WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid permanent quadrupoles

  1. Hybrid permanent magnet quadrupoles for the Recycler Ring at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Pruss, S.M.; Foster, G.W.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Jackson, G.R.; May, M.R.; Nicol, T.H.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Schlabach, R.; Volk, J.T.

    1997-10-01

    Hybrid Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles are used in several applications for the Fermilab Recycler Ring and associated beam transfer lines. Most of these magnets use a 0.6096 m long iron shell and provide integrated gradients up to 1.4 T-m/m with an iron pole tip radius of 41.6 mm. A 58.4 mm pole radius design is also required. Bricks of 25. 4 mm thick strontium ferrite supply the flux to the back of the pole to produce the desired gradients (0.6 to 2.75 T/m). For temperature compensation, Ni-Fe alloy strips are interspersed between ferrite bricks to subtract flux in a temperature dependent fashion. Adjustments of the permeance of each pole using iron between the pole and the flux return shell permits the matching of pole potentials. Magnetic potentials of the poles are adjusted to the desired value to achieve the prescribed strength and field uniformity based on rotating coil harmonic measurements. Procurement, fabrication, pole potential adjustment, and measured fields will be reported

  2. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. Based on preliminary tests, it was seen that permanent quadrupole magnets can offer a low cost, reliable solution in applications requiring small, fixed-field focusing devices for use in ion or electron-beam transport systems. Permanent magnets do require special considerations in design, fabrication, handling, and service that are different than encountered in conventional quadrupole magnets. If these basic conditions are satisfied, the resulting beam-focusing device would be stable, maintenance free, with virtually an indefinite lifetime

  3. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. (author)

  4. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments

  5. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  6. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components

  7. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  8. Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E.; Nelson, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    A laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnet has been constructed for a proof-of-principle test. The magnet is a conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnet, using iron pole- pieces, with the addition of permanent magnet material (neodymium iron) between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is not reversed we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide greater focusing strength. The magnet configuration has been optimized and the vanadium permendur poles needed in a conventional quadrupole have been replaced with iron poles. The use of permanent magnet material has allowed us to increase the focusing strength of the magnet by about 20% over that of a conventional tape-wound quadrupole. Comparisons will be made between this magnet and the conventional tape-wound quadrupole. 3 refs., 5 figs

  9. Variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupole for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Martinez, R.P.; Meyer, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    A set of compact variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupoles have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use in the SSC linac matching section. The quadrupoles have 24 mm-diameter apertures and 40 mm-long poles. The hybrid (permanent-magnet and iron) design, uses a fixed core of magnet material (NdFeB) and iron (C-1006) surrounded by a rotating ring of the same magnet material and iron. The quadrupole gradient-length product can be smoothly varied from a minimum of 0.7 T up to a maximum of 4.3 T by a 90 degree rotation of the outer ring of iron and magnet material

  10. Variable-field permanent magnet quadrupole for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Martinez, R.P.; Meyer, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    A set of compact variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupoles have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use In the SSC linac matching section. The quadrupoles have 24 mm-diameter apertures and 40 mm-long poles. The hybrid (permanent-magnet and iron) design, uses a fixed core of magnet material (NdFeB) and iron (C-1006) surrounded by a rotating ring of the same magnet material and iron. The quadrupole gradient-length product can be smoothly varied from a minimum of 0.7 T up to a maximum, of 4.3 T by a 90 degrees rotation of the outer ring of iron and magnet material

  11. Tunable high-gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, B J A; Marks, N; Collomb, N A; Stokes, D G; Modena, M; Struik, M; Bartalesi, A

    2014-01-01

    A novel type of highly tunable permanent magnet (PM) based quadrupole has been designed by the ZEPTO collaboration. A prototype of the design (ZEPTO-Q1), intended to match the specification for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator, was built and magnetically measured at Daresbury Laboratory and CERN. The prototype utilises two pairs of PMs which move in opposite directions along a single vertical axis to produce a quadrupole gradient variable between 15 and 60 T/m. The prototype meets CLIC's challenging specification in terms of the strength and tunability of the magnet.

  12. Three-dimensional quadrupole lenses made with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of accelerator systems with quadrupole magnets can be improved by using permanent magnets in quadrupole lenses. This requires better methods for treating the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic fields and the nonlinear characteristics of the magnets. A numerical method is described for simulating three-dimensional magnetic fields and used to analyze quadrupole lenses and doublets with permanent magnets. The results, which are confirmed experimentally, indicate that both the quadrupole magnetic gradient and the effective field length are changed in permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses when the pole lengths and the gap between the lenses are varied while the other characteristics of the magnets remain unchanged

  13. Variable high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole (QUAPEVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, F.; Ghaith, A.; N'Gotta, P.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Valléau, M.; Kitegi, C.; Loulergue, A.; Vétéran, J.; Sebdaoui, M.; André, T.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.; Vallerand, C.; Oumbarek, D.; Cosson, O.; Forest, F.; Jivkov, P.; Lancelot, J. L.; Couprie, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Different applications such as laser plasma acceleration, colliders, and diffraction limited light sources require high gradient quadrupoles, with strength that can reach up to 200 T/m for a typical 10 mm bore diameter. We present here a permanent magnet based quadrupole (so-called QUAPEVA) composed of a Halbach ring and surrounded by four permanent magnet cylinders. Its design including magnetic simulation modeling enabling us to reach 201 T/m with a gradient variability of 45% and mechanical issues are reported. Magnetic measurements of seven systems of different lengths are presented and confirmed the theoretical expectations. The variation of the magnetic center while changing the gradient strength is ±10 μm. A triplet of QUAPEVA magnets is used to efficiently focus a beam with large energy spread and high divergence that is generated by a Laser Plasma Acceleration source for a free electron laser demonstration and has enabled us to perform beam based alignment and control the dispersion of the beam.

  14. Adjustable permanent quadrupoles for the next linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, James T.

    2001-01-01

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 138 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 141 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 to -20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. Four different prototypes have been built. All magnets have iron poles and use Samarium Cobalt to provide the magnetic fields. Two use rotating permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient, one uses a sliding shunt to vary the gradient and the fourth uses counter rotating magnets. Preliminary data on gradient strength, temperature stability, and magnetic center position stability are presented. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnetic prototype

  15. Adjustable Permanent Quadrupoles for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Cherrill M

    2001-01-01

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 138 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 141 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 to - 20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. Four different prototypes have been built. All magnets have iron poles and use Samarium Cobalt to provide the magnetic fields. Two use rotating permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient, one uses a sliding shunt to vary the gradient and the fourth uses counter rotating magnets. Preliminary data on gradient strength, temperature stability, and magnetic center position stability are presented. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnetic prototype

  16. Large permanent magnet quadrupoles for an electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herb, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    We have built large high quality permanent magnet quadrupoles for use as interaction region quadrupoles in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring where they must operate in the 10 kG axial field of the CLEO experimental detector. We describe the construction and the magnetic measurement and tuning procedures used to achieve the required field quality and stability. (orig.)

  17. Permanent magnet quadrupoles for the CLIC Drive Beam decelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, Ben; Collomb, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    STFC in collaboration with CERN has developed a new type of adjustable permanent magnet based quadrupole for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator. It uses vertical movement of the permanent magnets to achieve an integrated gradient range of 3.6-14.6T, which will allow it to be used for the first 60% of the decelerator line. Construction of a prototype of this magnet has begun; following this, it will be measured magnetically at CERN and Daresbury Laboratory.

  18. Performance of an Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschalk, Stephen C; Kangas, Kenneth; Spencer, Cherrill M; Volk, James T

    2005-01-01

    An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic centerline and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic centerline stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic centerline. Calibration procedures as well as centerline measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.

  19. Adjustable Permanent Quadrupoles Using Rotating Magnet Material Rods for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Cherrill M

    2002-01-01

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 -20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micrometer during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce estimated costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. All magnets have iron poles and use either Samarium Cobalt or Neodymium Iron to provide the magnetic fields. Two prototypes use rotating rods containing permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient. Gradient changes of 20% and center shifts of less than 20 microns have been measured. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnet prototype. See High Reliability Prototype Quadrupole for the Next Linear Collider by C.E Rago, C.M SPENCER, Z. Wolf submitted to this conference

  20. Adjustable Permanent Quadrupoles Using Rotating Magnet Material Rods for the Next Linear Collider.

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, C M

    2002-01-01

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 -20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micrometer during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce estimated costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. All magnets have iron poles and use either Samarium Cobalt or Neodymium Iron to provide the magnetic fields. Two prototypes use rotating rods containing permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient. Gradient changes of 20% and center shifts of less than 20 microns have been measured. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnet prototype. See High Reliability Prototype Quadrupole for the Next Linear Collider by C.E Rago, C.M SPENC...

  1. Design of permanent magnet quadrupole for LEHIPA DTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2011-01-01

    The drift tube linac (DTL) of the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA) has been designed to accelerate 30 mA proton beam from 3 MeV to 20 MeV in a distance of around 13 m. A FFDD lattice structure is selected to provide strong transverse focusing, where each drift tube includes one quadrupole magnet. Beam dynamics simulations specified an effective magnet length of 47 mm, maximum field gradient of 47 T/m, and bore aperture of 24 mm. For these specifications, a detailed design of a very thin permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is presented. Four types of PMQ designs have been compared: a 16-segment trapezoidal design in the Halbach configuration, two 16-segment rectangular designs (with and without gaps), and an 8-segment rectangular design. 2D and 3D modeling codes, POISSON and CST Studio suite are used for the design studies. The good field region is calculated based on field gradient deviation in the transverse plane and integral field homogeneity. The very low aspect ratio of these PMQs leads to edge effects, thereby reducing the central field strength. The 3D simulations are used to study these edge effects. (author)

  2. Stability considerations of permanent magnet quadrupoles for CESR phase-III upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lou

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cornell electron storage ring (CESR phase-III upgrade plan includes very strong permanent magnet quadrupoles in front of the cryostat for the superconducting quadrupoles and physically as close as possible to the interaction point. Together with the superconducting quadrupoles, they provide tighter vertical focusing at the interaction point. The quadrupoles are built with neodymium iron boron (NdFeB material and operate inside the 15 kG solenoid field. Requirements on the field quality and stability of these quadrupoles are discussed and test results are presented.

  3. Characterization of the ELIMED prototype permanent magnet quadrupole system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.D.; Schillaci, F.; Romano, F.; Amato, A.; Amico, A.G.; Calanna, A.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; Amato, C.; Luca, G. De; Gallo, G.; Grmek, A.; Rosa, G. La; Leanza, R.; Pommarel, L.; Flacco, F.A.; Malka, V.; Giove, D.; Maggiore, M.

    2017-01-01

    The system described in this work is meant to be a prototype of a more performing one that will be installed at ELI-Beamlines in Prague for the collection of ions produced after the interaction Laser-target, [1]. It has been realized by the researchers of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and SIGMAPHI, a French company, using a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs), [2]. The final system that will be installed in Prague is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u, around 10 times more than the energies involved in the present work. The prototype, shown in this work, has been tested in collaboration with the SAPHIR experimental facility group at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqueé) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. The purpose of this work is to validate the design and the performances of this large and compact bore system and to characterize the beam produced after the interaction laser-target and its features. Moreover, the optics simulations have been compared with a real beam shape on a GAFChromic film. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here demonstrating a good agreement with the simulations and a good control on the beam optics.

  4. Characterization of the ELIMED prototype permanent magnet quadrupole system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A. D.; Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Amato, A.; Amico, A. G.; Calanna, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; Amato, C.; De Luca, G.; Flacco, F. A.; Gallo, G.; Giove, D.; Grmek, A.; La Rosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Maggiore, M.; Malka, V.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Scuderi, V.; Vauzour, B.; Zappalà, E.

    2017-01-01

    The system described in this work is meant to be a prototype of a more performing one that will be installed at ELI-Beamlines in Prague for the collection of ions produced after the interaction Laser-target, [1]. It has been realized by the researchers of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and SIGMAPHI, a French company, using a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs), [2]. The final system that will be installed in Prague is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u, around 10 times more than the energies involved in the present work. The prototype, shown in this work, has been tested in collaboration with the SAPHIR experimental facility group at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqueé) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. The purpose of this work is to validate the design and the performances of this large and compact bore system and to characterize the beam produced after the interaction laser-target and its features. Moreover, the optics simulations have been compared with a real beam shape on a GAFChromic film. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here demonstrating a good agreement with the simulations and a good control on the beam optics.

  5. Polarization of very cold neutron using a permanent magnet quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Tamaki, E-mail: tyosioka@post.kek.j [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Mishima, Kenji; Ino, Takashi; Taketani, Kaoru; Muto, Suguru; Morishima, Takahiro; Shimizu, Hirohiko M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Oku, Takayuki; Suzuki, Junichi; Shinohara, Takenao; Sakai, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sato, Hiromi; Hirota, Katsuya; Otake, Yoshie [RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kitaguchi, Masaaki; Hino, Masahiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Seki, Yoshichika [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Yamada, Masako [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ichikawa, Masahiro [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    For the future fundamental physics experiments by using cold neutrons, we are developing a device which can measure the neutron polarization degree by accuracy significantly below 10{sup -3}. A quadrupole magnet is one of the promising candidate to measure the neutron polarization degree by such extremely high precision. We have performed a polarization experiment by using the quadrupole magnets at the Very Cold Neutron (VCN) port of the PF-2 in the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL). As a result, we obtained the polarization degree P with very high accuracy P=0.9994{+-}0.0001(stat.){+-}0.0003(syst.), which meet our requirement significantly.

  6. Characterization and tuning of ultrahigh gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Becker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of quadrupole devices with high field gradients and small apertures requires precise control over higher order multipole field components. We present a new scheme for performance control and tuning, which allows the illumination of most of the quadrupole device aperture because of the reduction of higher order field components. Consequently, the size of the aperture can be minimized to match the beam size achieving field gradients of up to 500  T m^{-1} at good imaging quality. The characterization method based on a Hall probe measurement and a Fourier analysis was confirmed using the high quality electron beam at the Mainz Microtron MAMI.

  7. Design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low cost permanent magnet quadrupole doublet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.; Parcell, S.K.; Arnott, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of new beam line developments at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron, a permanent magnet quadrupole doublet was designed and built entirely in house. The design proceeded from the classical work by Halbach et al. but emphasised the 'low cost' aspect by using simple rectangular NdFeB blocks and simple assembly techniques. Numerical simulations using the (2-D) Gemini code were performed to check the field strength and homogeneity predictions of analytical calculations. This paper gives the reasons for the selection of a permanent magnet, the design and construction details of the quadrupole doublet and its field measurement results. (authors)

  8. Magnetic and Engineering Analysis of an Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschalk, Stephen C

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic and engineering analyses used in the design of an adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole will be reported. The quadrupole designed has a pole length of 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) of 68.7Tesla. Analyses of magnetic strength, field quality, magnetic centerline, temperature compensation and dynamic eddy currents induced during field adjustments will be presented. Magnet sorting strategies, pole positioning sensitivity, component forces, and other sensitivity analyses will be presented. Engineering analyses of stress, deflection and thermal effects as well as compensation strategies will also be shown.

  9. A Superstrong Adjustable Permanent Magnet for the Final Focus Quadrupole in a Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.

    2004-01-01

    A super strong permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) was fabricated and tested. It has an integrated strength of 28.5T with overall length of 10 cm and a 7mm bore radius. The final focus quadrupole of a linear collider needs a variable focal length. This can be obtained by slicing the magnet into pieces along the beamline direction and rotating these slices. But this technique may lead to movement of the magnetic center and introduction of a skew quadrupole component when the strength is varied. A ''double ring structure'' can ease these effects. A second prototype PMQ, containing thermal compensation materials and with a double ring structure, has been fabricated. Worm gear is selected as the mechanical rotating scheme because the double ring structure needs a large torque to rotate magnets. The structure of the second prototype PMQ is shown

  10. Magnetic Measurements of Permanent and Fast-Pulsed Quadrupoles for the CERN LINAC4 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Golluccio, G; Buzio, M; Dunkel, O; Giloteaux, D; Lombardi, A; Mateo, F; Ramberger, S

    2010-01-01

    Linac4 is currently under construction at CERN to improve intensity and reliability for the whole accelerator chain. This machine will include about 120 permanent quadrupoles housed in the Drift Tube tanks, as well as about 80 electromagnetic quadrupoles. This paper describes the magnetic measurements carried out at CERN on the first batch of quadrupoles, including several prototypes from different manufacturers, as well as those done on several spare Linac 2 magnets reused in Linac4's 3 MeV test stand. We first describe a prototype test bench based on technology developed for the LHC and able to carry out high-precision harmonic measurements in both continuously-rotating and stepping-coil mode. Next we present the first results obtained in terms of field strength, harmonics quality and effects of fast eddy current transients. Finally, we discuss the expected impact of these findings on the operation of the machine.

  11. Conceptual design of a compact high gradient quadrupole magnet of varying strength using permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Sinha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A concept is presented to design magnets using cylindrical-shaped permanent-magnet blocks, where various types of magnetic fields can be produced by either rotating or varying the size of the magnetic blocks within a given mechanical structure. A general method is introduced to calculate the 3D magnetic field produced by a set of permanent magnets. An analytical expression of the 2D field and the condition to generate various magnetic fields like dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole are derived. Using the 2D result as a starting point, a computer code is developed to get the optimum orientation of the magnets to obtain the user-specific target field profile over a given volume in 3D. Designs of two quadrupole magnets are presented, one using 12 and the other using 24 permanent-magnet blocks. Variation of the quadrupole strength is achieved using tuning coils of a suitable current density and specially designed end tubes. A new concept is introduced to reduce the integrated quadrupole field strength by inserting two hollow cylindrical tubes made of iron, one at each end. This will not affect the field gradient at the center but reduce the integrated field strength by shielding the magnetic field near the ends where the tubes are inserted. The advantages of this scheme are that it is easy to implement, the magnetic axis will not shift, and it will prevent interference with nearby devices. Around 40% integrated field variation is achieved using this method in the present example. To get a realistic estimation of the field quality, a complete 3D model using a nonlinear B-H curve is also studied using a finite-element-based computer code. An example to generate around an 80  T/m quadrupole field gradient is also presented.

  12. Conceptual design of a compact high gradient quadrupole magnet of varying strength using permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gautam

    2018-02-01

    A concept is presented to design magnets using cylindrical-shaped permanent-magnet blocks, where various types of magnetic fields can be produced by either rotating or varying the size of the magnetic blocks within a given mechanical structure. A general method is introduced to calculate the 3D magnetic field produced by a set of permanent magnets. An analytical expression of the 2D field and the condition to generate various magnetic fields like dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole are derived. Using the 2D result as a starting point, a computer code is developed to get the optimum orientation of the magnets to obtain the user-specific target field profile over a given volume in 3D. Designs of two quadrupole magnets are presented, one using 12 and the other using 24 permanent-magnet blocks. Variation of the quadrupole strength is achieved using tuning coils of a suitable current density and specially designed end tubes. A new concept is introduced to reduce the integrated quadrupole field strength by inserting two hollow cylindrical tubes made of iron, one at each end. This will not affect the field gradient at the center but reduce the integrated field strength by shielding the magnetic field near the ends where the tubes are inserted. The advantages of this scheme are that it is easy to implement, the magnetic axis will not shift, and it will prevent interference with nearby devices. Around 40% integrated field variation is achieved using this method in the present example. To get a realistic estimation of the field quality, a complete 3D model using a nonlinear B -H curve is also studied using a finite-element-based computer code. An example to generate around an 80 T /m quadrupole field gradient is also presented.

  13. Magnetic Qualification of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles for CERN’s Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Buzio, M; Lombardi, A; Mateo, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the magnetic measurements done to qualify prototypes and series permanent- magnet quadrupoles for the new Linac4, currently in construction at CERN. The results, obtained with a combination of stretched wire and rotating coil techniques, include the individually tuned integrated field gradient, multipoles, magnetic axis and field direction. These magnets are characterized by a challengingly small 22 mm aperture diameter and we illustrate the methods adopted to guarantee instrument calibration, along with the estimated accuracies of the measured quantities and their impact on beam optics.

  14. Design, Manufacture and Measurements of Permanent Quadrupole Magnets for Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D; Thonet, P; Vorozhtsov, A

    2012-01-01

    Compact quadrupole magnets are required for the CCDTL (Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac) of Linac 4, a 160 MeV linear accelerator of negative hydrogen ions which will replace the old 50 MeV proton Linac2 at CERN. The magnets, of an overall physical length of 140 mm and an aperture diameter of 45 mm, are based on Sm2Co17 blocks and can provide an integrated gradient of up to 1.6 Tesla. The magnetic field quality is determined by 4 ferromagnetic pole tips, aligned together with the permanent magnets blocks inside a structure made in a single piece. Tuning bars allow to individually trim the magnetic flux provided by each pole, to correct possible differences between blocks and to modify the field gradient intensity within about 20% of the nominal value. The paper describes and discusses the design, manufacture and magnetic measurements of a first prototype magnet.

  15. Transverse phase space diagnostics for ionization injection in laser plasma acceleration using permanent magnetic quadrupoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Nie, Z.; Wu, Y. P.; Guo, B.; Zhang, X. H.; Huang, S.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, Z.; Ma, Y.; Fang, Y.; Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Xu, X. L.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C. H.; Lu, W.; Mori, W. B.

    2018-04-01

    We report the transverse phase space diagnostics for electron beams generated through ionization injection in a laser-plasma accelerator. Single-shot measurements of both ultimate emittance and Twiss parameters are achieved by means of permanent magnetic quadrupole. Beams with emittance of μm rad level are obtained in a typical ionization injection scheme, and the dependence on nitrogen concentration and charge density is studied experimentally and confirmed by simulations. A key feature of the transverse phase space, matched beams with Twiss parameter α T ≃ 0, is identified according to the measurement. Numerical simulations that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results reveal that a sufficient phase mixing induced by an overlong injection length leads to the matched phase space distribution.

  16. Characterization of the ELIMED Permanent Magnets Quadrupole system prototype with laser-driven proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Costa, M.; Giove, D.; Maggiore, M.; Russo, A. D.; Scuderi, V.; Malka, V.; Vauzour, B.; Flacco, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.

    2016-07-01

    Laser-based accelerators are gaining interest in recent years as an alternative to conventional machines [1]. In the actual ion acceleration scheme, energy and angular spread of the laser-driven beams are the main limiting factors for beam applications and different solutions for dedicated beam-transport lines have been proposed [2,3]. In this context a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) has been realized [2] by INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) researchers, in collaboration with SIGMAPHI company in France, to be used as a collection and pre-selection system for laser driven proton beams. This system is meant to be a prototype to a more performing one [3] to be installed at ELI-Beamlines for the collection of ions. The final system is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u. In order to validate the design and the performances of this large bore, compact, high gradient magnetic system prototype an experimental campaign have been carried out, in collaboration with the group of the SAPHIR experimental facility at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. During this campaign a deep study of the quadrupole system optics has been performed, comparing the results with the simulation codes used to determine the setup of the PMQ system and to track protons with realistic TNSA-like divergence and spectrum. Experimental and simulation results are good agreement, demonstrating the possibility to have a good control on the magnet optics. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here.

  17. High energy proton induced radiation damage of rare earth permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, M.; Endres, M.; Löwe, K.; Lienig, T.; Deppert, O.; Lang, P. M.; Varentsov, D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2017-12-01

    Permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) are an alternative to common electromagnetic quadrupoles especially for fixed rigidity beam transport scenarios at particle accelerators. Using those magnets for experimental setups can result in certain scenarios, in which a PMQ itself may be exposed to a large amount of primary and secondary particles with a broad energy spectrum, interacting with the magnetic material and affecting its magnetic properties. One specific scenario is proton microscopy, where a proton beam traverses an object and a collimator in which a part of the beam is scattered and deflected into PMQs used as part of a diagnostic system. During the commissioning of the PRIOR (Proton Microscope for Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) high energy proton microscope facility prototype at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in 2014, a significant reduction of the image quality was observed which was partially attributed to the demagnetization of the used PMQ lenses and the corresponding decrease of the field quality. In order to study this phenomenon, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out and spare units manufactured from the same magnetic material—single wedges and a fully assembled PMQ module—were deliberately irradiated by a 3.6 GeV intense proton beam. The performed investigations have shown that in proton radiography applications the above described scattering may result in a high irradiation dose in the PMQ magnets. This did not only decrease the overall magnetic strength of the PMQs but also caused a significant degradation of the field quality of an assembled PMQ module by increasing the parasitic multipole field harmonics which effectively makes PMQs impractical for proton radiography applications or similar scenarios.

  18. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Jose V., E-mail: josev.mathew@gmail.com; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ∼16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ∼20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs. -- Highlights: • An improved permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) design with larger good field region is proposed. • We investigate four PMQ designs, including the widely used Halbach and bullet nosed designs. • Analytical calculations are backed by 2D as well as 3D numerical solvers, PANDIRA and RADIA. • The optimized 16 segment rectangular PMQ design is identified to exhibit the largest good field region. • The effect of easy axis orientation

  19. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ∼16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ∼20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs. -- Highlights: • An improved permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) design with larger good field region is proposed. • We investigate four PMQ designs, including the widely used Halbach and bullet nosed designs. • Analytical calculations are backed by 2D as well as 3D numerical solvers, PANDIRA and RADIA. • The optimized 16 segment rectangular PMQ design is identified to exhibit the largest good field region. • The effect of easy axis orientation

  20. Adjustable, short focal length permanent-magnet quadrupole based electron beam final focus system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Lim

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced high-brightness beam applications such as inverse-Compton scattering (ICS depend on achieving of ultrasmall spot sizes in high current beams. Modern injectors and compressors enable the production of high-brightness beams having needed short bunch lengths and small emittances. Along with these beam properties comes the need to produce tighter foci, using stronger, shorter focal length optics. An approach to creating such strong focusing systems using high-field, small-bore permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQs is reported here. A final-focus system employing three PMQs, each composed of 16 neodymium iron boride sectors in a Halbach geometry has been installed in the PLEIADES ICS experiment. The field gradient in these PMQs is 560   T/m, the highest ever reported in a magnetic optics system. As the magnets are of a fixed field strength, the focusing system is tuned by adjusting the position of the three magnets along the beam line axis, in analogy to familiar camera optics. This paper discusses the details of the focusing system, simulation, design, fabrication, and experimental procedure in creating ultrasmall beams at PLEIADES.

  1. Theory of enhanced second-harmonic generation by the quadrupole-dipole hybrid exciton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Birman, Joseph L

    2008-01-01

    We report calculated substantial enhancement of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) in cuprous oxide crystals, resonantly hybridized with an appropriate organic material (DCM2:CA:PS 'solid state solvent'). The quadrupole origin of the inorganic part of the quadrupole-dipole hybrid provides inversion symmetry breaking and the organic part contributes to the oscillator strength of the hybrid. We show that the enhancement of the SHG, compared to the bulk cuprous oxide crystal, is proportional to the ratio of the DCM2 dipole moment and the effective dipole moment of the quadrupole transitions in the cuprous oxide. It is also inversely proportional to the line-width of the hybrid and bulk excitons. The enhancement may be regulated by adjusting the organic blend (mutual concentration of the DCM2 and CA part of the solvent) and pumping conditions (varying the angle of incidence in the case of optical pumping or populating the minimum of the lower branch of the hybrid in the case of electrical pumping)

  2. Low-field permanent magnet quadrupoles in a new relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Sessler, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Permanent magnets play a central role in the new relativistic klystron two-beam-accelerator design. The two key goals of this new design, low cost and the suppression of beam break-up instability are both intimately tied to the permanent magnet quadrupole focusing system. A recently completed systems study by a joint LBL-LLNL team concludes that a power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider based on the new TBA design can be as low as $1 billion, and the efficiency (wall plug to rf) is estimated to be 36%. End-to-end simulations of longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics show that the drive beam is stable over the entire TBA unit.

  3. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  4. Permanent magnet quadrupole for the 1-ST tank of LINAC-4

    CERN Document Server

    Skachkov, Vl; Sergeeva, O; Lombardi, A; Sargsyan, E; Cornuet, D; Venturini , W; Skachkov , V

    2006-01-01

    A rare-earth (REPM) ∅ 60 mm diameter, 45 mm long quadrupole for the LINAC-4 focusing channel with an integrated gradient of 2.3 T is described. Thin side washers are used for tuning the quad into specified gradient integral with ±0.5 % accuracy. The single washer contribution calculations are discussed. A method for limiting to 30 μ m the magnetic axis offset in the REPM quad is discussed to exclude its compensation by the outer diameter machining before inserting into the drift tube. Nonlinearity of the field is less than 1 % in the reference range of 75 % of beam aperture at the central cross- section near the quad axis . The angular quadrupole arrangement in the drift tube will be provided by machining the main groove on the quad surface in the median plane with 1 mrad accuracy. Calculations of the longitudinal gradient distribution between two...

  5. Hybrid-secondary uncluttered permanent magnet machine and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2005-12-20

    An electric machine (40) has a stator (43), a permanent magnet rotor (38) with permanent magnets (39) and a magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) for inducing a slip energy current in secondary coils (47). A dc flux can be produced in the uncluttered rotor when the secondary coils are fed with dc currents. The magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) has magnetic brushes (A, B, C, D) which couple flux in through the rotor (46) to the secondary coils (47c, 47d) without inducing a current in the rotor (46) and without coupling a stator rotational energy component to the secondary coils (47c, 47d). The machine can be operated as a motor or a generator in multi-phase or single-phase embodiments and is applicable to the hybrid electric vehicle. A method of providing a slip energy controller is also disclosed.

  6. On the feasibility of sub-100 nm rad emittance measurement in plasma accelerators using permanent magnetic quadrupoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Wu, Y. P.; Nie, Z.; Guo, B.; Zhang, X. H.; Huang, S.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, Z.; Ma, Y.; Fang, Y.; Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Xu, X. L.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C. H.; Lu, W.; Gu, Y. Q.

    2018-01-01

    Low emittance (sub-100 nm rad) measurement of electron beams in plasma accelerators has been a challenging issue for a while. Among various measurement schemes, measurements based on single-shot quad-scan using permanent magnetic quadrupoles (PMQs) has been recently reported with emittance as low as ˜200 nm Weingartner (2012 Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 15 111302). However, the accuracy and reliability of this method have not been systematically analyzed. Such analysis is critical for evaluating the potential of sub-100 nm rad emittance measurement using any scheme. In this paper, we analyze the effects of various nonideal physical factors on the accuracy and reliability using the PMQ method. These factors include aberration induced by a high order field, PMQ misalignment and angular fluctuation of incoming beams. Our conclusions are as follows: (i) the aberrations caused by high order fields of PMQs are relatively weak for low emittance measurement as long as the PMQs are properly constructed. A series of PMQs were manufactured and measured at Tsinghua University, and using numerical simulations their high order field effects were found to be negligible . (ii) The largest measurement error of emittance is caused by the angular misalignment between PMQs. For low emittance measurement of ˜100 MeV beams, an angular alignment accuracy of 0.1° is necessary. This requirement can be eased for beams with higher energies. (iii) The transverse position misalignment of PMQs and angular fluctuation of incoming beams only cause a translational and rotational shift of measured signals, respectively, therefore, there is no effect on the measured value of emittance. (iv) The spatial resolution and efficiency of the detection system need to be properly designed to guarantee the accuracy of sub-100 nm rad emittance measurement.

  7. Comparison of conventional and novel quadrupole drift tube magnets inspired by Klaus Halbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Quadrupole drift tube magnets for a heavy-ion linac provide a demanding application of magnet technology. A comparison is made of three different solutions to the problem of providing an adjustable high-field-strength quadrupole magnet in a small volume. A conventional tape-wound electromagnet quadrupole magnet (conventional) is compared with an adjustable permanent-magnet/iron quadrupole magnet (hybrid) and a laced permanent-magnet/iron/electromagnet (laced). Data is presented from magnets constructed for the SuperHILAC heavy-ion linear accelerator, and conclusions are drawn for various applications.

  8. Analysis and design of permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing based on hybrid factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinji Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, hybrid factor is proposed for hybrid magnetic bearing. The hybrid factor is defined as the ratio of the force produced by the permanent magnet and the forces produced by the permanent magnet and current in hybrid magnetic bearing. It is deduced from a certain radial hybrid magnetic bearing using its important parameters such as the current stiffness and displacement stiffness at first and then the dynamic model of magnetically suspended rotor system is established. The relationship between structural parameters and control system parameters is analyzed based on the hybrid factor. Some influencing factors of hybrid factor in hybrid magnetic bearing, such as the size of the permanent magnet, length of air gap, and area of the stator poles, are analyzed in this article. It can be concluded that larger hybrid factor can be caused by the smaller power loss according to the definition of hybrid factor mentioned above. Meanwhile, the hybrid factor has a maximum value, which is related to control system parameters such as proportional factor expect for structural parameters. Finally, the design steps of parameters of hybrid magnetic bearing can be concluded.

  9. Effect of the repulsive force in the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid bearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic levitation using the pinning force of the YBaCuO high-T c bulk superconductor (HTSC) materials has an advantage to achieve stable levitation without control. To increase levitation force, the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid magnetic bearing system is introduced. A circular shaped three phase Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet is installed on the rotor, and HTSC bulk superconductor is set on the stator. The additional permanent magnet is installed under the HTSC. Repulsive force of the permanent magnet is used for levitation, and pinning force between the HTSC and permanent magnet is used for guidance force of the bearing. In this system, relationship between permanent magnet and the HTSC is important. When repulsive force of the permanent magnet is large, pinning force of superconductor is used to keep the rotor position. As a result, stability for the lateral direction is decreased with hybrid system. For levitation force, effect of the hybrid system is not observed with column HTSC. Compared with the ring HTSC results, the following thing is considered. Because there is no space that flux of one permanent magnet acts on the other one with the column HTSC configuration, interaction between two permanent magnets becomes small.

  10. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi; Zhang, Mingju

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  11. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huijun, E-mail: huijun024@gmail.com [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University (China); Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University (China); Zhang, Mingju [Shanghai Aerospace Control Technology Institute, Shanghai (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • One novel permanent magnet generator structure has been proposed to reduce voltage regulation ratio. • Finite element method and equivalent circuit methods are both employed to realize rapid generator design. • Design of experiment (DOE) method is used to optimize permanent magnet shape for reduce voltage waveform distortion. • The obtained analysis and experiment results verify the proposed design methods. - Abstract: In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  12. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huijun; Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi; Zhang, Mingju

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • One novel permanent magnet generator structure has been proposed to reduce voltage regulation ratio. • Finite element method and equivalent circuit methods are both employed to realize rapid generator design. • Design of experiment (DOE) method is used to optimize permanent magnet shape for reduce voltage waveform distortion. • The obtained analysis and experiment results verify the proposed design methods. - Abstract: In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  13. Rotational characteristics in the resonance state of the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid magnetic bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morii, Y.; Sukedai, M. [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Ohashi, S., E-mail: ohashi@kansai-u.ac.jp [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The hybrid magnetic bearing has been developed. In the hybrid system, effect of the pinning force becomes smaller. Influence of the vibration and the gradient angle in the resonance state is large. The resonance frequency becomes small in the hybrid bearing system. The hybrid magnetic bearing using permanent magnets and the high-Tc bulk superconductor (HTSC) has been developed. Repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced to increase the load weight of the magnetic bearing. Effect of the hybrid system has been shown. In this paper, influence of the hybrid system on the dynamic characteristics of the rotor is studied. The rotational characteristics in the mechanical resonance state are studied, and the equivalent magnetic spring coefficient is estimated from the experimental results of the load weight. The resonance frequency is measured by the rotation experiments. The rotor achieves stable levitation even in the resonance state. In the hybrid system, effect of the pinning force becomes smaller than that of the lateral force generated by the repulsive force between the two permanent magnets at the smaller air gap. Thus influence of the lateral vibration and the gradient angle in the resonance state becomes larger at a smaller air gap. The equivalent magnetic spring coefficient becomes also small, and the resonance frequency becomes small in the hybrid bearing system.

  14. Study of the hybrid controller electronics for the nano-stabilization of mechanical vibrations of CLIC quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, P Fernandez; Artoos, K; Esposito, M; Guinchard, M; Janssens, S; Kuzmin, A; Ballester, R Moron; Collette, C

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve the required levels of luminosity in the CLIC linear collider, mechanical stabilization of quadrupoles to the nanometre level is required. The paper describes a design of hybrid electronics combining an analogue controller and digital communication with the main machine controller. The choice of local analogue control ensures the required low latency while still keeping sufficiently low noise level. Furthermore, it reduces the power consumption, rack space and cost. Sensitivity to radiation single events upsets is reduced compared to a digital controller. The digital part is required for fine tuning and real time monitoring via digitization of critical parameters.

  15. Development of a hybrid bearing using permanent magnets and piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Ho; Ham, Young-Bog; Yun, So-Nam; Lee, Hu-Seung

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a hybrid magnetic bearing with permanent magnets and piezoelectric actuators is investigated. First, in this study, a novel concept in which piezoelectric actuators are used to compensate for low stiffness and damping resulting from the unstable characteristics of a passive magnetic bearing using only permanent magnets is proposed. Secondly, the permanent magnets are optimally arranged through an electromagnetic field analysis. Then, the driving amplifier unit and a prototype radial bearing using the proposed concept are fabricated. Finally, basic characteristics, such as the results of an impact test and a rotational runout test with constant speed are investigated and discussed, and experiments using PID control method are conducted.

  16. HYBRID LAYER THICKNESS IN PRIMARY AND PERMANENT TEETH – A COMPARISON BETWEEN TOTAL ETCH ADHESIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gateva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim this study is to compare the hybrid layer thickness and its micromorphological characteristics in samples from primary and permanent teeth following application of total etch adhesives.Materials and methods: On intact specimens of 20 primary and 10 permanent teeth was created flat dentin surfaces. The patterns were divided in 6 groups. Two different total etch adhesive systems were used – one tree steps (OptiBond, Kerr and one two steps (Exite, VivaDent. In groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 recommended etching time was used - 15 s, in groups 1 and 2 the etching time was reduced to 7 s. After applying the adhesive, resin composite build-ups were constructed. Thus restored samples are stored in saline solution for 24 hours at temperature 37 C. Then they are subjected to thermal stress in temperature between 5 C to 55 C for 1,500 cycles and to masticatory stress – 150,000 cycles with force 100 N in intervals of 0.4 s. After that the teeth are cut through the middle in medio-distal direction with a diamond disc. SEM observation was done to investigate the thickness of the hybrid layer and the presence of microgaps. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Tukey׳s tests.Results: SEM observation showed significant differences of the hybrid layer thickness between primary and permanent teeth under equal conditions and after different etching time. Group 6 presented the highest average thickness 8.85 μ and group 1 the lowest average in hybrid layer 3.74 μ.Conclusion: In primary teeth the hybrid layer thickness increases with the increased etching time. The hybrid layer thickness in primary teeth is greater than that of the hybrid layer in permanent teeth under equal conditions. For primary teeth it is more appropriate to reduce the etching time to 7s to obtain a hybrid layer with better quality

  17. A novel structure of permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jinji; Fang Jiancheng

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel structure for a permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Based on the air gap between the rotor and stator of traditional radial hybrid magnetic bearings, a subsidiary air gap is first constructed between the permanent magnets and the inner magnetic parts. Radial magnetic bearing makes X and Y magnetic fields independent of each other with separate stator poles, and the subsidiary air gap makes control flux to a close loop. As a result, magnetic field coupling of the X and Y channels is decreased significantly by the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and makes it easier to design control systems. Then an external rotor structure is designed into the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. The working principle of the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and its mathematical model is discussed. Finally, a non-linear magnetic network method is proposed to analyze the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Simulation results indicate that magnetic fields in the two channels of the proposed radial hybrid magnetic bearing decouple well from each other.

  18. A novel structure of permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Jinji, E-mail: sunjinji@aspe.buaa.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science for National Defense, Novel Inertial Instrument and Navigation System Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 (China); Fang Jiancheng [Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science for National Defense, Novel Inertial Instrument and Navigation System Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The paper proposes a novel structure for a permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Based on the air gap between the rotor and stator of traditional radial hybrid magnetic bearings, a subsidiary air gap is first constructed between the permanent magnets and the inner magnetic parts. Radial magnetic bearing makes X and Y magnetic fields independent of each other with separate stator poles, and the subsidiary air gap makes control flux to a close loop. As a result, magnetic field coupling of the X and Y channels is decreased significantly by the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and makes it easier to design control systems. Then an external rotor structure is designed into the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. The working principle of the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and its mathematical model is discussed. Finally, a non-linear magnetic network method is proposed to analyze the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Simulation results indicate that magnetic fields in the two channels of the proposed radial hybrid magnetic bearing decouple well from each other.

  19. Modeling of Hybrid Permanent Magnetic-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morosi, Stefano; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    Modern turbomachinery applications require nowadays ever-growing rotational speeds and high degree of reliability. It then becomes natural to focus the attention of the research to contact-free bearings elements. The present alternatives focus on gas lubricated journal bearings or magnetic bearings....... In the present paper, a detailed mathematical modeling of the gas bearing based on the compressible form of the Reynolds equation is presented. Perturbation theory is applied in order to identify the dynamic characteristic of the bearing. Due to the simple design of the magnetic bearings elements - being...... the rotor equilibrium position can be made independent on the rotational speed and applied load; it becomes function of the passive magnetic bearing offset. By adjusting the offset it is possible to significantly influence the dynamic coefficients of the hybrid bearing....

  20. Design Features of a Planar Hybrid/Permanent Magnet Strong Focusing Undulator for Free Electron Laser (FEL) And Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, Roman; /SLAC

    2011-09-09

    Insertion devices for Angstrom-wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifiers driven by multi-GeV electron beams generally require distributed focusing substantially stronger than their own natural focusing fields. Over the last several years a wide variety of focusing schemes and configurations have been proposed for undulators of this class, ranging from conventional current-driven quadrupoles external to the undulator magnets to permanent magnet (PM) lattices inserted into the insertion device gap. In this paper we present design studies of a flexible high-field hybrid/PM undulator with strong superimposed planar PM focusing proposed for a 1.5 Angstrom Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) driven by an electron beam with a 1 mm-mr normalized emittance. Attainable field parameters, tuning modes, and potential applications of the proposed structure are discussed.

  1. Hybrid excited claw pole generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardach, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    This article contains simulation results of the Hybrid Excited Claw Pole Generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets on rotor. The experimental machine has claw poles on two rotor sections, between which an excitation control coil is located. The novelty of this machine is existence of non-skewed permanent magnets on claws of one part of the rotor and skewed permanent magnets on the second one. The paper presents the construction of the machine and analysis of the influence of the PM skewing on the cogging torque and back-emf. Simulation studies enabled the determination of the cogging torque and the back-emf rms for both: the strengthening and the weakening of magnetic field. The influence of the magnets skewing on the cogging torque and the back-emf rms have also been analyzed.

  2. Hybrid excited claw pole generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardach Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains simulation results of the Hybrid Excited Claw Pole Generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets on rotor. The experimental machine has claw poles on two rotor sections, between which an excitation control coil is located. The novelty of this machine is existence of non-skewed permanent magnets on claws of one part of the rotor and skewed permanent magnets on the second one. The paper presents the construction of the machine and analysis of the influence of the PM skewing on the cogging torque and back-emf. Simulation studies enabled the determination of the cogging torque and the back-emf rms for both: the strengthening and the weakening of magnetic field. The influence of the magnets skewing on the cogging torque and the back-emf rms have also been analyzed.

  3. Improvement of the rotational characteristics in the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid bearing using ring shaped magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, Kozo; Sugiyama, Ryo; Takagi, Shogo; Ohashi, Shunsuke, E-mail: k145676@kansai-u.ac.jp

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We have developed the HTS-permanent magnet hybrid bearing system. •Three dimensional numerical analysis is undertaken to get the effective hybrid configuration. •Repulsive force and pinning force are combined effectively. •The hybrid system shows better levitation characteristics than the non-hybrid one. •In the mechanical resonance state, vibration of the rotor in the hybrid system is small. -- Abstract: We have developed the hybrid magnetic bearing using permanent magnets and the high-T{sub c} bulk superconductor (HTSC). Pinning force of the HTSC is used for the levitation and the guidance. Repulsive force of the permanent magnets is introduced to increase the load weight of the magnetic bearing. In this system, the stator side permanent magnet has the ring type structure so that both pinning force and repulsive force are used effectively. In this paper, influence of the hybrid system on dynamic characteristics of the rotor is studied. The rotor which is supported by the hybrid magnetic bearing is rotated. Then, vibration and the gradient angle of the rotor are measured until the rotor reaches to the end of the resonance state. Three dimensional numerical analysis of the flux which penetrates on the surface of the HTSC is undertaken. The relation between the dynamic characteristics and the flux is considered, and that of the hybrid system is compared with the non-hybrid one. In the hybrid system, the flux is changed by the influences of the stator side permanent magnet. Vibration and the gradient angle of the hybrid system are shown to be smaller than that of the non-hybrid one.

  4. Improvement of the rotational characteristics in the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid bearing using ring shaped magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, Kozo; Sugiyama, Ryo; Takagi, Shogo; Ohashi, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We have developed the HTS-permanent magnet hybrid bearing system. •Three dimensional numerical analysis is undertaken to get the effective hybrid configuration. •Repulsive force and pinning force are combined effectively. •The hybrid system shows better levitation characteristics than the non-hybrid one. •In the mechanical resonance state, vibration of the rotor in the hybrid system is small. -- Abstract: We have developed the hybrid magnetic bearing using permanent magnets and the high-T c bulk superconductor (HTSC). Pinning force of the HTSC is used for the levitation and the guidance. Repulsive force of the permanent magnets is introduced to increase the load weight of the magnetic bearing. In this system, the stator side permanent magnet has the ring type structure so that both pinning force and repulsive force are used effectively. In this paper, influence of the hybrid system on dynamic characteristics of the rotor is studied. The rotor which is supported by the hybrid magnetic bearing is rotated. Then, vibration and the gradient angle of the rotor are measured until the rotor reaches to the end of the resonance state. Three dimensional numerical analysis of the flux which penetrates on the surface of the HTSC is undertaken. The relation between the dynamic characteristics and the flux is considered, and that of the hybrid system is compared with the non-hybrid one. In the hybrid system, the flux is changed by the influences of the stator side permanent magnet. Vibration and the gradient angle of the hybrid system are shown to be smaller than that of the non-hybrid one

  5. Quantification, confirmation and screening capability of UHPLC coupled to triple quadrupole and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimalt, Susana; Sancho, Juan V; Pozo, Oscar J; Hernández, Félix

    2010-04-01

    The potential of three mass spectrometry (MS) analyzers (triple quadrupole, QqQ; time of flight, TOF; and quadrupole time of flight, QTOF) has been investigated and compared for quantification, confirmation and screening purposes in pesticide residue analysis of fruit and vegetable samples. For this purpose, analytical methodology for multiresidue determination of 11 pesticides, taken as a model, has been developed and validated in nine food matrices for the three mass analyzers coupled to ultra high pressure liquid chromatography. In all cases, limits of quantification around 0.01 mg/kg were reached, fulfilling the most restrictive case of baby-food analysis. Regarding absolute sensitivity, the lower limits of detection were obtained, as expected, for QqQ (100 fg), whereas slightly higher limits (300 fg) were obtained for both TOF and QTOF. Confirmative capacity of each analyzer was studied for each analyte based on the identification points (IPs) criterion, useful for a comprehensive comparison. QTOF mass analyzer showed the highest confirmatory capacity, although QqQ normally led to sufficient number of IPs, even at lower concentration levels. The potential of TOF MS was also investigated for screening purposes. To this aim, around 50 commercial fruits and vegetables samples were analyzed, searching for more than 400 pesticides. TOF MS proved to be an attractive analytical tool for rapid detection and reliable identification of a large number of pesticides thanks to the full spectrum acquisition at accurate mass with satisfactory sensitivity. This process is readily boosted when combined with specialized software packages, together with theoretical exact mass databases. Several pesticides (e.g. carbendazim in citrus and indoxacarb in grape) were detected in the samples. Further unequivocal confirmation of the identity was performed using reference standards and/or QTOF MS/MS experiments. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A tubular hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized permanent-magnet linear machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A single-phase tubular permanent-magnet linear machine (PMLM with hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized PM arrays is proposed for free-piston Stirling power generation system. Machine topology and operating principle are elaborately illustrated. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the free-piston Stirling engine considered, the proposed machine is designed and calculated by finite-element analysis (FEA. The main structural parameters, such as outer radius of the mover, radial length of both the axially-magnetized PMs and ferromagnetic poles, axial length of both the middle and end radially-magnetized PMs, etc., are optimized to improve both the force capability and power density. Compared with the conventional PMLMs, the proposed machine features high mass and volume power density, and has the advantages of simple control and low converter cost. The proposed machine topology is applicable to tubular PMLMs with any phases.

  7. A tubular hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized permanent-magnet linear machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yi; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Luming; Liu, Jiaqi; Zheng, Ping

    2017-05-01

    A single-phase tubular permanent-magnet linear machine (PMLM) with hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized PM arrays is proposed for free-piston Stirling power generation system. Machine topology and operating principle are elaborately illustrated. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the free-piston Stirling engine considered, the proposed machine is designed and calculated by finite-element analysis (FEA). The main structural parameters, such as outer radius of the mover, radial length of both the axially-magnetized PMs and ferromagnetic poles, axial length of both the middle and end radially-magnetized PMs, etc., are optimized to improve both the force capability and power density. Compared with the conventional PMLMs, the proposed machine features high mass and volume power density, and has the advantages of simple control and low converter cost. The proposed machine topology is applicable to tubular PMLMs with any phases.

  8. Hybrid permanent magnet gradient dipoles for the recycler ring at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Dimarco, J.; Foster, G.W.; Glass, H.D.; Haggard, J.E.; Harding, D.J.; Jackson, G.R.; May, M.R.; Nicol, T.H.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Schlabach, R.; Volk, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Hybrid permanent magnets provide the magnetic fields for an anti- proton storage ring which is under construction at Fermilab. Using a combined function lattice, gradient magnets provide the bending, focusing and sextupole correction for the regular cells. Shorter magnets without sextupole are used in dispersion suppressor cells. These magnets use a 4.7 m ( 3 m) long iron shell for flux return, bricks of 25.4 mm thick strontium ferrite supply the flux and transversely tapered iron poles separated by aluminum spacers set the shape of the magnetic field. Central fields of 0.14 T with gradients of ∼6%/inch (∼13%/inch) are required. Field errors are expected to be less than 10 -4 of the bend field over an aperture of ±40 mm (horizontal) x ±20 mm (vertical). Design, procurement, fabrication, pole potential adjustment, field shape trimming and measured fields will be reported

  9. Presentation and Performance Evaluation of a Novel Stator-Permanent-Magnet Hybrid Stepping Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binglin Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new type of hybrid stepping motor (HSM with permanent magnets (PMs embedded in the stator, namely the stator-permanent-magnet hybrid stepping motor (SHSM, is presented. It has the same operation principles as the traditional HSM, with a 2-D distributed magnetic field nature and superiorities such as simpler rotor structure, easier PM cooling, higher torque and power density, and higher power grade. Its structural topology and operation principles are initially presented. Then an investigation on the performance comparison between the HSM and the SHSM, in terms of PM flux density, PM torque, detent torque, positional holding accuracy, stator core saturation issue, PM flux leakage, and PM utilization rate is carried out theoretically to make an assessment of the performance superiorities of the SHSM. A prototype of a 2-phase 8-pole 50-rotor-tooth SHSM is fabricated and experimentally compared with the HSM by using finite element analysis (FEA to verify the motor’s operational feasibility and the theoretical analysis. The FEA and experimental results show that the proposed SHSM has performance advantages such as higher torque density, higher power grade, and higher pull-out torque, holding torque, and torque-speed property, although it has performance defects such as higher torque ripple and relatively lower positional holding accuracy in the open-loop operation than the conventional HSM. Consequently, this novel SHSM is more suitable for electromechanical energy conversion applications rather than positioning mechanisms, especially taking into account the open-loop control advantage.

  10. A hybrid analytical model for open-circuit field calculation of multilayer interior permanent magnet machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xia, Changliang; Yan, Yan; Geng, Qiang; Shi, Tingna

    2017-08-01

    Due to the complicated rotor structure and nonlinear saturation of rotor bridges, it is difficult to build a fast and accurate analytical field calculation model for multilayer interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines. In this paper, a hybrid analytical model suitable for the open-circuit field calculation of multilayer IPM machines is proposed by coupling the magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) method and the subdomain technique. In the proposed analytical model, the rotor magnetic field is calculated by the MEC method based on the Kirchhoff's law, while the field in the stator slot, slot opening and air-gap is calculated by subdomain technique based on the Maxwell's equation. To solve the whole field distribution of the multilayer IPM machines, the coupled boundary conditions on the rotor surface are deduced for the coupling of the rotor MEC and the analytical field distribution of the stator slot, slot opening and air-gap. The hybrid analytical model can be used to calculate the open-circuit air-gap field distribution, back electromotive force (EMF) and cogging torque of multilayer IPM machines. Compared with finite element analysis (FEA), it has the advantages of faster modeling, less computation source occupying and shorter time consuming, and meanwhile achieves the approximate accuracy. The analytical model is helpful and applicable for the open-circuit field calculation of multilayer IPM machines with any size and pole/slot number combination.

  11. A hybrid analytical model for open-circuit field calculation of multilayer interior permanent magnet machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xia, Changliang [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Engineering Center of Electric Machine System Design and Control, Tianjin 300387 (China); Yan, Yan, E-mail: yanyan@tju.edu.cn [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Geng, Qiang [Tianjin Engineering Center of Electric Machine System Design and Control, Tianjin 300387 (China); Shi, Tingna [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid analytical model is developed for field calculation of multilayer IPM machines. • The rotor magnetic field is calculated by the magnetic equivalent circuit method. • The field in the stator and air-gap is calculated by subdomain technique. • The magnetic scalar potential on rotor surface is modeled as trapezoidal distribution. - Abstract: Due to the complicated rotor structure and nonlinear saturation of rotor bridges, it is difficult to build a fast and accurate analytical field calculation model for multilayer interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines. In this paper, a hybrid analytical model suitable for the open-circuit field calculation of multilayer IPM machines is proposed by coupling the magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) method and the subdomain technique. In the proposed analytical model, the rotor magnetic field is calculated by the MEC method based on the Kirchhoff’s law, while the field in the stator slot, slot opening and air-gap is calculated by subdomain technique based on the Maxwell’s equation. To solve the whole field distribution of the multilayer IPM machines, the coupled boundary conditions on the rotor surface are deduced for the coupling of the rotor MEC and the analytical field distribution of the stator slot, slot opening and air-gap. The hybrid analytical model can be used to calculate the open-circuit air-gap field distribution, back electromotive force (EMF) and cogging torque of multilayer IPM machines. Compared with finite element analysis (FEA), it has the advantages of faster modeling, less computation source occupying and shorter time consuming, and meanwhile achieves the approximate accuracy. The analytical model is helpful and applicable for the open-circuit field calculation of multilayer IPM machines with any size and pole/slot number combination.

  12. CFD Modelling of a Quadrupole Vortex Inside a Cylindrical Channel for Research into Advanced Hybrid Rocket Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, B.; Majdalani, J.

    2014-11-01

    This study relies on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to analyse a possible method for creating a stable quadrupole vortex within a simulated, circular-port, cylindrical rocket chamber. A model of the vortex generator is created in a SolidWorks CAD program and then the grid is generated using the Pointwise mesh generation software. The non-reactive flowfield is simulated using an open source computational program, Stanford University Unstructured (SU2). Subsequent analysis and visualization are performed using ParaView. The vortex generation approach that we employ consists of four tangentially injected monopole vortex generators that are arranged symmetrically with respect to the center of the chamber in such a way to produce a quadrupole vortex with a common downwash. The present investigation focuses on characterizing the flow dynamics so that future investigations can be undertaken with increasing levels of complexity. Our CFD simulations help to elucidate the onset of vortex filaments within the monopole tubes, and the evolution of quadrupole vortices downstream of the injection faceplate. Our results indicate that the quadrupole vortices produced using the present injection pattern can become quickly unstable to the extent of dissipating soon after being introduced into simulated rocket chamber. We conclude that a change in the geometrical configuration will be necessary to produce more stable quadrupoles.

  13. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žáček, Petr; Bukowski, M.; Rosenberger, T. A.; Picklo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2016), s. 2225-2234 ISSN 0022-2275 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : shotgun lipidomics * triple quadrupole/ion-trap * human blood plasma * phosphatidylcholines Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.810, year: 2016 http://www.jlr.org/content/57/12/2225.full

  14. A Novel Integral 5-DOFs Hybrid Magnetic Bearing with One Permanent Magnet Ring Used for Turboexpander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangcheng Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel combined five-degrees-of-freedom (5-DOFs hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB with only one permanent magnet ring (PMR used for turboexpanders. It has two radial magnetic bearing (RMB units; each has four poles and one thrust magnetic bearing (TMB to control 5-DOFs. Based on one PMR, the bias flux of the two radial magnetic bearing units and the one thrust magnetic bearing unit is constructed. As a result, ultra-high-speed, lower power loss, small size, and low cost can be achieved. Furthermore, the equivalent magnetic circuit method and 3D finite element method (FEM are used to model and analyze the combined 5-DOFs HMB. The force-current, force-position, torque-coil currents, the torque-angle position, and the stiffness models of the combined 5-DOFs HMB are given. Moreover, its coupling problems between the RMB units and the AMB unit are also proposed in this paper. An example is given to clarify the mathematical models and the coupling problems, and the linearized models are proposed for the follow-up controller design.

  15. Applicability of hybrid linear ion trap-high resolution mass spectrometry and quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry for mycotoxin analysis in baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert, Josep; James, Kevin J; Mañes, Jordi; Soler, Carla

    2012-02-03

    Recent developments in mass spectrometers have created a paradoxical situation; different mass spectrometers are available, each of them with their specific strengths and drawbacks. Hybrid instruments try to unify several advantages in one instrument. In this study two of wide-used hybrid instruments were compared: hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry (QTRAP®) and the hybrid linear ion trap-high resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap®). Both instruments were applied to detect the presence of 18 selected mycotoxins in baby food. Analytical parameters were validated according to 2002/657/CE. Limits of quantification (LOQs) obtained by QTRAP® instrument ranged from 0.45 to 45 μg kg⁻¹ while lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) values were obtained by LTQ-Orbitrap®: 7-70 μg kg⁻¹. The correlation coefficients (r) in both cases were upper than 0.989. These values highlighted that both instruments were complementary for the analysis of mycotoxin in baby food; while QTRAP® reached best sensitivity and selectivity, LTQ-Orbitrap® allowed the identification of non-target and unknowns compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of liquid chromatography hybrid triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry for the detection of emodin metabolites in rat bile and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songyan; Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Zunjian; Song, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Emodin is the representative form of rhubarb, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of purgative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiviral, etc. Previous reports demonstrated that emodin glucuronide was the major metabolite in plasma. Owing to the extensive conjugation reactions of polyphenols, the aim of this study was to identify the metabolites of emodin in rat bile and urine. Neutral loss and precursor ion scan methods of triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer revealed 13 conjugated metabolites in rat bile and 22 metabolites in rat urine, which included four phase I and 18 phase II metabolites. The major metabolites in rat biosamples were emodin glucuronoconjugates. Moreover, rhein monoglucuronide, chrysophanol monoglucuronide and rhein sulfate were proposed for the first time after oral administration of emodin. Overall, liquid chromatography hybrid triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis leads to the discovery of several novel emodin metabolites in rat bile and urine and underscores that conjugated with glucuronic acid is the main metabolic pathway. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Design of an electrostatic magnetic quadrupole accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, M.; Ohara, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of electrostatic acceleration system, electrostatic magnetic quadrupole (ESMQ) acceleration system, is proposed for efficient acceleration of negative ion beams. In this system, permanent magnets are buried in the acceleration electrodes so as to produce a quadrupole magnetic field in the electrode aperture region. Envelope simulation indicates that the quadrupole field can deflect electrons stripped from the negative ions. Beam envelope simulations for deuterium ions and electrons have been carried out using the beam envelope code TRACE. Electrons are largely divergent and most appear likely to hit downstream electrodes. Furthermore, maximum beam divergence of the deuterium ions is reduced to the focusing effect of the quadrupole magnetic field

  18. Study on control method of running velocity for the permanent magnet-HTSC hybrid magnetically levitated conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, R.; Ikeda, M.; Sasaki, R.; Ohashi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The hybrid magnetically levitated carrying system is developed. Control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. Propulsion characteristcs are improved. We have developed the magnetically levitated carrying system. In this system, pinning force of high temperature bulk super conductor (HTSC) is used for the levitation and guidance. Four HTSCs are installed on the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs. To increase levitation force, repulsive force of the permanent magnet is used. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The permanent magnet is installed under the load stage of the carrier. Repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. Levitation and guidance one by pinning effect of the YBaCuO HTSC in the carrier is used to levitate the carrier body. The load stage is separated from the carrier flame and can move freely for vertical direction levitation. For the propulsion system, electromagnet is installed on the surface of the magnetic rail. In this paper, control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Propulsion force is given as follows; Air core copper coils are installed on the magnetic rail. Interaction between current of these coils and permanent magnets on the carrier generates propulsion force. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. It is also changed by position of the carrier and the load weight. From the results, stability of the propulsion system is given, and propulsion characteristics are improved.

  19. Study on control method of running velocity for the permanent magnet-HTSC hybrid magnetically levitated conveyance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, R.; Ikeda, M.; Sasaki, R. [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Ohashi, S., E-mail: ohashi@kansai-u.ac.jp [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The hybrid magnetically levitated carrying system is developed. Control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. Propulsion characteristcs are improved. We have developed the magnetically levitated carrying system. In this system, pinning force of high temperature bulk super conductor (HTSC) is used for the levitation and guidance. Four HTSCs are installed on the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs. To increase levitation force, repulsive force of the permanent magnet is used. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The permanent magnet is installed under the load stage of the carrier. Repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. Levitation and guidance one by pinning effect of the YBaCuO HTSC in the carrier is used to levitate the carrier body. The load stage is separated from the carrier flame and can move freely for vertical direction levitation. For the propulsion system, electromagnet is installed on the surface of the magnetic rail. In this paper, control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Propulsion force is given as follows; Air core copper coils are installed on the magnetic rail. Interaction between current of these coils and permanent magnets on the carrier generates propulsion force. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. It is also changed by position of the carrier and the load weight. From the results, stability of the propulsion system is given, and propulsion characteristics are improved.

  20. Analysis of psychoactive substances in water by information dependent acquisition on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-08-26

    Emerging drugs of abuse, belonging to many different chemical classes, are attracting users with promises of "legal" highs and easy access via internet. Prevalence of their consumption and abuse through wastewater-based epidemiology can only be realized if a suitable analytical screening procedure exists to detect and quantify them in water. Solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS/MS) was applied for rapid suspect screening as well as for the quantitative determination of 42 illicit drugs and metabolites in water. Using this platform, we were able to identify amphetamines, tryptamines, piperazines, pyrrolidinophenones, arylcyclohexylamines, cocainics, opioids and cannabinoids. Additionally, paracetamol, carbamazepine, ibersartan, valsartan, sulfamethoxazole, terbumeton, diuron, etc. (including degradation products as 3-hydroxy carbamazepine or deethylterbuthylazine) were detected. This method encompasses easy sample preparation and rapid identification of psychoactive drugs against a database that cover more than 2000 compounds that ionized in positive mode, and possibility to identify metabolites and degradation products as well as unknown compounds. The method for river water, influent and effluents samples was fully validated for the target psychoactive substances including assessment of matrix effects (-88-67.8%), recovery (42-115%), precision (psychoactive drugs biomarkers and other water contaminants is demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vitro and in Vivo Metabolite Profiling of Valnemulin Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography–Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Hybrid Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Valnemulin, a semisynthetic pleuromutilin derivative related to tiamulin, is broadly used to treat bacterial diseases of animals. Despite its widespread use, metabolism in animals has not yet been fully investigated. To better understand valnemulin biotransformation, in this study, metabolites of valnemulinin in in vitro and in vivo rats, chickens, swines, goats, and cows were identified and elucidated using ultraperformance liquid chromatography–quadrupole/time-of-flight hybrid mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS). As a result, there were totally 7 metabolites of valnemulin identified in vitro and 75, 61, and 74 metabolites detected in in vivo rats, chickens, and swines, respectively, and the majority of metabolites were reported for the first time. The main metabolic pathways of valnemulin were found to be hydroxylation in the mutilin part (the ring system) and the side chain, oxidization on the sulfur of the side chain to form S-oxides, hydrolysis of the amido bond, and acetylization in the amido of the side chain. In addition, hydroxylation in the mutilin part was proposed to be the primary metabolic route. Furthermore, the results revealed that 2β-hydroxyvalnemulin (V1) and 8α-hydroxyvalnemulin (V2) were the major metabolites for rats and swines and S-oxides (V6) in chickens. PMID:25156794

  2. Introduction of a 20 kHz Nd:YVO4 laser into a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer for MALDI-MS imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trim, Paul J; Djidja, Marie-Claude; Atkinson, Sally J; Oakes, Keith; Cole, Laura M; Anderson, David M G; Hart, Philippa J; Francese, Simona; Clench, Malcolm R

    2010-08-01

    A commercial hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been modified for high-speed matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) imaging using a short-pulse optical technology Nd:YVO(4) laser. The laser operating in frequency-tripled mode (lambda = 355 nm) is capable of delivering 1.5-ns pulses of energy at up to 8 microJ at 5-10 kHz and 3 microJ at 20 kHz. Experiments to improve beam homogeneity and reduce laser speckle by mechanical vibration of the fibre-optic laser delivery system are reported along with data from trial and tissue imaging experiments using the modified instrument. The laser appeared to yield best results for MALDI-MS imaging experiments when operating at repetition rates 5-10 kHz. Combining this with raster imaging allowed images of rat brain sections to be recorded in 37 min. Similarly, images of the distribution of peptides in "on-tissue" digest experiments from tumour tissues were recorded in 1 h and 30 min rather than the 8-h acquisition time previously used. A brief investigation of targeted protein analysis/imaging by multiple reaction monitoring experiments "on-tissue" is reported. A total of 26 transitions were recorded over a 3-s cycle time and images of abundant proteins were successfully recorded.

  3. Development of a sensitive method for the determination of acrylamide in coffee using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugajeva, Iveta; Jaunbergs, Janis; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-01-01

    The emerging trend towards high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) alternatives was evaluated by the application of Orbitrap MS for the determination of acrylamide in coffee samples. The high resolving power of the Orbitrap MS provided the high selectivity and sensitivity that enabled quantitative analysis of acrylamide in complex matrices, such as coffee. Several sample preparation methods and scanning modes of the MS (full MS, t-SIM, t-MS2) were assessed in order to optimise parameters of the analytical method. The final procedure involved the extraction of acrylamide with acetonitrile, solid-phase extraction with dispersive primary secondary amine (PSA) and amino columns, and the detection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS (HPLC-Q-Orbitrap) operated in targeted MS2 scanning mode. The repeatability of the method at the lowest calibration level (10 μg kg(-1)), expressed as relative standard deviation, was 7.8% and the average recovery of acrylamide was 111%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of acrylamide in 22 samples of roasted coffee obtained from the Latvian retail market. Acrylamide concentration in coffee samples was in the range of 166-503 μg kg(-1).

  4. A novel approach to the quantitative detection of anabolic steroids in bovine muscle tissue by means of a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussche, Julie Vanden; Decloedt, Anneleen; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; De Clercq, Nathalie; Lock, Stephen; Stahl-Zeng, Jianru; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2014-09-19

    In recent years, the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents has shifted from target-oriented procedures, mainly based on liquid chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS), towards accurate mass full scan MS (such as Time-of-Flight (ToF) and Fourier Transform (FT)-MS). In this study, the performance of a hybrid analysis instrument (i.e. UHPLC-QuadrupoleTime-of-Flight-MS (QqToF-MS)), able to exploit both full scan HR and MS/MS capabilities within a single analytical platform, was evaluated for confirmatory analysis of anabolic steroids (gestagens, estrogens including stilbenes and androgens) in meat. The validation data was compared to previously obtained results (CD 2002/657/EC) for QqQ-MS and single stage Orbitrap-MS. Additionally, a fractional factorial design was used to shorten and optimize the sample extraction. Validation according to CD 2002/657/EC demonstrated that steroid analysis using QqToF has a higher competing value towards QqQ-MS in terms of selectivity/specificity, compared to single stage Orbitrap-MS. While providing excellent linearity, based on lack-of-fit calculations (F-test, α=0.05 for all steroids except 17β-ethinylestradiol: α=0.01), the sensitivity of QqToF-MS proved for 61.8% and 85.3% of the compounds more sensitive compared to QqQ-MS and Orbitrap-MS, respectively. Indeed, the CCα values, obtained upon ToF-MS/MS detection, ranged from 0.02 to 1.74μgkg(-1) for the 34 anabolic steroids, while for QqQ-MS and Orbitrap-MS values ranged from 0.04 to 0.88μgkg(-1) and from 0.07 to 2.50μgkg(-1), respectively. Using QqToF-MS and QqQ-MS, adequate precision was obtained as relative standard deviations for repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility, were below 20%. In case of Orbitrap-MS, some compounds (i.e. some estrogens) displayed poor precision, which was possibly caused by some lack of sensitivity at lower concentrations and the absence of MRM-like experiments. Overall, it can be

  5. Driving cycle suitable layout of permanent magnet synchronous machines for hybrid vehicles and electric powered vehicles; Fahrzyklusgerechte Auslegung von permanentmagneterregten Synchronmaschinen fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finken, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    An increasing environmental awareness and the prospect of a shortage of fossil resources will result in a development of efficient vehicles with a lower consumption of fuel. In addition to the hybrid electric vehicle, the electric powered vehicle increasingly is focused in the development of vehicles. A good efficiency is the most important demand on the electrical machine. The author of the book under consideration reports on exemplary operating point distributions for various vehicle concepts and user profiles. After comparing the most common types of machine in terms of the use in electrified powertrains, the permanent magnet synchronous machine is selected and discussed in detail. A table shows the advantages and disadvantages of all considered geometries and variations. Thus, a suitable combination of geometry for a given vehicle concept and its requirements are selected.

  6. Analysis of 44 drugs of abuse and metabolites in wastewater and river water using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres-Costa, M. Jesus; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    The presence of drugs of abuse in the aquatic environment has been recognized as an important issue for the ecosystem due their possible negative effect on it (Richardson, 2011). Incomplete removal of these substances during wastewater treatment could be one of the causes of their release in the environment (Zuccato and Castiglioni, 2009). Pollution by illicit drug residues at very low concentrations is generalized in populated areas, with potential risks for human health and the environment (Zuccato, 2008; Castiglioni et al 2007).The aim of this study was to screen and quantify 44 drugs of abuse and metabolites of wastewater samples using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and furthermore carry out a post-target screening to identify additional compounds present in the water samples. Wastewater samples were collected from the influent and effluent of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Valencia and river water samples form Turia River Basin. Illicit drugs were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The chromatography was performed with an Agilent 1260 Infinity ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The UHPLC system was coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight ABSciex Triple TOFTM 5600. All analytes were analyzed in positive mode. Acquiring full scan MS data was employed for quantification of drugs of abuse, and automatic data dependent information product ion spectra (IDA-MS/MS) was checked for identifying emerging illicit drugs and other compounds in water samples. The use of a database containing 1212 compounds achieved high confidence results for a wide number of contaminants. In the present study, the presence of compounds that belong to amphetamines group (amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine, MDMA, MDA and MDEA), tryptamines (bufotenine), pirrolidinophenone group (α-PVP and 4'-MePHP), arylcyclohexylamines (ketamine), cocainics (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene and ecgonine methyl ester) and

  7. Multiple and sequential data acquisition method: an improved method for fragmentation and detection of cross-linked peptides on a hybrid linear trap quadrupole Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudashevskaya, Elena L; Breitwieser, Florian P; Huber, Marie L; Colinge, Jacques; Müller, André C; Bennett, Keiryn L

    2013-02-05

    The identification and validation of cross-linked peptides by mass spectrometry remains a daunting challenge for protein-protein cross-linking approaches when investigating protein interactions. This includes the fragmentation of cross-linked peptides in the mass spectrometer per se and following database searching, the matching of the molecular masses of the fragment ions to the correct cross-linked peptides. The hybrid linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) Orbitrap Velos combines the speed of the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) duty circle with high mass accuracy, and these features were utilized in the current study to substantially improve the confidence in the identification of cross-linked peptides. An MS/MS method termed multiple and sequential data acquisition method (MSDAM) was developed. Preliminary optimization of the MS/MS settings was performed with a synthetic peptide (TP1) cross-linked with bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate (BS(3)). On the basis of these results, MSDAM was created and assessed on the BS(3)-cross-linked bovine serum albumin (BSA) homodimer. MSDAM applies a series of multiple sequential fragmentation events with a range of different normalized collision energies (NCE) to the same precursor ion. The combination of a series of NCE enabled a considerable improvement in the quality of the fragmentation spectra for cross-linked peptides, and ultimately aided in the identification of the sequences of the cross-linked peptides. Concurrently, MSDAM provides confirmatory evidence from the formation of reporter ions fragments, which reduces the false positive rate of incorrectly assigned cross-linked peptides.

  8. Self-commissioning of permanent magnet synchronous machine drives using hybrid approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basar, Mehmet Sertug

    2016-01-01

    Self-commissioning of permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous machines (PMSMs) is of prime importance in an industrial drive system because control performance and system stability depend heavily on the accurate machine parameter information. This article focuses on a combination of offline and online...... parameter estimation for a non-salient pole PMSM which eliminates the need for any prior knowledge on machine parameters. Stator resistance and inductance are first identified at standstill utilising fundamental and high-frequency excitation signals, respectively. A novel method has been developed...... and employed for inductance estimation. Then, stator resistance, inductance and PM flux are updated online using a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm. The proposed controllers are designed using MATLAB/Simulink® and implemented on d-Space® real-time system incorporating a commercially available PMSM drive....

  9. Optimal design of permanent magnet flux switching generator for wind applications via artificial neural network and multi-objective particle swarm optimization hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, Santolo; Zohoori, Alireza; Vahedi, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new optimal design of flux switching permanent magnet generator is developed. • A prototype is employed to validate numerical data used for optimization. • A novel hybrid multi-objective particle swarm optimization approach is proposed. • Optimization targets are weight, cost, voltage and its total harmonic distortion. • The hybrid approach preference is proved compared with other optimization methods. - Abstract: In this paper a new hybrid approach obtained combining a multi-objective particle swarm optimization and artificial neural network is proposed for the design optimization of a direct-drive permanent magnet flux switching generators for low power wind applications. The targets of the proposed multi-objective optimization are to reduce the costs and weight of the machine while maximizing the amplitude of the induced voltage as well as minimizing its total harmonic distortion. The permanent magnet width, the stator and rotor tooth width, the rotor teeth number and stator pole number of the machine define the search space for the optimization problem. Four supervised artificial neural networks are designed for modeling the complex relationships among the weight, the cost, the amplitude and the total harmonic distortion of the output voltage respect to the quantities of the search space. Finite element analysis is adopted to generate training dataset for the artificial neural networks. Finite element analysis based model is verified by experimental results with a 1.5 kW permanent magnet flux switching generator prototype suitable for renewable energy applications, having 6/19 stator poles/rotor teeth. Finally the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid procedure is compared with the results given by conventional multi-objective optimization algorithms. The obtained results show the soundness of the proposed multi objective optimization technique and its feasibility to be adopted as suitable methodology for optimal design of permanent

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Bioactive Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids in Ethanolic Extract of Seven Rauvolfia Species using UHPLC with Hybrid Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Awantika; Bajpai, Vikas; Srivastava, Mukesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Ojha, Sanjeev; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-09-01

    Rauvolfia serpentina is an endangered plant species due to its over-exploitation. It has highly commercial and economic importance due to the presence of bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as ajmaline, yohimbine, ajmalicine, serpentine and reserpine. To develop a validated, rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQLIT -MS/MS) method in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for simultaneous determination of bioactive MIAs in ethanolic extract of seven Rauvolfia species and herbal formulations. The separation of MIAs was achieved on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH™ C18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm) using a gradient mobile phase (0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile) at flow rate 0.3 μL/min in 7 min. The validated method showed good linearity (r(2)  ≥ 0.9999), limit of detection (LOD) (0.06-0.15 ng/mL), limit of quantitation (LOQ) (0.18-0.44 ng/mL), precisions [intraday: relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 2.24%, interday: RSD ≤ 2.74%], stability (RSD ≤ 1.53%) and overall recovery (RSD ≤ 2.23%). The validated method was applied to quantitate MIAs. Root of Rauvolfia vomitoria showed a high content of ajmaline (48.43 mg/g), serpentine (87.77 mg/g) whereas high quantities of yohimbine (100.21 mg/g) and ajmalicine (120.51 mg/g) were detected in R. tetraphylla. High content of reserpine was detected in R. micrantha (35.18 mg/g) and R. serpentina (32.38 mg/g). The encouraging results of this study may lead to easy selection of suitable Rauvolfia species according to the abundance of MIAs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Shimming with permanent magnets for the x-ray detector in a hybrid x-ray∕MR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Williams, Scott T.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this x-ray∕MR hybrid system an x-ray flat panel detector is placed under the patient cradle, close to the MR volume of interest (VOI), where the magnetic field strength is ∼0.5 T. Immersed in this strong field, several electronic components inside the detector become magnetized and create an additional magnetic field that is superimposed on the original field of the MR scanner. Even after linear shimming, the field homogeneity of the MR scanner remains disrupted by the detector. The authors characterize the field due to the detector with the field of two magnetic dipoles and further show that two sets of permanent magnets (NdFeB) can withstand the main magnetic field and compensate for the nonlinear components of the additional field. The ideal number of magnets and their locations are calculated based on a field map measured with the detector in place. Experimental results demonstrate great promise for this technique, which may be useful in many settings where devices with magnetic components need to be placed inside or close to an MR scanner. PMID:18841840

  12. Rapid and sensitive determination of major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds using matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and UHPLC with hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Atul S; Sathiyanarayanan, L; Deshpande, Shreekant; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the extraction and determination of four major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds is presented for the first time based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Matrix solid-phase dispersion method was designed for the extraction of Euphoria longana seed constituents and compared with microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods. An Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative analysis in multiple-reaction monitoring mode in negative electrospray ionization. The chromatographic separation was accomplished using an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C 18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column with gradient elution of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. The developed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r 2 > 0.999), precision (RSD ≤ 2.22%) and recovery (RSD ≤ 2.35%). The results indicated that matrix solid-phase dispersion produced comparable extraction efficiency compared with other methods nevertheless was more convenient and time-saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent volumes. The proposed method is rapid and sensitive in providing a promising alternative for extraction and comprehensive determination of active components for quality control of Euphoria longana products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. ISABELLE insertion quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaugerts, J.; Polk, I.; Sampson, W.; Dahl, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Beam focussing and control at the beam intersection regions of ISABELLE is accomplished by a number of superconducting insertion quadrupoles. These magnets differ from the standard ISABELLE quadrupoles in various ways. In particular, the requirements of limited space near the intersections and aperture for beam extraction impose constraints on their configuration. To achieve optimum beam focussing and provide tuning flexibility calls for stronger quadrupole trim windings than those in the standard quadrupoles. The magnetic and mechanical design of the insertion quadrupoles and their associated correction and steering windings to accomplish the above tasks is presented

  14. Investigation of a Co-Axial Dual-Mechanical Ports Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hua

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a co-axial dual-mechanical ports flux-switching permanent magnet (CADMP-FSPM machine for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs is proposed and investigated, which is comprised of two conventional co-axial FSPM machines, namely one high-speed inner rotor machine and one low-speed outer rotor machine and a non-magnetic ring sandwiched in between. Firstly, the topology and operation principle of the CADMP-FSPM machine are introduced; secondly, the control system of the proposed electronically-controlled continuously-variable transmission (E-CVT system is given; thirdly, the key design specifications of the CADMP-FSPM machine are determined based on a conventional dual-mechanical ports (DMP machine with a wound inner rotor. Fourthly, the performances of the CADMP-FSPM machine and the normal DMP machine under the same overall volume are compared, and the results indicate that the CADMP-FSPM machine has advantages over the conventional DMP machine in the elimination of brushes and slip rings, improved thermal dissipation conditions for the inner rotor, direct-driven operation, more flexible modes, lower cogging torque and torque ripple, lower total harmonic distortion (THD values of phase PM flux linkage and phase electro-motive force (EMF, higher torque output capability and is suitable for the E-CVT systems. Finally, the pros and cons of the CADMP-FSPM machine are highlighted. This paper lays a theoretical foundation for further research on CADMP-FSPM machines used for HEVs.

  15. Non-target screening of Allura Red AC photodegradation products in a beverage through ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Calabrese, Giorgio; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Marengo, Emilio

    2013-01-15

    The study deals with the identification of the degradation products formed by simulated sunlight photoirradiation in a commercial beverage that contains Allura Red AC dye. An UHPLC-MS/MS method, that makes use of hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap, was developed. In the identification step the software tool information dependent acquisition (IDA) was used to automatically obtain information about the species present and to build a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method with the MS/MS fragmentation pattern of the species considered. The results indicate that the identified degradation products are formed from side-reactions and/or interactions among the dye and other ingredients present in the beverage (ascorbic acid, citric acid, sucrose, aromas, strawberry juice, and extract of chamomile flowers). The presence of aromatic amine or amide functionalities in the chemical structures proposed for the degradation products might suggest potential hazards to consumer health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Centering of quadrupole family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinayev, Igor

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for finding the individual centers for a family of quadrupoles fed with a single power supply is described. The method is generalized for using the correctors adjacent to the quadrupoles. Theoretical background is presented as well as experimental data for the NSLS rings. The method accuracy is also discussed

  17. Hybrid shipping for inland navigation : loss analysis of an aluminum direct-drive high performance 11,OOONm permanent magnet machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Djukic, N.; Encica, L.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid electric ship propulsions are becoming a leading/emerging area of research, prompting investigation in hybrid propulsion system design and demonstration of concept vessels. With respect to ship design and operation, minimizing costs associated with fuel consumption and maintenance are key

  18. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1983-03-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrupole will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented

  19. Superconducting magnetic quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.

  20. Quadrupole Ion Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to do precision spectroscopic measurements on these ions. ... Bonn, investigated the non-magnetic quadrupole mass filter, .... the details of which will be discussed in the subse- ... the radial plane the ion undergoes a circular motion with the.

  1. SPS Quadrupole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    A stack of SPS Quadrupole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a total of 216 laminated normal conducting lattice quadrupoles with a length of 3.13 m for the core, 3.3 m overall. The F and D quads. have identical characteristics: inscribed circle radius 44 mm, core height and width 800 mm, maximum gradient 20 Tesla/m.

  2. Quadrupole moments of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, M.I.

    1985-01-01

    In chiral bag model an expression is obtained for the quark wave functions with account of color and pion interaction of quarks. The quadrupole moments of nonstrange hadrons are calculated. Quadrupole moment of nucleon isobar is found to be Q(Δ)=-6.3x10 -28 esub(Δ)(cm)sup(2). Fredictions of the chiral bag model are in strong disagreement with the non-relativistic quark model

  3. Permanent magnets including undulators and wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrdt, J

    2010-01-01

    After a few historic remarks on magnetic materials we introduce the basic definitions related to permanent magnets. The magnetic properties of the most common materials are reviewed and the production processes are described. Measurement techniques for the characterization of macroscopic and microscopic properties of permanent magnets are presented. Field simulation techniques for permanent magnet devices are discussed. Today, permanent magnets are used in many fields. This article concentrates on the applications of permanent magnets in accelerators starting from dipoles and quadrupoles on to wigglers and undulators.

  4. Electromagnetic Comparison of 3-, 5- and 7-phases Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines : Mild Hybrid Traction Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ouamara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors compare the electromagnetic performances of three multi-phases permanent-magnet (PM synchronous machines (PMSM for Mild Hybridtraction application. This comparison was made using two-dimensional (2-D numerical simulations in transient magnetic with eddy-current reaction field in the PMs. The best machine was determined using an energetic analysis (i.e., losses, torque and efficiency according specifications. In this study, the non-overlapping winding with double layer (i.e. all teeth wound type was used. The winding synthesis is based on the "Star of slots" method as well as the Fourier series decomposition of the magnetomotive force (MMF.

  5. Hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis with accurate-mass database and parallel reaction monitoring for high-throughput screening and quantification of multi-xenobiotics in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhai, Lifei; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhou, Jinhui

    2016-01-15

    This study reports a rapid, automated screening and quantification method for the determination of multi-xenobiotic residues in honey using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) with a user-built accurate-mass database plus parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The database contains multi-xenobiotic information including formulas, adduct types, theoretical exact mass and retention time, characteristic fragment ions, ion ratios, and mass accuracies. A simple sample preparation method was developed to reduce xenobiotic loss in the honey samples. The screening method was validated based on retention time deviation, mass accuracy via full scan-data-dependent MS/MS (full scan-ddMS2), multi-isotope ratio, characteristic ion ratio, sensitivity, and positive/negative switching performance between the spiked sample and corresponding standard solution. The quantification method based on the PRM mode is a promising new quantitative tool which we validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, recovery (accuracy), repeatability (precision), decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), matrix effects, and carry-over. The optimized methods proposed in this study enable the automated screening and quantification of 157 compounds in less than 15 min in honey. The results of this study, as they represent a convenient protocol for large-scale screening and quantification, also provide a research approach for analysis of various contaminants in other matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Torques on quadrupoles

    OpenAIRE

    Torres del Castillo, G.F; Méndez Garrido, A

    2006-01-01

    Making use of the fact that a 2l-pole can be represented by means of l vectors of the same magnitude, the torque on a quadrupole in an inhomogeneous external field is expressed in terms of the vectors that represent the quadrupole and the gradient of the external field. The conditions for rotational equilibrium are also expressed in terms of these vectors. Haciendo uso de que un multipolo de orden 2l puede representarse mediante l vectores de la misma magnitud, la torca sobre un cuadripolo...

  7. High gradient superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.

    1987-07-01

    Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed

  8. ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.

  9. Rf quadrupole beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Crandall, K.R.; Stovall, J.E.; Swenson, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed to analyze the beam dynamics of the radiofrequency quadrupole accelerating structure. Calculations show that this structure can accept a dc beam at low velocity, bunch it with high capture efficiency, and accelerate it to a velocity suitable for injection into a drift tube linac

  10. ISR "Terwilliger" Quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    There were 48 of these Quadrupoles in the ISR. They were distributed around the rings according to the so-called Terwilliger scheme. Their aperture was 184 mm, their core length 300 mm, their gradient 5 T/m. Due to their small length as compared to the aperture, the end fringe field errors had to be compensated by suitably shaping the poles.

  11. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chunlin; Guo Bin; Wang Xiaoying; Li Jie; Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo; Ouyang Shan; Yao Shouzhuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. ► Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. ► Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N 4 -acetyl and N-OH metabolites. ► PreS–IDA–EPI in LC–QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography–hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC–QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71–109% with RSDs 4 -acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC–QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67–116%), precision (RSDs −1 ) to meet the acceptance criteria for all the sulfonamide–tissue combinations. Thus, the integration of the matrix-independent SEP/MAC procedure and the multiparameter matching algorithm with the unit-resolution LC–QqLIT instrument can serve as a valuable semi-targeted discovery strategy for rapid screening and reliable quantitative/confirmatory analysis of real samples.

  12. Negative chemical ionization gas chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and automated accurate mass data processing for determination of pesticides in fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besil, Natalia; Uclés, Samanta; Mezcúa, Milagros; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-08-01

    Gas chromatography coupled to high resolution hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF MS), operating in negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode and combining full scan with MSMS experiments using accurate mass analysis, has been explored for the automated determination of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables. Seventy compounds were included in this approach where 50 % of them are not approved by the EU legislation. A global 76 % of the analytes could be identified at 1 μg kg(-1). Recovery studies were developed at three concentration levels (1, 5, and 10 μg kg(-1)). Seventy-seven percent of the detected pesticides at the lowest level yielded recoveries within the 70 %-120 % range, whereas 94 % could be quantified at 5 μg kg(-1), and the 100 % were determined at 10 μg kg(-1). Good repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD home-made database was developed and applied to an automatic accurate mass data processing. Measured mass accuracies of the generated ions were mainly less than 5 ppm for at least one diagnostic ion. When only one ion was obtained in the single-stage NCI-MS, a representative product ion from MSMS experiments was used as identification criterion. A total of 30 real samples were analyzed and 67 % of the samples were positive for 12 different pesticides in the range 1.0-1321.3 μg kg(-1).

  13. On quantum quadrupole radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, L.; Mankoc-Borstnik, N.

    1981-02-01

    In this paper it is shown that for the electromagnetic decay of a quantum system in a coherent rotational state the total quadrupole radiation is proportional to (d 5 Q/dt 5 )(dQ/dt)sup(*)+c.c. For the radiation flux out of a sphere of large radius a different quantity, closer to the classical expression (d 3 Q/dt 3 ) 2 , is found. (author)

  14. Superconducting Panofsky quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    A design for a rectangular aperture quadrupole magnet without pole-tips was introduced by Hand and Panofsky in 1959. This design was quite radical but simple to construct. Few magnets of this design were ever built because of the large power needed. With the advent of superconducting coils there has been a renewed interest in them. The mathematical basis, field characteristics, and present and future construction of these magnets are described

  15. Measurements of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, J.L.; Fourie, D.T.; Cornell, J.C.; Lloyd, G.C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements carried out on quadrupole magnets using a long asymmetric rotating coil are described. Although the method itself is fairly well-known, the introduction of microprocessors has made this once-tedious technique into a useful and simple method of evaluating quadrupole magnets. The rotating-coil device and a variety of coil sizes are now commercially available. The coil contains a large number of extremely fine wires, embedded in a carefully balanced fibre-glass rotor, resulting in a reasonable induced voltage when the coil is rotated. A digital harmonic analyser is then used to obtain the integrated multipole content of the waveform, while the coil is rotating. By integrating over time, one can average out random noise and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements. Because the harmonic analysis is done in real time, the method is quick, easy and accurate, and has been extended to locate the precise magnetic centre of the quadrupole magnet by adjusting its position relative to the coil axis so as to minimize the dipole content of the output waveform. Results of these measurements are compared with those obtained with an optical method using a suspension of magnetite. The observed light pattern is explained analytically. (author)

  16. Conceptual design of a quadrupole magnet for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    eRHIC is a proposed upgrade to the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which would allow collisions of up to 21 GeV polarized electrons with a variety of species from the existing RHIC accelerator. eRHIC employs an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and an FFAG lattice for the arcs. The arcs require open-midplane quadrupole magnets of up to 30 T/m gradient of good field quality. In this paper we explore initial quadrupole magnet design concepts based on permanent magnetic material which allow to modify the gradient during operation.

  17. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  18. Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs

  19. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Giorgio [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2016-04-14

    This report presents the reference design of MQXFS1, the first 1.5 m prototype of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. The MQXF quadrupoles have 150 mm aperture, coil peak field of about 12 T, and use $Nb_{3}Sn$ conductor. The design is based on the LARP HQ quadrupoles, which had 120 mm aperture. MQXFS1 has 1st generation cable cross-section and magnetic design.

  20. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Chunlin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Guo Bin, E-mail: binnguo@126.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Wang Xiaoying [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Li Jie [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Ouyang Shan [Food Inspection and Quarantine Center, Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of the People' s Republic of China, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Yao Shouzhuo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2012-08-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N{sup 4}-acetyl and N-OH metabolites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PreS-IDA-EPI in LC-QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography-hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71-109% with RSDs < 20%) and decreased matrix interferences (-9 to 19%) of multiresidual sulfonamide extraction from different tissue samples. The novel use of neutral loss scan of 66 Da (NLS) or precursor ion scanning of m/z 108 (PreS) in positive ion mode was found to achieve more comprehensive coverage of protonated molecular ions of a wide array of sulfonamides including N{sup 4}-acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC-QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67-116%), precision (RSDs < 25%), and sensitivity (LOQs {<=} 7.5 ng

  1. Combined use of liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) in systematic toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker, Sebastian; Pragst, Fritz; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Herre, Sieglinde; Tsokos, Michael

    2011-10-10

    Time of flight mass spectrometry provides new possibilities of substance identification by determination of the molecular formula from accurate molecular mass and isotope pattern. However, the huge number of possible isomers requires additional evidence. As a suitable way for routine performance of systematic toxicological analysis, a method for combined use of liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed and applied to blood samples from 77 death cases. The blood samples were prepared by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2) and by protein precipitation with acetonitrile (1:4 (v/v)). The evaporated extracts were reconstituted in 35% acetonitril/0.1% formic acid/H(2)O and aliquots were injected for analysis by LC-QTOF-MS (Agilent 6530) and HPLC-DAD (Agilent 1200). A valve switching system enabled simultaneous operation of both separated chromatographic lines under their respective optimal conditions using the same autosampler. The ESI-QTOF-MS instrument was run in data dependent acquisition mode with switching between MS and MS/MS (cycle time 1.1s) and measuring the full mass spectra and the collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment spectra of all essential [M+H](+) ions. Libraries of accurate mass CID spectra (~2500 substances) and of DAD-UV spectra (~3300 substances) of the authors were used for substance identification. The application of this procedure is demonstrated in detail at four examples with multiple drug intake or administration. In the 77 cases altogether 198 substances were identified (87 by DAD and 195 by QTOF-MS) with a frequency between 1 and 20. In practical application, the sample preparation proved to be suitable for both techniques and for a wide variety of substances with different polarity. The automatic performance of the measurements was efficient and robust. Mutual confirmation, decrease of false positive and

  2. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1983-01-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrople will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented

  3. Characterization of the ELIMED prototype permanent magnet quadrupole system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Russo, A.D.; Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Amato, A.; Amico, A.G.; Calanna, A.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; Amato, C.; De Luca, G.; Flacco, F.A.; Gallo, G.; Giove, D.; Grmek, A.; La Rosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Maggiore, M.; Malka, V.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Scuderi, Valentina; Vauzour, B.; Zappala, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, Jan (2017), 1-4, č. článku C01031. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : beam dynamics * beam optics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  4. Quadrupole shunt experiments at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Hettel, R.O.; Nuhn, H.-D.

    1996-05-01

    As part of a program to align and stabilize the SPEAR storage ring, a switchable shunt resistor was installed on each quadrupole to bypass a small percentage of the magnet current. The impact of a quadrupole shunt is to move the electron beam orbit in proportion to the off-axis beam position at the quadrupole, and to shift the betatron tune. Initially, quadrupole shunts in SPEAR were used to position the electron beam in the center of the quadrupoles. This provided readback offsets for nearby beam position monitors, and helped to steer the photon beams with low-amplitude corrector currents. The shunt-induced tune shift measurements were then processed in MAD to derive a lattice model

  5. Quadrupole shunt experiments at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Hettel, R.O.; Nuhn, H.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a program to align and stabilize the SPEAR storage ring, a switchable shunt resistor was installed on each quadrupole to bypass a small percentage of the magnet current. The impact of a quadrupole shunt is to move the electron beam orbit in proportion to the off-axis beam position at the quadrupole and to shift the betatron tune. Initially, quadrupole shunts in SPEAR were used to position the electron beam in the center of the quadrupoles. This provided readback offsets for nearby beam position monitors and helped to steer the photon beams with low-amplitude corrector currents. The shunt-induced tune shift measurements were then processed in MAD to derive a lattice model. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. CLIC Quadrupole Module final report

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Mainaud-Durand, H

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line. The CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole (MBQ) module has been defined and studied. It is meant as a test stand for stabilisation and pre-alignment with a MB Quadrupole. The main topic that has been tackled concerns the Quadrupole magnet stabilisation to 1nm at 1Hz. This is needed to obtain the desired CLIC luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2m-1. The deliverable was demonstrated by procuring a MBQ and by stabilising a powered and cooled CLIC MBQ quadrupole. In addition, the stabilisation system has to be compatible with the pre-alignment procedures. Pre-alignment movement resolution has been demonstrated to 1m. The last step is the combined test of stability with a quadrupole on a CLIC Module with the pre-alignment.

  7. Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)

  8. Optimally segmented permanent magnet structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector......, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration....

  9. Quadrupole magnetic lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The following connection of windings of electromagnet is suggested for simplification of the design of qUadrupole magnetic lens intended for use in radiotechnical and electron-optical devices. The mentioned windings are connected with each other by a bridge scheme and the variable resistors are switched in its diagonals in the lens containing four electromagnet with windings connected with two variable resistors the mobile contacts of which are connected with a direct current source. Current redistribution between left windings and right windings takes place at shift of mobile contact of variable resistor, and current redistribution between upper and low coils of electromagnets takes place at shifting mobile contact of the other variable resistor. In this case smooth and independent electron-optical misalignment of lens by two mutually perpendicular directions proceeds. Use of the given design of the lens in the oscillograph permits to use printing assembly for alignment plate and to reduce the number of connections at the expense of decreasing the number of resistors

  10. Permanent education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardien, S.; Kirsch, R.

    1998-01-01

    The permanent education of the IPN-Lyon inscribes itself completely in the priorities of the tri-annual plan of education of CNRS. These priorities contribute to evolution of research, evaluation of the professions, integration during the professional carriers of the personnel and form the frame for new management practice implementation

  11. Tests of planar permanent magnet multipole focusing elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.; Tatchyn, R.

    1993-08-01

    In recent work, planar configurations of permanent magnets were proposed as substitutes for conventional current-driven iron quadrupoles in applications limited by small aperture sizes and featuring small beam occupation diameters. Important examples include the configuring of focusing lattices in small-gap insertion devices, and the implementation of compact mini-beta sections on linear or circular machines. In subsequent analysis, this approach was extended to sextupoles and higher-order multipoles. In this paper we report on initial measurements conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on recently fabricated planar permanent magnet quadrupoles and sextupoles configured out of SmCo and NdFe/B

  12. Electromagnetic design of superconducting quadrupoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rossi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We study how the critical gradient depends on the coil layout in a superconducting quadrupole for particle accelerators. We show that the results relative to a simple sector coil are well representative of the coil layouts that have been used to build several quadrupoles in the past 30 years. Using a semianalytical approach, we derive a formula that gives the critical gradient as a function of the coil cross-sectional area, of the magnet aperture, and of the superconducting cable parameters. This formula is used to evaluate the efficiency of several types of coil layouts (shell, racetrack, block, open midplane.

  13. Superstrong Adjustable Permanent Magnet for a Linear Collider Final Focus

    CERN Document Server

    Iwashita, Y

    2004-01-01

    Super-strong permanent magnets are being considered as one of the candidates for the final focus quadrupole magnets in a linear collider. A short prototype with temperature compensation included and variable strength capability has been designed and fabricated. Fabrication details and some magnetic measurement results will be presented.

  14. Improved sensitivity of ochratoxin A analysis in coffee using high-performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokina, Aija; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2016-01-01

    A novel and sensitive method utilising high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS) was developed in order to analyse the content of ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee samples. The introduction of the triple-stage MS scanning mode (MS(3)) has been shown to increase greatly sensitivity and selectivity by eliminating the high chromatographic baseline caused by interference of complex coffee matrices. The analysis included the sample preparation procedure involving extraction of OTA using a methanol-water mixture and clean-up by immunoaffinity columns and detection using the MS(3) scanning mode of LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS. The proposed method offered a good linear correlation (r(2) > 0.998), excellent precision (RSD coffee beans and espresso beverages was 0.010 and 0.003 µg kg(-1), respectively. The developed procedure was compared with traditional methods employing liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescent and tandem quadrupole detectors in conjunction with QuEChERS and solid-phase extraction. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of OTA in 15 samples of coffee beans and in 15 samples of espresso coffee beverages obtained from the Latvian market. OTA was found in 10 samples of coffee beans and in two samples of espresso in the ranges of 0.018-1.80 µg kg(-1) and 0.020-0.440 µg l(-1), respectively. No samples exceeded the maximum permitted level of OTA in the European Union (5.0 µg kg(-1)).

  15. Design of the PEP-II Interaction Region Septum Quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, J.; Tanabe, J.; Yee, D.; Younger, F.

    1997-05-01

    The PEP-II QF2 magnet is one of the final focus quadrupoles for the Low-Energy Ring (LER) and utilizes a septum aperture to accommodate the adjacent High-Energy Ring (HER) beamline. The LER lattice design specification calls for an extremely high field quality for this magnet. A conventional water-cooled copper coil and laminated steel core design was selected to allow adjustment in the excitation. The close proximity between the LER and HER beamlines and the required integrated quadrupole strength result in a moderately high current density septum design. The QF2 magnets are imbedded in a confined region at each end of the BaBar detector, thus requiring a small magnet core cross section. Pole face windings are included in the QF2 design to buck the skew octupole term induced by the solenoidal fringe field that leaks out of the detector. Back-leg windings are included to buck a small dipole component induced by the lack of perfect quadrupole symmetry in this septum design. 2D pole contour optimization and 3D end chamfers are used to minimize harmonic errors; a separate permanent-magnet Harmonic Corrector Ring compensates for remaining field errors. The design methods and approach, 2D and 3D analyses, and the resulting expected magnet performance are described in this paper.

  16. Compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet with holmium poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Lobb, C.T.; Menzel, M.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walstrom, P.L. (Grumman Space Systems, Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1992-03-15

    A compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and built with poles made of the rare-earth metal holmium. The magnet is intended for use in superconducting coupled-cavity linear accelerators where compact high-field quadrupoles are needed, but where the use of permanent magnets is ruled out because of trapped-flux losses. The magnet has a clear bore diameter of 1.8 cm, outside diameter of 11 cm, length of 11 cm, and pole tip length of 6 cm. The effect of using holmium, a material with a higher saturation field than iron, was investigated by replacing poles made of iron with identical poles made of holmium. The magnet was operated at a temperature of 4.2 K and reached a peak quadrupole field gradient of 355 T/m, a 10% increase over the same magnet with iron poles. This increase in performance is consistent with calculations based on B-H curves that were measured for holmium at 4.2 K. (orig.).

  17. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  18. Nuclear quadrupole resonance of arsenolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarazo, R.

    1988-01-01

    A pulsed Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) spectrometer was constructed using imported Matec units. Peripherical components were specially assembled and tested for the implantation of the spin-echo technique in the Laboratorio de Centros de Cor of IFUSP. The R.F. operation range is from 50 to 1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation times were carried out at room temperature in arsenolite. The 75 As NQR frequency measured at room temperature is 116.223 MHz. (author) [pt

  19. Fiducialization of the small-aperture quadrupoles based on the vibrating wire method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baichuan, E-mail: wangbaichuan@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect (Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology), Xi' an 710024 (China); Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zheng, Shuxin, E-mail: zhengsx@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu, Lin; Du, Changtong; Xing, Qingzi [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Zhongming; Qiu, Mengtong [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect (Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology), Xi' an 710024 (China); Wang, Xuewu [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-03-11

    A fiducialization method based on vibrating wire is described dedicated to the problem of locating the magnetic center relative to external fiducials for the small-aperture quadrupoles. The advantage of this method is that the measurement of the wire position, which may be the main error source, is no longer needed. The position of the magnetic center can be directly obtained by measuring the position shift of the magnet fiducials. This method has been validated on small Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs). Experiments have confirmed its feasibility of measuring PMQs with good repeatability of about 10 μm, and shown its high sensitivity as well as convenience.

  20. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  1. Nuclear quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in the inelastic scattering of aligned deuterons from deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, H.; Frick, R.; Graw, G.; Schiemenz, P.; Seichert, N.

    1983-01-01

    The 2 1 + -excitation of deformed nuclei by tensor polarized deuterons provides an alignment of both nuclei and thus a means to study specifically the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between both nuclei. The tensor analyzing power Asub(xz)(theta) has been measured for the elastic and inelastic scattering on 24 Mg and 28 Si. The coupled channel analysis including a deformed tensor potential reveals a clear signature of the quadrupole-quadrupole part of the nuclear projectile-target interaction. (orig.)

  2. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Chlachidize, G; Cooley, L D; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Hafalia, R; Holik, E F; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Juchno, M; Krave, S; Marchevsky, M; Muratore, J; Nobrega, F; Pan, H; Perez, J C; Pong, I; Prestemon, S; Ravaioli, E; Sabbi, G L; Santini, C; Schmalzle, J; Schmalzle, J; Stoynev, S; Strauss, T; Vallone, G; Wanderer, P; Wang, X; Yu, M

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.

  3. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Anerella, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bossert, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cavanna, E. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cheng, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chlachidize, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Cooley, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dietderich, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Felice, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ferracin, P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Ghosh, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hafalia, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Holik, E. F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bermudez, S. Izquierdo [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Juchno, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Krave, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchevsky, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Muratore, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nobrega, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pan, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perez, J. C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Pong, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Prestemon, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ravaioli, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sabbi, G. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Santini, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schmalzle, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stoynev, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Strauss, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vallone, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yu, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-07-16

    This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.

  4. Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius

  5. Selected applications of planar permanent magnet multipoles in FEL insertion device design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.

    1993-08-01

    In recent work, a new class of magnetic multipoles based on planar configurations of permanent magnet (PM) material has been developed. These structures, in particular the quadrupole and sextupole, feature fully open horizontal apertures, and are comparable in effectiveness to conventional iron multipole structures. In this paper results of recent measurements of planar PM quadrupoles and sextupoles are reported and selected applications to FEL insertion device design are considered

  6. Analysis of polar organic contaminants in surface water of the northern Adriatic Sea by solid-phase extraction followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-QTRAP® MS using a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Canuti, Elisabetta; Weissteiner, Christof

    2013-07-01

    Water-soluble polar organic contaminants are discharged by rivers, cities, and ships into the oceans. Little is known on the fate, pollution effects, and thresholds of toxic chemical mixtures in the marine environment. A new trace analytical method was developed for the multi-compound analysis of polar organic chemical contaminants in marine waters. The method is based on automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) of one-liter water samples followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTRAP(®) MS). Marine water samples from the open Adriatic Sea taken 16 km offshore from Venice (Italy) were analyzed. Method limits of quantification (LOQs) in the low picogram per liter (pg/l) concentration range were achieved. Among the 67 target chemicals analyzed, 45 substances could be detected above the LOQ. The chemicals detected at the highest concentrations were caffeine (up to 367 ng/l), nitrophenol (36 ng/l), 2,4-dinitrophenol (34 ng/l), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (18.5 ng/l), sucralose (11 ng/l), 1H-benzotriazole (9.2 ng/l), terbuthylazine (9 ng/l), alachlor (7.7 ng/l), atrazine-desisopropyl (6.6 ng/l), diethyltoluamide (DEET) (5.0 ng/l), terbuthylazine-desethyl (4.3 ng/l), metolachlor (2.8 ng/l), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (2.5 ng/l), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) (2.3 ng/l), linuron (2.3 ng/l), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (2.2 ng/l), diuron (2.0 ng/l), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (1.6 ng/l), simazine (1.6 ng/l), atrazine (1.5 ng/l), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (1.3 ng/l). Higher concentrations were detected during summer due to increased levels of tourist activity during this period.

  7. Rapid, high performance method for the determination of vitamin K(1), menaquinone-4 and vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide in human serum and plasma using liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Cafolla, Arturo; Gasperi, Tecla; Bellante, Simona; Caretti, Fulvia; Curini, Roberta; Fernández, Virginia Pérez

    2014-04-18

    Unlike the other fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K circulates in the human bloodstream at very low levels because of a low intake in the diet. Mammals have developed an efficient recycling system, known as vitamin K-epoxide cycle, which involve quinone, hydroquinone and epoxide forms of the vitamin. Phylloquinone (K(1)) is the main homologue, while menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is both a member of the vitamin K(2) family and metabolite of K(1) in extra-hepatic tissues. Notwithstanding the recent advances, many aspects of the complex vitamin K physiology still remain to be investigated. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop more reliable analytical methods for determining the vitamin K and its metabolites in biological fluids and tissues. Nevertheless, relatively low concentrations, unavailability of some authentic standards and occurrence of interfering lipids make this a challenging task. The method proposed in the present paper can directly and accurately estimate K(1), K(1) 2,3-epoxide (K(1)O), and MK-4 in human serum and plasma at concentrations in the ng/L-μg/L range, using labelled internal standards and a quadrupole linear ion trap instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. High sensitivity was achieved by removing signal "endogenous suppressors" and making the composition of the non-aqueous mobile phase suitable to support the positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes. An excellent selectivity resulted from the combination of some factors: the MRM acquisition, the adoption of an identification point system, an extraction optimized to remove most of the lipids and a tandem-C18 column-system necessary to separate isobaric interferences from analytes. The method was validated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and its accuracy was assessed by analysing 9 samples from the Vitamin K External Quality Assessment Scheme (KEQAS). Its feasibility in evaluating vitamin K status in human serum was

  8. Method for the elucidation of the elemental composition of low molecular mass chemicals using exact masses of product ions and neutral losses: application to environmental chemicals measured by liquid chromatography with hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Ishii, Tetsuko; Yasuhara, Akio; Sakai, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    A method for elucidating the elemental compositions of low molecular weight chemicals, based primarily on mass measurements made using liquid chromatography (LC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOFMS), was developed and tested for 113 chemicals of environmental interest with molecular masses up to approximately 400 Da. As the algorithm incorporating the method is not affected by differences in the instrument used, or by the ionization method and other ionization conditions, the method is useful not only for LC/TOFMS, but also for all kinds of mass spectra measured with higher accuracy and precision (uncertainties of a few mDa) employing all ionization methods and on-line separation techniques. The method involves calculating candidate compositions for intact ionized molecules (ionized forms of the sample molecule that have lost or gained no more than a proton, i.e., [M+H](+) or [M-H](-)) as well as for fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, and eliminating those atomic compositions for the molecules that are inconsistent with the corresponding candidate compositions of fragment ions and neutral losses. Candidate compositions were calculated for the measured masses of the intact ionized molecules and of the fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, using mass uncertainties of 2 and 5 mDa, respectively. Compositions proposed for the ionized molecule that did not correspond to the sum of the compositions of a candidate fragment ion and its corresponding neutral loss were discarded. One, 2-5, 6-10, 11-20, and >20 candidate compositions were found for 65%, 39%, 1%, 1%, and 0%, respectively, for the 124 ionized molecules formed from the 113 chemicals tested (both positive and negative ions were obtained from 11 of the chemicals). However, no candidate composition was found for 2% of the test cases (i.e., 3 chemicals), for each of which the measured mass of one of the product ions was in

  9. Simulation of a quadrupole resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleindienst, Raphael [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Modern particle accelerators often rely on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology for accelerating cavities. In particular in CW operation, very high quality factors up into the high range are desirable, since one of the main cost drivers of such an accelerator, the cryogenic refrigeration plant, is inversely proportional to Q{sub 0}. Present day superconducting cavities are generally made of solid Niobium. A possibility to increase the quality factor as well as accelerating fields is to use thin film coated cavities. Apart from Niobium thin films, other superconducting materials, such as MgB{sub 2}, NbN and Nb{sub 3}Sn are promising candidates. Measuring and understanding the RF-properties of superconducting thin films, specifically the surface resistance, is needed to drive forward this development. Currently only few facilities exist capable of measuring the surface resistance of thin films samples with a resolution in the nano-ohm range at the operating frequency of typical cavities(e.g. L-band). A dedicated test stand consisting of a quadrupole resonator is therefore being constructed at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin. This system is based on the 400 MHz quadrupole resonator at CERN, with the design adapted to 433 MHz (making available the higher harmonic mode at 1.3 GHz) and optimized with respect to resolution and maximum achievable fields using simulation data obtained with CST Microwave Studio as well as ANSYS. The simulated design is being manufactured. An outlook for future physics runs is given.

  10. Electrostatic quadrupoles for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.; Faltens, A.

    1993-05-01

    Voltage-holding data for three quadrupole electrode sizes and inter-electrode spacings are reported. The dependence of the breakdown voltage on system size and its influence on the optimum quadrupole size for beam transport in a multiple beam array are discussed

  11. A strong focussing cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yaochang

    1986-01-01

    The construction and performance of small cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole, which is installed in JM-400 pulse electrostatic accelerator, are described. This electrostatic quadrupole is not only used in neutron generator, but also suitable for ion injector as well as for low energy electron accelerator

  12. Quadrupole interaction in zinc metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetterling, W.T.; Pound, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    To allow measurement of the quadrupole interaction in zinc metal, the enriched ZnO was reduced to zinc metal powder and compressed into a pill of thickness 1.4 gm/cm 2 . Sources were made by diffusing 20 mCi of 67 Ga into sintered copper pills. The transducer was based on a cylinder of PZT-4 with 1 / 2 -inch length and could cover linearly a velocity range of +-100 μ/s at 200 Hz. The multiscalar was a modified Northern model NS600, with a minimum dwell time of 20 μs, and with a 10-count buffer at the input to eliminate deadtime from memory cycling

  13. An optimized method for neurotransmitters and their metabolites analysis in mouse hypothalamus by high performance liquid chromatography-Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zong-Lin; Li, Hui; Wang, Bing; Liu, Shu-Ying

    2016-02-15

    Neurotransmitters (NTs) and their metabolites are known to play an essential role in maintaining various physiological functions in nervous system. However, there are many difficulties in the detection of NTs together with their metabolites in biological samples. A new method for NTs and their metabolites detection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q Exactive hybrid quadruple-orbitrap high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) was established in this paper. This method was a great development of the applying of Q Exactive MS in the quantitative analysis. This method enabled a rapid quantification of ten compounds within 18min. Good linearity was obtained with a correlation coefficient above 0.99. The concentration range of the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) level were 0.0008-0.05nmol/mL and 0.002-25.0nmol/mL respectively. Precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD) of this method were at 0.36-12.70%. Recovery ranges were between 81.83% and 118.04%. Concentrations of these compounds in mouse hypothalamus were detected by Q Exactive LC-MS technology with this method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Marxism as permanent revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not

  15. Eight piece quadrupole magnet, method for aligning quadrupole magent pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaski, Mark S.; Liu, Jie; Donnelly, Aric T.; Downey, Joshua S.; Nudell, Jeremy J.; Jain, Animesh

    2018-01-30

    The invention provides an alternative to the standard 2-piece or 4-piece quadrupole. For example, an 8-piece and a 10-piece quadrupole are provided whereby the tips of each pole may be adjustable. Also provided is a method for producing a quadrupole using standard machining techniques but which results in a final tolerance accuracy of the resulting construct which is better than that obtained using standard machining techniques.

  16. AA, shims and washers on quadrupole ends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Due to the fact that much of the field of the quadrupoles was outside the iron (in particular with the wide quadrupoles) and that thus the fields of quadrupoles and bending magnets interacted, the lattice properties of the AA could not be predicted with the required accuracy. After a first running period in 1980, during which detailed measurements were made with proton test beams, corrections to the quadrupoles were made in 1981, in the form of laminated shims at the ends of the poles, and with steel washers. With the latter ones, further refinements were made in an iterative procedure with measurements on the circulating beam. This eventually resulted, amongst other things, in a very low chromaticity, with the Q-values being constant to within +- 0.001 over the total momentum range of 6 %. Here we see the shims and washers on a narrow qudrupole (QFN, QDN). See also 8103203, 8103204, 8103205, 8103206.

  17. Nuclei quadrupole coupling constants in diatomic molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.; Rebane, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    An approximate relationship between the constants of quadrupole interaction of nuclei in a two-atom molecule is found. It enabled to establish proportionality of oscillatory-rotation corrections to these constants for both nuclei in the molecule. Similar results were obtained for the factors of electrical dipole-quadrupole screening of nuclei. Applicability of these relationships is proven by the example of lithium deuteride molecule. 4 refs., 1 tab

  18. AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Please look up 8101024 first. Shims and washers on the wide quadrupoles (QFW, QDW; located in the lattice where dispersion was large) served mostly for corrections of those lattice parameters which were a function of momentum. After mounting shims and washers, the quadrupoles were measured to determine their magnetic centre and to catalogue the effect of washer constellations. Raymond Brown is busy measuring a wide quad.

  19. Permanent magnet system to guide superparamagnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baun, Olga; Blümler, Peter

    2017-10-01

    A new concept of using permanent magnet systems for guiding superparamagnetic nano-particles on arbitrary trajectories over a large volume is proposed. The basic idea is to use one magnet system which provides a strong, homogeneous, dipolar magnetic field to magnetize and orient the particles, and a second constantly graded, quadrupolar field, superimposed on the first, to generate a force on the oriented particles. In this configuration the motion of the particles is driven predominantly by the component of the gradient field which is parallel to the direction of the homogeneous field. As a result, particles are guided with constant force and in a single direction over the entire volume. The direction is simply adjusted by varying the angle between quadrupole and dipole. Since a single gradient is impossible due to Gauß' law, the other gradient component of the quadrupole determines the angular deviation of the force. However, the latter can be neglected if the homogeneous field is stronger than the local contribution of the quadrupole field. A possible realization of this idea is a coaxial arrangement of two Halbach cylinders. A dipole to evenly magnetize and orient the particles, and a quadrupole to generate the force. The local force was calculated analytically for this particular geometry and the directional limits were analyzed and discussed. A simple prototype was constructed to demonstrate the principle in two dimensions on several nano-particles of different size, which were moved along a rough square by manual adjustment of the force angle. The observed velocities of superparamagnetic particles in this prototype were always several orders of magnitude higher than the theoretically expected value. This discrepancy is attributed to the observed formation of long particle chains as a result of their polarization by the homogeneous field. The magnetic moment of such a chain is then the combination of that of its constituents, while its hydrodynamic radius

  20. The quadrupole moments of Cd and Zn isotopes - an apology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, H.; Barbosa, M. B.; Correia, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    In 2010 we presented an update of the nuclear quadrupole moments (Q) for the Cd and Zn isotopes, based essentially on straightforward density functional (DF) calculations (H. Haas and J.G. Correia, Hyperfine Interact 198, 133-137 (2010)). It has been apparent for some years that the standard DF procedure obviously fails, however, to reproduce the known electric-field gradient (EFG) for various systems, typical cases being Cu2O, As and Sb, and the solid halogens. Recently a cure for this deficiency has been found in the hybrid DF technique. This method is now applied to solid Cd and Zn, and the resultant quadrupole moments are about 15 % smaller than in our earlier report. Also nuclear systematics, using the recently revised values of Q for the long-lived 11/2 isomers in111Cd to129Cd, together with earlier PAD data for107,109Cd, leads to the same conclusion. In addition, EFG calculations for the cadmium dimethyl molecule further support the new values: Q(111Cd, 5/2+) = .683(20) b, Q(67Zn, gs) = .132(5) b. This implies, that the value for the atomic EFG in the 3it {P}1 state of Zn must be revised, as it has been for Cd.

  1. Thermal Depth Profiling Reconstruction by Multilayer Thermal Quadrupole Modeling and Particle Swarm Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-Jiang, Chen; Shu-Yi, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid inversion method for depth profiling reconstruction of thermal conductivities of inhomogeneous solids is proposed based on multilayer quadrupole formalism of thermal waves, particle swarm optimization and sequential quadratic programming. The reconstruction simulations for several thermal conductivity profiles are performed to evaluate the applicability of the method. The numerical simulations demonstrate that the precision and insensitivity to noise of the inversion method are very satisfactory. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  2. The permanent process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension is called a permanent...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanent process are also studied. Extensions of the ferminon process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinant processes, are discussed at the end. While the permanent process is attractive, the determinant process...

  3. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer Meinke Carl Goodzeit Penny Ball Roger Bangerter

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of loW--cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet RandD construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  4. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainer Meinke

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of low-cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet R&D construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  5. Quadrupole moments measured by nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchta, H.

    1985-01-01

    Quadrupole interactions between the nuclei and solids have been studied with the low temperature nuclear orientation technique. The first series of measurements have been effected on the orientation of 195H g m and 197 Hg m , long lived daughter states in the 195 Au and 197 Au decay. The lifetimes of these states are of the same order as the spin-lattice relaxation time. The reorientation of the intermediate states has been taken into account extending the dipole relaxation mechanism to non-equidistant relaxing substates. The experimental nuclear quadrupole moments, thus deduced are slightly different from theoretical estimations. A new high precision method accessible to levels with 100 ns to 1 m lifetimes, the level mixing resonance on oriented nuclei (LMR/ON) has been elaborated in collaboration with LEUVEN university (Belgium). In this technique the nucleus is subject to a non colinear electric plus magnetic combined interaction. The quadrupole interaction of Ag[7/2, = 40 s] isomer with the electric field gradient in zinc has been established to better than 1% observing its level mixing resonances; and also the ratio of electric field gradients of silver in zinc to cadmium. The electric quadrupole moments of 106 Ag m , 107 Ag m and 109 Ag m have been established combining the level mixing resonances with classical low temperature quadrupole alignment measurements. The experimental values are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on a semi-microscopical model using Yukawa potential [fr

  6. Boson models of quadrupole collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelevinskij, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the low-lying excitations of even-even (e-e) spherical nuclei. The predominant role of the quadrupole mode, which determines the structure of spectra and transitions, is obvious on the background of shell periodicity and pair correlations. Typical E2-transitions are strengthened Ω ∼ A 2/3 times in comparison with single particle evaluations. Together with the regularity of the whole picture it gives evidence about collectivization of quadrupole motion. The collective states are combined in bands, where the transition probability are especially great; frequencies ω of the strengthened transitions are small in comparison with pair separation energies of 2 E-bar ∼ 2 MeV. Thus, the description of low-lying excitations of spherical nuclei has to be based on three principles: collectivity (Ω >> 1), adiabaticity (τ ≡ ω/2E-bar << 1) and quadrupole symmetry

  7. Performance Comparison of Permanent Magnet Linear Actuators of Different Mover Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Ewen; Hinov, K.; Yatchev, I.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of permanent magnet linear actuators with different location of the permanent magnet is reported. Three mover types are considered - soft magnetic mover, permanent magnet mover and hybrid mover. Force-stroke characteristics are obtained with the help of finite element models...

  8. Magnetic Measurement Results of the LCLS Undulator Quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott; Caban, Keith; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reese, Ed; Wolf, Zachary; /SLAC

    2011-08-18

    This note details the magnetic measurements and the magnetic center fiducializations that were performed on all of the thirty-six LCLS undulator quadrupoles. Temperature rise, standardization reproducibility, vacuum chamber effects and magnetic center reproducibility measurements are also presented. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) undulator beam line has 33 girders, each with a LCLS undulator quadrupole which focuses and steers the beam through the beam line. Each quadrupole has main quadrupole coils, as well as separate horizontal and vertical trim coils. Thirty-six quadrupoles, thirty-three installed and three spares were, manufactured for the LCLS undulator system and all were measured to confirm that they met requirement specifications for integrated gradient, harmonics and for magnetic center shifts after current changes. The horizontal and vertical dipole trims of each quadrupole were similarly characterized. Each quadrupole was also fiducialized to its magnetic center. All characterizing measurements on the undulator quads were performed with their mirror plates on and after a standardization of three cycles from -6 to +6 to -6 amps. Since the undulator quadrupoles could be used as a focusing or defocusing magnet depending on their location, all quadrupoles were characterized as focusing and as defocusing quadrupoles. A subset of the undulator quadrupoles were used to verify that the undulator quadrupole design met specifications for temperature rise, standardization reproducibility and magnetic center reproducibility after splitting. The effects of the mirror plates on the undulator quadrupoles were also measured.

  9. Initial value gravitational quadrupole radiation theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicour, J.

    1987-01-01

    A rigorous version of the quadrupole radiation formula is derived using the characteristic initial value formulation of a general relativistic fluid space-time. Starting from initial data for a Newtonian fluid, an algorithm is presented that determines characteristic initial data for a one-parameter family of general relativistic fluid space-times. At the initial time, a one-parameter family of space-times with this initial data osculates the evolution of the Newtonian fluid and has leading order news function equal to the third time derivative of the transverse Newtonian quadrupole moment

  10. SKEW QUADRUPOLE FOCUSING LATTICES AND APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we revisit using skew quadrupole fields in place of traditional normal upright quadrupole fields to make beam focusing structures. We illustrate by example skew lattice decoupling, dispersion suppression and chromatic correction using the neutrino factory Study-II muon storage ring design. Ongoing BNL investigation of flat coil magnet structures that allow building a very compact muon storage ring arc and other flat coil configurations that might bring significant magnet cost reduction to a VLHC motivate our study of skew focusing

  11. Ion-storage in radiofrequency electric quadrupole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, V.

    1976-01-01

    The confinement of charged particles in a quadrupole radiofrequency electric field are presented. The stability diagrams and phase space trajectories for the quadrupole mass spectrometer and for the ion trap are represented and their main characteristics are discussed. (author)

  12. Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J

    2008-01-01

    Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators

  13. All systems go for LHC quadrupoles

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The series fabrication of the Main Quadrupole cold masses for the LHC has begun with the delivery of the first unit on February 12th. The superconducting dipole magnets required to bend the proton beams around the LHC are often in the news. Less famous, perhaps, but equally important are the 360 main quadrupole (MQ) magnets, which will perform the principal focusing around the 27 km ring. CERN and CEA-Saclay began collaborating on the development and prototyping of these magnets in 1989. This resulted in five highly successful quadrupole units - also known as short straight sections - one of which was integrated for testing in String 1, and two others of the final design in String 2. Once the tests had confirmed the validity of the design and realization, the fabrication of the 360 cold masses had to be transferred to industry. After highly competitive tendering, the German firm ACCEL Instruments was entrusted both with the construction of the quadrupole magnets themselves, and with their assembly into the co...

  14. Collective Quadrupole Excitations of Transactinide Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Zajac, K; Pomorski, K; Rohozinski, S G; Srebrny, J

    2003-01-01

    The quadrupole excitations of transuranic nuclei are described in the frame of the microscopic Bohr Hamiltonian modified by adding the coupling with the collective pairing vibrations. The energies of the states from the ground-state bands in U to No even-even isotopes as well as the B(E2) transition probabilities are reproduced within the model containing no adjustable parameters.

  15. Model of an LHC superconducting quadrupole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Model of a superconducting quadrupole magnet for the LHC project. These magnets are used to focus the beam by squeezing it into a smaller cross-section, a similar effect to a lens focusing light. However, each magnet only focuses the beam in one direction so alternating magnet arrangements are required to produce a fully focused beam.

  16. AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Please look up 8101024 and 8103203 first. Wide quadrupole (QFW, QDW) with end-shims and shimming washers on the measurement stand. With the measurement coil one measured the harmonics of the magnetic field, determined the magnetic centre, and catalogued the effect of washer constellations.

  17. Permanences GAG-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2015-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 5 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 2 juin, 1er septembre, 6 octobre, 3 novembre et 1er décembre 2015. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires.

  18. Marxism as permanent revolution

    OpenAIRE

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not represent a historical shortcut under exceptional circumstances, but the course revolutions in the modern era would normally take. Marx and Engels traced back the pattern to the sixteenth century. It is ...

  19. High-throughput shotgun lipidomics by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlman, Marcus; Ejsing, Christer S.; Tarasov, Kirill

    2009-01-01

    Technological advances in mass spectrometry and meticulous method development have produced several shotgun lipidomic approaches capable of characterizing lipid species by direct analysis of total lipid extracts. Shotgun lipidomics by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry allows...... the absolute quantification of hundreds of molecular glycerophospholipid species, glycerolipid species, sphingolipid species and sterol lipids. Future applications in clinical cohort studies demand detailed lipid molecule information and the application of high-throughput lipidomics platforms. In this review...... we describe a novel high-throughput shotgun lipidomic platform based on 96-well robot-assisted lipid extraction, automated sample infusion by mircofluidic-based nanoelectrospray ionization, and quantitative multiple precursor ion scanning analysis on a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer...

  20. Quadrupole to BPM offset determination in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Saroj; Ghodke, A.D.; Singh, G.

    2009-01-01

    A feasibility of finding the quadrupole to BPM offset using beam based alignment (BBA) technique in Indus-2 has been studied. The measurements of the offsets between BPM and quadrupoles could be performed by using quadratic fitting for the minima of the orbit response w. r. t. changes in the quadrupole strengths. These offsets will be integrated to the orbit data during closed orbit correction. There are 72 quadrupoles and 56 BPMs in Indus-2. However the assessment of Quad-BPM offsets is not feasible in some cases due to non-availability of BPM adjacent to quadrupole and also in some cases because of a large phase advance between quadrupole and nearby BPM. Here single corrector method is used to obtain these offsets and assumed the current of each quadrupole can be varied independently. A graphical user interface (GUI) is developed in MATLAB for the use of BBA in Indus-2. (author)

  1. Global study of quadrupole correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.; Bertsch, G.F.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the systematics of ground-state quadrupole correlations of binding energies and mean-square charge radii for all even-even nuclei, from 16 O up to the superheavies, for which data are available. To that aim we calculate their correlated J=0 ground state by means of the angular-momentum and particle-number projected generator coordinate method, using the axial mass quadrupole moment as the generator coordinate and self-consistent mean-field states restricted only by axial, parity, and time-reversal symmetries. The calculation is performed within the framework of a nonrelativistic self-consistent mean-field model by use of the same Skyrme interaction SLy4 and to a density-dependent pairing force to generate the mean-field configurations and to mix them. These are the main conclusions of our study: (i) The quadrupole correlation energy varies between a few 100 keV and about 5.5 MeV. It is affected by shell closures, but varies only slightly with mass and asymmetry. (ii) Projection on angular momentum J=0 provides the major part of the energy gain of up to about 4 MeV; all nuclei in the study, including doubly magic ones, gain energy by deformation. (iii) The mixing of projected states with different intrinsic axial deformations adds a few 100 keV up to 1.5 MeV to the correlation energy. (iv) Typically nuclei below mass A≤60 have a larger correlation energy than static deformation energy whereas the heavier deformed nuclei have larger static deformation energy than correlation energy. (v) Inclusion of the quadrupole correlation energy improves the description of mass systematics, particularly around shell closures, and of differential quantities, namely two-nucleon separation energies and two-nucleon gaps. The correlation energy provides an explanation of 'mutually enhanced magicity'. (vi) The correlation energy tends to decrease the shell effect on binding energies around magic numbers, but the magnitude of the suppression is not large enough to explain

  2. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb 3 Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb 3 Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure

  3. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Fermilab; Brookhaven; LBL, Berkeley; Texas A-M

    2007-01-01

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb3Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb3Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure

  4. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb 3 Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb 3 Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure

  5. The LHC Main Quadrupoles during Series Fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Tortschanoff, Theodor; Durante, M; Hagen, P; Klein, U; Krischel, D; Payn, A; Rossi, L; Schellong, B; Schmidt, P; Simon, F; Schirm, K-M; Todesco, E

    2006-01-01

    By the end of August 2005 about 320 of the 400 main LHC quadrupole magnets have been fabricated and about 220 of them assembled into their cold masses, together with corrector magnets. About 130 of them have been cold tested in their cryostats and most of the quadrupoles exceeded their nominal excitation, i.e. 12,000 A, after no more than two training quenches. During this series fabrication, the quality of the magnets and cold masses was thoroughly monitored by means of warm magnetic field measurements, of strict geometrical checking, and of various electrical verifications. A number of modifications were introduced in order to improve the magnet fabrication, mainly correction of the coil geometry for achieving the specified field quality and measures for avoiding coil insulation problems. Further changes concern the electrical connectivity and insulation of instrumentation, and of the corrector magnets inside the cold masses. The contact resistances for the bus-bar connections to the quench protection diode...

  6. Quadrupole collective excitations in rapidly rotating nuclej

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    The spectrum of collective quadrupole excitations in nuclei is investigated. The average nucleus field has the axial symmetry and rotation occurs relatively to this axis. Dependences of the spectrum of quadrupole oscillations on rotation rate for classic liquid drop (CLD) and for a drop of fermi-liquid (DFL) with fissionability parameter X=0.62 ( 154 Er) are presented. The dependence of probabilities of E2-transitions between single-phonon and phonon-free states on rotation rate for CLD and DFL with fussionability parameter X=0.62 ( 154 Er) is also presented. It is shown that for CLD collective E2-transition of states of yrast-consequence is absolutely forbidden. For DFL transitions are possible that lead to decay of phonon-free state with the excitation of phonons of γ-modes and decrease of angular momentum

  7. Design of the CLIC Quadrupole Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider, under study, requires vacuum chambers with a very small aperture, of the order of 8 mm in diameter, and with a length up to around 2 m for the main beam quadrupoles. To keep the very tight geometrical tolerances on the quadrupoles, no bake out is allowed. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-9 mbar static pressure) in a system where the vacuum performance is driven by water outgassing. For this application, a thinwalled stainless steel vacuum chamber with two ante chambers equipped with NEG strips, is proposed. The mechanical design, especially the stability analysis, is shown. The key technologies of the prototype fabrication are given. Vacuum tests are carried out on the prototypes. The test set-up as well as the pumping system conditions are presented.

  8. Contamination measurements with quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohatka, S.; Berecz, I.; Langer, G.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive quadrupole mass spectrometer of our own construction was used for different purity measurements. The analysis of gases in operating rooms showed a 1 ppm-10 5 ppm concentration of narcotics and helped to develop an effective and cheap method for regenerating narcotic filters. We regularly control the gases used in radioactive pollution measurements by internal GM counters and in radiocarbon dating technique. Combustion products and the gases of a fermenter are investigated for industrial application. (orig.) [de

  9. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  10. On the theory of nuclear quadrupole oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrosimov, V.I.; Strutinskij, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    Presented is a deduction and a convinient writing form of the secular equation for nuclear quadrupole oscillations. The deduction is consistent with usual random phase approximation. It is regarded that the oscillations of the nuclear average potential are adiabatic with respect to formation of the Cooper pairs and the collective motion arises as a result of the coherent distortion of the quasiparticle wave functions. The energy gap changes are also taken into account

  11. 15 T And Beyond - Dipoles and Quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbi, GianLuca

    2008-01-01

    Starting with the invention of the cyclotron by Lawrence, accelerator-based experiments have been the primary source of new discoveries in particle physics. In order to progress toward higher energy and luminosity, higher field magnets are required. R and D programs are underway to take advantage of new developments in superconducting materials, achieve better efficiency and simplify magnet fabrication while preserving accelerator-class field quality. A review of recent progress on high field dipole and quadrupole magnets is presented.

  12. Hydrogen isotope analysis by quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, R.E.; Moddeman, W.E.; Dylla, H.F.

    1981-03-01

    The analysis of isotopes of hydrogen (H, D, T) and helium ( 3 He, 4 He) and selected impurities using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been investigated as a method of measuring the purity of tritium gas for injection into the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A QMS was used at low resolution, m/Δm 3 He, and 4 He in HT/D 2

  13. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient supperconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  14. Emittance measurements by variable quadrupole method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, D.

    2005-01-01

    The beam emittance is a measure of both the beam size and beam divergence, we cannot directly measure its value. If the beam size is measured at different locations or under different focusing conditions such that different parts of the phase space ellipse will be probed by the beam size monitor, the beam emittance can be determined. An emittance measurement can be performed by different methods. Here we will consider the varying quadrupole setting method.

  15. Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  16. Excitation of giant monopole and quadrupole resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, H. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Yamagata, T.; Tanaka, M. [and others; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies on the giant monopole resonance (GMR) and the giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) in /sup 144/Sm and /sup 208/Pb using the ..cap alpha..-scattering performed at RCNP are summarized. The observed angular range covered 1.6/sup 0/ -- 7/sup 0/ with a coupled system of a dipole and a triplet quadrupole magnet. The incident energy was changed from 84 to 119 MeV. The resonance shapes and energy-weighted sum-rule strengths of the GMR and the GQR were reliably deduced as a function of incident energy. The quadrupole strength of --20% was found in the GMR region. The observed excitation function of the GMR was compared with the DWBA calculation, in which the Satchler's Version I was used as a form factor representing the compressional motion of the nucleus. It was found that the experimental excitation function of the GMR shows steeper decrease as lowering the incident energy than the DWBA prediction whereas that of the GQR is successfully described by the DWBA. This suggests that examination of the model describing the GMR is necessary.

  17. Observation of a phononic quadrupole topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Peri, Valerio; Süsstrunk, Roman; Bilal, Osama R.; Larsen, Tom; Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Huber, Sebastian D.

    2018-03-01

    The modern theory of charge polarization in solids is based on a generalization of Berry’s phase. The possibility of the quantization of this phase arising from parallel transport in momentum space is essential to our understanding of systems with topological band structures. Although based on the concept of charge polarization, this same theory can also be used to characterize the Bloch bands of neutral bosonic systems such as photonic or phononic crystals. The theory of this quantized polarization has recently been extended from the dipole moment to higher multipole moments. In particular, a two-dimensional quantized quadrupole insulator is predicted to have gapped yet topological one-dimensional edge modes, which stabilize zero-dimensional in-gap corner states. However, such a state of matter has not previously been observed experimentally. Here we report measurements of a phononic quadrupole topological insulator. We experimentally characterize the bulk, edge and corner physics of a mechanical metamaterial (a material with tailored mechanical properties) and find the predicted gapped edge and in-gap corner states. We corroborate our findings by comparing the mechanical properties of a topologically non-trivial system to samples in other phases that are predicted by the quadrupole theory. These topological corner states are an important stepping stone to the experimental realization of topologically protected wave guides in higher dimensions, and thereby open up a new path for the design of metamaterials.

  18. Table of Nuclear Electric Quadrupole Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.

    2013-12-01

    This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended value of the moment is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary reference EFG/moment references are required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2013. (author)

  19. Introduction to permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, H.

    1985-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning the application of permanent magnets are developed. The relevant magnet properties are discussed, with particular reference to Nd-Fe-B alloy. The author comes to the following conclusions; the air gap field B should be high, for high electrical efficiency; the magnet should face the air gap, for efficient use of the magnet material; the magnet material should therefore have a high remanence; and the new Nd-Fe-B magnet fits in nicely, having (potentially) the highest remanence ever reported in permanent magnets, combined with sufficient coercivity to sustain it

  20. Intense heavy-ion beam transport with electric and magnetic quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Hopkins, H.S.

    1995-08-01

    As part of the small induction recirculator development at LLNL, the authors are testing an injector and transport line that delivers 4 micros beams of potassium with repetition rates up to 10 Hz at a nominal current of 2 mA. The normalized K-V equivalent emittance of the beams is near 0.02 π mm-mrad and is mostly determined by the temperature of the source (0.1 eV). K + ions generated at 80 keV in a Pierce diode are matched to an alternating gradient transport line by seven electric quadrupoles. Two additional quads have been modified to serve as two-axis steerers. The matching section is followed by a transport section comprised of seven permanent magnet quadrupoles. Matching to this section is achieved by adjusting the voltages on the electric quadrupoles to voltages calculated by an envelope matching code. Measurements of beam envelope parameters are made at the matching section entrance and exit as well as at the end of the permanent magnet transport section. Beam current waveforms along the experiment are compared with results from a one-dimension longitudinal dynamics code. Initial experiments show particle loss occurring at the beam head as a result of overtaking. The apparatus is also being used for the development of non or minimally intercepting diagnostics for future recirculator experiments. These include capacitive monitors for determining beam line-charge density and position in the recirculator; flying wire scanners for beam position; and gated TV scanners for measuring beam profiles and emittance

  1. Iron free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.M.; Halbach, K.

    1995-01-01

    The strength and astounding simplicity of certain permanent magnet materials allow a wide variety of simple, compact configurations of high field strength and quality multipole magnets. Here we analyze the important class of iron-free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics. The theory of conventional segmented multipole magnets formed from uniformly magnetized block magnets placed in regular arrays about a circular magnet aperture is reviewed. Practical multipole configurations resulting are presented that are capable of high and intermediate aperture field strengths. A new class of elliptical aperture magnets is presented within a model with continuously varying magnetization angle. Segmented versions of these magnets promise practical high field dipole and quadrupole magnets with an increased range of applicability

  2. Characterization of the ELIMED Permanent Magnets Quadrupole system prototype with laser-driven proton beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Costa, M.; Giove, D.; Maggiore, M.; Russo, A.D.; Scuderi, Valentina; Malka, V.; Vauzour, B.; Flacco, A.; Cirrone, G.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, Jul (2016), s. 1-16, č. článku T07005. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cceleration cavities and magnets superconducting * beam dynamics * Accelerator modelling and simulations * Beam Optics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  3. Object permanence in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  4. Nuclear electric quadrupole interactions in liquids entrapped in cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, Gregory B., E-mail: gregoryf@bgu.ac.il; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Physics Department (Israel)

    2016-12-15

    Liquids entrapped in cavities and containing quadrupole nuclei are considered. The interaction of the quadrupole moment of a nucleus with the electric field gradient is studied. In such a system, molecules are in both rotational and translational Brownian motions which are described by the diffusion equation. Solving this equation, we show that the intra- and intermolecular nuclear quadrupole interactions are averaged to zero in cavities with the size larger than several angstroms.

  5. Regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of fast regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets in salient-pole electron-optical lenses are described: 1)the hybrid method realized using the additional electromagnet introduced to a magnetic chain sequentially its field being composed or substracted with magnetosolid exciter field; 2)the method with saturation of a part of a magnetic circuit, with saturation being achievable at the begining or in the end of a regulation cycle. In the second method it is proposed to direct orthogonally the main flux excited by permanent magnets and the flux in the saturated part of the magnetic circuit excited using an electromagnet. It is shown that the second method allows one to reduce the required ampere-coils by more than an order as compared to the first method at one and the same regulation range and other equal conditions. The frequency of field regulation in the experimental mock-up was 10 kHz. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  6. Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets

  7. Thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass-spectrometric analysis of geochemical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Johnson, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass-spectrometric-analysis techniques can be used to study a wide variety of problems involving decomposition processes and identification of released volatile components. A recording vacuum thermoanalyzer has been coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The rapid scan capabilities of the quadrupole mass spectrometer are used to identify the gaseous components released. The capability of the thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass spectrometer to provide analytical data for identification of the released volatile components, for determination of their sequence of release and for correlation of thermal-decomposition studies is illustrated by an analysis of the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite.

  8. The Question of Decalage Between Object Permanence and Person Permanence

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Jackson, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    Presents a study of decalage between object permanence and person permanence. Decalage was influenced by environmental as well as stimulus factors with infants tested between 6- and 81/4-months/of-age. (BD)

  9. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF SINGULAR ISOTHERMAL QUADRUPOLE LENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Zhe; Lin, W. P.; Yang Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Using an analytical method, we study the singular isothermal quadrupole (SIQ) lens system, which is the simplest lens model that can produce four images. In this case, the radial mass distribution is in accord with the profile of the singular isothermal sphere lens, and the tangential distribution is given by adding a quadrupole on the monopole component. The basic properties of the SIQ lens have been studied in this Letter, including the deflection potential, deflection angle, magnification, critical curve, caustic, pseudo-caustic, and transition locus. Analytical solutions of the image positions and magnifications for the source on axes are derived. We find that naked cusps will appear when the relative intensity k of quadrupole to monopole is larger than 0.6. According to the magnification invariant theory of the SIQ lens, the sum of the signed magnifications of the four images should be equal to unity, as found by Dalal. However, if a source lies in the naked cusp, the summed magnification of the left three images is smaller than the invariant 1. With this simple lens system, we study the situations where a point source infinitely approaches a cusp or a fold. The sum of the magnifications of the cusp image triplet is usually not equal to 0, and it is usually positive for major cusps while negative for minor cusps. Similarly, the sum of magnifications of the fold image pair is usually not equal to 0 either. Nevertheless, the cusp and fold relations are still equal to 0 in that the sum values are divided by infinite absolute magnifications by definition.

  10. Quenching of spin-flip quadrupole transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castel, B.; Blunden, P.; Okuhara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    An increasing amount of experimental data indicates that spin-flip quadrupole transitions exhibit quenching effects similar to those reported earlier in (p,n) reactions involving l = 0 and l = 1 transitions. We present here two model calculations suggesting that the E2 spin-flip transitions are more affected than their M1 and M3 counterparts by the tensor and spin-orbit components of the nuclear force and should exhibit the largest quenching. We also review the experimental evidence corroborating our observations

  11. Quadrupole interaction studies of Hg in Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, J.C.; Krien, K.; Herzog, P.; Folle, H.R.; Freitag, K.; Reuschenbach, F.; Reuschenbach, M.; Trzcinski, R.

    1978-01-01

    Time differential perturbed angular correlation and nuclear orientation studies of the electric quadrupole interaction for Hg in Sb have been performed. The effective field gradients at room temperature and below 0.05K have been derived. These two values are no indication for an anomalous temperature dependence of the effective field gradient for Hg in Sb. The value of the electric field gradient fits well into the systematics for Hg in other hosts. It is shown that the electronic enhancements of the field gradients are correlated to the valence of the impurities and are rather insensitive to the host properties. (orig./HPOE) [de

  12. Precise calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Recently, two calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment have have given predictions that agree with the measured value to within 1%, resolving a long-standing discrepancy. One of these uses the covariant spectator theory (CST) and the other chiral effective field theory (cEFT). In this talk I will first briefly review the foundations and history of the CST, and then compare these two calculations with emphasis on how the same physical processes are being described using very different language. The comparison of the two methods gives new insights into the dynamics of the low energy NN interaction.

  13. Quadrupole Transfer Function for Emittance Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Peter; Jansson, Andreas; Tan, Cheng-Yang

    2008-01-01

    Historically the use of the quadrupole moment measurement has been impeded by the requirement for large dynamic range, as well as measurement sensitivity to beam position. We investigate the use of the transfer function technique [1-3] in combination with the sensitivity and 160dB revolution line rejection of the direct diode detection analog front end [4] to open the possibility of an emittance diagnostic that may be implemented without operational complication, quasi- parasitic to the operation of existing tune measurement systems. Such a diagnostic would be particularly useful as an emittance monitor during acceleration ramp development in machines like RHIC and the LHC.

  14. Fast storage of nuclear quadrupole resonance signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.P.; Molchanov, S.V.; Levchun, O.D.

    1988-01-01

    Fast multichannel storage of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals is described. Analog-to-digital converter, arithmetic-logical unit, internal memory device (IMD) selection-storage unit and control unit are the storage main units. The storage is based on 43 microcircuits and provides for record and storage of NQR-signals at the contributed operation with Mera-60 microcomputer. Time of analog-to-digital conversion and signal recording into IMD is ∼ 1 mks. Capacity of analog-to-digital converter constitutes 8-10 bits. IMD capacity is 4 K bitsx16. Number of storage channels is 4

  15. Planar permanent magnet multipoles: Measurements and configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R.

    1995-05-01

    Biplanar arrays of N rectangular permanent magnet (PM) blocks can be used to generate high quality N-pole fields in close proximity to the array axis. In applications featuring small-diameter charged particle beams, N-poles of adequate quality can be realized at relatively low cost using small volumes of PM material. In this paper we report on recent measurements performed on planar PM multipoles, and discuss techniques for improving the field quality of such devices at distances appreciably far away from the axis. Applications to hybrid/PM insertion device designs for linac-driven Free Electron Laser (FEL) operation in the x-ray range are described

  16. Superconducting permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.; Laquer, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of superconducting permanent magnets with fields trapped in shells or cylinders of Type II superconductors is an old one. Unfortunately, the low values of 0.5 to 1T for the first flux jump field, which is independent of the actual current density, have frustrated its implementation with classical Type II superconductors. The fact that the flux jump fields for high temperature superconductors should be an order of magnitude larger at liquid nitrogen temperatures allows us to reconsider these options. Analysis of the hysteresis patterns, based on the critical state model, shows that, if the dimensions are chosen so that the sample is penetrated at a field B/sub p/, which is equal to or just less than the first flux jump field, B/sub fj/, a temporarily applied field of 2B/sub fj/ will trap 0.5 B/sub fj/. Thus for a 90 K superconductor with a B/sub fj/ of 6T, a permanent field of 3 T should be trapped, with an energy product of 1.8 MJ/m/sup 3/ (225 MG . Oe). This is five times as large as for the best permanent magnet materials. The authors discuss means to verify the analysis and the limitations imposed by the low critical current densities in presently available high temperature superconductors

  17. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  18. LHC interaction region quadrupole cryostat design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.; Darve, Ch.; Huang, Y.; Page, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    The cryostat of a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Interaction Region (IR) quadrupole magnet consists of all components of the inner triplet except the magnet assembly itself. It serves to support the magnet accurately and reliably within the vacuum vessel, to house all required cryogenic piping, and to insulate the cold mass from heat radiated and conducted from the environment. It must function reliably during storage, shipping and handling, normal magnet operation, quenches, and seismic excitations, and must be able to be manufactured at low cost. The major components of the cryostat are the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multi-layer insulation system, cryogenic piping, and suspension system. The overall design of a cryostat for superconducting accelerator magnets requires consideration of fluid flow, proper selection of materials for their thermal and structural performance at both ambient and operating temperature, and knowledge of the environment to which the magnets will be subjected over the course of their expected operating lifetime. This paper describes the current LHC IR inner triplet quadrupole magnet cryostats being designed and manufactured at Fermilab as part of the US-LHC collaboration, and includes discussions on the structural and thermal considerations involved in the development of each of the major systems

  19. Fe/sup 57/ polarimetry based on quadrupole interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonser, U; Sakai, H; Keune, W [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (F.R. Germany). Fachbereich Angewandte Physik

    1976-01-01

    A quadrupole Fe/sup 57/ polarimeter consisting of single crystals of LiNbO/sub 3/:Co/sup 57/ as source (polarizer) and of FeCO/sub 3/ (siderite) as absorber (analyzer) is described. The quadrupole interactions of the two materials are nearly equal in magnitude but opposite in sign and in addition the asymmetry parameter eta equal approximately 0.

  20. Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Computation of a quadrupole magnet for the APS storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, L.R.; Kim, S.H.; Thompson, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    The storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source will include 400 quadrupole magnets for focusing the beam. A prototype quadrupole has been designed, constructed, and measured. This paper describes the two- and three-dimensional (2-D and 3-D) field computations performed for this design. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow throughout the assembly

  3. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ludlow, J A [AUBURN UNIV; Lee, Teck - Ghee [AUBURN UNIV; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  4. Rescuing the nonjet (NJ azimuth quadrupole from the flow narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trainor Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the flow narrative commonly applied to high-energy nuclear collisions a cylindrical-quadrupole component of 1D azimuth angular correlations is conventionally denoted by quantity υ2 and interpreted to represent elliptic flow. Jet angular correlations may also contribute to υ2 data “nonflow” depending on the method used to calculate υ2, but 2D graphical methods are available to insure accurate separation. The nonjet (NJ quadrupole has various properties inconsistent with a flow interpretation, including the observation that NJ quadrupole centrality variation in A-A collisions has no relation to strongly-varying jet modication (“jet quenching” in those collisions commonly attributed to jet interaction with a flowing dense medium. In this presentation I describe isolation of quadrupole spectra from pt-differential υ2(pt data from the RHIC and LHC. I demonstrate that quadrupole spectra have characteristics very different from the single-particle spectra for most hadrons, that quadrupole spectra indicate a common boosted hadron source for a small minority of hadrons that “carry” the NJ quadrupole structure, that the narrow source-boost distribution is characteristic of an expanding thin cylindrical shell (strongly contradicting hydro descriptions, and that in the boost frame a single universal quadrupole spectrum (Lévy distribution on transverse mass mt accurately describes data for several hadron species scaled according to their statistical-model abundances. The quadrupole spectrum shape changes very little from RHIC to LHC energies. Taken in combination those characteristics strongly suggest a unique nonflow (and nonjet QCD mechanism for the NJ quadrupole conventionally represented by υ2.

  5. Rescuing the nonjet (NJ) azimuth quadrupole from the flow narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Thomas A.

    2017-04-01

    According to the flow narrative commonly applied to high-energy nuclear collisions a cylindrical-quadrupole component of 1D azimuth angular correlations is conventionally denoted by quantity υ2 and interpreted to represent elliptic flow. Jet angular correlations may also contribute to υ2 data "nonflow" depending on the method used to calculate υ2, but 2D graphical methods are available to insure accurate separation. The nonjet (NJ) quadrupole has various properties inconsistent with a flow interpretation, including the observation that NJ quadrupole centrality variation in A-A collisions has no relation to strongly-varying jet modication ("jet quenching") in those collisions commonly attributed to jet interaction with a flowing dense medium. In this presentation I describe isolation of quadrupole spectra from pt-differential υ2(pt) data from the RHIC and LHC. I demonstrate that quadrupole spectra have characteristics very different from the single-particle spectra for most hadrons, that quadrupole spectra indicate a common boosted hadron source for a small minority of hadrons that "carry" the NJ quadrupole structure, that the narrow source-boost distribution is characteristic of an expanding thin cylindrical shell (strongly contradicting hydro descriptions), and that in the boost frame a single universal quadrupole spectrum (Lévy distribution) on transverse mass mt accurately describes data for several hadron species scaled according to their statistical-model abundances. The quadrupole spectrum shape changes very little from RHIC to LHC energies. Taken in combination those characteristics strongly suggest a unique nonflow (and nonjet) QCD mechanism for the NJ quadrupole conventionally represented by υ2.

  6. New permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K.-H.; Krabbes, G.; Fink, J.; Gruß, S.; Kirchner, A.; Fuchs, G.; Schultz, L.

    2001-05-01

    Permanent magnets play an important role and are widely spread in daily-life applications. Due to their very low costs, large availability of the row materials and their high chemical stability, hard ferrites are still dominant in the permanent magnet market although their relatively poor magnetic properties are a distinct disadvantage. Today's high-performance magnets are mostly made from Nd 2Fe 14B. The aim of research is to combine the large spontaneous magnetization of 3d metals with strong anisotropy fields known from rare-earth transition-metal compounds and, at the same time, to maintain a high value of the Curie temperature. However, the number of iron-rich rare-earth intermetallics is very limited and, consequently, not much success can be noted in this field for the last 10 years. One alternative concept is to use magnetic fields trapped in type II superconductors where much higher fields can be achieved compared to conventional rare-earth magnets. Very recently, we obtained a trapped field as high as 14.4 T in a melt-textured YBCO bulk sample of a few centimeters in diameter. This is the highest value ever achieved in a bulk superconductor. The trapped field of a superconductor is not governed by the Laplace equation and, therefore, levitation works without any additional (active) stabilization. The disadvantage of these magnets is their low working temperature (of liquid nitrogen and below).

  7. Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F.; Kitegi, C.

    2010-01-01

    For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm 2 Co 17 or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.

  8. Quench Protection of SC Quadrupole Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.; Dimarco, J.; Mitchell, D.; Lamm, M. J.; Limon, P. J.; Mazur, P.; Nobrega, F.; Orris, D.; Ozelis, J. P.; Strait, J. B.; Tompkins, J. C.; Zlobin, A. V.; McInturff, A. D.

    1997-05-01

    The energy stored in a superconducting accelerator magnet is dissipated after a quench in the coil normal zones, heating the coil and generating a turn to turn and coil to ground voltage drop. Quench heaters are used to protect the superconducting magnet by greatly increasing the coil normal zone thus allowing the energy to be dissipated over a larger conductor volume. Such heaters will be required for the Fermilab/LBNL design of the high gradient quads (HGQ) designed for the LHC interaction regions. As a first step, heaters were installed and tested in several Tevatron low-β superconducting quadrupoles. Experimental studies in normal and superfluid helium are presented which show the heater-induced quench response as a function of magnet excitation current, magnet temperature and peak heater energy density.

  9. Isabelle dipole and quadrupole coil configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.F.; Hahn, H.

    1980-01-01

    The coil configurations of the ISABELLE dipole and quadrupole magnets have been reviewed and a number of improvements were suggested for incorporation into the final design. The coil designs are basically single layer multiple block approximations to cosine current distributions, wound from a high aspect ratio non-keystoned braided conductor. The blocks are separated by knife-edge wedges to maximize the quench propagation velocity. The current density variation is obtained by an appropriate distribution of the spacer turns and, to a lesser degree, by the wedge locations. The use of inert turns is necessary to minimize the peak field enhancement both in the ends and in the two dimensional section. Schemes for deriving turns distributions yielding harmonic coefficients satisfying the stringent ISABELLE tolerances on field uniformity, while allowing for simplicity in winding and taking into account quench propagation considerations, will be discussed, as well as our approach to the coil end configuration

  10. An improved integrally formed radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, S.R.

    1987-10-05

    An improved radio frequency quadrupole is provided having an elongate housing with an elongate central axis and top, bottom and two side walls symmetrically disposed about the axis, and vanes formed integrally with the walls, the vanes each having a cross-section at right angles to the central axis which tapers inwardly toward the axis to form electrode tips spaced from each other by predetermined distances. Each of the four walls, and the vanes integral therewith, is a separate structural element having a central lengthwise plane passing through the tip of the vane, the walls having flat mounting surfaces at right angles to and parallel to the control plane, respectively, which are butted together to position the walls and vane tips relative to each other. 4 figs.

  11. Radio-frequency quadrupole linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.; Stokes, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is a new linear accelerator concept in which rf electric fields are used to focus, bunch, and accelerate the beam. Because the RFQ can provide strong focusing at low velocities, it can capture a high-current dc ion beam from a low-voltage source and accelerate it to an energy of 1 MeV/nucleon within a distance of a few meters. A recent experimental test at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has confirmed the expected performance of this structure and has stimulated interest in a wide variety of applications. The general properties of the RFQ are reviewed and examples of applications of this new accelerator are presented

  12. RF quadrupole beam dynamics design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, K.R.; Stokes, R.H.; Wangler, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator structure is expected to permit considerable flexibility in achieving linac design objectives at low velocities. Calculational studies show that the RFQ can accept a high-current, low-velocity, dc beam, bunch it with high efficiency, and accelerate it to a velocity suitable for injection into a drift-tube linac. Although it is relatively easy to generate a satisfactory design for an RFQ linac for low beam currents, the space-charge effects produced by high currents dominate the design criteria. Methods have been developed to generate solutions that make suitable compromises between the effects of emittance growth, transmission efficiency, and overall structure length. Results are given for a test RFQ linac operating at 425 MHz

  13. Commissioning results of the HZB quadrupole resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Kleindienst, Raphael; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Recent cavity results with niobium have demonstrated the necessity of a good understanding of both the BCS and residual resistance. For a complete picture and comparison with theory, it is essential that one can measure the RF properties as a function of field, temperature, frequency and ambient magnetic field. Standard cavity measurements are limited in their ability to change all parameters freely and in a controlled manner. On the other hand, most sample measurement setups operate at fairly high frequency, where the surface resistance is always BCS dominated. The quadrupole resonator, originally developed at CERN, is ideally suited for characterization of samples at typical cavity RF frequencies. We report on a modified version of the QPR with improved RF figures of merit for high-field operation. Experimental challenges in the commissioning run and alternate designs for simpler sample changes are shown alongside measurement results of a large grain niobium sample.

  14. TOUTATIS: A radio frequency quadrupole code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Duperrier

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A cw high power linear accelerator can only work with very low particle losses and structure activation. At low energy, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ is an accelerator element that is very sensitive to losses. To design this structure, a good understanding of the beam dynamics is required. Generally, the reference code PARMTEQM is enough to design the accelerator. TOUTATIS has been written with the goals of cross-checking results and obtaining more reliable dynamics. This paper relates the different numerical methods used in the code. It is time based, using multigrids methods and adaptive mesh for a fine description of the forces without being time consuming. The field is calculated through a Poisson solver and the vanes are fully described, allowing it to properly simulate the coupling gaps and the RFQs extremities. Theoretical and experimental tests are also described and show a good agreement between simulations and reference cases.

  15. Experimental investigation of quadrupole virtual photon spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, P.

    1986-01-01

    To test experimentally the quadrupole virtual photon spectrum calculation, the (e,α) excitation function of an isolated 2 + level at 20.14 MeV in 24 Mg was measured. The most recent calculations in DWBA, including nuclear size effects, are compared to this experimental curve. The differential cross section d 2 σ/dΩdE was measured 48 0 , 90 0 , 132 0 in the laboratory system, for total electron energies of 20.0, 20.8, 21.5, 24.0, 26.0, 28.0, 30.0, 32.0, 36.0, and 40.0 MeV. The reduced matrix element B(E2) of the 20,14 MeV level is extracted as a secondary product of this work. (author) [pt

  16. Matter-wave solitons supported by quadrupole-quadrupole interactions and anisotropic discrete lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rong-Xuan; Huang, Nan; Li, Huang-Wu; He, He-Xiang; Lü, Jian-Tao; Huang, Chun-Qing; Chen, Zhao-Pin

    2018-04-01

    We numerically and analytically investigate the formations and features of two-dimensional discrete Bose-Einstein condensate solitons, which are constructed by quadrupole-quadrupole interactional particles trapped in the tunable anisotropic discrete optical lattices. The square optical lattices in the model can be formed by two pairs of interfering plane waves with different intensities. Two hopping rates of the particles in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linear anisotropic system. We find that if all of the pairs of dipole and anti-dipole are perpendicular to the lattice panel and the line connecting the dipole and anti-dipole which compose the quadrupole is parallel to horizontal direction, both the linear anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear one can strongly influence the formations of the solitons. There exist three patterns of stable solitons, namely horizontal elongation quasi-one-dimensional discrete solitons, disk-shape isotropic pattern solitons and vertical elongation quasi-continuous solitons. We systematically demonstrate the relationships of chemical potential, size and shape of the soliton with its total norm and vertical hopping rate and analytically reveal the linear dispersion relation for quasi-one-dimensional discrete solitons.

  17. Magnetic quadrupoles lens for hot spot proton imaging in inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, J. [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Gu, Y.Q., E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen, J.; Zhu, B.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, T.K.; Tan, F.; Hong, W.; Zhang, B.H. [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wang, X.Q. [Academy of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Imaging of DD-produced protons from an implosion hot spot region by miniature permanent magnetic quadrupole (PMQ) lens is proposed. Corresponding object-image relation is deduced and an adjust method for this imaging system is discussed. Ideal point-to-point imaging demands a monoenergetic proton source; nevertheless, we proved that the blur of image induced by proton energy spread is a second order effect therefore controllable. A proton imaging system based on miniature PMQ lens is designed for 2.8 MeV DD-protons and the adjust method in case of proton energy shift is proposed. The spatial resolution of this system is better than 10 μm when proton yield is above 10{sup 9} and the spectra width is within 10%.

  18. Design of the LINAC4 Transfer Line Quadrupole Electromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Vanherpe, L

    2013-01-01

    Beam focusing in the various segments of the Linac4 Transfer Line is provided by quadrupole electromagnets. In total seventeen pulsed, air-cooled quadrupole electromagnets are required. They are made of laminated electrical steel yokes and coils wound from solid copper wire. All magnets have an aperture radius of 50 mm and are required to provide an integrated field gradient of 1.8 T over a magnetic length of 300 mm. This design report summarizes the main magnetic, electrical and mechanical design parameters of the Linac4 Transfer Line Quadrupole Magnets. The effect of the vacuum chamber on the magnetic field quality and the field delay is studied.

  19. Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F

    2001-09-10

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.

  20. The Features of Moessbauer Spectra of Hemoglobins: Approximation by Superposition of Quadrupole Doublets or by Quadrupole Splitting Distribution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2004-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra of hemoglobins have some features in the range of liquid nitrogen temperature: a non-Lorentzian asymmetric line shape for oxyhemoglobins and symmetric Lorentzian line shape for deoxyhemoglobins. A comparison of the approximation of the hemoglobin Moessbauer spectra by a superposition of two quadrupole doublets and by a distribution of the quadrupole splitting demonstrates that a superposition of two quadrupole doublets is more reliable and may reflect the non-equivalent iron electronic structure and the stereochemistry in the α- and β-subunits of hemoglobin tetramers.

  1. PRINCIPLE OF SKEW QUADRUPOLE MODULATION TO MEASURE BETATRON COUPLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUO, Y.; PILAT, F.; ROSER, T.

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the residual betatron coupling via skew quadrupole modulation is a new diagnostics technique that has been developed and tested at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a very promising method for the linear decoupling on the ramp. By modulating the strengths of different skew quadrupole families the two eigentunes are precisely measured with the phase lock loop system. The projections of the residual coupling coefficient onto the skew quadrupole coupling modulation directions are determined. The residual linear coupling could be corrected according to the measurement. An analytical solution for skew quadrupole modulation based on Hamiltonian perturbation approximation is given, and simulation code using smooth accelerator model is also developed. Some issues concerning the practical applications of this technique are discussed

  2. The giant quadrupole resonance in highly excited rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civitarese, O.; Furui, S.; Ploszajczak, M.; Faessler, A.

    1983-01-01

    The giant quadrupole resonance in highly excited, fast rotating nuclei is studied as a function of both the nuclear temperature and the nuclear angular momentum. The photo-absorption cross sections for quadrupole radiation in 156 Dy, 160 Er and 164 Er are evaluated within the linear response theory. The strength functions of the γ-ray spectrum obtained from the decay of highly excited nuclear states by deexcitation of the isoscalar quadrupole mode show a fine structure, which depends on the temperature T, the angular momentum I and the deformation of the nucleus β. The splitting of the modes associated with the signature-conserving and signature-changing components of the quadrupole field is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Beam-based alignment of C-shaped quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, G.; Robin, D.

    1998-06-01

    Many storage rings have implemented a method of finding the positional offset between the electrical center of the beam position monitors (BPM) and the magnetic center of the adjacent quadrupole magnets. The algorithm for accomplishing this is usually based on modulating the current in the quadrupole magnet and finding the beam position that minimizes the orbit perturbation. When the quadrupole magnet is C-shaped, as it is for many light sources, the modulation method can produce an erroneous measurement of the magnetic center in the horizontal plane. When the current in a C-shaped quadrupole is changed, there is an additional dipole component in the vertical field. Due to nonlinearities in the hysteresis cycle of the C-magnet geometry, the beam-based alignment technique at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) deviated horizontally by .5 mm from the actual magnetic center. By modifying the technique, the offsets were measured to an accuracy of better than 50 microm

  4. Semimicroscopic description of the giant quadrupole resonances in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurchev, G.; Malov, L.A.; Nesterenko, V.O.; Soloviev, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The calculation results of the giant quadrupole isoscalar and isovector resonances performed within the random phase approximation are represented. The strength functions for E2-transitions are calculated for doubly even deformed nuclei in the regions 150 (<=) A < 190 and 228 (<=) A < 248 in the energy interval (0-40) MeV. The following integral characteristics of giant quadrupole resonances are obtained: the position, widths, the contribution to the energy weighted sum rule and the contribution to the total cross section of photoabsorption. The calculations have shown that giant quadrupole resonances are common for all the considered nuclei. The calculated characteristics of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance agree with the available experimental data. The calculations also show that the semimicroscopic theory can be successfully applied for the description of giant multipole resonances

  5. Nuclear quadrupole interactions in ferroelectric compounds of HF181

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzler, J.V.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of nuclear quadrupole interaction constants in perovkite-type compounds of PbHfO 3 , SnhfO 3 , CaHfO 3 e SrHfO 3 have been performed using the perturbed angular correlation technique. A range of fundamental frequencies from 150 to 550 Megaradians persecond was determined. The variation of quadrupole constants has been discussed through the molecular orbital theory

  6. Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, E; Tornos, J

    1985-04-01

    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.

  7. Quadrupole moment of the superdeformed band in 131Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.; Godfrey, M.J.; Jenkins, I.; Kirwan, A.J.; Nolan, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    A mean lifetime measurement has been carried out on the states in the superdeformed band found in 131 Ce using the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). The measured intrinsic nuclear quadrupole moment is Q o approx= 6 eb, assuming constant deformation, which corresponds to a quadrupole deformation β 2 approx= 0.35. This is considerably smaller than the value deduced for 132 Ce. (author)

  8. Waferscale Electrostatic Quadrupole Array for Multiple Ion Beam Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayakumar, K. B.; Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Ji, Q.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Ardanuc, S.; Lal, A.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first through-wafer silicon-based Electrostatic Quadrupole Array (ESQA) to focus high energy ion beams. This device is a key enabler for a wafer based accelerator architecture that lends itself to orders-of-magnitude reduction in cost, volume and weight of charged particle accelerators. ESQs are a key building block in developing compact Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) [1]. In a MEQALAC electrostatic forces are used to focus ions, and elec...

  9. Ellipsoidal universe can solve the cosmic microwave background quadrupole problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, L; Cea, P; Tedesco, L

    2006-09-29

    The recent 3 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data have confirmed the anomaly concerning the low quadrupole amplitude compared to the best-fit Lambda-cold dark matter prediction. We show that by allowing the large-scale spatial geometry of our universe to be plane symmetric with eccentricity at decoupling or order 10(-2), the quadrupole amplitude can be drastically reduced without affecting higher multipoles of the angular power spectrum of the temperature anisotropy.

  10. Two qubits in pure nuclear quadrupole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G.B.; Goren, S.D.; Meerovich, V.M.; Sokolovsky, V.L.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown theoretically that by the use of two radio-frequency fields of the same resonance frequency but with the different phases and directions the degeneracy of the energy spectrum of a spin system with I=3/2 is removed. This leads to four non-degenerate spin states which can be used as a platform for quantum computing. The feasibility of quantum computing based on a pure (without DC magnetic fields) nuclear quadrupole resonance technique is investigated in detail. Various quantum logic gates can be constructed by using different excitation techniques allowing different manipulations with the spin system states. Three realizations of quantum logic gates are considered: the application of an additional magnetic field with the resonance frequency, the amplitude modulation of one of the applied RF fields by the resonance frequency field, and the level-crossing method. It is shown that the probabilities of the resonance transitions depend on the method of excitation and on the direction of the excitation field. Feasibility of quantum computing is demonstrated with the examples of constructing a controlled-NOT logic gate using the resonance excitation technique and SWAP and NOT2 logic gates using the level-crossing method. (author)

  11. Quadrupole collectivity in {sup 128}Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenig, Esther Sabine

    2014-07-07

    The regions around shell closures, especially around doubly magic nuclei, are of major interest in nuclear structure physics, as they provide a perfect test for nuclear structure theory. The neutron-rich Cd isotopes in the region of {sup 132}Sn are only two protons away from the shell closure at Z=50 and in close proximity to the N=82 magic number. Nevertheless they show an irregular behaviour regarding the excitation energy of the first excited 2{sup +} state. This is not reproduced by shell model calculations, which is astonishing due to the proximity of the shell closures. In order to shed light on the much discussed region around doubly magic {sup 132}Sn, a Coulomb excitation experiment of {sup 128}Cd has been performed at REX-ISOLDE, CERN. The reduced transition strength B(E2;0{sup +}{sub gs} → 2{sup +}{sub 1}), which is a measure of collectivity, and the spectroscopic quadrupole moment Q{sub s}(2{sup +}{sub 1}) as a measure of deformation could be determined for the first time. The results are shown as the continuation of already measured neutron-rich Cd isotopes and are compared to both beyond mean field and shell model calculations, which give different predictions for these observables.

  12. [The Object Permanence Fallacy.] Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ben S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that Greenberg's challenge to the centrality of object permanence in developmental thinking reveals that developmentalists' theories about childhood speak about their own self-images. Notes that developmentalists have been guilty of not only the object permanence fallacy but also the genetic fallacy, or the mistaken belief that describing…

  13. Periodic permanent magnet focusing system with high peak field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong; Liu Weiwei; Bai Shuxin; Chen Ke

    2008-01-01

    In this study, hybrid periodic permanent magnet (PPM) system is studied, which has high axial magnetic field and low magnetic leakage. By simulation computation, some laws of magnetic field distribution vs. structure dimensions were obtained. A hybrid PPM is designed and constructed whose peak field reaches 0.6 T. The factors inducing discrepancies between computational results and practical measurements are analyzed. The magnetic field distribution is very sensitive to the variations of constructional parameters. Construction accuracy greatly influences the magnetic field distribution. Research results obtained here are potentially valuable for future work

  14. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Insinga, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a Λcool figure of merit of 0.472 is reached, which is an increase of 100% compared to a previous optimized design.

  15. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian; Insinga, Andrea Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron...... and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a ΛcoolΛcool figure of merit of 0...

  16. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  17. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  18. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  19. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  20. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2016 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  1. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  2. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  3. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinigardi, Stefano, E-mail: sinigardi@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Bolton, Paul R. [Kansai Photon Science Institute (JAEA), Umemidai 8-1-7, Kizugawa-shi, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2014-03-11

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15M€. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments.

  4. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo; Bolton, Paul R.

    2014-03-01

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15 M €. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments.

  5. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo; Bolton, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15M€. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments

  6. Theoretical investigation of flute modes in a magnetic quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    This research developed theories and conducted numerical investigations of electrostatic flute modes in a plasma confined in a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter I presents the discussion of relevant background. Chapter II contains a brief discussion of the basic flute-mode operator L 0 for intermediate- and low-frequency regimes. Chapter III develops a simple theory for a flute mode with frequency between the electron and ion bounce frequencies in the uniform density and temperature regions of a magnetic quadrupole. The frequency is predicted to be inversely proportional to the wave number. Chapter IV describes the kinetic approach. Chapter V contains the derivation of an eigenvalue equation for electrostatic waves with frequencies below the ion frequency in the private flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VI develops a theory for electrostatic waves with frequency below the ion bounce frequency in the shared flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VII contains the derivation of a dispersion equation for flute modes with frequencies between the electron and ion bounce frequencies in a plasma confined to a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VIII presents a summary of the research described

  7. MEQALAC: (multiple electrostatic quadrupole linac): a new approach to low beta rf acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley, R.M.; Brodowski, J.J.; Gammel, G.M.; Keane, J.T.; Maschka, A.W.; Sanders, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    MEQALAC is an acronym for a multiple-beam electrostatic-quadrupole array linear accelerator. The principle of operation is very simple. It makes use of the fact that electrostatic quadrupoles focus more effectively at low velocities than conventional magnetic quadrupoles. Moreover, the pole-tip field of an electrostatic quadrupole is limited by field emission of electrons, and is not a function of the size of the quadrupole. Conventional magnetic quadrupoles, on the other hand, require increasingly high current densities if one attempts to scale to smaller size

  8. Collisional damping of giant monopole and quadrupole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, S.; Gokalp, A.; Yilmaz, O.; Ayik, S.

    2001-01-01

    Collisional damping widths of giant monopole and quadrupole excitations for 120 Sn and 208 Pb at zero and finite temperatures are calculated within Thomas-Fermi approximation by employing the microscopic in-medium cross-sections of Li and Machleidt and the phenomenological Skyrme and Gogny forces, and are compared with each other. The results for the collisional widths of giant monopole and quadrupole vibrations at zero temperature as a function of the mass number show that the collisional damping of giant monopole vibrations accounts for about 30 - 40% of the observed widths at zero temperature, while for giant quadrupole vibrations it accounts for only 20 - 30% of the observed widths at zero temperature. (orig.)

  9. Mechanical Design of a Second Generation LHC IR Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    One of the proposed options to increase the LHC luminosity is the replacement of the existing inner triplets at the Interaction Regions with new low-beta larger aperture quadrupoles operating at the same gradient. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is carrying out preliminary studies of a large-bore Nb 3 Sn quadrupole. The mechanical design presents a support structure based on the use of keys and bladders without self-supporting collars. This technology has been proven effective in several successful common coil Nb 3 Sn dipoles built at LBNL, and it is for the first time applied to a cos(2(var t heta)) design. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the quadrupole mechanical behavior, demonstrating the possibility of delivering, through this method, well-controlled coil precompression during assembly, cool-down and excitation. The study has been performed with the finite element program ANSYS

  10. Development of LHC-IR model quadrupoles in the US

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, G

    2007-01-01

    Insertion quadrupoles with large aperture and high gradient are required to achieve the luminosity upgrade goal of 1035 cm-2 s-1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In 2004, the US Department of Energy established the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) to develop a technology base for the upgrade. The focus of the magnet program, which is a collaboration of three US laboratories, BNL, FNAL and LBNL, is on development of high gradient quadrupoles using Nb$_{3}$Sn in order to operate at high field and with sufficient temperature margin. Other program components address issues regarding magnet design, radiation-hard materials, long magnet scale-up, quench protection, fabrication techniques and conductor and cable R&D. This paper reports on the development od model quadrupoles and outlines the long-term goals of the program.

  11. Quadrupole interactions in pionic and muonic tantalum and rhenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Doesburg, W. van; Ewan, G.T; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.

    1981-01-01

    The hyperfine splitting of pionic and muonic X-rays in natural Re has been studied using the known ratio (accurate to 1.6 parts in 10 5 ) of the quadrupole moments of the two naturally occurring 185 Re and 187 Re isotopes. From the hyperfine splitting of the 5g → 4f and 4f → 3d pionic X-rays the effective quadrupole hyperfine constants were determined to be 187 A 2 sup(e)sup(f)sup(f) (4f) = 1.163 +- 0.010 keV and 187 A 2 sup(e)sup(f)sup(f) (3d) = 5.39 +- 0.63 keV, giving strong interaction quadrupole shifts epsilon 2 (4f) = 46 +- 10 eV and epsilon 2 (3d) = 1.3 +- 0.6 keV. The strong interaction monopole shifts epsilon 0 and widths GAMMA 0 of the 5g, 4f and 3d levels have also been measured. For the two higher orbits, standard optical-potential calculations fit the measured shifts and widths quite well. The observed deeper-lying 3d state, however, has shifts and widths that differ by a factor of 2 or more from the predictions. From the measured quadrupole hyperfine constants of the 4f level we calculate the spectroscopic quadrupole moments to be 187 Qsup(μ) = 2.09 +- 0.04 b, 187 Qsup(π) = 2.07 +- 0.02 b, 185 Qsup(μ) = 2.21 +- 0.04 b, and 185 Qsup(π) = 2.18 +- 0.02 b. In addition, muonic X-rays from 181 Ta were observed; using the same methods for determining the quadrupole moments as above, a value of 181 Qsup(μ) = 3.28 +- 0.06 b was obtained, in good agreement with earlier published data. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear quadrupole relaxation and viscosity in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmacher, W.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the nuclear quadrupole relaxation rate due to the molecular motions in liquid metals is related to the shear and bulk viscosity and hence to the absorption coefficient of ultrasound. Application of the 'extended liquid phonon' model of Ortoleva and Nelkin - which is the third of a series of continued-fraction-approximations for the van Hove neutron scattering function - gives a relation to the self diffusion constant. The predictions of the theory concerning the temperature dependence are compared with quadrupole relaxation measurements of Riegel et al. and Kerlin et al. in liquid gallium. Agreement is found only with the data of Riegel et al. (orig.) [de

  13. High and ulta-high gradient quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunk, W.O.; Walz, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    Small bore conventional dc quadrupoles with apertures from 1 to 2.578cm were designed and prototypes built and measured. New fabrication techniques including the use of wire electric discharge milling (EDM) to economically generate the pole tip contours and aperture tolerances are described. Magnetic measurement data from a prototype of a 1cm aperture quadrupole with possible use in future e + /e - super colliders are presented. At a current of 400A, the lens achieved a gradient of 2.475 T/cm, and had an efficiency of 76.6%

  14. Dynamical quadrupole structure factor of frustrated ferromagnetic chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiroaki

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the dynamical quadrupole structure factor of a spin-1/2 J1-J2 Heisenberg chain with competing ferromagnetic J1 and antiferromagnetic J2 in a magnetic field by exploiting density-matrix renormalization group techniques. In a field-induced spin nematic regime, we observe gapless excitations at q = π according to quasi-long-range antiferro-quadrupole correlations. The gapless excitation mode has a quadratic form at the saturation, while it changes into a linear dispersion as the magnetization decreases.

  15. Quadrupole photoionization of endohedral Xe-C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, Karan; Deshmukh, P C

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an endohedral confinement on the quadrupole photoionization of atomic Xe is studied using the relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA). The atom's confinement is modelled by placing atomic Xe at the centre of a C 60 cage represented by an annular potential around it. A new confinement resonance is reported in the 4p quadrupole cross-section along with 'correlation confinement resonances' in 4d, 5s and 5p photoionizations at about 185 eV. The effect of the confinement on the non-dipole photoelectron angular distribution parameter γ is also reported.

  16. Calculation of the quadrupole-lense fringing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    With the aim of decreasing the scattering field effect at electrode edge or quadrupole lens poles with conformal transformations the scattering fields of electric quadrupole lens, two-electrode lens with the electrodes in a hyperbola form, as well as magnetic lens with hyperbolic poles are calculated. For the two-electrode system with kappa=0.1 (kappa - is coefficient, characterizing the rate of field intensity change in the lens) field distortion equals 1.8%. The comparison of experimental data with the calculation data has shown that with a rather high accuracy the scattering field effect in electric and magnetic lenses with hyperbolic poles may be taken into account

  17. Nb3Sn Quadrupoles Designs For The LHC Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, Helene

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for the LHC luminosity upgrades, high field and large aperture Nb 3 Sn quadrupoles are being studied. This development has to incorporate all the relevant features for an accelerator magnet like alignment and cooling channels. The LARP HQ model is a high field and large bore quadrupole that will meet these requirements. The 2-layer coils are surrounded by a structure based on key and bladder technology with supporting iron yoke and aluminum shell. This structure is aimed at pre-stress control, alignment and field quality. We present here the magnetic and mechanical design of HQ, along with recent progress on the development of the first 1-meter model.

  18. Transient or permanent fisheye views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Transient use of information visualization may support specific tasks without permanently changing the user interface. Transient visualizations provide immediate and transient use of information visualization close to and in the context of the user’s focus of attention. Little is known, however......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...... programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent...

  19. Connecting Temporary and Permanent Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal; Velikova, Silviya Svejenova

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between a permanent organization and a series of temporary organizations. It draws on an in-depth study of the process through which a Danish film production company, seeking to balance innovation and persistence in a troubled industry, struggles to realize...... a novel children’s film and its sequels. The study reveals tensions at different levels as well as boundary work and boundary roles that address them, bringing in shadows of past and future projects. The study extends the understanding of the dialectic between temporary and permanent organizing...

  20. Synchronous motor with hybrid permanent magnets on the rotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusarek, Barbara; Kapelski, Dariusz; Antal, Ludwik; Zalas, Pawel; Gwoździewicz, Maciej

    2014-07-10

    Powder metallurgy allows designers of electric motors to implement new magnetic circuit structures. A relatively new concept is the use of a magnet system consisting of various types of magnets on one rotor, for example sintered and bonded magnets. This concept has been applied to the design and manufacture of the four-pole rotor of a synchronous motor with 400 W power and a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. In this motor, the stator of an asynchronous motor type Sh 71-4B is applied. The application of the new construction of the rotor resulted in an increase in motor efficiency and power factor compared to an asynchronous motor with the same volume.

  1. Synchronous Motor with Hybrid Permanent Magnets on the Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Slusarek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy allows designers of electric motors to implement new magnetic circuit structures. A relatively new concept is the use of a magnet system consisting of various types of magnets on one rotor, for example sintered and bonded magnets. This concept has been applied to the design and manufacture of the four-pole rotor of a synchronous motor with 400 W power and a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. In this motor, the stator of an asynchronous motor type Sh 71-4B is applied. The application of the new construction of the rotor resulted in an increase in motor efficiency and power factor compared to an asynchronous motor with the same volume.

  2. Accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, M.; Sakai, I.; Someya, H.; Sasaki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We present an accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of the quadrupole magnet. The method of obtaining the information of the field gradient and the effective focussing length is given. A new scheme to obtain the information of the skew field components is also proposed. The relative accuracy of the measurement was 1 x 10 -4 or less. (author)

  3. ISR Superconducting Quadrupole Prototype:preparing the first test

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The photo shows the first prototype quadrupole (still with an adjustable stainless steel shrinking cylinder) being lifted to be inserted in a vertical cryostat for testing. It attained the design field gradient without any quench.The persons are Pierre Rey and Michel Bouvier. See also 7702690X.

  4. Prototype Superconducting Quadrupole for the ISR low-beta insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The picture shows the cold mass of the Quadrupole with its outer aluminium alloy rings pre-compressing the superconducting coils via the magnetic yoke split in 4 parts.The end of the inner vacuum chamber,supporting the 6-pole correction windings, can also be seen as well as the electrical connections. See also photos 7702690X, 7702307.

  5. Quadrupole interactions of Au in Be and lattice location studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perscheid, B.; Gayer, H.W.; Krien, K.; Freitag, K.

    1978-01-01

    The Moessbauer nucleus 197 Au is used as probe for quadrupole interaction (QI) studies in Be metal. The 77 keV Moessbauer level is populated by the β - decay of 197 Pt and the EC decay of 197 Hg. This fact enabled samples prepared in different ways to be studied. (Auth.)

  6. Quadrupole transport experiment with space charge dominated cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Rosenblum, S.; Tiefenback, M.; Warwick, A.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the beam current transport limit in a long quadrupole-focussed transport channel in the space charge dominated region where the space charge defocussing force is almost as large as the average focussing force of the channel

  7. Detection of quadrupole relaxation in an optically pumped cesium vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, E; Tornos, J

    1985-10-01

    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation induced by means of optical pumping in a cesium vapour is experimentally studied, and the results are compared to the theoretical predictions. The optical detection process of this type of orientation is also discussed as a function of the polarization and spectral profile of the detection light.

  8. Correction of chromatic abberation in electrostatic lense systems containing quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranova, L.A.; Ul'yanova, N.S.; Yavor, S.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Possibility of chromatic abberation correction in immersion systems consisting of axysimmetric and quadrupole lenses is shown. Concrete examples are presented. A number of new directions in science and technique, using ion beams are intensively developed presently. When using them accute necessity arises in chromatic abberation correction, while large-scale energy scattering is observed as a rule in such cases

  9. Quadrupole formula for Kaluza-Klein modes in the braneworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichiro; Kudoh, Hideaki; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    The quadrupole formula in four-dimensional Einstein gravity is a useful tool to describe gravitational wave radiation. We derive the quadrupole formula for the Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld model. The quadrupole formula provides a transparent representation of the exterior weak gravitational field induced by localized sources. We find that a general isolated dynamical source gives rise to the 1/r 2 correction to the leading 1/r gravitational field. We apply the formula to an evaluation of the effective energy carried by the KK modes from the viewpoint of an observer on the brane. Contrary to the ordinary gravitational waves (zero mode), the flux of the induced KK modes by the non-spherical part of the quadrupole moment vanishes at infinity and only the spherical part contributes to the flux. Since the effect of the KK modes appears in the linear order of the metric perturbations, the effective energy flux observed on the brane is not always positive, but can become negative depending on the motion of the localized sources

  10. Optimization of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet focusing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Oday A., E-mail: oah@sc.nahrainuniv.edu.iq [Department of Physics, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad (Iraq); Sise, Omer [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The imaging properties of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet lens were analyzed with the aid of computer simulation. • The optimal electrode voltages which lead to stigmatic image in both planes of the quadrupole doublet lens with minimum spot size at position sensitive detector (PSD) were found for two operation modes: point-to-point focusing and parallel-to-point focusing. • The imaging properties of are very sensitive to the lunching angle of the electron-beam. - Abstract: The imaging properties of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet lens were analyzed with the aid of computer simulation. The optimal electrode voltages which lead to stigmatic image in both planes of the quadrupole doublet lens with minimum spot size at position sensitive detector (PSD) were found for two operation modes: point-to-point focusing and parallel-to-point focusing. The optical properties as: Magnifications, spot sizes in the image plane and aberration figures were discussed. The results showed that the focusing of the lens was strong in the xy-plane in comparison with the focusing in the xz-plane. The distortion of the image was greater when the image position will be close to the lens in comparison with object position. Also, the imaging properties were very sensitive to the lunching angle of the electron-beam.

  11. Quadrupole moments of low-lying baryons with spin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chiral constituent quark model ( CQM) with general parametrization (GP) method has been formulated to calculate the quadrupole moments of the spin − 3 2 + decuplet baryons and spin − 3 2 + → 1 2 + transitions. The implications of such a model have been investigated in detail for the effects of symmetry breaking ...

  12. BPM Offset Determination by Sinusoidal Quadrupole K-modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    To ensure an adequate orbit steering that maximizes the machine aperture, a good knowledge of the BPM measurement offsets is crucial. During this MD, a sinusoidal k-modulation of individually powered quadrupoles was performed to determine the offsets of the nearby BPMs. An accuracy of 10µm for the determination of the absolute beam position is reached.

  13. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  14. High performance permanent magnet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, S.G.; Herbst, J.F.; Koon, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 25 selections. Some of the titles are: Initial magnetization behavior of rapidly quenched neodymium-iron-boron magnets; Optimization of liquid dynamic compaction for Fe-Nd-B magnet alloys; Misch-metal and/or aluminum substitutions in Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets; and NdFeB magnets with improved temperature characteristics

  15. OAS :: Member States : Permanent Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba 1 Dominica (Commonwealth of) Dominican Gutierez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez

  16. Design and analysis of tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG.

  17. Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG.

  18. Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG. PMID:25050388

  19. Cost Performance Estimating Relationships for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-31

    Permanent magnet motors are more likely to be used as generators, while AC induction motors are more efficiently used as motors. Inverters/controllers can...than permanent magnet motors . Switched Reluctance motors are also used on hybrid electric vehicles, but are not used as widely as either AC...induction or permanent magnet motors , and are not analyzed here. Methodology The motor estimates are based on power, with kilowatts being the unit of

  20. Design of the 70 mm twin aperture superconducting quadrupole for the LHC dump insertion

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Taylor, T M; Trinquart, G

    1996-01-01

    The LHC dump insertion features a pair of superconducting quadrupoles located on either side of a 340 m long straight section. Two horizontally deflecting kickers, located in between the quadrupole pairs, and a septum in the centre of the insertion, vertically deflect the two counter-rotating beams past the quadrupoles on the downstream sides, and into the dump areas. Due to the layout, the optical ß function in the quadrupoles is around 640 m, the largest around the LHC at injection. The quadrupoles must therefore have enlarged aperture and specially designed cryostats to allow for the safe passage of both the circulating and ejected beams. In this paper we present the design of the twin aperture dump quadrupole based on the 70 mm four layer coil proposed for the LHC low-ß quadrupoles. In preparation for model construction, we report on improvements of the coil design and a study of the retaining structures.

  1. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  2. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  3. Permanently calibrated interpolating time counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachna, Z; Szplet, R; Kwiatkowski, P; Różyc, K

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new architecture of an integrated time interval counter that provides its permanent calibration in the background. Time interval measurement and the calibration procedure are based on the use of a two-stage interpolation method and parallel processing of measurement and calibration data. The parallel processing is achieved by a doubling of two-stage interpolators in measurement channels of the counter, and by an appropriate extension of control logic. Such modification allows the updating of transfer characteristics of interpolators without the need to break a theoretically infinite measurement session. We describe the principle of permanent calibration, its implementation and influence on the quality of the counter. The precision of the presented counter is kept at a constant level (below 20 ps) despite significant changes in the ambient temperature (from −10 to 60 °C), which can cause a sevenfold decrease in the precision of the counter with a traditional calibration procedure. (paper)

  4. The cycloid Permanent Magnetic Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole; Jørgensen, Frank T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new permanent-magnet gear based on the cycloid gearing principle. which normally is characterized by an extreme torque density and a very high gearing ratio. An initial design of the proposed magnetic gear was designed, analyzed, and optimized with an analytical model...... regarding torque density. The results were promising as compared to other high-performance magnetic-gear designs. A test model was constructed to verify the analytical model....

  5. Modelling and optimization of a permanent-magnet machine in a flywheel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the derivation of an analytical model for the design and optimization of a permanent-magnet machine for use in an energy storage flywheel. A prototype of this flywheel is to be used as the peak-power unit in a hybrid electric city bus. The thesis starts by showing the

  6. ELECTRON TRAPPING IN WIGGLER AND QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS OF CESRTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lanfa

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R and D (1). One of the primary goals of the CesrTA program is to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with low emittance positron beam to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies and benchmark predictions by simulation codes. This paper reports the simulation of the electron-cloud formation in the wiggler and quadrupole magnets using the 3D code CLOUDLAND. We found that electrons can be trapped with long lifetime in a quadrupole magnet due to the mirror field trapping mechanism and photoelectrons produced in the wiggler zero field zone have long lifetime due to their complicated trajectory.

  7. Development and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQC) Magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Whitson, G.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hannaford, R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2007-06-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90 mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5 K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current. Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented.

  8. Development and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQC) Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Whitson, G.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hannaford, R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb 3 Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90 mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5 K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current. Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented

  9. Development and test of LARP technological quadrupole (TQC) magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-08-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90-mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current . Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented.

  10. Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2008-06-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence.

  11. Development and test of LARP technological quadrupole (TQC) magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.

    2006-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb 3 Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90-mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current . Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented

  12. Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence

  13. Engineering Design of Electrostatic Quadrupole for ISOL Beam Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the ISOL system, the RI beam should be transported from the target ion source to post accelerator through various analyzing and charge-breeding systems such as PS (pre-seperator), HRMS (High Resolution Mass Seperator), RF cooler and A/q separator. A reference particle for the beam dynamics calculation is 132 Sn 1+ . After charge breeder system, the charge state is boosted from +1 to +19 with ECR charge breeder and to +33 with EBIS charge breeder. Because the beam energy is as low as 50 keV, the electrostatic optics was adopted rather than the magnetic optics. The electrostatic quadrupole triplets were used for the beam focusing and the electrostatic bender is used for 90-degree bending. In this paper, the design procedure and engineering design of the electrostatic quadrupole are presented

  14. Quadrupole deflector of the double Penning trap system MLLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartzke, Eva; Kolhinen, Veli; Habs, Dietrich; Neumayr, Juergen; Schuermann, Christian; Szerypo, Jerzy; Thirolf, Peter [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A cylindrical double Penning trap has been installed and successfully commissioned at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory in Garching. This trap system has been designed to isobarically purify low energy ion beams and perform highly accurate mass measurements. An electrostatic quadrupole deflector has been designed and installed at the injection line of the Penning trap system enabling a simultaneous use of an online ion beam with reference ions from an offline ion source. Alternatively two offline sources can be used concurrently e.g. an {alpha} recoil sources providing heavy radioactive species (e.g {sup 240}U) together with reference mass ions (which in the future will be e.g. a carbon cluster ion source). The bender has been designed for beam energies up to 1 keV with q/A ratios 1/1-1/250. This presentation shows the technical design and the operating parameters of the quadrupole beam bender and its implementation at the MLLTRAP system.

  15. Optimization on the end-shaping of a quadrupole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, M.; Sasaki, H.; Someya, H.; Sakai, I.

    1983-01-01

    In order to achieve the widest possible aperture of accelerator magnets, end-shaping is a well known method. To do this one has to deal with the three-dimensional fringe field inherent to each geometry. This may be done experimentally by a cut-and-try method or theoretically by a three-dimensional computer code. In any case, considerable time has to be consumed if one wants to get a conclusion which is as general as possible and which is useful in designing magnets. Fringe field optimization on the end-shaping of the conventional quadrupole magnet was done by a cut-and-try method, where a very simple geometry of the end pole was chosen to get a general conclusion. The 'cut-out ratio diagram' given as a conclusion is useful to designers of the conventional quadrupole magnet. (orig.)

  16. Nuclear quadrupole moment of the 99Tc ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, Leonardo; Darriba, German; Renteria, Mario; Tang Zhengning; Emmerich, Heike; Cottenier, Stefaan

    2008-01-01

    By combining first-principles calculations and existing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, we determine the quadrupole moment of the 9/2 + ground state of 99 Tc to be (-)0.14(3)b. This confirms the value of -0.129(20)b, which is currently believed to be the most reliable experimental determination, and disagrees with two earlier experimental values. We supply ab initio calculated electric-field gradients for Tc in YTc 2 and ZrTc 2 . If this calculated information would be combined with yet to be performed Tc-NMR experiments in these compounds, the error bar on the 99 Tc ground state quadrupole moment could be further reduced

  17. The development of compact magnetic quadrupoles for ILSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Brady, V.

    1990-08-01

    Magnetic focussing is selected for the 4 MeV to 10 MeV section of the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE) to study the transport of magnetically focussed spacecharge-dominated beams and to explore the engineering problems in accurate positioning of the magnetic fields in an array of quadrupoles. A prototype development program for such magnets is currently under way. A compact design was selected to decrease the overall accelerator diameter and its cost. The design evolved from a cosine 2θ current distribution, corrected for end effects. Current-dominated magnets are used in a pulsed mode to allow higher current densities compared to standard dc water-cooled conductors. The POISSON and MAFCO codes were used in the design of the magnets. The construction of the quadrupoles is aimed at achieving location accuracy of the magnetic center to within 1 mil (2.54 x 10 -5 m) of the mechanical center

  18. Low-frequency quadrupole impedance of undulators and wigglers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blednykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical expression of the low-frequency quadrupole impedance for undulators and wigglers is derived and benchmarked against beam-based impedance measurements done at the 3 GeV NSLS-II storage ring. The adopted theoretical model, valid for an arbitrary number of electromagnetic layers with parallel geometry, allows to calculate the quadrupole impedance for arbitrary values of the magnetic permeability μ_{r}. In the comparison of the analytical results with the measurements for variable magnet gaps, two limit cases of the permeability have been studied: the case of perfect magnets (μ_{r}→∞, and the case in which the magnets are fully saturated (μ_{r}=1.

  19. Quadrupole moments of wobbling excitations in 163Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goergen, A.; Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Ward, D.; Hagemann, G.B.; Sletten, G.; Huebel, H.; Bengtsson, R.

    2004-01-01

    Lifetimes of states in the triaxial strongly deformed bands of 163 Lu have been measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The bands have been interpreted as wobbling-phonon excitations from the characteristic electromagnetic properties of the transitions connecting the bands. Quadrupole moments are extracted for the zero-phonon yrast band and, for the first time, for the one-phonon wobbling band. The very similar results found for the two bands suggest a similar intrinsic structure and support the wobbling interpretation. While the in-band quadrupole moments for the bands show a decreasing trend towards higher spin, the ratio of the interband to the in-band transition strengths remains constant. Both features can be understood by a small increase in triaxiality towards higher spin. Such a change in triaxiality is also found in cranking calculations, to which the experimental results are compared

  20. A high gradient quadrupole magnet for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Mirk, K.; Peters, C.; Wandesforde, A.

    1987-01-01

    A quadrupole magnet for the SSC has been designed with a gradient of 234 T/m at 6500 A. Coil I.D. is 40 mm. The two-layer windings have 9 inner turns and 13 outer turns per pole with a wedge-shaped space in each layer. The 30-strand cable is identical to that used in the outer layer of the SSC dipole magnet. Interlocking aluminum alloy collars are compressed around the coil using a four-way press and are locked with four keys. The collared coil is supported and centered in a cold split iron yoke. A one-meter model was constructed and tested. Design details including quench behavior are presented. The quadrupole magnets proposed for the main SSC rings have a design gradient of 230 T/m. For one proposed 60 degree lattice cell, each 3-m long quad is separated by five 17-m long dipole magnets

  1. Generating Low Beta Regions with Quadrupoles for Final Muon Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Muon beams and colliders are rich sources of new physics, if muons can be cooled. A normalized rms transverse muon emittance of 280 microns has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL, G4beamline, and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to approach a normalized transverse emittance of 100 microns and finish 6D muon cooling. The low beta regions produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the beta function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 microns at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Work remains to be done on chromaticity correction.

  2. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanet residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been gratned the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  3. Gravitational radiation quadrupole formula is valid for gravitationally interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.; Will, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    An argument is presented for the validity of the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation energy loss in the far field of nearly Newtonian (e.g., binary stellar) systems. This argument differs from earlier ones in that it determines beforehand the formal accuracy of approximation required to describe gravitationally self-interacting systems, uses the corresponding approximate equation of motion explicitly, and evaluate the appropriate asymptotic quantities by matching along the correct space-time light cones

  4. The monopole and quadrupole vibrations of a hot nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okolowicz, J.; Drozdz, S.; Ploszajczak, M.; Caurier, E.

    1989-03-01

    An extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach has been applied to a description of the isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole vibration modes in the excited nuclear system at finite temperature. The temperature dependence of the resonance characteristics is established for both modes. In anticipation of some anharmonic effects the principle of regularity and single-valuedness has been used to extract the energies of the collective modes. (orig.)

  5. Reorientation precession measurements of quadrupole moments in 103Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelberg, A.; Herskind, B.; Kalish, R.; Neiman, M.

    1976-01-01

    The quadrupole moments of the 3/2 - and 5/2 - states in 103 Rh have been determined by measuring the precession of the gamma-ray angular distribution following Coulomb excitation; 16 O and 32 S beams have been used. The structure of the negative-parity states in 103 Rh is found to be in agreement with the model of Arima and Iachello. (orig.) [de

  6. Cooperstock's counterexample to the gravitational-radiation quadrupole formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperstock has recently modified the axially symmetric gravitational two-body problem previously analyzed by himself, Lim, and Hobill by introducing a new assumption, that ''The system undergoes a smooth transition from the static state to free-fall and the motion. . .consists of the two bodies accelerating towards each other while undergoing slow tidal deformation.'' This assumption is inconsistent with his solution of the field equations. The quadrupole formula correctly describes the radiation emitted

  7. Emittance growth from rotated quadrupoles in heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    We derive a set of moment equations which incorporates linear quadrupolar focusing and space-charge defocusing, in the presence of rotational misalignments of the quadrupoles about the direction of beam propagation. Although the usual beam emittance measured relative to fixed transverse x and y coordinate axes is not constant, a conserved emittance-like quantity has been found. Implications for alignment tolerances in accelerators for heavy-ion inertial fusion are discussed

  8. Behaviour of quadrupole mass spectrometer towards noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibullah

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a quadrupole mass spectrometric set-up for noble gas analysis with its potential application to material accountancy at the input accountability tank of a reprocessing facility. Linear dependence of ion source pressure on the inlet pressure was considered to be practicable criterion for the functionality of the instrument. Short term and long term sensitivity variations have also been discussed. No memory effect was observed under the experimental conditions. (author)

  9. MEASURING LOCAL GRADIENT AND SKEW QUADRUPOLE ERRORS IN RHIC IRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARDONA, J.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, R.; PTITSYN, V.

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of local linear errors at RHIC interaction regions using an ''action and phase'' analysis of difference orbits has already been presented [2]. This paper evaluates the accuracy of this technique using difference orbits that were taken when known gradient errors and skew quadrupole errors were intentionally introduced. It also presents action and phase analysis of simulated orbits when controlled errors are intentionally placed in a RHIC simulation model

  10. Short quadrupole, first at the SC, then at LEAR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Quadrupoles of this type were built for the beam lines of the 600 MeV Synchro-Cylclotron. Surplus ones were installed in the LEAR injection line. The particularity of these quads is that they are very short and that a special design, resembling the "Lambertson magnet", limits and linearizes their stray field. This was achieved by the iron between the poles extending beyond the poles.

  11. Quantized TDHF for isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Ploszajczak, M.; Caurier, E.

    1988-01-01

    The time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory supplemented with the regularity and single-valuedness quantization condition for the gauge invariant component of the wavefunction is applied to the description of the centroid energy and escape width of isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in 16 O, 40 Ca and 110 Zr. Calculations are performed using the Skyrme SIII effective interaction. An important role of the finite oscillation amplitude in the mean-field dynamics is emphasized. (orig.)

  12. Longitudinal capture in the radio-frequency-quadrupole structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, S.

    1980-03-01

    The radio-frequency-quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure not only can attain easily transverse focusing in the low-beta region, but also can obtain very high capture efficiency because of its low beta-lambda and low-particle rigidity. An optimization study of the zero space-charge longitudinal capture in an RFQ linac that yields configurations with large capture efficiency is described

  13. Electrostatic quadrupole array for focusing parallel beams of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodowski, J.

    1982-01-01

    An array of electrostatic quadrupoles, capable of providing strong electrostatic focusing simultaneously on multiple beams, is easily fabricated from a single array element comprising a support rod and multiple electrodes spaced at intervals along the rod. The rods are secured to four terminals which are isolated by only four insulators. This structure requires bias voltage to be supplied to only two terminals and eliminates the need for individual electrode bias and insulators, as well as increases life by eliminating beam plating of insulators

  14. Design and Measurement of the NSLS II Quadrupole Prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehak,M.; Jain, A. K.; Skaritka, J.; Spataro, C.

    2009-05-04

    The design and measurement of the NSLS-II ring quadrupoles prototypes are presented. These magnets are part of a larger prototype program described in [1]. Advances in software, hardware, and manufacturing have led to some new level of insight in the quest for the perfect magnet design. Three geometric features are used to minimize the first three allowed harmonics by way of optimization. Validations through measurement and confidence levels in calculations are established.

  15. Linearised collective Schroedinger equation for nuclear quadrupole surface vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, M.; Heumann, D.; Scheid, W.

    1990-11-01

    The linearisation of the Schroedinger equation for nuclear quadrupole surface vibrations yields a new spin degree of freedom, which is called collective spin and has a value of 3/2. With the introduction of collective spin dependent potentials, this linearised Schroedinger equation is then used for the description of low energy spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities of some even-odd Xe, Ir and Au nuclei which have a spin 3/2 in their groundstate. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic performance of new Fermilab high gradient quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanft, R.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Gourlay, S.A.; Lamm, M.J.; McInturff, A.D.; Mokhtarani, A.; Riddiford, A.

    1991-05-01

    For the Fermilab Tevatron low beta insertions installed in 1990--1991 as part of a luminosity upgrade there were built approximately 35 superconducting cold iron quadrupoles utilizing a two layer cos 2θ coil geometry with 76 mm diameter aperature. The field harmonics and strengths of these magnets obtained by measurement at cryogenic conditions are presented. Evidence for a longitudinal periodic structure in the remnant field is shown. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Measurement of the transfer function of the main SPS Quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Dinius, A; Semanaz, P; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1998-01-01

    During two short MD's we have measured the transfer function (amplitude and phase) of the main quadrupole string QD. By the word string we mean the global effect of power supplies, magnets and the eddy current effects of the vacuum chamber. This paper presents the measurement procedure and the results, which are needed for the design of a real-time feedback system for the betatron tunes ( Qloop).

  18. A quadrupole mass spectrometer system for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.

    1987-12-01

    An on-line enrichment monitor for nuclear safeguards-related surveillance of a pilot-scale gas centrifuge plant is described. This monitor utilises a quadrupole mass spectrometer to measure the isotopic composition of UF 6 in the feed and product gas streams. Details of the design and construction are given, and several difficulties are identified and discussed. Finally, the performance of this system is illustrated with typical results

  19. Working Around Cosmic Variance: Remote Quadrupole Measurements of the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Arsalan; Bunn, Emory

    2018-01-01

    Anisotropies in the CMB maps continue to revolutionize our understanding of the Cosmos. However, the statistical interpretation of these anisotropies is tainted with a posteriori statistics. The problem is particularly emphasized for lower order multipoles, i.e. in the cosmic variance regime of the power spectrum. Naturally, the solution lies in acquiring a new data set – a rather difficult task given the sample size of the Universe.The CMB temperature, in theory, depends on: the direction of photon propagation, the time at which the photons are observed, and the observer’s location in space. In existing CMB data, only the first parameter varies. However, as first pointed out by Kamionkowski and Loeb, a solution lies in making the so-called “Remote Quadrupole Measurements” by analyzing the secondary polarization produced by incoming CMB photons via the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. These observations allow us to measure the projected CMB quadrupole at the location and look-back time of a galaxy cluster.At low redshifts, the remote quadrupole is strongly correlated to the CMB anisotropy from our last scattering surface. We provide here a formalism for computing the covariance and relation matrices for both the two-point correlation function on the last scattering surface of a galaxy cluster and the cross correlation of the remote quadrupole with the local CMB. We then calculate these matrices based on a fiducial model and a non-standard model that suppresses power at large angles for ~104 clusters up to z=2. We anticipate to make a priori predictions of the differences between our expectations for the standard and non-standard models. Such an analysis is timely in the wake of the CMB S4 era which will provide us with an extensive SZ cluster catalogue.

  20. Giant 4p-quadrupole resonances in the Rare Earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthew, J.A.D.; Netzer, F.P.; Clark, C.W.; Morar, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray absorption of Ce obtained by partial secondary yield, is compared with previously obtained electron-energy loss measurements in reflection mode. The absence of a strong feature below 4p 3/2 threshold in photon absorption provides confirmation that the peak in EELS is nondipole in character. Theoretical analysis supports interpretation in terms of a p-f giant quadrupole resonance, a result which broadens the analogy between giant resonances in atomic and nuclear physics

  1. Radio-frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, A.

    1982-10-19

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  2. General quadrupole shapes in the Interacting Boson Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic attributes of nuclear quadrupole shapes are investigated within the algebraic framework of the Interacting Boson Model. For each shape the Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic and collective parts, normal modes are identified and intrinsic states are constructed and used to estimate transition matrix elements. Special emphasis is paid to new features (e.g. rigid triaxiality and coexisting deformed shapes) that emerge in the presence of the three-body interactions. 27 refs

  3. Final 6D Muon Ionization Colling using Strong Focusing Quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    Abstract Low emittance muon beam lines and muon colliders are potentially a rich source of BSM physics for future exper- imenters. A muon beam normalized emittance of ax,y,z = (280, 280, 1570)µm has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to achieve a normalized transverse emittance of 100 µm and complete 6D cooling. The low beta regions, as low as 5 mm, produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam transversely. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the transverse betatron function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 µm at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Cooling challenges include chromaticity correction, ssband overlap, quadrupole acceptance, and staying in phase with RF.

  4. Quadrupole magnets for IR-FEL at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruwali, Kailash; Singh, Kushraj; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Biswas, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    The IR-FEL project at RRCAT needs quadrupole magnets for focusing 15 to 35 MeV electron beam through a dog-leg type beam line. This bend needs tighter relative tolerances on the central quadrupole triplet . The magnetic design, fabrication and magnetic characterization of five quadrupole magnets were carried out. The poles are detachable and wider than the coils. This significantly improves the good field region of the magnet. The magnet cross-section was optimized using 2D POISON code and entry-exit tapers were optimized using 3D code TOSCA.. The aperture radius of the magnet is 30 mm and the total core length is 180 mm. The integrated gradient of magnet is 0.51 T. The magnetic measurements were carried out using Danfysik make rotating coil bench model 690. Integrated gradient and multipoles present in the magnet aperture were measured at various excitation levels. The details of magnetic development and the magnetic measurements are discussed in this paper. (author)

  5. MQRAD, a computer code for synchrotron radiation from quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Teruhisa.

    1984-01-01

    The computer code, MQRAD, is developed for the calculation of the synchrotron radiation from the particles passing through quadrupole magnets at the straight section of the electron-positron colliding machine. This code computes the distributions of photon numbers and photon energies at any given points on the beam orbit. In this code, elements such as the quadrupole magnets and the drift spaces can be divided into many sub-elements in order to obtain the results with good accuracy. The synchrotron radiation produced by inserted quadrupole magnets at the interaction region of the electron-positron collider is one of the main background sources to the detector. The masking system against the synchrotron radiation at TRISTAN is very important because of the relatively high beam energy and the long straight section, which are 30 GeV and 100 meters, respectively. MQRAD has been used to design the masking system of the TOPAZ detector and the result is presented here as an example. (author)

  6. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  7. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permanent magnet. 886.4445 Section 886.4445 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove metallic...

  8. Design, simulation and construction of quadrupole magnets for focusing electron beam in powerful industrial electron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S KH Mousavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the design and simulation of quadrupole magnets and electron beam optical of that by CST Studio code has been studied. Based on simulation result the magnetic quadrupole has been done for using in beam line of first Iranian powerful electron accelerator. For making the suitable magnetic field the effects of material and core geometry and coils current variation on quadrupole magnetic field have been studied. For test of quadrupole magnet the 10 MeV beam energy and 0.5 pi mm mrad emittance of input beam has been considered. We see the electron beam through the quadrupole magnet focus in one side and defocus in other side. The optimum of distance between two quadrupole magnets for low emittance have been achieved. The simulation results have good agreement with experimental results

  9. Compact quadrupole triplet for the S-DALINAC polarized electron injector SPIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, C.; Eichhorn, R.; Enders, J.; Hessler, C.; Poltoratska, Y. [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Ackermann, W.; Mueller, W.F.O.; Steiner, B.; Weiland, T. [Inst. fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    An ultra compact quadrupole triplet for the S-DALINAC Polarized Electron Injector SPIN has been developed. This development is due to limiting spatial restrictions. Each individual quadrupole has a length of 8 mm, affixed by two 2 mm aluminum plates, resulting in a length of only 12 mm per quadrupole. The gaps between each quadrupole are set to 18 mm, therefore the complete triplet has a total length of only 72 mm. The quadrupole design includes a large aperture, suitable for CF 35 beam pipes. As fringe fields reach far info neighboring yokes, the assembly requires simulation by a beam dynamics tool for optimal weighting of the current excitation. Measurement of the magnetic field distribution is compared to numerical values and the quadrupole strength is calculated. (orig.)

  10. Permanent magnet-based MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David Mitchell

    1997-10-01

    The principal goal of this project is to design and build a low-cost, imaging quality permanent magnet, together with the requisite shim, gradient, and radiofrequency coils, and to integrate the magnet with an existing imaging station. There are commercial products presently available that are very similar to this imager, but information about these products is proprietary. We present here all of the details concerning the design and the manufacturing process for constructing the permanent magnet, and include suggestions for improvement. Specifically, the prototype has a mass of about 150 kilograms and is therefore portable. It's C-type geometry allows maximum access to the imaging region, which is an oblate sphere about 0.5 inches in diameter centered in a 4.7 inch air gap between two seven-inch diameter polefaces. It is hoped that this imaging magnet will serve as the prototype for a series of larger versions that will be clinically useful and affordable to physicians in developing nations. To this end, scientists in the United States and Mexico have begun to collaborate with the intention to create an MRI institute in Mexico that will train new students in this discipline, and fabricate improved imagers. The prototype resulting from this work will seed the creation of this institute, and is intended to entice students into the study of MRI by enabling hands-on interaction with an otherwise prohibitively expensive instrument.

  11. Permanent burying method for product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Goro; Sakata, Noboru; Hironaka, Yoshikazu; Shigematsu, Kazuo; Yurugi, Masahiro; Minami, Masayoshi; Yoshisaki, Masato.

    1995-01-01

    In a method of permanently burying an object by filling and solidifying a cement mortar in gaps between each of objects to be buried underground, cement mortar is filled into gaps, which comprises water at a unit amount determined as from 200 to 250kg/m 3 , a cement at low water/cement ratio (%) of from 70 to 400%, and contains fine powder having an average grain size of not greater than 100μm (not containing cement) of 50 to 800kg/m 3 , fine aggregates of 800 to 1200kg/m 3 , UERAN gum (a bio-gum powder produced by aerobic fermentation of alcaligenes-bacteria) of 20g/m 3 to 1.3kg/m 3 , a dispersing agent of 0 to 40kg/m 3 , a swelling agent of 0 to 40kg/m 3 . Then if the mortar blended with the UERAN gum is injected, any gaps can be filled tightly, no breeding is caused and since the amount of cement is small, it does not suffer from temperature cracking. Therefore, the state of filling is kept permanently, and environmental pollution caused by radioactive wastes can be prevented. (N.H.)

  12. Isotopic dependence of the giant quadrupole resonance in the stable even-mass molybdenum nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moalem, A.; Gaillard, Y.; Bemolle, A.M.; Buenerd, M.; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; de Saintignon, P.

    1979-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of 110 MeV 3 He particles is used to probe the quadrupole strength in the even Mo isotopes. The peak position of the giant quadrupole resonance is found to decrease more rapidly than predicted by the A/sup -1/3/ law, a behavior very similar to that exhibited by the photonuclear giant dipole resonance. The width and strength of the giant quadrupole resonance are practically constant in 92 Mo through 100 Mo

  13. Sensitivity of (α,α') cross sections to excited-state quadrupole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.T.; Scott, A.; Ronningen, R.M.; Hamilton, J.H.; Kruse, T.H.; Suchannek, R.; Savin, W.

    1977-01-01

    Inelastic α particle scattering at 21 and 24 MeV has been used to estimate the electric quadrupole moment of the second 2 + state in 180 Hf. Sensitivity to the assumed quadrupole moment is due almost entirely to reorientation via the nuclear force. Results suggest that the technique may be a useful method of estimating excited state quadrupole moments, particularly for states with high excitation energies or with J greater than 2

  14. Stability of the coherent quadrupole oscillations excited by the beam-beam interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Y.; Chao, A.W.

    1983-10-01

    We study the coherent quadrupole motion in the presence of beam-beam interaction, using a linear approximation to the beam-beam force. The corresponding beam-beam limit is determined by evaluating the eigenvalues of a system of linear equations describing the coherent quadrupole motion. We find that the stability of the quadrupole motions imposes severe limits on the beam current, as is the case for the dipole instability. Preliminary results of this study have appeared elsewhere

  15. Implementation of dipolar direct current (DDC) collision-induced dissociation in storage and transmission modes on a quadrupole/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ian K; Londry, Frank A; McLuckey, Scott A

    2011-09-15

    Means for effecting dipolar direct current collision-induced dissociation (DDC CID) on a quadrupole/time-of-flight in a mass spectrometer have been implemented for the broadband dissociation of a wide range of analyte ions. The DDC fragmentation method in electrodynamic storage and transmission devices provides a means for inducing fragmentation of ions over a large mass-to-charge range simultaneously. It can be effected within an ion storage step in a quadrupole collision cell that is operated as a linear ion trap or as ions are continuously transmitted through the collision cell. A DDC potential is applied across one pair of rods in the quadrupole collision cell of a QqTOF hybrid mass spectrometer to effect fragmentation. In this study, ions derived from a small drug molecule, a model peptide, a small protein, and an oligonucleotide were subjected to the DDC CID method in either an ion trapping or an ion transmission mode (or both). Several key experimental parameters that affect DDC CID results, such as time, voltage, low mass cutoff, and bath gas pressure, are illustrated with protonated leucine enkephalin. The DDC CID dissociation method gives a readily tunable, broadband tool for probing the primary structures of a wide range of analyte ions. The method provides an alternative to the narrow resonance conditions of conventional ion trap CID and it can access more extensive sequential fragmentation, depending upon conditions. The DDC CID approach constitutes a collision analog to infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Kinetic energy in the collective quadrupole Hamiltonian from the experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolos, R.V., E-mail: jolos@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kolganova, E.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-10

    Dependence of the kinetic energy term of the collective nuclear Hamiltonian on collective momentum is considered. It is shown that the fourth order in collective momentum term of the collective quadrupole Hamiltonian generates a sizable effect on the excitation energies and the matrix elements of the quadrupole moment operator. It is demonstrated that the results of calculation are sensitive to the values of some matrix elements of the quadrupole moment. It stresses the importance for a concrete nucleus to have the experimental data for the reduced matrix elements of the quadrupole moment operator taken between all low lying states with the angular momenta not exceeding 4.

  17. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported

  18. The Erez–Rosen metric and the role of the quadrupole on light propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Crosta, Mariateresa; Vecchiato, Alberto; De Felice, Fernando; Geralico, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The gravitational field of a static body with the quadrupole moment is described by an exact solution found by Erez and Rosen. Here, we investigate the role of the quadrupole in the motion, deflection and lensing of a light ray in the above metric. The standard lensing observables such as image positions and magnification have been explicitly obtained in the weak-field and small-quadrupole limit. In this limit, the spacetime metric appears as the natural generalization to quadrupole corrections of the metric form adopted also in current astrometric models. Hence, the corresponding analytical solution of the inverse ray tracing problem and the consistency with other approaches are also discussed. (paper)

  19. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-05-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  20. Progress in the Development of Superconducting Quadrupoles forHeavy-ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-08-19

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  1. Random errors in the magnetic field coefficients of superconducting quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Prodell, A.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1987-01-01

    The random multipole errors of superconducting quadrupoles are studied. For analyzing the multipoles which arise due to random variations in the size and locations of the current blocks, a model is outlined which gives the fractional field coefficients from the current distributions. With this approach, based on the symmetries of the quadrupole magnet, estimates are obtained of the random multipole errors for the arc quadrupoles envisioned for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and for a single-layer quadrupole proposed for the Superconducting Super Collider

  2. Design and application possibilities of superconducting radio-frequency quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.; Deitinghoff, H.

    1990-01-01

    In recent experiments, cw surface electric fields in excess of 100 MV/m have been obtained in a superconducting rf quadrupole (SCRFQ) device. In this paper we explore some design and application possibilities of SCRFQs which have been opened by these results. For example, SCRFQs may be able to accelerate higher cw currents than is now possible. Also, highly-modulated SCRFQs could be designed to provide compact, high-longitudinal-gradient devices. Some conceptual designs and applications will be discussed. 15 refs., 2 figs

  3. Transport properties of a discrete helical electrostatic quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meitzler, C.R.; Antes, K.; Datte, P.; Huson, F.R.; Xiu, L.

    1991-01-01

    The helical electrostatic quadrupole (HESQ) lens has been proposed as a low energy beam transport system which permits intense H - beams to be focused into an RFQ without seriously increasing the beam's emittance. A stepwise continuous HESQ lens has been constructed, and preliminary tests have shown that the structure does provide focusing. In order to understand the transport properties of this device, further detailed studies have been performed. Emittances were measured 3.5 cm from the end of the HESQ at two different voltages on the HESQ electrodes. A comparison of these experimental results with a linear model of the HESQ beam transport is made. 4 refs., 5 figs

  4. Status of the quadrupoles for RHIC [Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Cottingham, J.G.; Garber, M.

    1989-01-01

    The proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will require 408 regular arc quadrupoles. Two full size prototypes have been constructed and tested. The construction uses the single layer, collarless concept which has been successful in the RHIC dipoles. Both the magnets attained short sample current, which is 60% higher than the operating current. This corresponds to a gradient of 113 T/m with clear bore of 80 mm. The preliminary field measurements are in agreement with the calculations, with the exception of an unexpectedly large show sextupole. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Optimized Superconducting Quadrupole Arrays for Multiple Beam Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer B. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States); Goodzeit, Carl L. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States); Ball, Millicent J. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2005-09-20

    This research project advanced the development of reliable, cost-effective arrays of superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in multi-beam inertial fusion accelerators. The field in each array cell must be identical and meet stringent requirements for field quality and strength. An optimized compact array design using flat double-layer pancake coils was developed. Analytical studies of edge termination methods showed that it is feasible to meet the requirements for field uniformity in all cells and elimination of stray external field in several ways: active methods that involve placement of field compensating coils on the periphery of the array or a passive method that involves use of iron shielding.

  6. Design of an rf quadrupole for Landau damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papke, K.; Grudiev, A.

    2017-08-01

    The recently proposed superconducting quadrupole resonator for Landau damping in accelerators is subjected to a detailed design study. The optimization process of two different cavity types is presented following the requirements of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) with the main focus on quadrupolar strength, surface peak fields, and impedance. The lower order and higher order mode (LOM and HOM) spectrum of the optimized cavities is investigated and different approaches for their damping are proposed. On the basis of an example the first two higher order multipole errors are calculated. Likewise on this example the required rf power and optimal external quality factor for the input coupler is derived.

  7. Scaling laws for aberrations in magnetic quadrupole lens systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, R.W.; Heighway, E.A.; Christian, R.S.; Dragt, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the third-order (spherical) abberrations in magnetic quadrupole lenses for use in conventional charged particle beam transport systems. An analytical description of the abberrations is presented and this is compared with the results of high order numerical integration. The dependence of the aberration strength on the system geometry and f number is given and a comparison of doublet and triplet systems made. The reduction of the aberrations in both doublet and triplet systems using embedded magnetic octupole lenses is also discussed and analytical predictions are given

  8. Table of Nuclear Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.

    2011-04-01

    This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. The literature search covers the period to late 2010. Many of the entries prior to 1988 follow those in Raghavan P., Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 42, 189 (1989). (author)

  9. Table of Nuclear Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.

    2014-02-01

    This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. The literature search covers the period to early 2014. Many of the entries prior to 1988 follow those in Raghavan P., Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 42, 189 (1989). (author)

  10. Radio-frequency quadrupole: general properties and specific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Crandall, K.R.; Hamm, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure is being developed for the acceleration of low-velocity ions. Recent experimental tests have confirmed its expected performance and have led to an increased interest in a wide range of possible applications. The general properties of RFQ accelerators are reviewed and beam dynamics simulation results are presented for their use in a variety of accelerating systems. These include the low-beta sections of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Accelerator, a 200-MHz proton linear accelerator, and a xenon accelerator for heavy ion fusion

  11. A compact quadrupole ion filter for helium detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    A compact quadrupole ion filter was conceived and constructed for optimum performance at the mass four region of the mass spectra. It was primarely designed for geological applications in the measurements of helium of soil-gases. The whole ion filter structure is 15 cm long by 3.5 cm diameter, including ion source and collecting plate. The sensitivity to helium is of the order of 10 - 2 A.torr - 1 measured at a total pressure of 6x10 - 6 torr and resolution 6. The system can be easily adapted to work as a dynamic residual gas analyser for other purposes. (Author) [pt

  12. Quench observation using quench antennas on RHIC IR quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ganetis, G.; Muratore, J.; Wanderer, P.

    1995-01-01

    Quench observation using quench antennas is now being performed routinely on RHIC dipole and quadrupole magnets. Recently, a quench antenna was used on a RHIC IR magnet which is heavily instrumented with voltage taps. It was confirmed that the signals detected in the antenna coils do not contradict the voltage tap signals. The antenna also detects a sign of mechanical disturbance which could be related to a training quench. This paper summarizes signals detected in the antenna and discusses possible causes of these signals

  13. Quench observation using quench antennas on RHIC IR quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ganetis, G.; Muratore, J.; Wanderer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Quench observation using quench antennas is now being performed routinely on RHIC dipole and quadrupole magnets. Recently, a quench antenna was used on a RHIC IR magnet which is heavily instrumented with voltage taps. It was confirmed that the signals detected in the antenna coils do not contradict the voltage tap signals. The antenna also detects a sign of mechanical disturbance which could be related to a training quench. This paper summarizes signals detected in the antenna and discusses possible causes of these signals

  14. Radio frequency quadrupole linac for the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, D.L.; Young, L.M.; Clark, W.L.; Billen, J.H.; DePaula, R.F.; Naranjo, A.C.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Roybal, P.L.; Stovall, J.E.; Ray, K.; Richter, R.

    1993-01-01

    A 2.5 MeV, 428 MHz radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed and fabricated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and GAR Electroforming for the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. This device is a two segment accelerator fabricated from tellurium-copper (CDA14500) vane/cavity quadrants which are joined by electroforming. The structure incorporates an integral vacuum jacket and has no longitudinal rf or mechanical joints. The SSC RFQ linac is an extension of the design of the 1.0 MeV RFQ which was successfully flown on the BEAR Project. (orig.)

  15. Tests of high gradient superconducting quadrupole magnets for the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, M.J.; Carson, J.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koepke, K.; Mantsch, P.; McInturff, A.D.; Riddiford, A.; Strait, J.

    1989-09-01

    Tests have been completed on three prototype magnets and two production magnets to be used for the Tevatron Dφ/Bφ low- β insertion. These cold iron, two shell quadrupoles are made of 36 strand Rutherford type NbTi superconducting cable. Magnet field gradients well in excess of the design 1.41 T/cm have been achieved at a transfer function of 0.291 T/cm/kA. Quench performance at 4.2 K and 3.7 K and magnetic multipole measurement data are presented and discussed. 9 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Remote alignment of Low beta quadrupoles with micrometric resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Acar, M; Herty, A; Mainaud-Durand, H; Marin, A; Quesnel, J P

    2008-01-01

    Considering their location in a high radiation environment and the alignment tolerancesrequested, the low beta quadrupoles of LHC will be positioned remotely (controlling 5 degrees of freedom), with a displacement resolution of few microns in horizontal and vertical. Stepping motor gearbox assemblies are plugged into the jacks which support the cryomagnets in order to move them to the desired position regarding the quality of the beam collisions in the detectors. This displacement will be monitored in real time by the sensors located on the magnets. This paper describes the positioning strategy implemented as well as the software tools used to manage it.

  17. Measurement of isovector giant quadrupole resonance in 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, D.A.; Thompson, M.N.; Rassool, R.; Adler, J.O.; Andersson, B.E.; Hansen, K.; Issaksson, L.; Nilsson, B.; Ruijter, H.; Schroeder, B.; Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Crawford, G.I.; Miller, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    The 40 Ca(γ,n) reaction was measured using tagged photons in the energy range 25-50 MeV. Neutrons were detected using two 9-element, liquid scintillator, neutron detectors placed at angles of 55 deg and 125 deg at flight path of 3.2 m. The absolute cross section was determined relative to that for D (γ,n)p, which was measured using a heavy water target. The forward/backward asymmetry in the 40 Ca (γ, n) cross section, resulting from E1/E2 interference has been used to locate and parametrize the isovector giant quadrupole resonance (IVQR). 6 refs., 2 figs

  18. Novel integrated design framework for radio frequency quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, Simon; Easton, Matthew; Lawrie, Scott; Letchford, Alan; Pozimski, Jürgen; Savage, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A novel design framework for Radio Frequency Quadrupoles (RFQs), developed as part of the design of the FETS RFQ, is presented. This framework integrates several previously disparate steps in the design of RFQs, including the beam dynamics design, mechanical design, electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical modelling and beam dynamics simulations. Each stage of the design process is described in detail, including the various software options and reasons for the final software suite selected. Results are given for each of these steps, describing how each stage affects the overall design process, with an emphasis on the resulting design choices for the FETS RFQ

  19. Quadrupole singlet focusing for achromatic parallel-to-parallel devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    A first order achromatic magnetic deflection system for use in conjunction with a charged particle accelerator is realized from a stepped gap magnet wherein charged particles propagating through the system are subject to at least two adjacent homogeneous magnetic fields in adjacent regions in traversing one-half of a symmetric trajectory through the system. A quadrupole singlet element Q of adjustable focal length disposed substantially at the entrance plane of such a symmetric system makes possible the coincidence of the waists of the beam in both the vertical (transverse) and (radial) bending planes. (author)

  20. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  1. Transistor regenerative spectrometer for 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.P.; Mikhal'kov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    Improvement of the Robinson transducer for investigations of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) in 14 N is described. Amplifier of the suggested transducer is made using p-n field effect transistor and small-noise SHF bipolar transistor. Such a circuit permits to obtain optimal relation between input resistance, low-frequency noises and transconductance which provides uniform gain of the transducer in the frequency range of 0.6-12 MHz and permits to construct a transistor spectrometer of NQR not yielding to a lamp spectrometer in sensitivity [ru

  2. Advance and permanent public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Oleon, C.

    1990-01-01

    The accident at CHERNOBYL highlighted one of the major problems facing the nuclear industry at present and during the years to come: the need to provide information. There are two aspects to this requirement: information at a time of crisis issued when an accident such as that at CHERNOBYL takes place, but which has to be based on a procedure set up before the crisis, and advance and permanent information which prepares the ground for information at a time of crisis. The requirement for information is of particular importance in France, given the preponderance of nuclear energy in the electricity generating industry. The procedure covers the principles which were forcefully asserted by the French public authorities during the CHERNOBYL crisis, the resources strengthened or established at that time, and finally, the introduction of a policy of wider-ranging communication which is based on the idea that one can never compromise with safety

  3. CHALLENGES OF PERMANENT TEACHER TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Manuela Valles-Ornelas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges for teachers and managers require to assume permanent formation as a tool for responding effectively and efficiently to them, different perspective to strengthen from the initial teacher education programs. The research was done in a primary school in the state of Chihuahua. The method used was research action, the question was: How can we encourage the lifelong learning and training of the staff of this school, with the purpose to assist them in these processes to improve the service that the school provides to students. The school group is the center of the process, the cooperative and collaborative work accompanied by educational leadership and persuasive provide better results, and all accompanied by the professional selfinvitation.

  4. Modern permanent magnetic materials - preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodewald, W.

    1989-01-01

    First of all, the basic properties of the classical (steel, AlNiCo) permanent magnetic materials and the modern rare-earth (RE) permanent magnetic materials are compared. Since the properties of RE permanent magnets depend on the particular production process, the fundamentals of the main industrial processes (powder metallurgy, rapid-solidification technique) are described and the typical properties are explained. Furthermore the production processes in development such as mechanical alloying, melt spinning technique and extrusion upsetting are briefly outlined. For applying the permanent magnets, they have to be completely magnetized. The magnetization behaviour of the various RE permanent magnets is discussed by means of the internal demagnetization curve. Finally the various influences on the temperature stability of RE permanent magnets are compiled. (orig./MM) [de

  5. Intrusive luxation of 60 permanent incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

      Intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is an uncommon injury but it is considered one of the most severe types of dental trauma because of the risk for damage to the periodontal ligament, pulp and alveolar bone. Management of intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is controversial....... The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulp survival and periodontal healing in intrusive luxated permanent teeth in relation to treatment alternatives, degree of intrusion and root development....

  6. Extracting the Omega- electric quadrupole moment from lattice QCD data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ramalho, M.T. Pena

    2011-03-01

    The Omega- has an extremely long lifetime, and is the most stable of the baryons with spin 3/2. Therefore the Omega- magnetic moment is very accurately known. Nevertheless, its electric quadrupole moment was never measured, although estimates exist in different formalisms. In principle, lattice QCD simulations provide at present the most appropriate way to estimate the Omega- form factors, as function of the square of the transferred four-momentum, Q2, since it describes baryon systems at the physical mass for the strange quark. However, lattice QCD form factors, and in particular GE2, are determined at finite Q2 only, and the extraction of the electric quadrupole moment, Q_Omega= GE2(0) e/(2 M_Omega), involves an extrapolation of the numerical lattice results. In this work we reproduce the lattice QCD data with a covariant spectator quark model for Omega- which includes a mixture of S and two D states for the relative quark-diquark motion. Once the model is calibrated, it is used to determine Q_Omega. Our prediction is Q_Omega= (0.96 +/- 0.02)*10^(-2) efm2 [GE2(0)=0.680 +/- 0.012].

  7. A Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, A.J.; Kwan, J.W.; Burlon, A.A.; Di Paolo, H.; Henestroza, E.; Minsky, D.M.; Valda, A.A.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.

    2007-01-01

    A project to develop a Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded Tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT

  8. Precision Magnet Measurements for X-Band Accelerator Quadrupole Triplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Armstrong, J P

    2012-05-16

    An X-band test station is being developed at LLNL to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades to mono-energetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology at LLNL. Beamline magnets will include an emittance compensation solenoid, windowpane steering dipoles, and quadrupole magnets. Demanding tolerances have been placed on the alignment of these magnets, which directly affects the electron bunch beam quality. A magnet mapping system has been established at LLNL in order to ensure the delivered magnets match their field specification, and the mountings are aligned and capable of reaching the specified alignment tolerances. The magnet measurement system will be described which uses a 3-axis Lakeshore gauss probe mounted on a 3-axis translation stage. Alignment accuracy and precision will be discussed, as well as centering measurements and analysis. The dependence on data analysis over direct multi-pole measurement allows a significant improvement in useful alignment information. Detailed analysis of measurements on the beamline quadrupoles will be discussed, including multi-pole content both from alignment of the magnets, and the intrinsic level of multi-pole magnetic field.

  9. Quadrupole oscillations as paradigm of the chaotic motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezovoj, V.P.; Bolotin, Yu.L.; Gonchar, V.Yu.; Granovsky, M.Ya.

    2003-01-01

    A complete description of classical dynamics, generated by the Hamiltonian of quadrupole nuclear oscillations, is presented. Those peculiarities of quantum dynamics, which can be interpreted as quantum manifestations of classical stochasticity are identified. Semiclassical approximation to an energy spectrum is developed through quantization of the Birkhoff-Gustavson normal form. We show that the type of classical motion is correlated with the structure of the stationary wave functions. Correlations were found both in the coordinate space (the lattice of nodal curves and the distribution of the probability density) and in the Hilbert space associated with the integrable part of the Hamiltonian. Quadrupole oscillations of nuclei were used to investigate the shell structure destruction induced by the increase of nonintegrable perturbation, which models residual nucleon-nucleon interaction. The process of wave packet tunneling through potential barrier is considered for the case of finite motion. We demonstrate that the stringent correlation between the level quasi-crossing and the wave function delocalization, which leads to the resonant tunneling, takes place [ru

  10. High Reliability Prototype Quadrupole for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Cherrill M

    2001-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 5600 magnets, each of which must be highly reliable and/or quickly repairable in order that the NLC reach its 85% overall availability goal. A multidiscipline engineering team was assembled at SLAC to develop a more reliable electromagnet design than historically had been achieved at SLAC. This team carried out a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on a standard SLAC quadrupole magnet system. They overcame a number of longstanding design prejudices, producing 10 major design changes. This paper describes how a prototype magnet was constructed and the extensive testing carried out on it to prove full functionality with an improvement in reliability. The magnet's fabrication cost will be compared to the cost of a magnet with the same requirements made in the historic SLAC way. The NLC will use over 1600 of these 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles with a range of integrated strengths from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of 0 to -20% and core lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. A magnetic measurement set-up has been developed that can measure sub-micron shifts of a magnetic center. The prototype satisfied the center shift requirement over the full range of integrated strengths

  11. Study of Nb3Sn cables for superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otmani, R.

    1999-10-01

    In particle physics, the quest for higher energies may be satisfied by the use of niobium-tin superconducting magnets. Such magnets are made of Rutherford type cables which are wound from superconducting strands. The strands are made by the 'internal tin' method. The aim of this study is to determine the main parameters for the fabrication of a quadrupole. The two main requirements the cable must fulfill are high critical current and low losses. The main parameters were determined from different measurements and models. Thus, the key parameters for the current transport capacity are the number and the diameter of the filaments, the number of sub-elements, the surface of superconductor and the copper-to-non-copper ratio. For the hysteresis losses, the main parameters appear to be the effective filament diameter and the spacing of the filaments. For intra-strand losses, the main parameters appear to be the filaments' diameter, the filament spacing, the nature of the diffusion barrier and the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper. The interstrand resistances for the cable are the key parameters for the losses. Thus, the nature of the strands coating or the presence of a stainless steel core can strongly diminish the cable losses. Finally, a design, for the strands and the cables for the fabrication of a quadrupole is proposed. (author)

  12. Transition quadrupole moments in the superdeformed band of 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, C.J.; Ideguchi, E.; Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.; Reviol, W.; Ryu, S.K.; Sarantites, D.G.; Baktash, C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C.J.; Reiter, P.; Seweryniak, D.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Rudolph, D.

    2003-01-01

    The transition quadrupole moments Q t for the superdeformed band in 40 Ca have been determined through thin-target Doppler-shift attenuation analyses. A best-fit value of Q t =1.30±0.05 e b is obtained when a single value is assumed for the entire band. Fitting separate quadrupole moments for in-band transitions decaying from the high-spin states and the presumably admixed low-spin states results in Q t (high)=1.81 -0.26 +0.41 e b and Q t (low)=1.18 -0.05 +0.06 e b, respectively. Q t values extracted for individual transitions in a Doppler-broadened line-shape analysis also indicate smaller Q t values at lower spins. These results are consistent with the interpretation of this band as an eight-particle-eight-hole superdeformed band with a significant admixture of less-collective configurations at low spins

  13. Chaotic motion in axially symmetric potentials with oblate quadrupole deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letelier, Patricio S. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, IMECC, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramos-Caro, Javier, E-mail: javier@ime.unicamp.br [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, IMECC, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lopez-Suspes, Framsol, E-mail: framsol@gmail.com [Facultad de Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Santo Tomas and Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2011-10-03

    By computing the Poincare's surfaces of section and Lyapunov exponents, we study the effect of introducing an oblate quadrupole in the dynamics associated with two generic spherical potentials of physical interest: the central monopole and the isotropic harmonic oscillator. In the former case we find saddle points in the effective potential, in contrast to the statements presented by Gueron and Letelier in [E. Gueron, P.S. Letelier, Phys. Rev. E 63 (2001) 035201]. The results we show in the second case have application in nuclear or atomic physics. In particular, we find values of oblate deformation leading to a disappearance of shell structure in the single-particle spectrum. -- Highlights: → We find chaotic motion around a monopole with oblate quadrupole deformation. → This corrects the statements introduced in [E. Gueron, P.S. Letelier, Phys. Rev. E 63 (2001) 035201]. → We present an alternative model for the potential due to an oblate deformed nuclei. → This leads to stochastic regions in the phase space of classical orbits. → It suggests that the shell structure of single-particle spectrum tends to disappear.

  14. Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.W.

    1991-07-01

    Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs

  15. The Quadrupole Magnets for the LHC Injection Transfer Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Chertok, I; Churkin, I N; Giesch, Manfred; Golubenko, O B; Kalbreier, Willi; Kouba, G; Mejidzade, V; Mikhailov, S; Steshov, A; Sukhanov, A; Sukhina, B; Schirm, K M; Weisse, E

    2000-01-01

    Two injection transfer lines, each about 2.8 km long, are being built to transfer protons at 450 GeV from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A total of 180 quadrupole magnets are required; they are produced in the framework of the contribution of the Russian Federation to the construction of the LHC. The classical quadrupoles, built from laminated steel cores and copper coils, have a core length of 1.4 m, an inscribed diameter of 32 mm and a strength of 53.5 T/m at a current of 530 A. The total weight of one magnet is 1.1 ton. For obtaining the required field quality at the small inscribed diameter, great care in the stamping of the laminations and the assembly of quadrants is necessary. Special instruments have been developed to measure, with a precision of some mm, the variations of the pole gaps over the full length of the magnet and correlate them to the obtained field distribution. The design has been developed in a collaboration between BINP and CERN. Fabrication and ...

  16. Hybrid Switch Reluctance Drives For Pump Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    be the single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM). Due to the simple construction of the single phase HSRM, manufacturing may be simplified compared to a three phase permanent magnet motor and consumption of copper may be lowered when compared to both the induction motor and some three phase permanent...... magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the HSRM needs information about rotor position to be properly controlled. For BLDC, PMSM, induction motors, and the normal SRM position sensorless methods are relatively well established and have been used for some time. For the single phase switched reluctance motor......The initial research problem is to investigate an alternative motor drive to the existing permanent magnet synchronous and brushless DC-motor drives for pump applications. A review of different motor types showed that a possible candidate for another low cost permanent magnet motor may...

  17. Description of surface quadrupole oscillations of heated spherical nuclei in the Brownian-motion approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svin'in, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Brownian motion of a quadrupole quantum oscillator is considered as a model of surface quadrupole oscillations of heated spherical nuclei. The integrals of the motion related to energy and angular momentum conservation are constructed and the wave functions are obtained for states with definite values of these integrals of the motion in the phonon representation

  18. Analysis of magnetic nanoparticles using quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpino, Francesca; Moore, Lee R.; Zborowski, Maciej; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Williams, P. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The new technique of quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation is described. It is a separation and characterization technique for particulate magnetic materials. Components of a sample are eluted from the separation channel at times dependent on the strength of their interaction with the magnetic field. A quadrupole electromagnet allows a programmed reduction of field strength during analysis of polydisperse samples

  19. The effect of quadrupole fields on particle confinement in a field-reversed mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, D.B.; Berk, H.L.; Hammer, J.; Morse, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    A particle simulation code has been modified to simulate particle loss caused by quadrupole magnetic fields on a field-reversed mirror plasma device. Since analytic fields are chosen for the equilibrium, the numerical algorithm is highly accurate for long-time integrations of particle orbits. The resultant particle loss due to the quadrupole fields can be competitive with collisional loss in the device

  20. Rotations as coherent states of SU(6) quadrupole phonons in the SU(3) limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, L F [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Paar, V [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Prirodoslovno Matematicki Fakultet; Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)

    1981-06-18

    Analytic expressions for the wavefunctions of the ground-state rotational band for even and odd nuclei are derived in terms of spherical quadrupole phonons truncated at N(max) phonons. For N(max) ..-->.. infinite the Bohr-Mottelson rotational states are generated as an asymptotic gaussian distribution of quadrupole phonons.

  1. CESAR, 2 MeV electron storage ring; construction period; quadrupole.

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Photo; CERN PhotoLab

    1962-01-01

    One of the 24 quadrupoles. They were made of massive (non-laminated) soft iron, which at the low field-strength (35 G on the pole-tips) presented problems. Later they were fitted with shims on all 4 poles, to correct the quadrupole and sextupole components.

  2. Neutron-proton ratios of collective quadrupole matrix elements in even Fe and Cr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antalik, R.

    1989-01-01

    M n /M p ratios are investigated within the QRPA framework for the low-lying quadrupole states and for isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in 54,56,58 Fe and 50,52,54 Cr. Theoretical results for 2 l ? + states are in good agreement with empirical ones obtained from recent proton and pion inelastic scattering studies. 16 refs.; 3 tabs

  3. Quadrupole moment in the excited 2Psub(1/2) state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Yakhontov, V.L.

    1984-01-01

    Computation of the quadrupole moment values in the 2Psub(1/2) states of hydrogen and meso-hydrogen is carried out. It is shown that allowance for the hyperfine interaction of the electron with the proton in the first order of perturbation theory results in giant values of the quadrupole moment of the atoms. (author)

  4. Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A

    2003-10-23

    An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.

  5. 3-D analysis of eddy current in permanent magnet of interior permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Fukanaga, Hiromu; Ito, Shokichi

    2002-01-01

    Interior permanent magnet motors are widely used in various fields. However, in high-speed operations, it is important to decrease the eddy current loss in the permanent magnet. In order to decrease the eddy current loss, we propose to divide the permanent magnet. In this paper, we clarified the effect of division of permanent magnet on the eddy current loss using the 3-D finite element method. (Author)

  6. Determination of nuclear quadrupole moments – An example of the synergy of ab initio calculations and microwave spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellö, Vladimir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Comenius University, SK-842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-01-22

    Highly correlated scalar relativistic calculations of electric field gradients at nuclei in diatomic molecules in combination with accurate nuclear quadrupole coupling constants obtained from microwave spectroscopy are used for determination of nuclear quadrupole moments.

  7. Corporate Policies with Permanent and Transitory Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P. Decamps (Jean-Paul); S. Gryglewicz (Sebastian); E. Morellec (Erwan); S. Villeneuve (Stephane)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe model the financing, cash holdings, and hedging policies of a firm facing financing frictions and subject to permanent and transitory cash flow shocks. We show that permanent and transitory shocks generate distinct, sometimes opposite, effects on corporate policies and use the model

  8. OAS :: Authorities : Permanent Representatives to the OAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Bolivia José Luiz Machado Brazil José Luiz Machado e Costa Ambassador, Permanent Representative

  9. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions.

  10. Guidelines for removing permanent makeup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Bettina Rümmelein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Permanent makeup (PMU is a frequently implemented cosmetic procedure performed by beauticians. From a technical point, PMU is considered a facial tattoo. Failed procedures or a change of mind can lead to the desire for removal. The purpose of this retrospective evaluation of patients who came to the clinic with the desire to remove PMU between 2011 and 2015 was to explore the problems, side effects, and results in order to define treatment guidelines for other doctors. We evaluated 87 individual cases in total. In treatable cases, i.e. 52 out of the 87 cases, laser treatments were performed using a nanosecond Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG laser. It takes between 1-12 treatments to remove the PMU. In three cases, the colour of the PMU could not be removed by laser and remained after the treatment. In two cases, laser treatment had to be terminated due to colour changes towards the green-blue spectrum. Before PMU removal, laser test shots are urgently recommended as unforeseeable colour changes can cause severe aesthetically unpleasant results. Covered up PMU (skin colour is particularly susceptible to changes in colour. Heat-induced shrinking of the eye area can cause an ectropium. Surgical solutions also have to be taken into consideration. The use of proper eye protection with intraocular eye shields is mandatory. This article is an attempt to set up some guidelines for the treatment of PMU removal.

  11. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  12. High-Energy Gun-Injected Toroidal Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, J.E.; Henins, I.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Marshall, J.; Sherwood, A.R.

    1971-01-01

    A quadrupole device is being used to investigate the trapping and containment of an energetic gun plasma. The quadrupole is designed to contain a peak density of 5 x 10 13 cm -3 at 2.5 keV within the MHD-stable region. At design field there are 5 gyro-radii for 2. 5-keV protons from the separatrix to the ψ crit . The interior conductors are directly driven with a 0.8-MJ capacitor bank. The current to the coils is fed through a single pair of dipole-guarded conductors to each coil. The coils are also supported from the current feed, The dipole guard is in a force-free configuration with 5 gyro-radii for 2. 5-keV protons from the separatrix (between the dipole and quadrupole fields) to the dipole surface. The dipole is designed so that loss of plasma from the dipole region will be directed away from the interior conductors. This feature is necessary for the prevention of contamination by secondary gas produced by plasma lost at the dipole guard. Experiments at one-half design value of magnetic field have shown that the kilovolt energy gun plasma is trapped by depolarization currents around the coils, and that a very high percentage (>50%) of the gun output can be trapped. The plasma density is measured by a unique Michelson interferometer using CO 2 laser light. The energy of the plasma is derived from magnetic pickup loops placed outside the containment region. The leak caused by the dipole guard Held has been examined by double electric probe measurements. The plasma drift thus inferred is an order of magnitude less than that predicted by a model of Meade's or by calculations by us. This casts doubt upon the validity of any such simple model and emphasizes the necessity of further experimental investigation of the matter. New coils which are being built to operate at full design magnetic field strength will allow a check on the containment time of the device for kilovolt energy plasma. (author)

  13. Design and fabrication of the BNL radio frequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie-Wilson, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory polarized H - injection program for the AGS will utilize a Radio Frequency Quadrupole for acceleration between the polarized source and the Alvarez Linac. Although operation will commence with a few μ amperes of H - current, it is anticipated that future polarized H - sources will have a considerably improved output. The RFQ will operate at 201.25 MHz and will be capable of handling a beam current of 0.02 amperes with a duty cycle of 0.25%. The resulting low average power has allowed novel solutions to the problems of vane alignment, rf current contacts, and removal of heat from the vanes. The cavity design philosophy will be discussed together with the thermodynamics of heat removal from the vane. Details of the fabrication will be presented with a status report

  14. Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnets for the LHC IR

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, G L; Chiesa, L; Coccoli, M; Dietderich, D R; Ferracin, P; Gourlay, S A; Hafalia, R R; Lietzke, A F; McInturff, A D; Scanlan, R M

    2003-01-01

    The development of insertion quadrupoles with 205 T/m gradient and 90 mm bore represents a promising strategy to achieve the ultimate luminosity goal of 2.5 * 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At present, Nb/sub 3/Sn is the only practical conductor which can meet these requirements. Since Nb/sub 3/Sn is brittle, and considerably more strain sensitive than NbTi, the design concepts and fabrication techniques developed for NbTi magnets need to be modified appropriately. In addition, IR magnets must provide high field quality and operate reliably under severe radiation loads. The results of conceptual design studies addressing these issues are presented. (25 refs).

  15. Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnets for the LHC IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbi, G.; Caspi, S.; Chiesa, L.; Coccoli, M.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of insertion quadrupoles with 205 T/m gradient and 90 mm bore represents a promising strategy to achieve the ultimate luminosity goal of 2.5 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At present, Nb 3 Sn is the only practical conductor which can meet these requirements. Since Nb 3 Sn is brittle, and considerably more strain sensitive than NbTi, the design concepts and fabrication techniques developed for NbTi magnets need to be modified appropriately. In addition, IR magnets must provide high field quality and operate reliably under severe radiation loads. The results of conceptual design studies addressing these issues are presented.

  16. Application of artificial intelligence to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.; Crawford, R.W.; Kehler, T.P.; Kunz, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the authors have designed a totally computerized triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with the ultimate goal of using it as a prototype for ''knowledge-based'' instrument control. As an ''intelligent'' instrument, with its computer-based data acquisition and control system, it has the ability to learn and respond quickly. The intelligence is encoded in the system using the representation and rule-based reasoning heuristic techniques of Artificial Intelligence. These techniques are used to encode heuristic knowledge, or the intuition, formal and informal rules, and experiential knowledge that the human expert normally uses to make decisions and arrive at solutions in a specific domain problem. In this specific case, the knowledge the authors are encoding is a tuning procedure for the spectrometer, including heuristics to describe a self-adaptive, feedback control process for real-time optimization or tuning of the data acquisition procedure throughout the entire data collection process

  17. Anisotropic cosmological constant and the CMB quadrupole anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Davi C.

    2008-01-01

    There are evidences that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) large-angle anomalies imply a departure from statistical isotropy and hence from the standard cosmological model. We propose a ΛCDM model extension whose dark energy component preserves its nondynamical character but wields anisotropic vacuum pressure. Exact solutions for the cosmological scale factors are presented, upper bounds for the deformation parameter are evaluated and its value is estimated considering the elliptical universe proposal to solve the quadrupole anomaly. This model can be constructed from a Bianchi I cosmology with a cosmological constant from two different ways: (i) a straightforward anisotropic modification of the vacuum pressure consistently with energy-momentum conservation; (ii) a Poisson structure deformation between canonical momenta such that the dynamics remain invariant under scale factors rescalings

  18. Design of an rf quadrupole for Landau damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Papke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The recently proposed superconducting quadrupole resonator for Landau damping in accelerators is subjected to a detailed design study. The optimization process of two different cavity types is presented following the requirements of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC with the main focus on quadrupolar strength, surface peak fields, and impedance. The lower order and higher order mode (LOM and HOM spectrum of the optimized cavities is investigated and different approaches for their damping are proposed. On the basis of an example the first two higher order multipole errors are calculated. Likewise on this example the required rf power and optimal external quality factor for the input coupler is derived.

  19. Dipole and electric quadrupole excitations in 40,48Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, T.; Enders, J.; Mohr, P.; Vogt, K.; Volz, S.; Zilges, A.

    2001-11-01

    Photon scattering experiments have been performed to investigate the structure of the two doubly magic nuclei 40,48 Ca. The method is highly selective to induce low-order multipole transitions i.e., E1, M1, and E2 from the ground state. We determined the energies and spins of excited states and the absolute strengths of the γ-decays in a model independent way. We find the summed electric dipole strengths below 10 MeV to exhaust the energy weighted sum rule (EWSR) by 0.023% and 0.27%, respectively. The summed electric quadrupole strengths are Σ B(E2) ↑ = 332 e 2 fm 4 and 407 e 2 fm 4 for 40 Ca and 48 Ca, respectively. In order to explain the difference in the E1 strengths of the two isotopes several theoretical models are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Upgrading the Lyon cluster ion accelerator by a radiofrequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.O.; Schempp, A.

    1987-02-01

    The design is presented of an RFQ with variable final energy suitable to post-accelerate cluster ions from the Lyon electrostatic cluster-ion accelerator in the mass ranges from 1 to 25 μ and 1 to 50 μ to kinetic energies of 1.32-2.5 MeV and 2.64-5.0 MeV for cw and pulsed operation, respectively. Furthermore, a beam line is described which matches the electrostatically preaccelerated beam to the RFQ by use of electrostatic quadrupole triplets. When used without RFQ this beam line serves to improve beam parameters on the target, such as the particle flux density or beam divergence. The estimated costs of this project are about DM 345 000.- or FF 1 200 000.- without VAT. (orig.) [de

  1. Theory of nuclear quadrupole interactions in solid hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.S.; Sahoo, N.; Das, T.P.; Kelires, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear quadrupole interaction of 19 F * (I=5/2) nucleus in solid hydrogen fluoride has been studied using the Hartree Fock cluster technique to understand the influence of both intrachain hydrogen bonding effects and the weak interchain interaction. On the basis of our investigations, the 34.04 MHz coupling constant observed by TDPAD measurements has been ascribed to the bulk solid while the observed 40.13 MHz coupling constant is suggested as arising from a small two- or three-molecule cluster produced during the proton irradiation process. Two alternate explanations are offered for the origin of coupling constants close to 40 MHz in a number of solid hydrocarbons containing hydrogen and fluorine ligands. (orig.)

  2. Manufacturing experience for the LHC inner triplet quadrupole cables

    CERN Document Server

    Scanlan, R M; Bossert, R; Kerby, J S; Ghosh, A K; Boivin, M; Roy, T

    2002-01-01

    The design for the U.S. LHC Inner Triplet Quadrupole magnet requires a 37 strand (inner layer) and a 46 strand (outer layer) cable. This represents the largest number of strands attempted to date for a production quantity of Rutherford-type cable. The cable parameters were optimized during the production of a series of short prototype magnets produced at FNAL. These optimization studies focused on critical current degradation, dimensional control, coil winding, and interstrand resistance. After the R&D phase was complete, the technology was transferred to NEEW and a new cabling machine was installed to produce these cables. At present, about 60 unit lengths, out of 90 required for the entire production series of magnets, have been completed for each type of cable. The manufacturing experience with these challenging cables will be reported. Finally, the implications for even larger cables, with more strands, will be discussed. (8 refs).

  3. Cryogenic tests of the first two LHC quadrupole prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevey, P.; Deregel, J.; Perot, J.; Rifflet, J.M.; Vedrine, P.; Cortella, J.; Le Coroller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Two LHC (Large Hadron Collider) twin aperture quadrupole prototypes were constructed at CEA Saclay (a CERN-CEA collaboration agreement). Their main characteristics are: 3.05 m length, 56 mm coil aperture, 180 mm between the two apertures, 252 T/m nominal gradient at 15060 A. They have been tested and measured in the 1.8 K Saclay test facility in an horizontal cryostat. The magnets are instrumented in order to investigate their behaviour during cool-down, stand-by, powering and current ramping, quenching and warming-up. A summary of the cryogenic, mechanical, pressure and electrical measurements is presented. The quench protection heaters are efficient down to 3000 A. Losses during ramping up and down are reported. (from authors) 5 fig., 11 ref

  4. Does the small CMB quadrupole moment suggest new physics?

    CERN Document Server

    Cline, J M; Lesgourgues, Julien; Cline, James M.; Crotty, Patrick; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by WMAP's confirmation of an anomalously low value of the quadrupole moment of the CMB temperature fluctuations, we investigate the effects on the CMB of cutting off the primordial power spectrum P(k) at low wave numbers. This could arise, for example, from a break in the inflaton potential, a prior period of matter or radiation domination, or an oscillating scalar field which couples to the inflaton. We reanalyze the full WMAP parameter space supplemented by a low-k cutoff for P(k). The temperature correlations by themselves are better fit by a cutoff spectrum, but including the TE temperature-polarization spectrum reduces this preference to a 1.4 sigma effect. Inclusion of large scale structure data does not change the conclusion. If taken seriously, the low-k cutoff is correlated with optical depth so that reionization occurs even earlier than indicated by the WMAP analysis.

  5. Beam-induced quench test of LHC main quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Holzer, E B; Kurfuerst, C; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Steckert, J; Verweij, A; Zamantzas, C

    2011-01-01

    Unexpected beam loss might lead to a transition of the accelerator superconducting magnet to a normal conducting state. The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system is designed to abort the beam before the energy deposited in the magnet coils reach a quench-provoking level. In order to verify the threshold settings generated by simulation, a series of beam-induced quench tests at various beam energies has been performed. The beam losses are generated by means of an orbital bump peaked in one of main quadrupole magnets (MQ). The analysis includes not only BLM data but also the quench protection system (QPS) and cryogenics data. The measurements are compared to Geant4 simulations of energy deposition inside the coils and corresponding BLM signal outside the cryostat.

  6. A Cryogenic Test Stand for LHC Quadrupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.H.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.F.; Peterson, T.J.; Rabehl, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    A new test stand for testing LHC interaction region (IR) quadrupole magnets at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has been designed and operated. The test stand uses a double bath system with a lambda plate to provide the magnet with a stagnant bath of pressurized He II at 1.9 K and 0.13 MPa. A cryostated magnet 0.91 m in diameter and up to 13 m in length can be accommodated. This paper describes the system design and operation. Issues related to both 4.5 K and 1.9 K operations and magnet quenching are highlighted. An overview of the data acquisition and cryogenics controls systems is also included

  7. A radio frequency quadrupole ion beam buncher for ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Bollen, G; Dezfuli, A M G; Henry, S; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kim, T; Kluge, H J; Kohl, A; Lamour, E; Lunney, M D; Moore, R B; Quint, W; Schwarz, S; Varfalvy, P; Vermeeren, L

    1998-01-01

    ISOLTRAP is a Penning trap spectrometer at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN for the mass determination of radioisotopes. It consists of three electromagnetic traps in tandem; a Paul trap for ISOLDE beam collection, a Penning trap for cooling and purification and a high-precision Penning trap for the measurement of masses by cyclotron resonance. The Paul trap, which collects radionuclide ions using only electric fields and a noble buffer gas, has been essential for the masses of radionuclides that cannot be surface ionized. The success with this system has led to the present program to increase the collection efficiency by replacing the Paul trap by a radiofrequency quadrupole ion guide operating as a buncher. This system would also provide a DC ISOLDE beam of emittance approaching 1$\\pi$ -mm-mrad. (3 refs).

  8. A surface-electrode quadrupole guide for electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffrogge, Johannes Philipp

    2012-12-19

    This thesis reports on the design and first experimental realization of a surface-electrode quadrupole guide for free electrons. The guide is based on a miniaturized, planar electrode layout and is driven at microwave frequencies. It confines electrons in the near-field of the microwave excitation, where strong electric field gradients can be generated without resorting to resonating structures or exceptionally high drive powers. The use of chip-based electrode geometries allows the realization of versatile, microstructured potentials with the perspective of novel quantum experiments with guided electrons. I present the design, construction and operation of an experiment that demonstrates electron confinement in a planar quadrupole guide for the first time. To this end, electrons with kinetic energies from one to ten electron-volts are guided along a curved electrode geometry. The stability of electron guiding as a function of drive parameters and electron energy has been studied. A comparison with numerical particle tracking simulations yields good qualitative agreement and provides a deeper understanding of the electron dynamics in the guiding potential. Furthermore, this thesis gives a detailed description of the design of the surface-electrode layout. This includes the development of an optimized coupling structure to inject electrons into the guide with minimum transverse excitation. I also discuss the extension of the current setup to longitudinal guide dimensions that are comparable to or larger than the wavelength of the drive signal. This is possible with a modified electrode layout featuring elevated signal conductors. Electron guiding in the field of a planar, microfabricated electrode layout allows the generation of versatile and finely structured guiding potentials. One example would be the realization of junctions that split and recombine a guided electron beam. Furthermore, it should be possible to prepare electrons in low-lying quantum mechanical

  9. A surface-electrode quadrupole guide for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffrogge, Johannes Philipp

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on the design and first experimental realization of a surface-electrode quadrupole guide for free electrons. The guide is based on a miniaturized, planar electrode layout and is driven at microwave frequencies. It confines electrons in the near-field of the microwave excitation, where strong electric field gradients can be generated without resorting to resonating structures or exceptionally high drive powers. The use of chip-based electrode geometries allows the realization of versatile, microstructured potentials with the perspective of novel quantum experiments with guided electrons. I present the design, construction and operation of an experiment that demonstrates electron confinement in a planar quadrupole guide for the first time. To this end, electrons with kinetic energies from one to ten electron-volts are guided along a curved electrode geometry. The stability of electron guiding as a function of drive parameters and electron energy has been studied. A comparison with numerical particle tracking simulations yields good qualitative agreement and provides a deeper understanding of the electron dynamics in the guiding potential. Furthermore, this thesis gives a detailed description of the design of the surface-electrode layout. This includes the development of an optimized coupling structure to inject electrons into the guide with minimum transverse excitation. I also discuss the extension of the current setup to longitudinal guide dimensions that are comparable to or larger than the wavelength of the drive signal. This is possible with a modified electrode layout featuring elevated signal conductors. Electron guiding in the field of a planar, microfabricated electrode layout allows the generation of versatile and finely structured guiding potentials. One example would be the realization of junctions that split and recombine a guided electron beam. Furthermore, it should be possible to prepare electrons in low-lying quantum mechanical

  10. Molecular physics. Production of trilobite Rydberg molecule dimers with kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D; Rittenhouse, S T; Yang, J; Sadeghpour, H R; Shaffer, J P

    2015-04-03

    Permanent electric dipole moments are important for understanding symmetry breaking in molecular physics, control of chemical reactions, and realization of strongly correlated many-body quantum systems. However, large molecular permanent electric dipole moments are challenging to realize experimentally. We report the observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules with bond lengths of ~100 nanometers and kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments that form when an ultracold ground-state cesium (Cs) atom becomes bound within the electronic cloud of an extended Cs electronic orbit. The electronic character of this hybrid class of "trilobite" molecules is dominated by degenerate Rydberg manifolds, making them difficult to produce by conventional photoassociation. We used detailed coupled-channel calculations to reproduce their properties quantitatively. Our findings may lead to progress in ultracold chemistry and strongly correlated many-body physics. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. REE Recovery from End-of-Life NdFeB Permanent Magnet Scrap : A Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Walton, A; Sheridan, R.; Güth, K.; Gauß, R.; Gutfleisch, O; Buchert, M; Steenari, B-M,; Van Gerven, T; Jones, PT; Binnemans, K

    2017-01-01

    NdFeB permanent magnets have different life cycles, depending on the applications: from as short as 2–3 years in consumer electronics to 20–30 years in wind turbines. The size of the magnets ranges from less than 1 g in small consumer electronics to about 1 kg in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid

  12. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E [El Cerrito, CA; Pollard, Martin J [El Cerrito, CA; Elkin, Christopher J [San Ramon, CA

    2009-02-03

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are further improvements to aspects of the hybrid magnetic structure, including additional elements and for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use in biotechnology and high throughput processes.

  13. Ab initio determination of the nuclear quadrupole moments of 114In, 115In, and 117In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, Leonardo A.; Renteria, Mario

    2006-01-01

    We present here ab initio determinations of the nuclear-quadrupole moment Q of hyperfine-probe-nuclear states of three different In isotopes: the 5 + 192 keV excited state of 114 In (probe for nuclear quadrupole alignment spectroscopy), the 9/2 + ground state of 115 In (nuclear magnetic and nuclear quadrupole resonance probe), and the 3/2 + 659 keV excited state of 117 In (perturbed angular correlations probe). These nuclear-quadrupole moments were determined by comparing experimental nuclear-quadrupole frequencies to the electric field gradient tensor calculated with high accuracy at In sites in metallic indium within the density functional theory. These ab initio calculations were performed with the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The results obtained for the quadrupole moments of 114 In [Q( 114 In)=-0.14(1) b] are in clear discrepancy with those reported in the literature [Q( 114 In)=+0.16(6) b and +0.739(12) b]. For 115 In and 117 In our results are in excellent agreement with the literature and in the last case Q( 117 In) is determined with more precision. In the case of Q( 117 In), its sign cannot be determined because standard γ-γ perturbed angular correlations experiments are not sensitive to the sign of the nuclear-quadrupole frequency

  14. Quadrupole moments as measures of electron correlation in two-electron atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceraulo, S.C.; Berry, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    We have calculated quadrupole moments, Q zz , of helium in several of its doubly excited states and in two of its singly excited Rydberg states, and of the alkaline-earth atoms Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba in their ground and low-lying excited states. The calculations use well-converged, frozen-core configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions and, for interpretive purposes, Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic wave functions and single-term, optimized, molecular rotor-vibrator (RV) wave functions. The quadrupole moments calculated using RV wave functions serve as a test of the validity of the correlated, moleculelike model, which has been used to describe the effects of electron correlation in these two-electron and pseudo-two-electron atoms. Likewise, the quadrupole moments calculated with HF wave functions test the validity of the independent-particle model. In addition to their predictive use and their application to testing simple models, the quadrupole moments calculated with CI wave functions reveal previously unavailable information about the electronic structure of these atoms. Experimental methods by which these quadrupole moments might be measured are also discussed. The quadrupole moments computed from CI wave functions are presented as predictions; measurements of Q zz have been made for only two singly excited Rydberg states of He, and a value of Q zz has been computed previously for only one of the states reported here. We present these results in the hope of stimulating others to measure some of these quadrupole moments

  15. Nanocrystalline permanent magnets with enhanced properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.

    2002-01-01

    Parameters of permanent magnets result from the combination of intrinsic properties such as saturation magnetization, magnetic exchange, and magnetocrystalline energy, as well as microstructural parameters such as phase structure, grain size, and orientation. Reduction of grain size into nanocrystalline regime (∼ 50 nm) leads to the enhanced remanence which derives from ferromagnetic exchange coupling between highly refined grains. In this study the fundamental phenomena, quantities, and structure parameters, which define nanophase permanent magnets are presented and discussed. The theoretical considerations are confronted with experimental data for nanocrystalline Sm-Fe-N type permanent magnets. (author)

  16. Permanent molars: Delayed development and eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Delayed development and eruption of all the permanent molars is a rare phenomenon, which can cause disturbance in the developing occlusion. The eruption of permanent first and second molars is very important for the coordination of facial growth and for providing sufficient occlusal support for undisturbed mastication. In the case described, the first permanent molars were delayed in their development and were seen erupting at the age of nine and a half years. Severe disparity between the left and the right side of the dentition with respect to the rate of development of molars were also present.

  17. Reactor safety review of permanent changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    Operational compliance engineers review all changes as part of a change control process. Each change, permanent or temporary, is required to undergo an intricate review process to ensure that the benefits associated with the change outweigh the risk. For permanent changes, it is necessary to ensure that the proposed design meets the nuclear safety requirements, conforms to the licensing requirements and complies with regulatory requirements. In addition, during installation of the permanent change and prior to in-service, a configuration management process is in place to align the change with operating and maintenance documents. (author)

  18. Radioecological sensitivity of permanent grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    The project 'SENSIB' of the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) aims at characterizing and classifying parameters with significant impact on the transfer of radioactive contaminants in the environment. This thesis is focused on permanent grassland areas. Its objectives are the analysis of the activity variations of two artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) in the chain from soil to dairy products as well as the categorization of ecological and anthropogenic parameters, which determine the sensitivity of the studied area. For this study, in situ sampling is carried out in 15 farms in 3 different French regions (Charente, Puy-de-Dome and Jura). The sampling sites are chosen according to their natural variations (geology, altitude and climate) and the soil types. Additionally to the radiologic measurements, geographic, soil and vegetation data as well as data concerning cattle-rearing and cheese manufacturing processes are gathered. From the soil to the grass vegetation, 137 Cs transfer factors vary between 3 x 10-3 and 148 x 10-3 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) per Bq kg-1 (dry weight) (N = 73). Theses transfer factors are significantly higher in the Puy-de-Dome region than in the Jura region. The 137 Cs transfer factor from cattle feed to milk varies from 5.9 x 10-3 to 258 x 10-3 Bq kg-1 (fresh weight) per Bq kg-1 (dry weight) (N = 28). Statistically, it is higher in the Charente region. Finally, the 90 Sr transfer factor from milk to cheese ranges from 3.9 to 12.1. The studied site with the highest factor is the Jura (N = 25). The link between milk and dairy products is the stage with the most 137 Cs and 90 Sr transfers. A nonlinear approach based on a discretization method of the transfer factor with multiple comparison tests admits a classification of the sensitivity factors from soil to grass vegetation. We can determine 20 factors interfering in the 137 Cs transfer into the vegetation, for instance, the clay rate of the soils or a marker

  19. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  20. The effect of quadrupole force to the spectra of nuclei in the f7/2 shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingying

    1992-01-01

    The effect of quadrupole force on the spectra of nuclei in the f 7/2 shell is tested. The nuclear spectra are calculated by using the surface delta interaction plus quadrupole interaction and the modified surface delta interaction respectively. The results calculated with the former are much better than those with the latter, the role of the isospin modified term in the modified surface delta interaction can be substituted by the quadrupole interaction term. It is also shown that the effect of quadrupole interaction in the f 7/2 shell is important although the quadrupole deformations of nuclei in this region are not large

  1. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  2. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Wanderer, P; Ferracin, P; Sabbi, G

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  3. Measurement of time dependent fields in high gradient superconducting quadrupoles for the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, M.J.; Coulter, K.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    Magnetic field measurements have been performed on prototype and production magnets from two high gradient superconducting quadrupoles designs. One design is a double shell quadrupole with 36 strand Rutherford cable. The other design is a single shell quadrupole with 5 individually monolithic strands connected in series. These magnets have similar bore diameters and cable dimensions. However, there are significant differences between the two designs, as well as differences between prototype and production magnets within each design, with regard to Cu to superconductor ratio, filament diameter and filament spacing to strand diameter. The time dependence of fixed currents of the measured magnetic fields is discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. The Analysis of Quadrupole Magnetic Focusing Effect by Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utaja

    2003-01-01

    Quadrupole magnets will introduce focusing effect to a beam of the charge particle passing parallel to the magnet faces. The focusing effect is need to control the particle beam, so that it is in accordance with necessity requirement stated. This paper describes the analysis of focusing effect on the quadrupole magnetic by the finite element method. The finite element method in this paper is used for solve the potential distribution of magnetic field. If the potential magnetic field distribution in every node have known, a charge particle trajectory can be traced. This charge particle trajectory will secure the focusing effect of the quadrupole magnets. (author)

  5. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven; Ferracin, P. [CERN; Sabbi, G. [LBNL, Berkeley

    2016-10-06

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  6. Macroscopic simulation of isotropic permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, Florian; Abert, Claas; Vogler, Christoph; Heinrichs, Frank; Satz, Armin; Ausserlechner, Udo; Binder, Gernot; Koeck, Helmut; Suess, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Accurate simulations of isotropic permanent magnets require to take the magnetization process into account and consider the anisotropic, nonlinear, and hysteretic material behaviour near the saturation configuration. An efficient method for the solution of the magnetostatic Maxwell equations including the description of isotropic permanent magnets is presented. The algorithm can easily be implemented on top of existing finite element methods and does not require a full characterization of the hysteresis of the magnetic material. Strayfield measurements of an isotropic permanent magnet and simulation results are in good agreement and highlight the importance of a proper description of the isotropic material. - Highlights: • Simulations of isotropic permanent magnets. • Accurate calculation of remanence magnetization and strayfield. • Comparison with strayfield measurements and anisotropic magnet simulations. • Efficient 3D FEM–BEM coupling for solution of Maxwell equations.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AL. Update on mutations in glucokinase (GCK), which cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young, permanent neonatal diabetes, and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Hum Mutat. 2009 Nov;30(11):1512-26. ...

  8. [Permanent education in health: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccas, Fernanda Luppino; Batista, Sylvia Helena Souza da Silva

    2014-02-01

    To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and practices related to permanent education in health. A bibliographical search was conducted for original articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: "public health professional education", "permanent education", "continuing education", "permanent education health". Of the 590 articles identified, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 were selected for further analysis, grouped according to the criteria of key elements, and then underwent meta-synthesis. The 48 original publications were classified according to four thematic units of key elements: 1) concepts, 2) strategies and difficulties, 3) public policies and 4) educational institutions. Three main conceptions of permanent education in health were found: problem-focused and team work, directly related to continuing education and education that takes place throughout life. The main strategies for executing permanent education in health are discussion, maintaining an open space for permanent education , and permanent education clusters. The most limiting factor is mainly related to directly or indirect management. Another highlight is the requirement for implementation and maintenance of public policies, and the availability of financial and human resources. The educational institutions need to combine education and service aiming to form critical-reflexive graduates. The coordination between health and education is based as much on the actions of health services as on management and educational institutions. Thus, it becomes a challenge to implement the teaching-learning processes that are supported by critical-reflexive actions. It is necessary to carry out proposals for permanent education in health involving the participation of health professionals, teachers and educational institutions. To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and

  9. Radioelement gauges. Appliances intended for permanent installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    The present norm defines for radioelement gauges intended for permanent installation: a classification of instruments and beam shutter devices; recommended construction techniques which satisfy health physics requirements; monitoring and test methods; information which must appear on the instruments [fr

  10. Canadian Eskimo permanent tooth emergence timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhall, J T; Belier, P L; Mayhall, M F

    1978-08-01

    To identify the times of emergence of the permanent teeth of Canadian Eskimos (Inuit), 368 children and adolescents were examined. The presence or absence of all permanent teeth except the third molars was recorded and these data subjected to probit analysis. Female emergence times were advanced over males. Generally, the Inuit of both sexes showed statistically significant earlier emergence times than Montreal children, except for the incisors. The present results do not support hypotheses indicating that premature extraction of the deciduous teeth advances the emergence of their succedaneous counterparts. There is some indication the controls of deciduous tooth emergence continue to play some part in emergence of the permanent dentition, especially the first permanent teeth that emerge.

  11. Multiple Unerupted Permanent Teeth Associated with Noonan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [2] Oral findings in patients with NS include a high arched palate ... the atypical dental anomalies such as multiple unerupted permanent ... clinical features in a child with NS. .... Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  12. Magnetic spring based on two permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivilitsin, V.Yu.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Goncharuk, V.A.; Bondar, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of the magnetic spring construction 'two permanent magnets' has been considered. A mathematical expression for the estimation of a pulling-in force has been offered. This expression is verified experimentally on the produced operating magnetic spring. The theoretical and experimental data are in good accordance. A number of advantages of the magnetic spring over the construction 'permanent magnet - magnetic circuit' such as an insignificant friction force between two magnets and a higher pulling force are discussed.

  13. Permanent Magnet Dipole for DIRAC Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Vorozhtsov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Two dipole magnets including one spare unit are needed for the for the DIRAC experiment. The proposed design is a permanent magnet dipole. The design based on Sm2Co17 blocks assembled together with soft ferromagnetic pole tips. The magnet provides integrated field strength of 24.6 10-3 T×m inside the aperture of 60 mm. This Design Report summarizes the main magnetic and mechanic design parameters of the permanent dipole magnets.

  14. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  15. Workplace bullying a risk for permanent employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuskamp, Dominic; Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran E; Lamontagne, Anthony D

    2012-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the risk of experiencing workplace bullying was greater for those employed on casual contracts compared to permanent or ongoing employees. A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted in South Australia in 2009. Employment arrangements were classified by self-report into four categories: permanent, casual, fixed-term and self-employed. Self-report of workplace bullying was modelled using multiple logistic regression in relation to employment arrangement, controlling for sex, age, working hours, years in job, occupational skill level, marital status and a proxy for socioeconomic status. Workplace bullying was reported by 174 respondents (15.2%). Risk of workplace bullying was higher for being in a professional occupation, having a university education and being separated, divorced or widowed, but did not vary significantly by sex, age or job tenure. In adjusted multivariate logistic regression models, casual workers were significantly less likely than workers on permanent or fixed-term contracts to report bullying. Those separated, divorced or widowed had higher odds of reporting bullying than married, de facto or never-married workers. Contrary to expectation, workplace bullying was more often reported by permanent than casual employees. It may represent an exposure pathway not previously linked with the more idealised permanent employment arrangement. A finer understanding of psycho-social hazards across all employment arrangements is needed, with equal attention to the hazards associated with permanent as well as casual employment. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Electric quadrupole interaction in cubic BCC α-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Błachowski, A.; Komędera, K. [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Ruebenbauer, K., E-mail: sfrueben@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Cios, G.; Żukrowski, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Center for Materials and Nanotechnology, Av. A. Mickiewicza 30, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland); Górnicki, R. [RENON, ul. Gliniana 15/15, PL-30-732 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Mössbauer transmission spectra for the 14.41-keV resonant line in {sup 57}Fe have been collected at room temperature by using {sup 57}Co(Rh) commercial source and α-Fe strain-free single crystal as an absorber. The absorber was magnetized to saturation in the absorber plane perpendicular to the γ-ray beam axis applying small external magnetic field. Spectra were collected for various orientations of the magnetizing field, the latter lying close to the [110] crystal plane. A positive electric quadrupole coupling constant was found practically independent on the field orientation. One obtains the following value V{sub zz} = +1.61(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2} for the (average) principal component of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor under assumption that the EFG tensor is axially symmetric and the principal axis is aligned with the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the {sup 57}Fe nucleus. The nuclear spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment for the first excited state of the {sup 57}Fe nucleus was adopted as +0.17 b. Similar measurement was performed at room temperature using as-rolled polycrystalline α-Fe foil of high purity in the zero external field. Corresponding value for the principal component of the EFG was found as V{sub zz} = +1.92(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2}. Hence, it seems that the origin of the EFG is primarily due to the local (atomic) electronic wave function distortion caused by the spin–orbit interaction between effective electronic spin S and incompletely quenched electronic angular momentum L. It seems as well that the lowest order term proportional to the product L·λ·S dominates, as no direction dependence of the EFG principal component is seen. The lowest order term is isotropic for a cubic symmetry as one has λ=λ 1 for cubic systems with the symbol 1 denoting unit operator and λ being the coupling parameter. - Highlights: • Precision of MS the same as MAPON • Real scans versus magnetization direction • A challenge

  17. Electric quadrupole interaction in cubic BCC α-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Błachowski, A.; Komędera, K.; Ruebenbauer, K.; Cios, G.; Żukrowski, J.; Górnicki, R.

    2016-01-01

    Mössbauer transmission spectra for the 14.41-keV resonant line in "5"7Fe have been collected at room temperature by using "5"7Co(Rh) commercial source and α-Fe strain-free single crystal as an absorber. The absorber was magnetized to saturation in the absorber plane perpendicular to the γ-ray beam axis applying small external magnetic field. Spectra were collected for various orientations of the magnetizing field, the latter lying close to the [110] crystal plane. A positive electric quadrupole coupling constant was found practically independent on the field orientation. One obtains the following value V_z_z = +1.61(4) × 10"1"9 Vm"−"2 for the (average) principal component of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor under assumption that the EFG tensor is axially symmetric and the principal axis is aligned with the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the "5"7Fe nucleus. The nuclear spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment for the first excited state of the "5"7Fe nucleus was adopted as +0.17 b. Similar measurement was performed at room temperature using as-rolled polycrystalline α-Fe foil of high purity in the zero external field. Corresponding value for the principal component of the EFG was found as V_z_z = +1.92(4) × 10"1"9 Vm"−"2. Hence, it seems that the origin of the EFG is primarily due to the local (atomic) electronic wave function distortion caused by the spin–orbit interaction between effective electronic spin S and incompletely quenched electronic angular momentum L. It seems as well that the lowest order term proportional to the product L·λ·S dominates, as no direction dependence of the EFG principal component is seen. The lowest order term is isotropic for a cubic symmetry as one has λ=λ 1 for cubic systems with the symbol 1 denoting unit operator and λ being the coupling parameter. - Highlights: • Precision of MS the same as MAPON • Real scans versus magnetization direction • A challenge for ab initio calculations

  18. Triple Quadrupole Versus High Resolution Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative LC-MS/MS Analysis of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Timon; Sleno, Lekha; Hall, Rabea A.; Stokes, Caroline S.; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a systematic comparison of high and low resolution LC-MS/MS assays for quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human serum. Identical sample preparation, chromatography separations, electrospray ionization sources, precursor ion selection, and ion activation were used; the two assays differed only in the implemented final mass analyzer stage; viz. high resolution quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF) versus low resolution triple quadrupole instruments. The results were assessed against measured concentration levels from a routine clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. Isobaric interferences prevented the simple use of TOF-MS spectra for extraction of accurate masses and necessitated the application of collision-induced dissociation on the QqTOF platform. The two mass spectrometry assays provided very similar analytical figures of merit, reflecting the lack of relevant isobaric interferences in the MS/MS domain, and were successfully applied to determine the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for patients with chronic liver disease.

  19. Communication: On the isotope anomaly of nuclear quadrupole coupling in molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Michael; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2012-10-01

    The dependence of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCC) on the interaction between electrons and a nucleus of finite size is theoretically analyzed. A deviation of the ratio of the NQCCs obtained from two different isotopomers of a molecule from the ratio of the corresponding bare nuclear electric quadrupole moments, known as quadrupole anomaly, is interpreted in terms of the logarithmic derivatives of the electric field gradient at the nuclear site with respect to the nuclear charge radius. Quantum chemical calculations based on a Dirac-exact relativistic methodology suggest that the effect of the changing size of the Au nucleus in different isotopomers can be observed for Au-containing molecules, for which the predicted quadrupole anomaly reaches values of the order of 0.1%. This is experimentally detectable and provides an insight into the charge distribution of non-spherical nuclei.

  20. Stabilization of the Electron-Nuclear Spin Orientation in Quantum Dots by the Nuclear Quadrupole Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear quadrupole interaction eliminates the restrictions imposed by hyperfine interaction on the spin coherence of an electron and nuclei in a quantum dot. The strain-induced nuclear quadrupole interaction suppresses the nuclear spin flip and makes possible the zero-field dynamic nuclear polarization in self-organized InP/InGaP quantum dots. The direction of the effective nuclear magnetic field is fixed in space, thus quenching the magnetic depolarization of the electron spin in the quantum dot. The quadrupole interaction suppresses the zero-field electron spin decoherence also for the case of nonpolarized nuclei. These results provide a new vision of the role of the nuclear quadrupole interaction in nanostructures: it elongates the spin memory of the electron-nuclear system.

  1. Energies and transition probabilities from the full solution of nuclear quadrupole-octupole model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strecker, M.; Lenske, H.; Minkov, N.

    2013-01-01

    A collective model of nuclear quadrupole-octupole vibrations and rotations, originally restricted to a coherent interplay between quadrupole and octupole modes, is now developed for application beyond this restriction. The eigenvalue problem is solved by diagonalizing the unrestricted Hamiltonian in the basis of the analytic solution obtained in the case of the coherent-mode assumption. Within this scheme the yrast alternating-parity band is constructed by the lowest eigenvalues having the appropriate parity at given angular momentum. Additionally we include the calculation of transition probabilities which are fitted with the energies simultaneously. As a result we obtain a unique set of parameters. The obtained model parameters unambiguously determine the shape of the quadrupole-octupole potential. From the resulting wave functions quadrupole deformation expectation values are calculated which are found to be in agreement with experimental values. (author)

  2. Construction and Qualification of the Pre-Series MQM Superconducting Quadrupoles for the LHC Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Ostojic, R; Lucas, J; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Landgrebe, D

    2004-01-01

    The LHC insertions will be equipped with individually powered MQM superconducting quadrupoles, produced in three versions with magnetic lengths of 2.4 m, 3.4 m, and 4.8 m. The quadrupoles feature a 56 mm aperture coil, designed on the basis of an 8.8 mm wide Rutherford-type NbTi cable for a nominal gradient of 200 T/m at 1.9 K and 5390 A. A total of 96 quadrupoles are in production in Tesla Engineering, UK. In this report we describe the construction of the pre-series MQM quadrupoles and present the results of the qualification tests.

  3. Kinetic equilibrium of space charge dominated beams in a misaligned quadrupole focusing channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of intense beam propagation through the misaligned quadrupole focusing channel has been studied in a self-consistent manner using nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The equations of motion of the beam centroid have been developed and found to be independent of any specific beam distribution. A Vlasov equilibrium distribution and beam envelope equations have been obtained, which provide us a theoretical tool to investigate the dynamics of intense beam propagating in a misaligned quadrupole focusing channel. It is shown that the displaced quadrupoles only cause the centroid of the beam to wander off axis. The beam envelope around the centroid obeys the familiar Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij envelope equation that is independent of the centroid motion. However, the rotation of the quadrupole about its optical axis affects the beam envelope and causes an increase in the projected emittances in the two transverse planes due to the inter-plane coupling

  4. A gas monitoring facility with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, U.

    1988-07-01

    A gas analysis facility for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers based on a quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. After a description of the spectrometer, the vacuum system, and the software, some test results are presented. (HSI)

  5. Superconducting Quadrupole for the ISR High Luminosity insertion:end view

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Connection end view of the prototype quadrupole before insertion of the inner vacuum chamber with inbedded 6-pole windings. The main components of the structure can be seen: (from inside outwards) the superconducting quadrupole coils surrounded by glass epoxy bandage rings and stainless steel spacers, the low-carbon steel yoke quadrants and the aluminium alloy shrinking rings. See also photos 7702690X, 7702307, 7702308, 7812604X.

  6. Assembly of the first model of MQXFS quadrupole magnet for Hi-Lumi

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086825

    2016-01-01

    Building 927. Assembly of the first model of MQXFS quadrupole magnet for Hi-Lumi. The MQXF models are about 1.5 m long and are used to validate the design before start building the first long prototype. Two types of insertion quadrupoles will be built and installed in the LHC tunnel during LS3. LARP (US collaboration) will built MQXFA type (4.2 meters long) and MQXFB magnets (around 7 m long) will be built at CERN.

  7. A summary of the quench behavior of B ampersand W 1 m collider quadrupole model magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, C.M.; Xu, M.F.; Hlasnicek, P.; Kelley, J.P.; Dixon, K.; Savignano, J.; Letterman, S.; Craig, P.; Maloney, J.; Boyes, D.

    1994-01-01

    In order to evaluate the quench performance of a B ampersand W-Siemens designed quadrupole magnet at the earliest possible stage, a model magnet program was developed at B ampersand W for the support of the Superconducting Super Collider. The authors report the quench performance, training behavior, and the ramp rate dependence for the QSH-801 through QSH-804 series of short (1.2 meter) quadrupole model magnets

  8. Nuclear quadrupole interactions in ferroelectric compounds of HF/sup 181/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunzler, J V

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of nuclear quadrupole interaction constants in perovkite-type compounds of PbHfO/sub 3/, SnhfO/sub 3/, CaHfO/sub 3/ e SrHfO/sub 3/ have been performed using the perturbed angular correlation technique. A range of fundamental frequencies from 150 to 550 Megaradians per second was determined. The variation of quadrupole constants has been discussed through the molecular orbital theory.

  9. SSC collider quadrupole cold mass design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, R.A.; Murray, F.S.; Jonas, P.A.; Mischler, W.R.; Blecher, L.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 1,664 focussing and defocussing superconducting quadrupoles are required for the two SSC collider rings. Collider quadruple magnets (CQMS) must satisfy stringent performance, reliability, life and low cost criteria. Performance requirements include field uniformity, training, quench, tracking, thermal cycling and alignment. The CQM cold mass design presented incorporates lessons IGC and Alsthom Intermagnetics S.A. (AISA), our joint venture with GEC-Alsthom, learned in the design, development and manufacture of 500 MRI, 160 high-field custom and 126 HERA quadruple superconducting magnets. This baseline design reflects careful quantitative assessment of coil winding placement and collar material, evaluation of field uniformity and mechanical performance of the magnet coil ends using 3-D modeling and analysis, and considers tolerance and process variability. Selected CQM cold mass design highlights and a proposed prototype development program that allows incorporation of test feedback into the design to minimize risk are detailed in this paper. This information may be helpful to SSCL in the design and development of prototype CQM'S

  10. REDESIGN OF CERNS QUADRUPOLE RESONATOR FOR TESTING OF SUPERCONDUCTING SAMPLES

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pozo Romano, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole resonator (QPR) was constructed in 1997 to measure the surface resistance of niobium samples at 400 MHz, the technology and RF frequency chosen for the LHC. It allows measurement of the RF properties of superconducting films deposited on disk-shaped metallic substrates. The samples are used to study different coatings which is much faster than the coating, stripping and re-coating of sample cavities. An electromagnetic and mechanical re-design of the existing QPR has been done with the goal of doubling the magnetic peak fields on the samples. Electromagnetic simulations were carried out on a completely parametrized model, using the existings QPR as baseline and modifying its dimensions. The aim was to optimize the measurement range and resolution by increasing the ratio between the magnetic peak fields on the sample and in the cavity. Increasing the average magnetic field on the sample leads to a more homogenous field distribution over the sample. Some of the modifications were based on t...

  11. Quadrupole beam-based alignment in the RHIC interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.; Satogata, T.

    2011-01-01

    Continued beam-based alignment (BBA) efforts have provided significant benefit to both heavy ion and polarized proton operations at RHIC. Recent studies demonstrated previously unknown systematic beam position monitor (BPM) offset errors and produced accurate measurements of individual BPM offsets in the experiment interaction regions. Here we describe the algorithm used to collect and analyze data during the 2010 and early 2011 RHIC runs and the results of these measurements. BBA data has been collected over the past two runs for all three of the active experimental IRs at RHIC, updating results from the 2005 run which were taken with incorrectly installed offsets. The technique was successfully applied to expose a systematic misuse of the BPM survey offsets in the control system. This is likely to benefit polarized proton operations as polarization transmission through acceleration ramps depends on RMS orbit control in the arcs, but a quantitative understanding of its impact is still under active investigation. Data taking is ongoing as are refinements to the BBA technique aimed at reducing systematic errors and properly accounting for dispersive effects. Further development may focus on non-triplet BPMs such as those located near snakes, or arc quadrupoles that do not have individually shunted power supplies (a prerequisite for the current method) and as such, will require a modified procedure.

  12. rf quadrupole linac: a new low-energy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.; Crandall, K.R.; Fuller, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept in low-energy particle accelerators, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, is currently being developed at the Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory. In this new linear accelerating structure both the focusing and accelerating forces are produced by the rf fields. It can accept a high-current, low-velocity dc ion beam and bunch it with a high capture efficiency. The performance of this structure as a low-energy linear accelerator has been verified with the successful construction of a proton RFQ linac. This test structure has accelerated 38 mA of protons from 100 keV to 640 keV in 1.1 meters with a capture efficiency greater than 80%. In this paper a general description of the RFQ linac and an outline of the basic RFQ linac design procedure are presented in addition to the experimental results from the test accelerator. Finally, several applications of this new accelerator are discussed

  13. A quantized microwave quadrupole insulator with topologically protected corner states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher W.; Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Hughes, Taylor L.; Bahl, Gaurav

    2018-03-01

    The theory of electric polarization in crystals defines the dipole moment of an insulator in terms of a Berry phase (geometric phase) associated with its electronic ground state. This concept not only solves the long-standing puzzle of how to calculate dipole moments in crystals, but also explains topological band structures in insulators and superconductors, including the quantum anomalous Hall insulator and the quantum spin Hall insulator, as well as quantized adiabatic pumping processes. A recent theoretical study has extended the Berry phase framework to also account for higher electric multipole moments, revealing the existence of higher-order topological phases that have not previously been observed. Here we demonstrate experimentally a member of this predicted class of materials—a quantized quadrupole topological insulator—produced using a gigahertz-frequency reconfigurable microwave circuit. We confirm the non-trivial topological phase using spectroscopic measurements and by identifying corner states that result from the bulk topology. In addition, we test the critical prediction that these corner states are protected by the topology of the bulk, and are not due to surface artefacts, by deforming the edges of the crystal lattice from the topological to the trivial regime. Our results provide conclusive evidence of a unique form of robustness against disorder and deformation, which is characteristic of higher-order topological insulators.

  14. Pygmy quadrupole resonance as a manifestation of the nuclear skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoneva, Nadia [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Lenske, Horst [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Recently, a new mode of nuclear excitation called pygmy quadrupole resonance (PQR) was theoretically predicted in the framework of energy-density functional (EDF) theory plus three-phonon quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM) in Sn isotopic chain. It is closely connected with higher order multipole vibrations of nuclear skin induced by the action of the electromagnetic and hadronic external fields. The predictions initiated new experiments using ({sup 17}O,{sup 17}O{sup '}γ), (α,α{sup '}γ) and (γ,γ{sup '}) reactions which were carried out in {sup 124}Sn nucleus. The aim was to probe for the first time experimentally, the possibility of existence of PQR. The detailed analysis of the obtained experimental results in comparison with the EDF+QPM theory indicates clearly the presence of a multitude of discrete low-energy 2{sup +} excitations of neutron type which can be addressed to PQR mode. The independent measurements of B(E2) values with different probes and the theory allow to identify the dominant isoscalar character of these states. Furthermore, newly determined γ-decay branching ratios exclude a statistical origin of the PQR strength. The latter are important to discriminate between PQR and multiphonon excitations.

  15. Low CMB quadrupole from dark energy isocurvature perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Christopher; Hu, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    We explicate the origin of the temperature quadrupole in the adiabatic dark energy model and explore the mechanism by which scale invariant isocurvature dark energy perturbations can lead to its sharp suppression. The model requires anticorrelated curvature and isocurvature fluctuations and is favored by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data at about the 95% confidence level in a flat scale invariant model. In an inflationary context, the anticorrelation may be established if the curvature fluctuations originate from a variable decay rate of the inflaton; such models however tend to overpredict gravitational waves. This isocurvature model can in the future be distinguished from alternatives involving a reduction in large scale power or modifications to the sound speed of the dark energy through the polarization and its cross correlation with the temperature. The isocurvature model retains the same polarization fluctuations as its adiabatic counterpart but reduces the correlated temperature fluctuations. We present a pedagogical discussion of dark energy fluctuations in a quintessence and k-essence context in the Appendix

  16. Quadrupole deformed and octupole collective bands in 228Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulda, K.; Aas, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Spins and parities for collective states in 228 Ra have been determined from conversion electron measurements with a mini-orange β spectrometer. The fast-timing βγγ(t) method has been used to measure lifetimes of T 1/2 =550(20) ps and 181(3) ps for the 2 + 1 and 4 + 1 members of the K=0 + band, and T 1/2 ≤7 ps and ≤6 ps for the 1 - 1 and 3 - 1 members of the K=0 - band, respectively. The quadrupole moments, Q 0 , deduced from the B(E2; 2 + 1 →0 + 1 ) and B(E2; 4 + 1 →2 + 1 ) rates are in good agreement with the previously measured value and the systematics of the region. However, the B(E1) rates of ≥4 x 10 -4 e 2 fm 2 , which represent the first B(E1) measurements for this nucleus, are at least 25 times larger than the value previously suggested for 228 Ra. The new results are consistent with the B(E1) rates recently measured for the neighbouring 227 Ra and reveal octupole correlations in 228 Ra. (orig.)

  17. Spin dipole and quadrupole resonances in 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.T.; Love, W.G.; Bimbot, L.; Fergerson, R.W.; Glashausser, C.; Green, A.; Jones, K.; Nanda, S.

    1989-01-01

    Angular distributions of the double differential cross section d 2 σ/dΩ dE(σ) and the spin-flip probability S nn have been measured for inclusive proton inelastic scattering from 40 Ca at 319 MeV. Excitation energies (ω) up to about 40 MeV have been investigated over the angular range from 3.5 degree to 12 degree in the laboratory (0.3 to 0.9 fm -1 ). Here, multipole decompositions of angular distributions of σS nn for the 40 Ca(rvec p,rvec p ') reaction at 319 MeV have been performed in order to compare ΔS=1 strength observed with sum rules. In contrast to the well-known quenching of Gamow-Teller and M1 resonances, the spin-dipole resonance has a total measured strength which is larger than that predicted by the energy-weighted sum rule. The spin-dipole strength distribution supports asymmetric widths predicted by calculations including 2p-2h mixing. The spin-quadrupole resonance is observed near ω=35 MeV and its total strength for ω<40 MeV estimated

  18. Ion mobility analyzer - quadrupole mass spectrometer system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, C; Leuca, M; Lupsa, N; Mirel, V; Cuna, Stela; Cosma, V; Tusa, Florina; Bocos-Bintintan, V

    2009-01-01

    Because of their extremely high sensitivity for chemicals with elevated electronegativity or high proton affinity the ion mobility analysers are ideal for the ultra-trace detection of toxic or explosive chemicals, most of these situated often at concentration levels of sub-ppb (parts-per-billion). Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) can be used to identify illicit drugs or environmental pollutants. Since resolution of an IMS is relatively low, to achieve an accurate identification of target analyte it is recommended to couple the IMS with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) or a time of flight mass spectrometer, acquiring in this way confirmatory information. This coupling is made through a specific interface. In this paper, an experimental model of such a tandem instrument, IMS-QMS is described. Accomplishment of this general purpose will be done, overcoming a series of specific issues. This implies the solving, using innovative solutions, of a series of complex issues: ensuring the stability of the ions beam generated by ion source; transfer with a good efficiency of the ionic current from IMS analyser to QMS; and realization of a special electronic circuitry which will be able to detect both positive and negative ions.

  19. Ion mobility analyzer - quadrupole mass spectrometer system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuna, C; Leuca, M; Lupsa, N; Mirel, V; Cuna, Stela; Cosma, V; Tusa, Florina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bocos-Bintintan, V, E-mail: cornel.cuna@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, 3 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Because of their extremely high sensitivity for chemicals with elevated electronegativity or high proton affinity the ion mobility analysers are ideal for the ultra-trace detection of toxic or explosive chemicals, most of these situated often at concentration levels of sub-ppb (parts-per-billion). Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) can be used to identify illicit drugs or environmental pollutants. Since resolution of an IMS is relatively low, to achieve an accurate identification of target analyte it is recommended to couple the IMS with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) or a time of flight mass spectrometer, acquiring in this way confirmatory information. This coupling is made through a specific interface. In this paper, an experimental model of such a tandem instrument, IMS-QMS is described. Accomplishment of this general purpose will be done, overcoming a series of specific issues. This implies the solving, using innovative solutions, of a series of complex issues: ensuring the stability of the ions beam generated by ion source; transfer with a good efficiency of the ionic current from IMS analyser to QMS; and realization of a special electronic circuitry which will be able to detect both positive and negative ions.

  20. Nuclear quadrupole resonance applied for arsenic oxide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.A.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this study are mounting a pulsed Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) building a flow cryostat capable of varying the temperature continuously from 77 K to 340 K and using the spectrometer and the cryostat to study the polycrystalline arsenic oxide. The spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ), the spin-spin relaxation time (T 2 ) and the resonance frequency are obtained as a function of temperature. These data are obtained in 77 to 330 K interval. The relaxation times are obtained using the spin echo technique. The spin echo phenomenon is due to refocusing spins, when a 180 0 C pulse is applied after a 90 0 C pulse. The spin-lattice relaxation time is obtained using the plot of echo amplitude versus the repetition time. The spin-spin relaxation time is obtained using the plot of echo amplitude versus the separation between the 90 0 C - 180 0 C pulses. The theory developed by Bayer is used to explain the spin-lattice relaxation time and the frequency temperature dependence. The spin-spin relaxation time is discussed using the Bloch equations. (author)

  1. Design Challenges for a Wide-Aperture Insertion Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Russenschuck, S; Perez, J C; Ramos, D; Fessia, P; Karppinen, M; Kirby, G; Sahner, T; Schwerg, N

    2011-01-01

    The design and development of a superconducting (Nb-Ti) quadrupole with 120 mm aperture, for an upgrade of the LHC insertion region, faces challenges arising from the LHC beam optics requirements and the heat-deposition. The first triggered extensive studies of coil alternatives with four and six coil-blocks in view of field quality and operation margins. The latter requires more porous insulation schemes for both the cables and the ground-plane. This in turn necessitates extensive heatpropagation and quench-velocity studies, as well as more efficient quench heaters. The engineering design of the magnet includes innovative features such as self-locking collars, which will enable the collaring to be performed with the coils on a horizontal assembly bench, a spring-loaded and collapsible assembly mandrel, tuning-shims for field quality, porous collaring-shoes, and coil end-spacer design based on differential geometry methods. The project also initiated code extensions in the quench-simulation and CAD/CAM module...

  2. Chaos and catastrophes in quadrupole oscillations of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotin, Yu L; Gonchar, V Yu; Inopin, I V

    1987-02-01

    Dynamics of quadrupole oscillations of atomic nuclei is investigated. A possibility of the transition from the regular regime to the chaotic one is studied; critical energy of this transition for different potential parameters is determined. The obtained results permit to state that for all the considered cases there exists a relatively narrow energy range, where the character of motion varies from regular to chaotic. The determined values of critical energy comply with the following regularities: a) the critical energy for potentials with common central minimum for all the values of parameters coincides with that found by the criterion of negative curvature; b) in the case of potentials with two minia (0 < a < 1/4 b/sup 2/) the critical energy for the central well having several elliptic fixed points coincides with that found by the criterion of negative curvature; for minima corresponding to non-spherical equilibrium states and having only one elliptic fixed point the critical energy coincides with saddle energy; c) similar relation between the number of fixed elliptic points and critical energy of transition to chaos takes place at a < 0.

  3. Fast quadrupole pulsed power supply in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Halama, H.J.; Lambiase, R.F.; Montemurro, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the Polarized Proton Project at the AGS, a pulsed power supply system has been developed to energize a set of twelve fast quadrupoles which are symmetrically distributed around the 1/2-mile circumference of the machine. During a typical acceleration cycle, which is normally repeated every 2.4 s, these magnets are energized with bursts of triangular current pulses. The rise-time of each pulse is less than 2 μs and the width at the base varies from 1 to 3.5 ms depending on the pulse. Within a burst, pulses alternate in polarity and vary in amplitude from 160 A to 2700 A peak. Pulse separation is on the order of 40 ms. Due to the distributed nature of the load and high di/dt, each magnet is powered by a separate modulator. Magnets are driven via coaxial pulse transmission cables up to 200 ft long. In the modulators, the high power pulses are switched with thyratron/ignitron switch pairs. All modulators are charged in parallel with a common system of programmable high voltage power supplies. The overall system is controlled with a distributed network of microcomputers. This paper describes the development, construction and initial performance of the pulsed power supply system

  4. Permanent magnet materials and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent magnets are of great industrial importance in industrial drives, consumer products, computers, and automobiles. Since 1970, new classes of magnet materials have been developed. This book reviews the older and newer materials and is presented as a comprehensive design text for permanent magnets and their applications. After an initial chapter on the fundamentals of magnetism, the author discusses magnetic physics considerations specific to permanent magnets and describes the fabrications and characteristics of commercial materials: alnico, samarium-cobalt, ferrite, and neodymium-iron-boron. Thermal stability, magnet design procedures, magnetic field analysis methods, and measurement methods are discussed in subsequent chapters, followed by a concluding chapter reviewing commercial and industrial products that use permanent magnets. The chapter on thermal properties of magnet materials is of particular interest, bringing together information not readily found elsewhere. The review of applications is also deserving of attention, specifically the sections on motors and actuators. Although particle accelerator applications are discussed, the use of permanent magnet sextuples in modern ECR ion sources is not mentioned

  5. Cylindrical Hall Thrusters with Permanent Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Merino, Enrique; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction of both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50W-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT.

  6. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States. [61 FR 37386, July 18...

  7. 13 CFR 120.900 - Sources of permanent financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of permanent financing... Development Company Loan Program (504) Permanent Financing § 120.900 Sources of permanent financing. Permanent financing for each Project must come from three sources: the Borrower's contribution, Third-Party Loans, and...

  8. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  9. Static devices with new permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Laforest, J.; Pauthenet, R.

    1987-01-01

    The high remanence and coercivity of the new permanent magnet materials are of special interest in the static applications. High ordering temperature and are uniaxial anisotropy at the origin of their good permanent magnet properties are obtained in rare earth-transition metal compounds. Binary SmCo/sub 5/ and Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/ and ternary Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B compounds are the basis materials of the best permanent magnets. new concepts of calculations of static devices with these magnets can be applied: the magnetization can be considered as ridig, the density of the surface Amperian current is constant, the relative permeability is approximately 1 and the induction calculations are linear. Examples of hexapoles with Sm-Co and NdFeB magnets are described and the performances are compared. The problems of temperature behavior and corrosion resistance are underlined

  10. The history of permanent magnet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Permanent-magnet materials play a large and growing, but largely unseen, role in today's technology. Many common devices in the home and elsewhere, including appliances, computers and printers, contain permanent-magnet motors and actuators. The growth of applications for permanent magnets results in large part from the improvements in magnetic properties, which allow the engineer to design smaller, lighter and more efficient devices. The properties of the greatest technological interest are remanence, coercivity and maximum energy product. All are non-equilibrium and high structure-sensitive. Coercivity is particularly sensitive to microstructure, while remanence is sensitive to texture (crystallographic alignment). The energy product depends on both coercivity and remanence. The more than one hundredfold increase in the available energy product in this century, and the corresponding amount of magnet required for a specific application, are shown

  11. Analysis of a spherical permanent magnet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Jewell, G.W.; Howe, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a new form of actuator with a spherical permanent magnet rotor and a simple winding arrangement, which is capable of a high specific torque by utilizing a rare-earth permanent magnet. The magnetic-field distribution is established using an analytical technique formulated in spherical coordinates, and the results are validated by finite element analysis. The analytical field solution allows the prediction of the actuator torque and back emf in closed forms. In turn, these facilitate the characterization of the actuator and provide a firm basis for design optimization, system dynamic modeling, and closed-loop control law development. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Joe

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  13. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release

  14. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, Marco; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a cylindrical permanent magnet (projectile) inside a tubular permanent magnet, with both magnets magnetized axially, illustrates nicely the physical principles behind the operation of magnetic guns. The force acting upon the projectile is expressed semi-analytically as derivative...... of the magnetostatic interaction energy. For comparison, the forces involved are also calculated numerically using finite elements methods. Based on the conservation of the magnetostatic and kinetic energies, the exit and asymptotic velocities are determined. The derived formulas can be used to optimize the generated...... forces and motion of the inner cylindrical magnet....

  15. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, E A; Dwyer, Lian O; Leith, Rona

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  16. Status of radio frequency quadrupole accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Rajeev; Kothari, Ashok; Kumar, Sugam; Safvan, C.P.; Shankar, Ram

    2015-01-01

    As part of the accelerator augmentation program at IUAC, a High Current Injector (HCI) is being developed to inject highly charged ions into the superconducting LINAC. The HCI consists of a superconducting (High TC) ECR source, producing the high currents of highly charged ions. The ion beams produced will be injected into a Radio Frequency Quadrupole Accelerator (RFQ) and be accelerated to 180 keV/u. RF power of about 100 kW at 48.5 MHz will be fed to the RFQ during its actual working. The ions will be further accelerated by a Drift Tube Linac (DTL), before being further velocity matched with a low beta cavity into the superconducting LINAC. RFQ at IUAC is a four rod cavity structure having individual demountable copper vanes held on vane posts with a total vane length of 2.536 m and a minimum aperture of 12mm. The vane posts hold twenty nos. of vanes. Water will flow into vanes through the vane posts. The copper plated stainless steel vacuum housing has been divided into two chambers for the ease of fabrication and copper plating. The RFQ stand has provision for alignment in all the three axes. After successfully validating all the electrical and mechanical design parameters on a prototype RFQ, the fabrication of final RFQ has been completed. Initial assembly to check the mechanical accuracies was carried out. Low power RF tests were conducted to validate the design parameters. The resonance frequency of the RFQ was measured as 44.12 MHz and Q value was measured ∼ 5500. The final assembly is in progress. This paper details the present status and future plan of RFQ. (author)

  17. Radio-frequency quadrupole: a new linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Wangler, T.P.; Crandall, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    In many Laboratories, great emphasis now is placed on the development of linear accelerators with very large ion currents. To achieve this goal, a primary concern must be the low-velocity part of the accelerator, where the current limit is determined and where most of the emittance growth occurs. The use of magnetic focusing, the conflicting requirements in the choice of linac frequency, and the limitations of high-voltage dc injectors, have tended to produce low-velocity designs that limit overall performance. The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator, invented in the Soviet Union and developed at Los Alamos, offers an attractive solution to many of these low-velocity problems. In the RFQ, the use of RF electric fields for radial focusing, combined with special programming of the bunching, allows high-current dc beams to be captured and accelerated with only small beam loss and low radial emittance growth. Advantages of the RFQ linac include a low injection energy (20 to 50 keV for protons) and a final energy high enough so the beam can be further accelerated with high efficiency in a Wideroee or Alvarez linac. These properties have been confirmed at Los Alamos in a highly successful experimental test performed during the past year. The success of this test and the advances in RFQ design procedures have led to the adoption of this linac for a wide range of applications. The beam-dynamics parameters of three RFQ systems are described. These are the final design for the protytype test of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator, the final design for the prototype test of the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI), and an improved low-velocity linac for heavy ion fusion

  18. Solid state NMR, basic theory and recent progress for quadrupole nuclei with half-integer spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieter, F.

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the basic theory and some recently developed techniques for the study of quadrupole nuclei with half integer spins in powder materials. The latter is connected to the introduction of the double rotation (DOR) by A. Samoson et al. (1) and to the introduction of the multiple quantum magic-angle spinning (MQ MAS) technique by L. Frydman et. al. (2). For integer spins, especially the solid-state deuterium magnetic resonance, we refer to the review of G.L. Hoatson and R.L. Vold: '' 2 H-NMR Spectroscopy of Solids and Liquid Crystals'' (3). For single crystals we refer to O. Kanert and M. Mehring: ''Static quadrupole effects in disordered cubic solids''(4) and we would like also to mention the ''classic'' review of M.H. Cohen and F. Reif: ''Quadrupole effects in NMR studies of solids'' (5). Some more recent reviews in the field under study are D. Freude and J. Haase ''Quadrupole effects in solid-state NMR'' (6). Ch. Jager: ''Satellite Transition Spectroscopy of Quadrupolar Nuclei'' (7) and B.F. Chmelka and J.W. Zwanziger: ''Solid State NMR Line Narrowing Methods for Quadrupolar Nuclei - Double Rotation and Dynamic-Angle Spinning'' (8). A survey of nuclear quadrupole frequency data published before the end of 1982 is given by H. Chihara and N. Nakamura in Landolt-Bornstein, Vol. 20 (9). Values of the chemical shift of quadrupole nuclei in solids can be found in books such as ''Multinuclear NMR'' edited by J. Mason (10). In section 9 of ref (6) some electric field gradient and chemical shift data published from 1983 to 1992 for the most studied quadrupole nuclei sup 27 Al, sup 23 Na, and sup 17 O are given

  19. Drive Beam Quadrupoles for the CLIC Project: a Novel Method of Fiducialisation and a New Micrometric Adjustment System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)411678; Duquenne, Mathieu; Sandomierski, Jacek; Sosin, Mateusz; Rude, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of fiducialisation applied to determine the magnetic axis of the Drive Beam quadrupole of the CLIC project with respect to external alignment fiducials, within a micrometric accuracy and precision. It introduces also a new micrometric adjustment system along 5 Degrees of Freedom, developed for the same Drive Beam quadrupole. The combination of both developments opens very interesting perspectives to get a more simple and accurate alignment of the quadrupoles.

  20. A First Step in the Quest for the Active Constituents in Filipendula ulmaria (Meadowsweet): Comprehensive Phytochemical Identification by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Voorspoels, Stefan; Noten, Bart; Hermans, Nina; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Filipendula ulmaria (meadowsweet) is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and as a diuretic and antirheumatic. Extracts of Filipendulae herba are on the market in the European Union as food supplements. Nevertheless, its active constituents remain to be revealed. During this study, the phytochemical composition of Filipendulae Ulmariae Herba was comprehensively characterised for the first time with two complementary generic ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry methods. Selective ion fragmentation experiments with a hybrid quadrupole-orbital trap mass spectrometer significantly contributed to compound identification: a total of 119 compounds were tentatively identified, 69 new to F. ulmaria. A rich diversity of phenolic constituents was detected and only a few non-phenolic phytochemicals were observed. Metabolisation and pharmacological studies should be conducted to investigate which of these constituents or metabolites there of contribute to the activity of F. ulmaria after oral intake. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.