

    2009-06-17

    A near-infrared sensitive hybrid photovoltaic system between PbS nanocrystals (PbS-NCs) and C(60) is demonstrated. Up to 0.44% power conversion efficiency is obtained under AM1.5G with a short circuit current density (J(sc)) of 5 mA cm(-2) when the PbS-NC layer is treated in anhydrous methanol. The observed J(sc) is found be approximately one-third of the maximum expected from this hybrid configuration, indicating the potential for further optimization. Crucial for device operation, a smooth film of nanocrystals is seen to form on the hole transporting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer deposited on the transparent electrode, facilitated through an ionic interaction between nanocrystal capping ligands and the PEDOT:PSS. The formation of the open circuit voltage in this system is seen to be influenced by an interfacial dipole formed at the hole-extracting electrode, providing insights for further optimization.

  12. Integration of photovoltaic and concentrated solar thermal technologies for H2 production by the hybrid sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Ferrara, Mariarosaria; Lanchi, Michela; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-06-01

    It is widely agreed that hydrogen used as energy carrier and/or storage media may significantly contribute in the reduction of emissions, especially if produced by renewable energy sources. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle is considered as one of the most promising processes to produce hydrogen through the water-splitting process. The FP7 project SOL2HY2 (Solar to Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) investigates innovative material and process solutions for the use of solar heat and power in the HyS process. A significant part of the SOL2HY2 project is devoted to the analysis and optimization of the integration of the solar and chemical (hydrogen production) plants. In this context, this work investigates the possibility to integrate different solar technologies, namely photovoltaic, solar central receiver and solar troughs, to optimize their use in the HyS cycle for a green hydrogen production, both in the open and closed process configurations. The analysis carried out accounts for different combinations of geographical location and plant sizing criteria. The use of a sulfur burner, which can serve both as thermal backup and SO2 source for the open cycle, is also considered.

  13. The fabrication and analysis of a PbS nanocrystal:C{sub 60} bilayer hybrid photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissanayake, D M N M [Solid State Electronics Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 (United States); Hatton, R A [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Lutz, T [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College, London SW7 2AY (United Kingdom); Curry, R J; Silva, S R P [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ndissa@umich.edu

    2009-06-17

    A near-infrared sensitive hybrid photovoltaic system between PbS nanocrystals (PbS-NCs) and C{sub 60} is demonstrated. Up to 0.44% power conversion efficiency is obtained under AM1.5G with a short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 5 mA cm{sup -2} when the PbS-NC layer is treated in anhydrous methanol. The observed J{sub sc} is found be approximately one-third of the maximum expected from this hybrid configuration, indicating the potential for further optimization. Crucial for device operation, a smooth film of nanocrystals is seen to form on the hole transporting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer deposited on the transparent electrode, facilitated through an ionic interaction between nanocrystal capping ligands and the PEDOT:PSS. The formation of the open circuit voltage in this system is seen to be influenced by an interfacial dipole formed at the hole-extracting electrode, providing insights for further optimization.

  14. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  15. Quantum Dot Based Photovoltaics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid photovoltaic cells that combine nanostructured inorganic semiconductors with organic conductors such as the cell proposed, show promise for energy generation...

  16. Deconvoluting contributions of photoexcited species in polymer-quantum dot hybrid photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, Elsa; Greaney, Matthew J.; Thornbury, William; Brutchey, Richard L.; Bradforth, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is used in conjunction with spectroelectrochemistry and chemical doping experiments to study the photogeneration of charges in hybrid bulk heterojunction (BHJ) thin films composed of poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b‧]-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and CdSe nanocrystals. Chemical doping experiments on hybrid and neat PCPDTBT:CdSe thin films are used to deconvolute the spectral signatures of the transient states in the near infrared. We confirm the formation and assignment of oxidized species in chemical doping experiments by comparing the spectral data to that from spectroelectrochemical measurements on hybrid and neat PCPDTBT:CdSe BHJ thin films. The deconvolution procedure allows extraction of the polaron populations in the neat polymer and hybrid thin films.

  17. Shift current bulk photovoltaic effect in polar materials—hybrid and oxide perovskites and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang Z.; Zheng, Fan; Young, Steve M.; Wang, Fenggong; Liu, Shi; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-08-01

    The bulk photovoltaic effect (BPVE) refers to the generation of a steady photocurrent and above-bandgap photovoltage in a single-phase homogeneous material lacking inversion symmetry. The mechanism of BPVE is decidedly different from the typical p-n junction-based photovoltaic mechanism in heterogeneous materials. Recently, there has been renewed interest in ferroelectric materials for solar energy conversion, inspired by the discovery of above-bandgap photovoltages in ferroelectrics, the invention of low bandgap ferroelectric materials and the rapidly improving power conversion efficiency of metal halide perovskites. However, as long as the nature of the BPVE and its dependence on composition and structure remain poorly understood, materials engineering and the realisation of its true potential will be hampered. In this review article, we survey the history, development and recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of BPVE, with a focus on the shift current mechanism, an intrinsic BPVE that is universal to all materials lacking inversion symmetry. In addition to explaining the theory of shift current, materials design opportunities and challenges will be discussed for future applications of the BPVE.

  18. Design Experience of Island Wind - photovoltaic Hybrid Power Supply System%海岛风光瓦补发电系统设计体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永高

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍海岛建设风光互补发电系统的环境特点.结合工程实践归纳总结海岛风光互补发电系统设计要点.并就系统建设需要注意的问题进行解析。%The environmental features for the construction of wind - photovoltaic hybrid power supply system on the island is introduced briefly; in combination with the engineering practice, the keys points of design for the island wind - photovoltaic hybrid power supply system are summarized, and the issues worthy of attention during the system construction are analyzed.

  19. Exploring the Effects of the Pb(2+) Substitution in MAPbI3 on the Photovoltaic Performance of the Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Lyubov A; Anokhin, Denis V; Gerasimov, Kirill L; Dremova, Nadezhda N; Troshin, Pavel A

    2016-11-03

    Here we report a systematic study of the Pb(2+) substitution in the hybrid iodoplumbate MAPbI3 with a series of elements affecting optoelectronic, structural, and morphological properties of the system. It has been shown that even partial replacement of lead with Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), In(3+), Bi(3+), Sn(4+), and Ti(4+) results in a significant deterioration of the photovoltaic characteristics. On the contrary, Hg-containing hybrid MAPb1-xHgxI3 salts demonstrated a considerably improved solar cell performance at optimal mercury loading. This result opens up additional dimension in the compositional engineering of the complex lead halides for designing novel photoactive materials with advanced optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties.

  20. Technico-economic assessment of hybrid diesel-photovoltaic power plant in the south of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, A. Y.; Hamidat, A.

    2016-07-01

    In Algeria, Electrical energy demand has knew a significant growth in recent years. The important increase in demand is due to the development of industrial and commercial sectors, and the comfort of residents customers by using multiple equipment of household such as the TV, ventilator, especially air-conditioners in the south of Algeria. To address the problem of imbalance between supply and demand, it is compulsory to add other units of productions of electricity. These units can be use conventional sources or renewable energy sources. This study focuses on the feasibility of hybridizing diesel power plants supplying the isolated villages in southern Algeria by the introduction of PV systems. The town of Djanet was taken as a case study. The comparison between the different technical and economic parameters allows determining the contribution of the hybridization of conventional resources of production. However, the cost-effectiveness based on the net present cost (NPC) is estimated at 176, 054.208 for the hybrid system and 194, 965.280 for all Diesel system. In terms of the cost per kWh produced by the two systems, the kWh produced by the hybrid system is less expensive than the kWh produced by any conventional diesel system is 0.551 / kWh against 0.610 / kWh. The results also show that the hybrid system provides coverage of the expected load in the future.

  1. Research and application of hybrid wheat in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Changping

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid wheat is recognized as a preferred approach to improve wheat yield,and it will be a competi-tion focus in high-tech seed industry in the future. We have made a breakthrough for the first time in creation of two-line hybrid wheat system,which reaches the world leading level in wheat research and has laid an important foundation for the future direction of the world wheat research. Similar to hybrid rice,the innovation of two-line hybrid wheat system is another achievement in science and technology. The application of hybrid wheat in China will greatly increase the food production,and make a great significance to food production and food security. This paper introduces the development process and major breakthrough of hybrid wheat in China,and the main bottle-neck and countermeasures in the application of hybrid wheat.

  2. Optical absorption enhancement in a hybrid system photonic crystal - thin substrate for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buencuerpo, Jeronimo; Munioz-Camuniez, Luis E; Dotor, Maria L; Postigo, Pablo A

    2012-07-02

    A hybrid approach for light trapping using photonic crystal nanostructures (nanorods, nanopillars or nanoholes) on top of an ultra thin film as a substrate is presented. The combination of a nanopatterned layer with a thin substrate shows an enhanced optical absorption than equivalent films without patterning and can compete in performance with nanostructured systems without a substrate. The designs are tested in four relevant materials: amorphous silicon (a-Si), crystalline silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium phosphide (InP). A consistent enhancement is observed for all of the materials when using a thin hybrid system (300 nm) even compared to the non patterned thin film with an anti-reflective coating (ARC). A realistic solar cell structure composed of a hybrid system with a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) an ARC and a back metal layer is performed, showing an 18% of improvement for the nanostructured device.

  3. 太阳能光伏/市电联合供电系统%Photovoltaic/Grid Hybrid Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 吴犇; 金科; 阮新波

    2012-01-01

    太阳能光伏发电作为太阳能的重要应用方式越来越受到人们的重视,但是太阳能受天气条件限制的缺点,需要配备补充能源。本文选择市电作为补充能源,提出了一种太阳能光伏/市电联合供电系统。系统由太阳电池、市电、DC-DC变换器、功率因数校正器组成。系统中存在两个供电电源,需要设计合理的能量管理控制策略来确保两个输入源协调工作。系统能量管理的核心是根据太阳电池和负载的工作状态,控制系统工作在合适的模式,以此来控制系统能量流。在实验室中搭建了一套2kW系统样机,通过实验验证了所提的系统结构和能量管理控制策略的有效性。%Photovoltaic generation,which is an important application way of solar,is attracting more and more attention.However,its output power is intermittent with different environment.A backup power source is necessary.Grid is chosen to be the backup power source in this paper,and a hybrid photovoltaic/Grid power system is proposed.It is composed of solar cells,grid,a DC-DC converter,and a power factor correction.In order to enable these two source work coordinate,it is necessary to manage the power.The key point of power management is to control the system to work in proper mode,according to different situation of solar cell and load.A 2kW hybrid system is built in the lab.The experimental results verified the proposed power structure and energy management.

  4. Model Predictive Control techniques with application to photovoltaic, DC Microgrid, and a multi-sourced hybrid energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmand, Mohammad Bagher

    Renewable energy sources continue to gain popularity. However, two major limitations exist that prevent widespread adoption: availability and variability of the electricity generated and the cost of the equipment. The focus of this dissertation is Model Predictive Control (MPC) for optimal sized photovoltaic (PV), DC Microgrid, and multi-sourced hybrid energy systems. The main considered applications are: maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by MPC, droop predictive control of DC microgrid, MPC of grid-interaction inverter, MPC of a capacitor-less VAR compensator based on matrix converter (MC). This dissertation firstly investigates a multi-objective optimization technique for a hybrid distribution system. The variability of a high-penetration PV scenario is also studied when incorporated into the microgrid concept. Emerging (PV) technologies have enabled the creation of contoured and conformal PV surfaces; the effect of using non-planar PV modules on variability is also analyzed. The proposed predictive control to achieve maximum power point for isolated and grid-tied PV systems speeds up the control loop since it predicts error before the switching signal is applied to the converter. The low conversion efficiency of PV cells means we want to ensure always operating at maximum possible power point to make the system economical. Thus the proposed MPPT technique can capture more energy compared to the conventional MPPT techniques from same amount of installed solar panel. Because of the MPPT requirement, the output voltage of the converter may vary. Therefore a droop control is needed to feed multiple arrays of photovoltaic systems to a DC bus in microgrid community. Development of a droop control technique by means of predictive control is another application of this dissertation. Reactive power, denoted as Volt Ampere Reactive (VAR), has several undesirable consequences on AC power system network such as reduction in power transfer capability and increase in

  5. Atmospheric effects on the photovoltaic performance of hybrid perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sheikh, Arif Dastgir

    2015-06-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted lots of attention in the photovoltaic community due to their escalating efficiency and solution processability. The most efficient organometallic mixed-halide sensitized solar cells often employ 2,2′7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the hole-transporting material. In this work, we investigated the effect of different atmospheric storage conditions, particularly vacuum, dry nitrogen, and dry air, on the photovoltaic performance of TiO2-CH3NH3PbI3-xClx-spiro-MeOTAD solar cells. We found that spin coating of spiro-MeOTAD in an oxygen atmosphere alone was not adequate to functionalize its hole-transport property completely, and our systematic experiments revealed that the device efficiency depends on the ambient atmospheric conditions during the drying process of spiro-MeOTAD. Complementary incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE), light absorption and photoluminescence quenching measurements allowed us to attribute the atmosphere-dependent efficiency to the improved electronic characteristics of the solar cells. Furthermore, our Fourier transform infrared and electrical impedance measurements unambiguously detected modifications in the spiro-MeOTAD after the drying processes in different gas environments. Our findings demonstrate that proper oxidization and p-doping in functionalizing spiro-MeOTAD play a very critical role in determining device performance. These findings will facilitate the search for alternative hole-transporting materials in high-performance perovskite solar cells with long-term stability.

  6. Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    analysis is presented based on small signal models of the hybrid PV-HP microgrid, including 2 MWp PV station, 15.2 MWh battery storage system, and 12.8 MVA hydropower plant. Simulation results of the microgrid and experimental results on a scaled-down laboratory prototype verify the effectiveness......Hybrid photovolvaic battery-hydropower microgrids can increase electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. In those microgrids with grid-connected and islanded modes capabilities, seamless transition between both modes is needed as well. However, the different resources...

  7. Improved photovoltaic performance of silicon nanowire/organic hybrid solar cells by incorporating silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kong; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Xinhui; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhanguo

    2013-02-18

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays show an excellent light-trapping characteristic and high mobility for carriers. Surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can be used to increase light scattering and absorption in solar cells. We fabricated a new kind of SiNW/organic hybrid solar cell by introducing AgNPs. Reflection spectra confirm the improved light scattering of AgNP-decorated SiNW arrays. A double-junction tandem structure was designed to manufacture our hybrid cells. Both short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency measurements show an enhancement in optical absorption of organic layer, especially at lower wavelengths.

  8. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used......This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...

  9. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...... complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used...

  10. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  11. Ultrafast electron transfer from low band gap conjugated polymer to quantum dots in hybrid photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, Elsa; Greaney, Matthew J.; Thornbury, William; Brutchey, Richard L.; Bradforth, Stephen E.

    2014-09-01

    Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is used in conjunction with chemical doping experiments to study the photo-generation of charges in hybrid thin films composed of PCPDTBT and CdSe quantum dots. We show how we use chemical doping experiments to de-convolute the spectral signatures of the transient states in the near infrared.

  12. Hybrid tandem quantum dot/organic photovoltaic cells with complementary near infrared absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taesoo; Palmiano, Elenita; Liang, Ru-Ze; Hu, Hanlin; Murali, Banavoth; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Firdaus, Yuliar; Gao, Yangqin; Sheikh, Arif; Yuan, Mingjian; Mohammed, Omar F.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Sargent, Edward H.; Amassian, Aram

    2017-05-01

    Monolithically integrated hybrid tandem solar cells that effectively combine solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and organic bulk heterojunction subcells to achieve tandem performance that surpasses the individual subcell efficiencies have not been demonstrated to date. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid tandem cells with a low bandgap PbS CQD subcell harvesting the visible and near-infrared photons and a polymer:fullerene—poly (diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)—top cell absorbing effectively the red and near-infrared photons of the solar spectrum in a complementary fashion. The two subcells are connected in series via an interconnecting layer (ICL) composed of a metal oxide layer, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, and an ultrathin layer of Au. The ultrathin layer of Au forms nano-islands in the ICL, reducing the series resistance, increasing the shunt resistance, and enhancing the device fill-factor. The hybrid tandems reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.9%, significantly higher than the PCE of the corresponding individual single cells, representing one of the highest efficiencies reported to date for hybrid tandem solar cells based on CQD and polymer subcells.

  13. Hybrid tandem quantum dot/organic photovoltaic cells with complementary near infrared absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2017-06-01

    Monolithically integrated hybrid tandem solar cells that effectively combine solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and organic bulk heterojunction subcells to achieve tandem performance that surpasses the individual subcell efficiencies have not been demonstrated to date. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid tandem cells with a low bandgap PbS CQD subcell harvesting the visible and near-infrared photons and a polymer:fullerene—poly (diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)—top cell absorbing effectively the red and near-infrared photons of the solar spectrum in a complementary fashion. The two subcells are connected in series via an interconnecting layer (ICL) composed of a metal oxide layer, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, and an ultrathin layer of Au. The ultrathin layer of Au forms nano-islands in the ICL, reducing the series resistance, increasing the shunt resistance, and enhancing the device fill-factor. The hybrid tandems reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.9%, significantly higher than the PCE of the corresponding individual single cells, representing one of the highest efficiencies reported to date for hybrid tandem solar cells based on CQD and polymer subcells.

  14. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  15. Accelerated Thermal-Aging-Induced Degradation of Organometal Triiodide Perovskite on ZnO Nanostructures and Its Effect on Hybrid Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Dhar, A

    2016-07-20

    Organometal halide perovskite materials are presently some of the pacesetters for light harvesting in hybrid photovoltaic devices because of their excellent inherent electrical and optical properties. However, long-term durability of such perovskite materials remains a major bottleneck for their commercialization especially in countries with hot and humid climatic conditions, thus violating the international standards for photovoltaic technology. Albeit, TiO2 as an electron-transport layer has been well investigated for perovskite solar cells; the high-temperature processing makes it unsuitable for low-cost and large-scale roll-to-roll production of flexible photovoltaic devices. Herein, we have chosen low-temperature (photovoltaic devices. We have also elaborately addressed the effect of the annealing duration on the conversion of a precursor solution into the required perovskite phase on ZnO nanostructures. The investigations show that the presence of ZnO nanostructures accelerates the rate of degradation of MAPbI3 films under ambient annealing and thus requires proper optimization. The role of ZnO in enhancing the degradation kinetics of the perovskite layer has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and a buffer layer passivation technique. The effect of the annealing duration of the MAPbI3 perovskite on the optical, morphological, and compositional behavior has been closely studied and correlated with the photovoltaic efficiency. The study captures the degradation behavior of the commercially interesting MAPbI3 perovskite on a ZnO electron-transport layer and thus can provide insight for developing alternative families of perovskite material with better thermal and environmental stability for application in low-cost flexible photovoltaic technology.

  16. Optimal sizing of battery storage for stand-alone hybrid (photo-voltaic + diesel) power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaahid, S. M.; Elhadidy, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    An important element of hybrid photo- voltaic(PV) + diesel sytem is battery storage. Size of battery storage plays a role in optimum operation of the hybrid system. Emphasis needs to be placed on this issue. In this perspective, hourly solar radiation data, for the period 1986 93 recorded at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, have been analyzed to investigate the optimum size of battery storage capacity for hybrid (PV + diesel) power systems. Various sizing configurations have been simulated. The monthly average daily values of solar global radiation range from 3.61 to 7.96kWh/m2. As a case study, hybrid systems considered in the present analysis consist of 225m2 PV array area (panels/modules) supplemented with battery storage unit and diesel backup generators (to meet the load requirements of a typical residential building with annual electrical energy demand of 35,200kWh). The monthly average energy generated from the aforementioned hybrid system for different scenarios has been presented. More importantly, the study explores the influence of variation of battery storage capacity on hybrid power generation. The results exhibit a trade-off between size of the storage capacity and diesel power to be generated to cope with annual load distribution. Concurrently, the energy to be generated from the diesel generator and the number of operational hours of the diesel system to meet the load demand have been also addressed.The study shows that for optimum operation of diesel system, storage capacity equivalent to 12 18h of maximum monthly average hourly demand need to be used. It has been found that in the absence of battery bank, ˜58% of the load needs to be provided by the diesel system. However, use of 12h of battery storage (autonomy) reduces diesel energy generation by ˜49% and the number of hours of operation of the diesel system get reduced by about ˜82%. The findings of this study can be employed as a tool for sizing of battery storage for PV/diesel systems for other

  17. Determination of Efficiency of Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collectors Using Artificial Neural Network Approach for Different PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to determine efficiency of semi transparent hybrid photovoltaic thermal double pass air collector for different PV technology and compare it with single pass air collector using artificial neural network (ANN technique for New Delhi weather station of India. The MATLAB 7.1 neural networks toolbox has been used for defining and training of ANN for determination of thermal, electrical, overall thermal and overall exergy efficiency of the system. The ANN model uses ambient air temperature, number of sunshine hours, number of clear days, temperature coefficient, cell efficiency, global and diffuse radiation as input parameters. The transfer function, neural network configuration and learning parameters have been selected based on highest convergence during training and testing of network. About 2000 sets of data from four weather stations (Bangalore, Mumbai, Srinagar and Jodhpur have been given as input for training and data of the fifth weather station (New Delhi has been used for testing purpose. It has been observed that the best transfer function for a given configuration is logsig. The feed forward back-propagation algorithm has been used in this analysis. Further the results of ANN model have been compared with analytical values on the basis of root mean square error.

  18. Environmental Life-Cycle Analysis of Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems for Use in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin-Tai Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While sheet-and-tube absorber is generally recommended for flat-plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T collector design because of the simplicity and promising performance, the use of rectangular-channel absorber is also tested to be a good alternative. Before a new energy technology, like PV/T, is fully implemented, its environmental superiority over the competing options should be assessed, for instance, by evaluating its consumption levels throughout its production and service life. Although there have been a plenty of environmental life-cycle assessments on the domestic solar hot water systems and PV systems, the related works on hybrid solar PV/T systems have been very few. So far there is no reported work on the assessment of PV/T collector with channel-type absorber design. This paper reports an evaluation of the energy payback time and the greenhouse gas payback time of free-standing and building-integrated PV/T systems in Hong Kong. This is based on two case studies of PV/T collectors with modular channel-type aluminium absorbers. The results confirm the long-term environmental benefits of PV/T applications.

  19. Energy Refurbishment of an Office Building with Hybrid Photovoltaic System and Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Almeida Dávi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On-site photovoltaic (PV and battery systems intend to improve buildings energy performance, however battery costs and monetary incentives are a major drawback for the introduction of these technologies into the electricity grids. This paper proposes an energy refurbishment of an office building based on multi-objective simulations. An innovative demand-side management approach is analyzed through the PV and battery control with the purpose of reducing grid power peaks and grid imported energy, as well as improving the project economy. Optimization results of load matching and grid interaction parameters, complemented with an economic analysis, are investigated in different scenarios. By means of battery use, the equivalent use of the grid connection is reduced by 12%, enhancing the grid interaction potential, and 10% of load matching rates can be increased. Project improvements indicate the grid connection capacity can be reduced by 13% and significant savings of up to 48% are achieved on yearly bills. The economy demonstrates the grid parity is only achieved for battery costs below 100 €/kWh and the payback period is large: 28 years. In the case with only PV system, the grid parity achieves better outcomes and the payback time is reduced by a half, making this a more attractive option.

  20. Optimization of hybrid organic-inorganic interdigitated photovoltaic device structure using a 2D diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krali, Emiljana; Curry, Richard J

    2011-04-26

    To improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices the inclusion of semiconducting nanoparticles such as PbS has been used to enhance near-infrared absorption. Additionally the use of interdigitated heterojunctions has been explored as a means of improving charge extraction. In this paper we provide a two-dimensional model taking into account these approaches with the aim of predicting an optimized device geometry to maximize the efficiency. The steady-state exciton population has been calculated in each of the active regions taking into account the full optical response based on using a finite difference approach to obtain approximate numerical solutions to the 2D exciton diffusion equation. On the basis of this we calculate the contribution of each active material to the device short circuit current and power conversion efficiency. We show that optimized structures can lead to power conversions efficiencies of ∼50% compared to a maximum of ∼17% for planar heterojunction devices. To achieve this the interdigitated region thickness should be ∼800 nm with PbS and C(60) widths of ∼60 and 20 nm, respectively. Even modest nanopatterning using much thinner active regions provides improvements in efficiency and may be approached using a variety of methods including nanoimprinting lithography, nanotemplating, or the incorporation of presynthesized nanorod structures.

  1. Overview of the status and progress in photovoltaics research in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a semiconductor technology that directly converts sunlight to electricity. Research over the past 20 years has resulted in the discovery of new PV materials, devices, and fabrication approaches: continuing improvements in the efficiency and reliability of solar cells and modules: and lower PV module and system costs. Along with improvements in the technology and manufacturing have come a large number of new, cost-effective uses, including international applications in mostly off-grid, remote locations, and various grid-connected and off-grid applications in the United States. This paper reviews the rapid progress from the laboratory to the marketplace in PV technology in the United States.

  2. 平抑光伏出力波动的混合储能系统控制策略设计%Design of hybrid energy storage system control strategy to suppress output fluctuations of photovoltaic generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林川; 高云鹏

    2015-01-01

    In view of the hybrid energy storage system composed of batteries and super capacitors, an energy storage control strategy to smooth photovoltaic output power fluctuations is designed.The low-pass filtering algorithm with threshold judgment is used to design the total charging power of energy storage system, and avoid the unnecessary con-trol to smooth photovoltaic output power fluctuations.Considering the charging state of energy storage medium, the principle of moving average is used to design the power allocation strategy of storage medium, thus making full use of different storage medium and optimizing the operation of hybrid energy storage system.The validity of the control strat-egy designed is verified through simulation analysis, and the energy storage control system can smooth photovoltaic output power fluctuations at the lowest cost.The super-capacitor smoothes the fast varying component of power fluctua-tions, and reduces the charging number of the storage battery.Research results provide theoretical reference for the application of hybrid energy storage systems in smoothing photovoltaic output power fluctuations.%针对由电池和超级电容器构成的混合储能系统,设计了一种平抑光伏出力波动的储能控制策略。基于含阀值判断的低通滤波算法制定储能系统总充放电功率,在平抑光伏出力波动的同时避免对储能系统的过渡调控。综合考虑储能介质充放电状态,基于滑动平均原理制定储能介质的功率分配策略,以充分发挥不同储能介质的优势,优化储能系统的整体运行性能。仿真分析验证了所设计控制策略的有效性,储能系统可以较小的调控代价完成对光伏出力波动的平抑,且超级电容器平抑功率波动的快变分量,有效降低了储能电池的充放电次数。研究结果对混合储能系统在平抑光伏出力波动中的应用提供了理论参考。

  3. Optimalisasi Desain Sistem Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Hybrid Diesel Generator  Photovoltaic Array Menggunakan Homer (Studi Kasus : Desa Sirilogui, Kabupaten Kepulauan Mentawai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Purnama Sari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Power Plant is one of the solutions to overcome the shortage of electricity in underdeveloped and isolated areas not covered by PLN electricity network, due to underdeveloped regions generally have the geography and topography that does not allow for expansion of PLN electricity network. Integration of the two power plants is a conventional power plant (diesel generator that comes from fuel oil (BBM with power plants sourced from renewable energy (photovoltaic arrays is an advantageous solution to meet the needs of daily electricity load in remote areas such as the Village Sirilogui located in the District of North Siberut Mentawai Islands, because the integration of photovoltaic arrays diesel generator can provide 24 hour lighting solution for 310 households (families in the village Sirilogui which at first only enjoy the lighting for 4 hours, and even then only at night days, from 06.00 to 10.00 pm o'clock sourced from 3 units of diesel generator. With the integration of these two power plants, diesel generator operation can be minimized so it saves fuel consumption and reduce CO2 emissions caused by the operation of the diesel generator. This study focuses the discussion on Design Optimization of Hybrid Power Plant System Diesel Generator-Photovoltaic Array by using HOMER as a tool for simulation. HOMER software is used to help simplify the task of the modeler in evaluating the design of hybrid power plant system that allows to sort based on the total net present cost (TNPC, the lowest for the most optimal system. In this study, the results of the design for the system with the daily electricity load of 479,280 kWh most optimal based on the simulation results using HOMER ie photovoltaic capacity of 65 kW, 3 units of diesel generators with a capacity of each 15 kW, 156 units of battery and bidirectional converter with a capacity of 78 kW TNPC amounted to $ 1.362.474 and the cost of energy (COE of $ 1,485/kWh. Hybrid Power Plant System

  4. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 1. Development and characterization of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, A I; Broeckmann, A; Richards, B S

    2007-02-01

    In isolated communities where potable water sources as well as energy grids are limited or nonexistent, treating brackish groundwater aquifers with small-scale desalination systems can be a viable alternative to existing water infrastructures. Given the unavailability of power in many such situations, renewable energy is an obvious solution to power such systems. However, renewable energy is an intermittent power supply and with regards to the performance of intermittently operated desalination systems, only very limited experience exists, both with regards to efficiency as well as water quality. In this paper, this lack of knowledge is addressed by evaluating a system operated with varying parameters (pressure and flow) with constant power as a step toward defining a safe operating window, and they provide a basis for interpreting future data obtained with a renewable energy source. Field trials were performed on a brackish (5300 mg/L TDS; 8290 microS/cm) bore in Central Australia with a photovoltaic-powered membrane filtration (PV-membrane) system. Four nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes (BW30, ESPA4, NF90, TFC-S) and a number of operation parameter combinations (transmembrane pressure, feed flow, TFC-S) and operating parameters transmembrane pressure and feed flow were investigated to find the best operating conditions for maximum drinking water production and minimum specific energy consumption (SEC). The ESPA4 membrane performed best for this brackish source, producing 250 L/h of excellent drinking water (257 mg/L TDS; 400 microS/ cm) at an SEC of 1.2 kWh/m3. The issue of brine disposal or reuse is also discussed and the article compares the salinity of the produced brine with livestock water. Since the feedwater is disinfected physically using ultrafiltration (UF), the brine is free from bacteria and most viruses and hence can be seen more as a reusable product stream than a waste stream with a disposal problem.

  5. Modeling and sizing optimization of hybrid photovoltaic/wind power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-03-01

    The rapid industrialization and growth of world's human population have resulted in the unprecedented increase in the demand for energy and in particular electricity. Depletion of fossil fuels and impacts of global warming caused widespread attention using renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar energies. Energy security under varying weather conditions and the corresponding system cost are the two major issues in designing hybrid power generation systems. In this paper, the match evaluation method (MEM) is developed based on renewable energy supply/demand match evaluation criteria to size the proposed system in lowest cost. This work is undertaken with triple objective function: inequality coefficient, correlation coefficient, and annualized cost of system. It provides optimum capacity of as many numbers of supplies as required to match with a load demand in lowest investment, so it can handle large-scale design problems. Meteorological data were collected from the city of Zabol, located in south-east of Iran, as a case study. Six types of wind turbine and also six types of PV modules, with different output powers and costs, are considered for this optimization procedure. A battery storage system is used to even out irregularities in meteorological data. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used for the prediction of an optimized set of design based on the MEM technique. The results of this study are valuable for evaluating the performance of future stand-alone hybrid power system. It is worth mentioning that the proposed methodology can be effectively employed for any composition of hybrid energy systems in any locations taking into account the meteorological data and the consumer's demand.

  6. Directory of French photovoltaic research and industry 2011; Annuaire de la recherche et de l'industrie photovoltaiques francaises 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poubeau, Romain; Simmonet, Raphael; Canals, Jonathan

    2011-05-15

    After an overview of what is at stake in terms of industrial employment in the photovoltaic sector, a presentation of competitiveness clusters, a description of the value chain (cell manufacturers, arrays manufacturers, power inverter manufacturers, electric equipment manufacturers, structure component manufacturers, fabrication steps, etc.) in the photovoltaic sector, this document proposes a directory (addresses, activity descriptions) of research and industrial actors of the photovoltaic sector in France: research centres, manufacturers, industrial projects

  7. Ternary hybrid systems of P3HT-CdSe-WS₂ nanotubes for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A; Borriello, C; Haque, S A; Minarini, C; Di Luccio, T

    2014-09-07

    Hybrid heterojunctions of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanomaterials are a promising combination for obtaining high performance solar cells (SC). In this work we have explored new possible uses of the WS2 nanotubes (NTs) both as the only acceptor material blended with a polymer and in ternary systems mixed with a polymer and quantum dots (QDs). In particular we have spectroscopically investigated binary blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and WS2 NTs, P3HT and CdSe QDs, and ternary blends of P3HT, CdSe QDs and WS2 NTs. We report fluorescence quenching effects of the QD signal in the P3HT-CdSe-WS2 system with the increase of NT concentration. Static and time-resolved fluorescence studies reveal efficient resonant energy transfer from the QDs to the NTs upon photoexcitation. The evidence of energetic interaction between WS2 NTs and QDs opens new fields of application of WS2 NTs and holds very promising potential for improving charge transfer phenomena in the active layer of hybrid solar cells.

  8. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of polymer-filled nanoporous Si hybrid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Minjae; Lee, Joo-Hyoung

    2017-02-15

    We propose a novel hybrid structure for improving the efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells. By employing first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that ordered, nanoporous silicon (np-Si), when filled with polythiophene (PT) inside the pores, exhibits a substantially enhanced absorption coefficient compared to both np-Si and the bulk, which makes the np-Si/PT heterojunction a superior light absorbing material. In addition, the PT-filled porous structure forms a staggered gap, or type II, heterojunction at the interfaces, where the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of the composite reside on PT and np-Si, respectively. Moreover, the pore-filling polymer brings about a highly dispersive valence band, which provides a major pathway for hole transport. These results suggest that such a hybrid structure, which may be easier to scale up than nanowire-based approaches, will efficiently dissociate photo-induced electron-hole pairs and reduce the amount of material for light absorption, thus leading to a cost-effective and high-performance solar cell.

  9. Hybrid photovoltaic devices from regioregular polythiophene and ZnO nanoparticles composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Narayan Ch. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Sokol, Paul E. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The nano size zinc oxide (ZnO) was successfully synthesized at low temperature solution method. The structural characterization, size and distribution of synthesized ZnO particles were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron scattering technique. The hybrid polymer-metal oxide bulk heterojunction solar cell has been fabricated by blending of ZnO and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) through solution process and flow coating on the flexible substrate. The decrease in the photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity more than 79% for ZnO:P3HT composites film indicates high charge generation efficiency. The cell shows the V{sub oc} and I{sub sc} of 0.33 V and 6.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The performance and stability of cell were investigated using UV illumination of white light. (author)

  10. A modular molecular photovoltaic system based on phospholipid/alkanethiol hybrid bilayers: photocurrent generation and modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Jiang, Kai; Zhan, Wei

    2011-10-21

    Monolayer quantities of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), incorporated with either fullerenes or ruthenium tris(bipyridyl) (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)) complexes, were formed on ferrocene-terminated C11-alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) through lipid fusion. Thus formed hybrid structures are characterized by quartz crystal microbalance, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and impedance analysis. In comparison to lipid monolayers deposited on C12-alkanethiol SAMs, photocurrent generation from these ferrocene-based structures is significantly modulated, displaying attenuated anodic photocurrents and enhanced cathodic photocurrents. While a similar trend was observed for the two photoagents studied, the degree of such modulations was always found to be greater in fullerene-incorporated bilayers. These findings are evaluated in the context of the film structure, energetics of the involved photo(electrochemical) species and cross-membrane electron-transfer processes.

  11. Design of a sub phthalocyanine-based hybrid donor of photovoltaic materials and its theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shaohui; Tian, Yongping; Chen, Xue; Xiao, Mengyue

    2017-08-01

    Chloro boron-subphthalocyanine (sub PC) is one of promising organic solar materials. Diverse sub PC-based derivatives have been synthesized and proposed. In the present work, we theoretically suggest new inorganic-organic hybrid materials, i.e. sub PC derivatives with the ortho and Meta peripheral substitution by highly symmetric octahedral silsesquioxane (T8). The results of electronic structure of ortho and Meta sub PC-T8 molecules prove that the substitutions of T8 SQ in sub PC have little influences on frontier orbitals. The simulated electronic spectrums of ortho and Meta sub PC-T8 molecules are similar to sub PC alone, but with noticeable stronger absorption oscillator strength than sub PC. Our calculation predicts that the new designed T8-sub PC molecules have great potential to be new promising donor materials and have some merits compared to sub PC molecule.

  12. RESEARCH INTO PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES EFFICIENCY IN THE ŻYWIEC BESKIDS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Hilse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into photovoltaic modules in the highlands, based on the example of the Żywiec Beskids, was conducted in 2009 in the town of Stryszawa on the border between the regions of Lesser Poland and Silesia. It involved measurements of the quantity of the produced electric power in three different systems of diverse power (570 Wp, 360 Wp oraz 200 Wp and different technical solutions (rotary modules tracing the Sun rotation and stationary modules. Efficiency of the photovoltaic modules was compared to the intensity of the solar radiation in the city of Żywiec. This way the efficiency of the solar energy processing was determined. The conducted research indicates that with the intensity of the solar radiation amounting to 890 kWh/ m2·year it is possible to produce electric power in the quantity of over 150 kWh/m2·year (rotary modules or about 110 kWh/ m2·year (stationary modules. The highest efficiency of the solar energy processing into the electric energy has been observed in the winter season (ca. 26%.

  13. Analysis of energy decentralized generation viability through a Diesel-photovoltaic hybrid system; Analise de viabilidade de geracao descentralizada de energia atraves de um sistema hibrido diesel-fotovoltaico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Raphael Lopes; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: raphaellfreire@gmail.com, e-mail: silvioa@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the installation viability of Diesel-photovoltaic hybrid system connected to the network for supplying of part of electric power demand of a residence. The different configurations were analysed using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER). The program allows the evaluation of performance and to compare the installation, operation and maintenance costs of isolated systems with the network extension of various configuration of decentralized hybrid generation system.

  14. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shen Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  15. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Po-Shen; Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Li, Ming-Hsien; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV) technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  16. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, B S; Capão, D P S; Schäfer, A I

    2008-06-15

    This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration--nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarized using four different NF membranes (BW30, NF90, ESPA4, TFC-S), and examined in more detail for the BW30 membrane. On an Australian spring day, the system produced 1.1 m3 of permeate with an average conductivity of 0.28 mS x cm(-1), recovering 28% of the brackish (8.29 mS x cm(-1) conductivity) feedwater with an average specific energy consumption of 2.3 kWh x m(-3). The RE-membrane system tolerated large fluctuations in solar irradiance (500--1200 W x m(-2)), resulting in only small increases in the permeate conductivity. When equipped with the NF90 (cloudy day) and ESPA4 (rainy day) membranes, the system was still able to produce 1.36 m(-3) and 0.85 m(-3) of good quality permeate, respectively. The TFC-S membrane was not able to produce adequate water quality from the bore water tested. It is concluded that batteryless operation is a simple and robust way to operate such systems under conditions ranging from clear skies to medium cloud cover.

  17. Enhanced charge transport and photovoltaic performance induced by incorporating rare-earth phosphor into organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zihan; Li, Qinghua; Chen, Chuyang; Du, Jiaxing; Tong, Jifeng; Jin, Xiao; Li, Yue; Yuan, Yongbiao; Qin, Yuancheng; Wei, Taihuei; Sun, Weifu

    2014-11-28

    In this work, dysprosium ion decorated yttrium oxide (Dy(3+):Y2O3) nanocrystal phosphors were incorporated into TiO2 acceptor thin film in a bid to enhance the light harvest, charge separation and transfer in the hybrid solar cells. The results show that the energy level offset between the donor (P3HT) and the acceptor (Dy(3+):Y2O3-TiO2) has been narrowed down, thus leading to the enhanced electron and hole transports, and also photovoltaic performances as compared to pure TiO2 without incorporating Dy(3+):Y2O3. By applying femtosecond transient optical spectroscopy, after the incorporation of dopant Dy(3+):Y2O3 into TiO2 at 6 wt%, both the hot electron and hole transfer lifetimes have been shortened, that is, from 30.2 ps and 6.94 ns to 25.1 ps and 1.26 ns, respectively, and an enhanced efficiency approaching 3% was achieved as compared to 2.0% without doping, indicating that the energetic charges are captured more efficiently benefitting a higher power conversion efficiency. Moreover, these results reveal that both the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) edges of the acceptor were elevated by 0.57 and 0.32 eV, respectively, after incorporating 6 wt% Dy(3+):Y2O3. This work demonstrates that distinct energy level alignment engineered by Dy(3+):Y2O3 phosphor has an important role in pursuing efficient future solar cells and underscores the promising potential of rare-earth phosphor in solar applications.

  18. Effect of electrolytes on the photovoltaic performance of a hybrid dye sensitized ZnO solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suri, Poonam; Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India)

    2007-03-23

    The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell depends on the number of factors such as impedance due to anions in the electrolytes, oxidation-reduction process of anions and size of cations of the electrolyte. This paper reports the effect of electrolytes on the photovoltaic performance of hybrid dye sensitized ZnO solar cells based on Eosin Y dye. The size of the cations has been varied by choosing different electrolytes such as LiBr+Br{sub 2}, LiI+I{sub 2}, tetrapropylammonium iodide +I{sub 2} in mixed solvent of acetronitrile and ethylene carbonate. The impedance of anions has been determined by electrochemical impedance spectra. It is observed that Br{sup -}/Br{sub 3}{sup -} offers high impedance as compared to I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} couple. The oxidation-reduction reactions of electrolytes are measured by linear sweep voltammogram. It is found that Br{sup -}/Br{sub 3}{sup -} is more suitable than an I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} couple in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in terms of higher open-circuit photovoltage production and higher overall energy conversion efficiency. This is attributed to more positive potential of the dye sensitizer than that of Br{sup -}/Br{sub 3}{sup -}. The gain in V{sub oc} was due to the enlarged energy level difference between the redox potential of the electrolyte and the Fermi level (E{sub f}) of ZnO and the suppressed charge recombination as well. (author)

  19. Studi Kasus Kelayakan Penerapan Sistem Hybrid Building Applied Photovoltaics (BAPV-PLN pada Atap Gedung Politeknik Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Ikhsan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the undeveloped BAPV(Building Applied Photovoltaics at Office Building and Public Facilities, Caused the high price of solar modules and the lack the economic study on the use of solar modules that housed in the Banda Aceh region. Furthermore, the price of solar modules is expensive, so people think it will cost so much funds to building a BAPV’s system. These problems could be overcomed if the existing technical studies and economic studies of the application of the BAPV’s system. This study aims to assess the application of the BAPV’s system on institutions  building in terms of technical and economic value, in this case the building that is used as the study object is the Polytechnic Aceh’s Building. The method that used in the technical studies are theoretical calculations and simulations using helioscope software, while the methods used for economic studies is using the methods of cost-benefit analysis (cost benefit analysis. The method used to find the NPV (Net Present Value, PP (Payback Period, IRR (Internal Rate of Return, and BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio. If the average value of solar radiation reaching 4.79 kWh / m2 / day and the average daily energy requirement is 592 kWh, the energy generated from BAPV-PLN hybrid system on the roof of the object building will reach the amount of 237 MWh/year with the capacity charge controller used is 7490 A and the capacity of the battery used is 64.487 Ah. Panel tilt angle used is 25o and the type of panel used is Monocrystalline manifold. From the economic value will obtained NPV value of Rp. 20.022.106.937, PP during 5,2 years, IRR of 36% and 3,49 of BCR. Based on the evaluation results of the feasibility study, the project of hybrid BAPV-PLN’s system on the roof of the Polytechnic  Aceh’s  building can be realized, because its already meet the criteria of the feasibility study to make the systems get established in real term.

  20. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  1. 25th anniversary article: a decade of organic/polymeric photovoltaic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Letian; You, Jingbi; Hong, Ziruo; Xu, Zheng; Li, Gang; Street, Robert A; Yang, Yang

    2013-12-10

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology has been developed and improved from a fancy concept with less than 1% power conversion efficiency (PCE) to over 10% PCE, particularly through the efforts in the last decade. The significant progress is the result of multidisciplinary research ranging from chemistry, material science, physics, and engineering. These efforts include the design and synthesis of novel compounds, understanding and controlling the film morphology, elucidating the device mechanisms, developing new device architectures, and improving large-scale manufacture. All of these achievements catalyzed the rapid growth of the OPV technology. This review article takes a retrospective look at the research and development of OPV, and focuses on recent advances of solution-processed materials and devices during the last decade, particular the polymer version of the materials and devices. The work in this field is exciting and OPV technology is a promising candidate for future thin film solar cells.

  2. 光伏联合发电系统的规划及地理选址%Programme and geography location of photovoltaic hybrid power generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严干贵; 谭鑫; 李军徽; 王泽辉; 高洋

    2015-01-01

    当前资源短缺的形势日益严峻,寻找新能源替代传统能源迫在眉睫,太阳能因清洁、资源丰富等特点成为了目前各国研究的热点能源. 针对光伏发电系统与风电的互补性和电源规划的问题,文章介绍了由光伏发电与其他发电相结合形成的光伏联合发电系统,讨论了光伏联合发电系统的结构和特点,在混合动力系统仿真软件HOMER的基础上建立光伏联合发电系统模型;计算系统总净成本( TNPC )然后对其进行经济性规划分析,从而找出最优配置来对系统进行规划;在地理选择方面,文中则是根据资源条件和气象数据找出更适用于光伏联合发电系统的地理位置.%As the current situation of the shortage of resources is becoming increasingly rigorous, it is extremely urgent to look for a new energy resource to replace the traditional resources.And the solar power resource is becoming a hots-pot for its advantages of clean and abundant resources.In view of the complementarity between photovoltaic power generation system and wind power generation system and the problem of power source planning, the paper discusses the characteristics and structure of photovoltaic hybrid power generation system and sets up a photovoltaic hybrid power generation system model on the basis of the hybrid system simulation software HOMER;then it calculates the total net cost of the system and analyzes the economic planning to find the optimal configuration for system progrmme.In terms of geography location, this paper finds a more suitable geography location to build photovoltaic hybrid power generation system according to the resource condition and meteorological data.

  3. Reliability of hybrid photovoltaic DC micro-grid systems for emergency shelters and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Schleith, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Improvement of energy efficiency in the SunSmart Schools Emergency Shelters requires new methods for optimizing the energy consumption within the shelters. One major limitation in current systems is the requirement of converting direct current (DC) power generated from the PV array into alternating current (AC) power which is distributed throughout the shelters. Oftentimes, this AC power is then converted back to DC to run certain appliances throughout the shelters resulting in a significant waste of energy due to DC to AC and then again AC to DC conversion. This paper seeks to extract the maximum value out of PV systems by directly powering essential load components within the shelters that already run on DC power without the use of an inverter and above all to make the system reliable and durable. Furthermore, additional DC applications such as LED lighting, televisions, computers and fans operated with DC brushless motors will be installed as replacements to traditional devices in order to improve efficiency and reduce energy consumption. Cost of energy storage technologies continue to decline as new technologies scale up and new incentives are put in place. This will provide a cost effective way to stabilize the energy generation of a PV system as well as to provide continuous energy during night hours. It is planned to develop a pilot program of an integrated system that can provide uninterrupted DC power to essential base load appliances (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) command center for disaster management. PV arrays are proposed to be installed on energy efficient test houses at FSEC as well as at private homes having PV arrays where the owners volunteer to participate in the program. It is also planned to monitor the performance of the PV arrays and functioning of the appliances with the aim to improve their reliability and durability. After a successful demonstration of the hybrid DC microgrid based emergency

  4. Research and photovoltaic industry at the United States; Recherche et industrie photovoltaique (PV) aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerouge, Ch.; Herino, R.; Delville, R.; Allegre, R

    2006-06-15

    For a big country as the United States, the solar energy can be a solution for the air quality improvement, the greenhouse gases fight and the reduction of the dependence to the imported petroleum and also for the economic growth by the increase of the employment in the solar industry sector. This document takes stock on the photovoltaic in the United States in the industrial and research domains. The american photovoltaic industry is the third behind the Japan and the Germany. (A.L.B.)

  5. The problem of the use the hybrid and photovoltaic systems in insular zones with climatic siversity in Madeira; A problematica da utilizacao de sistemas fotovoltaicos e hibridos em zonas insulares de diversidade climatica-ILHA da Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magro, J. C. E.

    2004-07-01

    Project PAUER contemplates the evaluation and utilization of renewable energy in insular zones with climatic diversity, situated on the Archipelago of Madeira. The project has three main areas of intervention: prospecting and evaluating energetic resources; creation of data bases of climatic data for application in energetic studies and other areas; the installation of twenty autonomous photovoltaic or hybrid systems in isolated localities. This communication presents some data from meteorological observations made up until the present date, following appropriate statistical analysis. Characteristics of some installed photovoltaic and hybrid systems as well as some of the principal problems encountered in the field are also given. (Author)

  6. A Coordinated Control for Photovoltaic Generators and Energy Storages in Low-Voltage AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids under Islanded Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Hou, Xiaochao; Wang, Xiaofeng;

    2016-01-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable generators can be a significant challenge due to the fluctuation of their power generation. Energy storage (ES) units are one solution to improve power supply quality and guarantee system stability. In this paper, a hybrid microgrid is built based...... on photovoltaic (PV) generator and ES; and coordinated control is proposed and developed to achieve power management in a decentralized manner. This control scheme contains three different droop strategies according to characteristics of PV and ES. First, the modified droop control is proposed for PV, which can...... for alternating current (AC)-side ES. Thus, the ES lifetime is prolonged. Moreover, interlinking converters (ICs) provide a bridge between AC/DC buses in a hybrid microgrid. The power control of IC is enabled when the AC- or DC-side suffer from active power demand shortage. In particular, if the AC microgrid does...

  7. Hybrid p-type ZnO film and n-type ZnO nanorod p-n homo-junction for efficient photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Jun Seok; Lee, Sang Hyo; Nam, Hye Won [Novel Functional Materials and Device Lab, Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jin Pyo, E-mail: jphong@hanyang.ac.k [Novel Functional Materials and Device Lab, Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Seoung Nam; Park, Young Jun; Kim, Jong Min [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 11, 1 Suwon 440-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    Simple hybrid p-n homo-junctions using p-type ZnO thin films and n-type nanorods grown on fluorine tin oxide (FTO) substrates for photovoltaic applications are described. The ZnO nanorods (1.5 {mu}m) were synthesized via an aqueous solution method with zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine on ZnO seed layers. The 10-nm-thick ZnO seed layers showed n-type conductivity on FTO substrates and were deposited with a sputtering-based method. After synthesizing ZnO nanorods, aluminum-nitride co-doped p-type ZnO films (200 nm) were efficiently grown using pre-activated nitrogen (N) plasma sources with an inductively-coupled dual-target co-sputtering system. The structural and electrical properties of hybrid p-n homo-junctions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmittance spectrophotometry, and I-V measurements.

  8. Experimental research on charging characteristics of a solar photovoltaic system by the pressure-control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua ZHU; Zhang-lu XU; Zi-juan CAO

    2011-01-01

    The charging characteristics of the valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery driven by solar energy were experimentally studied through the pressure-control method in this paper. The aims of the research were to increase charging efficiency to make the most of solar energy and to improve charging quality to prolong life of battery. The charging process of a 12 V 12 A.h VRLA battery has been tested under the mode of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. Results show that the pressure-control method can effectively control PV charging of the VRLA battery and make the best of PV cells through the maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The damage of VRLA battery by excess oxygen accumulation can be avoided through the inner pressure control of VRLA battery. Parameters such as solar radiation intensity, charging power, inner pressure of the battery, and charging current and voltage during the charging process were measured and analyzed.

  9. Photovoltaic performance of hybrid ITO/PEDOT:PSS/n-SnS/Al solar cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyal; Arun, P.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper discusses the performance of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/n-SnS/Al structured solar cells fabricated by thermal evaporation. The performance characterizing parameters such as the open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, series resistance, parallel resistance, ideality factor and the overall efficiency were found to be dependent on the SnS grain size in the nano-meter regime and incident light intensity. The experimental work directly reconfirms the theoretical results and ideas raised in the literature by early researchers.

  10. NREL PV AR&D 11th review meeting, May 13--15, 1992, Denver Marriott City Center, Denver, Colorado. Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This is a collection of abstracts from papers presented at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) research and development review meeting held May 1992. Subject areas covered include solar cell and solar module manufacturing and development, materials, polycrystalline thin films, applications, amorphous silicon, solar cell performance and testing, crystalline silicon and other photovoltaic and safety perspectives. (GHH)

  11. Development and Testing of the Glenn Research Center Visitor's Center Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed, installed, and tested a 12 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the GRC Visitor s Center. This system utilizes a unique ballast type roof mount for installing the photovoltaic panels on the roof of the Visitor s Center with no alterations or penetrations to the roof. The PV system has generated in excess of 15000 kWh since operation commenced in August 2008. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provides valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The GRC Visitor s Center grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles

  12. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  13. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2009. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented, as are activities planned for 2010. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids, PV environmental health and safety activities, performance and reliability of PV systems and high penetration PV in electricity grids. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  14. Photovoltaics - The endless spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presened. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  15. Photovoltaics: The endless spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presented. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  16. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  17. Astronomy Education: Becoming a Hybrid Researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Brogt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the experiences of a former astronomer who is making the transition to astronomy education research as an international graduate student in the United States. The article describes the author’s encounters with education research, its methodologies, and his changing research interests as he progresses through the graduate program. It also describes his experiences with the busy life of a graduate student in American academia and his experiences as an international student.

  18. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2010-06-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Photovoltaic System in Progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive update on photovoltaic (PV) technologies and the materials. In recent years, targeted research advancement has been made in the photovoltaic cell technologies to reduce cost and increase efficiency. Presently, several types of PV solar panels are commercially...... utilized and playing an important role in the market. Three generations of photovoltaic technologies are investigated and discussed; Crystalline Silicon Technology categorized as first generation of PV technology, Thin Film Technologies are second generation of PV technologies and Multi-junction Cells...... structure. Silicon remains the prominent semiconductor within photovoltaic....

  20. 76 FR 79218 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-U.S. Photovoltaic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    .... Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 14, 2011, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. (``USPVMC'') has filed written... the commercialization of next generation photovoltaic systems. Patricia A. Brink, Director of...

  1. DOE/OER-sponsored basic research in high-efficiency photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, S.K.; Benner, J.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A high-efficiency photovoltaic project involving many of the national laboratories and several universities has been initiated under the umbrella of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials. The objectives of this project are to generate advances in fundamental scientific understanding that will impact the efficiency, cost and reliability of thin-film photovoltaic cells. The project is focused on two areas. (1) Silicon-Based Thin Films, in which key scientific and technological problems involving amorphous and polycrystalline silicon thin films will be addressed, and (2) Next-Generation Thin-Film Photovoltaics, which will be concerned with the possibilities of new advances and breakthroughs in the materials and physics of photovoltaics using non-silicon-based materials.

  2. 基于混合储能的光伏微网孤网运行的综合控制策略%Comprehensive control strategy of hybrid energy storage-based photovoltaic island microgrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田慧雯; 李咸善; 陈铁; 谭思

    2014-01-01

    The output power of the photovoltaic island microgrid is intermittent and random. To ensure the reliability and stability of power supply, the idea that combines the high energy density battery with supercapacitor which has high power density to form hybrid energy storage system applied to photovoltaic (PV) microgrid becomes a research hotspot.On the basis of existing research, this paper proposes a multi-hysteresis control strategy based on energy management.The energy storage system working state can be optimized and the working life of the battery can be greatly improved by this control strategy. Using MATLAB/Simulink software, a simulation module for PV Island microgrid based on hybrid energy storage is constructed, and the control strategy of PV microgrid is verified and analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed hybrid energy storage system can balance the instantaneous power rapidly, optimize the microgrid operation, and ensure the reliability of power supply.%孤网运行的光伏微网输出功率具有间歇性和随机性。为了保证系统供电的可靠性及稳定性,将能量密度大的蓄电池和功率密度高的超级电容器构成混合储能系统应用于光伏微网的思路成为研究热点。在现有蓄电池电流多滞环控制策略的基础上进行改进,提出基于功率的储能单元控制策略。该方法优化了储能系统的工作状态,有利于提高蓄电池的工作寿命。通过 Matlab/Simulink 仿真软件搭建了基于混合储能的光伏微网孤网运行仿真模型,并对该光伏微网的控制策略进行验证和分析。结果表明,混合储能系统能迅速平衡系统的瞬时功率,优化系统运行状态,保证供电的可靠性。

  3. 78 FR 58559 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-U.S. Photovoltaic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    .... Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on August 20, 2013, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. (``USPVMC'') has filed...

  4. 78 FR 9939 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-U.S. Photovoltaic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    .... Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on January 15, 2013, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. (``USPVMC'') has filed ]...

  5. Energy Management Strategy of Wind and Photovoltaic Hybrid Power System Based on Hybrid System Theory%基于混合系统理论的风光互补发电系统能量管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青龙; 赵志洋; 娄序蕾; 施坪

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of energy management strategy based on hybrid system theory for wind and photovoltaic hybrid power system is considered from view point of power balancing. The power distribution between multiple power sources and the working mode switching law were derived. It's indicated that this method can effectively improve the stability and the whole performance of the hybrid power system. Meanwhile, this also provides us an effective method for analysis of hybrid system which consists of multiple energy sources.%基于混合系统理论.从功率平衡的观点研究了风光混合发电系统的能量管理策略,分析得出了多能量源之间的功率分配及工作模式切换律.该方法能有效提高系统稳定性和混合发电系统整体性能;同时,该方法还为多能量源混合系统的分析提供了一种有效方法.

  6. Predicting High or Low Transfer Efficiency of Photovoltaic Systems Using a Novel Hybrid Methodology Combining Rough Set Theory, Data Envelopment Analysis and Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ing Tong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become an important energy source in recent years as it generates less pollution than other energies. A photovoltaic (PV system, which typically has many components, converts solar energy into electrical energy. With the development of advanced engineering technologies, the transfer efficiency of a PV system has been increased from low to high. The combination of components in a PV system influences its transfer efficiency. Therefore, when predicting the transfer efficiency of a PV system, one must consider the relationship among system components. This work accurately predicts whether transfer efficiency of a PV system is high or low using a novel hybrid model that combines rough set theory (RST, data envelopment analysis (DEA, and genetic programming (GP. Finally, real data-set are utilized to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  7. Photovoltaic characterization of hybrid solar cells using surface modified TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and poly(3-hexyl)thiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenes, Serap [Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Physics, Davutpasa Campus, 34220, Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Marjanovic, Nenad [Plastic electronic GmbH, Rappetsederweg 28, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Nedeljkovic, Jovan M [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS), Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Strasse 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria)], E-mail: sgunes@yildiz.edu.tr

    2008-10-22

    We report on the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using novel nanoparticles of 6-palmitate ascorbic acid surface modified TiO{sub 2} as an electron acceptor embedded into the donor poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT) matrix. Devices were fabricated by using P3HT with varying amounts of red TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 w-w ratio). The devices were characterized by measuring current-voltage characteristics under simulated AM 1.5 conditions. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) was spectrally resolved. The nanoscale morphology of such organic/inorganic hybrid blends was also investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  8. Research progress of perovskite materials in photocatalysis- and photovoltaics-related energy conversion and environmental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tadé, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2015-08-07

    Meeting the growing global energy demand is one of the important challenges of the 21st century. Currently over 80% of the world's energy requirements are supplied by the combustion of fossil fuels, which promotes global warming and has deleterious effects on our environment. Moreover, fossil fuels are non-renewable energy and will eventually be exhausted due to the high consumption rate. A new type of alternative energy that is clean, renewable and inexpensive is urgently needed. Several candidates are currently available such as hydraulic power, wind force and nuclear power. Solar energy is particularly attractive because it is essentially clean and inexhaustible. A year's worth of sunlight would provide more than 100 times the energy of the world's entire known fossil fuel reserves. Photocatalysis and photovoltaics are two of the most important routes for the utilization of solar energy. However, environmental protection is also critical to realize a sustainable future, and water pollution is a serious problem of current society. Photocatalysis is also an essential route for the degradation of organic dyes in wastewater. A type of compound with the defined structure of perovskite (ABX3) was observed to play important roles in photocatalysis and photovoltaics. These materials can be used as photocatalysts for water splitting reaction for hydrogen production and photo-degradation of organic dyes in wastewater as well as for photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells and light absorbers in perovskite-based solar cells for electricity generation. In this review paper, the recent progress of perovskites for applications in these fields is comprehensively summarized. A description of the basic principles of the water splitting reaction, photo-degradation of organic dyes and solar cells as well as the requirements for efficient photocatalysts is first provided. Then, emphasis is placed on the designation and strategies for perovskite catalysts to improve their

  9. Energy research programme on photovoltaics for the 2008 - 2011 period; Energieforschungsprogramm Photovoltaik fuer die Jahre 2008 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2008-09-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the Swiss Energy Research Programme on Photovoltaics for the period 2008 - 2011. The programme is to continue the tried and tested concept of previous years and will involve all the important players in the Swiss photovoltaics area. The report reviews the situation at the international level and the situation in Switzerland. Future developments are discussed. Financing aspects are looked at and the main focal points for the period are listed, including solar cells, solar modules and building integration, electrical system technology, international co-operation and pilot and demonstration projects. In a chapter on national co-operation, competence centres and industry are looked at and co-operation with other Swiss federal and cantonal institutions as well as with private institutions and the electricity industry is reviewed. Operational aspects of the programme such as project submission and assessment, project management and controlling are discussed. Information and communication work, including seminars, conferences and the Internet are discussed. The report is concluded with lists of research and development projects as will as pilot and demonstration projects, references and internet links. Appendices include a review of photovoltaic technologies, an extract from the Swiss Energy Research Concept for 2008 - 2011, a review of the various factors and competencies involved and an overview of international programmes and networks.

  10. History of Public Policies for Research, Development and Deployment for Solar Photovoltaics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Osamu

    Developing new renewable energy sources, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), is a key to establishing climate-friendly economy. Japan has been one of the centers of research, development, and diffusion (RD&D) of PV since the 1970's. While it is true that Japan was outnumbered by Germany in installed capacity and by US and Chinese companies in production in recent years, Japan still retains an important position in the world PV market. This paper examines the history of public policies for RD&D of PV in Japan, focusing on two kinds of policies, namely, public support for R&D under the Sunshine Program and various market creation policies in the early 1990's. Based on literature survey and interviews with key persons involved, the paper reveals that those support policies played an indispensable role to accelerate RD&D of PV technology. The Sunshine Program provided stable R&D budgets and space for technology learning throughout the 1980's to 1990's, and contributed to the progress of solar cell efficiency and cost reduction. The various market creation policies in the early 1990's also created regulatory and economic conditions that were necessary to commercialize residential PV systems, and became the direct driver to launch the initial PV market.

  11. Research and development of photovoltaic power system; Taiyoko hatsuden system no jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on a demonstration research on photovoltaic power generating systems. Solar cells with an output of 750 kW, storage battery facilities with an output of 3,058 kWh, three DC-AC converters with a rating of 250 kW, and a diesel generator with an output of 300 kW having been installed up to the previous fiscal year were combined to perform comprehensive adjustments and tests such as battery charge/discharge tests and AC parallel operation tests. The battery charge/discharge tests revealed that the 10 hour rate discharge capacity meets the specifications, and the batteries are free of deterioration after a demonstration operation of about 4.5 months. Difference between the power generation record and the planned value is thought due to the following reasons: the array output data in a power line connected system come about 90% of the simulation result due to correction coefficient for the solar cell conversion efficiency; the inclined face insolation results in less by about 7% than the planned value, and the transmittable power amount less by about 14% in total; the load power amount is less by about 7% than the planned value; and the balance supplementing power factor increases by about 4%. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Nanostructured films of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for application in photovoltaics; Nanostrukturierte Filme aus anorganisch-organischen Hybridmaterialien fuer die Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlich, Jan

    2009-06-25

    Nanostructured thin films of crystalline TiO{sub 2} for applications in photovoltaics were studied. The fabrication of the thin films is based on a hybrid approach. The anorganic metal oxide prepared via a sol-gel synthesis is structurated by the template properties of the applied organic block-copolymer. Via the film epitaxy by means of centrifugal coating first hybrid films (polymer-nanocomposite films) were fabricated, which were changed by calcination into crystalline TiO{sub 2} films with taylored morphology. The successful development of novel preparation approaches to the adaption to consisting conditions in the application field of photovoltaics contains a route to the fine-tuning of the morphology as well as the fabrication of hierarchical morphologies in different configurations. The structural study of the single nanostructurated TiO{sub 2} films up to the functional multilayer arrangement as photovoltaic demonstration cell was performed with conventionally imaging methods, as for instance scanning force microscopy and electron microscopy as well as the special small-angle X-ray scattering method under rigid incident angle (GISAXS). [German] Es wurden nanostrukturierte duenne Filme aus kristallinem TiO{sub 2} fuer Anwendungen in der Photovoltaik untersucht. Die Herstellung der duennen Filme basiert auf einem Hybridansatz. Das ueber eine Sol-Gel-Synthese bereitgestellte anorganische Metalloxid wird durch die Template-Eigenschaften des eingesetzten organischen Block-Copolymers strukturiert. Ueber die Filmaufbringung mittels Schleuderbeschichtung wurden zunaechst Hybridfilme (Polymer-Nanokompositfilme) hergestellt, die durch Kalzinierung in kristalline TiO{sub 2}-Filme mit massgeschneiderter Morphologie umgewandelt werden. Die erfolgreiche Entwicklung von neuartigen Praeparationsansaetzen zur Adaption an bestehende Gegebenheiten im Anwendungsgebiet der Photovoltaik beinhaltet eine Route zur Feineinstellung der Morphologie sowie die Herstellung von

  13. Recent Advances of Solar Cells' Cooling and Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Technology%太阳电池冷却及光伏/光热一体技术的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖泽成; 秦红; 靳晓钒

    2011-01-01

    As the solar cells'photoelectric conversion efficiency decreases when their temperature rises, the cool ing of solar cells has become an important content [or photovoltaic researehes; meanwhile, this extends the concept of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T) so as to utilize the heat transfered by solar cells, which is an important development trend for new energy industry. This paper collected and sorted the solar cells'cooling methods and PV/T research achievements in recent 5 years at home and abroad, especially for flat plate solar cells combined with solar collectors, made the analysis and comparisons.%由于太阳电池光电转换效率随自身温度的升高而下降,因而对太阳电池进行冷却成为当前太阳能光伏研究的一项重要内容;同时,在太阳电池冷却的研究课题当中引申出了光伏与光热相结合(PV/T)的概念,使太阳电池转换而成的热量得以应用,这是新能源产业的一项重要发展趋势。收集并整理了近5年国内外的太阳电池冷却方法和光伏光热一体化研究成果,特别是针对平板式太阳电池组件与太阳能集热器相结合的研究文献,对其进行了分析和比较。

  14. Research on a New Control Scheme of Photovoltaic Grid Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of photovoltaic grid power generation system control scheme to solve the problems of the conventional photovoltaic grid power generation systems is presented. To aim at the oscillation and misjudgment of traditional perturbation observation method, an improved perturbation observation method comparing to the next moment power is proposed, combining with BOOST step-up circuit to realize the maximum power tracking. To counter the harmonic pollution problem in photovoltaic grid power generation system, the deadbeat control scheme in fundamental wave synchronous frequency rotating coordinate system of power grid is presented. A parameter optimization scheme based on positive feedback of active frequency shift island detection to solve the problems like the nondetection zone due to the import of disturbance in traditional island detection method is proposed. Finally, the results in simulation environment by MATLAB/Simulink simulation and experiment environment verify the validity and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  15. Research on Experiment of Islanding Protection Device of Grid-connected Photovoltaic System Based on RTDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ning; Yang, Jia; Cheng, Zheng; Chen, Bo; Su, Yong Chun; Shu, Zhan; Zou, Jin

    2017-06-01

    Solar photovoltaic power generation is the power generation using solar cell module converting sunlight into DC electric energy. In the paper an equivalent model of solar photovoltaic power generation system is built in RTDS. The main circuit structure of the two-stage PV grid-connected system consists of the DC-DC, DC-AC circuit. The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) control of the PV array is controlled by adjusting the duty ratio of the DC-DC circuit. The proposed control strategy of constant voltage/constant reactive power (V/Q) control is successfully implemented grid-connected control of the inverter when grid-connected operation. The closed-loop experiment of islanding protection device of photovoltaic power plant on RTDS, verifies the correctness of the simulation model, and the experimental verification can be applied to this type of device.

  16. Optimized design and research of secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghui; Chen, Bingzhen; Liu, Youqiang; Guo, Limin; Yao, Shun; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    As the critical component of concentrating photovoltaic module, secondary concentrators can be effective in increasing the acceptance angle and incident light, as well as improving the energy uniformity of focal spots. This paper presents a design of transmission-type secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module. The 3-D model of this design is established by Solidworks and important parameters such as inclination angle and component height are optimized using Zemax. According to the design and simulation results, several secondary microprisms with different parameters are fabricated and tested in combination with Fresnel lens and multi-junction solar cell. The sun-simulator IV test results show that the combination has the highest output power when secondary microprism height is 5mm and top facet side length is 7mm. Compared with the case without secondary microprism, the output power can improve 11% after the employment of secondary microprisms, indicating the indispensability of secondary microprisms in concentrating photovoltaic module.

  17. Research on performance of hybrid organic dyes-sensitized solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Sun; Weizheng Yuan; Dayong Qiao

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid sensitizer rhodamine B and coumarin or eosin and coumarin is used to sensitize nanocrystalline porous films. Absorption of the nanocrystalline photovoltaic cell (NPC) is improved in visible light. The performance of these cells is more effective than that of cells sensitized only by sensitizer rhodamine B or eosin. In the simulative solar light, cell sensitized by hybrid sensitizer rhodamine B and coumarin can get open circuit voltage (Voc) of 550 mV and short circuit current (Isc) of 0.1375 mA/cm2.

  18. Review on the Recent Developments of Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC Based Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T system emerged as one of the convenient type of renewable energy system acquire the ability to generate power and thermal energy in the absence of moving parts. However, the power output of PV/T is intermittent due to dependency on solar irradiation condition. Furthermore, its efficiency decreases because of cells instability at high temperature. On the other hand, fuel cell co-generation system (CGS is another technology that can generate power and heat simultaneously. Integration of PV/T and fuel cell CGS could enhance the reliability and sustainability of both systems as well as increasing the overall system performance. Hence, this paper intended to present the parameters that affect performance of PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC CGS. Moreover, recent developments on PV/T-fuel cell hybrid system are also presented. Based on literates, mass flow rate of moving fluid in PV/T was found to affect the system efficiency. For the PEMFC, when the heat is utilized, the system performance can be increased where the heat efficiency is similar to electrical efficiency which is about 50%. Recent developments of hybrid PV/T and fuel cell show that most of the studies only focus on the power generation of the system. There are less study on the both power and heat utilization which is indeed necessary in future development in term of operation strategy, optimization of size, and operation algorithm.

  19. A Coordinated Control for Photovoltaic Generators and Energy Storages in Low-Voltage AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids under Islanded Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of renewable generators can be a significant challenge due to the fluctuation of their power generation. Energy storage (ES units are one solution to improve power supply quality and guarantee system stability. In this paper, a hybrid microgrid is built based on photovoltaic (PV generator and ES; and coordinated control is proposed and developed to achieve power management in a decentralized manner. This control scheme contains three different droop strategies according to characteristics of PV and ES. First, the modified droop control is proposed for PV, which can take full utilization of renewable energy and avoid regulating output active power frequently. Second, to maintain the direct current (DC bus voltage stability, a novel droop control incorporating a constant power band is presented for DC-side ES. Third, a cascade droop control is designed for alternating current (AC-side ES. Thus, the ES lifetime is prolonged. Moreover, interlinking converters (ICs provide a bridge between AC/DC buses in a hybrid microgrid. The power control of IC is enabled when the AC- or DC-side suffer from active power demand shortage. In particular, if the AC microgrid does not satisfy the reactive power demand, IC then acts as a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is verified by simulations.

  20. Applications of surface analysis techniques to photovoltaic research: Grain and grain boundary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, L. L.

    Complementary surface analysis techniques (AES, SIMS, XPS) are applied to photovoltaic devices in order to assess the limiting factors of grain and grain boundary chemistry to the performance of polycrystalline solar cells. Results of these compositional and chemical studies are directly correlated with electrical measurements (EBIC) and with resulting device performance. Examples of grain boundary passivation in polycrystalline Si and GaAs solar cells are cited. The quality of the intragrain material used in these devices is shown to be equally important to the grain boundary activity in determining overall photovoltaic performance.

  1. Use of a hybrid computer in engineering-seismology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R.B.; Hays, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    A hybrid computer is an important tool in the seismological research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the Energy Research and Development Administration nuclear explosion testing program at the Nevada Test Site and the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. The hybrid computer system, which employs both digital and analog computational techniques, facilitates efficient seismic data processing. Standard data processing operations include: (1) preview of dubbed magnetic tapes of data; (2) correction of data for instrument response; (3) derivation of displacement and acceleration time histories from velocity recordings; (4) extraction of peak-amplitude data; (5) digitization of time histories; (6) rotation of instrumental axes; (7) derivation of response spectra; and (8) derivation of relative transfer functions between recording sites. Catalog of time histories and response spectra of ground motion from nuclear explosions and earthquakes that have been processed by the hybrid computer are used in the Earthquake Hazard Research Program to evaluate the effects of source, propagation path, and site effects on recorded ground motion; to assess seismic risk; to predict system response; and to solve system design problems.

  2. Hybrid Multi-objective Forecasting of Solar Photovoltaic Output Using Kalman Filter based Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Saima; Ahmadieh Khanesar, Mojtaba; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    Learning of fuzzy parameters for system modeling using evolutionary algorithms is an interesting topic. In this paper, two optimal design and tuning of Interval type-2 fuzzy logic system are proposed using hybrid learning algorithms. The consequent parameters of the interval type-2 fuzzy logic....../D) in the second hybrid algorithm. Root mean square error and maximum absolute error as the two accuracy objective are utilized to find the Pareto-optimal solution with the MOPSO and MOEA/D respectively. The proposed hybrid multi-objective designs of the interval type-2 fuzzy logic system are utilized...

  3. Nanostructured photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lan; Tan, H. Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Energy and the environment are two of the most important global issues that we currently face. The development of clean and sustainable energy resources is essential to reduce greenhouse gas emission and meet our ever-increasing demand for energy. Over the last decade photovoltaics, as one of the leading technologies to meet these challenges, has seen a continuous increase in research, development and investment. Meanwhile, nanotechnology, which is considered to be the technology of the future, is gradually revolutionizing our everyday life through adaptation and incorporation into many traditional technologies, particularly energy-related technologies, such as photovoltaics. While the record for the highest efficiency is firmly held by multijunction III-V solar cells, there has never been a shortage of new research effort put into improving the efficiencies of all types of solar cells and making them more cost effective. In particular, there have been extensive and exciting developments in employing nanostructures; features with different low dimensionalities, such as quantum wells, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles and quantum dots, have been incorporated into existing photovoltaic technologies to enhance their performance and/or reduce their cost. Investigations into light trapping using plasmonic nanostructures to effectively increase light absorption in various solar cells are also being rigorously pursued. In addition, nanotechnology provides researchers with great opportunities to explore the new ideas and physics offered by nanostructures to implement advanced solar cell concepts such as hot carrier, multi-exciton and intermediate band solar cells. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains selected papers on nanostructured photovoltaics written by researchers in their respective fields of expertise. These papers capture the current excitement, as well as addressing some open questions in the field, covering topics including the

  4. Fully crystalline perovskite-perylene hybrid photovoltaic cell capable of 1.2 V output with a minimized voltage loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Ishii

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A fully crystalline heterojunction of organo-metal-halide perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3−xClx (X < 0.24, and perylene constitutes a planar photovoltaic cell that yields a photovoltage exceeding 1.2 V with a single junction cell absorbing up to 800 nm. Here, perylene not only works as a hole conductor but also contributes to photovoltage as a photoconductor. The crystalline plane orientation of perovskite prepared on TiO2 was controlled by thermal annealing such that the lead halide (110 plane that participates in carrier conduction is highly oriented to enhance the photovoltaic performance. The crystal orientation improves the heterojunction structure with perylene. For the best cell with high crystalline orientation, a total voltage loss is significantly minimized to 0.32 V with respect to the absorption band gap of 1.55 eV. The planar crystal cells generate high open-circuit voltages of 1.15–1.22 V, which is close to a theoretical maximal voltage (1.25–1.3 V described by the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. The cell yielded energy conversion efficiency up to 4.96%.

  5. Hybrid polymer/TiO{sub 2} films by in situ hydrolysis condensation of titanium alkoxide precursors for photovoltaic transparent windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenas, Joel; Barlier, Vincent; Legare, Veronique-Bounor [Polymer Engineering, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5223, 43 Bd du 11 novembre, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Canut, Bruno [Lyon Institute of Nanotechnology, INSA de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5270, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Rybak, Andrzej [Polymer Engineering, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5223, 43 Bd du 11 novembre, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Department of Molecular Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Slazak, Agnieszka; Jung, Jaroslaw [Department of Molecular Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2010-07-15

    Poly(vinylcarbazole)/TiO{sub 2} hybrid thin films have been produced by the hydrolysis condensation of titanium alkoxide precursors dispersed in a polymer layer deposited on ITO substrates. Common alkoxide precursors like titanium isopropoxide [Ti({sup i}OPr){sub 4}] show a fast hydrolysis beginning during film deposition, which leads to early phase separation. A new TiO{sub 2} precursor precursor bearing carbazole groups: titanium tetrakis 9H-carbazole-9-yl-ethyl-oxy [Ti(OeCarb){sub 4}] has been used to slow down the reactivity of the precursor by a steric hindrance effect. Improved precursor dispersion in the polymer solution is obtained for this new precursor leading to an homogeneous dispersion of the TiO{sub 2} phase at the nanoscale in the hybrid film. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry has shown that the hydrolysis condensation was effective with the production of carbazol alcohol remaining trapped in the bulk of the film. This residual alcohol leads to an increase of the UV optical absorption of the PVK/TiO{sub 2} hybrid films. Improvement of the balance between the two types of photogenerated charges has been shown by surface potential decay experiments upon the formation of a TiO{sub 2} conduction network for the transport of electrons. The film is almost transparent above 350 nm opening a new route for the elaboration of semi-transparent photovoltaic glasses, which can find application on the growing market of energy efficient buildings. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Photovoltaic technology and applications: Overview for the workshop on photochemistry research opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The business surrounding photovoltaic energy conversion for terrestrial applications has changed dramatically in the last several years. It is now a business that makes money. Industry is responding. with manufacturing capacity expansions, and planned expansions, that will triple U.S. annual output within the next eighteen months. The majority of this product is exported (70%) where it is proven to be a cost competitive alternative. This industry provides experience in manufacturing and reliability in fielded systems that will serve as the basis for extrapolating growth to larger-scale installations and utility systems. The largest part of the National Photovoltaic Program budget supports assisting industry in advancing manufacturing technology and stimulating applications to reduce cost and expand the evolving industry. A growing segment of society looks to photovoltaics as an alternative that may be needed to replace conventional electric generating capacity. The grand challenge for photovoltaics is to make the technology economically competitive for large scale electric power generation before real or perceived evidence of environmental damage from conventional sources dictates its use at economically disruptive costs.

  7. Research Progress of utilization in Solar Photovoltaic and Photothermal%太阳能光伏光热利用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 陈林

    2015-01-01

    Solar is the new renewable energy that we have been trying to develop, the mature solar photovoltaic technology that related to solar energy are mainly photovoltaic power generation and solar water heaters, etc. This paper explained research progress of the utilization of solar photovoltaic solar thermal through the analysis of utilization of solar photovoltaic solar thermal.%太阳能是我们一直在尽力开发的、全新的可再生能源,目前发展比较成熟的、与太阳能有关的主要有太阳能光伏发电技术、太阳能热水器等,通过分析太阳能光伏光热的利用情况,说明太阳能光伏光热利用的研究进展。

  8. Design of a Glenn Research Center Solar Field Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) designed, developed, and installed, a 37.5 kW DC photovoltaic (PV) Solar Field in the GRC West Area in the 1970s for the purpose of testing PV panels for various space and terrestrial applications. The PV panels are arranged to provide a nominal 120 VDC. The GRC Solar Field has been extremely successful in meeting its mission. The PV panels and the supporting electrical systems are all near their end of life. GRC has designed a 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system to replace the existing GRC West Area Solar Field. The 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system will provide DC solar power for GRC PV testing applications, and provide AC facility power for all times that research power is not required. A grid-tied system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility for use by all. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. The report concludes that the GRC West Area grid-tied PV power system design is viable for a reliable

  9. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  10. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  11. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  12. Three-dimensional morphology of CuInS2:P3HT hybrid blends for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christopher; Scheunemann, Dorothea; Parisi, Jürgen; Borchert, Holger

    2015-11-01

    Despite potential advantages, the performance of hybrid solar cells with colloidal nanocrystals remains low compared to pure organic solar cells, in particular, when Cd- and Pb-free nanocrystals are employed. To understand this discrepancy, we analyzed possible limiting factors of the performance of hybrid solar cells with CuInS2 nanoparticles and the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Optimizing the thickness of the active layer indicated that charge transport limits the performance of the solar cells. Since charge transport is among others influenced by the morphology of the bulk heterojunction layer, we performed a detailed analysis of the blend morphology. Therefore, we used electron tomography which provides three-dimensional information on the interpenetrating network formed by the hybrid CuInS2:P3HT system. Using statistical methods, we analyzed the distribution of the nanoparticles inside the polymer matrix and the structure of the percolation paths. We found that the morphology appears well suited for application in hybrid solar cells, meaning that other factors must be the bottleneck. Therefore, we investigated in a second step the influence of a post-deposition ligand exchange with acetic acid. This strategy resulted in a strong relative improvement of the solar cell performance, although absolute performance parameters remain low in comparison to hybrid solar cells with colloidal cadmium or lead chalcogenide nanocrystals.

  13. Three-dimensional morphology of CuInS{sub 2}:P3HT hybrid blends for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Christopher; Scheunemann, Dorothea, E-mail: dorothea.scheunemann@uni-oldenburg.de; Parisi, Jürgen; Borchert, Holger [Institute of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2015-11-28

    Despite potential advantages, the performance of hybrid solar cells with colloidal nanocrystals remains low compared to pure organic solar cells, in particular, when Cd- and Pb-free nanocrystals are employed. To understand this discrepancy, we analyzed possible limiting factors of the performance of hybrid solar cells with CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles and the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Optimizing the thickness of the active layer indicated that charge transport limits the performance of the solar cells. Since charge transport is among others influenced by the morphology of the bulk heterojunction layer, we performed a detailed analysis of the blend morphology. Therefore, we used electron tomography which provides three-dimensional information on the interpenetrating network formed by the hybrid CuInS{sub 2}:P3HT system. Using statistical methods, we analyzed the distribution of the nanoparticles inside the polymer matrix and the structure of the percolation paths. We found that the morphology appears well suited for application in hybrid solar cells, meaning that other factors must be the bottleneck. Therefore, we investigated in a second step the influence of a post-deposition ligand exchange with acetic acid. This strategy resulted in a strong relative improvement of the solar cell performance, although absolute performance parameters remain low in comparison to hybrid solar cells with colloidal cadmium or lead chalcogenide nanocrystals.

  14. Dimensioning of a photovoltaic-wind hybrid system in UFRJ campus of the Ilha do Fundao; Dimensionamento de um sistema hibrido eolico-fotovoltaico na UFRJ Campus Ilha do Fundao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: silvioa@gmail.com; Santos, Rodrigo Zimmer de Abreu; Argolo, Felipe Henrique Bohm; Danziger, Fernando Artur Ragoni; Sollero, Luiz Paulo Vervloet; Castro, Marcial Pereira Saboya de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial], e-mail: rodzimmer@gmail.com, e-mail: felipeargolo@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: ragonziger@gmail.com, e-mail: lpsollero@gmail.com, e-mail: marcial.saboya@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    A techno-economic analysis of a grid connected photovoltaic-wind hybrid energy system is done in the present paper. The set-up consists of photovoltaic solar-cell arrays, wind generators, a lead acid storage batteries and an inverter unit to convert DC power to AC power. The study has been performed with the simulation tool HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for techno-economical feasibility studies of hybrid systems. The system is connected to the electrical grid in order to supply all the electrical energy demand of the Technological Centre of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Many systems configurations have been considered and it was possible to simulate the hourly operation of each system and to calculate technical, economic and environmental performance parameters. The best configuration is a Fuhrlander 30 wind generator, associated to a photovoltaic system to reach the generation of 96% of the energy demand by means of renewable sources. (author)

  15. Experimental Investigation of Single Pass, Double Duct Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T) Air Collector with CPC and Fins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. E.A. Alfegi; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Y.H. Othman; Baharudin B. Yatim

    2008-01-01

    ...) with the photovoltaic module. Such unit is called photovoltaic/thermal collector (pv/t) or hybrid (pv/t). An experimental investigation of a solar air heater with photovoltaic cell located at the absorber with compound parabolic collector...

  16. 78 FR 37572 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-U.S. Photovoltaic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    .... Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 21, 2013, pursuant to Section 6... Act''), U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. (``USPVMC'') has filed written...

  17. Organic photovoltaic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Nelson

    2002-05-01

    The last two years have seen an unprecedented growth of interest in solar cells made from organic electronic materials. This is partly due to the rapid growth of the photovoltaic market1, which has stimulated research into longer term, more innovative photovoltaic technologies, and partly to the development of organic electronic materials for display applications. The rapid progress in optoelectronic molecular materials has introduced a range of potential new photovoltaic materials, as well as an improved understanding of the capabilities of such materials and confidence in their application2.

  18. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rafael S; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The "color" of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  19. 太阳能光伏光热一体化系统运行实验研究%Experimental Study of Hybrid Photovoltaic - thermal Solar System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆志君; 关欣; 刘鹏

    2009-01-01

    太阳能光伏光热一体化系(hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar system-PVT系统)作为一种利用太阳能同时获得电收益和热收益的新型能源利用方式,近年来受到学者的广泛关注.本文搭建了PVT系统电、热性能综合实验台,通过全天实验,分别研究和分析了系统的温度特性与相对电效率的关系.结果表明,在日照条件较好,系统循环水温较低的情况下,PVT系统的电效率与普通光伏电池相比可以提高约7%.同时,文章还分析了PVT系统内水的温度一天内的变化情况,提出了在午后太阳辐射强度逐渐减弱,环境温度逐渐升高时如何保持PVT系统较高电效率的方法.

  20. New N-Type Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01

    This CRADA will develop improved thin film organic solar cells using a new n-type semiconducting polymer. High efficiency photovoltaics (PVs) based on inorganic semiconductors have good efficiencies (up to 30%) but are extremely expensive to manufacture. Organic PV technology has the potential to overcome this problem through the use of high-throughput production methods like reel-to-reel printing on flexible substrates. Unfortunately, today's best organic PVs have only a few percent efficiency, a number that is insufficient for virtually all commercial applications. The limited choice of stable n-type (acceptor) organic semiconductor materials is one of the key factors that prevent the further improvement of organic PVs. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) previously developed a new class of electron-deficient (n-type) conjugated polymers for use in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). During this project TDA in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will incorporate these electron-deficient polymers into organic photovoltaics and investigate their performance. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing new materials and polymers to improve the performance of organic solar cells. Materials being developed at TDA include spin coated transparent conductors, charge injection layers, fullerene derivatives, electron-deficient polymers, and three-phase (fullerene/polythiophene/dye) active layer inks.

  1. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  2. Highly efficient hybrid photovoltaics based on hyperbranched three-dimensional TiO2 electron transporting materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2015-03-23

    A 3D hyperbranched TiO2 electron transporting material is demonstrated, which exhibits superior carrier transport and lifetime, as well as excellent infiltration, leading to highly efficient mesostructured hybrid solar cells, such as lead-halide perovskites (15.5%) and dye-sensitized solar cells (11.2%). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Performance Characterisation of a Hybrid Flat-Plate Vacuum Insulated Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Power Module in Subtropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Y. A. Oyieke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A flat-plate Vacuum Insulated Photovoltaic and Thermal (VIPV/T system has been thermodynamically simulated and experimentally evaluated to assess the thermal and electrical performance as well as energy conversion efficiencies under a subtropical climate. A simulation model made of specified components is developed in Transient Systems (TRNSYS environment into which numerical energy balance equations are implemented. The influence of vacuum insulation on the system’s electrical and thermal yields has been evaluated using temperatures, current, voltage, and power flows over daily and annual cycles under local meteorological conditions. The results from an experiment conducted under steady-state conditions in Durban, South Africa, are compared with the simulation based on the actual daily weather data. The VIPV/T has shown improved overall and thermal efficiencies of 9.5% and 16.8%, respectively, while electrical efficiency marginally reduced by 0.02% compared to the conventional PV/T. The simulated annual overall efficiency of 29% (i.e., 18% thermal and 11% electrical has been realised, in addition to the solar fraction, overall exergy, and primary energy saving efficiencies of 39%, 29%, and 27%, respectively.

  4. Economic evaluation and optimization of a photovoltaic-fuel cell-batteries hybrid system for use in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio B. [Federal Institute of Tocantins, Palmas, Tocantins 77021-090 (Brazil); De Oliveira, Marco A.G.; Severino, Mauro M. [GSEP - Group of Electric Power Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Brasilia, DF 70919-970 (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The lack of electric power in isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon region has become one of the barriers to economic and social development. Currently, the main technologies that provide electric power to these communities are diesel generators. This non-renewable energy source, besides causing serious problems to the environment and human health, have high maintenance and operational costs. This paper presents a study on the use of photovoltaic and fuel cells for continuous supply of electric power. The paper outlines the technical and costs characteristics of a pilot project set up in an environmental protection area, located in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. The pilot project uses solar energy as the primary electric power production source. Surplus energy stored in the hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water is later transformed into electric power by the fuel cells during periods when there is little or no sunlight. A comparative study between the technologies and potential configurations meeting the needs of isolated communities in the Amazon through simulations based on HOMER software are presented. As result, this paper outlines some policies to promote the use of renewable energy sources in isolated areas in Brazil derived from the pilot project. (author)

  5. A hybrid solar photovoltaic-wind turbine-Rankine cycle for electricity generation in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy demand model by designing a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power generation system of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a promising substitute for the expensive battery banks. The study models the future energy demand of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus based on the IPCC emissions scenario A1B and A2 by designing a new hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system that satisfies the current and future requirements of firm capacity during peak periods. The study suggests an improvement in a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system performance by predicting reliable outputs that can integrate renewable energy technologies to conventional power generation. The energy consumption prediction model emphasizes the energy requirement that has a growing demand from 300 to 400 GWh in scenario A1B and 150–450 GWh in scenario A2 from 2010 to 2050. The proposed design can meet 400 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A1B and 450 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A2. The percentage contribution of solar, wind and thermal energy for 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 are presented along with CO2 emissions and water consumption for each of the years.

  6. The DOE photovoltaics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The considered program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has the objective to provide federal support for research and development work related to photovoltaics. According to definitions of policy in 1981, a strong emphasis is to be placed on long-term, high-risk research and development that industry could not reasonably be expected to perform using their own funds. Attention is given to the program structure, the photovoltaics program management organization, the advanced research and development subprogram, the collector research and development subprogram, flat-plate collectors, concentrator collectors, and the systems research and technology subprogram.

  7. Research on Modulation Strategies Based on Multilevel Inverter Universal Hybrid Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jinghua; Su Yanmin; Shen Chuanwen; Zhang Lin

    2005-01-01

    Based on multi-module-cascaded inverter topology, this study presented a universal multilevel inverter hybrid topology and unified the researches on multilevel inverter topology. According to the freedom of this universal topology, several new hybrid topologies were constructed. Also, based on conventional modulation strategies- multi-carrier SPWM (Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation), hybrid modulation strategies were introduced corresponding to hybrid topologies, and a multilevel SVPWM (Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation) technique based on phase-shifted theory was naturally produced. Simulation and experiment results prove that hybrid topologies and corresponding modulation strategies are valid, which lay a foundation for practical application of hybrid multilevel inverter topologies.

  8. Production and Characterization of Novel Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Marvin [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-07

    This project has three major objectives: exploring the potential nanostructured materials in photovoltaic applications; providing photovoltaic research experiences to NCCU students, who are largely members of underrepresented minority groups; and enhancing the photovoltaic research infrastructure at NCCU to increase faculty and student competitiveness. Significant progress was achieved in each of these areas during the project period, as summarized in this report.

  9. Baseline Testing of the Ultracapacitor Enhanced Photovoltaic Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing an advanced ultracapacitor enhanced photovoltaic power station. Goals of this effort include maximizing photovoltaic power generation efficiency and extending the life of photovoltaic energy storage systems. Unique aspects of the power station include the use of a solar tracker, and ultracapacitors for energy storage. The photovoltaic power station is seen as a way to provide electric power in remote locations that would otherwise not have electric power, provide independence form utility systems, reduce pollution, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB), and the E-Bike. The power station complements the E-Bike extremely well in that it permits the charging of the vehicle batteries in remote locations. Other applications include scientific research and medical power sources in isolated regions. The power station is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in power technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the ultracapacitor enhanced power station, the results of performance testing and future power station development plans is the subject of this report. The report concludes that the ultracapacitor enhanced power station provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  10. 适用于光伏发电系统的混合级联式逆变器%Hybrid cascaded inverter for photovoltaic generation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓楠; 孙凯; 马毅为; 黄立培

    2011-01-01

    An improved single-phase hybrid cascaded inverter was developed using MOSFET/IGBT to give a high converting efficiency for photovoltaic (PV) generation systems. The inverter has three H-bridges, with series-connected AC sides and isolated DC sides.The DC voltages are in the ratio of 1: 2: 4. The high voltage and middle voltage H-bridges are based on an IGBT, while the low voltage H-bridge is based on a MOSFET. The low switching frequency provides more output voltage levels at the AC side in the hybrid cascaded inverter, which improves the efficiency. The hybrid power switches effectively utilized the advantages of each kind of device to enable a flexible operation of the inverter system. The voltage graduational method and the pulse width modulation (PWM)carrier method are used in the implemented prototype. The results are evaluated based on the AC output waveforms and the main power circuit efficiency. The effectivenesses of the inverter system and the two modulation methods are validated by simulations and tests.%为了适应光伏发电系统中对于高效率逆变器的需要,提出了一种基于MOSFET和IGBT的改进型单相混合级联式逆变器,其由3个H桥逆变器输出串联组成,直流侧相互独立,电压取值满足1:2:4的关系.其中,高压H桥和中压H桥由IGBT构成,而低压H桥由MOSFET构成.上述混合级联式逆变器结构可以在较低的开关频率下实现交流侧多电平输出,以提高光伏系统的效率,同时可以有效地发挥不同开关器件的优势,实现逆变器的灵活运行.该文分别采用电压阶梯调制和载波脉宽调制实现了混合级联式逆变器的可靠运行,并对二者进行了比较.通过仿真和实验方法,给出了交流侧输出电压和电流的波形,并对主回路效率进行了评估,验证了上述逆交器结构和调制策略的有效性.

  11. Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an overview of photovoltaic cells that are currently manufactured and those being developed, including one or several p-n junction, organic and dye-sensitized cells using quantum dots. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of various photovoltaic cells, identifies the main parameters, explains the main reasons for the losses that may occur in photovoltaic cells and looks at the ways to minimize them.Article in Lithuanian

  12. 光储联合发电系统控制策略%Control strategies for a photovoltaic-Energy storage hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志强; 孟良; 梁宾; 唐宝锋; 范辉; 孙中记

    2013-01-01

    Due to weather conditions, the output power of Photovoltaic (PV) systems often experience significant fluctuation. The PV power is therefore neither a constant voltage source nor a constant current source. This can lead to a series of issues when connected to a power grid including power surge, requirement of more spinning reserve capacity and difficulties in participating power grid dispatching. The use of energy storage could improve the quality of PV output via controlling the power output. In this article, a Photovoltaic-Energy Storage Hybrid System is proposed and topology diagram and a control strategy are presented. A power converter system (PCS) is designed and analyzed for the energy storage system. These are validated through simulation using operation data of a real PV power station.%  受光照、温度等自然条件影响,光伏电源输出有功功率具有较大的波动性。因此,本身既非恒压源又非恒流源的光伏电源并网运行时会产生一系列问题,如对电网冲击性大、需增加旋转备用容量、难以参与电网调度等。利用电池储能系统来控制有功功率输出,可以使平滑光伏电源功率波动成为可能。研究了光储联合发电系统的运行模式,提出了适用于光储联合发电系统的拓扑结构和控制策略,并对储能用功率转换系统(PCS)进行了分析和设计,最后基于某光伏电站的实际历史运行数据,对所提出的方案进行仿真研究,仿真结果验证了光储联合发电系统控制策略的有效性和可行性,为光储联合运行示范工程提供了一定的理论依据和有力借鉴。

  13. 离网型风光互补发电系统多模态能量控制与管理%Multi-Mode Energy Control and Management for Stand-Alone Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皇甫宜耿; 安晓彤; 马瑞卿; 骆光照

    2013-01-01

      离网型风光互补发电系统是一种合理配置新能源的独立电源系统,由于自然界中风能、太阳能出现的不可预测性,以及负载、储能状态的随机性,提出一种基于风光互补发电系统多模态能量流的分析法,研究了各模态及模态间转化特性,给出了四种典型状态下风光互补发电系统的能量控制及管理。采用闭环电压控制使风力发电通道和光伏发电通道输出电压恒定,为用电设备和储能元件提供安全可靠的电能。通过 MATLAB /Simulink 软件对离网型风光互补发电系统多模态能量控制进行了仿真,结果表明离网型风光互补发电系统工作可靠,验证了多模态分析法的有效性。%A Stand-alone wind-photovoltaic hybrid power system allocates new energy resources reasonably and in -dependently.But the appearance of wind energy and solar energy is unpredictable , and their loading and storage states are random.Therefore, we analyze the flow of the multi-mode energy of the stand -alone wind-photovoltaic hy-brid power system.We study its mode and modal transformation and then control and manage the energy in its four typical modes.We use the closed-loop voltage control to make sure that the output voltage of a wind turbine and the photovoltaic-generated power are stable and that the power supply for electrical equipment and electricity -storage components is safe and reliable.We use the MATLAB /Simulink to simulate the control of the multi -mode energy of the stand-alone wind-photovoltaic hybrid power system .The simulation results, give in Figs.4, 5 and 6, and their analysis show preliminarily that the stand -alone wind-photovoltaic hybrid power system can work reliably , verifying that our multi-mode analysis method is effective .

  14. Building Integrated Photovoltaics: A Concise Description of the Current State of the Art and Possible Research Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV offer an aesthetical, economical and technical solution to integrate solar cells harvesting solar radiation to produce electricity within the climate envelopes of buildings. Photovoltaic (PV cells may be mounted above or onto the existing or traditional roofing or wall systems. However, BIPV systems replace the outer building envelope skin, i.e., the climate screen, hence serving simultanously as both a climate screen and a power source generating electricity. Thus, BIPV may provide savings in materials and labor, in addition to reducing the electricity costs. Hence, for the BIPV products, in addition to specific requirements put on the solar cell technology, it is of major importance to have satisfactory or strict requirements of rain tightness and durability, where building physical issues like e.g., heat and moisture transport in the building envelope also have to be considered and accounted for. This work, from both a technological and scientific point of view, summarizes briefly the current state-of-the-art of BIPV, including both BIPV foil, tiles, modules and solar cell glazing products, and addresses possible research pathways for BIPV in the years to come.

  15. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loferski, J.J. (ed.)

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  16. Design and feasibility of high temperature nanoparticle fluid filter in hybrid thermal/photovoltaic concentrating solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Drew; Brekke, Nick; Tunkara, Ebrima; Hari, Parameswar; Roberts, Kenneth; Otanicar, Todd

    2015-09-01

    A nanoparticle fluid filter used with concentrating hybrid solar/thermal collector design is presented. Nanoparticle fluid filters could be situated on any given concentrating system with appropriate customized engineering. This work shows the design in the context of a trough concentration system. Geometric design and physical placement in the optical path was modeled using SolTrace. It was found that a design can be made that blocks 0% of the traced rays. The nanoparticle fluid filter is tunable for different concentrating systems using various PV cells or operating at varying temperatures.

  17. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  18. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  19. A natural driven membrane process for brackish and wastewater treatment: photovoltaic powered ED and FO hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-17

    In isolated locations, remote areas, or islands, potable water is precious because of the lack of drinking water treatment facilities and energy supply. Thus, a robust and reliable water treatment system based on natural energy is needed to reuse wastewater or to desalinate groundwater/seawater for provision of drinking water. In this work, a hybrid membrane system combining electrodialysis (ED) and forward osmosis (FO), driven by renewable energy (solar energy), denoted as EDFORD (ED-FO Renewable energy Desalination), is proposed to produce high-quality water (potable) from secondary wastewater effluent or brackish water. In this hybrid membrane system, feedwater (secondary wastewater effluent or synthetic brackish water) was drawn to the FO draw solution while the organic and inorganic substances (ions, compounds, colloids and particles) were rejected. The diluted draw solution was then pumped to the solar energy driven ED. In the ED unit, the diluted draw solution was desalted and high-quality water was produced; the concentrate was recycled to the FO unit and reused as the draw solution. Results show that the water produced from this system contains a low concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and cations derived from the feedwater; had a low conductivity; and meets potable water standards. The water production cost considering the investment for membranes and solar panel is 3.32 to 4.92 EUR m(-3) (for 300 days of production per year) for a small size potable water production system.

  20. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  1. Building a Hybrid Experimental Platform for Mobile Botnet Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Malatras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile botnets are an emerging security threat that aims at exploiting the wide penetration of mobile devices and systems and their vulnerabilities in the same spirit of traditional botnets. Mobile botmasters take advantage of infected mobile devices and issue command and control operations on them to extract personal information, cause denial of service or gain financially. To date, research on countering such attacks or studying their effects has been conducted in a sporadic manner that hinders the repetition of experiments and thus limits their validity. We present here our work on a hybrid experimental platform for mobile botnets that supports the execution and monitoring of related scenarios concerning their infection, attack vectors, propagation, etc. The platform is based on principles of flexibility, extensibility and facilitates the setup of scalable experiments utilising both real and emulated mobile systems. We also discuss a novel method of estimating the active bot population in a botnet and illustrate its deployment on the experimental platform.

  2. 光伏储能一体化系统的研究及运用%Research and Application of Photovoltaic Energy Storage Integrated System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢仲华; 康丽惠; 莫海宁

    2016-01-01

    The article is based on typies and application of photovoltaic energy storage integrated system to introduce its technology, design principle and demonstration application. It also popularizes related research results in distributed photovoltaic system.%从光伏储能一体化系统的种类和应用入手,分别介绍它的技术、设计原理和示范应用,并将相关研究成果在分布式光伏系统中推广。

  3. Discussion on energy utilization pattern of hydro-photovoltaic hybrid in Ngari area of Tibet%西藏阿里地区水光互补能源利用模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建兵; 罗洋涛; 冯宇

    2016-01-01

    Based on the development and utilization condition of energy and resources and power energy demand in the Ngari area of Tibet, possible power supply schemes were studied. A clean energy utilization hybrid model of a reservoir power station and photovoltaic plant is proposed through comprehensive comparison of power system requirements, operation and maintenance, environmental protection, and economics. The system structure, power generation characteristics, and operation effect of this hydro-photovoltaic hybrid system are analyzed. The results show that the complementary power-generating characteristic of the energy utilization pattern using the reservoir power station and photovoltaic plant is beneficial to photovoltaic power consumption and power network safety operation.%根据西藏阿里地区各类能源资源开发利用条件和系统用电需求,研究可能的能源电力供应方案;通过对各方案在满足电力系统需求、运行维护、环境保护及经济性等方面的综合比较,提出“调节水库电站+光伏”互补运行的清洁能源利用模式,并对该地区水光互补系统的构成、发电特性、运行效果等方面进行分析,结果表明该模式利用调节水库电站与光伏双向互补发电特性有利于并网光伏电能消纳及电网安全稳定运行。

  4. Structural and electronic properties of hybrid perovskites for high-efficiency thin-film photovoltaics from first-principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Brivio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of perovskite solar cells recently exceeded 15% solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency for small-area devices. The fundamental properties of the active absorber layers, hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites formed from mixing metal and organic halides [e.g., (NH4PbI3 and (CH3NH3PbI3], are largely unknown. The materials are semiconductors with direct band gaps at the boundary of the first Brillouin zone. The calculated dielectric constants and band gaps show an orientation dependence, with a low barrier for rotation of the organic cations. Due to the electric dipole of the methylammonium cation, a photoferroic effect may be accessible, which could enhance carrier collection.

  5. Development of emergency backup power system using photovoltaic/wind hybrid power source in unmanned relay broadcasting station; Mujin chukei hosojo ni okeru taihoko/furyoku hybrid dengen wo mochiita hijo yobi dengen system no kaihatsu. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S.; Takanaga, T. [Kandenko Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sugimoto, T.; Fujiwara, S. [Japan Broadcasting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    An examination was made on the application of photovoltaic and wind power generation as an emergency backup power source. In this connection, the designing/manufacturing was carried out for a field demonstration test system, and also a simulation was carried out concerning the system performance. In the structure of the hybrid power source, a wind power generator is parallelly connected to a solar cell through a DC/DC converter for adjusting output voltage. It is further parallelly connected to an existing power system through a switch, supplying power to storage batteries or a broadcasting equipment. The result of the simulation revealed that, in the static characteristics, there was an output from the wind power generation if the wind velocity was 2.4m/s or above, but that a discharge from storage batteries was necessary even in the maximum performance of the wind power generation if the intensity of solar radiation was less than approximately 0.5kW/m{sup 2}. In the dynamic characteristics, an evaluation was made on the length of time of the on-load power supply after a power failure of the system in comparison with the conventional length, depending on the conditions of the wind. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Photovoltaic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell module including a plurality of serially connected photovoltaic cells on a common substrate, each including a first electrode, a printed light-harvesting layer and a printed second electrode, wherein at least one of the electrodes is transparent, and wherein the second electrode...

  7. Photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  8. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  9. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  10. Research of MPPT for photovoltaic generation based on two-dimensional cloud model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuping; Fan, Wei

    2013-03-01

    The cloud model is a mathematical representation to fuzziness and randomness in linguistic concepts. It represents a qualitative concept with expected value Ex, entropy En and hyper entropy He, and integrates the fuzziness and randomness of a linguistic concept in a unified way. This model is a new method for transformation between qualitative and quantitative in the knowledge. This paper is introduced MPPT (maximum power point tracking, MPPT) controller based two- dimensional cloud model through analysis of auto-optimization MPPT control of photovoltaic power system and combining theory of cloud model. Simulation result shows that the cloud controller is simple and easy, directly perceived through the senses, and has strong robustness, better control performance.

  11. 光伏和储能并网物理数字混合仿真实验系统方案%A Physical Digital Hybrid Simulation Experimental Scheme for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Grid-connected System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟超; 吴涛; 刘平; 沈宇; 刘辉; 王丰

    2013-01-01

    分析了物理数字混合仿真的原理,介绍了一种由光伏阵列、储能电池和RTDS实时数字仿真系统等设备共同组成的仿真实验平台.将实际的光伏电站特征信息接入数字仿真系统,研究光伏电站接入电网后系统稳定特性的变化.对混合仿真系统中物理数字接口进行了详细说明,提出了混合仿真实验的流程,通过实例验证了方案的正确性.%This paper analyzes the principle of hybrid simulation, and introduces an experiment simulation environment which is composed of the photovoltaic array, storage batteries and the real-time digital simulation (RTDS) system. The aim of this environment is to study the changes in grid stability characteristics after the access of photovoltaic (PV) power station to the grid by transmitting the real attribute information of PV power station to RTDS. The interface between real equipment and RTDS in the hybrid simulation system is explained in detail. The process of hybrid simulation experiment is proposed. The solution is verified by experimental results.

  12. Research on a New Hybrid System of a Tyre Crane Using Supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; GAO Xiao-hong; HU Yi

    2008-01-01

    Research on a hybrid system of a crane is a focus which considers environmental protection and energy saving.A new environmental protection and energy saving hybrid system of tyre crane.which utilizes supercapacitors as the energy store device,is presented.Analyzing the pdneiple of supercapacitors,the model of the crane's hybrid system is set up in this paper,and the model of main blocks are established.Through simulation analyzing,the energy saving result of the new hybrid system is obtained,and the good application value of the new hybrid system is explained.

  13. Hybrid InGaAs quantum well-dots nanostructures for light-emitting and photo-voltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintairov, S. A.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.; Lantratov, V. M.; Maximov, M. V.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Rouvimov, Sergei; Zhukov, A. E.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid quantum well-dots (QWD) nanostructures have been formed by deposition of 7-10 monolayers of In0.4Ga0.6As on a vicinal GaAs surface using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and photocurrent analysis have shown that such structures represent quantum wells comprising three-dimensional (quantum dot-like) regions of two kinds. At least 20 QWD layers can be deposited defect-free providing high gain/absorption in the 0.9-1.1 spectral interval. Use of QWD media in a GaAs solar cell resulted in a photocurrent increment of 3.7 mA cm-2 for the terrestrial spectrum and by 4.1 mA cm-2 for the space spectrum. Diode lasers based on QWD emitting around 1.1 μm revealed high saturated gain and low transparency current density of about 15 cm-1 and 37 A cm-2 per layer, respectively.

  14. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  15. Hybrid InGaAs quantum well-dots nanostructures for light-emitting and photo-voltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintairov, S A; Kalyuzhnyy, N A; Lantratov, V M; Maximov, M V; Nadtochiy, A M; Rouvimov, Sergei; Zhukov, A E

    2015-09-25

    Hybrid quantum well-dots (QWD) nanostructures have been formed by deposition of 7-10 monolayers of In0.4Ga0.6As on a vicinal GaAs surface using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and photocurrent analysis have shown that such structures represent quantum wells comprising three-dimensional (quantum dot-like) regions of two kinds. At least 20 QWD layers can be deposited defect-free providing high gain/absorption in the 0.9-1.1 spectral interval. Use of QWD media in a GaAs solar cell resulted in a photocurrent increment of 3.7 mA cm(-2) for the terrestrial spectrum and by 4.1 mA cm(-2) for the space spectrum. Diode lasers based on QWD emitting around 1.1 μm revealed high saturated gain and low transparency current density of about 15 cm(-1) and 37 A cm(-2) per layer, respectively.

  16. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  17. Research of IDSS Architecture Based on Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Biao; YANG Bao-an

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the necessity of building IDSS on hybrid systems, and adopts XML technology to manage isomeric knowledge in hybrid systems. The paper proposes a new architecture of hybrid systems based IDSS whose core system is isomeric knowledge system. The architecture is composed of knowledge component, problems processing system, data component and intelligent user interface. This new architecture aims to enhance the capability of integrating hybrid systems, to improve the supporting effectiveness of decision-making and the intelligent level of IDSS, and tries a new way to elevate the system's ability of handling and learning knowledge.

  18. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  19. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.

    1979-09-30

    The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop the hybrid vehicles and to determine R and D priorities. It was concluded that by the year 2010 hybrid vehicles could replace 80% of the automotive power that would otherwise be produced from petroleum fuels; the public should not suffer any mobility loss through the use of hybrid vehicles; high initial and life-cycle costs are a limiting factor; and R and D funds should be spent for systems design and the development of low-cost batteries and controllers. (LCL)

  20. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  1. Sponge-like structures for application in photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlich, Jan; Kaune, Gunar; Memesa, Mine; Gutmann, Jochen S; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2009-05-13

    Large surface areas at an interface between two different materials are desired in many research fields where the interaction between these materials significantly affects the performance of the physical system. This behaviour is illustrated on sponge-like structures, which assign for such a high surface area, and demonstrate the development from bulk material to thin films and a variety of applications. The focus is on sponge-like nanostructures consisting of a network of aggregated titania nanoparticles applied in hybrid structures for photovoltaics. Examples based on a sol-gel process for the preparation of titania nanostructures in thin films, mimicking the sponge morphology, are shown. In general, titania films are widely used in photovoltaics, contributing to a large surface area available for interfacial reactions, e.g. charge carrier transfer routes. Interpenetrating networks with dimensions matching exciton diffusion lengths in the polymer component of a hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic structure are highly desirable. To characterize the fabricated morphology, atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy are employed in real space. The advanced scattering technique of grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering complements the characterization in reciprocal space. From the obtained results, the sponge-like morphology is verified, a physical description of the morphology with statistical relevance is constructed and the successful complete filling of the network is shown. According to this description, the presented sponge-like titania nanostructures are well suited for use in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

  2. Design and research of focusable secondary microprism in concentrating photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Limin; Liu, Youqiang; Zhao, Guoming; Wang, Zhiyong

    2017-09-01

    Low tracking accuracy of tracker, wind induced vibration of structure and lens deformation by temperature lead to non-vertical incident irradiation to the Fresnel lens, which necessitates a secondary concentrator in actual engineering application of concentrating photovoltaic module. This paper adds a secondary focusable microprism between Fresnel lens and solar cells in order to improve optical efficiency. The 3D model of microprism is established by SOLIDWORDS and main parameters are optimized using ZEMAX. Results show that combination of Fresnel lens and focusable microprism achieves a higher energy when the secondary microprism upper spherical diameter is 18mm, the opposite side face included angle is 116°, and the side length of the bottom is 2.15mm. The highest energy of solar cell surface can reach 2.4998W, improving 33.2%, and the module height with the secondary microprism is 88mm, which reduces by 5.5mm without secondary microprism. Experimental results show that the optical efficiency of 400X concentrating module system is 88.67%, the acceptance angle is ±1.2°, the 400X module maximum output power is 144.7W.

  3. Photovoltaics with Ferroelectrics: Current Status and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Charles; Bai, Xiaofei; Infante, Ingrid C; Guennou, Maël; Geneste, Grégory; Alexe, Marin; Kreisel, Jens; Dkhil, Brahim

    2016-07-01

    Ferroelectrics carry a switchable spontaneous electric polarization. This polarization is usually coupled to strain, making ferroelectrics good piezoelectrics. When coupled to magnetism, they become so-called multiferroic systems, a field that has been widely investigated since 2003. While ferroelectrics are birefringent and non-linear optically transparent materials, the coupling of polarization with optical properties has received, since 2009, renewed attention, triggered notably by low-bandgap ferroelectrics suitable for sunlight spectrum absorption and original photovoltaic effects. Consequently, power conversion efficiencies up to 8.1% were recently achieved and values of 19.5% were predicted, making photoferroelectrics promising photovoltaic alternatives. This article aims at providing an up-to-date review on this emerging and rapidly progressing field by highlighting several important issues and parameters, such as the role of domain walls, ways to tune the bandgap, consequences arising from the polarization switchability, and the role of defects and contact electrodes, as well as the downscaling effects. Beyond photovoltaicity, other polarization-related processes are also described, like light-induced deformation (photostriction) or light-assisted chemical reaction (photostriction). It is hoped that this overview will encourage further avenues to be explored and challenged and, as a byproduct, will inspire other research communities in material science, e.g., so-called hybrid halide perovskites.

  4. Models used to assess the performance of photovoltaic systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-12-01

    This report documents the various photovoltaic (PV) performance models and software developed and utilized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in support of the Photovoltaics and Grid Integration Department. In addition to PV performance models, hybrid system and battery storage models are discussed. A hybrid system using other distributed sources and energy storage can help reduce the variability inherent in PV generation, and due to the complexity of combining multiple generation sources and system loads, these models are invaluable for system design and optimization. Energy storage plays an important role in reducing PV intermittency and battery storage models are used to understand the best configurations and technologies to store PV generated electricity. Other researcher's models used by SNL are discussed including some widely known models that incorporate algorithms developed at SNL. There are other models included in the discussion that are not used by or were not adopted from SNL research but may provide some benefit to researchers working on PV array performance, hybrid system models and energy storage. The paper is organized into three sections to describe the different software models as applied to photovoltaic performance, hybrid systems, and battery storage. For each model, there is a description which includes where to find the model, whether it is currently maintained and any references that may be available. Modeling improvements underway at SNL include quantifying the uncertainty of individual system components, the overall uncertainty in modeled vs. measured results and modeling large PV systems. SNL is also conducting research into the overall reliability of PV systems.

  5. Photovoltaic technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnall, Darren M.; Boreland, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaics is already a billion dollar industry. It is experiencing rapid growth as concerns over fuel supplies and carbon emissions mean that governments and individuals are increasingly prepared to ignore its current high costs. It will become truly mainstream when its costs are comparable to other energy sources. At the moment, it is around four times too expensive for competitive commercial production. Three generations of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power in...

  6. Tailoring the photovoltaic performance of inverted hybrid solar cells by replacing PEDOT:PSS with V2Ox as hole-extraction layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hock Beng; Tan, Sin Tee; Ginting, Riski Titian; Tan, Chun Hui; Oleiwi, Hind Fadhil; Yap, Chi Chin; Jumali, Mohd. Hafizuddin Haji

    2016-11-01

    For nanoscale fabrication of organic photovoltaic device, the utilization of a hole extraction layer (HEL) is essential to prevent the wrong flow of charge carriers and overcome the Schottky barrier at electrode-polymer interface. In recent years, the degradation issue of PEDOT:PSS based device which arises from its acidic nature and extremely hygroscopic properties has prompted researchers to find an appropriate transition metal oxide as replacement. In current work, we introduced an entirely solution-processed substoichiometric vanadium oxide (V2Ox) as HEL in inverted polymer:fullerene based device. We demonstrated the efficiency of substoichiometric V2Ox layer in enhancing the device performance of inverted organic solar cells, with the PCE of the device increased from 1.91 to 2.89%. The V2Ox prepared herein was found to exhibit broad optical absorption, highly selective charge transporting properties and excellent film transparency. A robust correlation between the hole extraction nature and electronic band structure of V2Ox was also established in this work.

  7. International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    The International Photovoltaics Program Plan is in direct response to the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (PL 95-590). As stated in the Act, the primary objective of the plan is to accelerate the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets. Benefits which could result from increased international sales by US companies include: stabilization and expansion of the US photovoltaic industry, preparing the industry for supplying future domestic needs; contribution to the economic and social advancement of developing countries; reduced world demand for oil; and improvements in the US balance of trade. The plan outlines programs for photovoltaic demonstrations, systems developments, supplier assistance, information dissemination/purchaser assistance, and an informaion clearinghouse. Each program element includes tactical objectives and summaries of approaches. A program management office will be established to coordinate and manage the program plan. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) had the lead responsibility for preparing and implementing the plan, numerous federal organizations and agencies (US Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, Treasury; Agency for International Development; ACTION; Export/Import Bank; Federal Trade Commission; Small Business Administration) were involved in the plan's preparation and implementation.

  8. Photovoltaics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  9. Solution-processed hybrid light emitting and photovoltaic devices comprising zinc oxide nanorod arrays and tungsten trioxide layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chi Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to prepare inverted optoelectronic devices with improved performance by combining zinc oxide (ZnO nanorod arrays and tungsten trioxide (WO3 layer. ZnO seed layers with thickness of 52 nm were established, followed by growth of ZnO nanorods with length of 300 nm vertical to the ITO substrates in the precursor bath. The ZnO nanorod arrays possess high transmittance up to 92% in the visible range. Inverted light-emitting devices with the configuration of ITO/ZnO nanorods/ionic PF/MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS/Au were constructed. The best device achieved a max brightness and current efficiency of 10,620 cd/m2 and 0.25 cd/A at 10 V, respectively, revealing much higher brightness compared with conventional devices using Ca/Al as cathode, or inverted devices based on ZnO thin film. By inserting a WO3 thin layer between PEDOT:PSS and Au electrode, the max brightness and current efficiency were further improved to 21,881 cd/m2 and 0.43 cd/A, respectively. Inverted polymer solar cells were also fabricated with the configuration of ITO/ZnO nanorods/ionic PF/P3HT:PC61BM/PEDOT/WO3/Au. The best device parameters, including the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency, reached 0.54 V, 14.87 mA/cm2, 41%, and 3.31%, respectively

  10. 光伏电池模型特性研究%Research on Photovoltaic Cell Model Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏

    2013-01-01

    Create accurate model of photovoltaic cells and analysis its characteristics is photovoltaic generate electricity technology basic issues.The equivalent circuit model of the photovoltaic module is analyzed,the mathematical model of the electrical characteristics of photovoltaic cell module is proposed,simulation model is build in Matlab / simulink,analysis characterization under different radiation intensity and ambient temperature.Experimental results show that the radiation intensity significantly impact short-circuit current of photovoltaic cells,temperature is the main determinant of the open-circuit voltage of the photovoltaic cells,study provided strong support for maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic power generation and large-scale photovoltaic power generation system.%建立准确的光伏电池模型并对其进行特性分析是光伏发电技术研究的重要基础性问题.分析了光伏模块的等效电路模型,提出了光伏电池模块电气特性的数学模型,在Matlab/simulink中搭建仿真模型,在不同的辐照强度和环境温度并对其进行特性分析.实验结果表明辐照强度对光伏电池短路电流影响显著,而温度是光伏电池的开路电压的主要决定因素.研究为光伏发电最大功率点跟踪和大型光伏发电系统研究提供了有力支撑.

  11. Present situation and prospects of development of photovoltaic power generation technologies. Taiyoko hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu no genjo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimi, Tetsuo (Kyocera Corp., Kyoto, (Japan))

    1990-02-10

    Around 1975 when research and trial production of solar cells were started, the price per 1Wp solar cell was tens of thousand yen. Afterward with the technical progress, it was decreased to the 700 yen level and the production amount is constantly increasing. Based on the theme of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization project, methane gas hybrid system which is the combination of photovoltaic power generation and gas engine power generation with methane fermentation of excreta of domestic animals of livestock breeders who are obliged to move to places far from cities and who have no commercial power sources, photovoltaic-small quantity hydraulic power generation hybrid which supplies lighting to buildings of regional public organizations with the combination of hydraulic power generation utilizing medium and small sized rivers in the neighborhood, photovoltaic-wind power generation hybrid, and photovoltaic power generation systems for villages of Indonesia which are not electrified yet and whose natural environment is quite different from that of Japan are being pushed forward. In the future, the price of the photovoltaic power generation system must be further lowered, and its development must be further pushed for ward as one of measures to cope with the problems of the global environment. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Economic Dispatch of Stand-alone Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydro-Diesel Hybrid Microgrid Based on Distributed Control%基于分布式控制的独立型光储水柴微网调度策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛美东; 赵波; 张雪松; 高小淇; 江全元

    2014-01-01

    A novel energy management system of microgrid based on distributed control is presented,consisting of prediction layer,dispatch layer and control layer.By applying to photovoltaic-battery-hydro-diesel hybrid microgrid system,the concept of dispatch strategies is described in detail.Considering the specialty of photovoltaic and water resources,a proper schedule is given by dispatch layer based on bidding model.Then at the control layer,the components follow the dispatch schedule according to its own operation strategy.The power balance is guaranteed by reserve power allocation at the system level.A real photovoltaic-battery-hydro-diesel hybrid microgrid system is studied as an example.Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed strategies on the dispatch of photovoltaic and water resources compared with practical operating data.%基于分布式微网能量管理框架,提出一种光储水柴微网经济调度策略,包括预测层、调度层和控制层。预测层提供能量管理相关决策数据;调度层采用边际成本竞价机制,通过光伏和水电电价补偿策略,合理分配光水资源,减少柴油发电机的发电比例;控制层包括稳态控制和紧急控制,其中稳态控制策略用于控制本地设备跟踪调度计划运行,而紧急控制策略用于对系统可用发电容量进行分配,以维持系统功率平衡。以实际光储水柴微网为例,对比实际运行数据,所提出的调度策略在充分利用光水资源的基础上,保证了系统稳定运行。

  13. 基于光控压电混合驱动悬臂梁独立模态控制%Independent modal control on cantilever beam based on hybrid photovoltaic/piezoelectric actuation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晶; 邓宗全; 岳洪浩; 王雷; TZOU Horn-sen

    2015-01-01

    提出利用镧改性锆钛酸铅(PLZT)的光电效应,将PLZT作为电动势源来驱动压电作动器,从而实现光控板壳结构的振动控制。基于光控压电等效电学模型建立了光控压电混合驱动的数学模型,并进行了实验验证。为了实现光控悬臂梁的独立模态控制,针对悬臂梁结构,设计了正交模态传感器/作动器表面电极形状函数。提出PLZT与压电作动器正/反接控制的激励策略,并结合速度反馈定光强控制的控制算法,利用Newmark-β法对不同光照强度下悬臂梁的动态响应进行了数值仿真分析。分析结果证明了所设计的模态传感器/作动器及针对光控压电混合驱动提出的控制策略的正确性。%The photonic control on flexible shell using hybrid photovoltaic/piezoelectric actuation mechanism was proposed.Based on the photovoltaic effect of PLZT,it was used as photovoltaic generator to drive piezoelectric actuator. The constitutive model of this novel actuation mechanism was established based on its equivalent electrical model,and was verified by experiments.In order to realize the independent modal control on cantilever beam using hybrid photovoltaic/piezoelectric actuation mechanism,orthogonal sensors were designed,and the ON/OFF control of positive/negative connection between PLZT and piezoelectric actuator was proposed combining the use of constant light control algorithm based on velocity feedback.Dynamic modal control equations of the cantilever beam laminated with orthogonal actuators based on this novel photonic control method was numerically solved using Newmark -βmethod.The simulation results show that the orthogonal sensors/actuators designed and the control schemes proposed for this photonic method can effectively realize photonic independent modal control on cantilever beam.

  14. Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational

  15. Applied photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Wenham, Stuart R; Watt, Muriel E; Corkish, Richard; Sproul, Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The new edition of this thoroughly considered textbook provides a reliable, accessible and comprehensive guide for students of photovoltaic applications and renewable energy engineering. Written by a group of award-winning authors it is brimming with information and is carefully designed to meet the needs of its readers. Along with exercises and references at the end of each chapter, it features a set of detailed technical appendices that provide essential equations, data sources and standards. The new edition has been fully updated with the latest information on photovoltaic cells,

  16. 利用热力学模型研究光伏-热电复合系统效率提升机制%Thermodynamic Analysis of the Efficiency Improvement of a Photovoltaic-thermoelectric Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇锋; 林伟清; 潘华清; 孙振宁; 刘向鑫; 施天谟; 郑金成

    2013-01-01

    太阳能电池和热电模块组成的复合系统有望获得较高的太阳能到电能的转换效率.本文利用热力学方法分析了由商业化太阳能电池构成的复合系统,并根据一维模型下能流输运特性计算了系统内各模块温度及其对转换效率的影响,发现低温度系数和低效率的太阳能电池可以通过构建复合系统获得更大的性能提升.同时,由于太阳辐照的有限性导致流经热电模块的热流受到限制,因此热电模块效率无法达到理想条件下的最优值.这表明复合系统的优化并非各个模块优化后结果的简单线性叠加,而需要考虑构成复合系统的各个模块间的约束条件进行整体计算和优化,即复合系统效率不仅与材料本征特性(如电导率、热导率等)有关,也和其工作状态(如入射太阳辐照强度、热电模块构成及几何尺寸、模块之间热学特性等)有关.上述模型与结果对于类似复合系统的设计有着指导作用.%A hybrid system formed by a photovoltaic module and a thermoelectric module has a great potential to enhance the solar-toelectricity efficiency.A mathematical model based on the first law of thermodynamics and the heat transfer analyses of the hybrid system is built,where the overall efficiency of the system is enhanced by optimizing the system as a whole.The model is used to study hybrid systems formed by commercially available photovoltaic modules and thermoelectric modules.It is found that,due to a limited incoming heat flux for the thermoelectric module,the overall performance of the hybrid system depends not only on the intrinsic properties of the materials forming such a hybrid system,but also on their working conditions,such as incoming solar radiation,geometry of each module,and interfacial properties.The results indicate that only photovoltaic modules with low temperature coefficient and low efficiency can truly benefit from forming such hybrid system,and the

  17. Photovoltaic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. photovoltaic industry enjoyed a growth rate of 30 percent in sales for the second year in a row. This sends a message that the way we think about electricity is changing. Instead of big energy projects that perpetuate environmental and economic damage, there is a growing trend toward small renewable technologies that are well matched to end-user needs and operating conditions. As demand grows and markets expand, investment capital will be drawn to the industry and new growth trends will emerge. The photovoltaic industry around the world achieved record shipments also. Worldwide shipments of photovoltaic (PV) modules for 1989 totaled more than 40 megawatts (MW), nearly a 20 percent increase over last year's shipments. The previous two years showed increases in worldwide shipments of 23 and 25 percent, respectively. If this growth rate continues through the 1990s, as industry back orders would indicate, 300 to 1000 MW of PV-supplied power could be on line by 2000. Photovoltaic systems have low environmental impact and they are inexpensive to operate and maintain. Using solid-state technology, PV systems directly convert sunlight to electricity without high-temperature fluids or moving parts that could cause mechanical failure. This makes the technology very reliable.

  18. 光伏-储能联合发电系统运行机理及控制策略%Operating modes of photovoltaic/energy-storage hybrid system and its control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁亮; 李建林; 惠东

    2011-01-01

    对光伏-储能联合发电系统的运行模式进行了研究,包括整体运行模式、储能旁路模式、储能独立运行模式.提出光伏-储能联合发电系统的拓扑结构和潮流定向控制策略.基于某100 kWp光伏发电站的实际历史运行数据,进行了仿真验证,通过配备储能系统,增加了系统的可控性和可观性,实现对电网的友好接入;同时改善了系统输出特性,实现部分程度的“削峰填谷”,大幅降低光伏微网系统对电网输电容量的需求.%The operating modes of photovoltaic/energy-storage hybrid system are analyzed,including whole system mode,energy storage bypass mode and energy storage support mode. Its topology is proposed with the flow direction control, which is verified by the simulation with the operational data of a 100 kWp photovoltaic system. The integration of photovoltaic system and energy storage system increases the system controllability and grid-connection flexibility, improves the system output characteristics of load response,and reduces greatly the system requirements for grid power transmission capacity.

  19. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  20. Numerical Research on Hybrid Fuel Locking Device for Upward Flow Core-Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Yoo, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Jeong-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The assembly must be held firmly against these forces, but cannot be permanently attached to the support stand because periodic refueling of the reactor requires removal or relocation of each assembly. There are so many kinds of fuel locking device, but they are operated manually. As a part of a new project, we have investigated a hybrid fuel locking device (HFLD) for research reactor which is operated automatically. Prior method of holding down the fuel assembly includes a hybrid zero electromagnet consisting of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet. The role of an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by controlling the coil current. At this time, a HFLD is an unlocking state. On the contrary, it is locking state that only a permanent magnet works when the power of an electromagnet is off. The results of a FEM in this work lead to the following conclusions: (1) It is possible that an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by remote controlling the coil current. (2) At this time, it is able to detect remotely using proximity sensor whether a HFLD is latched or not.

  1. Competence-Based, Research-Related Lab Courses for Materials Modeling: The Case of Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhammer, Karl Sebastian; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2017-01-01

    We are hereby presenting a didactic concept for an advanced lab course that focuses on the design of donor materials for organic solar cells. Its research-related and competence-based approach qualifies the students to independently and creatively apply computational methods and to profoundly and critically discuss the results obtained. The high…

  2. The political economy of research and innovation in organic photovoltaics (OPV) in different world regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkeli, S.; Kemp, R.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper, we examine the status, prospects and organization of OPV research, innovation and governance in three major world regions: Northern America, Western Europe and East Asia through our constructed evolutionary cognitive-institutional framework of reference. Method: We gathered d

  3. The political economy of research and innovation in organic photovoltaics (OPV) in different world regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkeli, S.; Kemp, R.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper, we examine the status, prospects and organization of OPV research, innovation and governance in three major world regions: Northern America, Western Europe and East Asia through our constructed evolutionary cognitive-institutional framework of reference. Method: We gathered

  4. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  5. Research on Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Photovoltaic System%光伏系统中最大功率点跟踪方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勇; 孙超; 陈新

    2009-01-01

    在光伏发电系统中,光伏电池的最大输出功率取决于温度和光照条件,采用最大功率跟踪(Maximum PowerPoint Tracking,简称MPPT)方法可以使光伏电池持续输出最人功率.研究了光伏系统中的最大功率控制部分,提出了MPPT控制器的设计,介绍了几种常用的MPPT方法,其中重点研究了电导增量(Incremental Conductance,简称INC)法.给出了INC法的软件流程的设计,并在Matlab中建立了光伏电池的仿真模型.最后通过实验验证了MPPT控制器的可行性,其MPPT的响应速度和控制精度均达到了预期要求.%The maximum power point tracking(MPPT) techniques are used in photovohaic systems to maximize the photo-voltaic array output power depends on panels temperature and irradiance conditions.The part of maximum power point (MPP) for the photovoltaie system is researched.Then the system design of photovoltaic M PPT controller is proposed,some MPPT means for photovoltaic cell are introduced, focusing on the incremental conductance(INC).The software flowchart is presented and the photovohaic cell model for simulation is created in Matlab.At last,the experimental result shows the feasibility of this photovoltaic MPPT controller, the response speed and control precision meet the expectations.

  6. Participation in sizing methods and management improvement for the isolated hybrid systems coupling photovoltaic generator and power generating unit. Application in developing countries; Participation a l'amelioration des methodes de dimensionnement et de gestion pour les systemes isoles hybrides de production d'electricite, couplant generateur photovoltaique et groupe electrogene. Application dans les pays en voie de developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camez, C.

    2004-09-15

    One of the applications justifying more the use of renewable energies is the electrification of isolated sites. Sites for which connection to the local distribution network is being out of price or impossible. These sites are most of the time electrified with a diesel generator. This technology is tested and mature however two major disadvantages can be raised here: necessary routine maintenance and the fuel provisioning management. Photovoltaic system can answer here the request and little solar home systems (100 Watts) are installed. In the particular situation of a village electrification, the consumers quickly see in these systems a strong limitation with the development. Reliability, evolution, comfort, service are the masters words here, the development of a micro industry also seems necessary to a village development. It is then necessary to propose a micro network type solution. Such a generator cannot be think completely photovoltaic, presenting an important over-cost compared to a conventional solution. The idea of conventional and renewable energy coupling is born. Such a multi-source system: hybrid, implies an increased sizing and management complexity. An analysis software tool was developed: HYPSIM, this one makes it possible to optimize the operation of such a system. HYPSIM made possible to - Justify the relevance of a photovoltaic/diesel generator/batteries system. - Conclude on the sizing criteria to be observed. (author)

  7. The Solar Energy Consortium of New York Photovoltaic Research and Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Petra M.

    2012-10-15

    Project Objective: To lead New York State to increase its usage of solar electric systems. The expected outcome is that appropriate technologies will be made available which in turn will help to eliminate barriers to solar energy usage in New York State. Background: The Solar Energy Consortium has been created to lead New York State research on solar systems specifically directed at doubling the efficiency, halving the cost and reducing the cost of installation as well as developing unique form factors for the New York City urban environment.

  8. Indium phosphide solar cell research in the United States: Comparison with non-photovoltaic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of the InP solar cell research program are presented. Homojunction cells with efficiencies approaching 19 percent are demonstrated, while 17 percent is achieved for ITO/InP cells. The superior radiation resistance of the two latter cell configurations over both Si and GaAs cells has been shown. InP cells aboard the LIPS3 satellite show no degradation after more than a year in orbit. Computed array specific powers are used to compare the performance of an InP solar cell array to solar dynamic and nuclear systems.

  9. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  10. Visit and course at Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Ceater ( HHRRC )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1992-01-01

    Invited by Prof YUAN Longping 3 Japanese scientists of the delegation of National Federation of Agricultural Cooperative Association (ZEN-NOH) led by Hibino, came to visit HHRRC. During their visit, HHRRC experts introduced to them the advances in hybrid rice research in China and the Japanese guests reported the recent progresses on improvement of grain quality and cultivation techniques for indica/japonica hybrid rice.

  11. Photovoltaic Energy Program overview, fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaic Energy Program fosters the widespread acceptance of photovoltaic (PV) technology and accelerates commercial use of US PV products. The Program is founded on a collaborative strategy involving industry, the research and development community, potential users, utilities, and state and federal agencies. There are three main Program elements: Systems Engineering and Applications, Technology Development, and Research and Development.

  12. The research of controller area network on hybrid electrical vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hongxing; Song Liwei; Kou Baoquan; Cheng Shukang

    2006-01-01

    It is of increasing importance to design and implement vehicle networks for transferring information between electrical control units on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV). This paper presents a scheme of using Controller Area Network (CAN) technology to realize communication and datasharing between the electrical units on the HEV. The principle and communication protocol of Electrical Control Units (ECU) CAN node are introduced. By considering different sensitivity of the devices to the latency of data transportation, a new design procedure is proposed for the purpose of simplifying network codes and wiring harness, reducing assembly space and weight, improving assembly efficiency, and enhancing fault-diagnose in auto networks.

  13. Competitividad de los sistemas híbridos eólicos-fotovoltaicos para la electrificación rural//Competitiveness of the wind-photovoltaic hybrid systems for the rural electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaddy Rodríguez Borges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La posibilidad de electrificación rural mediante extensión de la red eléctrica o mediante el uso exclusivo de generadores diésel suelen ser soluciones costosas, que además presentan alto impacto ecológico. Este trabajo abordó el planteamiento de opciones de electrificación empleando sistemas híbridos eólicos–fotovoltaicos con bajo respaldo diésel. Los sistemas propuestos están dimensionados para un número de viviendas y nivel de recursos renovables disímiles en función de cada localización. Se abordan distintos rangos de demandas mediante los 4 sistemas híbridos propuestos y se propone un procedimiento simple de ayuda para la selección. Fue realizado un análisis económico que permitió obtener como principal conclusión la comprobación de la mayor competitividad de estos sistemas híbridos eólicos–fotovoltaicos respecto a la generación diésel en función al costo equivalente de la energía y el impacto ambiental para la condición de disponibilidad de recursos renovables de una gran mayoría de regiones de América Latina y el Caribe.Palabras claves: competitividad energética, electrificación rural, sistema híbrido.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe possibility of rural electrification by means of extension of the electric net or by the exclusive use of generating diesel are usually expensive solutions, besides presenting this last option high ecological impact. This work approached the electrification options using wind-photovoltaic hybrid systems with low diésel support. These systems are sized for a number of housings and level ofresources renewable dissimilar in function to each localization. Different ranges of demands were approached by means of 4 proposed hybrid systems. It was proposed a simple procedure of help for the selection it was carried out an economic analysis that allowed to obtain the main conclusion when checking the biggest competitiveness

  14. A new road map for the research in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan; Nouvelle feuille de route pour la recherche dans le domaine de la production d'electricite d'origine photovoltaique au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destruel, P.; Chataing, H

    2009-07-01

    Dealing with the new road map published in 2009 by the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology development Organization) for the research activity in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan from now until 2030, this brief embassy report first outlines the need for such a new road map as Japan's international competitiveness is more and more challenged: it only possesses 10% of the installed power in the world (50% in 2003) and ranks now in sixth position in terms of annual installed power. Beside this trend, environmental challenges and CO{sub 2} emission reduction objectives, as well as oil price increase, have driven the NEDO to review its road map sooner as foreseen. The author describes the contents of the three main axis which have been defined for the photovoltaic development: photovoltaic profitability improvement (grid parity objective by 2030, production cost reduction), broadening of photovoltaic uses and applications, development and competitiveness of Japanese industries.

  15. Recent progress in space photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Key issues and opportunities in space photovoltaic research and technology relative to future NASA mission requirements and drivers are addressed. Examples are given of space missions and/or operational capabilities on NASA's planning horizon presenting major technology challenges to the use of photovoltaic power generation in space. The status of cell R and D and the performance goals to be met by space photovoltaic power systems to remain competitive are described.

  16. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview Fiscal Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Significant activities in the National Photovoltaic Program are reported for each of the three main program elements. In Research and Development, advances in thin-film materials and crystalline silicon materials are described. The Technology Development report describes activities in photovoltaic manufacturing technology, industrial expansion, module and array development, and testing photovoltaic system components. Systems Engineering and Applications projects described include projects with government agencies, projects with utilities, documentation of performance for international applications, and product certification.

  17. Research on stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Kotenko, V. G.; Chernitskiy, S. V.; Nemov, V. V.; Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Kalyuzhnyi, V. N.; Hagnestål, A.; Källne, J.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Garkusha, I. E.

    2014-09-01

    The development of a stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid concept is reviewed. The hybrid comprises of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, neutrons are generated in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma, confined magnetically in a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror. Based on kinetic calculations, the energy balance for such a system is analyzed. Neutron calculations have been performed with the MCNPX code, and the principal design of the reactor part is developed. Neutron outflux at different outer parts of the reactor is calculated. Numerical simulations have been performed on the structure of a magnetic field in a model of the stellarator-mirror device, and that is achieved by switching off one or two coils of toroidal field in the Uragan-2M torsatron. The calculations predict the existence of closed magnetic surfaces under certain conditions. The confinement of fast particles in such a magnetic trap is analyzed.

  18. Photovoltaic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-22

    during wire fabrication. Weaving was demonstrated for both military-type nylon -cotton blend (NYCO) warp fibers and cotton-polyester warp fibers. A...Lowell, MA 01852 14. ABSTRACT This report describes a project to improve photovoltaic fabrics. It had four objectives: 1) Efficiency – make PV wires on...a continuous basis that exhibit 7% efficiency; 2) Automated Welding – demonstrate an automated means of interconnecting the electrodes of one wire

  19. Roof Photovoltaic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to accurately predict the annual energy production of photovoltaic systems for any given geographical location, building orientation, and photovoltaic cell...

  20. Design and Development of a Photovoltaic Power System for Tropical Greenhouse Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal M.S. Al-Shamiry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources like photovoltaic (PV panels are used today in many applications. Natural ventilation in tropical greenhouse is common method for ventilation, which gives higher inside temperatures compared to the outside temperatures. In addition, this type of ventilation is not enough to reduce high temperature inside the structure in low land areas. Thus the requirement of cooling is increased. Use of the fossil fuel to run the cooling fans are not economically viable due to increasing of fuel cost and greenhouses are not always located near the electrical grid. This research presents a study on the installation and test of a complete photovoltaic hybrid system for cooling a tropical greenhouse. A hybrid photovoltaic system consisting of two photovoltaic sub-systems were connected to each other. This system includes 48 photovoltaic solar Panels with 18.75 watt each, one inverter, 1 charge controller and a battery bank (including 12 batteries. The PV system is located at University Putra Malaysia (UPM Research Park. The national electricity grid was used as a backup unit. The load consisted of two misting fans for cooling greenhouse (during test period time with 400 Watt electric power and five hours (11:00 am to 16:00 pm daily operation. The results obtained showed that the maximum current drawn from the array was found to be 14.9 ampere at 13:00 pm (with load. The voltage of array was found to be 26.9 volt while the voltage and current of battery bank were found to be 26.2 volt and 23.0 ampere respectively. In conclusion, this study highlights the primary study of PV hybrid energy systems for tropical greenhouse cooling as an application of renewable energy in Selangor, Malaysia. The results showed that PV system would be suitable to supply electricity to cover the loads requirement demands without using energy from the grid.

  1. Photovoltaic systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    Each of the Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Systems Program projects funded and/or in existence during fiscal year 1978 (October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978) are described. The project sheets list the contractor, principal investigator, and contract number and funding and summarize the programs and status. The program is divided into various elements: program assessment and integration, research and advanced development, technology development, system definition and development, system application experiments, and standards and performance criteria. (WHK)

  2. Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational

  3. Semi-transparent polymer solar cells with excellent sub-bandgap transmission for third generation photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiley, Zach M; Christoforo, M Greyson; Gratia, Paul; Bowring, Andrea R; Eberspacher, Petra; Margulis, George Y; Cabanetos, Clément; Beaujuge, Pierre M; Salleo, Alberto; McGehee, Michael D

    2013-12-23

    Semi-transparent organic photovoltaics are of interest for a variety of photovoltaic applications, including solar windows and hybrid tandem photovoltaics. The figure shows a photograph of our semi-transparent solar cell, which has a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, with an above bandgap transmission of 34% and a sub-bandgap transmission of 81%.

  4. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) and its modifications in microbiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Li, Yunxia; Niu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Keqin

    2007-09-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is an effective approach to identify the genes that vary in expression levels during different biological processes. It is often used in higher eukaryotes to study the molecular regulation in complex pathogenic progress, such as tumorigenesis and other chronic multigene-associated diseases. Because microbes have relatively smaller genomes compared with eukaryotes, aside from the analysis at the mRNA level, SSH as well as its modifications have been further employed to isolate specific chromosomal locus, study genomic diversity related with exceptional bacterial secondary metabolisms or genes with special microbial function. This review introduces the SSH and its associated methods and focus on their applications to detect specific functional genes or DNA markers in microorganisms.

  5. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  6. Acetylene-based materials in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Fabio; Marrocchi, Assunta

    2010-04-08

    Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise of a lightweight, flexible, cost-effective solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution-processing of the active layer. The discovery of semiconductive polyacetylene by Heeger et al. in the late 1970s was a milestone towards the use of organic materials in electronics; the development of efficient protocols for the palladium catalyzed alkynylation reactions and the new conception of steric and conformational advantages of acetylenes have been recently focused the attention on conjugated triple-bond containing systems as a promising class of semiconductors for OPVs applications. We review here the most important and representative (poly)arylacetylenes that have been used in the field. A general introduction to (poly)arylacetylenes, and the most common synthetic approaches directed toward making these materials will be firstly given. After a brief discussion on working principles and critical parameters of OPVs, we will focus on molecular arylacetylenes, (co)polymers containing triple bonds, and metallopolyyne polymers as p-type semiconductor materials. The last section will deal with hybrids in which oligomeric/polymeric structures incorporating acetylenic linkages such as phenylene ethynylenes have been attached onto C(60), and their use as the active materials in photovoltaic devices.

  7. Acetylene-Based Materials in Organic Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silvestri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise of a lightweight, flexible, cost-effective solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution-processing of the active layer. The discovery of semiconductive polyacetylene by Heeger et al. in the late 1970s was a milestone towards the use of organic materials in electronics; the development of efficient protocols for the palladium catalyzed alkynylation reactions and the new conception of steric and conformational advantages of acetylenes have been recently focused the attention on conjugated triple-bond containing systems as a promising class of semiconductors for OPVs applications. We review here the most important and representative (polyarylacetylenes that have been used in the field. A general introduction to (polyarylacetylenes, and the most common synthetic approaches directed toward making these materials will be firstly given. After a brief discussion on working principles and critical parameters of OPVs, we will focus on molecular arylacetylenes, (copolymers containing triple bonds, and metallopolyyne polymers as p-type semiconductor materials. The last section will deal with hybrids in which oligomeric/polymeric structures incorporating acetylenic linkages such as phenylene ethynylenes have been attached onto C60, and their use as the active materials in photovoltaic devices.

  8. Solution-based colloidal synthesis of hybrid P3HT: Ternary CuInSe2 nanocomposites using a novel combination of capping agents for low-cost photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh Narain; Chawla, Parul; Akanksha; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, ternary CuInSe2 (CISe) chalcopyrite nanocrystallites efficiently passivated by a novel combination of capping agents viz: aniline and 1-octadecene during chemical route synthesis were dispersed in conducting polymer matrix poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By varying the composition and concentration of the ligands, the properties of the resulting CISe nanocrystallites and its corresponding polymer nanocomposites thus could be tailored. The structural, morphological and optical studies accomplished by various complimentary techniques viz. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Contact angle, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman have enabled us to compare the different hybrid organic (polymer)-inorganic nanocomposites. On the basis of aniline-octadecene equilibrium phase diagram, the polydispersity of the CISe nanocrystals could be tuned by using controlled variations in the reaction conditions of nucleation and growth such as composition of the solvent and temperature. To the best of author's knowledge, the beneficial effects of both the capping agents; aniline and octadecene contributing well in tandem in the development of large-sized (100-125 nm) high quality, sterically- and photo-oxidative stable polycrystalline CISe and its corresponding polymer (P3HT):CISe composites with enhanced charge transfer efficiency has been reported for the first time. The low-cost synthesis and ease of preparation renders this method of great potential for its possible application in low-cost hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaics. The figure shows the Temperature vs Mole fraction graph of two different phases (aniline and 1-octadecene) in equilibrium.

  9. Research Update: Hybrid energy devices combining nanogenerators and energy storage systems for self-charging capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghun; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Jaewoo; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Choi, Chang Ho; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-07-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for nanogenerators as energy harvesting devices utilizing both piezoelectric and triboelectric properties. Most recently, self-charging power units using both nanogenerators and energy storage systems have begun to be investigated for portable and wearable electronics to be used in our daily lives. This review focuses on these hybrid devices with self-charging combined with energy harvesting storage systems based on the most recent reports. In this research update, we will describe the materials, device structures, integration, applications, and research progress up to the present on hybrid devices.

  10. 基于混合储能的并网光伏电站有功分级控制策略%Active Power Hierarchical Control Strategy of Interconnected Photovoltaic Station Based on Hybrid Energy Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍雪娜; 张建成; 徐明; 刘汉民

    2013-01-01

    针对自然条件下光伏电源有功出力的波动性,以超级电容器和磷酸铁锂电池组成的混合储能系统为基础,制定了有功分级控制策略.首先分析了光伏电站整体结构及混合储能装置的接入方式,然后考虑电网需求利用指数平滑法来实时更新光伏电站整体出力参考值,实现第1级控制.根据储能元件能量存储与功率吞吐特性,提出了以超级电容器为充放电主体的混合储能系统能量管理策略,实现第2级控制,并设计了脉宽调制的控制原理电路.编程计算结果证实了所述方法的有效性.%In view of the active power fluctuation of large capacity photovoltaic (PV) power systems, based on a hybrid energy storage system consisting of supercapacitors and lithium-ion ferrous phosphate batteries, an active power hierarchical control strategy is formulated to optimize the output power of PV source. First, the overall structure of photovoltaic power station and the way of accessing the hybrid energy storage system are analyzed. Then, by considering the power grid needs, the exponential smoothing method is used to real-time update the reference values of output power to realize the first level control. The energy management strategy is put forward according to the storage characteristics of energy storage components and power throughput so as to realize the second level control of the hybrid energy storage system. In addition, an energy management strategy is put forward with supercapacitors as the principal part of charge and discharge. Finally, a control circuit of pulse width modulation (PWM) is designed. Programming results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Energy Storage-Based Photovoltaic Microgrid%基于混合储能的光伏微网动态建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春华; 朱新坚

    2013-01-01

    为提供连续稳定的光伏电能,提出了将能源转换效率高的蓄电池和存储成本低廉的氢能组合,构成混合储能系统应用于光伏微网,其主要元件包括光伏组件、燃料电池、电解池、氢气罐和蓄电池等,各元件通过使用功率变换器与直流总线相连,实现各元件输出特性的相互匹配.建立了各元件数学模型,设计了各元件控制策略和微网协调控制策略,使用Matlab搭建了基于混合储能的光伏微网的动态仿真平台,并对该微网的动态运行性能进行了分析.仿真结果表明:混合储能系统可及时响应负载需求,实现功率平衡.%To supply continuous and stable electricity generated by photovoltaic generation, it is proposed to combine battery with high efficiency of energy conversion to hydrogen energy device with low storage cost to form hybrid energy storage system applied to photovoltaic (PV) microgrid. The PV microgrid is composed of PV modules, fuel cells, electrolyzers, hydrogen tanks, batteries and so on, and the matching among output characteristics of these components is implemented by connecting these components to the DC bus via power converters. Mathematical model of these components are built, and control strategies of these components as well as the coordinative control strategy for PV microgrid are designed. Using Matlab software, a dynamic simulation platform for PV microgrid based on hybrid energy storage is constructed, and the dynamic operational performance of PV microgrid is analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed hybrid energy storage system can respond load demand in time and implement power balance of PV microgrid.

  12. Plastic photovoltaic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of organic, polymer-based photovoltaic elements has introduced the possibility of obtaining cheap and easy-to-produce energy from light. Photoinduced electron transfer from donor-type semiconducting polymers onto acceptor-type polymers or molecules, such as C60, is the basic phenomenon utilized in these photovoltaic devices. This process mimics the early photo-effects in natural photosynthesis. The polymeric semiconductors combine the photoelectrical properties of inorganic semiconductors with the large-scale, low-cost technology of polymeric ‘plastic’ materials. To date, devices with power conversion efficiencies of ∼5% have been reported. Several companies and research institutions are focusing on this field now, making power conversion efficiencies up to 8-10% highly likely in the near future.

  13. Inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Chang; Meng, Tianyu; Yi, Chao; Gong, Xiong

    2016-05-21

    The advance in lifestyle, modern industrialization and future technological revolution are always at high expense of energy consumption. Unfortunately, there exist serious issues such as limited storage, high cost and toxic contamination in conventional fossil fuel energy sources. Instead, solar energy represents a renewable, economic and green alternative in the future energy market. Among the photovoltaic technologies, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) demonstrate a cheap, flexible, clean and easy-processing way to convert solar energy into electricity. However, OPVs with a conventional device structure are still far away from industrialization mainly because of their short lifetime and the energy-intensive deposition of top metal electrode. To address the stability and cost issue simultaneously, an inverted device structure has been introduced into OPVs, bridging laboratory research with practical application. In this review, recent progress in device structures, working mechanisms, functions and advances of each component layer as well their correlations with the efficiency and stability of inverted OPVs are reviewed and illustrated.

  14. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  15. Data Mining: A Hybrid Methodology for Complex and Dynamic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Susan; Baehr, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which data and text mining have potential as research methodologies in composition studies. It introduces data mining in the context of the field of composition studies and discusses ways in which this methodology can complement and extend our existing research practices by blending the best of what…

  16. Data Mining: A Hybrid Methodology for Complex and Dynamic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Susan; Baehr, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which data and text mining have potential as research methodologies in composition studies. It introduces data mining in the context of the field of composition studies and discusses ways in which this methodology can complement and extend our existing research practices by blending the best of what…

  17. Research on Hybrid Input Mechanical Press Driven by Two Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Given the speed requirements of a mechanical press slider, a differential gear train is adopted instead of the belt and gear drive of a general mechanical press. Two electric motors are used to drive the differential gear train with hybrid input. Based on the working principle of a differential gear train, the angular speed equations and the power distribution equations of the input-output system are established. By controlling the angular speeds of the two motors, the slider can move at different speeds. Taken a JH23-100 type mechanical press as example, the driving system is designed and the power of two motors determined. The simulated results show that the highest slider speed in the mechanical press approaches 39 mm/s only at the forging-punching stage, far less than the 232 mm/s of a general JH23-100 type mechanical press. This provides a new scheme to realize low-speed forging-punching technology from a mechanical press.

  18. Research of the incubation and hybridization instrument with vibration for nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Deng, Yan; Li, Qihua; Liu, Bin; Xia, Yun; Du, Yuhang; He, Nongyue

    2012-11-01

    Nanoparticles are the largest and most widely used nanomaterial in biomedical research nowadays, which are always used in solution. However, traditional techniques, such as hybridization oven are not appropriate for the incubation and hybridization of nanoparticles. Thus designing and developing an effective method and instrument for hybridization of nanoparticles is very essential to solve these present problems. This paper introduced and successfully designed a hybridization instrument, including insulated and closed chamber, temperature control system, motion control system input and output control system. The instrument can not only control temperature precisely to meet various requirements for chemical and biological molecule's incubation and hybridization on nanomaterials, but also make liquid flow slowly and shake according to a certain frequency for mixing to improve hybridization efficiency significantly. The control algorithm of temperature applied PID and fuzzy-PID, the accuracy is improved and stable. Vibration is the most obvious and advantageous feature of the instrument. Furthermore the core control system was improved whose core is C8051F060 MCU and designed into panel.

  19. 共直流母线式风光互补发电系统的仿真研究%Research on the simulation of wind-solar hybrid power system with common dc bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南国君; 丁明; 王贻玲

    2011-01-01

    由于太阳能、风能的互补特性以及光伏发电、风力发电技术的日趋成熟,风光互补发电成为研究热点.文章分析了风力发电技术、光伏发电技术以及风光互补发电技术,设计了共直流母线式风光互补发电系统的整体结构,讨论了该拓扑结构的工作原理和控制策略,并利用PSCAD软件建立了风光互补发电的仿真模型,分别在外部环境不变与外部环境(风速、日照强度)变化2种情况下对发电系统讲行了仿直分析,获得了较好的结果.%As the solar energy and wind energy can be complementary and the photovoltaic technology and wind power technology are becoming mature, the wind-solar hybrid power has become a hotspot of research. In this paper, the wind power technology, photovoltaic technology and wind-solar hybrid power technology are introduced, the whole structure of wind-solar hybrid power system with common dc bus is designed, and the operating principle and control strategy of the topological structure are analyzed. The simulation model of wind-solar hybrid power system is set up by using the software PSCAD, and the simulation analysis is carried out in external environment with or without change in wind speed and sunshine intensity. Finally satisfying results are obtained.

  20. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction semiconductor s

  1. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  2. Application of Hybrid Energy Storage System in Power Balance of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Power System%混合储能系统在独立光伏发电系统功率平衡中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯世英; 房勇; 孙韬; 彭文雄

    2011-01-01

    提出了将能量密度大、环境友好的磷酸铁锂电池和功率密度高、循环使用寿命长的超级电容组合,构成混合储能系统应用于独立光伏发电系统.以优化系统可靠性及运行状态为目标,设计了控制结构和控制方式.对系统进行仿真分析,结果表明,在光伏电池输出功率存在波动且负载发生脉动的情况下,储能系统能迅速平衡系统瞬时功率,维持系统可靠运行.%In this paper it is proposed to apply a hybrid energy storage system consisting of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery that is environment-friendly and possesses high energy density and super capacitance combination that possesses high power density and long service lifecycle in standalone photovoltaic (PV) power system. Taking the optimization of system reliability and operation states as the object, the control structure of the proposed hybrid energy storage system and its control modes are designed to optimize both system reliability and operation status of the energy storage devices. Simulation analysis of the proposed system is performed and analysis results show that under the fluctuation of PV cell output and pulsating load the instantaneous power can be rapidly balanced by the proposed hybrid energy storage system, thus reliable operation of the proposed system can be sustained.

  3. 混合储能系统在弱光充电系统中的仿真研究%Simulation of Photovoltaic Charge System Under Weak Light Using Hybrid Energy Storage System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智峰; 丁攀峰

    2012-01-01

    The output characteristics of photovoltaic array is influenced by the incident radiant intensity. Especially in the weak sunlight the maximum power point trace strategy can't match the battery's charging requirement. In order to maximize the output power of PV, the method using supper capacitors is proposed to reduce the influence of charging conditions caused by sunlight variation. Based on the character of stand-alone PV system, an active hybrid storage scheme is designed. The scehem can assure the maximum power point tracing of photovoltaic panels and meet the batteries charging requirements at the same time. The simulation model in Simulink/MATLAB is created and the simulation results verifies the feasibility of the system.%光伏阵列的输出特性受光照强度影响很大,在弱光下光伏电池的最大功率点跟踪控制算法无法达到蓄电池的充电要求。为了最大限度利用光伏阵歹tl的输出功率,采用超级电容减小光照变化对蓄电池充电的影响。针对独立光伏发电系统的特点,设计了一种有源式混合储能方案,在保证光伏电池获得最大功率跟踪的同时,也能满足蓄电池的充电要求,建立的Simulink/MATLAB仿真模型验证了该设计方案的有效性。

  4. Hybrid-Source Impedance Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ding; Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2010-01-01

    the cascaded networks would have a higher output voltage gain and other unique advantages that currently have not been investigated yet. It is anticipated that these advantages would help the formed inverters find applications in photovoltaic and other renewable systems, where a high voltage gain is usually......Hybrid-source impedance networks have attracted attention among researchers because of their flexibility in performing buck-boost energy conversion. To date, three distinct types of impedance networks can be summarized for implementing voltage-type inverters with another three types summarized...

  5. Research Experience with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Kelly, K.; Thornton, M.; Nortman, P.

    2007-12-01

    This technical document reports on the exploratory research conducted by NREL on PHEV technology using a Toyota Prius that has been converted to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The data includes both controlled dynamometer and on-road test results, particularly for hilly driving. The results highlight the petroleum savings and benefits of PHEV technology.

  6. Quo Vadis photovoltaics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger-Waldau, A.

    2011-10-01

    Since more than 10 years photovoltaics is one of the most dynamic industries with growth rates well beyond 40% per annum. This growth is driven not only by the progress in materials knowledge and processing technology, but also by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. Despite the negative impacts on the economy by the financial crisis since 2009, photovoltaics is still growing at an extraordinary pace and had in 2010 an extraordinary success, as both production and markets doubled. The open question is what will happen in 2011 and the years after as the situation is dominated by huge manufacturing overcapacities and an increasing unpredictability of policy support. How can the PV industry continue their cost reduction to ensure another 10 to 20 years of sustained and strong growth necessary to make PV to one of the main pillars of a sustainable energy supply in 2030. Despite the fact, that globally the share of electricity from photovoltaic systems is still small, at local level it can be already now above 30% of the demand at certain times of the year. Future research in PV has to provide intelligent solutions not only on the solar cell alone, but also on the module and the system integration level in order to permit a 5 to 10% share of electricity in 2020.

  7. Quo Vadis photovoltaics 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäger-Waldau A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since more than 10 years photovoltaics is one of the most dynamic industries with growth rates well beyond 40% per annum. This growth is driven not only by the progress in materials knowledge and processing technology, but also by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. Despite the negative impacts on the economy by the financial crisis since 2009, photovoltaics is still growing at an extraordinary pace and had in 2010 an extraordinary success, as both production and markets doubled. The open question is what will happen in 2011 and the years after as the situation is dominated by huge manufacturing overcapacities and an increasing unpredictability of policy support. How can the PV industry continue their cost reduction to ensure another 10 to 20 years of sustained and strong growth necessary to make PV to one of the main pillars of a sustainable energy supply in 2030. Despite the fact, that globally the share of electricity from photovoltaic systems is still small, at local level it can be already now above 30% of the demand at certain times of the year. Future research in PV has to provide intelligent solutions not only on the solar cell alone, but also on the module and the system integration level in order to permit a 5 to 10% share of electricity in 2020.

  8. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  9. Silicon Based Photovoltaic Cells For Concentration-Research And Development Progress In Laser Grooved Buried Contact Cell Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, A.; Baistow, I.; Brown, L.; Devenport, S.; Drew, K.; Heasman, K. C.; Morrison, D.; Bruton, T. M.; Serenelli, L.; De Iuliis, S.; Izzi, M.; Tucci, M.; Salza, E.; Pirozzi, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Laser grooved buried contact silicon solar cell (LGBC) process employed by Narec currently produces LGBC cells designed to operate at concentrations ranging from 1-100 suns and has demonstrated efficiencies at 50X of over 19% and at 100X of over 18.2% using 300 μm CZ silicon[1] wafers. As part of the LAB2LINE[1], APOLLON[2] and ASPIS[3] projects funded under the European Commission Framework Programs (FP6 and FP7) we have made improvements to the LGBC process to improve efficiency or make the cell technology more suitable for industrial CPV receiver manufacturing processes. We describe a process which hybridizes LGBC and more standard screen printing technologies which yields at least a 6% relative improvement at concentration when using more readily available 200 μm thick CZ wafers. We describe a pioneering front dicing technique (FDT). The FDT process is important in small cells where edge recombination effects are detrimental to the performance. We show that by using this new technique we can produce cells that perform better at concentration and improve the positioning of the front contact of the cell. We also describe a busbar technology that uses laser processing and electroless chemical plating to allow not only soldering to the front contact of the cell but also wire bonding. The advances in research and development of LGBC cells leading to improved cell performance may provide significant reductions in levilised cost of energy (LCOE) for low to medium CPV systems.

  10. Research and development of evaluation system for photovoltaic power generation system. Research and development on evaluation technology of photovoltaic power generating systems; Taiyoko hatsuden system hyoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. System hyoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power generating systems in fiscal 1994. (1) On preparation of test facility and measuring instrument, the pyrheliometer with a photovoltaic device as sensor was developed. (2) On collection and analysis of data, operation data of interconnection system, stand alone system, and water pump system were collected, and energy flow was analyzed. The following were also analyzed: time variation of a-Si solar cell modules, fluctuation correction factor of spectrum response, that of nonlinear response of crystalline solar cells, effect of solar radiation intensity and wind velocity on temperature rise of modules, and correction factor of DC circuit losses. (3) On on-site measurement technology, the array output measuring instrument was developed on the basis of capacitor charge system. (4) On simulation technology, simulation analyses of energy flow, optimum capacity of interconnection systems, correction factor of solar radiation, and capacity of array storage batteries were conducted. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. European Research and Development in Hybrid Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    quenching, trapping and annihilation rates of excitons, quantum and conversion efficiencies, photodegradation and device lifetimes, and device...technologies that reduce the production process and cost. Konarka researchers have investigated a variety of systems: dye - sensitized titania solar cells...driven by using pH to modulate metal complexation and decomplexation with optical readout. She also described Grätzel dye -sensitized solar cells in

  12. Photovoltaics characterization: Beyond the horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    1997-04-01

    This paper examines current photovoltaic test, measurement, and characterization techniques and makes evaluations and predictions of the next-generation technologies needed to meet the evolving requirements of photovoltaics. The range of support and research areas, from array through atomic-level analysis, are cited. The specific requirements of research and manufacturing sectors are addressed, including the need for more rapid response, new and photovoltaic-specific measurement techniques, manufacturing-environment measurement capabilities, and electronic-based centralized facilities. The integration and cohesion of analytical services with the evolving capabilities of the information highway are discussed and anticipated. To ensure the security of both intellectual and product property, the increased demands of protection of data are emphasized. Trends toward greater accuracy, precision, smaller- and larger-area analysis, and more-versatile measurement technologies are discussed.

  13. Design and components of photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the various aspects of photovoltaic (PV) system components and design. The basic performance of cells, modules, and inverters and how this is used in PV system design is described. Two case studies illustrating PV system design are presented: a hybrid system on t

  14. Novel hybrid FRP tubular columns for sustainable mining infrastructure:Recent research at University of Wollongong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Tao; Remennikov Alex M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces, for applications in the mining industry, an innovative hybrid column form which consists of an inner steel tube, an outer fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube and an annular concrete infill between them. The two tubes may be concentrically placed to produce a section form more suitable for columns, or eccentrically placed to produce a section form more suitable for beams. The FRP is combined with steel and concrete in these hybrid structural members in such a way that the advantages of FRP are appropriately exploited while its disadvantages are minimized. As a result, these hybrid members pos-sess excellent corrosion resistance as well as excellent ductility and seismic resistance. This paper sum-marizes existing research on this new form of structural members, and discusses their potential applications in mining infrastructure before presenting a summary of the recent and current studies at University of Wollongong (UOW) on their structural behaviour and design.

  15. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K.A. (ed.)

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaics Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The SERI subcontracted PV research and development represents most of the subcontracted R D that is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program. This report covers fiscal year (FY) 1990: October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. During FY 1990, the SERI PV program started to implement a new DOE subcontract initiative, entitled the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project.'' Excluding (PVMaT) because it was in a start-up phase, in FY 1990 there were 54 subcontracts with a total annualized funding of approximately $11.9 million. Approximately two-thirds of those subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of over $3.3 million. Cost sharing by industry added another $4.3 million to that $11.9 million of SERI PV subcontracted R D. The six technical sections of this report cover the previously ongoing areas of the subcontracted program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, and the University Participation Program. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs discuss approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1990, and future research directions. Another section introduces the PVMaT project and reports the progress since its inception in FY 1990. Highlights of technology transfer activities are also reported.

  16. Organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-01-01

    parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most successful solution processable organic photovoltaic devices at present. Andrey E Rudenko, Sangtaik Noh, and Barry C Thompson...... not surprise us that he had such remarkable foresight, nor that the present generation of innovators are 'tackling' the opportunity with such promise and success, as the work in this special issue clearly demonstrates. References [1] http...... Influence of selenophene on the properties of semi-random polymers and their blends with PC61BM Nanotechnology 24 484002 [4] Zhang K, Hu Z, Duan C, Ying L, Huang F and Cao Y 2013 The effect of methanol treatment on the performance of polymer solar cells Nanotechnology 24 484003 [5] Meng B, Fang G, Fu Y, Xie...

  17. A review of the researches on solar photovoltaic power generation technologies%太阳能光伏发电技术研究评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟浩

    2013-01-01

    评述了太阳能光伏发电技术的基础理论、无机材料与有机材料及光伏‘发电技术’应用等方面研究的最新进展,主要结论如下:提高“人造树叶”效率,发现光合作用的蛋白质、“最优路径”及微观结构规律是基础研究的重大突破;纳米材料、高分子聚合物材料及量子点电池材料等是材料研究领域的新亮点;而改变微观结构及不断完善太阳电池制造方法是实现光伏发电技术应用突破的重要途径.为促进太阳能光伏发电技术的健康、有效与可持续发展,需要加强基础理论、技术与产业化政策等方面研究.%The latest research advancements in the studies of basic theories,inorganic materials,organic materials and application for photovoltaic power generation are reviewed.Main conclusions are as follows.The major breakthroughs in the basic researches include improving the efficiency of "artificial leaf",finding the protein of photosynthesis,"optimal path" and the law of microcosmic structure.The new bright spots in the field of materials researches include nanometer materials,polymer materials and quantum dot solar cells materials and so on.The important ways of promoting the application breakthrough in photovoltaic power generation technologies include changing the microstructure and improving manufacturing method of solar cells.It is necessary to strengthen researches on the basic theories,technologies and industrial policies,so as to promote the healthy,effective and sustainable development of solar photovoltaic power generation technologies.

  18. The Dark Snow Project: a hybrid research communication program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, J. E.; Sinclair, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Dark Snow Project, to crowd fund and communicate Greenland ice-climate interactions expedition research, was a baptism by fire climate communications venture. We did it without a guide book and ran on pure inspiration. Along the way, we acquired quite some of the communication skill set: marketing; social psychology; crowd funding; conventional media; video production; social media.The aim of this presentation is to inventory lessons learned, experience, and resolve recommendations how to do it better for those adventurous enough to do a crowd funded actvity. Key themes are amplifying basic research, engagement in citizen science, outreach, communication.Quickly, one begins thinking of success tactics, like launching news on a Monday instead of a Saturday or keeping the conversation going by telling the story from different and evolving perspectives. The experience taught that unconventional funding is harder won than conventional funding. Yet, because the support came from unconventional sources, the public, we began tapping a large resource in citizen science engagement. If having a compelling call to action such a campaign can be a significant source of sustain. What had also proven difficult was doing it with a small team when each of the following skills demands a larger group; running a media campaign; logistics; video recording and editing; social media promotion; conventional media engagement. The issue and brand awareness grows in a snowball effect encouraging us to run successive annual campaigns.Now in third year, the project can be more effective if upscaling from a single to a multi-cell organization.

  19. Evaluation and directions of the photovoltaic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L.; Emery, K.A.; DeBlasio, R. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

    1994-08-01

    The status of, directions and expectations for photovoltaic technologies are discussed and updated, with emphasis on the performances of cells and modules used in various research and commercial solar cell approaches. Current and projected research and development directions are indicated. Special aspects of the current evolution of photovoltaics from the research laboratory to the commercial arena are discussed, including new programs directed to make this energy resource a viable electricity choice for users worldwide. (Author)

  20. A photovoltaic industry overview - The results of a survey on photovoltaic technology industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.; Thornhill, J. W.; Shimada, K.

    1981-01-01

    The National Photovoltaics Program of the United States Department of Energy has the objective of bringing photovoltaic power systems to a point where they can supply a significant portion of the United States energy requirements by the year 2000. This is planned to be accomplished through substantial research and technology development activities aimed at achieving major cost reductions and market penetration. This paper presents information derived from a limited survey performed to obtain photovoltaic industry attitudes concerning industrialization, and to determine current industry plans to meet the DOE program goals. Silicon material production, a key photovoltaic manufacturing industry, is highlighted with regards to implementation of technology improvement and silicon material supply outlook.

  1. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials (detachable plane panel); Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kenzai ittaigata module no kenkyu kaihatsu (chakudatsushiki heiban panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of technology for module structures, specifications of the horizontal muntin system module were newly determined in addition to the improved muntin system module, and the prototype pseudo-module integrated with construction material was prepared. The comparison results of the basic performance of both system modules clarified superior waterproofing and module temperature uniformity of the horizontal muntin system. Based on this specifications, integration technology of modules with back metal plates was studied. Formation of the integrated module close to final specifications was ascertained to be possible by use of passivation equipment to irregular form. (2) On development of construction and installation methods of modules, improvement of the waterproofing and workability of both system modules was studied. (3) On the study on practical use of modules, their design and ventilation/cooling structure were studied. 38 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Research on CO2 Emissions Reduction with Application of Off-grid Household Photovoltaic Generating Appliance%离网式户用光伏发电装置减少二氧化碳排放的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鹏

    2014-01-01

    one kind of single-phase off-grid household photovoltaic ( PV) generating appliance was researched in this paper.An off-grid household photovoltaic generating appliance is a device that is connected to home electrical loads directly and provides elec-tric power supply for family.%介绍一种单相离网式交流户用光伏发电装置的功能、结构,能直接与户用负载联接,独立对负荷供电。

  3. Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

  4. Macromolecular architectures for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popere, Bhooshan C; Della Pelle, Andrea M; Poe, Ambata; Thayumanavan, S

    2012-03-28

    Research in the field of organic photovoltaics has gained considerable momentum in the last two decades owing to the need for developing low-cost and efficient energy harvesting systems. Elegant molecular architectures have been designed, synthesized and employed as active materials for photovoltaic devices thereby leading to a better molecular structure-device property relationship understanding. In this perspective, we outline new macromolecular scaffolds that have been designed within the purview of each of the three fundamental processes involving light harvesting, charge separation and charge transport.

  5. 太阳电池光伏光热一体化系统的性能研究%Performance study of a solar hybrid photovoltaic and thermal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常泽辉; 田瑞; 侯静

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the solar energy efficiency and to acquire electricity and hot energy, a copper exchanger was placed on PV rear surface to build a solar hybrid photovoltaic and thermal system (PV/T). The comparable experiments were performed to demonstrate its performance at Hohhot The results show that under the same solar radiation and environmental temperature, the output power of the single solar cell with heat exchanger increases almost 15% than the single solar cell.%为了提高太阳能的综合利用效率,同时获取电能和热能,将铜管换热器加装在太阳电池板背,构成太阳电池光伏光热(PV/T)一体化系统.采取对比实验法在呼和浩特地区对太阳电池板进行光伏光热性能测试.实验结果表明,在相同的太阳辐照度和环境温度条件下,装有铜管换热器的单块太阳电池的输出功率比普通单块太阳电池实际输出功率提高近17%.

  6. Analysis of influencing factors for a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal and heat pump system%光伏光热一体化装置与热泵结合系统的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆树春; 朱群志; 张静秋; 唐李清

    2013-01-01

    光伏光热一体化装置与热泵结合系统,既能产生电能,又可以回收热能.利用修正Hottel-Whillier模型,结合理想制冷循环,建立了光伏光热一体化装置与热泵结合系统的数学模型.通过对制冷剂流量、辐射强度及水箱水温等影响因素的分析,确定合适的蒸发温度、冷凝温度、制冷量等参数,为选择合适的节流装置和压缩机提供理论依据.%A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal and heat pump system (PV/T-HP) can generate electricity as well as recover thermal energy.The mathematical model of PV/T-HP system is established by extension of the Hottel-Whillier model and ideal refrigeration cycle.After analyzing influence factors such as refrigerant flow,solar radiation intensity and water temperature etc.,the appropriate evaporating temperature,condensing temperature,cooling capacity and other parameters have been determined,which provide a theoretical basis for the selection of the appropriate throttling device and compressor.

  7. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  8. International joint development for demonstration by NEDO. `Research for demonstration of a solar power/micro hydro power bybrid system`; NEDO kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu `taiyoko micro suiryoku hybrid system jissho kenkyu`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    As part of the international joint development for demonstration by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in fiscal 1997, a `research for demonstration of a solar power/micro hydro power bybrid system` was commissioned. A hybrid system was structured, which consists of a 100-kW class photovoltaic power generating equipment, a 25-kW class micro-hydro power generating equipment, and a battery set to store surplus power. Construction for system installation to perform demonstration operation was launched in Trang Village, Nang Yang Prefecture, Vietnam. This demonstration research is scheduled to execute system design and fabrication as well as the foundation construction for system installation in fiscal 1998, and the installation and adjustment will be completed by some time in the summer of 1999. Thereafter, demonstration operation will be performed for about two years with an objective to evaluate complementary relationship between the photovoltaic power generation and the micro-hydro power generation, the system economy, and electric power quality. (NEDO)

  9. International joint development for demonstration by NEDO. 'Research for demonstration of a solar power/micro hydro power bybrid system'. NEDO kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu 'taiyoko micro suiryoku hybrid system jissho kenkyu'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-10

    As part of the international joint development for demonstration by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in fiscal 1997, a 'research for demonstration of a solar power/micro hydro power bybrid system' was commissioned. A hybrid system was structured, which consists of a 100-kW class photovoltaic power generating equipment, a 25-kW class micro-hydro power generating equipment, and a battery set to store surplus power. Construction for system installation to perform demonstration operation was launched in Trang Village, Nang Yang Prefecture, Vietnam. This demonstration research is scheduled to execute system design and fabrication as well as the foundation construction for system installation in fiscal 1998, and the installation and adjustment will be completed by some time in the summer of 1999. Thereafter, demonstration operation will be performed for about two years with an objective to evaluate complementary relationship between the photovoltaic power generation and the micro-hydro power generation, the system economy, and electric power quality. (NEDO)

  10. Photovoltaics information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  11. Direct spectroscopic evidence of ultrafast electron transfer from a low band gap polymer to CdSe quantum dots in hybrid photovoltaic thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, Elsa; Greaney, Matthew J; Brutchey, Richard L; Bradforth, Stephen E

    2013-12-11

    Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is used to study charge transfer dynamics in hybrid films composed of the low band gap polymer PCPDTBT and CdSe quantum dots capped with tert-butylthiol ligands. By selectively exciting the polymer, a spectral signature for electrons on the quantum dots appears on ultrafast time scales (≲ 65 fs), which indicates ultrafast electron transfer. From this time scale, the coupling between the polymer chains and the quantum dots is estimated to be J ≳ 17 meV. The reduced quantum dot acceptors exhibit an unambiguous spectral bleach signature, whose amplitude allows for the first direct calculation of the absolute electron transfer yield in a hybrid solar cell (82 ± 5%). We also show that a limitation of the hybrid system is rapid and measurable geminate recombination due to the small separation of the initial charge pair. The fast recombination is consistent with the internal quantum efficiency of the corresponding solar cell. We therefore have identified and quantified a main loss mechanism in this type of third generation solar cell.

  12. Efficient design and simulation of an expandable hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) power system with MPPT and inverter input voltage regulation features in compliance with electric grid requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skretas, Sotirios B.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios P. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritos University of Thrace (DUTH), 12 V. Sofias, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper an efficient design along with modeling and simulation of a transformer-less small-scale centralized DC - bus Grid Connected Hybrid (Wind-PV) power system for supplying electric power to a single phase of a three phase low voltage (LV) strong distribution grid are proposed and presented. The main components of the hybrid system are: a PV generator (PVG); and an array of horizontal-axis, fixed-pitch, small-size, variable-speed wind turbines (WTs) with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) having an embedded uncontrolled bridge rectifier. An overview of the basic theory of such systems along with their modeling and simulation via Simulink/MATLAB software package are presented. An intelligent control method is applied to the proposed configuration to simultaneously achieve three desired goals: to extract maximum power from each hybrid power system component (PVG and WTs); to guarantee DC voltage regulation/stabilization at the input of the inverter; to transfer the total produced electric power to the electric grid, while fulfilling all necessary interconnection requirements. Finally, a practical case study is conducted for the purpose of fully evaluating a possible installation in a city site of Xanthi/Greece, and the practical results of the simulations are presented. (author)

  13. Photovoltaic evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

    Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

  14. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  15. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the design of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, has focused on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt-level central-station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat-plate central-station or other large-scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost-effective configurations. The Central Station Research Forum addressed design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central-station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory research activities. Technical issues were examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect-engineer and laboratory researcher. The forum included presentations on optimum source-circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements and array operation and maintenance. The Research Forum focused on current capabilities as well as design difficulties requiring additional technological thrusts and/or continued research emphasis. Session topic summaries highlighting major points during group discussions, identifying promising technical approaches or areas of future research, are presented.

  16. NASA-OAST photovoltaic energy conversion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, J. P.; Loria, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion research is discussed. Solar cells, solar arrays, gallium arsenides, space station and spacecraft power supplies, and state of the art devices are discussed.

  17. Research Update: The electronic structure of hybrid perovskite layers and their energetic alignment in devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Olthof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has increased at a rapid pace due to their tremendous success in the field of thin film solar cells. This area closely ties together fundamental solid state research and device application, as it is necessary to understand the basic material properties to optimize the performances and open up new areas of application. In this regard, the energy levels and their respective alignment with adjacent charge transport layers play a crucial role. Currently, we are lacking a detailed understanding about the electronic structure and are struggling to understand what influences the alignment, how it varies, or how it can be intentionally modified. This research update aims at giving an overview over recent results regarding measurements of the electronic structure of hybrid perovskites using photoelectron spectroscopy to summarize the present status.

  18. A photovoltaic module

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Frederik C.; Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovolt...

  19. Thermionic photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, D. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermionic photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or gallium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  20. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  1. A digital-analog hybrid system and its application to the automatic flight control system simulation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of a digital-analog hybrid system composed of a DJS-8 digital computer and a HMJ-200 analog computer are described as well as its applications to simulation research for an automatic flight control system. A hybrid computational example is included to illustrate the application.

  2. Fearing a non-existing Minotaur? The ethical challenges of research on cytoplasmic hybrid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, S; Boniolo, G

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we address the ethical challenges of research on cytoplasmic hybrid embryos, or "cybrids". The controversial pronouncement of the UK's Human Embryology and Fertilisation Authority of September 2007 on the permissibility of this area of research is the starting point of our discussion, and we argue in its favour. By a rigorous definition of the entities at issue, we show how the terms "chimera" and "hybrid" are improper in the case of cybrids, and how their use can bias the debate creating moral prejudices. After analysing the scientific aspects of cybrids research and sketching out current alternatives, we enter the ethical debate, starting from the premise that research on early human embryos is ethically permissible under some circumstances. We emphasise how research on cybrids has positive consequences in terms of scientific and therapeutic applications, since it allows the derivation of human embryonic stem cells genetically tailored to the somatic cell donor. Such cell lines offer a unique in vitro model both for studies of human pathogenesis and for drug screening and discovery. Research on cybrids also circumvents the problem of the scarcity of human oocytes and their ethically dubious donation. Finally, we object to the most common arguments against cybrids research, that is, moral repugnance, the slippery slope argument, the appeal to "nature", and the unfair distribution of economical resources.

  3. A new research tool for hybrid Bayesian networks using script language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Park, Cheol Young; Carvalho, Rommel

    2011-06-01

    While continuous variables become more and more inevitable in Bayesian networks for modeling real-life applications in complex systems, there are not much software tools to support it. Popular commercial Bayesian network tools such as Hugin, and Netica etc., are either expensive or have to discretize continuous variables. In addition, some free programs existing in the literature, commonly known as BNT, GeNie/SMILE, etc, have their own advantages and disadvantages respectively. In this paper, we introduce a newly developed Java tool for model construction and inference for hybrid Bayesian networks. Via the representation power of the script language, this tool can build the hybrid model automatically based on a well defined string that follows the specific grammars. Furthermore, it implements several inference algorithms capable to accommodate hybrid Bayesian networks, including Junction Tree algorithm (JT) for conditional linear Gaussian model (CLG), and Direct Message Passing (DMP) for general hybrid Bayesian networks with CLG structure. We believe this tool will be useful for researchers in the field.

  4. MULTICRITERIA HYBRID FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM: LITERATURE REVIEW, ANALYSIS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Fatima Morais

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem, which is one of the most difficult problems to solve. The literature points to several studies that focus the Hybrid Flow Shop scheduling problem with monocriteria functions. Despite of the fact that, many real world problems involve several objective functions, they can often compete and conflict, leading researchers to concentrate direct their efforts on the development of methods that take consider this variant into consideration. The goal of the study is to review and analyze the methods in order to solve the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem with multicriteria functions in the literature. The analyses were performed using several papers that have been published over the years, also the parallel machines types, the approach used to develop solution methods, the type of method develop, the objective function, the performance criterion adopted, and the additional constraints considered. The results of the reviewing and analysis of 46 papers showed opportunities for future research on this topic, including the following: (i use uniform and dedicated parallel machines, (ii use exact and metaheuristics approaches, (iv develop lower and uppers bounds, relations of dominance and different search strategies to improve the computational time of the exact methods,  (v develop  other types of metaheuristic, (vi work with anticipatory setups, and (vii add constraints faced by the production systems itself.

  5. High density photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  6. Photovoltaic device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  7. Design of Hybrid Two Axes Control System of Photovoltaic Tracking Based on Freescale%基于Freescale的混合式两轴光伏跟踪控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗来武; 顾菊平; 茅靖峰; 袁媛; 曹寅翔

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种以Freescale控制器为控制核心的混合式光伏发电两轴跟踪控制系统.该系统结合了日历跟踪法与光强控制法的优点,通过对X-Y二维平台的精确定位,实现对太阳位置的精确跟踪;系统添加了液晶显示和独立键盘的人机交瓦界面,便于对装置的实时监控与操作;采用了Zigbee无线通讯网络,能够实现对光伏阵列的集中控制.通过对样机的测试,得出该系统跟踪速度快,整体效率高,解决了现有方法稳定性差、跟踪精度低等诸多缺点,而且具有结构简单、功耗低、操作功能强、人机界面友好等特点.%This paper introduced a kind of hybrid two axes control system of photovoltaic tracking based on Freescale MCU. After combining the advantages of the comprehensive strategy of calendar and light intensity controlling, the system can track of the sun accurately by precise location of the two-dimension platform of X-axis and Y-axis. Furthermore, the system adds a man-machine interface consisting of LCD display and independent keyboards, which is convenient for real-time monitoring and operating. In order to realize centralized control of the photovoltaic array, Zigbee wireless communication equipment was used to constitute the wireless network in this system. From the testing results of the prototype, it was concluded that instead of the unstabitily and inaccuracy of the existing methods, this system has a fast tracking speed and high efficiency. At the same time, this system has simple construction, low power consumption, powerful operating functions and friendly man-machine interface as well.

  8. Enhancement of the photovoltaic performance in P3HT: PbS hybrid solar cells using small size PbS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Yuliar; Vandenplas, Erwin; Justo, Yolanda; Gehlhaar, Robert; Cheyns, David; Hens, Zeger; Van der Auweraer, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Different approaches of surface modification of the quantum dots (QDs), namely, solution-phase (octylamine, octanethiol) and post-deposition (acetic acid, 1,4-benzenedithiol) ligand exchange were used in the fabrication of hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell containing poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and small (2.4 nm) PbS QDs. We show that replacing oleic acid by shorter chain ligands improves the figures of merit of the solar cells. This can possibly be attributed to a combination of a reduced thickness of the barrier for electron transfer and an optimized phase separation. The best results were obtained for post-deposition ligand exchange by 1,4-benzenedithiol, which improves the power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on a bulk heterojunction of lead sulfide (PbS) QDs and P3HT up to two orders of magnitude over previously reported hybrid cells based on a bulk heterojunction of P3HT:PbS QDs, where the QDs are capped by acetic acid ligands. The optimal performance was obtained for solar cells with 69 wt. % PbS QDs. Besides the ligand effects, the improvement was attributed to the formation of an energetically favorable bulk heterojunction with P3HT, when small size (2.4 nm) PbS QDs were used. Dark current density-voltage (J-V) measurements carried out on the device provided insight into the working mechanism: the comparison between the dark J-V characteristics of the bench mark system P3HT:PCBM and the P3HT:PbS blends allows us to conclude that a larger leakage current and a more efficient recombination are the major factors responsible for the larger losses in the hybrid system.

  9. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of redox flow battery for photovoltaic power generation; Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyoko hatsuden`yo redox denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of redox flow battery for photovoltaic power generation in fiscal 1994. (1) On the production method of electrolyte, silica reduction treatment was attempted to use ammonium metavanadate recovered from boiler as electrolyte of redox flow battery. Silica removal rates more than 90% were achieved by crystallizing V as polyvanadate while keeping molten silica. It was ascertained in minicell experiment that trivalent and quadrivalent V electrolytes produced from recovered V are applicable to continuous charge/discharge operation for one week. (2) On development of battery systems, the relation between battery characteristics and physicochemical properties of carbon fiber electrodes was studied to improve carbon fiber electrodes. The efficiency of 80% was achieved at current density of 160mA/cm{sup 2} by use of layered electrodes, resulting in considerable cost reduction. Performance evaluation operation of the 2kW battery prepared in the last fiscal year was also carried out. 4 figs.

  10. 23. Symposium photovoltaic solar energy; 23. Symposium Photovoltaische Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 23rd symposium of the Ostbayerische Technologie Transfer Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at 5th to 7th March, 2008, in Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Technical and economical further development in the photovoltaics: Strategies and projects (J. Nick-Leptin); (2) The future of photovoltaics technology: Solution of the silicon problem, concentrator technology and thin-film technology (E.R. Weber); (3) Financing of technology - Thin-film processes versus crystalline silicon? (N. Brinkmann); (4) The German market of solar power at the test stand: Evaluation of the state of the art 2008 (K. Freier); (5) Point of view photon (A. Kreutzmann); (6) Viewpoint of the branch of industry (W. Hoffmann); (7) EEG novella: Kind blows for the solar industry (S. Droxner); (8) Priority of photovoltaic power - Use by substitution of the conventional park of power plants as well as consumption near generation (M. Braun); (9) Launch of photovoltaics: The EEG as a model of success with small disturbances of growth? The outer view (R. Wuestenhagen); (10) Current converter for the solar technology - 20-year-balance and future perspectives (P. Zacharias); (11) Damages at bypass diodes in photovoltaic modules by means of induced voltages and currents caused by nearby lightning currents (N. Henze); (12) A photovoltaic a.c. module in high voltage technology (N. Henze); (13) 98.5 % degree of efficiency at inverters with SiC MOSFETs (B. Burger); (14) 99.9 % MPP tracking performance - only the ''half truth''? (R. Bruendlinger); (15) Photovoltaics for network far electrification (H. Gabler); (16) 10 years hybrid system ''Starkenburger Huette'' - operational experiences with an innovative system concept (M. Landau); (17) Photovoltaics-wind-fuel cell-hybrid systems for the supply of measuring stations at offshore drilling platforms (M. Vetter); (18) Requirement and reality

  11. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume VI. Cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, K.S.

    1979-09-30

    The purpose of the cost analysis is to determine the economic feasibility of a variety of hybrid vehicles with respect to conventional vehicles specifically designed for the same duty cycle defined by the mission analysis. Several different hybrid configurations including parallel, parallel-flywheel, and series vehicles were evaluated. The ramifications of incorporating examples of advanced batteries, these being the advanced lead-acid, nickel-zinc, and sodium sulfur were also investigated. Vehicles were specifically designed with these batteries and for the driving cycles specified by the mission. Simulated operation on the missions yielded the energy consumption (petroleum and/or electricity) over the driving cycles. It was concluded that: in the event that gasoline prices reach $2.50 to $3.00/gal, hybrid vehicles in many applications will become economically competitive with conventional vehicles without subsidization; in some commercial applications hybrid vehicles could be economically competitive, when the gasoline price ranges from $1.20 to $1.50/gal. The cost per kWh per cycle of the advanced batteries is much more important economically than the specific energy; the series hybrid vehicles were found to be more expensive in comparison to the parallel or parallel-flywheel hybrids when designed as passenger vehicles; and hybrid vehicles designed for private use could become economically competitive and displace up to 50% of the fuel normally used on that mission if subsidies of $500 to $2000 were supplied to the owner/operator. (LCL)

  12. Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Study on the scenario for the diffusion of photovoltaic power generating systems; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo sytem no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyoko hatsuden donyu fukyu scenario sakusei no tame no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on a survey to prepare scenario for the diffusion of photovoltaic power generating systems. Introduction target planned with help of a diffusion simulation was verified by calculations using simulation models. The calculations made the following points clear: facility costs and power generation costs for photovoltaic power generation systems, amount of introduced photovoltaic power generation systems, number of facilities introducing photovoltaic power generation systems, policy cost to achieve the target, annual power generation amount, oil substituting effect, carbon dioxide reducing effect, and market sizes. Power generation cost in fiscal 2000 would drop down to 53 yen per kWh in new installation in independent houses and down to 31 yen per kWh in systems used in schools. These reductions are the result of progress in mass production as a result of positively implementing the aiding policies. The required diffusion aiding policies revealed from the simulation results include expansion of subsidy operations for house construction, introduction of the systems into public facilities performed by public organizations, aid to system introduction into private business entities, subsidy to facility investments, and enforcement of power purchase institutions. 3 figs.

  13. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  14. Access to global health research. Prevalence and cost of gold and hybrid open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haustein, S.; Smith, E.; Mongeon, P.; Shu, F.; Lariviere, V.

    2016-07-01

    As it is a priority of global health research (GHR) to achieve equity in health worldwide, there is an increased demand and expectation that knowledge be shared freely and without barriers. Making research findings available for free to readers by publishing open access (OA) is thus central to GHR. Several studies have assessed the extent to which different forms of OA prevail but despite the importance of free access to knowledge in GHR, particular empirical evidence is missing. This paper aims to fill this gap by analyzing the extent to which GHR papers indexed in PubMed are published OA and how much it costs to publish in gold and hybrid OA journals. Findings show that between 2010 and 2014 as few as 18% of papers were published in gold OA journals, 7% published as hybrid OA (i.e., OA papers in subscription journals), while more than 60% were behind paywalls. Costs for gold OA amounted to $990,619 for 404 papers, whereas $722,631 were spent on article processing charges (APCs) of 223 hybrid papers. The majority of APCs were obtained by large commercial publishing houses known for exorbitant profit margins. (Author)

  15. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report reviews the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) Program from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993 (fiscal year [FY] 1993). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The FY 1993 budget authority (BA) for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $40.1 million in operating funds and $0.9 million in capital equipment funds. An additional $4.8 million in capital equipment funds were made available for the new Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) that will house the in-house PV laboratories beginning in FY 1994. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with more than $23.7 million (nearly 59%) of the FY 1993 operating funds going to 70 subcontractors. In FY 1993, DOE assigned certain other PV subcontracting efforts to the DOE Golden Field Office (DOE/GO), and assigned responsibility for their technical support to the NREL PV Program. An example is the PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) Project. These DOE/GO efforts are also reported in this document.

  16. Teachers Learning to Research Climate: Development of hybrid teacher professional development to support climate inquiry and research in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, M. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Kennedy, T.

    2011-12-01

    The GLOBE Program is an international science and education focused on connecting scientists, teachers and students around relevant, local environmental issues. GLOBE's focus during the next two years in on climate, global change and understanding climate from a scientific perspective. The GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRFC) will engage youth from around the world in understanding and researching climate through investigations of local climate challenges. GLOBE teachers are trained in implementation of inquiry in the classroom and the use of scientific data collection protocols to develop inquiry and research projects of the Earth System. In preparation for the SCRC, GLOBE teachers will need additional training in climate science, global change and communicating climate science in the classroom. GLOBE's reach to 111 countries around the world requires development of scalable models for training teachers. In June GLOBE held the first teacher professional development workshop (Learning to Research Summer Institute) in a hybrid format with two-thirds of the teachers participating face-to-face and the remaining teachers participating virtually using Adobe Connect. The week long workshop prepared teachers to integrate climate science inquiry and research projects in the classrooms in the 2011-12 academic year. GLOBE scientists and other climate science experts will work with teachers and their students throughout the year in designing and executing a climate science research project. Final projects and research results will be presented in May 2012 through a virtual conference. This presentation will provide the framework for hybrid teacher professional development in climate science research and inquiry projects as well as summarize the findings from this inaugural session. The GLOBE Program office, headquartered in Boulder, is funded through cooperative agreements with NASA and NOAA with additional support from NSF and the U.S. Department of State. GLOBE

  17. A Hybrid Model Ranking Search Result for Research Paper Searching on Social Bookmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pijitra jomsri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social bookmarking and publication sharing systems are essential tools for web resource discovery. The performance and capabilities of search results from research paper bookmarking system are vital. Many researchers use social bookmarking for searching papers related to their topics of interest. This paper proposes a combination of similarity based indexing “tag title and abstract” and static ranking to improve search results. In this particular study, the year of the published paper and type of research paper publication are combined with similarity ranking called (HybridRank. Different weighting scores are employed. The retrieval performance of these weighted combination rankings are evaluated using mean values of NDCG. The results suggest that HybridRank and similarity rank with weight 75:25 has the highest NDCG scores. From the preliminary result of experiment, the combination ranking technique provide more relevant research paper search results. Furthermore the chosen heuristic ranking can improve the efficiency of research paper searching on social bookmarking websites.

  18. Research on the Critical Speed of a Mixed-Flow Turbocharger with Hybrid Ceramic Ball Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ruo; GE Xin-bin; MA Chao-chen

    2009-01-01

    The critical speeds for a vehicle turbocharger with hybrid ceramic ball bearing are researched. The ball bearing-rotor system produces resonance when it working in critical speed and that makes the turbocharger injury working for a long time. The calculation and analysis methods of the critical speed for the vehicle turbocharger are described. The critical speed is computed by two methods including Riccati transfer matrix and DyRoBeS finite element method for a vehicle turbocharger with hybrid ceramic ball bearing. The vibration experiment had been taken to validate the calculating result. Comparison between the results by two calculation methods and the test results show that the first critical speed differences are 6.47% and 5.66%, the second critical speed differences are 2.87% and 2.94% respectively. And then, the primary factors which influence the critical speed are analyzed, the conclusions will be helpful for the vehicle turbocharger bearing-rotor system design.

  19. Photovoltaics: Contract lists, fiscal year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    US DOE's Photovoltaics Program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. The program is working to expand industrial capacity while continuing basic and applied technology R and D. This document is a tabulation of photovoltaics R and D that were begun, continued, or completed during this period. National laboratories or industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions perform the R and D activities. The document is organized first by directing organization, then by project title and individual task. Each listing provides the name of contractor, period of performance, funding, objectives, accomplishments, and FY 1993 milestones. An index of contractors is included.

  20. Novel Photovoltaic Devices Using Ferroelectric Material and Colloidal Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Young Hun

    As the global concern for the financial and environmental costs of traditional energy resources increases, research on renewable energy, most notably solar energy, has taken center stage. Many alternative photovoltaic (PV) technologies for 'the next generation solar cell' have been extensively studied to overcome the Shockley-Queisser 31% efficiency limit as well as tackle the efficiency vs. cost issues. This dissertation focuses on the novel photovoltaic mechanism for the next generation solar cells using two inorganic nanomaterials, nanocrystal quantum dots and ferroelectric nanoparticles. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) materials are widely studied and easy to synthesize using solution based chemistry. One of the fascinating properties of the PZT material is a Bulk Photovoltaic effect (BPVE). This property has been spotlighted because it can produce very high open circuit voltage regardless of the electrical bandgap of the materials. However, the poor optical absorption of the PZT materials and the required high temperature to form the ferroelectric crystalline structure have been obstacles to fabricate efficient photovoltaic devices. Colloidal quantum dots also have fascinating optical and electrical properties such as tailored absorption spectrum, capability of the bandgap engineering due to the wide range of material selection and quantum confinement, and very efficient carrier dynamics called multiple exciton generations. In order to utilize these properties, many researchers have put numerous efforts in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic research and there has been remarkable progress in the past decade. However, several drawbacks are still remaining to achieve highly efficient photovoltaic device. Traps created on the large surface area, low carrier mobility, and lower open circuit voltage while increasing the absorption of the solar spectrum is main issues of the nanocrystal based photovoltaic effect. To address these issues and to take the advantages of

  1. 铁酸铋薄膜光伏效应研究进展%Research Progress in Photovoltaic Effect of Bismuth Ferrite Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周浩; 高荣礼; 符春林

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth ferrite is the only single phase multiferroic material which shows both ferroelectric and antiferromag-netic properties at room temperature and potential magneto electric effect between the two ferro orders. The ferroelectric Curie temperature and the antiferromagnetic Neel temperatures are both above room temperature. It has broad application prospects in the fields of optoelectronic devices, spin electric devices, ferroelectric random access memories, magnetoelectric memory. Be-sides, bismuth ferrite has relatively larger polarization, lower band-gap and large absorption coefficient, and theoretically may become an alternative for next generation of photovoltaic cell because of its photoelectric conversion efficiency. However, there is no clear conclusion about the mechanism of the photovoltaic effect of multiferroic Bismuth ferrite materials. And many prob- lems need to be solved because many factors can affect the photovoltaic effect, including domains, interfaces, thickness, depola-rization field, defect, polarization and so on. Based on these considerations above, we review the research progress of Bismuth ferrite thin film of the photovoltaic effect mechanism.%铁酸铋是目前唯一在室温下同时具有铁电性和反铁磁性的单相多铁性材料,并且这两种铁性有序之间存在磁电耦合效应,其铁电居里温度和反铁磁奈尔温度都远在室温以上,在光电器件、自旋电子器件、铁电随机存储器、磁电存储单元等领域有着广阔的应用前景。此外,作为一种典型的铁电材料,铁酸铋还具有较大的剩余极化强度、相对较小的带隙宽度以及较大的光吸收系数,理论上具有较大的光电转换效率,有望成为下一代太阳能光伏电池的备选材料。然而,目前有关铁酸铋材料光伏效应的机制还没有明确的定论,影响其光伏效应的因素较多,例如电畴、界面、厚度、退极化场、缺陷及极化强度等。

  2. Ion-exchange synthesis and improved photovoltaic performance of CdS/Ag2S heterostructures for inorganic-organic hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xiong; Zhang, Yange; Li, Pinjiang

    2016-11-01

    A facile ultrasound-assisted ion exchange route was developed for the synthesis of CdS/Ag2S heterojunctions by ion exchange between the nanostructured CdS film and [Ag(NH3)2]+ under ultrasonication. The CdS/Ag2S heterojunction film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis DRS spectroscopy, photoelectrochemical measurements, and the transient photovoltage (TPV) technique. CdSsbnd Ag2S heterojunctions exhibit a dense morphology, enhanced visible light absorption and stronger photocurrent response than the pure CdS films. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was then spin coated into the CdS/Ag2S framework. Hybrid solar cells constructed with FTO/CdS/Ag2S/P3HT/Au display relatively higher power conversion efficiency than FTO/CdS/P3HT/Au.

  3. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  4. A general purpose characterization system for rooftop hybrid microconcentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Robert; Jones, Christopher; Thomsen, Elizabeth; Diez, Vicente Munoz; Harvey, J.; Everett, Vernie; Blakers, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    A versatile characterization system for hybrid thermal and photovoltaic solar receivers is presented and demonstrated. The characterization of the thermal loss and effective area of a novel hybrid receiver is presented.

  5. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  6. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  7. Research on the Optimization of Daily Operation of Longyangxia Hydro-Photovoltaic Power System%龙羊峡水光互补的日优化调度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱梓锋; 李庚银; 安源; 丁航; 王颂凯; 王浩

    2016-01-01

    提出了水光2种清洁能源互补发电模型。以水光互补在负荷高峰时段总出力最大为目标函数,综合考虑各种约束条件,构建了水光互补日间调度模型。采用模拟优化的方法求解该模型,结果表明水光互补可以明显提高调峰能力。%ABSTRACT:A complementary clean power system model of hydro power and photovoltaic is proposed in this paper. Taking the maximum output of the hybrid system at the load peak as the objective function and with various constraints considered, a daily optimization model of hybrid system is established. The simulation optimization method is put forward to solve the built model. The results show that the hydro-photovoltaic power system can substantially improve the peak load capacity.

  8. 对微网中光伏系统在离网运行下的控制研究%Research on Control Strategy of Photovoltaic System Off-grid Operation in Micro-gird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢胜男; 马平; 苏适; 严玉廷; 杨洋

    2014-01-01

    In off-grid photovoltaic power generation system, due to the instability of photovoltaic power generation and randomness, often equipped with a certain capacity of hybrid energy storage device, which is an integral part of the whole system.Based on the a-nalysis of the photovoltaic power generation system and the work characteristics of the hybrid energy storage device, on the basis of this paper introduces the simulation model used in the simulation theory, and combining with actual simulation model and simulation results, this paper expounds the feasibility of this method.Experimental results prove the theoretical analysis is established, the test method is feasible.%在离网型光伏发电系统中,由于光伏发电的不稳定性以及随机性,常常会配备一定容量的混合储能装置,这是整个系统不可或缺的组成部分。本文在分析了光伏发电系统以及混合储能装置的工作特性的基础上,制定了系统控制策略,大建立系统仿真试验模型,并在该模型上进行了带不可变负载扰动及带可变负载扰动下系统动态试验,仿真结果表明该系统的系统配置及控制策略的可行性。

  9. Study on Maximum Power Point Tracking and Inverter Control of Hybrid Photovoltaic-Wind Power Generation System%风光互补发电系统MPPT及其逆变电源控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛超铭; 李少纲

    2013-01-01

      为了实现风光互补发电系统的最大功率点跟踪(MPPT),根据风能与太阳能的特性,采用双输入DC/DC变换器作为前级电路,在扰动法的基础上提出自调整MPPT控制策略,有效改善了系统的跟踪速度,避免误操作,减小工作点的震荡,并提高了系统效率。针对逆变电源控制,把自动调节反馈系数的PID控制系统与重复控制系统相结合,不仅提出复合控制算法,使系统具有较好的动静态特性,且改善了逆变器输出波形的质量。%In order to realize maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of hybrid photovoltaic-wind power generation system, dual input DC/DC converter was adopted as the forward circuit according to features of wind energy and solar energy. On the basis of disturbance method, the self-adjusting MPPT control strategy was raised to have effectively improved tracking speed of the system, avoiding misopera-tion, reducing vibration of working point and raising the system efficiency. As for inverter control, the PID control system for auto-adjusting feeding coefficient was combined with the repetitive control system. This paper not only raised the repetitive control algorithm, making the system have better static and dynamic characteristics, but also improved quality of inverter output waveforms.

  10. Optimal design of a hybrid photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation system, to supply isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon; Dimensionamento otimo de sistemas hibridos, com geracao fotovoltaica e celula a combustivel, para atendimento a comunidades isoladas na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio Batista da

    2010-11-15

    The lack of electricity in isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon has become one of the greatest barrier for the development of the region. Currently, the main technologies that provide electricity to these communities are diesel generators, batteries and dry cells. These non-renewable energy sources may pose serious problems to the environment and human health and have high maintenance and operational costs. Therefore, the search for renewable energy sources, such as water and sunlight, which are highly abundant in the region, has become a great challenge. This thesis presents the studies on application of solar photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell (FC) technologies to supply electric power in an uninterrupted manner. Outlined are the technical and cost issues of a pilot project set up in an environmentally protected area, next to Bananal island, located in the Southwestern region of the state of Tocantins. The pilot project relies on PV solar power as the primary source of energy for the production of electricity. The surplus energy is stored in the form of hydrogen produced by electrolysis of the water supplied locally, which is reconverted into electric power by fuel cells during periods when there is little or no sunlight. In this context, the aim of the study was to propose a sizing of a hybrid distributed generation system (HDGS), comprised of a PV system, FC and batteries, that optimizes implementation and operational costs, as a potential source of energy for isolated communities in the Amazon. The work was carried out with the help of simulation software HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Simulations and a comparative study were carried out of the technologies and potential configurations that meet the needs of these isolated communities. The results showed an optimal solution of HGDS PV-FC batteries with a reduction in the initial cost of the project in about 60% compared to

  11. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yun CHEN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed, including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification, the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production. In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines, four types, including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS, were proposed. A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed. The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones. The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer. In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines, the characterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward. The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  12. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-yun; LEI Dong-yang; TANG Wen-bang; XIAO Ying-hui

    2011-01-01

    The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed,including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification,the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production.In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines,four types,including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice),TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice),reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS,were proposed.A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed.The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones.The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer.In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines,the charecterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward.The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  13. Band gap tuning of nickelates for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Wang, Le; You, Lu; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Liang; Wang, Shiwei; Wang, Junling

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid perovskites have achieved tremendous success as a light absorber in solar cells during the past few years. However, the stability issue casts shadow on their practical applications. Perovskite oxides may offer an alternative. In this study, the metal-insulator transition in perovskite neodymium nickelates (NdNiO3) is systematically tuned by adjusting the oxygen partial pressure during film growth. Room temperature insulating films with different band gaps are obtained. Testing photovoltaic cells have been prepared by combining the nickelates with Nb-doped SrTiO3, and photovoltaic performance has been optimized. Our study offers a new route for designing novel photovoltaic materials.

  14. 太阳能光伏技术在建筑中的应用研究%Application Research of Solar Photovoltaic Technology in Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高树鹏

    2014-01-01

    介绍了太阳能光伏发电系统的组成与分类,论述了太阳能光伏建筑的优点以及应用情况,就光伏方阵封装材料和光伏蓄电池的选择进行了探讨。太阳能光伏建筑将光伏发电与建筑完美结合,是太阳能在建筑中应用的一种新概念,随着太阳能发电产业的迅速发展,太阳能光伏技术日趋成熟。开发高性能和低成本的光伏方阵封装材料、蓄电池,是太阳能光伏技术在建筑中应用的重要研究课题。%This paper introduces the constitutions and classifications of solar photovoltaic system and its advantages and applications. Besides, the author discusses the selection of solar photovoltaic encapsulating materials and photovoltaic batteries. Solar photovoltaic building combines photovoltaic power generation and buildings perfectly,which is a new concept in solar application in buildings. With the rapid development of photovoltaic power generation business, the solar photovoltaic technology becoming increasingly mature. The main task of using solar photovoltaic technology in buildings is to explore the high -performance and low -cost photovoltaic encapsulating materials and batteries.

  15. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2005. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  16. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2004. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  17. Correlation Feature Selection and Mutual Information Theory Based Quantitative Research on Meteorological Impact Factors of Module Temperature for Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The module temperature is the most important parameter influencing the output power of solar photovoltaic (PV systems, aside from solar irradiance. In this paper, we focus on the interdisciplinary research that combines the correlation analysis, mutual information (MI and heat transfer theory, which aims to figure out the correlative relations between different meteorological impact factors (MIFs and PV module temperature from both quality and quantitative aspects. The identification and confirmation of primary MIFs of PV module temperature are investigated as the first step of this research from the perspective of physical meaning and mathematical analysis about electrical performance and thermal characteristic of PV modules based on PV effect and heat transfer theory. Furthermore, the quantitative description of the MIFs influence on PV module temperature is mathematically formulated as several indexes using correlation-based feature selection (CFS and MI theory to explore the specific impact degrees under four different typical weather statuses named general weather classes (GWCs. Case studies for the proposed methods were conducted using actual measurement data of a 500 kW grid-connected solar PV plant in China. The results not only verified the knowledge about the main MIFs of PV module temperatures, more importantly, but also provide the specific ratio of quantitative impact degrees of these three MIFs respectively through CFS and MI based measures under four different GWCs.

  18. Annual Report: Photovoltaic Subcontract Program FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K. A.

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  19. A photovoltaic module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed...... photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected by a printed interconnecting electrical conductor....... The carrier substrate comprises a foil and the total thickness of the photovoltaic module is below 500 [mu]m. Moreover, the nominal voltage level between the positive and the negative terminals is at least 5 kV DC....

  20. Semi-transparent polymer solar cells with excellent sub-bandgap transmission for third generation photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.

    2013-10-07

    Semi-transparent organic photovoltaics are of interest for a variety of photovoltaic applications, including solar windows and hybrid tandem photovoltaics. The figure shows a photograph of our semi-transparent solar cell, which has a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, with an above bandgap transmission of 34% and a sub-bandgap transmission of 81%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.