WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid pbl curricula

  1. Improved performance of students instructed in a hybrid PBL format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiqin; He, Fengtian

    2013-01-01

    As a result of enrollment expansion, increasing numbers of students are entering into medical school in China. This combined with a shortage of teachers, means that the learning environment typically consists of a large classroom setting with traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) as the major mode to teaching and learning. In this article, we investigate the preferences for hybrid problem-based learning (hybrid-PBL) or LBL in a large classroom setting. Two hundred five second-year undergraduate students in Third Military Medical University were randomly divided to two groups. The hybrid-PBL group contained 101 students and was taught by hybrid LBL (60%) and tutor-less PBL(40%) in a large classroom. The LBL group consisted of 104 students and was taught by LBL in a large classroom too. Post-teaching performance was assessed by multiple choice questions, short-essay questions, and case-analysis questions, while the students' teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed by questionnaires. Analysis of the results of both groups in the examination of biochemistry revealed significantly higher scores on short-essay questions and case-analysis questions in the hybrid-PBL group. Students considered hybrid-PBL to be an effective learning method and favored it over the lecture format. Furthermore, students reported positive effects of hybrid-PBL in terms of additional learning resources, critical thinking, and fun learning experiences. These results suggest that hybrid-PBL is better than the traditional LBL method at improving students' basic knowledge and problem-solving skills. Students preferred hybrid-PBL and were satisfied with it. The tutor-less PBL pattern in a large classroom setting may be feasible in Chinese medical schools. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. What drives students' self-directed learning in a hybrid PBL curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mee; Mann, Karen V; Frank, Blye W

    2010-08-01

    Evidence supporting Problem-based learning (PBL) fostering students' self-directed learning (SDL) in hybrid PBL curricula is inconsistent. To explore the influence of PBL in a hybrid curriculum on students' SDL, the authors investigated the following: (1) students' self-assessed SDL ability, (2) students' perceptions of the influence of curricular components on SDL, and (3) the relationships between curricular elements and SDL. The research questions were explored both quantitatively and qualitatively. All year 1 (n = 93) and year 2 (n = 93) students in 2004 were invited to participate. Participants completed a 53-item questionnaire addressing (a) self-assessment of their SDL ability, and (b) perceived influence of individual curriculum elements on individual study and SDL. Student and faculty focus group interviews (FGIs) were conducted. Students rated their SDL skills highly, particularly identifying knowledge deficits, learning skills and strategies, and managing study time. Students thought lectures helped in selecting study topics and learning for the tutorial case. Other components including tutors, unit/case objectives, tests, and tutorial discussions, were seen as influencing what to study and the learning process. No significant difference was observed in the responses between year 1 and 2 students. Among the six curriculum components, tutorial discussion and objectives were weakly correlated with with SDL ability. Findings from students and faculty focus group supported the perceived positive influence of the curriculum on SDL. This study found that students' perceived SDL ability was positively influenced by several components of the hybrid PBL curriculum. However, further investigations are needed for a clearer understanding of the specific effects of the hybrid PBL curriculum on students' SDL.

  3. Integration of Basic-Clinical Sciences, PBL, CBL, and IPE in U.S. Dental Schools' Curricula and a Proposed Integrated Curriculum Model for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Satheesh; Venugopalan, Shankar Rengasamy; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Karimbux, Nadeem Y; Weistroffer, Paula; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2016-03-01

    The integration of basic and clinical sciences in dental curricula enhances the application of basic science principles to clinical decision making and improves students' critical thinking. The aim of this study was to define the characteristics of U.S. dental schools' curricula with regard to level of course integration and degree of incorporation of problem-based and case-based learning. A second aim was to propose a dental curriculum that supports effective integration of courses and addresses some of the concerns facing academic dentistry. A survey was sent to 58 academic deans in U.S. dental schools. The survey included questions about integrating courses in the schools' curricula and major changes in curricular structure or teaching pedagogy that respondents anticipated in the immediate future. A total of 31 schools responded to the survey, for a 53.4% response rate. The results showed that three-quarters of the responding schools still teach basic and clinical sciences separately, although 61.3% reported having an integrated curriculum. Among the responding schools, 16 had a PBL component integrated into their curricula (two had integrated PBL in all courses and 14 used a hybrid PBL approach). Two schools had CBL integrated in all courses, and ten had CBL integrated in >75% of courses. Only slightly more than half agreed that their curricula foster students' thinking "outside the box." Faculty shortages and lack of protected time and resources were the most frequent reasons given for a lack of integrated courses. The integrated model proposed in this article has the potential to provide a low stress environment for students and to address important issues like faculty shortages.

  4. Graduates' perceived preparedness for dental practice from PBL and traditional curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Cynthia K Y; McGrath, Colman; Bridges, Susan; Corbet, Esmonde F; Botelho, Michael; Dyson, John; Chan, L K

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare dental graduates' perceived preparedness for practice after being educated in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum with those who graduated from a traditional undergraduate curriculum, both at the University of Hong Kong. A cohort of graduates from the traditional dental curriculum (1997-2001) and a cohort of graduates from the PBL curriculum (2004-08) rated their self-perceived preparedness for dental practice in fifty-nine aspects of dentistry across nine domains. Perceived preparedness for dental practice was compared at domain and item levels (accounting for multiple comparisons) using chi-square statistics. Both cohorts felt well prepared for the "bread and butter" aspects of dentistry, but less so for specific specialty disciplines. There was no significant difference between PBL and traditional graduates' self-perceived preparedness in eight of the nine domains of dental practice (P>0.05). However, in the area of orthodontics, both cohorts felt ill-prepared for practice and more so among the PBL cohort (P<0.01). For the most part, regardless of curriculum design, these dental graduates perceived themselves to be well prepared for dental practice.

  5. Dysfunctional problem-based learning curricula: resolving the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim William K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem-based learning (PBL has become the most significant innovation in medical education of the past 40 years. In contrast to exam-centered, lecture-based conventional curricula, PBL is a comprehensive curricular strategy that fosters student-centred learning and the skills desired in physicians. The rapid spread of PBL has produced many variants. One of the most common is 'hybrid PBL' where conventional teaching methods are implemented alongside PBL. This paper contends that the mixing of these two opposing educational philosophies can undermine PBL and nullify its positive benefits. Schools using hybrid PBL and lacking medical education expertise may end up with a dysfunctional curriculum worse off than the traditional approach. Discussion For hybrid PBL schools with a dysfunctional curriculum, standard PBL is a cost-feasible option that confers the benefits of the PBL approach. This paper describes the signs of a dysfunctional PBL curriculum to aid hybrid PBL schools in recognising curricular breakdown. Next it discusses alternative curricular strategies and costs associated with PBL. It then details the four critical factors for successful conversion to standard PBL: dealing with staff resistance, understanding the role of lectures, adequate time for preparation and support from the administrative leadership. Summary Hybrid PBL curricula without oversight by staff with medical education expertise can degenerate into dysfunctional curricula inferior even to the traditional approach from which PBL emerged. Such schools should inspect their curriculum periodically for signs of dysfunction to enable timely corrective action. A decision to convert fully to standard PBL is cost feasible but will require time, expertise and commitment which is only sustainable with supportive leadership.

  6. Learning effectiveness and satisfaction of international medical students: Introducing a Hybrid-PBL curriculum in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiu; Ma, Li; Zhu, Lina; Zhang, Wenli

    2017-07-08

    A biochemistry course is a fundamental but important subject in medical education in China. In recent years, the number of international medical students has increased. Curriculum reform in biochemistry teaching is needed because of the knowledge limitations of students, a close linkage of biochemical content with clinics, the shortcomings of lecture-centered teaching, and the requirements for early clinical practice training and competence. In this study, we analyzed a novel curriculum reform, "Hybrid-PBL," which combined problem-based learning (PBL) with biochemistry lectures and was implemented for biochemical teaching at Dalian Medical University (DMU) in China. The change in curriculum affected 189 international medical students. This study selected two PBL cases concerning the basic biochemical issues of carbohydrate metabolism and liver biochemistry for the analysis, and ten examples of learning issues for each case were reported by the international students. A questionnaire was utilized to evaluate students' perceptions of the Hybrid-PBL, and examination scores were analyzed to assess the curriculum reform in biochemistry teaching. A statistical analysis revealed that the Hybrid-PBL curriculum was well accepted by the international students as an effective supplement to lecture-centered teaching programs. The students obtained more abilities, higher examination scores, and an improved understanding of biomedical information from the Hybrid-PBL program than from conventional teaching methods. Our study was an innovative trial that applied a PBL curriculum to the specific discipline of biochemistry and may provide a potential and promising new teaching method that can be widely utilized. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):336-342, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. The Integration of Psychomotor Skills in a Hybrid-PBL Dental Curriculum: The Clinical Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joanne N.; MacNeil, M. A. J.; Harrison, Rosamund L.; Clark, D. Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes the restructuring of clinical clerkships at the University of British Columbia (Canada) dental school as part of a new, hybrid, problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum, focusing on strategies for integrating development of psychomotor skills. Methods of achieving both horizontal and vertical integration of competencies through grouping…

  8. Dental and medical students' perspectives on early exposure to PBL in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ming-Gene; Yu, Chien-Hung; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Li, Tsai-Chung; Kwan, Chiu-Yin

    2012-06-01

    A hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum adopted in 2002 for medical students at China Medical University, Taiwan, was extended to dental students in 2007. Before that, PBL workshops were conducted for all students. Two PBL cases on basic biomedical issues were used for second-year medical students and second-year dental students to explore the feasibility of adopting PBL as part of the dental curriculum. This study compared the medical and dental students' attitudes toward the PBL tutorials and PBL curricula. Upon completion of the PBL component, an eighteen-item questionnaire asked students to assess (on a ten-point scale with 10 as the most positive response) their perceptions of the learning process in the PBL tutorials. Forty-six dental students from a cohort of fifty (92 percent) and 107 medical students from a cohort of 119 (90 percent) completed the questionnaires (fifty-three females and 100 males). The importance of all items was rated above 6.00. The medical students' mean score (7.29) was higher than the dental students' mean score (7.10). Of the eighteen attributes of the PBL process, the students indicated being generally comfortable with fourteen. No statistical significance was found between the dental and medical students' scores, but there was a significant difference (p=0.006) in their perception of PBL curricula. Overall, the medical students expressed a more positive outlook toward the PBL learning process than the dental students and were more willing to accept PBL as a pedagogy.

  9. PBL and the Postmodern Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Jensen, Annie Aarup

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the contemporary conditions for running the Aalborg Problem Based Learning-model (PBL). We try to pinpoint key characteristics of these conditions emphasising Lyotard’s conception of knowledge production referred to as the move towards a postmodern condition for knowledge....... Through discussions of this alleged condition for university curricula development we investigate its connections to the PBL-model. Some of the explored conditions highlight strong potentials for the PBL-model but the postmodern condition also raises a number of changes and challenges in relation...... to the original PBL-model as an educational setting....

  10. The relationship between the monitored performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials and the marked hypotheses generated by students in a hybrid curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addae, Jonas I.; Sahu, Pradeep; Sa, Bidyadhar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: There have been a number of published studies examining the link between the effectiveness of the problem-based learning (PBL) process and students’ performance in examinations. In a hybrid PBL/lectures curriculum, the results of such studies are of limited use because of the difficulty in dissociating the knowledge gained at lectures from that gained through PBL-related activities. Hence, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop an instrument to measure the performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials, and (2) to explore the contribution of such performances to the marks attained by students from the hypotheses generated at PBL tutorials. Methods: A monitoring instrument for assessing the performances of non-expert tutors and students at tutorials was developed and validated using principal component analysis and reliability analysis. Also, a rubric was formulated to enable a content expert to assign marks to the quality of hypotheses generated. Results: The monitoring instrument was found to be valid and reliable. There was a significant correlation between the performance of tutors at tutorials and hypotheses marks. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the performance of students and hypotheses marks. Discussion: The monitoring instrument is a useful tool for improving the PBL process, especially where the medical programme depends on non-expert PBL tutors. In addition to ensuring good PBL processes, it is important that students achieve the desired output at PBL tutorials by producing hypotheses that help them understand the basic sciences underlying the clinical cases. The latter is achieved by the use of an open-ended rubric by a subject expert to assign marks to the hypotheses, a method that also provides additional motivation to students to develop relevant and detailed hypotheses. PMID:28178915

  11. The relationship between the monitored performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials and the marked hypotheses generated by students in a hybrid curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addae, Jonas I; Sahu, Pradeep; Sa, Bidyadhar

    2017-01-01

    There have been a number of published studies examining the link between the effectiveness of the problem-based learning (PBL) process and students' performance in examinations. In a hybrid PBL/lectures curriculum, the results of such studies are of limited use because of the difficulty in dissociating the knowledge gained at lectures from that gained through PBL-related activities. Hence, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop an instrument to measure the performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials, and (2) to explore the contribution of such performances to the marks attained by students from the hypotheses generated at PBL tutorials. A monitoring instrument for assessing the performances of non-expert tutors and students at tutorials was developed and validated using principal component analysis and reliability analysis. Also, a rubric was formulated to enable a content expert to assign marks to the quality of hypotheses generated. The monitoring instrument was found to be valid and reliable. There was a significant correlation between the performance of tutors at tutorials and hypotheses marks. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the performance of students and hypotheses marks. The monitoring instrument is a useful tool for improving the PBL process, especially where the medical programme depends on non-expert PBL tutors. In addition to ensuring good PBL processes, it is important that students achieve the desired output at PBL tutorials by producing hypotheses that help them understand the basic sciences underlying the clinical cases. The latter is achieved by the use of an open-ended rubric by a subject expert to assign marks to the hypotheses, a method that also provides additional motivation to students to develop relevant and detailed hypotheses.

  12. Structuring a Clinical Learning Environment for a Hybrid-PBL Dental Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, M. A. J.; Walton, Joanne N.; Clark, D. Christopher; Tobias, David L.; Harrison, Rosamund L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the evolution and implementation of a joint medical-dental problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of British Columbia's medical and dental schools, featuring development of an integrated care clinic. Issues in structuring the new curriculum are discussed, including management of the clinic's group practices, affective…

  13. Online Searching in PBL Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan M.; Botelho, Michael G.; Chan, Lap Ki

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore how online searching plays a role during PBL tutorials in two undergraduate health sciences curricula, Medicine and Dentistry. Utilizing Interactional Ethnography (IE) as an organizing framework for data collection and analysis, and drawing on a critical theory of technology as an explanatory lens, enabled a textured…

  14. Online Searching in PBL Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan M.; Botelho, Michael G.; Chan, Lap Ki

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore how online searching plays a role during PBL tutorials in two undergraduate health sciences curricula, Medicine and Dentistry. Utilizing Interactional Ethnography (IE) as an organizing framework for data collection and analysis, and drawing on a critical theory of technology as an explanatory lens, enabled a textured…

  15. Is a PBL curriculum a better nutrient medium for student-generated learning issues than a PBL island?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlhar, K; Wüller, A; Lieverscheidt, H; Fischer, M R; Schäfer, T

    2010-12-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is often introduced in curricula in form of short segments. In the literature the value of these PBL-islands is doubted. In order to gain more insight in this curricular approach, we compared student generated learning issues, from a 7-week PBL-island introduced in a traditional curriculum (PBL-I), with the gold standard of a PBL-based model-curriculum (PBL-B) existing in parallel at the same University (Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany). Both tracks use five identical PBL-cases. Thousand seven hundred and three student-generated learning issues of 252 tutorial groups (193 PBL-I and 59 PBL-B groups with six to seven students per group) were analysed in seven different categories. Results showed that overall there were no substantial differences between both curricula. PBL-B students generated more problem-related and less basic science clinical learning issues than PBL-I students, but in both groups learning issues were related to the same number of different subjects. Furthermore, students in the PBL-curriculum tend to generate little less but slightly better phrased issues. Taken together, we found no substantial evidence with respect to student-generated learning issues that could prove that students cannot work with the PBL-method, even if it is introduced later in the curriculum and last only for a short period of time.

  16. Problem-based learning (PBL) and public health: an initial exploration of perceptions of PBL in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, John W; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Negin, Joel; Wright, E P

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide interest in problem-based learning (PBL) has grown in past decades. This article aims to evaluate the perceived effectiveness, appropriateness, benefits, and challenges attributed to the use of PBL in public health education in Vietnam with a view to providing recommendations for curricular design and future policy. Teachers at 2 universities in Hanoi participated in group interviews, and students from these 2 universities completed Likert-style questionnaires. Students and teachers regarded PBL positively. However, there was consensus that hybrid models that used PBL alongside other methods are probably the most beneficial for public health education in Vietnam. Teachers discussed the educational and systematic advantages and difficulties associated with PBL. Themes arising from this analysis may be helpful in guiding future research-namely, regarding the application of PBL in low- and middle-income countries and in public health. Further exploration of the use of PBL hybrid models is discussed. © 2012 APJPH.

  17. PBL in Educational Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szulevicz, Thomas; Jensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses practical and theoretical aspects related to PBL. In the first section of the article, potentials related to professional training of forthcoming educational psychologists following PBL-principles are analyzed. It is argued that PBL constitutes a good platform for creating ...

  18. Integrating Sustainability in a PBL Environment for Electronics Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Arsat, Mahyuddin; Holgaard, Jette Egelund; de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, education for sustainable development (ESD) has obtained increasing recognition as a general subject in higher education (HE). Institutions worldwide have had attention to the integration of sustainability into the curricula, and on the conceptual level problem based learning (PBL) has been put forward as a promising pedagogical model and emerged as an opportunity to implement sustainability successfully. Due to the almost forty years of experience in PBL, a case study wa...

  19. PBL Across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Asia several institutes have implanted PBL during the past decades. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) in Kuala Lumpur, one of the outstanding centres of educational innovation and research hosts the 4th International Research Symposium on PBL, July 2-3 2013. Once more the symposium aims...... to bring together researchers studying all aspects of the learning process in problem based and project based learning, and those involved in the implementation of these approaches across the disciplines from all over the world. Under the umbrella of the over all theme PBL ACROSS CULTURES, the symposium...... with PBL – Virtual PBL – Cross disciplinary PBL – Gender and diversity – Generating innovative and interdisciplinary knowledge and practices – PBL for continuing professional development – Curriculum design – Assessment methods – Case studies...

  20. PBL in Educational Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szulevicz, Thomas; Jensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses practical and theoretical aspects related to PBL. In the first section of the article, potentials related to professional training of forthcoming educational psychologists following PBL-principles are analyzed. It is argued that PBL constitutes a good platform for creating...... stimulating interplays between theory and practice. In the second section of the article we discuss some of the theoretical underpinnings in PBL. We discuss whether PBL is prone to a ‘form-content-dualism’, in which attention is centred on the form (the problem) and less on the content of learning. Afterwards......, it is discussed whether PBL potentially leads to an individualization of the learning process. Finally, we discuss whether the PBL-literature primarily tends toward portraying student learning as a matter of acquisition of knowledge, and therefore ignores the ontogical and identity-related processes in learning....

  1. PBL in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PBL in Engineering Education: International Perspectives on Curriculum Change presents diverse views on the implementation of PBL from across the globe. The purpose is to exemplify curriculum changes in engineering education. Drivers for change, implementation descriptions, challenges and future...... perspectives are addressed. Cases of PBL models are presented from Singapore, Malaysia, Tunisia, Portugal, Spain and the USA. These cases are stories of thriving success that can be an inspiration for those who aim to implement PBL and change their engineering education practices. In the examples presented......, the change processes imply a transformation of vision and values of what learning should be, triggering a transition from traditional learning to PBL. In this sense, PBL is also a learning philosophy and different drivers, facing diverse challenges and involving different actors, trigger its implementation...

  2. Targeting Transfer in a STELLAR PBL Course for Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Derry, Sharon J.; Bitterman, Alan; Hatrak, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    Helping students in the professions apply conceptual ideas to the problems of practice is a key goal of problem-based learning (PBL). Because PBL is organized around small, collaborative groups, scaling up PBL to large, heterogeneous classes poses significant challenges for implementation. This study presents a hybrid model that mixes online and…

  3. Application of Problem Based Learning ((PBL) in a Course on Financial Accounting Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Nor Aziah Abdul; Ishak, Zuaini; Hussin, Wan Nordin Wan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to share experiences in teaching a Financial Accounting Principles course using a hybrid problem based learning (PBL) method. The three specific objectives of this paper are to document how the PBL project for this course was developed and managed in class, to compare the academic performance of PBL students with non-PBL…

  4. PBL3.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zotou, Maria; Tambouris, Efthimios; Triantafyllou, Evangelia

    This paper presents the PBL3.0 project that aims at enhancing Problem Based Learning (PBL) with Learning Analytics (LA) and Learning Semantics (LS) in order to produce a new educational paradigm and pilot it to produce relevant policy recommendations. To this end, the project will reach the follo......This paper presents the PBL3.0 project that aims at enhancing Problem Based Learning (PBL) with Learning Analytics (LA) and Learning Semantics (LS) in order to produce a new educational paradigm and pilot it to produce relevant policy recommendations. To this end, the project will reach...... Systems, analytics tools, and an intuitive semantic annotation tool, 4) Create relevant, semantically annotated educational material and perform trials at various sites in order to draw evidence-based conclusions, 5) Produce relevant policy recommendations for PBL_LA that could raise the quality...

  5. PBL at Aalborg university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From the preface: "All the articles in this book have been presented at the International Conference PBL 2006 ABP, that was held in Lima, Peru, July 19th-21th 2006. This conference is part of a series of Pan-American conferences. It is the first time that Aalborg University has participated....... At the PBL conference in Lima, there were 8 participants from Aalborg University presenting parts of an Aalborg model. All together we had the responsibility for 11 presentations including keynote presentation and workshop. We have found it worthwhile to publish these articles together, because there are......: − Descriptions of PBL cases in various disciplines. − Combinations of development and research. − Perspectives for future implementation of PBL. − Perspectives on how to create a global network on PBL."...

  6. PBL curriculum improves medical students' participation in small-group tutorials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wun, Y T; Tse, Eileen Y Y; Lam, T P; Lam, Cindy L K

    2007-09-01

    Group learning is the core of problem-based learning (PBL) but has not been extensively studied, especially in Asian students. This study compared students of PBL and non-PBL curricula in students' talking time and participation in small-group tutorials in a medical school in Asia. The proportions of student talking of 46 tutorials in three teaching rotations of the PBL curriculum and those of 43 corresponding tutorials in the non-PBL curriculum were counted. Twelve videotapes of tutorials (six from each curriculum), stratified for tutor, case scenario and students' learning stage, were randomly selected and transcribed. They were rated with the group-interaction (5 items) and active-participation (four items) tutorial assessment scales developed by Valle et al. These outcomes were compared between the students of PBL and non-PBL curricula. Students from the PBL curriculum talked significantly more. In only two (4.7%) of 43 tutorials in the non-PBL curriculum did the students talk more than the tutors; but students talked more than the tutors in 17 (37.0%) of 46 tutorials in the PBL curriculum. PBL students scored significantly higher than non-PBL students in all items except one item (respect to peers) of the tutorial assessment scales, and in the mean scores of both the group interaction scale (items 1-5) and the active participation scale (items 6-9). The results suggested that PBL starting from the early years of a medical curriculum was associated with more active student participation, interaction and collaboration in small-group tutorials.

  7. Comparison of PBL Curricua within Control Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Samaca, Liliana; Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Ramirez, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    organization and structuring based on a study of written project proposals and student reports delivered. The results show that both the PBL curricula formulated the same technical learning outcomes, modeling and control methods; however, in the curriculum practice there are differences related to the scope...... approaches are compared based on an analysis of the study guidelines, the technical curriculum, the themes of the project, the project introduction and specification given by staff, as well as student outcomes in the form of technical skills and skills related to specification requirements, project...... of curriculum objectives, knowledge, independence of the student work, supervision management, and students' preconditions related to PBL....

  8. Good supervision and PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    This field study was conducted at the Faculty of Social Sciences at Aalborg University with the intention to investigate how students reflect on their experiences with supervision in a PBL environment. The overall aim of this study was to inform about the continued work in strengthening supervision...... at this faculty. This particular study invited Master level students to discuss: • How a typical supervision process proceeds • How they experienced and what they expected of PBL in the supervision process • What makes a good supervision process...

  9. The Aalborg PBL Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    (ed.), Kolmos. Anette; Fink, Flemming (ed.); Krogh, Lone (ed.)

    Thirty teachers and researchers share their reflections on the practice of the problem-based and project-organized teaching model (PBL), which has been applied in the faculties of Enginnering and Science, Humanities, and Social Science at Aalborg University since 1974.......Thirty teachers and researchers share their reflections on the practice of the problem-based and project-organized teaching model (PBL), which has been applied in the faculties of Enginnering and Science, Humanities, and Social Science at Aalborg University since 1974....

  10. PBL, Social Progress and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The IRSPBL has collected 53 contributions from 19 different countries, all compiled in this book. The contributions cover a number of relevant PBL topics such as assessment, learning outcomes, students’ engagement, management of change, curriculum and course design, PBL models, PBL application, I...

  11. Process Competences in PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2013-01-01

    of their output are the main reference elements for their evaluation. This article presents an experience in which some of these elements have been introduced in an existing course, tailored as a Problem Base Learning (PBL) course in Advanced Telecommunication at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU...

  12. Influence of PBL with open-book tests on knowledge retention measured with progress tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijne-Penninga, M; Kuks, J B M; Hofman, W H A; Muijtjens, A M M; Cohen-Schotanus, J

    2013-08-01

    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical students (n = 1,648) of three medical schools were analyzed. Two schools had PBL driven curricula, and the third one had a traditional curriculum (TC). One of the PBL schools (PBLob) used a combination of open-book (assessing backup knowledge) and closed-book tests (assessing core knowledge); the other two schools (TC and PBLcb) only used closed-book tests. The items of the progress tests were divided into core and backup knowledge. T tests (with Bonferroni correction) were used to analyze differences between curricula. PBL students performed significantly better than TC students on core knowledge (average effect size (av ES) = 0.37-0.74) and PBL students tested with open-book tests scored somewhat higher than PBL students tested without such tests (av ES = 0.23-0.30). Concerning backup knowledge, no differences were found between the scores of the three curricula. Students of the two PBL curricula showed a substantially better long-term knowledge retention than TC students. PBLob students performed somewhat better on core knowledge than PBLcb students. These outcomes suggest that a problem-based instructional approach in particular can stimulate long-term knowledge retention. Distinguishing knowledge into core and backup knowledge and using open-book tests alongside closed-book tests could enhance long-term core knowledge retention.

  13. Internationalizing curricula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jos Walenkamp; Andreas Funk; Joyce den Heijer; Anneke Schuurmans-Brouwer

    2014-01-01

    Internationalizing curricula. Needs and wishes of alumni and employers with regard to international competencies. Internationalization has become of great importance for universities acrossthe globe. The labour market is becoming international, with internationalopportunities and international

  14. Theoretical perspectives and applications of group learning in PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Dario M; van der Vleuten, Cees; Dolmans, Diana

    2016-01-01

    An essential part of problem-based learning (PBL) is group learning. Thus, an in depth understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of group learning in PBL allows educators to bridge theory and practice more effectively thus providing ideas and tools to enhance PBL practices and research. The theory-driven applications examined in this article establish grounds for future research in PBL. The purpose of this article is to describe and examine two theoretical perspectives of group learning in PBL and their potential applications to improve educational practice. They include: (1) social interdependence theory and the meaning of positive interdependence, (2) socio cognitive theory of networked expertise and the concept of knowledge creation in innovative knowledge communities (IKC). Potential applications include the following: development of instructional material to foster positive interdependency using concept maps; formal and structured use of peer feedback throughout PBL courses to promote individual and group accountability; creation and sharing of new knowledge about different topics within and across IKC; and use of rotating students with hybrid abilities across PBL groups to foster distributed cognition.

  15. A multimedia CD-ROM tool to improve student understanding of bile salts and bilirubin metabolism: evaluation of its use in a medical hybrid PBL course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2005-03-01

    Over the last 35 years our understanding of bile salts, bilirubin metabolism, and hepatobiliary transport has progressively increased. From 1965 to the end of 2002, 3,610 articles and review papers have been published on hepatobiliary and enterocyte transport of bile salts. However, there is a lack of information in the content of current textbooks about hepatobiliary physiology, bile salt transporters, bile formation, mechanisms underlying cholestasis, and drug-induced liver injury. The use of an integrated multimedia program on the liver covering these gaps in textbooks may be useful to student learning. This study aims to 1) assess student views on a multimedia CD-ROM ("The Liver") integrating basic and clinical sciences related to the liver, bile salts, and bilirubin metabolism, 2) assess the usefulness of problem-based learning (PBL) cases included in the multimedia CD-ROM, and 3) assess student learning before and after use of the multimedia CD-ROM. A total of 106 first-year medical students (27 with and 79 without a prior university degree) at the University of Melbourne participated in this study. Students were tested on the liver, bile salts, and bilirubin metabolism before and after using the multimedia CD-ROM. After completing the multimedia CD-ROM, each student filled out a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire evaluating the features of the program and its usefulness to their learning. Results show that the aims of the package were clear to participants, the contents were logically organized and clear, the key concepts were easy to identify, the contents were pitched to an appropriate level, and the package was interactive and encouraged participants to reflect on their learning. Students also agreed that the assessment tools used in the program and the feedback provided were meaningful and helpful to their learning. No differences were found when responses were compared on the basis of academic background, gender, citizenship, or first language of

  16. PBL and CDIO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edström, Kristina; Kolmos, Anette

    2014-01-01

    , curriculum design, relation to disciplines, engineering projects, and change strategy. The structured comparison is intended as an introduction for learning about any of these models. It also invites reflection to support the understanding and evolution of PBL and CDIO, and indicates specifically what...... the communities can learn from each other. It is noted that while the two approaches share many underlying values, they only partially overlap as strategies for educational reform. The conclusions are that practitioners have much to learn from each other's experiences through a dialogue between the communities...

  17. FACULTY PERCEPTION OF PBL CURRICULUM IN MELAKA MANIPAL MEDICAL COLLEGE,MANIPAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruprasd Rao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to gauge the perception of the faculty members of Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC, Manipal, India regarding the problem-based learning (PBL curriculum. The faculty were divided into those with prior experience of PBL (group A and those without it (group B and were asked to respond to a Likert scale questionnaire regarding the PBL curriculum. Majority of the faculty members agreed that PBL curriculum helps students to acquire critical thinking skills and has made them more responsible towards self-study. Majority of the inexperienced faculty members felt that students tend to selectively prepare for certain learning objectives rather than for the entire problem whereas majority of the experienced faculty disagreed (p<0.01. A greater majority of those in group A than group B opined that students initially reluctant to participate in PBL discussions improve their participation over the year (p<0.05. Majority of faculty in group A agreed that student assessment method currently followed in PBL is adequate to grade student involvement in PBL whereas half of those in group B disagreed. Most of the faculty members in both groups felt that the present PBL-lecture hybrid system is better than the entirely lecture-based curriculum. Most faculty in group B would like more PBL sessions to be introduced whereas most of those in group A disagreed. A good number in both groups felt that greater integration of the different disciplines in PBL is desirable.

  18. Genomics and Bioinformatics in Undergraduate Curricula: Contexts for Hybrid Laboratory/Lecture Courses for Entering and Advanced Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Louise; Cresawn, Steven G.; Monroe, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging interest in genomics in the scientific community prompted biologists at James Madison University to create two courses at different levels to modernize the biology curriculum. The courses are hybrids of classroom and laboratory experiences. An upper level class uses raw sequence of a genome (plasmid or virus) as the subject on which to…

  19. Genomics and Bioinformatics in Undergraduate Curricula: Contexts for Hybrid Laboratory/Lecture Courses for Entering and Advanced Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Louise; Cresawn, Steven G.; Monroe, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging interest in genomics in the scientific community prompted biologists at James Madison University to create two courses at different levels to modernize the biology curriculum. The courses are hybrids of classroom and laboratory experiences. An upper level class uses raw sequence of a genome (plasmid or virus) as the subject on which to…

  20. All PBL Starts Here: The Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Woei

    2016-01-01

    One essential piece of implementing of PBL is the problem. There have been calls from practitioners in the PBL field for a systematic process for designing effective PBL problems. Yet, the research efforts to explore, develop, and test PBL problem design methods or processes are still sparse. From an instructional designer and researcher's…

  1. Foster Creative Engineers by PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Kolmos, Anette

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL) has been employed by a growing number of educational institutions to foster creative engineers. This paper aims to explore how PBL can develop creativity in engineering education. Accordingly, a qualitative case study was carried out...... with a student satellite project (AAUSAT3) in the department of electronic systems at Aalborg University in Denmark. Multiple methods including interviews and observation were employed. The analysis of the empirical data leads to the findings and discussions that PBL can foster creative engineers by providing...

  2. Identification of PblB mediating galactose-specific adhesion in a successful Streptococcus pneumoniae clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Lin, Che-Ming; Wang, Jin-Town

    2015-07-21

    The pneumococcal genome is variable and there are minimal data on the influence of the accessory genome on phenotype. Pneumococcal serotype 14 sequence type (ST) 46 had been the most prevalent clone causing pneumonia in children in Taiwan. A microarray was constructed using the genomic DNA of a clinical strain (NTUH-P15) of serotype 14 ST46. Using DNA hybridization, genomic variations in NTUH-P15 were compared to those of 3 control strains. Microarray analysis identified 7 genomic regions that had significant increases in hybridization signals in the NTUH-P15 strain compared to control strains. One of these regions encoded PblB, a phage-encoded virulence factor implicated (in Streptococcus mitis) in infective endocarditis. The isogenic pblB mutant decreased adherence to A549 human lung epithelial cell compared to wild-type NTUH-P15 strain (P = 0.01). Complementation with pblB restored the adherence. PblB is predicted to contain a galactose-binding domain-like region. Preincubation of NTUH-P15 with D-galactose resulted in decreases of adherence to A549 cell in a dose-dependent manner. Challenge of mice with NTUH-P15, isogenic pblB mutant and pblB complementation strains determined that PblB was required for bacterial persistence in the nasopharynx and lung. PblB, as an adhesin mediating the galactose-specific adhesion activity of pneumococci, promote pneumococcal clonal success.

  3. Revitalising PBL groups: evaluating PBL with study teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moust, Jos; Roebertsen, Herma; Savelberg, Hans; De Rijk, Angelique

    2005-03-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), students are actively engaged with psychological learning principles as activation of prior knowledge, elaboration and organization of knowledge. In their tutorial groups, however, students do not always apply these principles when working with a procedure like the "Seven-Jump" method. To stimulate students to use these principles more often, they were offered another format within a PBL context: PBL with study teams. During the period of self-study, students work on a regular basis in so-called study teams, small groups of 3-4 persons. In these groups they explain to each other their learning outcomes, clarify for each other their problems while studying texts and organize their knowledge to present this to the members of other study teams in their tutorial group. Previous research showed that students spent more time on self-study in a PBL with study team condition than in a traditional PBL context. In this study the achievement as well as appreciation of students participating in a PBL with study teams' environment, is compared with students working in a traditional PBL environment. To determine whether PBL with study teams differs from the traditional PBL environment in students' appreciation and study time. We conducted an experiment in two blocks over two years. Questionnaires were administered to collect data on appreciation and time for self-study. Students' appreciation of the two formats did not differ much. The large standard deviations indicate considerable differences in appreciation between individual students. Appreciation was slightly higher in the second experiment when instructions about how to collaborate were less strict. Students devoted twice as many hours studying in the study group format compared with the traditional PBL format. The students indicated that they enjoyed the format but that the increased workload disturbed their customary study rhythm. Assessment scores and tutors'impressions suggest that

  4. Job requirements compared to medical school education: differences between graduates from problem-based learning and conventional curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federkeil Gero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem-based Learning (PBL has been suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve medical education. We sought to evaluate the differences in medical school education between graduates from PBL-based and conventional curricula and to what extent these curricula fit job requirements. Methods Graduates from all German medical schools who graduated between 1996 and 2002 were eligible for this study. Graduates self-assessed nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in medical school on a 6-point Likert scale. Results were compared between graduates from a PBL-based curriculum (University Witten/Herdecke and conventional curricula. Results Three schools were excluded because of low response rates. Baseline demographics between graduates of the PBL-based curriculum (n = 101, 49% female and the conventional curricula (n = 4720, 49% female were similar. No major differences were observed regarding job requirements with priorities for "Independent learning/working" and "Practical medical skills". All competencies were rated to be better taught in PBL-based curriculum compared to the conventional curricula (all p Conclusion Among medical graduates in Germany, PBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of physicians. Research and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

  5. PBL as a Tool for Staff Development in the Educational Transformation towards PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Kolmos, Anette; Qvist, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide, the philosophy of problem based and project based learning (PBL) has been implemented as educational models in diverse practice of teaching and learning. Recent years have witnessed more and more educational transformations towards PBL. Despite the diversity of approaches...... and practices in the process of organizational transformation, staff development remains one of key elements in the transformation process in order to teach staff new PBL practice.. A growing body of literature discussing the role of facilitation in PBL, implementation of PBL at different levels in educational...... practice, PBL online; however, little has been documented on the practice of staff development in PBL, especially through online education in the form of PBL. This paper presents the experiences and reflections of using PBL online as a strategy for staff development based on the practice...

  6. PBL as a Tool for Staff Development in the Educational Transformation towards PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Kolmos, Anette; Qvist, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide, the philosophy of problem based and project based learning (PBL) has been implemented as educational models in diverse practice of teaching and learning. Recent years have witnessed more and more educational transformations towards PBL. Despite the diversity of approaches...... and practices in the process of organizational transformation, staff development remains one of key elements in the transformation process in order to teach staff new PBL practice.. A growing body of literature discussing the role of facilitation in PBL, implementation of PBL at different levels in educational...... practice, PBL online; however, little has been documented on the practice of staff development in PBL, especially through online education in the form of PBL. This paper presents the experiences and reflections of using PBL online as a strategy for staff development based on the practice...

  7. PBL in a multicultural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Du, Xiangyun

    2006-01-01

    , Aalborg University has developed its own version of PBL, based in project work organised in groups of students. The result is a focus on the development of student abilities and competences related to discipline knowledge as well as to cooperation, communication, management and self-reflection. So far...... a monocultural to a multicultural learning environment. This presentation focus on the considerations, reflections and specific actions concerning the implementation of PBL in a specific and multicultural environment at Aalborg University, namely that of the Master´s programme in Urban Planning and Management....... The presentation will be framed on re-establishing the chronology of events, material and products associated with the implementation in autumn 2005 of the first semester (term) of this programme. In particular, the presentation illustrates the challenges of establishing a common learning environment including...

  8. PBL. Forming Groups for PBL (practical sessions) - 31710 General Linguistics I

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Baell, Irma María

    2012-01-01

    Project Based Learning (PBL). Creating your own Linguistics Collage. Forming Groups for PBL – Week 5 (In-class work) - Academic year 2011-2012 (ECTS credits: 6 (150 hours)). See the Planned Weekly Schedule (Practical sessions).

  9. Comparison of knowledge, confidence in skill performance (CSP) and satisfaction in problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation with PBL educational modalities in caring for children with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Sunghee; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Oh, Jina; Lee, Myungnam

    2015-02-01

    In most nursing curricula, simulation and problem-based learning (PBL) are used separately as individual learning methods. Nursing educators are in a unique position to improve students' clinical performance and critical thinking skills by utilizing varied educational modalities. This study attempted to compare changes in nursing students' knowledge, confidence in skill performance (CSP), and satisfaction resulting from training using three educational modalities. Data from a convenient sample of 205 senior nursing students from three nursing schools in Seoul and Chuncheon, South Korea, was obtained between September 1 and December 10, 2013. This comparison study used three groups: the PBL group, simulation with the PBL group, and the control group. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and post-hoc tests (Duncan test) were performed. No significant difference in the students' baseline knowledge of patient care for patients with bronchiolitis was found. There were significant differences in the mean scores of knowledge (F=14.718, pPBL and a combined learning method in this study suggests that it can be an effective approach in pediatric nursing practice. These results provide a much-needed template and starting point for educators introducing active learning approaches for pediatric nursing courses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PBL – Reflections after 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José

    The poster describes course 34357 at DTU, where PBL has been used in the last 10 years. While the course responsibles where not aware initially that the used methodology was PBL, the poster describes the triggering idea for the initial taken choices, i.e. homogenize working methodologies for stud......The poster describes course 34357 at DTU, where PBL has been used in the last 10 years. While the course responsibles where not aware initially that the used methodology was PBL, the poster describes the triggering idea for the initial taken choices, i.e. homogenize working methodologies...

  11. Problem based learning (PBL) vs. Case based curriculum in clinical clerkship, Internal Medicine innovated Curriculum, Student prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljarallah, Badr; Hassan, Mohammad Saleh

    2015-04-01

    The vast majority of PBL experience is in basic science courses. Application of classic Problem based learning in clerkship phase is challenging. Although the clinical case is considered a problem, yet solving this problem following the burrow's law has faced hurdles. The difficulties are facing the learner, the teacher and curricula. We implement innovative curriculum for the clerkship year in internal medicine course. We surveyed the student just before coming to an internal medicine course to ask them about continuing PBL or other types of learning in clinical years. A committee was created to study the possible ways to integrate PBL in the course. After multiple brainstorming meeting, an innovated curriculum was implemented. Student surveyed again after they completed their course. The survey is asking them about what is the effect of the implemented curriculum in their skills, attitude, and knowledge. 70% of Students, who finished their basic science in PBL, preferred not to have classical PBL, but more a clinical oriented case based curriculum in the clinical years. After this innovated curriculum, 50-60 % of students who completed it showed a positive response in all aspects of effects including skill, attitude, and knowledge. The Innovated curriculum includes daily morning report, 3 bedside teaching, investigation session, and clinical reasoning weekly, and Lectures up to twice a week. We suggest implementing a curriculum with PBL and case-based criteria in clinical phase are feasible, we are providing a framework with this innovated curriculum.

  12. Paternity Testing in a PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class…

  13. Getting Started with PBL--A Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Tanja; Henning, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we provide insight into the PBL project called PoLiMINT (Problem-oriented Learning in MINT). The project is located at the Bremen University of Applied Sciences and aims to introduce and foster PBL in the introductory phase of a physics study program. Concerning our general conditions, we will present our incremental implementation…

  14. Teacher's Experiences in PBL: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching…

  15. Teacher's Experiences in PBL: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching…

  16. Promoting and supporting PBL interests world wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Kolmos, Anette; Moesby, Egon

    2006-01-01

    of projects world wide focusing on institutional change toward a more student centred, project organised, and problem based approach to learning. The Centre is also establishing a UCPBL Global Network on Problem Based Learning in order to facilitate better access to and co-operation within the PBL area.......-Based Learning (PBL) in Engineering Education, an increasing number of universities and engineering schools throughout the world are seeking consultancy and cooperation with Aalborg University. The establishment of UCPBL is therefore a timely opportunity to merge the efforts into one organisational structure...... aiming to promote and support PBL interests worldwide. This paper presents the UCPBL profile and plan of action. This includes a wide range of activities such as promoting research and development within the various PBL models and their implementation; Education and training in PBL through offering...

  17. Experiencing the role of PBL tutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Lundskog, Margareta; Hansson, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The tutor is important for student learning in the PBL group. The students expect the tutor to monitor and steer the group process and to support the learning process, helping students to become aware of their own learning. This study aimed at investigating the PBL tutor's role. Five PBL tutors at the Speech/Language Pathology program were interviewed regarding their view of the tutors' role and what support they need. The analysis of the transcribed interviews focused on finding patterns and variation regarding tutor-activity at different stages in the PBL work and in their views of their progress as tutors. The results indicate that being a tutor is a balancing act and that the tutor need continuous support and input from different sources. Tutors should be encouraged to reflect on their own reactions and interventions and to be explicit and confident in their thoughts about PBL.

  18. General competencies of problem-based learning (PBL) and non-PBL graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Katinka J A H; van Eijs, Patrick W L J; Boshuizen, Henny P A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A

    2005-04-01

    Junior doctors have reported shortcomings in their general competencies, such as organisational skills and teamwork. We explored graduates' perceptions of how well their training had prepared them for medical practice and in general competencies in particular. We compared the opinions of graduates from problem-based learning (PBL) and non-PBL schools, because PBL is supposed to enhance general competencies. We analysed the responses of 1159 graduates from 1 PBL and 4 non-PBL schools to a questionnaire survey administered 18 months after graduation. Compared with their non-PBL colleagues, the PBL graduates gave higher ratings for the connection between school and work, their medical training and preparation for practice. According to the graduates, the most frequently used competencies with sufficient coverage during medical training were expert knowledge, profession-specific skills and communication skills. The majority of the PBL graduates, but less than half of the non-PBL graduates, indicated that communication skills had been covered sufficiently. All the graduates called for more curriculum attention on working with computers, planning and organisation, and leadership skills. More PBL graduates than non-PBL graduates indicated that they had learned profession-specific methods, communication skills and teamwork in medical school. Overall, the graduates appeared to be satisfied with their knowledge and skills. The results suggest that the PBL school provided better preparation with respect to several of the competencies. However, both PBL and non-PBL graduates identified deficits in their general competencies, such as working with computers and planning and organising work. These competencies should feature more prominently in undergraduate medical education.

  19. From PBL tutoring to PBL coaching in undergraduate medical education: an interpretative phenomenological analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Li, Huiping; Pang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Coaching psychology is of increasing interest to medical educators for its potential benefits as a facilitative method in problem-based learning (PBL). However, the field lacks empirical studies that explore the lived experiences of students and tutors in the PBL coaching process. This study aimed to elicit knowledge regarding medical students' and tutors' experiences and perceptions of PBL coaching in the context of Chinese undergraduate medical education. The qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was employed. Participants comprised third year medical students (n=20) and PBL tutors (n=5) who have adopted a coaching approach in PBL for a semester. Semi-structured interviews were utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their experiences of PBL coaching. Data analysis followed an iterative four-stage scheme of Biggerstaff and Thompson. Six main themes emerged from diverse experiences and interpretations: 1) mindsets of coaching and learning, 2) the development of learning dispositions and capacities, 3) student group collaboration, 4) tutor-student relationships, 5) personal and professional development, and 6) challenges and difficulties in implementation. It could be concluded that PBL coaching is a dynamic, facilitative process that makes a particular contribution to the learning process from psychological, emotional, and social perspectives, whilst it demonstrates significant overlaps with PBL tutoring in terms of supporting students' cognitive activities in PBL. Further research is needed to identify the barriers and challenges for medical educators to implement coaching in the PBL process.

  20. From PBL tutoring to PBL coaching in undergraduate medical education: an interpretative phenomenological analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coaching psychology is of increasing interest to medical educators for its potential benefits as a facilitative method in problem-based learning (PBL. However, the field lacks empirical studies that explore the lived experiences of students and tutors in the PBL coaching process. This study aimed to elicit knowledge regarding medical students’ and tutors’ experiences and perceptions of PBL coaching in the context of Chinese undergraduate medical education. Methods: The qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA was employed. Participants comprised third year medical students (n=20 and PBL tutors (n=5 who have adopted a coaching approach in PBL for a semester. Semi-structured interviews were utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their experiences of PBL coaching. Data analysis followed an iterative four-stage scheme of Biggerstaff and Thompson. Results: Six main themes emerged from diverse experiences and interpretations: 1 mindsets of coaching and learning, 2 the development of learning dispositions and capacities, 3 student group collaboration, 4 tutor–student relationships, 5 personal and professional development, and 6 challenges and difficulties in implementation. Conclusions: It could be concluded that PBL coaching is a dynamic, facilitative process that makes a particular contribution to the learning process from psychological, emotional, and social perspectives, whilst it demonstrates significant overlaps with PBL tutoring in terms of supporting students’ cognitive activities in PBL. Further research is needed to identify the barriers and challenges for medical educators to implement coaching in the PBL process.

  1. Problem Based Learning (PBL): a conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samantha H; Warelow, Philip J; Jackson, Karen L

    2009-10-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) using minimal guided instruction is used as an educational strategy across a broad variety of disciplines in the tertiary sector. This paper includes some of the strengths and weaknesses of PBL, both in general and in relation to the health care setting, encompassing some of its philosophical underpinnings and its methodological approach. In an effort to explore some of the benefits and problems with PBL in the work setting, this account will comprise a realistic rather than idealistic focus and will include a range of perspectives from both a facilitator and student standpoint. We suggest that PBL is a useful strategy across a comprehensive nursing degree programme (as the ideal) provided the learning programme is supported financially and that its ideal creed which supports a small group approach are adhered to. What we find is that reality is often different, with individual facilitators condensing their PBL programmes to incorporate a modified PBL approach with this personalized approach often taking strength away from the original conceptions of PBL. What we suggest here is that these circumstances constitute a conundrum.

  2. Teaching PBL with Web 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Nina Bonderup; Buus, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    of competences necessary for participating in contemporary society. In this article we report on a study of three cases where web 2.0 activities have been introduced into PBL settings. Our focus is the unexpected challenges teachers may face due to inherent tensions between the practice logic of the educational...... system and that of web 2.0-practices. The study documents the development of viable ways of making use of web 2.0-mediated activities in support of a PBL approach and thus provides existence proof that web 2.0 activities may contribute constructively and productively to learning within a PBL perspective...

  3. Developing sustainability curriculum using the PBL method in a Chinese context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling

    2013-01-01

    mastering relevant knowledge, but also in developing necessary skills and competencies. PBL as a teaching and learning method can successfully facilitate participative learning, critical reflection, systemic thinking, creativity, and cultural awareness, which are the core values of sustainability. However......Sustainability is receiving increasing amounts of attention in higher education in terms of how it can best be integrated with university curricula. Sustainability is closely related to complexity, innovation, and interdisciplinarity; therefore, it requires alternative approaches rather than...... traditional, lecture-based pedagogy. This paper reports an educational initiative and research project based on collaboration between Beijing Normal University, China and Aalborg University, Denmark: developing a sustainability curriculum using the methodology of Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL...

  4. Balancing Teaching and Research in a PBL Context: Enhancing AAU PBL Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    Research-based teaching is well embedded in PBL-based teaching and learning. In this context it is viewed as a function that supports the project work that is considered as a main function area of PBL learning. On the other hand, most of the time teaching-based research is not considered...... or is not part of PBL teaching and learning. In this paper the balance between the two is addressed and implications for students and the university are discussed....

  5. Teaching process competencies in a PBL curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise Busk; Hansen, Søren; Kolmos, Anette

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the background in teaching students process competencies in a project-organized and problem-based (PBL) educational system at Aalborg University, and presents an analysis of a course development....

  6. Teacher's experiences in PBL: implications for practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching practices in higher education. For data collection, the research method used was written narratives to these teachers, at the end of the PBL semester. Findings suggest that teachers express a positive view of PBL as a learning approach. They identify student motivation and engagement, along with a better understanding of the application of concepts in real-life situations, as important outcomes of the project for students. Besides this, teachers also highlight the importance of the development of transversal skills by students throughout the project. Recommendations for future work and implications for practice will also be discussed.

  7. Teaching process competencies in a PBL curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise Busk; Hansen, Søren; Kolmos, Anette

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the background in teaching students process competencies in a project-organized and problem-based (PBL) educational system at Aalborg University, and presents an analysis of a course development.......The article describes the background in teaching students process competencies in a project-organized and problem-based (PBL) educational system at Aalborg University, and presents an analysis of a course development....

  8. University Curricula in Nanoelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Nielsen, Ivan Ring

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is having increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering. The advent of nanotechnology brings about new possibilities in nanoelectronics, including increasingly complex systems on chip, sophisticated technology fusion between electronic devices and non-electron...... examples of state-of-the-art curricula from major European universities are described. The possibilities for sharing of teaching material through the web via the EC-sponsored EuroTraining program is described....

  9. Engineering Students: Enhancing Employability Skills through PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, Othman; Mat Daud K., A.; U, Ewon; Salleh B, Mohd; Omar N., H.; Baser J, Abd; Ismail M., E.; A, Sulaiman

    2017-05-01

    As a developing country, Malaysia faces challenging tasks to develop her economy just like many other countries. Nowadays, change involves many aspects like the economy from agriculture to manufacturing, technology from modern to more advanced ones; mindset from traditional to advanced and so on. Previous studies show that one of the major issues facing local graduates is the lack of employability skills. This problem concerns not only the government but undergraduates and institutions alike. From the pedagogical aspect, one of the more effective ways to improve this is through instructional delivery and in this case the use of Problem-based Learning (PBL). The need to adopt PBL should involved applied subjects undertaken by engineering students. Studies have shown that the use of PBL has been proven to make learning more attractive and effective. In this research, we studied the effectiveness of PBL towards enhancing employability skills among engineering undergraduates. This study adopted a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data was collected using documents analysis. Student samples comprised manufacturing engineering undergraduates from public institutions of higher learning in Malaysia. The results show that student’s employability skills can be enhanced using PBL. In addition, students become more competitive towards making them more relevance with the needs of the industry with regard to employability skills. In conclusion, PBL is a very effective catalyst towards raising the employability skills among engineering undergraduates and should be adopted in all engineering education.

  10. [The good PBL tutor--to be or not to be: instructional films for tutors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelin, Silvia; Huwendiek, Sören; Nikendei, Christoph; Dieter, Peter; Kirschfink, Michael; Bosse, Hans-Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many faculties worldwide apply the method of problem-based learning (PBL) in their curricula as a form of instruction by which students in small groups develop problem-solving strategies on the basis of a specific case. This approach fosters self-responsible and context-dependent learning, which aims at providing an improved anchoring of knowledge. For this reason, the previous decades have seen a distribution of the method to medical schools across the world. The role of the tutor assumes particular importance since, in contrast to the traditional university system, he or she serves as a facilitator who fosters and structures content-related and group-dynamic learning processes. In some cases, this requires an intervention by the tutor. The major challenge is to intervene at the right time and in an appropriate manner. This paper presents examples of difficult PBL situations using short film sequences to demonstrate and comments on potential approaches of the tutor in attempting to resolve the problem. Standard problem situations within a PBL tutorial were defined and produced in a film. A collection of seven frequent critical PBL situations are presented in short film sequences. Potential instruments of intervention are demonstrated in the videos and discussed. The film sequences may be downloaded in the supplementary of the electronic version of this article (www.sciencedirect.com). Within the framework of a tutor-training programme, the problematic situations and interventions presented in this article will help to sensitise tutors to potentially critical PBL tutorial situations and aid the development of individual resolution approaches.

  11. Identifying needs to develop a PBL staff development program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Coffin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Staff development is a crucial element for educational intervention. Recognizing the importance of staff development, this study aims to pin-point suitable methodologies in developing a Problem-Based Learning (PBL academic staff development program for a higher education institute where PBL has become an intervention alternative. The study aims to answer the following research questions 1 how can university academic staff be assisted to acquire pedagogical competences for an initiative of the implementation of PBL curriculum? 2 What kinds of support do university academic staff need in order to maintain PBL implementation? Through a combination of a literature review, interviews with 6 PBL experts which emphasize the importance of PBL facilitators, and document analysis of reflection notes from 18 trainees of a PBL workshop, this study will produce a guideline in developing a PBL Academic Staff Development Program for an institute wishes to implement and retain PBL as the education strategy.

  12. PBL core skills faculty development workshop 1: An experiential exercise with the PBL process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Kirsten R; Wuenschell, Carol; Rosenblum, Alvin; Paine, Michael; Crowe, David; von Bergmann, Hsing Chi; Wong, Shirley; Bradford, Marian Said; Shuler, Charles F

    2007-02-01

    This report describes the first in a series of foundation-building faculty development workshops focused on the instructional methodology of problem-based learning (PBL). The PBL Process workshop reported here introduced the learning theory topics supporting PBL and utilized an extended roleplay method to provide participants with personal experience with the PBL learning cycle. Overall, participants were satisfied with the methods and content of the workshop. A majority of survey respondents indicated that simulating a complete iteration of the PBL process was an effective way to learn about PBL. Participants expressed relatively greater difficulty understanding and performing activities related to qualitative assessment of learning processes. The workshop was developed to align with adult learning principles, and continued refinement of the workshop has enhanced the learning theory components underpinning PBL as well as the experiential aspects. These dual goals have resulted in blending the existing experiential workshop with an online distance-learning component addressing the learning theory topics relevant to PBL pedagogy.

  13. PBL-SEE: An Authentic Assessment Model for PBL-Based Software Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Simone C.

    2017-01-01

    The problem-based learning (PBL) approach has been successfully applied to teaching software engineering thanks to its principles of group work, learning by solving real problems, and learning environments that match the market realities. However, the lack of well-defined methodologies and processes for implementing the PBL approach represents a…

  14. Short-term outcomes of a near-full PBL curriculum in a new Taiwan medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Kuo-Inn; Cho, Shu-Ling; Lin, Chaou-Shune; Sy, Leticia B; Yang, Li-King; Chou, Ting-Ywan; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2009-05-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL), which incorporates principles of adult learning, is an important innovation in medical education. The use of PBL in health professional curricula is becoming more widespread. The curriculum design and the ways of implementing PBL are different among schools. More evidence is needed before a full PBL curriculum can be successfully implemented in an Asian medical school. Fu Jen Medical School is the first school in Taiwan to adopt a near-full PBL approach for the 3rd and 4th year curriculum (the medical education in Taiwan is mostly a 7-year undergraduate program). Fu Jen Medical School launched the interdisciplinary case-based, small group learning and integrated curriculum in 2002. This study investigated the short-term outcomes of this PBL curriculum, evaluated from several aspects. First, the self-directed learning readiness of the medical students before and after they entered the PBL curriculum was investigated using the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS). Second, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 5th and 6th year medical students and clinical instructors to understand the impact of PBL on the learning of clinical medicine. Finally, the passing rates in the Taiwan Medical Licensure Examination were compared with those of other medical schools in Taiwan. After 1 year of PBL, medical students at Fu Jen Medical School showed significant increases in the total SDLRS score, and in the subscores for learning strategy and self-assessment. These changes persisted until the end of 2 years of PBL. Students in their clinical years claimed that they were more active in learning, and had better learning skills and confidence in self-directed learning as compared with students from lecture-based curricula. PBL helps their clinical reasoning process, self-directed learning abilities and the use of knowledge in basic science to explain the clinical problem. On the other hand, the students thought that PBL had

  15. Evaluation of student and faculty perceptions of the PBL curriculum at two dental schools from a student perspective: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, N; Sedghizadeh, P P; Shuler, C F; Ferati, D; Christersson, C

    2007-02-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) research has primarily highlighted issues related to medical education and less evaluation has been reported from the field of dental education. Furthermore, literature reports tend to focus mainly on PBL from a pedagogic and curriculum constructional view and up to this date, studies from a student perspective are lacking. The aim of this study was to approach the evaluation of student and staff perceptions of PBL curricula from a student perspective at two separate schools: the Faculty of Odontology at the University of Malmö, Sweden and the dental school of the University of Southern California, School of Dentistry (USCSD), Los Angeles, CA, USA. The study was initiated and conducted by two of the authors, at the time senior students at the Faculty of Odontology in Malmö, Sweden. The study was comprised of a literature search, a 2 week field trip to USCSD, USA, survey distribution to students and faculty in both schools, analysis of the data and a written report for oral defence. The results from the survey were intended to provide feedback on student and faculty perceptions regarding the PBL curriculum. The results indicate a general student and faculty satisfaction with the PBL curriculum. Perhaps, surprisingly their perceptions did not differ significantly despite differences in geography, culture and implementation of PBL pedagogy.

  16. Enhancing Critical Thinking in a PBL Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Aida; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2016-01-01

    thinking in a PBL environment. The development of the model takes its point of departure from a conceptual model for critical thinking that is concretized in a PBL context by including theoretical as well as empirical perspectives. The empirical study was conducted at the Faculty of Engineering and Science......, Aalborg University (Denmark), which has more than 30 years of experience in educating engineers in a PBL environment. Based on the results, a model for critical thinking in aPBLenvironment is outlined emphasizing a problem-solving process grounded in open and real life problems as well as a self......-directed, collaborative and team-based learning environment. The model also includes recommendations to overcome challenges detected in the empirical study, especially those related to the scaffolding of group collaboration and the use of theory in a self-directed learning environment based on real life problems....

  17. Hidden realities inside PBL design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2015-01-01

    Design Process, but is a group-based architecture and design education better than that which is individually based? How does PBL affect space, form, and creative processes? Hans Kiib, professor and one of the founders of the Department of Architecture and Design in Aalborg, describes his intentions...... within the group work, as it is closer related to the actual PBL process”. Is the Integrated Design Process (Knudstrup 2004) and is Colb (1975) still current and valid? Can we still use these methodologies when we must create “learning for an unknown future,” as Ronald Barnett (2004) claims that we...... investigates the creative processes of the collective and the individual and clarifies some of the hidden realities behind the PBL-based creative processes, both through an inquiry with the students and a more methodological and theoretical approach. The paper also explores how to integrate artistic...

  18. Developing intercultural competencies in a PBL environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the influences of international programs in a problem based, project and group work organized learning (PBL) environment on the development of intercultural competencies. Based on the discussion of the positive effects as well as the observed barriers in the educational...... practice of international programs, this paper suggests that PBL can be a good example of a supportive learning environment in terms of providing students opportunities to develop intercultural competences. However, in order to make the best of international programs as an intercultural learning context...... students from different cultures can learn from each other and develop intercultural competencies together....

  19. Innovation and PBL Implementation in Higher Education-Approaches for Educational Change to PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huichun; Stojcevski, Alex; Du, Xiangyun;

    2010-01-01

    As an innovative and promising education approach, PBL(problem and project based learning) has been adopted by various higher education institutions which are attempting to promote teaching and learning outcome, cultivate self learning and problem solving competences, as well as enhance...... organizational profile. In this paper, we review three international universities from different context which are in the process of transforming their traditional education model to PBL one. We discuss their approaches of changing to PBL from three aspects: strategies, levels, as well as time....

  20. Digital Curricula Evolving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Week, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This special report is the latest installment in an ongoing series about how online education is changing teaching and learning and the development of curricula. It was produced with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. This paper contains the following articles: (1) Changing the Role of K-12…

  1. Learning approaches of undergraduate medical students to physiology in a non-PBL- and partially PBL-oriented curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, R R; Vinod, P; Kamath, M G; Asha, K; Ramnarayan, K

    2008-03-01

    Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus; Manipal, Karnataka, India) conducts the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program, for which the admission intakes are during the months of March and September. The present study was undertaken to study the differences in learning approaches to physiology of undergraduate medical students in a partially problem-based learning (PBL)- and non-PBL-oriented curriculum. PBL was introduced as a curricular reform for the September 2006 batch of students (partially PBL group), whereas it was not incorporated for the March 2006 batch of students (non-PBL group). Learning approaches to physiology of both groups of students were compared using the short inventory of approaches to learning. Mean scores for deep and strategic approaches were found to be significantly higher for the partially PBL group compared with the non-PBL group. The results of the present study support the earlier observation that PBL promotes a deep approach to learning.

  2. PBL in Educational Psychology--Potentials and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulevicz, Thomas; Jensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses practical and theoretical aspects related to PBL. In the first section of the article, potentials related to professional training of forthcoming educational psychologists following PBL-principles are analyzed. It is argued that PBL constitutes a good platform for creating stimulating interplays between theory and practice.…

  3. Theoretical perspectives and applications of group learning in PBL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torre, D.M.; Vleuten, C.P. van der; Dolmans, D.

    2016-01-01

    An essential part of problem-based learning (PBL) is group learning. Thus, an in depth understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of group learning in PBL allows educators to bridge theory and practice more effectively thus providing ideas and tools to enhance PBL practices and research. The

  4. Theoretical perspectives and applications of group learning in PBL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torre, D.M.; Vleuten, C.P. van der; Dolmans, D.

    2016-01-01

    An essential part of problem-based learning (PBL) is group learning. Thus, an in depth understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of group learning in PBL allows educators to bridge theory and practice more effectively thus providing ideas and tools to enhance PBL practices and research. The the

  5. Innovation and PBL Implementation in Higher Education-Approaches for Educational Change to PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huichun; Stojcevski, Alex; Du, Xiangyun

    2010-01-01

    As an innovative and promising education approach, PBL(problem and project based learning) has been adopted by various higher education institutions which are attempting to promote teaching and learning outcome, cultivate self learning and problem solving competences, as well as enhance organizat......As an innovative and promising education approach, PBL(problem and project based learning) has been adopted by various higher education institutions which are attempting to promote teaching and learning outcome, cultivate self learning and problem solving competences, as well as enhance...... organizational profile. In this paper, we review three international universities from different context which are in the process of transforming their traditional education model to PBL one. We discuss their approaches of changing to PBL from three aspects: strategies, levels, as well as time....

  6. PBL VIA-online VIA Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Per

    2010-01-01

    Indeværende Masterprojekt omhandler en teoretisk redegørelse for udvikling af en curriculum model. På baggrund af modellen udvikles og udvælges 8 Second Life scenarier til understøtning af PBL online forløb på den internationale linje på bygningskonstruktøruddannelsen i Horsens i et kommende...

  7. Adapted PBL Practical Exercises: Benefits for Apprentices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Use was made of adapted problem-based learning (PBL) practical exercises to address the disengagement of apprentices with the existing assembly-style electronic laboratory programme. Apprentices perceived the traditional routines as having little real-world relevance. This detracted from the value and benefit to them of the practical component of…

  8. Learning (PBL) Curriculum at the University of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aspects of the PBL teaching/learning process. It is an ... organization"2 and is therefore a valu- able tool to identify ... included the resistance of some staff to change ... changes. Because the curriculum encourages a strong sense of autonomy, flexibility, ... various ways of undertaking the ... has been a drastic reduction of stu-.

  9. PBL on Line: A Proposal for the Organization, Part-Time Monitoring and Assessment of PBL Group Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Enric; Gil, Debora; Gurguí, Antoni; Hernández-Sabaté, Aura; Rocarías, Jaume; Poveda, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the organisation of PBL (Project Based Learning) for a subject included in the IT engineering degree course. It is the result of 10 years of experience of the implantation and continuous improvement of the PBL class structure. The latest innovations include the experience of part-time monitoring with PBL groups using the Open…

  10. Outlines of the PBL Working programme 2012; Hoofdlijnen PBL Werkprogramma 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    In this note, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) sketches the outlines of its working programme for 2012. With the intended research in this working programme, PBL aims to contribute to scientific substantiation and evaluation of the Dutch cabinet's policy in a wide range of areas: environment, mobility, space, living, energy, water, food provision, nature, international collaboration, declining population, administrative reforms and international competitive position. The PBL study is aligned to three (of the six) governmental strategic knowledge themes that have been selected for this administrative period, i.e. Dealing with scarcity of resources and space; (2) the competitive position of the Netherlands; (3) Towards a new division of responsibilities among the state and society and a new balance between rights and obligations [Dutch] Het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) schetst in deze notitie de hoofdlijnen van zijn werkprogramma voor 2012. Met het voorgenomen onderzoek in dit werkprogramma wil het PBL bijdragen aan wetenschappelijke onderbouwing en evaluatie van het kabinetsbeleid op een breed scala aan terreinen: milieu, mobiliteit, ruimte, wonen, energie, water, voedselvoorziening, natuur, internationale samenwerking, bevolkingskrimp, decentralisatie, bestuurlijke vernieuwing en internationale concurrentiepositie. PBL-onderzoek sluit aan bij drie (van de zes) rijksbrede strategische kennisthema's die zijn gekozen voor deze kabinetsperiode, te weten: (1) Omgaan met schaarste aan ruimte en grondstoffen; (2) Het concurrentievermogen van Nederland; (3) Naar een nieuwe verantwoordelijkheidsverdeling tussen staat en samenleving en een nieuwe balans tussen rechten en plichten.

  11. Challenges facing PBL tutors: 12 tips for successful group facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2005-12-01

    One of the main tasks of a problem-based learning (PBL) tutor is to facilitate group discussion. Group facilitation is about process rather than content. In this process, a tutor helps the group increase their skills and progress in their discussion. Several studies have highlighted strategies and training used in preparing PBL tutors. However, PBL tutors usually feel that it is not that easy to change their teaching style to the PBL format. They are sometimes unsure about their role or what strategy they might use to facilitate their students' discussion. This article in the '12 Tips' series is a detailed description of, and provides answers to, common challenges faced by PBL tutors. The tips provided in this manuscript should help tutors with practical answers. The article may be useful to PBL tutors, medical and health educators and those responsible for PBL training workshops.

  12. PBL in Educational Psychology – Potentials and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Jensen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses practical and theoretical aspects related to PBL. In the first section of the article, potentials related to professional training of forthcoming educational psychologists following PBL-principles are analyzed. It is argued that PBL constitutes a good platform for creating stimulating interplays between theory and practice. In the second section of the article we discuss some of the theoretical underpinnings in PBL. We discuss whether PBL is prone to a ‘form-content-dualism’, in which attention is centred on the form (the problem and less on the content of learning. Afterwards, it is discussed whether PBL potentially leads to an individualization of the learning process. Finally, we discuss whether the PBL-literature primarily tends toward portraying student learning as a matter of acquisition of knowledge, and therefore ignores the ontogical and identity-related processes in learning.

  13. Successful Project Based Learning (PBL) Across Disciplines Geared Towards Middle School: An Example from a Wetlands PBL Unit in Reno, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, K. L.; Suchy-Mabrouk, A.; Noble, P. J.; Mensing, S. A.; Ewing-Taylor, J.

    2014-12-01

    A growing need for broad dissemination of current scientific research and improved scientific literacy requires new models of professional development that allow for direct collaboration between educators and university researchers. One example is a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of a study titled, "Reconstructing 2500 years of environmental change at the periphery of Rome: Integrating paleoecology and socioeconomic history to understand human response to climate." This project involves a team of middle school teachers working with researchers at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) to gain first-hand knowledge in multidisciplinary research connecting science and society, and applies a similar approach in the classroom. In 2013, the team's science teacher traveled to Italy as a member of the science research group. A series of workshops introduced the remaining teachers to the research project. Teachers collaborated to develop a Project Based Learning (PBL) unit that incorporated Next Generation Science Standards and encompassed English, Social Studies, Math, and Science curricula using a pedagogical approach different from the single subject-based PBL's usually taught in their school district. The PBL unit draws on the NSF study and focuses on exploring the balance between economic and environmental issues surrounding local wetlands. In May 2014, 160 middle school students worked in groups to create and test a question about physio-chemical parameters in a nearby wetland and used these data to discuss local economic development. Initially, students claimed polarized views of environmental issues or economic development interests; however, during a multimedia session showcasing results, students communicated more informed perspectives that clearly incorporated knowledge gained from their own research. Some students were able to make recommendations for good practices involving planned economic development near the wetland

  14. Paternity testing in a PBL environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class activities: in relation to a fictitious newborn found on the Campus, students design a PCR based protocol to determine their own genotype for two markers. Pooled class genotypes serve to calculate allelic frequencies and to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Individual results are also evaluated for possible paternity. The goals of the activity and how each step in the process relates to learning outcomes are presented. Classroom discussions, group discussions, tutorial sessions, wiki sites, laboratory activities, and individual reports sum up the situations, in which the students' process of learning and learning outcomes can be evaluated.

  15. Hidden realities inside PBL design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2015-01-01

    Design Process, but is a group-based architecture and design education better than that which is individually based? How does PBL affect space, form, and creative processes? Hans Kiib, professor and one of the founders of the Department of Architecture and Design in Aalborg, describes his intentions...... within the group work, as it is closer related to the actual PBL process”. Is the Integrated Design Process (Knudstrup 2004) and is Colb (1975) still current and valid? Can we still use these methodologies when we must create “learning for an unknown future,” as Ronald Barnett (2004) claims that we...... are passing from a complex world into one based on super complexity? Could Gaston Bachelard (1958), who writes in his book The Poetic of Space "that poets and artists are born phenomenologists," help architecture and design students in their journey to find his/her own professional expression? This paper...

  16. An Improved Model for the Turbulent PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V. M.; Howard, A. M.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Second order turbulence models of the Mellor and Yamada type have been widely used to simulate the PBL. It is however known that these models have several deficiencies. For example, they all predict a critical Richardson number which is about four times smaller than the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data, they are unable to match the surface data, and they predict a boundary layer height lower than expected. In the present model, we show that these difficulties are all overcome by a single new physical input: the use of the most complete expression for both the pressure-velocity and the pressure-temperature correlations presently available. Each of the new terms represents a physical process that, was not accounted for by previous models. The new model is presented in three different levels according to Mellor and Yamada's terminology, with new, ready-to-use expressions for the turbulent, moments. We show that the new model reproduces several experimental and LES data better than previous models. As far as the PBL is concerned, we show that the model reproduces both the Kansas data as analyzed by Businger et al. in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for smaller Richardson numbers, as well as the LES and laboratory data up to Richardson numbers of order unity. We also show that the model yields a higher PBL height than the previous models.

  17. Balancing Teaching and Research in a PBL Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    The balance between research and teaching in a PBL environment is discussed in this paper. Traditionally, research-based teaching is well embedded in PBL-based teaching and learning models or environments. In this context it is viewed as a function that supports the project work that is considered...... as a main function area of a PBL model. However, the research component is not well embedded in a PBL model; most of the time teaching-based research is not considered or is not part of PBL teaching and learning. Hence, this paper studies the reciprocity of research-based teaching and teaching-based...... research relationship in the context of PBL learning environment and discusses the implications for students, satff and university....

  18. An algorithm to estimate PBL heights from wind profiler data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molod, A.; Salmun, H.

    2016-12-01

    An algorithm was developed to estimate planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from hourlyarchived wind profiler data from the NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) sites located throughoutthe central United States from the period 1992-2012. The long period of record allows ananalysis of climatological mean PBL heights as well as some estimates of year to yearvariability. Under clear conditions, summertime averaged hourly time series of PBL heightscompare well with Richardson-number based estimates at the few NPN stations with hourlytemperature measurements. Comparisons with clear sky MERRA estimates show that the windprofiler (WP) and the Richardson number based PBL heights are lower by approximately 250-500 m.The geographical distribution of daily maximum WP PBL heights corresponds well with theexpected distribution based on patterns of surface temperature and soil moisture. Windprofiler PBL heights were also estimated under mostly cloudy conditions, but the WP estimatesshow a smaller clear-cloudy condition difference than either of the other two PBL height estimates.The algorithm presented here is shown to provide a reliable summer, fall and springclimatology of daytime hourly PBL heights throughout the central United States. The reliabilityof the algorithm has prompted its use to obtain hourly PBL heights from other archived windprofiler data located throughout the world.

  19. A short questionnaire to evaluate the effectiveness of tutors in PBL: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H J M; Ginns, Paul

    2005-09-01

    The tutor plays a central role in problem-based learning (PBL). In many PBL-curricula the effectiveness of the tutor is evaluated in order to provide tutors with feedback. In the literature, several tutor evaluation instruments have been described. The problem with many of these instruments is that they are quite long, due to which students become 'tired' of filling them out. Using a short questionnaire is more convenient for students, but the question is whether such a short instrument can be valid and reliable. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the validity and reliability of a short questionnaire (11 items), representing five underlying factors. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to assess the adequacy of the five factors. The results demonstrated that the five factor model had a good fit to the data. The alpha coefficients also demonstrated acceptable levels. In conclusion, the short tutor evaluation instrument (11 items) is reliable and valid and can be used for formative and summative purposes.

  20. Reconstructing the Aalborg Model for PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    directors. Based on the results, we stress that although innovations obviously have to happen at a certain pace in order to reflect the state of art in society, the pace have to be adjusted to make room for i) pedagogical support and training, ii) a strong coordination to assure an aligned curricula iii...

  1. PHOTON PBL: problem-based learning in photonics technology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nicholas; Audet, Richard; Donnelly, Judith; Hanes, Fenna; Kehrhahn, Marijke

    2007-06-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational approach whereby students learn course content by actively and collaboratively solving real-world problems presented in a context similar to that in which the learning is to be applied. Research shows that PBL improves student learning and retention, critical thinking and problem-solving skills, and the ability to skillfully apply knowledge to new situations - skills deemed critical to lifelong learning. Used extensively in medical education since the 1970's, and widely adopted in other fields including business, law, and education, PBL is emerging as an alternative to traditional lecture-based courses in engineering and technology education. In today's ever-changing global economy where photonics technicians are required to work productively in teams to solve complex problems across disciplines as well as cultures, PBL represents an exciting alternative to traditional lecture-based photonics education. In this paper we present the PHOTON PBL project, a National Science Foundation Advanced Technology Education (NSF-ATE) project aimed at creating, in partnership with the photonics industry and university research labs from across the US, a comprehensive series of multimedia-based PBL instructional resource materials and offering faculty professional development in the use of PBL in photonics technology education. Quantitative and qualitative research will be conducted on the effectiveness of PBL in photonics technician education.

  2. Loyalty, Harm and Duty: PBL in a Media Ethics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    Considers how to teach the various areas of mass media in sufficient depth, without sacrificing breadth. Discusses a variation of problem-based learning (PBL) as one possible solution to that educational conundrum. Focuses on a project developed by a group of public relations students using the PBL method. (SG)

  3. Amazed by Making: How Do Teachers Describe Their PBL Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Dalit; Dor, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on data gathered in a study conducted during the 2015 school year, in a reputable Israeli high school experimenting project-based learning (PBL) as part of an innovative pedagogy for the information age. The overall research goal was to investigate the teachers' views of PBL and the ways by which these views have changed…

  4. Global Estimates of PBL Depth from Space-Borne LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Spangler, Erica lynn; Denning, S.; Molod, A.; Ott, L.

    2012-01-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is responsible for communicating the exchange of energy, moisture, momentum, pollutants, and aerosols between the surface and the free atmosphere and is therefore crucial to many studies of the atmosphere. Unfortunately, there have historically been few observations of this important layer due to the complexity involved in its measurement. However, with the advent of more advanced satellites, global measurements of the PBL are now becoming possible. The PBL is often characterized by a high concentration of aerosols within the layer and low level clouds capping it and these are observable from space. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite was launched in 2006 with the intention of observing aerosols and clouds and was the first space-based LIDAR optimized for this purpose. CALIPSO observations are therefore well suited to observing the depth of the PBL. Since it was launched, CALIPSO has been making nearly continuous measurements enabling a global picture of PBL depth. We plan to present a global PBL depth product and how it evolves throughout the year. The product is able to identify deeper PBL depths in the summer hemisphere over land and deeper depths along the northern hemisphere oceanic storm tracks in winter associated with cold air traveling over warm water. Large seasonal cycles are also evident in the subtropical desert locations among other features. In addition, comparisons will be made between several estimates of PBL depth based on turbulent intensity, meteorology profiles, and aerosol profiles from the GEOS5 model.

  5. Biodiversiteit bekeken: hoe evalueert en verkent het PBL het natuurbeleid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwma, I.M.; Sanders, M.E.; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Knol, O.M.; Verboom, J.; Wit, de B.; Wiertz, J.; Hinsberg, van A.

    2014-01-01

    Deze publicatie heeft als doel de werkwijze en methoden te beschrijven die ten grondslag liggen aan PBL-publicaties over het natuur- en biodiversiteitbeleid. Uitgelegd wordt met welke informatie het PBL veranderingen in de biodiversiteit signaleert, natuurbeleid van de overheid evalueert, en opties

  6. Loyalty, Harm and Duty: PBL in a Media Ethics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    Considers how to teach the various areas of mass media in sufficient depth, without sacrificing breadth. Discusses a variation of problem-based learning (PBL) as one possible solution to that educational conundrum. Focuses on a project developed by a group of public relations students using the PBL method. (SG)

  7. PBL and CDIO: Complementary Models for Engineering Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Kristina; Kolmos, Anette

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares two models for reforming engineering education, problem/project-based learning (PBL), and conceive-design-implement-operate (CDIO), identifying and explaining similarities and differences. PBL and CDIO are defined and contrasted in terms of their history, community, definitions, curriculum design, relation to disciplines,…

  8. Vicarious Learning in PBL Variants for Learning Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podges, Martin; Kommers, Piet

    2017-01-01

    Three different groups in a class of first-year tertiary engineering students had to solve a problem based on a project by applying the distinctive problem-based learning (PBL) approach. Each group's project (PBL project) was then studied by the other two groups after successful completion and demonstration. Each group then had to study the…

  9. Using PBL to Deliver Course in Digital Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantri, Archana; Dutt, Sunil; Gupta, J. P; Chitkara, Madhu

    2009-01-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) has proven to be a highly successful pedagogical model in many educational fields, although it is comparatively uncommon in technical education. It goes beyond the typical teaching methodology by promoting student interaction. This paper presents a PBL trial applied to an undergraduate Digital Electronics course in the…

  10. Identifying Needs to Develop a PBL Staff Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Prarthana

    2013-01-01

    Staff development is a crucial element for educational intervention. Recognizing the importance of staff development, this study aims to pin-point suitable methodologies in developing a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) academic staff development program for a higher education institute where PBL has become an intervention alternative. The study aims…

  11. PBL and critical thinking disposition in Chinese medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU......) were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the commencement of the study. After five years of study, CT was scored by a Chinese version of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI-CV). The score achieved on a Computer Case Simulation (CCS) test evaluated academic performance....... Total CT score was higher in PBL students (n=170) than non-PBL students (n=83) (304.7±36.8 vs. 279.2±39.4, p

  12. The role of a PBL tutor: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Li Chong

    2008-03-01

    Based on my experience as a PBL tutor in the Faculty of Medicine since 1997, it is clear that the role of a PBL tutor is one of a master of many trades. Whilst the primary role of a PBL tutor is to ensure, as a facilitator and a guide, that students engage in self-directed learning within the tutorial setting, he or she should be able to identify issues within and outside the tutorial setting that impact on learning. A PBL tutor should know the case well before the tutorial starts, establish ground rules and recognize that the quality of learning which takes place prior to and after the tutorial by students affect personal and group dynamics within the tutorial setting. The PBL tutor occupies a central and unique role in influencing students' learning and as a mentor to students' development.

  13. A comparison of course-related stressors in undergraduate problem-based learning (PBL) versus non-PBL medical programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alexander D; Menezes, Darryl A Braganza; McDermott, Helen E; Hibbert, Louise J; Brennan, Sarah-Louise; Ross, Elizabeth E; Jones, Lisa A

    2009-09-13

    Medical students report high levels of stress related to their medical training as well as to other personal and financial factors. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there are differences in course-related stressors reported by medical students on undergraduate problem-based learning (PBL) and non-PBL programmes in the UK. A cross-sectional study of second-year medical students in two UK medical schools (one PBL and one non-PBL programme) was conducted. A 16-question self-report questionnaire, derived from the Perceived Medical Student Stress Scale and the Higher Education Stress Inventory, was used to measure course-related stressors. Following univariate analysis of each stressor between groups, multivariate logistic regression was used to determine which stressors were the best predictors of each course type, while controlling for socio-demographic differences between the groups. A total of 280 students responded. Compared to the non-PBL students (N = 197), the PBL students (N = 83) were significantly more likely to agree that: they did not know what the faculty expected of them (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.38, p = 0.03); there were too many small group sessions facilitated only by students resulting in an unclear curriculum (OR = 0.04, p PBL and non-PBL programmes. Course designers and student support services should therefore tailor their work to minimise, or help students cope with, the specific stressors on each course type to ensure optimum learning and wellbeing among our future doctors.

  14. Systematic Design of Blended PBL: Exploring the Design Experiences and Support Needs of PBL Novices in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yun-Jo

    2013-01-01

    Designing problem-based learning (PBL), especially blended PBL, is very different from designing traditional teacher-centered instruction and requires a new set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. To be successful, teachers must step out of their comfort zone, adopt new roles and responsibilities, and develop new knowledge and skills required in…

  15. PBL On Line: A proposal for the organization, part-time monitoring and assessment of PBL group activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Marti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the organisation of PBL (Project Based Learning for a subject included in the IT engineering degree course. It is the result of 10 years of experience of the implantation and continuous improvement of the PBL class structure. The latest innovations include the experience of part-time monitoring with PBL groups using the OpenMeetings tool in Moodle 2.0, the adoption of activities that improve learning and interdependence such as the jigsaw classroom, the clear definition of deliverables that students should present along the semester and the assessment criteria, both on groups and individuals. As a result of this experience, we present PBL student enrolment indexes, student assessment surveys and lecturers’ opinions. We conclude with some topics for discussion about the PBL methodology.

  16. Evaluation of an innovative, evidence-guided, PBL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Hilary; Bull, Stephanie; Lloyd, Helen; Gilbert, Kerry; Mattick, Karen

    2017-05-05

    To understand the experiences of students and problem-based learning (PBL) facilitators during an evidence-based curriculum change to a PBL programme within an undergraduate medical course in South West England. Four novel PBL cases were designed and implemented, based on educational theory and evidence. Eight focus groups were undertaken with Year-1 and -2 students (n = 18) and PBL facilitators (n = 14) to explore the experiences of participants. Thematic analysis and conceptual abstraction led to insights into the intended and unintended consequences of the change. Participant responses to the change process were influenced by the perceived relevance and value of the change (e.g. benefit to student learning), which was shaped by individual beliefs and preferences (e.g. presumed purpose of PBL, relative value placed on different curriculum topics, and desire for uniform educational experience), and the wider education context (e.g. expectations of assessment). It appears that the three distinct elements must align for the changes to be received positively. We updated our PBL curriculum in response to new evidence DISCUSSION: This study describes how we updated our PBL curriculum in response to new evidence, and demonstrates the importance of communicating the pedagogic rationale behind changes, and meticulous planning, preparation and alignment, even in distant parts of the curriculum. Engaging with existing views and attitudes is an essential requirement for successful curriculum change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  17. The Design and Program Evaluation of a Distributed PBL Curriculum for Training Family Doctors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaz, Jose B. C.; van der Molen, Henk T.; Mamede, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade Problem-based Learning (PBL) and distance education have been combined as educational approaches in higher education. This combination has been called distributed PBL (dPBL). However, more research is needed to obtain more evidence and deeper insight in how to design and implement dPBL. The present study aims at describing the…

  18. Reflections: Evolution of PBL in the International Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hla-Yee-Yee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the evolution of PBL inthe International Medical University over a periodof twenty years; since its inception in 1992 till 2012.It is a record of the reasons for the evolution, the peopleinvolved and the strategies adopted. The PBL in IMUhas metamorphosed over the years from a paper-basedcomplete case history into its present form of staggeredrelease of information, paper-based or otherwise (videos,web-based, newspaper cuttings, debates. Strategies toimprove student and facilitator buy-in, strengtheningof facilitator training, adoption of PBL templates,innovations to improve student participation arediscussed.

  19. PBL and critical thinking disposition in Chinese medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon

    2013-01-01

    ) were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the commencement of the study. After five years of study, CT was scored by a Chinese version of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI-CV). The score achieved on a Computer Case Simulation (CCS) test evaluated academic performance......The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU...... of critical thinking, but not to improved academic skills....

  20. Comparison of PBL Curricua within Control Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Samaca, Liliana; Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Ramirez, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    approaches are compared based on an analysis of the study guidelines, the technical curriculum, the themes of the project, the project introduction and specification given by staff, as well as student outcomes in the form of technical skills and skills related to specification requirements, project....... In this article, a comparison of two PBL cases will be described in order to study the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems. One case presents a single level comprised of two courses and the other one is an integrated PBL curriculum, and both are focused on control engineering courses. The PBL...

  1. Introducing problem-based learning (PBL) into a foundation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute for Mathematics and Science Teaching, Stellenbosch University, South Africa ... Problem-based Learning (PBL) approach in a one-year foundation ..... An open-ended questionnaire which consisted of 7 questions targeted the 2006.

  2. APPLYING PBL AND ZUVIO TO ENHANCE ENGLISH LEARNING MOTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    BOR-TYNG WANG

    2016-01-01

    To inspire college students’ English learning motivation, this study proposed to combine Project-Based Learning (PBL) with ZUVIO online teaching platform. The traditional teaching methods focus on teachers’ direct instruction in class, which mean that students only receive knowledge from teachers instead of formulating the answers on their own. This also decreases interaction in the classroom and prevents students from collaborating with other peers. However, implementing PBL and ZUVIO would ...

  3. Practice of PBL in the Reading Teaching Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yingting

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined PBL with some advanced foreign reading teaching strategies, we choose the most suitable way to give lessons and bring up students ability to think of questions. Based on teaching experience for several years, we propose some teaching strategies in English reading teaching to help students improve the efficiency and accuracy of reading with the help of PBL. After practice, students’ innovation and cooperation are strengthened and the width and depth of their questions are improved.

  4. LGBTQ-Inclusive Curricula: Why Supportive Curricula Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Shannon D.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Sinclair, Katarina O.; Gabrion, Karlee; Russell, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing attention to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and questioning (LGBTQ) issues in schools, including efforts to address such issues through the curriculum. This study examines whether students' perceptions of personal safety and school climate safety are stronger when curricula that include LGBTQ people are present and…

  5. Tutoring in problem-based learning medical curricula: the influence of tutor background and style on effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régo Patricia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for the superiority of particular characteristics in PBL tutors in medical curricula is generally inconclusive. Most studies have investigated the effectiveness of content experts compared with that of non-experts as measured either by student satisfaction or academic achievement. A few have compared academic staff tutors with student tutors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' perception of overall tutor effectiveness, particular tutor behaviours, clinical qualifications and academic appointment. Method A questionnaire designed to evaluate particular aspects of PBL tutoring technique, related either to subject-matter knowledge or to process-facilitation skill, as well as overall effectiveness, was distributed to students in first year of a PBL medical program at the end of each of three tutor terms. A total of 76 tutor terms were included in the study. Data analysis compared clinical with non-clinical tutors, and staff with non-staff tutors. Results Clinically qualified tutors used their subject-matter knowledge significantly more than non-clinical tutors and were seen as being more empathic with their students. Staff tutors placed more emphasis on assessment than non-staff tutors and were seen as having greater skill in establishing and maintaining an environment of cooperation within their PBL groups than non-staff tutors. Conclusion These results suggest that both subject-matter knowledge and process-facilitation skills are necessary but not individually sufficient characteristics of effective tutors.

  6. A comparison of course-related stressors in undergraduate problem-based learning (PBL versus non-PBL medical programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Elizabeth E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students report high levels of stress related to their medical training as well as to other personal and financial factors. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there are differences in course-related stressors reported by medical students on undergraduate problem-based learning (PBL and non-PBL programmes in the UK. Method A cross-sectional study of second-year medical students in two UK medical schools (one PBL and one non-PBL programme was conducted. A 16-question self-report questionnaire, derived from the Perceived Medical Student Stress Scale and the Higher Education Stress Inventory, was used to measure course-related stressors. Following univariate analysis of each stressor between groups, multivariate logistic regression was used to determine which stressors were the best predictors of each course type, while controlling for socio-demographic differences between the groups. Results A total of 280 students responded. Compared to the non-PBL students (N = 197, the PBL students (N = 83 were significantly more likely to agree that: they did not know what the faculty expected of them (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.38, p = 0.03; there were too many small group sessions facilitated only by students resulting in an unclear curriculum (OR = 0.04, p Conclusion There are significant differences in the perceived course-related stressors affecting medical students on PBL and non-PBL programmes. Course designers and student support services should therefore tailor their work to minimise, or help students cope with, the specific stressors on each course type to ensure optimum learning and wellbeing among our future doctors.

  7. Presentation of a Nanoelectronics Curricula Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Nielsen, Ivan Ring

    2008-01-01

    Future developments in nanoelectronics call for major changes in university curricula within engineering. It is found that three major factors influence the curricula: technology development, development of industrial environment, and development of university structures. It is also found that na...

  8. Sustainability curricula in design education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casais, M.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.

    2012-01-01

    While sustainability in Design finds much attention in the literature, the education of sustainability in Design courses lacks discussion regarding curricula and importance. In an attempt to map the way sustainability is taught in Design Bachelor and Master Courses in the European Union, we began

  9. Developmentally Appropriate Peace Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewsader, Joellen; Myers-Walls, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Peace education has been offered to children for decades, but those curricula have been only minimally guided by children's developmental stages and needs. In this article, the authors apply their research on children's developmental understanding of peace along with peace education principles and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory to present…

  10. The potential of the inventory of learning styles to study students' learning patterns in three types of medical curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veken, J; Valcke, M; Muijtjens, A; De Maeseneer, J; Derese, A

    2008-01-01

    Introducing innovative curricular designs can be evaluating by scrutinizing the learning patterns students use. Studying the potential of Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) in detecting differences in student learning patterns in different medical curricula. Cross-sectional between-subjects comparison of ILS-scores in third-year medical students in a conventional, an integrated contextual and a PBL-curriculum using one-way post hoc ANOVA. Response rate was 85%: 197 conventional, 130 integrated contextual and 301 PBL students. The results show a differential impact from the three curricula. In relation to processing strategies, the students in the problem-based curriculum showed less rote learning and rehearsing, greater variety in sources of knowledge used and less ability to express study content in a personal manner than did the students in the conventional curriculum. The students of the integrated contextual curriculum showed more structuring of subject matter by integrating different aspects into a whole. In relation to regulation strategies, the students in the problem-based curriculum showed significantly more self-regulation of learning content and the students in the integrated contextual curriculum showed lower levels of regulation. As to learning orientations, the students in the problem-based curriculum showed less ambivalence and the students of the conventional curriculum were less vocationally oriented. The study provides empirical support for expected effects of traditional and innovative curricula which thus far were not well supported by empirical studies.

  11. American Sign Language Curricula: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2010-01-01

    There is an exponential growth in the number of schools that offer American Sign Language (ASL) for foreign language credit and the different ASL curricula that were published. This study analyzes different curricula in its assumptions regarding language, learning, and teaching of second languages. It is found that curricula vary in their…

  12. CONSTRUCTION OF HU-PBL/SCID CHIMERAS AND DEVELOPMENT OF EBV-RELATED LYMPHOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-liang Gan; Ke Lan; Zhi-hua Yin; Li-jiang Wang; Ying Song; Kai-tai Yao

    2005-01-01

    Objective To construct hu-PBL/SCID chimeras and to investigate the development of lymphoma and oncogenicity of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).Mtehods Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were isolated from healthy adult donors and transplanted intraperitoneally into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Mice with hu-PBL engraftment from healthy EBV seronegative donors were injected intraperitoneally with EBV-containing supematant from suspension culture of B95-8 cell line (active infection), whereas mice receiving lymphocytes from healthy EBV seropositive donors were not re-infected with B95-8 derived EBV (latent infection). Pathological examination and molecular analysis were performed on experimental animals and induced neoplasms.Results In the early stage of this experiment, 12 mice died of acute graft-versus-host disease, mortality was 34.3%(12/35 mice) with an average life span of 17.5 days. In 19 survival hu-PBL/SCID chimeric recipients from 12 healthy donors,tumor incidence was 84.2% (16/19 mice). The average survival time of tumor-bearing mice was 65.5 days. EBV-related neoplasms in SCID mice were nodular tumors with aggressive and fatal features. Histological morphology of tumors exhibited diffuse large cell lymphomas. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LCA (CD45) and L26 (CD20) were positive, but both PS1 (CD3) and UCHL-1 (CD45RO) were negative, and EBV products ZEBRA, LMP1, and EBNA2 were expressed in a small number of tumor cells. EB virus particles were seen in the nuclei of some tumor cells by electron microscopy, and EBV DNA could be amplified in the tumor tissues by PCR. In situ hybridization indicated that the nuclei of tumor cells contained human-specific Alu sequence.Conclusions EBV-induced tumors were human B-cell malignant lymphomas. We obtained direct causative evidence dealing with EBV-associated tumor deriving from normal human cells.

  13. APPLYING PBL AND ZUVIO TO ENHANCE ENGLISH LEARNING MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOR-TYNG WANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To inspire college students’ English learning motivation, this study proposed to combine Project-Based Learning (PBL with ZUVIO online teaching platform. The traditional teaching methods focus on teachers’ direct instruction in class, which mean that students only receive knowledge from teachers instead of formulating the answers on their own. This also decreases interaction in the classroom and prevents students from collaborating with other peers. However, implementing PBL and ZUVIO would allow students to apply knowledge in the social context and work with their classmates. In this study, two freshman English classes in a private university in central Taiwan were chosen as the sample. The students in both classes were low-level students (CEF A2 level. One class (N = 39 was chosen as the experimental group which had to complete the PBL tasks assigned by the teacher and use peer assessment function in ZUVIO for one academic year. The other class (N = 43 was chosen as the control group which was given the traditional teaching instructions. The results showed that the experimental group performed better on the midterm exam compared to the control group during both semesters (p = 0.001. Additionally, the results of the questionnaire showed that students’ motivation to learn English increased when using PBL and ZUVIO as teaching methods. To cite this document: Bor-Tyng Wang, "Applying PBL and ZUVIO to enhance English learning motivation", International Journal of Cyber Society and Education, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 1-16, 2016.

  14. Fundamental Requirements on PBL Classes for Better Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Teruaki

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) education has become popular in the US and its educational effects have been recognized in many case studies. PBL also attracts attention of the educators in Japan, and several achievements have also been reported. However, because of its short history and its different backgrounds on the corporate sponsorship to academic institutions, implementation of PBL in engineering education has not so much been achieved well and its educational effects have not been recognized enough. This paper picks up one of the best examples of PBL class with robotic project at MIT in the US, and reviews the key factors why the class works so successfully. Comparing the review results with the experiences in the engineering class of CAD-EX at the University of Tokushima, this paper discusses the basic requirements on PBL, emphasizing the importance of strenuous efforts to encourage students towards motivated attitudes, creative learning and active participation in the class under the healthy and friendly competitive atmosphere.

  15. Twelve tips on how to survive PBL as a medical student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, E; Taylor, D C M

    2013-01-01

    Starting medical school can be both exciting and daunting. This is particularly the case when the style of learning is different from that which has been experienced previously. For many students, their first experience of learning through a problem-based learning (PBL) approach is when they commence their medical student programme. This article provides 12 tips on how to survive PBL as a medical student. The tips have been based on the authors' experience of PBL and the current literature evidence base. A chronological order was used for the tips to guide the reader, whether student or PBL facilitator, through tips for the various stages of the PBL process. These 12 tips provide students and PBL facilitators with 12 practical tips to help them to realise the learning process and rationale for PBL. The tips commence with surviving the initial PBL sessions and continue through the process, finishing with the use of PBL in the clinical setting where the written scenarios are replaced by patient case histories. Using a PBL approach facilitates the learning of clinical and science knowledge in context through clinical scenarios, whilst working and learning together as a group. It is envisaged that these tips will be beneficial for PBL facilitators working with students that are new to PBL, and for the PBL students themselves.

  16. General physicians graduated from a PBL undergraduate medical curriculum: how well do they perform as PBL tutors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Lee, Joo Heung; Kee, Changwon

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted on the effectiveness of general physicians recently graduated from a medical school with Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum as PBL tutors to expand the school's tutor pool. This study aims to investigate these non-staff tutors' effectiveness in terms of student satisfaction and learning outcomes. An experimental study was conducted of 12 PBL groups of second-year medical students (n = 40). Four PBL groups were led by non-staff tutors; the other eight groups were led by staff tutors during the two PBL units. Tutor evaluation and student satisfaction questionnaires were administered and student performance scores were analysed to compare between groups led by staff tutors and non-staff tutors. The students' overall satisfaction with the non-staff tutors on a five-point Likert-scale was high (M = 4.5 +/-.638). Additionally, the student scores on written tests were comparable between groups. Yet, in one unit, the groups led by staff tutors received significantly higher scores on the group evaluation than those led by non-staff tutors. The results of this study show that the non-staff tutors performed as effectively as the staff tutors did with regard to student achievement in written exams. Still, the findings of this study suggest that different tutor backgrounds and experiences might affect student performance beyond the written exam scores.

  17. Global network on engineering education research and expertise in PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Kolmos, Anette; Moesby, Egon

    2006-01-01

    in order to facilitate better access to and co-operation within the PBL area. One of the absolute important tasks for UCPBL is to provide evidence for the effectiveness of PBL worldwide. Thus, there is a special attempt to establish links between engineering education researchers in this field......The UCPBL Centre for Problem Based Learning is based at Aalborg University, Denmark, known world-wide for its successful educational approach based on problem oriented project work. Due to more than 30 years of experience in utilizing PBL-learning principles in Engineering Education, an increasing....... This involves considerations concerning what is engineering education research – and how do we promote research based staff and educational development....

  18. Perception of content and non-content expert facilitators of PBL according to students' performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Akmal Shareela; Alias, Ekram; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Damanhuri, Mohd Hanafi A; Karim, Norwahidah Abd; Aan, Goon Jo

    2015-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centred learning system that involves multidisciplinary fields focused on problem solving. Facilitators of PBL are not necessarily content experts but little is known on how this concept has affected the outcomes of PBL sessions in learning Medical Biochemistry. We aimed to evaluate the impact of having the content expert as a facilitator in conducting PBL. A total of 150 first and second year medical students from the University Kebangsaan Malaysia were interviewed with a validated set of questions to acquire their views on the roles of facilitators in PBL in learning Medical Biochemistry. Their achievement were evaluated through their essay marks derived from various PBL packages. All respondents agreed that PBL sessions associated with Medical Biochemistry are best appreciated when conducted by a content-expert facilitator. Their exam marks reflected well on their perception. PBL sessions related to Medical Biochemistry is best facilitated by Biochemistry lecturers as the content experts.

  19. FACULTY PERCEPTION OF PBL CURRICULUM IN MELAKA MANIPAL MEDICAL COLLEGE,MANIPAL, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Guruprasd Rao

    2013-01-01

    Present study was carried out to gauge the perception of the faculty members of Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC), Manipal, India regarding the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. The faculty were divided into those with prior experience of PBL (group A) and those without it (group B) and were asked to respond to a Likert scale questionnaire regarding the PBL curriculum. Majority of the faculty members agreed that PBL curriculum helps students to acquire critical thinking skills and ...

  20. PBL-GIS in Secondary Geography Education: Does It Result in Higher-Order Learning Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Bui, Elisabeth N.; Chang, Chew-Hung; Lossman, Hans G.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research on evaluating problem-based learning using GIS technology in a Singapore secondary school. A quasi-experimental research design was carried to test the PBL pedagogy (PBL-GIS) with an experimental group of students and compare their learning outcomes with a control group who were exposed to PBL but not GIS. The…

  1. PBL and Critical Thinking Disposition in Chinese Medical Students--A Randomized Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, XiangYun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon; Sun, Baozhi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU) were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the…

  2. Designing, implementing and evaluating an online problem-based learning (PBL) environment--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Manwa L; Bridges, Susan; Law, Sam Po; Whitehill, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been shown to be effective for promoting student competencies in self-directed and collaborative learning, critical thinking, self-reflection and tackling novel situations. However, the need for face-to-face interactions at the same place and time severely limits the potential of traditional PBL. The requirements of space and for meeting at a specific location at the same time create timetabling difficulties. Such limitations need to be tackled before all potentials of PBL learning can be realized. The present study aimed at designing and implementing an online PBL environment for undergraduate speech/language pathology students, and assessing the associated pedagogical effectiveness. A group of eight PBL students were randomly selected to participate in the study. They underwent 4 weeks of online PBL using Adobe Connect. Upon completion of the experiment, they were assessed via a self-reported questionnaire and quantitative comparison with traditional PBL students based on the same written assignment. The questionnaire revealed that all participating students enjoyed online PBL, without any perceived negative effects on learning. Online PBL unanimously saved the students travel time to and from school. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in assignment grades between the online and traditional PBL groups, indicating that online PBL learning appears to be similarly effective as traditional face-to-face PBL learning.

  3. Journey into the Problem-Solving Process: Cognitive Functions in a PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, B. L.; Tan, O. S.; Liu, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    In a PBL environment, learning results from learners engaging in cognitive processes pivotal in the understanding or resolution of the problem. Using Tan's cognitive function disc, this study examines the learner's perceived cognitive functions at each stage of PBL, as facilitated by the PBL schema. The results suggest that these learners…

  4. Journey into the Problem-Solving Process: Cognitive Functions in a PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, B. L.; Tan, O. S.; Liu, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    In a PBL environment, learning results from learners engaging in cognitive processes pivotal in the understanding or resolution of the problem. Using Tan's cognitive function disc, this study examines the learner's perceived cognitive functions at each stage of PBL, as facilitated by the PBL schema. The results suggest that these learners…

  5. Human-derived IgG level as an indicator for EBV-associated lymphoma model in Hu-PBL/SCID chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunlian; He, Rongfang; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Fang; Cheng, Ailan; Wu, Yimou; Gan, Runliang

    2011-05-09

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has a close association with various types of human lymphomas. Animal models are essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of human EBV-associated lymphomas. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between human IgG concentration and EBV-associated lymphoma development in huPBL/SCID mice. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hu-PBL) from EBV-seropositive donors were inoculated intraperitoneally into SCID mouse. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine differentiated antigens of tumor cells. EBV infection of the induced tumors was detected by in situ hybridization. IgG concentrations in the serums of 12 SCID mice were measured by unidirectional immunodiffusion assay. 21 out of 29 mice developed tumors in their body. Immunohistochemical staining showed that all induced tumors were LCA (leukocyte common antigen) positive, B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a) positive, and T-cell markers (both CD3 and CD45RO) negative. The tumors can be diagnosed as human B-cell lymphomas by these morphological and immunohistochemical features. In situ hybridization exhibited resultant tumor cells had EBV encoded small RNA-1 (EBER-1). Human-derived IgG could be found in the serum from SCID mice on the 15th day following hu-PBL transplantation, and IgG levels increased with the tumor development in 6 hu-PBL/SCID chimeras. Intraperitoneal transfer of hu-PBLs from EBV+ donors to SCID mice leads to high human IgG levels in mouse serum and B cell lymphomas. Our findings suggest that increasing levels of human-derived IgG in peripheral blood from hu-PBL/SCID mice could be used to monitor EBV-related human B-cell lymphoma development in experimental animals.

  6. Qualitative Research in PBL in Health Sciences Education: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Context: Qualitative methodologies are relatively new in health sciences education research, especially in the area of problem-based learning (PBL). A key advantage of qualitative approaches is the ability to gain in-depth, textured insights into educational phenomena. Key methodological issues arise, however, in terms of the strategies of…

  7. Evaluating Biology Achievement Scores in an ICT Integrated PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamisah; Kaur, Simranjeet Judge

    2014-01-01

    Students' achievement in Biology is often looked up as a benchmark to evaluate the mode of teaching and learning in higher education. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an approach that focuses on students' solving a problem through collaborative groups. There were eighty samples involved in this study. The samples were divided into three groups: ICT…

  8. Merging research orientation with professional apprenticeship training through PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses an ongoing process of merging two university-based teaching traditions. The two traditions are alike in that both share a basic commitment to PBL-related values. Differences refer (as stated in the paper’s title) to one tradition being relatively more research oriented, whereas...

  9. Qualitative Research in PBL in Health Sciences Education: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Context: Qualitative methodologies are relatively new in health sciences education research, especially in the area of problem-based learning (PBL). A key advantage of qualitative approaches is the ability to gain in-depth, textured insights into educational phenomena. Key methodological issues arise, however, in terms of the strategies of…

  10. Evaluating Biology Achievement Scores in an ICT Integrated PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamisah; Kaur, Simranjeet Judge

    2014-01-01

    Students' achievement in Biology is often looked up as a benchmark to evaluate the mode of teaching and learning in higher education. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an approach that focuses on students' solving a problem through collaborative groups. There were eighty samples involved in this study. The samples were divided into three groups: ICT…

  11. How experienced tutors facilitate tutorial dynamics in PBL groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gin-Hong; Lin, Chaou-Shune; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial are conducted in small groups, and successful learning in such groups requires good group facilitating skills. There is a lack of research on actual skills employed by tutors in facilitating the group dynamics. To explore the process of PBL tutorial small groups, focusing on the tutors' actual behavior in facilitating group dynamics. Eight experienced tutors from various departments in medical colleges participated in this research. Forty tutorial group sessions were videotaped. Among the 636 tutorial intervention episodes, 142 of them were associated with facilitating group dynamics. Tutors interventions as well as their recalls were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative research methods were utilized to analyze the data. There were 10 tutorial group dynamic situations and 48 tutorial skills. Analysis of the tutors' intentions employing these skills in the 10 situations showed that tutors were trying to achieve the following aims: (1) iteration of PBL principles, (2) delegation of responsibility to the students, (3) creation of a good discussion forum, and (4) the generation of a good learning atmosphere. Results from this study provide PBL tutors with a practical frame of reference on group dynamic facilitating skills and stimulate further research on this topic.

  12. De Natuurverkenning en de rol van het PBL in beleidsprocessen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, B.; Hajer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nature Outlook is one of the regular products of PBL Netherlands Environmental Agency. For the present Outlook there has been quite a lot of interaction between researchers and policy makers and societal groups. Ideas that have been developed during the process of making the Outlook, have been

  13. Discussion as media and tool in PBL project-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Claus Monrad

    2013-01-01

    The Aalborg PBL Model encourages project-management as a way for students to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in their study-projects. This paper looks into how the development of conversation skills relates to project-management as well as other factors. Through analysis of interviews focusing...

  14. De Natuurverkenning en de rol van het PBL in beleidsprocessen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, B.; Hajer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nature Outlook is one of the regular products of PBL Netherlands Environmental Agency. For the present Outlook there has been quite a lot of interaction between researchers and policy makers and societal groups. Ideas that have been developed during the process of making the Outlook, have been i

  15. PBL, Hands-On/ Digital resources in Geology, (Teaching/ Learning)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rosa; Santos, Cátia; Carvalho, Sara

    2015-04-01

    The present study reports the elaboration, application and evaluation of a problem-based learning (PBL) program that aims to evaluate the effectiveness in students learning the Rock Cycle theme. Prior research on both PBL and Rock Cycle was conducted within the context of science education so as to elaborate and construct the intervention program. Findings from these studies indicated both the PBL methodology and Rock Cycle as helpful for teachers and students. PBL methodology has been adopted in this study since it is logically incorporated in a constructivism philosophy application and it was expected that this approach would assist students towards achieving a specific set of competencies. PBL is a student-centered method based on the principle of using problems as the starting point for the acquisition of new knowledge. Problems are based on complex real-world situations. All information needed to solve the problem is initially not given. Students will identify, find, and use appropriate resources to complete the exercise. They work permanently in small groups, developing self-directed activities and increasing participation in discussions. Teacher based guidance allows students to be fully engaged in knowledge building. That way, the learning process is active, integrated, cumulative, and connected. Theme "Rock Cycle" was introduced using a problematic situation, which outlined the geological processes highlighted in "Foz do Douro" the next coastline of the school where the study was developed. The questions proposed by the students were solved, using strategies that involved the use of hands-on activities and virtual labs in Geology. The systematization of the selected theme was performed in a field excursion, implemented according to the organizational model of Nir Orion, to The "Foz do Douro" metamorphic complex. In the evaluation of the learning process, data were obtained on students' development of knowledge and competencies through the application of

  16. Dental students' evaluation of 2 community-oriented PBL modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, A K; Collinson, S; Croucher, R

    1999-11-01

    To evaluate dental students' perception of 2 problem-based learning (PBL) modules in Dental Public Health implemented within the context of a traditional formal curriculum. 2 dental community modules were implemented with an 8-month interval between them on the same group of dental undergraduates; the first in Term 2 and the second in Term 4 of a 5-year 15-term dental course. At the end of each module, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to evaluate the introductory lecture, the fieldwork activity and the organisation of the modules. In both modules, students reported gaining insight into the subject matter, skills in teamwork, making presentations and collecting data. Some students in the 1st module needed more time to fulfil their learning objectives and had difficulty in collecting data. In the 2nd module, students reported that they lacked motivation because of the place of the module within their timetable. Opinions differed about groupwork. The content of and interest generated by fieldwork activity was rated more positively in the 2nd module than the 1st. Less positively rated in the 2nd module was the introductory lecture and module organisation. Implementing PBL within a traditional curriculum does not offer uniform outcomes for students. Optimum group size and adequate time are necessary if students are to benefit from PBL. A consistent and continuous PBL approach should be adopted rather than a sporadic one. Further research should establish the optimum balance between PBL and traditional approaches that would allow students to maximise the benefits of both and to identify those students best equipped to benefit from a 'mixed economy' of learning.

  17. Implementation of Problem Based Learning (PBL) - in a Malaysian Teacher Education Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borhan, Mohamad Termizi Bin; Yassin, Sopia Md

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes an employment of a Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach in a Malaysian graduate teacher education course. The discussions focus on how PBL was introduced, the PBL tasks and explore issues and benefits perceived by students. Data were obtained from journal reflections......, interviews and field note of observations. All types of data were analyze using inductive analytical approach. The result indicated that students were struggling at the preliminary phase of PBL, require more time in PBL learning process and link the acquisition of skills and group working process as benefits...

  18. Evaluating the impact of a PBL-course for first-year engineering students learning through PBL-projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette; Spliid, Claus Monrad

    2011-01-01

    The PBL-course for engineering students at Aalborg University provides support for student-groups' project-work and collaborative learning when planning and conducting scientific problem-based project with societal relevance. The results of a survey among some of the groups indicate that the limi...

  19. A Qualitative Study on How Health Professional Students and Their PBL Facilitators Perceive the Use of Mobile Devices during PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Bridges, Susan M.; Doherty, Iain; Ng, Manwa L.; Jin, Jun; Sharma, Neel; Chan, Nam Kiu; Lai, Henrietta Yan Yu

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices are increasingly being used by undergraduate students to access online information in the problem-based learning (PBL) process, initially in the self-directed phase, and more recently within face-to-face tutorials. This qualitative study across three undergraduate health professional programs used semi-structured interviews to…

  20. Evaluating the impact of a PBL-course for first-year engineering students learning through PBL-projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette; Spliid, Claus Monrad

    2011-01-01

    The PBL-course for engineering students at Aalborg University provides support for student-groups' project-work and collaborative learning when planning and conducting scientific problem-based project with societal relevance. The results of a survey among some of the groups indicate...

  1. Vertical stream curricula integration of problem-based learning using an autonomous vacuum robot in a mechatronics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cheng; Yue, Keng

    2011-10-01

    Difficulties in teaching a multi-disciplinary subject such as the mechatronics system design module in Departments of Mechatronics Engineering at Temasek Polytechnic arise from the gap in experience and skill among staff and students who have different backgrounds in mechanical, computer and electrical engineering within the Mechatronics Department. The departments piloted a new vertical stream curricula model (VSCAM) to enhance student learning in mechatronics system design through integration of educational activities from the first to the second year of the course. In this case study, a problem-based learning (PBL) method on an autonomous vacuum robot in the mechatronics systems design module was proposed to allow the students to have hands-on experience in the mechatronics system design. The proposed works included in PBL consist of seminar sessions, weekly works and project presentation to provide holistic assessment on teamwork and individual contributions. At the end of VSCAM, an integrative evaluation was conducted using confidence logs, attitude surveys and questionnaires. It was found that the activities were quite appreciated by the participating staff and students. Hence, PBL has served as an effective pedagogical framework for teaching multidisciplinary subjects in mechatronics engineering education if adequate guidance and support are given to staff and students.

  2. Information Systems Curricula: A Fifty Year Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Feinstein, David; Clark, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of research to explore the nature of changes in skills over a fifty year period spanning the life of Information Systems model curricula. Work begun in 1999 was expanded both backwards in time, as well as forwards to 2012 to define skills relevant to Information Systems curricula. The work in 1999 was based on job…

  3. Integrating Sustainability Education into International Marketing Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Chamila Roshani; Hewege, Chandana Rathnasiri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to extend the current knowledge of curriculum developments in international business and marketing curricula. Integrating sustainability into business and marketing curricula of the universities are widely debated in previous literature. Sustainability is a global phenomenon; however, curriculum development…

  4. Integrating Sustainability Education into International Marketing Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Chamila Roshani; Hewege, Chandana Rathnasiri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to extend the current knowledge of curriculum developments in international business and marketing curricula. Integrating sustainability into business and marketing curricula of the universities are widely debated in previous literature. Sustainability is a global phenomenon; however, curriculum development…

  5. Can Law Become Curricula's Guidance Counselor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Kimberly G.

    2008-01-01

    This article asserts that curricula, a living text, ought to take into consideration the virtues of fairness, justice, and integrity as found in law, in order to judge controversial issues of curriculum. This assertion is argued through a comparison of jurisprudence and pedagogy, as well as law and curricula. Dworkin's (1986) contention of "law as…

  6. Curricula for sustainability in higher education

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This books presents the curricula necessary for sustainability in higher education. It shows how the learning process is transforming in order to promote sustainability. It prepares administrators, teachers and students to diffuse the development in the field, showing a curricula based on three interconnected pillars: the environment, the economic and the social aspects. It contains 8 chapters introducing research advances in the field.

  7. Introducing PBL to Foreign Studentsin International Engineering Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Dahms, Mona-Lisa; Jensen, Lars Peter

    2007-01-01

    programs to develop process competencies from an intercultural perspective. The POL course has had positive effects in terms of helping foreign students understand PBL and develop learning strategies in a PBL setting. However, our experiences show that issues arising from cultural diversity in educational...... settings are more complex than only integrating foreign students into existing programs. More efforts and better strategies are needed to improve intercultural competencies for teaching staff and students, foreigners as well as locals, in engineering education....... to develop process competencies (i.e. skills in project management, collaboration, communication, etc.) in addition to technical skills. This paper presents the development of a course, the Project Organized Learning (POL) course, which has been designed to assist students in international engineering...

  8. CASES-97 : Diurnal variation of the fair-weather PBL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, R. L.; Grossman, R. L.; Hicks, B.; Horst, T.; Klazura, G.; LeMone, M. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; McMillen, R.; Oncley, S.

    1997-11-18

    The CASES-97 dataset, supplemented by data from the surrounding area and from satellite, will enable us to isolate the effects of soil moisture on boundary layer evolution.Our initial approach will be to use the integrated dataset to determine (a) the factors that contribute to PBL growth, and (b) the factors that determine the wind, temperature, and wind profiles in the growing PBL. This process will help us to consolidate the dataset and tease out remaining inconsistencies. As soon as reasonable, we want to use the dataset in mesoscale numerical models, to test and refine our conclusions. Further detail on the CASES-97 field program can be found at the World Wide Web site at: http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/cases/cases.html.

  9. PBL og de sammensatte hold på kandidatuddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engen, Mie; Fallov, Mia Arp; Jensen, Rune Hagel Skaarup

    Denne rapport omhandler pædagogiske udfordringer og muligheder i Aalborgs Problembaserede Læringstilgang (PBL), når den omsættes til pædagogisk og didaktisk handling på kandidatuddannelser med sammensatte hold. Sammensatte hold betyder i denne sammenhæng kandidatuddannelser, hvor de optagne...... studerende har meget forskellige uddannelsesmæssige baggrunde. Rapporten formidler en didaktisk ramme for, hvordan PBL kan tilgås, når studerende på et kandidathold er meget forskellige, med henblik på at udnytte kompetencerne på de sammensatte hold bedst muligt og derved øge læringspotentialet....

  10. An ensemble formulation of PBL fluxes in a GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Smith, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    An ensemble approach is applied to Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) calculations with the bulk Richardson number identified as the key parameter. An ensemble averaging calculation was carried out to rederive the bulk friction and heat transport coefficients for the mean condition. Two simulations are carried out and compared. Significant differences in PBL fluxes low level cloudiness, land surface roughness heights, and surface evaporation are noted between the modified and unmodified simulations. Modifications to the model were: (1) the relationship between actual and potential Effective Temperature (ET) to accord with Sud and Fennessy (1982); (2) maximum permissible instantaneous ET at any time is 1.5 mm per hr; (3) moisture distribution in low level cumulus convection to be consistent with no precipitation; (4) appearance of supersaturation clouds to be consistent with supersaturation condition at that level; (5) invoking a simple function for stomatal diffusion effect in the ET calculation.

  11. If PBL is the answer, then what is the problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Gnaur, Dorina

    This paper identifies and analyzes problems with routinization of project work in PBL-based degree programmes and points towards possible solutions. The paper uses a survey of students’ and supervisor’s perceptions of project work in the context of attempts to emphasize problem-based aspects...... of project work in the undergraduate degree programme in computer science at Aalborg University. Danish PBL-based higher education institutions espouse the qualities of problembased projects but actual practice shows a different picture. The predominant use of project catalogues and the formal requirements...... imposed by accreditation inhibit central intentions behind problem-based project work. The study reported on is limited to a specific degree programme and to a particular approach to dealing with the problem of routinization. The findings in this paper point towards the need for action research into new...

  12. Development and evaluation of a PBL-based continuing education for clinical nurses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Soon; Hwang, Seon Young; Oh, Eui Geum; Lee, Jae Eun

    2006-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a PBL program for continuing nurse education and to evaluate the program after its implementation. The PBL program was developed in the core cardio-pulmonary nursing concepts through a collaborative approach with a nursing school and a hospital. The PBL packages with simulation on ACLS were implemented to 40 clinical nurses. The entire PBL program consisted of six 3-hour weekly classes and was evaluated by the participants' subjective responses. Two PBL packages in cardio-pulmonary system including clinical cases and tutorial guidelines were developed. The 57.5% of the participants responded positively about the use of PBL as continuing nurse education in terms of self-motivated and cooperative learning, whereas 20.0% of the participants answered that the PBL method was not suitable for clinical nurses. Some modifications were suggested in grouping participants and program contents for PBL. The PBL method could be utilized to promote nurses' clinical competencies as well as self-learning abilities. Further research is needed in the implementation strategies of PBL-based continuing education in order to improve its effectiveness.

  13. Student Integration and Evaluation in Mechatronic Curriculum With PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben O.; Conrad, Finn

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the PBL model used at Aalborg University in the mechanical engineering is shortly presented with emphasis on the mechatronic curriculum. A specific semester with a both theoretical and practical mechatronic content is presented in detail as a reference project for a subsequent...... discussion on three potential concerns with respect to the continued succes of problem and project based learning in mechatronics namely: individual assessment, Bologna model and research based teaching...

  14. Twelve tips for effective lecturing in a PBL curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Alam Sher; Malik, Rukhsana Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Retaining lectures in problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum places new demands on lecturers. In addition to subject knowledge, the lecturers must know the overall aims of the lectures, their context in the course, their relation to the subsequent examinations and the underlying educational philosophy. Aim of this communication is to propose ways that will transform the traditional didactic lectures into PBL-compliant teaching/learning sessions. Insights from the self-experience and that of colleagues and the feedback from students are synthesised with current literature regarding best teaching practices to develop these tips. These tips, ranging from involving students in the learning process to a routine practice of reflection after delivering a lecture, highlight methods of preparing and delivering lectures that follow the educational philosophy underpinning the PBL approach. We believe that these tips by advancing the driving force for meaningful learning will transform the didactic lectures of traditional curriculum to interactive sessions that would enhance understanding, augment critical thinking and promote self-directed learning among students.

  15. Globalization of problem-based learning (PBL): cross-cultural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Matthew Choon-Eng

    2008-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is essentially a learning system design that incorporates several educational strategies to optimize student-centered learning outcomes beyond just knowledge acquisition. PBL was implemented almost four decades ago as an innovative and alternative pathway to learning in medical education in McMaster University Medical School. Since then, PBL has spread widely across the world and has now been adopted globally, including in much of Asia. The globalization of PBL has important cross-cultural implications. Delivery of instruction in PBL involves active peer teaching-learning in an open communication style. Consequently, this may pose an apparent serious conflict with the Asian communication style generally dominated by a cultural reticence. However, evidence available, especially from the PBL experience of some senior Korean medical students doing an elective in the University of Toronto Medical School and the cross-cultural PBL experience initiated by Kaohsiung Medical University, strongly suggests creating a conducive and supportive learning environment for students learning in a PBL setting can overcome the perceived cultural barriers; that is, nurture matters more than culture in the learning environment. Karaoke is very much an Asian initiative. The Karaoke culture and philosophy provide a useful lesson on how to create a conducive and supportive environment to encourage, enhance and motivate group activity. Some key attributes associated with Asian culture are in fact consistent with, and aligned to, some of the basic tenets of PBL, including the congruence between the Asian emphasis on group before individual interest, and the collaborative small group learning design used in PBL. Although there are great expectations of the educational outcomes students can acquire from PBL, the available evidence supports the contention the actual educational outcomes acquired from PBL do not really match the expected educational outcomes commonly

  16. Adapting bioinformatics curricula for big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Anna C; Giffin, Kristine A; Greene, Casey S; Moore, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Modern technologies are capable of generating enormous amounts of data that measure complex biological systems. Computational biologists and bioinformatics scientists are increasingly being asked to use these data to reveal key systems-level properties. We review the extent to which curricula are changing in the era of big data. We identify key competencies that scientists dealing with big data are expected to possess across fields, and we use this information to propose courses to meet these growing needs. While bioinformatics programs have traditionally trained students in data-intensive science, we identify areas of particular biological, computational and statistical emphasis important for this era that can be incorporated into existing curricula. For each area, we propose a course structured around these topics, which can be adapted in whole or in parts into existing curricula. In summary, specific challenges associated with big data provide an important opportunity to update existing curricula, but we do not foresee a wholesale redesign of bioinformatics training programs.

  17. How effective the problem-based learning (PBL) in dental education. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrahlah, Ali

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this critical review is to explore the research supporting the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) as a teaching method in dental education. PBL was developed more than 40 years ago in reaction to the problems and limitations of traditional teaching approaches. Here, aspects of the PBL teaching approach are reviewed, and the reasons for the substantial effect of this approach on dental education are discussed. Evidence shows that students in PBL-based courses exhibit superior professional skills and effective learning compared with those instructed using traditional approaches.

  18. Establishing a multidisciplinary PBL curriculum in the School of Stomatology at Wuhan University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Tai, Baojun; Huang, Cui; Bian, Zhuan; Shang, Zhenjun; Wang, Qian; Song, Guangtai

    2008-05-01

    This article describes how a multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum was established at the School of Stomatology at Wuhan University (WHUSS) in China for preclinical education in a seven-year dental school program. Based on positive feedback from a modified PBL program implemented in one discipline, a multidisciplinary PBL curriculum was established. PBL training for facilitators and students, development of resource materials, curriculum design, and case writing were done in a manner that is consistent with the characteristics and learning style preferences of Chinese dental students. About 80 percent of the lectures were kept in the new PBL program. The multidisciplinary PBL curriculum has been successful in helping dental students mentally construct an understanding of the interrelationship between dental knowledge and basic science concepts. The experience at WHUSS indicates that there are clear benefits for students in the PBL format. A benefit to faculty is that PBL tutorial facilitators were partly liberated from their traditional roles and developed additional skills for facilitating. However, conflict arises when PBL-trained students encounter the traditional exam-centered education system.

  19. Managing PBL difficulties in an industrial engineering and management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, A.; Sousa, R.; Moreira, F.; Carvalho, M.A.; Cardoso, E.; Pimenta, P.; Malheiro, T.; Brito, I.; Fernandes, S.; Mesquita, D.

    2016-07-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) is considered to be an active learning methodology which can be used to develop both technical and transversal competences in engineering programs. This methodology demands a great deal of work effort from the students and also from the teachers and it requires a meticulous plan and a well-managed project as well. These activities go far beyond the normal activities in traditional lectures, enabling to outpace the difficulties that spur along the way that may be both complex and demotivating. This methodology has been implemented in the Integrated Master Degree on Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM), at one public university in Portugal, since the 2004/2005 academic year. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the main difficulties of the implementation of PBL, mainly from the teachers’ perspectives. Additionally, some effective strategies will be recommended to overcome such difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: The perceptions of the teachers were collected through a survey based on six main themes. The participants in the study include eight teachers from the five courses of the first semester of the first year of the IEM program involved in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 editions. Findings: Integration of courses in the project; student assessment; growing number of students in each team and the need of physical spaces for them; and compartmentalized knowledge has emerged as the main difficulties. To overcome these difficulties some key strategies were recommended. Originality/value: A new perspective based on course teachers' views and experiences will deepen the understanding of the problems and provide inputs for the development of strategies that may improve the effectiveness of PBL and introduce changes for its successful implementation. These strategies are intended to be transferable to other contexts, as most of the problems and constraints are common to other active learning approaches. (Author)

  20. Managing PBL difficulties in an industrial engineering and management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Alves

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Project-Based Learning (PBL is considered to be an active learning methodology which can be used to develop both technical and transversal competences in engineering programs. This methodology demands a great deal of work effort from the students and also from the teachers and it requires a meticulous plan and a well-managed project as well. These activities go far beyond the normal activities in traditional lectures, enabling to outpace the difficulties that spur along the way that may be both complex and demotivating. This methodology has been implemented in the Integrated Master Degree on Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM, at one public university in Portugal, since the 2004/2005 academic year. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the main difficulties of the implementation of PBL, mainly from the teachers’ perspectives. Additionally, some effective strategies will be recommended to overcome such difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: The perceptions of the teachers were collected through a survey based on six main themes. The participants in the study include eight teachers from the five courses of the first semester of the first year of the IEM program involved in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 editions. Findings: Integration of courses in the project; student assessment; growing number of students in each team and the need of physical spaces for them; and compartmentalized knowledge has emerged as the main difficulties. To overcome these difficulties some key strategies were recommended. Originality/value: A new perspective based on course teachers' views and experiences will deepen the understanding of the problems and provide inputs for the development of strategies that may improve the effectiveness of PBL and introduce changes for its successful implementation. These strategies are intended to be transferable to other contexts, as most of the problems and constraints are common to other active learning

  1. Inquiry Teaching in Science - Problem Based Learning (PBL) in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rosa; Teixeira, Daniel; Roxo, Áurea; Ruas, Fátima

    2015-04-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) is a teaching methodology based on the Inquiry Teaching approach, which consists in finding a solution to a problem that requires the use of higher-level cognitive skills. It's best carried out in small groups. The scenario or problem must lead the student to ask questions and to find solutions through research. This methodology is a research-oriented approach, because it starts with questions (asked by the students after being introduced to the problem), it encourages the search for solutions, it develops scientific reasoning, and it helps students to learn about key aspects of scientific research, such as gathering data, finding evidence, looking for solutions, discussing and presenting findings. In PBL the teacher has the role of facilitator. In the study of the Solar System, the study of the Moon's craters started with the observation of photos, which led the students to ask questions like "What determines the size and shape of the craters?". To answer this question the students hypothesized about the size, speed and distance travelled of the object that hit the Moon. The students then planned and carried out an experimental activity to validate their hypotheses, using balls of different sizes and materials. The diameter and depth of the craters were estimated using Salsa J. With the data obtained in this experiment, the students did a Gowin's V diagram. In order to determine the relation between the characteristics of the celestial bodies and the craters formed, both on the Moon and on the Earth, we studied the Earth's craters. We used Impact Calculator, a program that estimates the effects of an impact on the Earth, using several variables, such as the size and density of the meteorite, and the speed and angle at which it impacts the Earth's surface. Another problem started with the film Visions of the Cosmos. It raised questions such as "Is there a relation between the Earth's past and the origin of the Solar System?" "How are

  2. Women's health topics in dental hygiene curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Howell, Joan C

    2010-01-01

    Minimal inclusion of women's health topics in dental and dental hygiene curricula may not prepare dental health care workers to provide comprehensive health care to females. The purposes of these surveys in 2001 and 2007 were to investigate United States dental hygiene school curricula regarding inclusion of women's health topics in differing degree programs (associate/certificate, baccalaureate, associate/baccalaureate) and course status (required or elective). The surveys also identified sources used to obtain women's health topics, assessed faculty continuing education participation in women's health, determined satisfaction with current curricula, questioned if change was anticipated and if so in what topics, identified where students apply their knowledge about women's health and in what ways and reported progress of dental hygiene curricula over the 6 year time period. Surveys were sent to dental hygiene program directors in 2001 (N=256) and in 2007 (N=288) asking them to complete the questionnaire. There was no statistically significant association between 2001 and 2007 survey results by degree or program setting. The educational issue, women's general health continuing education courses/topics completed by dental hygiene faculty in the past 2 years, showed a statistically significant difference during that time interval. No statistically significant difference existed between the survey years regarding topics on women's general health and oral health. Regardless of statistical significance, further details investigated percentage differences that may reveal relevant issues. These surveys establish a baseline of women's health topics included in dental hygiene curricula in order to assess knowledge of dental hygienists in practice.

  3. A PBL Approach for Teaching Complex Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Skills in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Alexis Smith

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the use of a problem-based learning (PBL) approach for teaching information and communication technology (ICT) skills to first-year students. Two questions were posed. The first addressed the ICT skill needs of 20 students enrolled in a first-year composition course. The second focused on the use of PBL to facilitate ICT skill…

  4. An Ill-Structured PBL-Based Microprocessor Course without Formal Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkuk

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a problem-based learning (PBL) microprocessor application course designed according to the following strategies: 1) hands-on training without having a formal laboratory, and 2) intense student-centered cooperative learning through an ill-structured problem. PBL was adopted as the core educational technique of the course to…

  5. To What Extent Do Tutor-Related Behaviours Influence Student Learning in PBL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Esther; Yew, Elaine H. J.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how tutor behaviours influence learning in problem-based learning (PBL). A previous study had indicated a significant influence of the tutor's social congruent behaviour on the PBL process and this study further investigates this finding by examining two groups of tutors displaying differences in…

  6. Application of Project-Based Learning (PBL) to the Teaching of Electrical Power Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, N.; Hesamzadeh, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Project-based learning (PBL), a learning environment in which projects drive learning, has been successfully used in various courses in the educational programs of different disciplines. However, concerns have been raised as to the breadth of the content covered and, in particular, whether PBL can be applied to specialized subjects without…

  7. Application of Project-Based Learning (PBL) to the Teaching of Electrical Power Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, N.; Hesamzadeh, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Project-based learning (PBL), a learning environment in which projects drive learning, has been successfully used in various courses in the educational programs of different disciplines. However, concerns have been raised as to the breadth of the content covered and, in particular, whether PBL can be applied to specialized subjects without…

  8. Defining, profiling and accommodating Learning Diversity in an International PBL-Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay; Blyt, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the wide diversity of learning experience, values and expectations of both students and lecturers in an international PBL environment. The results are based on 24 PBL- related learning parameters (inspired by Hofstede´s cultural dimensions) in the form of two questionnaires...

  9. Pertussis toxin B-oligomer inhibits HIV infection and replication in hu-PBL-SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Caterina; Spada, Massimo; Santini, Stefano M; Racca, Sara; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Poli, Guido; Belardelli, Filippo; Alfano, Massimo

    2005-04-01

    Bordetella pertussis toxin B-oligomer (PTX-B) has been shown to inhibit HIV infection and replication in vitro. The potential anti-viral effect of PTX-B was tested here in an in vivo surrogate model of HIV infection, i.e. SCID mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) (hu-PBL-SCID) and infected with a CCR5-dependent (R5) HIV-1 strain. SCID mice inoculated intra-peritoneal (i.p.) with PTX-B and then infected with the R5 strain SF-162 were sacrificed 7 days later and analyzed for human PBL (hu-PBL) lymphoid tissue reconstitution, infection of hu-PBL, plasma viremia and viral rescue from ex vivo-cultivated i.p. hu-PBL. Unlike mice treated with 500 ng per animal of PTX-B showing no evidence of viral inhibition, daily administration of PTX-B (50 ng per mouse) strongly inhibited virus infection and replication, as determined by undetectable viremia, absence of infected hu-PBL and lack of rescue of infectious HIV in most animals. Furthermore, PTX-B injection 2 h before and twice after infection prevented HIV-1 infection and replication in all (10/10) tested animals. Thus, PTX-B potently inhibited virus infection and replication in hu-PBL-SCID mice, supporting the hypothesis that it may represent a new pharmacological agent against HIV-1 infection.

  10. PBL 2.0: enhancing problem-based learning through increased student participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiznia, Daniel; Korom, Robert; Marzuk, Peter; Safdieh, Joseph; Grafstein, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a new problem-based learning (PBL) method to see if it reinvigorated the learning experience. A new PBL format called PBL 2.0, which met for 90 min two times per week, was introduced in 2009 into an 11-week integrated neuroscience course. One hundred second-year medical students, divided into 10 groups of 10, who had completed their first year of medical school using a traditional PBL format, participated in PBL 2.0. Students were prohibited from using computers during the first session. Learning objectives were distributed at the end of the first day to the small groups, and students were assigned to pairs/trios responsible for leading an interactive discussion on specific learning objectives the following day. Student-led 'lectures' were prohibited. All students were responsible for learning all of the learning objectives so that they could participate in their discussions. One hundred and six students were surveyed and 98 submitted answers (92% response). The majority of groups adhered to the new PBL method. Students invested more time preparing the learning objectives. Students indicated that the level of interaction among students increased. The majority of students preferred the new PBL format. PBL 2.0 was effective in increasing student interaction and promoting increased learning.

  11. Problem-based learning (PBL) and speech-language pathology: a tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Tara L; Bridges, Susan; Chan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this tutorial is to provide an introduction to problem-based learning (PBL), particularly as applied to speech-language pathology (SLP) programs. The tutorial is aimed at the reader who is less familiar with this learning approach. Additionally, it serves as a framework for the articles that follow in this special issue on PBL programs in SLP and other clinical education programs. A brief history of PBL is provided and the rationale and context for this approach are identified. PBL is defined and differentiated from related educational approaches. Different models and variations of PBL are outlined. The key components of PBL are further illustrated using the tutorial cycle. Finally, we present one specific case of a PBL-based SLP program in detail. This tutorial will provide a deeper understanding of PBL for many higher educators in SLP. The strengths of this approach are outlined and the challenges are identified, particularly for those contemplating converting an existing "traditional" course or curriculum.

  12. Perception of content and non-content expert facilitators of PBL according to students’ performance levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Akmal Shareela; Alias, Ekram; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Damanhuri, Mohd Hanafi A; Karim, Norwahidah Abd; Aan, Goon Jo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centred learning system that involves multidisciplinary fields focused on problem solving. Facilitators of PBL are not necessarily content experts but little is known on how this concept has affected the outcomes of PBL sessions in learning Medical Biochemistry. We aimed to evaluate the impact of having the content expert as a facilitator in conducting PBL. Methods: A total of 150 first and second year medical students from the University Kebangsaan Malaysia were interviewed with a validated set of questions to acquire their views on the roles of facilitators in PBL in learning Medical Biochemistry. Their achievement were evaluated through their essay marks derived from various PBL packages. Results: All respondents agreed that PBL sessions associated with Medical Biochemistry are best appreciated when conducted by a content-expert facilitator. Their exam marks reflected well on their perception. Conclusion: PBL sessions related to Medical Biochemistry is best facilitated by Biochemistry lecturers as the content experts. PMID:26870131

  13. Performance anxiety at English PBL groups among Taiwanese medical students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lu, Peih-Ying; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, In-Ting; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2008-03-01

    Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL) and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.

  14. PBL in Teacher Education: Its Effects on Achievement and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Tolga; Senemoglu, Nuray

    2017-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) as an educational practice continues to have great impact on all levels of education and across different disciplines. The aim of this experimental study is to examine the effects of PBL on prospective teachers' academic achievements and self-regulation. The treatment group (n = 36) and the control group (n = 21)…

  15. Predicting of regional transpiration at elevated atmospheric CO2: influence of the PBL vegetation interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Bruin, de H.A.R.

    1997-01-01

    A coupled planetary boundary layer (PBL)-vegetation model is used to study the influence of the PBL-vegetation interaction and the ambient CO2 concentration on surface resistance rs and regional transpiration E. Vegetation is described using the big-leaf model in which rs is modeled by means of a

  16. Influence of PBL with open-book tests on knowledge retention measured with progress tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J. B. M.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical

  17. Chinese Business Students' Changes in Beliefs and Strategy Use in a Constructively Aligned PBL Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiangyun

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a longitudinal retrospective case study approach to investigate Chinese business students' transitional learning experience in a problem-based learning (PBL) course with innovative assessment practices. The study focused on students' beliefs and strategy use in a constructively aligned PBL course for business communication.…

  18. Predicting of regional transpiration at elevated atmospheric CO2: influence of the PBL vegetation interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Bruin, de H.A.R.

    1997-01-01

    A coupled planetary boundary layer (PBL)-vegetation model is used to study the influence of the PBL-vegetation interaction and the ambient CO2 concentration on surface resistance rs and regional transpiration E. Vegetation is described using the big-leaf model in which rs is modeled by means of a co

  19. Influence of PBL with open-book tests on knowledge retention measured with progress tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J. B. M.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical stu

  20. Barrows' Integration of Cognitive and Clinical Psychology in PBL Tutor Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Kareen

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have noted PBL is consistent with John Dewey's educational theories and with constructivist philosophies. This paper explores the similarities between the assumptions within Howard Barrows' principles for the PBL tutor's actions with Dewey's theories that address teacher behaviors and with Carl Rogers's conceptual frameworks that support…

  1. Influence of PBL with open-book tests on knowledge retention measured with progress tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J. B. M.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical stu

  2. Barrows' Integration of Cognitive and Clinical Psychology in PBL Tutor Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Kareen

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have noted PBL is consistent with John Dewey's educational theories and with constructivist philosophies. This paper explores the similarities between the assumptions within Howard Barrows' principles for the PBL tutor's actions with Dewey's theories that address teacher behaviors and with Carl Rogers's conceptual frameworks that support…

  3. A PBL Approach for Teaching Complex Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Skills in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Alexis Smith

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the use of a problem-based learning (PBL) approach for teaching information and communication technology (ICT) skills to first-year students. Two questions were posed. The first addressed the ICT skill needs of 20 students enrolled in a first-year composition course. The second focused on the use of PBL to facilitate ICT skill…

  4. An Operational Computational Terminal Area PBL Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Kaplan, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    There are two fundamental goals of this research project which are listed here in terms of priority, i.e., a primary and secondary goal. The first and primary goal is to develop a prognostic system which could satisfy the operational weather prediction requirements of the meteorological subsystem within the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), i.e., an operational computational Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS). The second goal is to perform indepth diagnostic analyses of the meteorological conditions during the special wake vortex deployments at Memphis and Dallas during August 95 and September 97, respectively. These two goals are interdependent because a thorough understanding of the atmospheric dynamical processes which produced the unique meteorology during the Memphis and Dallas deployments will help us design a prognostic system for the planetary boundary layer (PBL) which could be utilized to support the meteorological subsystem within AVOSS. Concerning the primary goal, TAPPS Stage 2 was tested on the Memphis data and is about to be tested on the Dallas case studies. Furthermore benchmark tests have been undertaken to select the appropriate platform to run TAPPS in real time in support of the DFW AVOSS system. In addition, a technique to improve the initial data over the region surrounding Dallas was also tested and modified for potential operational use in TAPPS. The secondary goal involved several sensitivity simulations and comparisons to Memphis observational data sets in an effort to diagnose what specific atmospheric phenomena where occurring which may have impacted the dynamics of atmospheric wake vortices.

  5. Medical students' achievement on the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery/Chirurgery Final Part I and II licensing examination: a comparison of students in problem-based learning, community-based education and service, and conventional curricula in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogre, Victor; Amalba, Anthony; Saaka, Mark; Kyei-Aboagye, Kwabena

    2014-05-08

    Problem-based learning is an established method of teaching and learning in medical education. However, its impact on students' achievement on examinations is varied and inconsistent. We compared the levels of achievement on the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery/Chirurgery (MB ChB) Part I and II licensing examination of students in problem-based learning, community-based education and service (PBL/COBES), and conventional curricula. In 2014, we analyzed the MB ChB Final Part I and II licensing examination results of students in three classes (2004, 2005, and 2006) of the School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana. Ninety-three students in the 2004 and 2005 cohorts followed a conventional curriculum, and 82 students in the 2006 cohort followed a PBL/COBES curriculum. Using appropriate statistical tools, the analysis compared individual discipline scores and the proportions of students who received distinction/credit/pass grades among the classes. The PBL students had significantly higher mean and median scores than the conventional students in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Internal Medicine, Community Health and Family Medicine, Surgery, and Psychiatry, but not in Child Health and Pediatrics. Also, a significantly (P=0.0010) higher percentage, 95.1% (n=78), of the PBL students passed all the disciplines, compared to 79.6% (n=74) of the conventional students. The PBL students significantly performed better in all the disciplines except child health and pediatrics, where the conventional students scored higher. These findings demonstrate that the benefits of the PBL/COBES curriculum are tangible and should be fostered.

  6. Interactive film scenes for tutor training in problem-based learning (PBL): dealing with difficult situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Hans M; Huwendiek, Soeren; Skelin, Silvia; Kirschfink, Michael; Nikendei, Christoph

    2010-07-06

    In problem-based learning (PBL), tutors play an essential role in facilitating and efficiently structuring tutorials to enable students to construct individual cognitive networks, and have a significant impact on students' performance in subsequent assessments. The necessity of elaborate training to fulfil this complex role is undeniable. In the plethora of data on PBL however, little attention has been paid to tutor training which promotes competence in the moderation of specific difficult situations commonly encountered in PBL tutorials. Major interactive obstacles arising in PBL tutorials were identified from prior publications. Potential solutions were defined by an expert group. Video clips were produced addressing the tutor's role and providing exemplary solutions. These clips were embedded in a PBL tutor-training course at our medical faculty combining PBL self-experience with a non-medical case. Trainees provided pre- and post-intervention self-efficacy ratings regarding their PBL-related knowledge, skills, and attitudes, as well as their acceptance and the feasibility of integrating the video clips into PBL tutor-training (all items: 100 = completely agree, 0 = don't agree at all). An interactive online tool for PBL tutor training was developed comprising 18 video clips highlighting difficult situations in PBL tutorials to encourage trainees to develop and formulate their own intervention strategies. In subsequent sequences, potential interventions are presented for the specific scenario, with a concluding discussion which addresses unresolved issues. The tool was well accepted and considered worth the time spent on it (81.62 +/- 16.91; 62.94 +/- 16.76). Tutors considered the videos to prepare them well to respond to specific challenges in future tutorials (75.98 +/- 19.46). The entire training, which comprised PBL self-experience and video clips as integral elements, improved tutor's self-efficacy with respect to dealing with problematic situations (pre

  7. PBL and critical thinking disposition in Chinese medical students – A randomized cross-sectional stu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangYun Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the commencement of the study. After five years of study, CT was scored by a Chinese version of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI-CV. The score achieved on a Computer Case Simulation (CCS test evaluated academic performance. Total CT score was higher in PBL students (n=170 than non-PBL students (n=83 (304.7±36.8 vs. 279.2±39.4, p < 0.01. Subscale CT-scores were significant in favor of PBL in six of the seven subscales (truth seeking, open-mindedness, analyticity, systematicity, inquisitiveness, maturity. There was no significant difference in terms of gender on the total CT score, though minor differences were seen in subscales favoring female PBL students. PBL students had higher CCS scores than non-PBL students, but not significantly (112.8±20.6 vs. 107.3±16.5; p=0.11. There was no significant correlation between CCS scores and CCTDI-CV results. Male students scored slightly higher on the CCS test compared to female students (male 113.4±18.9 vs. female 109.7±19.7, but the difference was not significant. This study concludes that in Chinese medical students, PBL teaching was related to a higher disposition of critical thinking, but not to improved academic skills.

  8. A snapshot of the status of problem-based learning (PBL) in Chinese medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Angela Pei-Chen; Kosik, Russell O; Tsai, Thomas Chen-Chia; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Guo, Li; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Chen, Qi

    2014-07-01

    In North America, where it was born, problem-based learning (PBL) has seen dips and rises in its popularity, but its inherent strengths have led to its spread to medical schools all over the world. Although its use at medical schools in some Western countries has already been examined, no one has looked at its status in many other countries, including China. The aim of this study is to determine the number of schools currently using PBL in China, the degree to which they use it, and the reasoning behind such usage. We used survey and internet search to examine PBL usage at Chinese medical schools. We were able to collect data from 43 first-class Chinese medical schools that are geographically diverse and thus representative of medical schools all across China. 34 (79.1%) of the 43 medical schools use PBL in the preclinical curriculum. Of the 34, data were collected from 24 (70.6%) medical schools regarding the extent of their PBL usage. Nine (37.5%) schools use PBL for less than 10% of preclinical hours, 14 (58.3%) schools use PBL for 10-50% of preclinical hours, and one (4.2%) school uses PBL for more than 50% of preclinical hours. In our sample of Chinese medical institutions, a large majority of schools use PBL, however, most schools use it for less than 50% of total preclinical curricular hours. Our results suggest that schools are interested in increasing the number of curricular hours devoted to PBL but are constrained by resources.

  9. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  10. Status of Medical Education Reform at Saga Medical School 5 Years After Introducing PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutomo Oda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors. Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including “silent tutors” and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  11. Another Piece of the "Silence in PBL" Puzzle: Students' Explanations of Dominance and Quietness as Complementary Group Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Vicki J.; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Winning, Tracey A.

    2016-01-01

    A problem-based learning (PBL) assumption is that silence is incompatible with collaborative learning. Although sociocultural studies have reinterpreted silence as collaborative, we must understand how silence occurs in PBL groups. This essay presents students' explanations of dominance, leadership, and silence as PBL group roles. An ethnographic…

  12. PBL in the Era of Reform Standards: Challenges and Benefits Perceived by Teachers in One Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariman, Nahid; Chrispeels, Janet

    2016-01-01

    We explore teachers' efforts to implement problem-based learning (PBL) in an elementary school serving predominantly English learners. Teachers had an opportunity to implement the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using PBL in a summer school setting with no test-pressures. To understand the challenges and benefits of PBL implementation, a…

  13. Another Piece of the "Silence in PBL" Puzzle: Students' Explanations of Dominance and Quietness as Complementary Group Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Vicki J.; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Winning, Tracey A.

    2016-01-01

    A problem-based learning (PBL) assumption is that silence is incompatible with collaborative learning. Although sociocultural studies have reinterpreted silence as collaborative, we must understand how silence occurs in PBL groups. This essay presents students' explanations of dominance, leadership, and silence as PBL group roles. An ethnographic…

  14. Relationship of biomedical science content acquisition performance to students' level of PBL group interaction: are students learning during PBL group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Laura M; Eckert, George J

    2011-05-01

    This study assessed biomedical science content acquisition from problem-based learning (PBL) and its relationship to students' level of group interaction. We hypothesized that learning in preparation for exams results primarily from individual study of post-case learning objectives and that outcomes would be unrelated to students' group involvement. During dental curricular years 1 and 2, student-generated biomedical learning issues (LIs) were identified from six randomly chosen PBL cases. Knowledge and application of case concepts were assessed with quizzes based on the identified LIs prior to dissemination of the learning objectives. Students and facilitators were surveyed on students' level of group involvement for the assessed LI topics. Year 1 students had significantly higher assessment scores (p=0.0001). For both student classes, means were significantly higher for the recall item (Q1) than for the application item (Q2). Q1 scores increased along with the student's reported role for Year 1 (p=0.04). However, there was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q1 for Year 2 (p=0.20). There was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q2 for Year 1 (p=0.09) or Year 2 (p=0.19). This suggests that students' level of group involvement on the biomedical learning issues did not significantly impact students' assessment performance.

  15. Incorporating sustainability into accounting curricula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazelton, James; Haigh, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the journey of two projects that sought to incorporate principles of sustainable development into predominantly technical postgraduate accounting curricula. The design and delivery of the projects were informed by Freirian principles of praxis and critical empowerment....... The first author introduced sustainability-related material into a core technical accounting unit and created an elective unit. The second author participated with students to evaluate critically social reports of employers, current and potential. In terms of an objective of bringing reflexivity...... as vocational skills) add to the difficulties for sustainability in penetrating already overcrowded curricula....

  16. Incorporating sustainability into accounting curricula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazelton, James; Haigh, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the journey of two projects that sought to incorporate principles of sustainable development into predominantly technical postgraduate accounting curricula. The design and delivery of the projects were informed by Freirian principles of praxis and critical empowerment....... The first author introduced sustainability-related material into a core technical accounting unit and created an elective unit. The second author participated with students to evaluate critically social reports of employers, current and potential. In terms of an objective of bringing reflexivity...... as vocational skills) add to the difficulties for sustainability in penetrating already overcrowded curricula....

  17. The Parameterization of PBL height with Helicity and preliminary Application in Tropical Cyclone Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Leiming

    2015-04-01

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) plays an important role in transferring the energy and moisture from ocean to tropical cyclone (TC). Thus, the accuracy of PBL parameterization determines the performance of numerical model on TC prediction to a large extent. Among various components of PBL parameterization, the definition on the height of PBL is the first should be concerned, which determines the vertical scale of PBL and the associated processes of turbulence in different scales. However, up to now, there is lacked consensus on how to define the height of PBL in the TC research community. The PBL heights represented by current numerical models usually exhibits significant difference with TC observation (e.g., Zhang et al., 2011; Storm et al., 2008), leading to the rapid growth of error in TC prediction. In an effort to narrow the gap between PBL parameterization and reality, this study presents a new parameterization scheme for the definition of PBL height. Instead of using traditional definition for PBL height with Richardson number, which has been verified not appropriate for the strongly sheared structure of TC PBL in recent observation studies, the new scheme employs a dynamical definition based on the conception of helicity. In this sense the spiral structures associated with inflow layer and rolls are expected to be represented in PBL parameterization. By defining the PBL height at each grid point, the new scheme also avoids to assume the symmetric inflow layer that is usually implemented in observational studies. The new scheme is applied to the Yonsei University (YSU) scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model of US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and verified with numerical experiments on TC Morakot (2009), which brought torrential rainfall and disaster to Taiwan and China mainland during landfall. The Morakot case is selected in this study to examine the performance of the new scheme in representing various structures of PBL

  18. Embedding Multiple Literacies into STEM Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soules, Aline; Nielsen, Sarah; LeDuc, Danika; Inouye, Caron; Singley, Jason; Wildy, Erica; Seitz, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2012, an interdisciplinary team of science, English, and library faculty embedded reading, writing, and information literacy strategies in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) curricula as a first step in improving student learning and retention in science courses and aligning them with the Next Generation Science and…

  19. National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula" attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best…

  20. Introducing Cloud Computing Topics in Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Liu, Yang; Gallagher, Marcus; Pailthorpe, Bernard; Sadiq, Shazia; Shen, Heng Tao; Li, Xue

    2012-01-01

    The demand for graduates with exposure in Cloud Computing is on the rise. For many educational institutions, the challenge is to decide on how to incorporate appropriate cloud-based technologies into their curricula. In this paper, we describe our design and experiences of integrating Cloud Computing components into seven third/fourth-year…

  1. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  2. National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula" attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best…

  3. IFRS READINESS IN LATIN AMERICAN BUSINESS CURRICULA

    OpenAIRE

    Myrna R. Berríos

    2012-01-01

    Multinational companies doing business in Latin America, and elsewhere in the world, must comply with individual countries’ financial reporting and financial market rules and local legislation when disclosing financial information. This research assesses international financial reporting standards (IFRS) readiness in the finance, accounting, and taxation curricula in Latin American universities.

  4. Introducing Cloud Computing Topics in Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Liu, Yang; Gallagher, Marcus; Pailthorpe, Bernard; Sadiq, Shazia; Shen, Heng Tao; Li, Xue

    2012-01-01

    The demand for graduates with exposure in Cloud Computing is on the rise. For many educational institutions, the challenge is to decide on how to incorporate appropriate cloud-based technologies into their curricula. In this paper, we describe our design and experiences of integrating Cloud Computing components into seven third/fourth-year…

  5. Occupational Curricula: The School/Job Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lee; West, Leonard J.

    1978-01-01

    Substantial gaps often exist between occupational education and actual job duties, dominantly because of technological developments. The schools' response to needed change in curricula has been sluggish, piecemeal, and tardy. Authors suggest a strategy for accomplishing a closer match between school and work, and they illustrate its use in…

  6. Web Modules: Integrating Curricula and Technology Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to provide the sequence of learning events about the integration of curricula and technology using modules prepared by the Southeast Teachers Are Revitalizing Teaching Through Technology (START) Technology Team and to describe the impact these technology modules had on university faculty and candidates at Alabama…

  7. Rich Literacy Curricula: Undocumented and Unstandardized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Ileana

    A study was conducted concerning the reduced and limited curricula which tests may represent. Observations were made at 18 different elementary and middle school classrooms in four school districts in central Pennsylvania during the language arts instructional period. All of the teachers were involved in promoting a holistic approach to literacy.…

  8. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) in MBA Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mark J.; Ettner, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of cultural intelligence in MBA curricula. Shaping global corporate culture that manifests itself in powerful-shared values, group behavior, and persists despite changes in-group membership is decisive to organizational performance. In turn, cultural intelligence (CQ), defined, as an…

  9. New Third-Order Moments for the PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Howard, A.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Turbulent convection is inherently non-local and a primary condition for a successful treatment of the PBL is a reliable model of non-locality. In the dynamic equations governing the convective flux, turbulent kinetic energy, etc, non-locality enters through the third-order moments, TOMs. Since the simplest form, the so-called down gradient approximation (DGA , severely underestimates the TOMs (by up to an order of magnitude), a more physical model is needed. In 1994, an analytical model was presented which was derived directly from the dynamical equations for the TOMs. It considerably improved the DGA but was a bit cumbersome to use. Here, we present a new analytic expression for the TOMs which is considerably simpler than the 1994 expression and which at the same time yields a much better fit to the LES data.

  10. Students' perceptions of using Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in teaching cognitive communicative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2014-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an educational model that is characterized by student-centered learning and classroom discussion using clinically based problems. This study examines students' perceptions of PBL as an alternative approach of learning in speech-language pathology and investigates if these perceptions change over time as a function of students' learning experience with PBL. Written reflections by 96 graduate-students in a graduate elective course on cognitive-communicative disorders were analyzed using content analysis. Common words or phrases in each reflection paper were identified, grouped and coded into consistent themes. Percentage changes of these themes across a semester were also followed. A total number of 883 positive and 165 negative comments were identified. Thirteen positive and seven negative themes relative to students' perception of the inclusion of PBL were yielded. The advantages of PBL were found to outweigh its disadvantages. Moreover, accumulated experience with this approach was found to eliminate some initial perceived drawbacks about PBL. The extra efforts to engage students in interactive discussion as well as higher order critical thinking and knowledge application were acknowledged through student feedback. Future studies should investigate how PBL can be of greater use in other areas in communication sciences and disorders.

  11. Evaluation of an e-PBL model to promote individual reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon

    2013-01-01

    Medical educators should promote the development of student clinical reasoning toward independence in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate an online problem-based learning (e-PBL) model designed to promote student individual reasoning in supplement to traditional PBL. Twelve e-PBL modules were added to the fully problem-based curriculum for Year 2 at Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM). In this e-PBL, students worked on the problems individually in an online setting, followed by face-to-face discussions in a colloquium. The cases were presented using interactive multimedia to enhance the authenticity of the case and stimulate student interest in learning. A formative evaluation study was conducted to determine student satisfaction with e-PBL and its effectiveness as perceived by the students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A cohort of Year 2 students at SKKUSOM (n = 38) took part in this study. Students perceived e-PBL significantly more positively after they had taken a module in terms of its ability to foster problem-solving skills and its ability to allow them to learn in ways suited to individual learning styles. Additionally, student survey and interview revealed that a vast majority of students were satisfied with the overall learning process in e-PBL and perceived it positively in fostering knowledge acquisition and clinical reasoning. Moreover, students found the cases realistic and engaging. The results show the potential of e-PBL to enhance traditional PBL by promoting the development of individual reasoning in a flexible online-learning environment and offering cases in an interactive multimedia format, which warrants further investigation into its impact on student learning outcomes.

  12. Science Process Skills in Science Curricula Applied in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumusak, Güngör Keskinkiliç

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important objectives of the science curricula is to bring in science process skills. The science process skills are skills that lie under scientific thinking and decision-making. Thus it is important for a science curricula to be rationalized in such a way that it brings in science process skills. New science curricula were…

  13. Udvikling af problembaseret læring, PBL på sygeplejerskeuddannelsen i Odense, UCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Elisabeth; Pedersen, Hanne Marie; Brøndum, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer overvejelser omkring udvikling af problembaseret læring efter inspiration fra et sommerseminar på McMaster University i Canada. Efter et kort rids af vores erfaringer med Problembaseret læring (PBL) ved sygeplejerskeuddannelsen i Odense, sættes der fokus på organiseringen af...... PBL-processen. Vi reflekterer over udfordringer i forbindelse med vejlederrollen, samt betydningen af udvikling af fokuserede scenarier med tilhørende vejlederguides. Artiklen afrundes med perspektiver vedrørende den fortsatte udvikling af PBL....

  14. Bridging Creativity and Group by Elements of Problem-Based Learning (PBL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2015-01-01

    As the recent studies have discussed Problem-Based Learning (PBL) as popular model of fostering creativity, this paper aims to provide a theoretical framework bridging creativity and student group context by elements of PBL. According to the literature review, the elements at least include group...... learning, problem solving, interdisciplinary learning, project management and facilitation. The main five elements construct PBL as a suitable learning environment to develop individual creativity and to stimulate interplay of individual creativity and group creativity. Thus, a theoretical model...

  15. Teachers' Perspectives of their roles and student autonomy in a PBL context in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huichun; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    The traditional role of the teacher confronts many challenges by an increasing number of educational initiatives that highlight student-centered learning in China, since the teacher’s role is in great need of transformation from instructor to facilitator. Therefore, it is quite necessary to examine...... how teachers perceive their role within a context in the process of making educational innovations. This study relies on two Chinese universities which are changing their educational approach from lecture-based learning to Problem Based Learning (PBL). We examine how the teachers perceive their role...... in a PBL context. In particular, we are mainly concerned with teachers’ attitudes towards student learning autonomy in PBL contexts. The data is mainly relied upon in-depth interviews of the teachers who participate in PBL practice from the two cases. When focusing on how teachers perceive student learning...

  16. Strategies for sustaining quality in PBL facilitation for large student cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Louise; Papinczak, Tracey

    2013-10-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been used to scaffold and support student learning in many Australian medical programs, with the role of the facilitator in the process considered crucial to the overall educational experience of students. With the increasing size of student cohorts and in an environment of financial constraint, it is important to develop quality control procedures to maintain an effective and efficient PBL program and a stable tutor workforce. This paper reports on organisational practices and faculty development opportunities used to sustain facilitation quality in a large cohort PBL program. Seven strategies are proposed, built around a sound professional development program, and a suite of tactics for recruitment of, and ongoing support for, PBL tutors.

  17. Chinese business students’ changes in beliefs and strategy use in a constructively aligned PBL course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiangyun

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a longitudinal retrospective case study approach to investigate Chinese business students’ transitional learning experience in a problem-based learning (PBL) course with innovative assessment practices. The study focused on students’ beliefs and strategy use in a constructively...... about learning and writing, their perceptions of assessment, and their strategy use for learning. It also examined changes in beliefs, perceptions, and strategy use to determine the nature of the students’ learning experience in this PBL course. Findings suggest a recognised need to design PBL courses...... that align social constructivist learning principles with students’ beliefs and strategies. The results also highlight the importance of developing appropriate assessment rubrics to enhance student engagement with PBL learning for improved outcomes....

  18. Chinese Business Students’ Changes in Beliefs and Strategy Use in a Constructively Aligned PBL Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiangyun

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a longitudinal retrospective case study approach to investigate Chinese business students’ transitional learning experience in a problem-based learning (PBL) course with innovative assessment practices. The study focused on students’ beliefs and strategy use in a constructively...... about learning and writing, their perceptions of assessment, and their strategy use for learning. It also examined changes in beliefs, perceptions, and strategy use to determine the nature of the students’ learning experience in this PBL course. Findings suggest a recognised need to design PBL courses...... that align social constructivist learning principles with students’ beliefs and strategies. The results also highlight the importance of developing appropriate assessment rubrics to enhance student engagement with PBL learning for improved outcomes....

  19. PBL and Computer Programming — The Seven Steps Method with Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuutila, Esko; Törmä, Seppo; Malmi, Lauri

    2005-06-01

    Problem-Based Learning (PBL) method emphasizes students' own activity in learning about problems, setting up their own learning goals and actively searching for and analyzing information. In this paper, we describe and discuss our experiences on applying PBL, especially the seven steps method widely used in medical faculties, in an introductory computer programming course. We explain how the method is implemented, give examples and identify different kinds of PBL cases, and describe how the method is supplemented by other learning methods in our course. According to our experience, the PBL method increases the commitment of the students which results in a significantly lower drop-out rate: the average is 17% versus 45% in our traditional programming courses. In addition to computer programming, students also learn generic skills related to group work, collaborative design work, independent studying, and externalization of their knowledge.

  20. Teachers' Perspectives of their roles and student autonomy in a PBL context in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huichun; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    in a PBL context. In particular, we are mainly concerned with teachers’ attitudes towards student learning autonomy in PBL contexts. The data is mainly relied upon in-depth interviews of the teachers who participate in PBL practice from the two cases. When focusing on how teachers perceive student learning......The traditional role of the teacher confronts many challenges by an increasing number of educational initiatives that highlight student-centered learning in China, since the teacher’s role is in great need of transformation from instructor to facilitator. Therefore, it is quite necessary to examine...... how teachers perceive their role within a context in the process of making educational innovations. This study relies on two Chinese universities which are changing their educational approach from lecture-based learning to Problem Based Learning (PBL). We examine how the teachers perceive their role...

  1. An experiment with PBL in higher education as appraised by the teacher and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roberto de Camargo Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PBL (Problem-based Learning has gained worldwide acceptance as an effective instructional approach that helps students to acquire knowledge as well as develop desired professional skills and attitudes. Contrary to other conventional methods that use problems after theory has been introduced, PBL uses a problem to initiate, focus and motivate the learning of new concepts. This paper presents and discusses the students' and the teacher's viewpoints on the implementation of PBL in an Administration Theory course of an engineering curriculum at a public university in Brazil. The data were collected by means of unstructured interviews, participant observation and an open-ended questionnaire responded by the students at the end of the course. The results show that despite increasing the workload for the teacher and the students, both evaluated PBL positively because it is more motivating and dynamic.

  2. An experiment with PBL in higher education as appraised by the teacher and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roberto de Camargo Ribeiro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available PBL (Problem-based Learning has gained worldwide acceptance as an effective instructional approach that helps students to acquire knowledge as well as develop desired professional skills and attitudes. Contrary to other conventional methods that use problems after theory has been introduced, PBL uses a problem to initiate, focus and motivate the learning of new concepts. This paper presents and discusses the students' and the teacher's viewpoints on the implementation of PBL in an Administration Theory course of an engineering curriculum at a public university in Brazil. The data were collected by means of unstructured interviews, participant observation and an open-ended questionnaire responded by the students at the end of the course. The results show that despite increasing the workload for the teacher and the students, both evaluated PBL positively because it is more motivating and dynamic.

  3. INFORMATION SYSTEMS AUDIT CURRICULA CONTENT MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile-Daniel CARDOȘ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial and internal auditors must cope with the challenge of performing their mission in technology enhanced environment. In this article we match the information technology description found in the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA curricula against the Model Curriculum issued by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA. By reviewing these three curricula, we matched the content in the ISACA Model Curriculum with the IFAC International Education Practice Statement 2 and the IIAs’ Global Model Internal Audit Curriculum. In the IFAC and IIA Curriculum there are 16 content elements, out of 19 possible, which match, in their description, the ISACA Model Curriculum’s content. We noticed that a candidate who graduates an IFAC or IIA compliant program acquire IS auditing competences similar to the specific content of the ISACA model curriculum but less than the requirements for a professional information systems auditor.

  4. Influence of PBL with Open-Book Tests on Knowledge Retention Measured with Progress Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J. B. M.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical students (n = 1,648) of three medical schools were…

  5. 在西藏大学病理学教学中初步运用 PBL 体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达娃卓玛

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The primary discussion on the effect of using PBL (Problem-based on learning) in the course of pathology at the medical of Tibet of university .Methods:choose one of the 2010th clinical class students.Introducing typical cases of the digestive system, in order to make the two kinds of teaching complement each other, adopt the hybrid teaching mode. Results: on the basis of LBL(Lectue based on learning), the application of the PBL teaching mode, its strengthen students motive and interest in learning, enhance students' understanding of knowledge and master, and help to cultivate students' autonomous learning ability and the clinical dialectical mode of thinking, and help to improve students' consciousness of cooperation, to cultivate the col ective team spirit. its laid a solid foundation for clinical work in the future.%目的:初步探讨PBL(problem-based on learning)教学模式在西藏大学医学院《病理学》教学中的应用效果。方法:选自我校10级临床全科班的40名学生。引入消化系统的典型的病例,为了使两种教学模式取长补短,采用混合式教学模式。结果:在传统教授的基础上,引用PBL教学模式,更能诱发学生对学习的动机和兴趣,加强学生对知识的理解和掌握,且有助于培养学生的自主学习能力和临床辨证思维模式,并有助于提高同学们的合作意识,有利于培养集体团队精神,为将来的临床工作打下了坚实的基础。

  6. Decision PBL: A 4-year retrospective case study of the use of virtual patients in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Poulton, Terry; Jivram, Trupti

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, St George's University of London (SGUL) replaced their paper-based problem-based learning (PBL) cases with virtual patients for intermediate-level undergraduate students. This involved the development of Decision-Problem-Based Learning (D-PBL), a variation on progressive-release PBL that uses virtual patients instead of paper cases, and focuses on patient management decisions and their consequences. Using a case study method, this paper describes four years of developing and running D-PBL at SGUL from individual activities up to the ways in which D-PBL functioned as an educational system. A number of broad issues were identified: the importance of debates and decision-making in making D-PBL activities engaging and rewarding; the complexities of managing small group dynamics; the time taken to complete D-PBL activities; the changing role of the facilitator; and the erosion of the D-PBL process over time. A key point in understanding this work is the construction and execution of the D-PBL activity, as much of the value of this approach arises from the actions and interactions of students, their facilitators and the virtual patients rather than from the design of the virtual patients alone. At a systems level D-PBL needs to be periodically refreshed to retain its effectiveness.

  7. An Application of Context- and Problem-Based Learning (C-PBL) into Teaching Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Mukadder; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the applicability of context- and problem-based learning (C-PBL) into teaching thermodynamics and to examine its influence on the students' achievements in chemistry, retention of knowledge, students' attitudes, motivation and interest towards chemistry. The embedded mixed method design was utilized with a group of 13 chemistry students in a 2-year program of "Medical Laboratory and Techniques" at a state university in an underdeveloped city at the southeastern region of Turkey. The research data were collected via questionnaires regarding the students' attitudes, motivation and interest in chemistry, an achievement test on "thermodynamics" and interviews utilized to find out the applicability of C-PBL into thermodynamics. The findings demonstrated that C-PBL led a statistically significant increase in the students' achievement in thermodynamics and their interest in chemistry, while no statistically significant difference was observed in the students' attitudes and motivation towards chemistry before and after the intervention. The interviews revealed that C-PBL developed not only the students' communication skills but also their skills in using time effectively, making presentations, reporting research results and using technology. It was also found to increase their self-confidence together with the positive attitudes towards C-PBL and being able to associate chemistry with daily life. In light of these findings, it could be stated that it will be beneficial to increase the use of C-PBL in teaching chemistry.

  8. PBL wrap up sessions: an approach to enhance generic skills in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Zubia; Ahsin, Sadia

    2011-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) tutorials are being used in various medical schools world wide. Students' active participation is a must for the success of a teaching program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PBL Wrap-up sessions in an integrated modular medical curriculum in enhancing the generic skills of medical students. This study was conducted on 100 students of 2nd year MBBS who had been taking PBL sessions since 1 1/2 years. Each session concluded with a wrap-up session where students demonstrated their acquired knowledge in the form of PowerPoint presentations, concept maps, skits, models etc. A questionnaire based survey was conducted to find out overall effectiveness of PBL sessions including wrap-up sessions. The questionnaire comprised of 15 questions. Students were asked to rate all those sessions on a likert scale of 1 to 5. Student's responses showed 'Moderate improvement' in 8 out of 15 skills like communication with peers and teachers, presentation skills, self confidence, application of acquired knowledge, using internet and other resources and understanding group dynamics. Improvement in abilities like problem solving, time management, creativity, motivation in studies and self-directed learning was 'Minimal'. In addition students recommended continuation of PBL in the same way for future classes. PBL with wrap-up sessions contributed in bringing moderate enhancement of generic learning skills in students which were not properly addressed in the traditional curriculum and are therefore recommended for future implementation.

  9. Students' perception of a modified form of PBL using concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addae, Jonas Innies; Wilson, Jacqueline I; Carrington, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) and concept mapping have been shown to promote active and meaningful learning. To design a method of PBL that includes concept mapping and examine students' perceptions of this form of PBL. We designed a 5-phase method of PBL which produced three clearly identifiable mapping phases that reflected the learning activities during the tutorial: (1) the initial understanding of the clinical problem, (2) students' prior knowledge of the problem, (3) the final understanding of the problem following self-directed study. The process of developing the second and third phases of the map involved the students answering questions that they generated on two occasions to give the entire process a 5-phase approach. Each student was exposed to both methods of PBL: a conventional 7-step method (Maastricht type) and the modified PBL (5-phase) method. We used a questionnaire to evaluate the students' perceptions of the two methods in four learning domains. The students' ratings for the 5-phase method were significantly higher than for the 7-step method (paired t-test) on all items on the questionnaire. The students perceived the 5-phase method as promoting their passion for learning, and developing their cognitive, metacognitive and interpersonal skills.

  10. Sensitivity of land-atmosphere exchanges to overshooting PBL thermals in an idealized coupled model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Baker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The response of atmospheric carbon dioxide to a given amount of surface flux is inversely proportional to the depth of the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Overshooting thermals that entrain free tropospheric air down into the boundary layer modify the characteristics and depth of the mixed layer through the insertion of energy and mass. In addition, entrainment "dilutes" the effects of surface fluxes on scalar quantities (temperature, water vapor, carbon dioxide, etc. in the PBL. Therefore, incorrect simulation of PBL depth can lead to linear errors in estimates of carbon dioxide fluxes in inverse models. Dilution by entrainment directly alters the surface-air gradients in scalar properties, which serve as the "driving force" for surface fluxes. In addition, changes in near-surface temperature and water vapor affect surface fluxes through physiological processes in plant canopies (e.g. stomatal conductance. Although overshooting thermals are important in the physical world, their effects are unresolved in most regional models. We explore the sensitivity of surface fluxes and PBL scalars to the intensity of PBL top entrainment by manipulating its strength in an idealized version of the coupled SiB-RAMS model. An entrainment parameterization based on the virtual potential temperature flux at the surface is implemented into SiB-RAMS to produce a warmer and drier mixed layer, to alter the surface fluxes, and to increase the depth of the PBL. These variations produce modified CO2 concentrations and vary with the strength of the parameterized entrainment.

  11. Promoting problem-based learning (PBL) in nursing education: A Malaysian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achike, Francis I; Nain, Noraini

    2005-09-01

    Since the introduction of problem-based learning (PBL) into medical education in the late 1960s, several new and old medical schools have adopted this approach the main attraction of which includes the promotion of student-centered and life-long learning, team spirit, communication skills and enquiry. With an ever-increasing information base and changing attitudes in the health sciences, these are highly desirable characteristics of the health worker of the future, who will be required to grapple with these phenomenal changes. From medical education, the PBL approach has inevitably spread to other disciplines, especially the health-related disciplines. In the Asia-pacific region (Malaysia in particular), PBL was introduced into medical education in the early 1970s, but the growth has been slow; the reasons are discussed. Only recently (in the 1990s) have more medical and non-medical schools started to adopt PBL. The management of the Pantai Institute of Health Science and Nursing decided to adopt PBL for the Nursing curriculum. A one-day introductory workshop was, therefore, organized to expedite the process. Post-workshop feedback obtained through a five-point Likert scale questionnaire indicated a successful outcome. The workshop process is, therefore, documented as reference especially for Nursing colleges in places where PBL expertise is in short supply.

  12. Results of common PBL teaching model and modified PBL teaching model in medical information retrieval teaching:A comparative study%常规 PBL 教学模式与改进型小案例 PBL教学模式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文志

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较常规PBL教学模式和改进的PBL教学模式在医学信息检索教学中的效果。方法:用DREEM量表比较分析医学信息检索教学改进后的PBL教学模式和常规的PBL教学模式的教学效果。结果:改进的PBL教学模式分值大多数高于常规的PBL教学模式的分值。结论:改进的PBL教学模式比常规的PBL教学模式更能提高学生的学习积极性和综合能力,教学效果更好。%Objective To compare the results of common PBL teaching model and modified PBL teaching model in medical information retrieval teaching .Methods The results of common PBL teaching model and modified PBL teaching model in medical information retrieval teaching were compared according to the DREEM Scale.Results The DREEM score of modified PBL teaching model was significantly higher than that of common PBL teaching model . Conclusion The modified PBL teaching model improves the activity and comprehensive ability of students more sig-nificantly than common PBL teaching model, the results of modified PBL teaching model are better than those of common PBL teaching model.

  13. Development of a Survey to Examine the Factors that Motivate Secondary Education Teachers' Use of Problem-based Learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Huei-Chen

    In this quantitative study, a survey was developed and administered to middle and high school teachers to examine what factors motivated them to implement problem-based learning (PBL). Using Expectancy-Value Theory by Eccles et al. (1983) and Self-Determination Theory by Ryan and Deci (2000b) as the theoretical framework, this instrument measured respondents' perceived competence, support for autonomy and relatedness, and value and cost they placed on implementing PBL. Data analyses indicated that the instrument had good reliability. A 3-factor structure was established by exploratory factor analysis which confirmed the construct validity of the instrument. Value of PBL to teachers and their students was the most dominant factor that motivated teachers to implement it. The second most important factor was their self-efficacy and anxiety about failing this pedagogy, and the third factor was teachers' perceived autonomy, and support from schools and colleagues. Regression models showed the predictive power of the factors on teachers' intention to implement PBL, with their perceptions of the value of PBL being the strongest predictor. Results also indicate that teachers with PBL experience perceived significantly higher levels of competence and support from peers, and placed a higher level of value and perceived less cost in implementing PBL than teachers who had not implemented PBL. Teachers' formal training in PBL played a significant role in positively influencing their perceptions of competence and the value of PBL, and reduced their perceived cost of implementing PBL. This, in turn, enhanced teachers' intention of practicing PBL. For teachers who had previously taught with PBL, their responses to two open-ended questions in this instrument corresponded with the theoretical framework of this study and triangulated well with the quantitative data. These teachers highly valued PBL and they recognized the challenges associated with its implementation. These teachers

  14. Integrating ultrasound into modern medical curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shilpan G; Benninger, Brion; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2017-05-01

    Ultrasonography is widely practiced in many disciplines. It is becoming increasingly important to design well-structured curricula to introduce imaging to students during medical school. This review aims to analyze the literature for evidence of how ultrasonography has been incorporated into anatomy education in medical school curricula worldwide. A literature search was conducted using multiple databases with the keywords: "Ultrasound OR Ultrasonographic examination*" and "Medical student* OR Undergraduate teaching* OR Medical education*" and "Anatomy* OR Living anatomy* OR Real-time anatomy.*" This review found that ultrasound curricula vary in stage of implementation, course length, number of sessions offered to students as well as staffing and additional course components. Most courses consisted of didactic lectures supplemented with demonstration sessions and/or hands-on ultrasound scanning sessions. The stage of course implementation tended to depend on the aim of the course; introductory courses were offered earlier in a student's career. Most courses improved student confidence and exam performance, and more junior students tended to benefit more from learning anatomy with ultrasound guidance rather than learning clinical examination skills. Students tended to prefer smaller groups when learning ultrasound to get more access to using the machines themselves. Ultrasonography is an important skill, which should be taught to medical students early in their careers as it facilitates anatomical education and is clinically relevant, though further objective research required to support the use of ultrasound education as a tool to improve clinical examination skills in medical students. Clin. Anat. 30:452-460, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Constructivism theory analysis and application to curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Amy F; All, Anita C

    2010-01-01

    Today's nursing programs are struggling to accommodate the changing needs of the health care environment and need to make changes in how students are taught. Using constructivism theory, whereby learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current or past knowledge, leaders in nursing education can make a paradigm shift toward concept-based curricula. This article presents a summary and analysis of constructivism and an innovative application of its active-learning principles to curriculum development, specifically for the education of nursing students.

  16. Application of basic science to clinical problems: traditional vs. hybrid problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Amber N; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; Babler, William J; Lacy, Ernestine S; Hale, David Sidney

    2010-10-01

    It is widely acknowledged that clinical problem-solving is a key skill for dental practitioners. The aim of this study was to determine if students in a hybrid problem-based learning curriculum (h-PBL) were better at integrating basic science knowledge with clinical cases than students in a traditional, lecture-based curriculum (TC). The performance of TC students (n=40) was compared to that of h-PBL students (n=31). Participants read two clinical scenarios and answered a series of questions regarding each. To control for differences in ability, Dental Admission Test (DAT) Academic Average scores and predental grade point averages (GPAs) were compared, and an ANCOVA was used to adjust for the significant differences in DAT (t-test, p=0.002). Results showed that h-PBL students were better at applying basic science knowledge to a clinical case (ANCOVA, p=0.022) based on overall scores on one case. TC students' overall scores were better than h-PBL students on a separate case; however, it was not statistically significant (p=0.107). The h-PBL students also demonstrated greater skills in the areas of hypothesis generation (Mann-Whitney U, p=0.016) and communication (p=0.006). Basic science comprehension (p=0.01) and neurology (p<0.001) were two areas in which the TC students did score significantly higher than h-PBL students.

  17. PBL Trigger Design by Medical Students: An Effective Active Learning Strategy Outside the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Maya; Adiga, Indira Kakkunje; Nayak, Akshatha G

    2016-12-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) is known world over as an effective, active learning strategy with many benefits for the student. Usually, in medical schools, PBL triggers are designed by a well-trained group of faculty from basic and clinical sciences. The challenge was whether this task could be given to students in the first year of their curriculum and be executed by them effectively. To enhance active learning, comprehension and critical thinking with a view to promote horizontal and vertical integration between subjects. Student volunteers of the first year MBBS course (n=10), who had been exposed to the curriculum for approximately 38 weeks and were familiar with the PBL process were recruited for the study. In addition to a handout on the topic 'gout', they were given the freedom to access any resource in the university library to construct the PBL triggers. The PBL triggers were vetted by two faculties. In addition to a focus group discussion with students, students' and faculty's responses were collected on a Likert scale. Students opined that the exercise helped improve their comprehension (100%), critical thinking abilities (90%) and clinical orientation to the topic (100%). They felt that designing a PBL trigger was a relevant active learning strategy (100%) and would help them answer questions on this topic better in the future (90%). The clinicians who examined the PBL triggers, felt that they were of good quality and that the process was a good tool for vertical integration between basic and clinical sciences. The results prove that students when given a challenge will rise to the occasion. Unfamiliarity with the nuances of a disease did not prevent them from going the extra mile to achieve their target. By taking part in this exercise, students benefitted in many ways and got a holistic understanding of the topic. PBL trigger design can be introduced as an active learning strategy for students in medical schools where PBL is part of the curriculum. It

  18. 3C3R modified PBL pediatric teaching of Chinese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haihong; Qian, Jihong; Wang, Lianwen; Yuan, Xiaojun; Chen, Yi; Wu, Weilan; Chen, Yan; Sun, Kun

    2013-01-01

    A Content, Context, Connection and Researching, Reasoning, Reflecting (3C3R) model is a conceptual framework for problem-based learning (PBL) problem design. We introduced the 3C3R-PBL method into a pediatric teaching plan, and evaluated its effectiveness and feasibility. The 3C3R model was applied in a pediatric problem design teaching plan "why the lips turn purple when a baby is crying". All students were assigned either into a traditional PBL course or into a 9-step 3C3R model PBL course (3C3R-PBL). The performance outcomes of both groups were compared. For the PBL group, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 for content, context, and problem design connection, was 90.8%, 80.3%, and 64.5% respectively, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 71.4%, and 28.6%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 was 81.6%, 55.3%, and 40.8%, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 100%, and 57.1%. The learning difficulty was not considered high with only 31.6% of students and 42.9% of tutors rating the task as difficult. For the 3C3R-PBL group, the proportion of students scoring content, context, and connection, ≥4 was 100%, 98.4%, and 90.5%, while for tutors it was 100%, 100%, 83.3%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 was 95.2%, 88.9%, and 76.2%, while for tutors it was 100% for all 3 R components. Students and tutors were convinced by the content, case context, research process and reasoning process of both teaching plans, while scores for connection and reflecting were significantly improved when the PBL plan was amended by a 3C3R model (pPBL teaching plan for Chinese students.

  19. PBL Trigger Design by Medical Students: An Effective Active Learning Strategy Outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Indira Kakkunje; Nayak, Akshatha G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Problem Based Learning (PBL) is known world over as an effective, active learning strategy with many benefits for the student. Usually, in medical schools, PBL triggers are designed by a well-trained group of faculty from basic and clinical sciences. The challenge was whether this task could be given to students in the first year of their curriculum and be executed by them effectively. Aim To enhance active learning, comprehension and critical thinking with a view to promote horizontal and vertical integration between subjects. Materials and Methods Student volunteers of the first year MBBS course (n=10), who had been exposed to the curriculum for approximately 38 weeks and were familiar with the PBL process were recruited for the study. In addition to a handout on the topic ‘gout’, they were given the freedom to access any resource in the university library to construct the PBL triggers. The PBL triggers were vetted by two faculties. In addition to a focus group discussion with students, students’ and faculty’s responses were collected on a Likert scale. Results Students opined that the exercise helped improve their comprehension (100%), critical thinking abilities (90%) and clinical orientation to the topic (100%). They felt that designing a PBL trigger was a relevant active learning strategy (100%) and would help them answer questions on this topic better in the future (90%). The clinicians who examined the PBL triggers, felt that they were of good quality and that the process was a good tool for vertical integration between basic and clinical sciences. Discussion The results prove that students when given a challenge will rise to the occasion. Unfamiliarity with the nuances of a disease did not prevent them from going the extra mile to achieve their target. By taking part in this exercise, students benefitted in many ways and got a holistic understanding of the topic. Conclusion PBL trigger design can be introduced as an active learning

  20. TCRβ REPERTOIRE IN TIL AND PBL OF PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠芳; 万远廉; 刘玉村; 吴涛; 朱平

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study T cell immunology in patients with colorectal cancer, the molecular features of clonal expanded T cell in TIL and PBL were analyzed by assessment of TCRβ gene reopertoire. Methods: The rearranged V-J genes of TCRβ chain were amplified by RT-PCR and separated with denaturation polyacrylamide sequencing gel eletrophoresis. The PCR products were sequenced directly to determine the characteristics of the clonal expanded transcripts. Results: There were oligoclonal expanded transcripts of TCRβ V genes both in TIL and PBL from pre- operation patients, which all disappeared in PBL after operation. The amino acid sequences of the CDR3 regions in these oligoclonal expanded T cells suggested that they related with the tumor peptide-specific activation. Existence of clonal expanded T cells in PBL may have relevance with the recurrence. Conclusion: Tumor peptide-specific Activated T cell clones were found not only in TIL of colorectal cancer tissue, but also in PBL of tumor-bearing patients. The activation of systemic T cell immunology may play an important role in the prognosis of patients.

  1. Caffeinating the PBL return session: Curriculum innovations to engage students at two medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korin, Tatum; Thode, Joan Brumbaugh; Kakar, Seema; Blatt, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    At the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, authors observed that problem-based learning (PBL) return sessions for first- and second-year medical students often lacked the energy and engagement of first sessions. Unlike in first sessions, where students took on the physician's role and actively problem solved, in return sessions students spent much of their time passively, listening to research reports on learning objectives. Time spent listening to reports dilutes return session impact, with the patient receding from view as the level of abstraction increases and learning issues take center stage. In this Perspective, the authors present innovations, developed separately at their respective medical schools between 2009 and 2012, designed to reenergize the return session.To frame the discussion of the return session slump and their innovations in response to it, the authors used self-determination theory (SDT) and active learning theory (ALT), both of which are supported by a considerable body of evidence. SDT provides understanding of how to maximize PBL learners' motivation, and ALT sheds light on how to promote PBL learners' incorporation of concepts into long-term memory. As motivation and memory are key factors in learning, both theories are appropriate tools to help understand and maximize the effectiveness of PBL. Finally, guided by these theories, the authors present reflections on future directions for the development of PBL.

  2. Three Cases of Combined Therapy in Primary Breast Lymphoma (PBL) with Successful Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inic, Zorka; Inic, Momcilo; Zegarac, Milan; Inic, Ivana; Pupic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Primary malignant lymphoma of the breast is a rare tumor, defined as a tumor localized in the breast with or without axillary lymph-node metastases. Such a tumor is mainly found in female patients and located more frequently in the right breast. It is difficult to make primary breast lymphoma (PBL) diagnosis before operation, and PBL diagnosis is mainly based on pathological biopsy and immunohistochemical staining. In this paper, the cases of three patients who had PBL, and who were treated for it at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia between 2008 and 2012, are reviewed and discussed. These cases of PBL had no recorded reoccurrence of the disease and were originally treated by surgery, radiotherapy R-CHOP, and/or chemotherapy. While there is no consensus to the question of how to best treat PBL (ie, with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or combined therapy), it is hoped that this review will offer insight into successful treatment procedures for tumors of this category.

  3. Subjective and Objective Evaluation of PBL Outcomes in Preclinical Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Marya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem based learning curriculum is widely recognized as a progressive, learner-centered, active learning approach and is currently used in the entire medical curriculum in over 10% of medical schools worldwide. But, is there real evidence that PBL is more effective than traditional approaches? In this report, outcomes of a PBL tutorial in 55 second year MBBS students have been evaluated by the facilitators (subjective evaluation and by asking the students a set of questions based on the intended outcome of the PBL ( objective evaluation soon after the completion of PBL tutorial. In the subjective assessment by the facilitators, all the students scored over 80% marks. In the objective assessment, out of 55 students, only three students scored over 50% marks. Perusal of answers to individual questions revealed appalling lack of knowledge of the subject. To conclude, before introduction of PBL-based curriculum in medical schools, usefulness of PBLs in preclinical medical education needs to be thoroughly investigated by objective evaluation of intended outcomes.

  4. 组织实施护理 PBL 教学查房的行动研究%Action research on the implemention of nursing PBL teaching rounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小红; 孙继红; 高凤莉; 张艳; 刘均娥

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨在护理学生毕业实习中实施PBL教学查房的方法,在内科、外科、妇产科、儿科中开展教学方法改革。方法在为期10个月的毕业实习中开展16次PBL教学查房,采用Lewin的行动研究框架,以计划、行动、观察、反思4个步骤进行螺旋式循环实践,评价方案实施的效果,采用PBL学习体验评估量表调查学生PBL教学环境体验,反思PBL教学查房中值得注意的问题。结果通过培训、集体备课、观摩、访谈和查房等4轮循环完善了实施方案,44名学生的PBL学习体验评估量表总分为(81.83±10.42)分。本科生PBL学习体验评分为(89.45±8.47)分,高于专科生的(78.93±9.70)分,差异有统计学意义(t=3.165,P=0.003)。结论制定的PBL教学查房步骤经过行动研究实践的修改和完善,在内科、外科、妇产科、儿科中实施效果良好,实现了PBL教学方法的改革。%Objective To explore the method of the implemention of nursing PBL teaching rounds in the nursing graduation practice , and carry out the reformation of teaching methods in the Department of Internal Medicine, Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics , Pediatrics.Methods Sixteen times PBL teaching rounds were performed in a 10-month graduate internship , the Lewin’ s action research framework which was consisted of the four steps including planning , action, observation , and reflection in spiral cycle was used to evaluate the effect of the implementation of program , the experience of students ’ PBL teaching environment was surveyed by the PBL learning experience assessment scale , and the noticeable problems on PBL teaching rounds were deeply thought.Results The implementation of the program was improved through the four cycles including training , prepare lessons together , observation, interview and rounds .The total scores of the PBL learning experience assessment scale from 44 students

  5. Faculty Development Programme in Dokuz Eylül School of Medicine: In the process of curriculum change from traditional to PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Musal

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Dokuz Eylül School of Medicine (DESM a faculty development program is being carried out by the "Trainers' Training Committee". DESM made a fundamental change in its curriculum from traditional to Problem-based Learning (PBL in 1997. This was the first implementation of a PBL curriculum in Turkey. Faculty development activities were initiated in the same year. This paper describes the faculty development activities with a special emphasis on PBL courses. Program description: Between 1997-2000 27 four-day long PBL courses were held for 343 participants. The curriculum consisted of PBL philosophy, PBL steps, role of the tutor and students in PBL process, effective case design, assessment principles and group dynamics. PBL simulations enabled the participants to play the roles of both tutors and students. Process evaluation: At the end of the program most of the participants stated that length of the program, content, training methods and the course organization was appropriate. The majority of the participants (89.5% found the program very useful. PBL steps, PBL practices and PBL philosophy were found as the most useful sessions. Discussion: These courses gave medical staff the opportunity to develop their understanding of PBL methodology and theory. PBL courses and continuous educational activities such as weekly tutor meetings are being held and new courses on advanced tutoring skills are being planned for the near future in DESM.

  6. Integrating Creativity Training into Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) Curriculum in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2012-01-01

    In order to foster creative engineers, a creativity training programme was carried out in medialogy education in a Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) environment at Aalborg University, Denmark. This paper focuses on the question of how engineering students perceive the strategy of integrating...... creativity training into a PBL curriculum. A total of 20 medialogy students in the training programme were interviewed. The data shows that the training programme was thought useful and students get benefits such as gaining project work skills, creative concepts and confidence of being creative. However......, limitations of the programme show that only five days of training did not fit the requirements of learning skills in PBL. So the supervisors are suggested to offer more creativity techniques and process engagement to move projects forward....

  7. Transversal knowledge formations in Professional Bachelor Education employing Problem Based Learning (PBL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the principles underlying how various knowledge areas blend into transversal formations in two educational contexts employing PBL. Such ‘transversality’ has often been referred to as inter- cross- or trans-disciplinarity. However, these terms are ambiguous, especially......, but rather on a number of subject areas that are combined during students’ PBL-studies. As such, the curriculum organized knowledge, as well as students’ reflections of various types at the level of teaching and learning, constitute certain ‘modalities’ of transversal knowledge formations. Two institutional...... case studies - Nursing and the Constructing Architect education - have been researched, compared and contrasted in order to demonstrate how institutional practices demonstrate different modalities of transversal knowledge in their PBL-courses. For the purpose of this paper Nursing Education...

  8. PBL3.0: Integrating Learning Analytics and Semantics in Problem-Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zotou, Maria; Tambouris, Efthimios; Triantafyllou, Evangelia;

    2016-01-01

    will enable the annotation of learning resources in order to easily integrate them to the PBL approach and enable their discoverability when setting personalized learning pathways, 3) Adapt a set of open source software tools for supporting PBL_LA and the semantic model based on existing Learning Management...... in education and training, 6) Create an organic ecosystem of among others organizations, re-searchers, educators, students with an interest in PBL_LA. Finally, the project will develop a Community of Practice, where institutions and individuals from across Europe will be able to exchange knowledge...... and expertise on LA, learning semantics, innovative learning tools and approaches. This aims to support transnational cooperation and mutual learning on forward-looking issues between key stakeholders to provide solutions to current challenges in education and training....

  9. 3D printing in social education: Eki-Fab and student PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Masato; Saito, Azusa; Kodama, Mai; Takamatsu, Kyuuichiro; Tamate, Hideaki; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Wada, Masato; Khosla, Ajit; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2017-04-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printer is one of the most innovative material processing methods. We are considering that human resources for 3D printing would be needed in the future. To educate the abilities of the digital fabrication, we have the public digital fabrication space "Eki-Fab" for junior and high school students and Project Based Learning (PBL) class for undergraduate students. Eki-Fab is held on every Saturday at the Yonezawa train station. In the "Eki-Fab", anybody can study the utilizing of 3D printer and modeling technics under the instruction of staff in Yamagata University. In the PBL class, we have the class every Thursday. The students get the techniques of the digital fabrication through the PBL.

  10. The Use and Misuse of Pleasure in Sex Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Lustig, Kara; Graling, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Since Michelle Fine's writing on the missing discourse of desire in sex education, there has been considerable prompting among sexuality educators and feminist scholars to incorporate talk of pleasure into sex education curricula. While the calls for inclusion continue, few have actually examined the curricula for a pleasure discourse or…

  11. An Experimental Evaluation of Four Elementary School Math Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodini, Roberto; Harris, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of four elementary school math curricula: (a) "Investigations in Number, Data, and Space"; (b) "Math Expressions"; (c) "Saxon Math"; and (d) "Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics" ("SFAW"). These curricula are distinct from one another and represent many…

  12. Teachers' Reactions to Pre-Differentiated and Enriched Mathematics Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa DaVia; Gilson, Cindy M.; Bruce-Davis, Micah N.; Gubbins, E. Jean

    2015-01-01

    Modern classrooms are often comprised of a heterogeneous student population with varying abilities. To address this variance, third-grade teachers implemented researcher-designed, pre-differentiated, and enriched math curricula in algebra, geometry and measurement, and graphing and data analysis. The goal of the curricula was to provide academic…

  13. Learning Affordances of Language and Communication National Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the learning affordances of different language and communication curricula in the world. For reasons of space, only two national education systems (Finland and Singapore) and their language and communication curricula are referred to. The accounts of national education systems consist of the identification of mechanisms…

  14. Defining and Developing Curricula in the Context of Cooperative Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.; Worker, Steven M.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Ambrose, Andrea; Brian, Kelley; Schoenfelder, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Effective curricula are considered to be the cornerstone of successful programming in Extension. However, there is no universal operationalized definition of the term "curriculum" as it applies to Extension. Additionally, the development of curricula requires a systematic process that takes into account numerous factors. We provide an…

  15. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2016-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  16. A PBL-radiation model for application to regional numerical weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Bo

    1989-01-01

    Often in the short-range limited-area numerical weather prediction (NWP) of extratropical weather systems the effects of planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes are considered secondarily important. However, it may not be the case for the regional NWP of mesoscale convective systems over the arid and semi-arid highlands of the southwestern and south-central United States in late spring and summer. Over these dry regions, the PBL can grow quite high up into the lower middle troposphere (600 mb) due to very effective solar heating and hence a vigorous air-land thermal interaction can occur. The interaction representing a major heat source for regional dynamical systems can not be ignored. A one-dimensional PBL-radiation model was developed. The model PBL consists of a constant-flux surface layer superposed with a well-mixed (Ekman) layer. The vertical eddy mixing coefficients for heat and momentum in the surface layer are determined according to the surface similarity theory, while their vertical profiles in the Ekman layer are specified with a cubic polynomial. Prognostic equations are used for predicting the height of the nonneutral PBL. The atmospheric radiation is parameterized to define the surface heat source/sink for the growth and decay of the PBL. A series of real-data numerical experiments has been carried out to obtain a physical understanding how the model performs under various atmospheric and surface conditions. This one-dimensional model will eventually be incorporated into a mesoscale prediction system. The ultimate goal of this research is to improve the NWP of mesoscale convective storms over land.

  17. Longitudinal PBL in Undergraduate Medical Education Develops Lifelong-Learning Habits and Clinical Competencies in Social Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yumiko; Matsushita, Susumu; Takakuwa, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Nitta, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is popular in medical education in Japan. We wished to understand the influence of PBL on the clinical competence of medical residents, using self-assessment and observer assessment. Tokyo Women's Medical University (TWMU) implemented PBL longitudinally (long-time) for four years, and on this basis we analyzed whether long-time PBL education is useful for clinical work. A self-assessment questionnaire was sent to junior and senior residents who were alumni of several schools, and an observation-based assessment questionnaire to senior doctors instructing them. Respondents were asked if they had used the PBL process in daily clinical tasks, and if so in what processes. Senior doctors were asked whether TWMU graduates perform differently from graduates of other schools. TWMU graduates answered "used a lot" and "used a little" with regard to PBL at significantly higher rates than other graduates. As useful points of PBL, they mentioned extracting clinical problems, solving clinical problems, self-directed leaning, positive attitude, collaboration with others, presentation, doctor-patient relations, self-assessment, and share the knowledge with doctors at lower levels and students. Observer assessments of TWMU graduates by senior doctors represented them as adaptive, good at presenting, good at listening to others' opinions, practical, selfish, and eager in their instructional practice. Longitudinal PBL can be a good educational method to develop lifelong-learning habits and clinical competencies especially in terms of the social aspect.

  18. From Print to Digital Platforms: A PBL Framework for Fostering Multimedia Competencies and Consciousness in Traditional Journalism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Debbie; Kale, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    The project-based learning (PBL) approach closely reflects the tenets of journalism and provides a potential pedagogical guide for transforming traditional journalism education. This study operationalizes and applies a PBL framework in digitizing a print journalism course. The findings illustrate how the presence of seven key elements of PBL…

  19. The Lcn972 Bacteriocin-Encoding Plasmid pBL1 Impairs Cellobiose Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campelo, Ana B.; Gaspar, Paula; Roces, Clara; Rodriguez, Ana; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Neves, Ana Rute; Martinez, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    pBL1 is a Lactococcus lactis theta-replicating 10.9-kbp plasmid that encodes the synthetic machinery of the bacteriocin Lcn972. In this work, the transcriptomes of exponentially growing L. lactis strains with and without pBL1 were compared. A discrete response was observed, with a total of 10 genes

  20. Medialogy – Interdisciplinary Education Challenge with Focus on PBL and Students’ Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; Nordahl, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the problems of establish an understanding of the competence connected to a new interdisciplinary program called Medialogy. One of the questions raised in the paper are: How do students carry out and combine the different disciplines in an interdisciplinary way when working...... with their projects? We are analysing 6 semester projects as cases to find how the students are dealing with the PBL approach and the interdisciplinary nature of their study. The conclusion is that the projects are dealing with Medialogy competences in an interdisciplinary way and that PBL is an effective method...

  1. Gerontology course in the nursing undergraduate curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSenany, Samira; AlSaif, Amer A

    2014-12-01

    To explores nursing faculty members' attitudes towards older people, their thoughts about gerontological nursing education. Five focus groups and a survey were used with nursing faculty members 132 at the three nursing schools to explore their attitudes towards the care of older people and the perceived status of gerontological nursing education. The survey was given to 132 faculty members, including 76 clinical instructors, 40 associate professors and 16 professors. The nursing faculty in general had a positive attitude toward older people (M=3.36, SD 0.25), and teachers' attitudes were higher than those of their nursing students (M=3.18, SD0.29). This study results suggests that Saudi nursing curricula should include more extensive gerontology content and clinical experience with older people. This is the first time in Saudi Arabia that research has listened to their voices and examined their commitments toward gerontology education.

  2. Gerontology course in the nursing undergraduate curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira AlSenany

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explores nursing faculty members’ attitudes towards older people, their thoughts about gerontological nursing education. Method Five focus groups and a survey were used with nursing faculty members 132 at the three nursing schools to explore their attitudes towards the care of older people and the perceived status of gerontological nursing education. The survey was given to 132 faculty members, including 76 clinical instructors, 40 associate professors and 16 professors. The nursing faculty in general had a positive attitude toward older people (M=3.36, SD 0.25, and teachers’ attitudes were higher than those of their nursing students (M=3.18, SD0.29. Results This study results suggests that Saudi nursing curricula should include more extensive gerontology content and clinical experience with older people. Conclusion This is the first time in Saudi Arabia that research has listened to their voices and examined their commitments toward gerontology education.

  3. Trends in cataract surgery training curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipour, Mona; Rolius, Ramunas; Lehman, Erik B; Pantanelli, Seth M; Scott, Ingrid U

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate trends in cataract surgery training curricula and factors affecting timing of resident participation as a primary surgeon. Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA. Cross-sectional study of anonymous survey results. A description of the study and link to an online survey was e-mailed to program directors of each ophthalmology residency training program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Fifty-one (44%) of the 116 program directors completed the survey. First-year, second-year, and third-year residents performed a mean of 2, 25, and 155 phacoemulsification surgeries, respectively, as a primary surgeon. Only 1 program (2%) required residents to perform extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) before performing phacoemulsification. Clear corneal phacoemulsification was the first technique taught to trainees at 91% of programs. More than two thirds (71%) of program directors indicated that their program had a cataract surgery training curriculum designed to transition residents gradually to the operating room. These curricula included structured wet laboratory (92%) and lecture (89%) components. Inadequate resident knowledge and surgical skill base (57%) and anticipation of increased surgical complication risk (37%) were the most commonly reported factors impeding earlier exposure to phacoemulsification in residency. Results show that residents today begin surgical training with phacoemulsification rather than ECCE, perform a higher number of phacoemulsification surgeries than is required by the ACGME, and begin performing phacoemulsification as early as their first or second year of residency. Despite these evolutions, 29% of respondent ACGME-accredited ophthalmology residency programs reported not having a formal cataract surgery training curriculum. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Airborne lidar and radiometric observations of PBL- and low clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamant, P. H.; Valentin, R.; Pelon, J.

    1992-01-01

    Boundary layer- and low altitude clouds over open ocean and continent areas have been studied during several field campaigns since mid-1990 using the French airborne backscatter lidar LEANDRE in conjunction with on-board IR and visible radiometers. LEANDRE is an automatic system, and a modification of the instrumental parameters, when airborne, is computer controlled through an operator keyboard. The vertical range squared lidar signals and instrument status are displayed in real time on two dedicated monitors. The lidar is used either down- or up-looking while the aircraft is flying above or below clouds. A switching of the viewing configuration takes about a minute. The lidar measurements provide a high resolution description of cloud morphology and holes in cloud layers. The flights were conducted during various meteorological conditions on single or multilayer stratocumulus and cumulus decks. Analysis on a single shot basis of cloud top (or bottom) altitude and a plot of the corresponding histogram allows one to determine a probability density function (PDF). The preliminary results show the PDFs for cloud top are not Gaussian and symmetric about the mean value. The skewness varies with atmospheric conditions. An example of results recorded over the Atlantic ocean near Biarritz is displayed, showing: (1) the range squared lidar signals as a function of time (here 100 s corresponds to about 8 km, 60 shots are averaged on horizontal); the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) - up to 600 m - is observed at the beginning of the leg as well as on surface returns, giving an indication of the porosity; (2) the cloud top altitude variation between 2.4 to 2.8 km during the 150 to 320 s section; and (3) the corresponding PDF. Similar results are obtained on stratocumulus over land. Single shot measurements can be used also to determine an optical porosity at a small scale as well as a fractional cloudiness at a larger scale. A comparison of cloud top altitude retrieved from

  5. The Effects of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on the Academic Achievement of Students Studying "Electrochemistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Tugçe; Alpat, Sibel Kilinç

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on students' academic achievements in studying "Electrochemistry" within a course on Analytical Chemistry. The research was of a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design and it was conducted with second year students in the Chemistry Teaching Program at…

  6. Dynamic Systems (Complexity) theory as a new conceptual model for researching PBL in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, G C; Kim, M; Sankey, D

    2012-02-01

    Although problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced into dental education some 20 years ago, there have been relatively few well-designed studies carried out to clarify whether, how or why it works in a dental context. This paper introduces the Dynamic Systems (Complexity) theory as a new and potentially productive theoretical framework for researching PBL in dental education. This framework emphasises the importance of emergent self-organisation, perception and brain plasticity in learning. In this paper, a brief overview of the history of PBL in dentistry is presented and then the fundamentals of a Dynamic Systems Approach (DSA) are explained, drawing on two recently published papers advocating the DSA in medical education and teacher education. We focus on three key points related to this new approach: emergent self-organisation rather than simple construction of knowledge; the notion that perception drives the learning process; and the brain as the substrate of all learning. The paper also suggests how the DSA can help us move forward, both in terms of the future application of PBL in dental education and also in relation to posing new types of research questions.

  7. My Dog's Cheeks: A PBL Project on Collagen for Cell Biology and Genetics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Students often have an oversimplified view of biological facts, which may hinder subsequent understanding when conceptual complexity gives rise to cognitive conflicts. To avoid this situation here, we present a PBL approach for the analysis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), which integrates a variety of topics in cell biology, genetics, and…

  8. The Impact of PBL on Transferable Skills Development in Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Attention to transferable skills is growing in higher education. Problem-based learning (PBL) is increasingly used in management education for its promising potential to, amongst others, promote transferable skills, including problem-solving, critical thinking and teamwork skills. However, this relationship is seldom assessed. In this study, I use…

  9. Innovative application of a new PBL model to interdisciplinary and intercultural projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Du, Xiangyun; Kolmos, Anette

    2010-01-01

    In the knowledge society, learning is not only knowledge acquisition or participation in established social practice. It is also a process of creating new knowledge collaboratively when addressing complex problems which involve interdisciplinary knowledge and innovative thinking. In our research ...... the learning process in the ICT-based, intercultural and interdisciplinary PBL environment of an international student satellite project....

  10. Integrating Collaborative PBL with Blended Learning to Explore Preservice Teachers' Development of Online Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-chu

    2010-01-01

    This study integrated collaborative problem-based learning (collaborative PBL) with blended learning to explore the emerging process and function of online learning communities among preservice teachers. Thirty-two preservice teachers participated in a 16-week instruction program. Analyses of online group discussions and portfolios found that (a)…

  11. The Impact of PBL on Transferable Skills Development in Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Attention to transferable skills is growing in higher education. Problem-based learning (PBL) is increasingly used in management education for its promising potential to, amongst others, promote transferable skills, including problem-solving, critical thinking and teamwork skills. However, this relationship is seldom assessed. In this study, I use…

  12. The Effects of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on the Academic Achievement of Students Studying "Electrochemistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Tugçe; Alpat, Sibel Kilinç

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on students' academic achievements in studying "Electrochemistry" within a course on Analytical Chemistry. The research was of a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design and it was conducted with second year students in the Chemistry Teaching Program at…

  13. [Teaching Bioethics to Students of Medicine with Problem-Based Learning (PBL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Briceño García, Hugo C; Capella, Dolors; De Castro Vila, Carmen; Farrés, Ramón; Quintanas, Anna; Ramis, Josep; Roca, Rosa; Brunet, Joan

    2015-01-01

    We present the experience of the introduction of the subject of bioethics in a medical school in order to give to the 73 students of 5th degree skills to handle ethical conflicts in their practice. The main teaching method used was problem-based learning (PBL). Skills objectives are described. The course was structured with a theoretical seminar (2 hours of duration), a workshop (2 hours of duration), 4 cases of PBL (24 hours of duration in total) and a role playing workshop (2 hours of duration). The seminar was aimed at the acquisition of theoretical knowledge. The PBL cases provided critical appraisal, obtaining knowledge, and application. The Role Playing set out for the practical demonstration of skills acquired in a simulated environment. A continuous assessment of students was performed throughout their practice on the PBL cases (40% of the final score) and also a final evaluation of the course was carried out via exam (60% of the final score). Students completed a course and faculty evaluation anonymously, which came out with positive results (median score of 8.5/10).

  14. Supporting traditional PBL with online discussion forums: a study from Qassim Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamro, Ahmad S; Schofield, Susie

    2012-01-01

    The Qassim Medical School first year curriculum includes a 5-week problem-based learning (PBL) block. Student evaluation has highlighted inadequate feedback and lack of student-student and student-tutor interactions. An online intervention may alleviate this. For each problem, a discussion forum (DF) was created with 14 threads (one for each group) in virtual PBL rooms. Students' and tutors' perceived satisfaction of the intervention was evaluated and types of posts were classified. By the end of the block, all academic staff involved and 123 students (95%) had participated in the DFs. There were around 2800 posts and 28,500 views. All 14 tutors and 102 (78%) students completed the online questionnaire. Of the students, 66 (76%) male and 36 (92%) female students responded. Overall, both students and tutors perceived the intervention positively. Posts included: reforming and finalizing learning objectives, posting the concept map constructed in the face-to-face session and questioning, encouraging and motivating each other. In addition, posts included tutors' feedback and redirection. Blending e-learning with conventional PBL may help overcome student-perceived shortcomings of conventional PBL and improve the learning experience, making learning more interactive and interesting.

  15. STEM High School Teachers' Views of Implementing PBL: An Investigation Using Anecdote Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    deChambeau, Aimée L.; Ramlo, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been gaining in popularity, especially within the context of STEM-based (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) schools. Program assessments for these schools typically focus on student standardized test scores rather than the needs of the teachers. This study utilized anecdote circles, storytelling via…

  16. Arctic PBL Cloud Height and Motion Retrievals from MISR and MINX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong L.

    2012-01-01

    How Arctic clouds respond and feedback to sea ice loss is key to understanding of the rapid climate change seen in the polar region. As more open water becomes available in the Arctic Ocean, cold air outbreaks (aka. off-ice flow from polar lows) produce a vast sheet of roll clouds in the planetary boundary layer (PBl). The cold air temperature and wind velocity are the critical parameters to determine and understand the PBl structure formed under these roll clouds. It has been challenging for nadir visible/IR sensors to detect Arctic clouds due to lack of contrast between clouds and snowy/icy surfaces. In addition) PBl temperature inversion creates a further problem for IR sensors to relate cloud top temperature to cloud top height. Here we explore a new method with the Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument to measure cloud height and motion over the Arctic Ocean. Employing a stereoscopic-technique, MISR is able to measure cloud top height accurately and distinguish between clouds and snowy/icy surfaces with the measured height. We will use the MISR INteractive eXplorer (MINX) to quantify roll cloud dynamics during cold-air outbreak events and characterize PBl structures over water and over sea ice.

  17. Avoiding honest feedback: discordance between formal evaluations and candid assessments of Kuwaiti PBL students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadan, Laila; Al-Ozairi, Ebaa; Ayed, Adel; Huang, Grace

    2013-06-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) allows faculty to observe students interact and solve problems. Thus, it represents a prime opportunity to provide authentic feedback on learners' knowledge, skills, and attitudes. However, we are concerned that PBL faculty do not accurately convey feedback to students. To assess the difference between formal evaluations and candid assessments of student performance, we conducted a study of 178 preclinical medical students at Kuwait University. We quantitatively compared PBL evaluations of students with candid assessments of students' competence as obtained from structured interviews with 19 PBL facilitators. We also compared facilitators' comments on the module evaluations with candid comments solicited during the interviews. We did not find a strong quantitative or qualitative correlation between faculty feedback and their candid impressions of student performance. Thematic analysis of the comments disclosed multiple factors that influenced the accuracy and specificity of faculty feedback. Systematic discrepancies between feedback given to students and actual assessments of their performance can result in false reassurance of competence, which undermines our curricular efforts and prevents the trainee from achieving his or her full potential.

  18. PBL and the Postmodern Condition--Knowledge Production in University Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Ole; Jensen, Annie Aarup

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the contemporary conditions for running the Aalborg Problem Based Learning-model (PBL). We try to pinpoint key characteristics of these conditions emphasising Lyotard's conception of knowledge production referred to as the move towards a postmodern condition for knowledge. Through discussions of this alleged condition…

  19. A New Eddy Dissipation Rate Formulation for the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System(TAPPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, Joseph J.; Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Pfeiffer, Karl D.

    2000-01-01

    The TAPPS employs the MASS model to produce mesoscale atmospheric simulations in support of the Wake Vortex project at Dallas Fort-Worth International Airport (DFW). A post-processing scheme uses the simulated three-dimensional atmospheric characteristics in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to calculate the turbulence quantities most important to the dissipation of vortices: turbulent kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rate. TAPPS will ultimately be employed to enhance terminal area productivity by providing weather forecasts for the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The post-processing scheme utilizes experimental data and similarity theory to determine the turbulence quantities from the simulated horizontal wind field and stability characteristics of the atmosphere. Characteristic PBL quantities important to these calculations are determined based on formulations from the Blackadar PBL parameterization, which is regularly employed in the MASS model to account for PBL processes in mesoscale simulations. The TAPPS forecasts are verified against high-resolution observations of the horizontal winds at DFW. Statistical assessments of the error in the wind forecasts suggest that TAPPS captures the essential features of the horizontal winds with considerable skill. Additionally, the turbulence quantities produced by the post-processor are shown to compare favorably with corresponding tower observations.

  20. Integration of Sustainability in Engineering Education: Why Is PBL an Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Aida

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Education for sustainable development (ESD) is one of the challenges engineering education currently faces. Engineering education needs to revise and change its curriculum to integrate ESD principles and knowledge. Problem based learning (PBL) has been one of the main learning pedagogies used to integrate sustainability in engineering…

  1. Synchronous Problem-Based e-Learning (ePBL) in Interprofessional Health Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sharla; Greidanus, Elaine; Carbonaro, Mike; Drummond, Jane; Boechler, Patricia; Kahlke, Renate

    2010-01-01

    Health Science teams are increasingly interprofessional and infused with technology. These shifts result in a need for health science students to learn online interprofessional teamwork skills early in their training. In response, one interprofessional communication skills course was remodelled from traditional Problem-based learning (PBL) to…

  2. The Aalborg University PO-PBL Model from a Socio-cultural Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Carola Hernández; Ravn, Ole; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    of learning. One of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the understanding of learning is the socio-cultural perspective. This paper aims at exploring and analyzing the PO-PBL model from this theoretical perspective. In addition, this reading may also open a new viewpoint in science teaching for other...

  3. PBL in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Qualitative Study of the Views of Canadian Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohfeld, Lynne; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objectives: At McMaster University, the birthplace of problem-based learning (PBL), administrators and curriculum planners have begun the process of renewing the undergraduate MD curriculum. One step has been to conduct an environmental scan that includes input from medical residents. Methods: Individual interviews with 17 medical…

  4. My Dog's Cheeks: A PBL Project on Collagen for Cell Biology and Genetics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Students often have an oversimplified view of biological facts, which may hinder subsequent understanding when conceptual complexity gives rise to cognitive conflicts. To avoid this situation here, we present a PBL approach for the analysis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), which integrates a variety of topics in cell biology, genetics, and…

  5. Innovative application of a new PBL model to interdisciplinary and intercultural projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Du, Xiangyun; Kolmos, Anette

    2010-01-01

    focus on questions of how to prepare engineering students for the increasing complexity of their professional lives and how to help them acquire skills of collaboration, management and innovation as well as awareness of knowledge creation. This paper will discuss these questions by examining...... the learning process in the ICT-based, intercultural and interdisciplinary PBL environment of an international student satellite project....

  6. Differ in Socio-Cognitive Processes? Some Comparisons between Paper and Video Triggered PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyan; Chan, Lap Ki

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates whether paper and video triggers stimulate different social and cognitive processes during PBL. The study focused on how medical students identified and described problems, and how they built shared cognitions that lead them to diagnose and solve problems. The results showed that students who used video triggers put more…

  7. Differ in Socio-Cognitive Processes? Some Comparisons between Paper and Video Triggered PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyan; Chan, Lap Ki

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates whether paper and video triggers stimulate different social and cognitive processes during PBL. The study focused on how medical students identified and described problems, and how they built shared cognitions that lead them to diagnose and solve problems. The results showed that students who used video triggers put more…

  8. What Does Research Tell Us about Trends in Dissertations on PBL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Tolga

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the research trends in dissertations on PBL from 2002 to 2015 in Turkey. For this purpose, the master's and doctorate dissertations in the National Thesis Database of Council of Higher Education (CoHE) were selected for rigorous content analysis. The analysis was utilized to classify the type of study, the…

  9. The Influence of PBL on Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataka, Lloyd M.; Grunert Kowalske, Megan

    2015-01-01

    A convergent mixed methods research study was used to investigate whether or not undergraduate students who participated in a problem-based learning (PBL) laboratory environment improved their self-efficacy beliefs in chemistry. The Chemistry Attitude and Experience Questionnaire (CAEQ) was used as a pre- and post-test to determine changes in…

  10. A Multidisciplinary PBL Robot Control Project in Automation and Electronic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Houcine; Domínguez, Carlos; Martínez, Juan-Miguel; Perles, Angel; Capella, Juan-Vicente; Albaladejo, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) project consisting of the development of a robot arm prototype and the implementation of its control system. The project is carried out as part of Industrial Informatics (II), a compulsory third-year course in the Automation and Electronic Engineering (AEE) degree program at the…

  11. Student Perception of the Integrated PBL MBCHB-III Program Curriculum in a Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Garcia-Jardon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrated PBL is now an accepted method of teaching the medical curriculum. The objective of this study was to determine MBChB-III students’ perceptions about some key aspects related to our integrated PBL curriculum. Methods: This was an anonymous, questionnaire based, descriptive study, involving the Walter Sisulu University MBChB year 3 students as participants. The short questionnaire focused on key student perception areas related to integrated PBL curriculum Results: More than half of the students felt that the curriculum enhanced analytical skills, and was reasoning and learning centered. 29.5% of the students felt that the desired goals and objectives were not clear enough. About 90% felt that they felt they could recognize discipline interrelations. While 61.7% of students felt that the curriculum facilitated active learning opportunities, more than 70% felt that it increased the workload and stress levels. About half of the students expressed overall satisfaction with the level of content integration. Conclusion: Students generally presented favorable perceptions of the integrated MBChB-III PBL curriculum.  There were concerns about the associated heavy workload and stress. Student counseling with respect to time and stress management coupled with improvements in curriculum design would be helpful in addressing the issue.

  12. Closing the Gap between Formalism and Application--PBL and Mathematical Skills in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ole Ravn

    2008-01-01

    A common problem in learning mathematics concerns the gap between, on the one hand, doing the formalisms and calculations of abstract mathematics and, on the other hand, applying these in a specific contextualized setting for example the engineering world. The skills acquired through problem-based learning (PBL), in the special model used at…

  13. Integration of Sustainability in Engineering Education: Why Is PBL an Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Aida

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Education for sustainable development (ESD) is one of the challenges engineering education currently faces. Engineering education needs to revise and change its curriculum to integrate ESD principles and knowledge. Problem based learning (PBL) has been one of the main learning pedagogies used to integrate sustainability in engineering…

  14. Teaching Environmental Education through PBL: Evaluation of a Teaching Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Clara

    2012-04-01

    If our chosen aim in science education is to be inclusive and to improve students' learning achievements, then we must identify teaching methodologies that are appropriate for teaching and learning specific knowledge. Karagiorgi and Symeo 2005) remind us that instructional designers are thus challenged to translate the philosophy of constructivism into current practice. Thus, research in science education must focus on evaluating intervention programs which ensure the effective construction of knowledge and development of competencies. The present study reports the elaboration, application and evaluation of a problem-based learning (PBL) program with the aim of examining its effectiveness with students learning Environmental Education. Prior research on both PBL and Environmental Education (EE) was conducted within the context of science education so as to elaborate and construct the intervention program. Findings from these studies indicated both the PBL methodology and EE as helpful for teachers and students. PBL methodology has been adopted in this study since it is logically incorporated in a constructivism philosophy application (Hendry et al. 1999) and it was expected that this approach would assist students towards achieving a specific set of competencies (Engel 1997). On the other hand, EE has evolved at a rapid pace within many countries in the new millennium (Hart 2007), unlike any other educational area. However, many authors still appear to believe that schools are failing to prepare students adequately in EE (Walsche 2008; Winter 2007). The following section describes the research that was conducted in both areas so as to devise the intervention program.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of PBL schemes by comparing WRF model and experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balzarini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the sources of model biases in reconstructing the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL height among five commonly used PBL parameterizations. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF Model was applied over the critical area of Northern Italy with 5 km of horizontal resolution, and compared against a wide set of experimental data for February 2008. Three non-local closure PBL schemes (Asymmetrical Convective Model version 2, ACM2; Medium Range Forecast, MRF; Yonsei University, YSU and two local closure parameterizations (Mellor Yamada Janjic, MYJ; University of Washington Moist Turbulence, UW were selected for the analysis. Vertical profiles of aerosol number concentrations and Lidar backscatter profiles were collected in the metropolitan area of Milan in order to derive the PBL hourly evolution. Moreover, radio-soundings of Milano Linate airport as well as surface temperature, mixing ratio and wind speed of several meteorological stations were considered too. Results show that all five parameterizations produce similar performances in terms of temperature, mixing ratio and wind speed in the city of Milan, implying some systematic errors in all simulations. However, UW and ACM2 use the same local closure during nighttime conditions, allowing smaller mean biases (MB of temperature (ACM2 MB = 0.606 K, UW MB = 0.209 K, and wind speed (ACM2 MB = 0.699 m s−1, UW MB = 0.918 m s−1. All schemes have the same variations of the diurnal PBL height, since over predictions of temperature and wind speed are found to cause a general overestimation of mixing during its development in winter. In particular, temperature estimates seem to impact the early evolution of the PBL height, while entrainment fluxes parameterizations have major influence on the afternoon development. MRF, MYJ and ACM2 use the same approach in reconstructing the entrainment process, producing the largest overestimations of PBL height (MB ranges from 85.51–179.10 m. On

  16. Sensitivity analysis of PBL schemes by comparing WRF model and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, A.; Angelini, F.; Ferrero, L.; Moscatelli, M.; Perrone, M. G.; Pirovano, G.; Riva, G. M.; Sangiorgi, G.; Toppetti, A. M.; Gobbi, G. P.; Bolzacchini, E.

    2014-09-01

    This work discusses the sources of model biases in reconstructing the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height among five commonly used PBL parameterizations. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model was applied over the critical area of Northern Italy with 5 km of horizontal resolution, and compared against a wide set of experimental data for February 2008. Three non-local closure PBL schemes (Asymmetrical Convective Model version 2, ACM2; Medium Range Forecast, MRF; Yonsei University, YSU) and two local closure parameterizations (Mellor Yamada Janjic, MYJ; University of Washington Moist Turbulence, UW) were selected for the analysis. Vertical profiles of aerosol number concentrations and Lidar backscatter profiles were collected in the metropolitan area of Milan in order to derive the PBL hourly evolution. Moreover, radio-soundings of Milano Linate airport as well as surface temperature, mixing ratio and wind speed of several meteorological stations were considered too. Results show that all five parameterizations produce similar performances in terms of temperature, mixing ratio and wind speed in the city of Milan, implying some systematic errors in all simulations. However, UW and ACM2 use the same local closure during nighttime conditions, allowing smaller mean biases (MB) of temperature (ACM2 MB = 0.606 K, UW MB = 0.209 K), and wind speed (ACM2 MB = 0.699 m s-1, UW MB = 0.918 m s-1). All schemes have the same variations of the diurnal PBL height, since over predictions of temperature and wind speed are found to cause a general overestimation of mixing during its development in winter. In particular, temperature estimates seem to impact the early evolution of the PBL height, while entrainment fluxes parameterizations have major influence on the afternoon development. MRF, MYJ and ACM2 use the same approach in reconstructing the entrainment process, producing the largest overestimations of PBL height (MB ranges from 85.51-179.10 m). On the contrary, the

  17. Redesigning Curricula in Geology and Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, D. W.; Ewing, R. C.; Fowler, D.; Macik, M.; Marcantonio, F.; Miller, B.; Newman, J.; Olszewski, T.; Reece, R.; Rosser, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the summer of 2014, the Texas A&M Department of Geology and Geophysics partnered with the Texas A&M Center for Teaching Excellence to implement TAMU's curriculum revision process: a data-informed, faculty-driven, educational-developer-supported rebuilding of our degree programs and course offerings. The current curricula (B.S. and B.A. in Geology, B.S. in Geophysics) were put into place in 1997, following the merger of two separate departments. The needs and capabilities of the Department and the student body have changed significantly since that time: more than 50% turnover of the faculty, a rapidly-changing job climate for geologists and geophysicists, and a nearly five-fold increase in the undergraduate population to over 500 majors in Fall 2015. Surveys of former students, employers and faculty at other universities revealed more reasons to address the curriculum. Some of the most desired skills are also those at which our graduates feel and are perceived to be least prepared: oral communication and the ability to learn software packages (skills that are most challenging to teach with growing class sizes). The challenge facing the Department is to accommodate growing student numbers while maintaining strength in traditional instructor-intensive activities such as microscopy and field mapping, and also improving our graduates' non-geological skills (e.g., communication, software use, teamwork, problem-solving) to insulate them from volatility in the current job market. We formed the Curriculum Study Group, consisting of faculty, graduate students, advisors and curriculum experts, to gather and analyze data and define the knowledge and skill base a graduate of our department must have. In addition to conducting external surveys, this group interviewed current students and faculty to determine the strengths and weaknesses of our program. We developed program learning goals that were further specified into over fifty criteria. For each criteria we defined

  18. Problem-based learning for inter-professional education: evidence from an inter-professional PBL module on palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Nora; D'Eon, Marcel; Trinder, Krista

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article was to analyze the theory and pedagogical basis of the use of problem-based learning (PBL) for inter-professional education (IPE) in undergraduate health science education and present evidence from a palliative care iPBL (inter-professional PBL) module that confirms the importance of the two methodologies being used together. More than 1000 student surveys collected over 4 years were analyzed for components of usefulness, enjoyment and facilitator effectiveness. A retrospective self-assessment of learning was used for both content knowledge of palliative care and knowledge of the other professions participating in the module. Statistically significant gains in knowledge were recorded in both areas assessed. Medical students reported lower gains in knowledge than those in other programs. On a scale of 0 to 6, mean scores were moderately high for usefulness (4.37) and facilitator effectiveness (5.19). Mean scores for enjoyment of the iPBL module were very high at 5.25. There is strong theoretical and empirical evidence that PBL is a useful method to deliver IPE for palliative care education. With the evidence presented from the palliative care iPBL it is our contention that PBL inter-professional cases should be utilized more often, incorporated into IPE programs generally, and researched more rigorously.

  19. Does a PBL-based medical curriculum predispose training in specific career paths? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigarides, Jordan; Wingfield, Laura R; Kulendran, Myutan

    2017-01-07

    North American medical schools have used problem-based learning (PBL) structured medical education for more than 60 years. However, it has only recently been introduced in other medical schools outside of North America. Since its inception, there has been the debate on whether the PBL learning process predisposes students to select certain career paths. To review available evidence to determine the predisposition of specific career paths when undertaking a PBL-based medical curriculum. The career path trajectory was determined as measured by official Matching Programs, self-reported questionnaires and surveys, and formally defined career development milestones. A systematic literature review was performed. PubMed, Medline, Cochrane and ERIC databases were analysed in addition to reference lists for appropriate inclusion. Eleven studies fitting the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of studies showed that PBL did not predispose a student to a career in a specific speciality (n = 7 out of 11 studies, 64%). However, three studies reported a significantly increased number of PBL graduates working in primary care compared to those from a non-PBL curriculum. PBL has been shown not to predispose medical students to a career in General Practice or any other speciality. Furthermore, a greater number of similar studies are required before a definitive conclusion can be made in the future.

  20. Logic in the curricula of Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Quindeless

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the programs in Computer Science is to educate and train students to understand the problems and build systems that solve them. This process involves applying a special reasoning to model interactions, capabilities, and limitations of the components involved. A good curriculum must involve the use of tools to assist in these tasks, and one that could be considered as a fundamental is the logic, because with it students develop the necessary reasoning. Besides, software developers analyze the behavior of the program during the designed, the depuration, and testing; hardware designers perform minimization and equivalence verification of circuits; designers of operating systems validate routing protocols, programing, and synchronization; and formal logic underlying all these activities. Therefore, a strong background in applied logic would help students to develop or potentiate their ability to reason about complex systems. Unfortunately, few curricula formed and properly trained in logic. Most includes only one or two courses of Discrete Mathematics, which in a few weeks covered truth tables and the propositional calculus, and nothing more. This is not enough, and higher level courses in which they are applied and many other logical concepts are needed. In addition, students will not see the importance of logic in their careers and need to modify the curriculum committees or adapt the curriculum to reverse this situation.

  1. Internationalizing curricula : Needs and wishes of alumni and employers with

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funk, Andreas; Heijer, Joyce den; Schuurmans-Brouwer, Anneke; Walenkamp, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Internationalizing curricula. Needs and wishes of alumni and employers with regard to international competencies. Internationalization has become of great importance for universities acrossthe globe. The labour market is becoming international, with internationalopportunities and international comp

  2. The state of cancer epidemiology curricula in postgraduate schools worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Azargashb, Ezanollah; Mousavi-Jarrahi, Yasaman; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali

    2011-09-01

    The study aimed to describe the cancer epidemiology curricula in postgraduate schools worldwide. Using a stepwise approach, information on the cancer epidemiology curricula were abstracted through an internet search of medical or public heath schools worldwide. The common scientific outline (a scholarly developed classification of cancer-related topics) was used to describe the extents that cancer epidemiology and its scientific domains are incorporated into postgraduate degrees in the epidemiology. Among the 120 studied schools, no school offered an explicitly doctoral degree in cancer epidemiology. Just eight schools offered cancer epidemiology as an area of concentration in their epidemiology curricula. The contents of the cancer epidemiology courses offered in different schools were related in 44% of times to topics of cancer control, 19% times to risk factors, and just 11% of times to biology of cancer. The need for comprehensive re-evaluation of the cancer epidemiology curricula in postgraduate teaching was concluded.

  3. Hubungan Keterampilan Metakognitif dan Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis dengan Hasil Belajar Biologi Siswa SMA dalam Pembelajaran Problem Based Learning (PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nurul Malahayati

    2015-12-01

    Key Words: metacognitive skill, critical thinking ability, biology student learning outcomes, PBL Abstrak: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis: (1 hubungan keterampilan metakognitif dan kemampuan berpikir kritis dengan hasil belajar biologi siswa yang menjalani pembelajaran PBL, dan (2 besar sumbangan keterampilan metakognitif dan kemampuan berpikir kritis terhadap hasil belajar biologi siswa. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linier ganda menunjukkan bahwa: (1 ada hubungan signifikan antara keterampilan metakognitif dan kemampuan berpikir kritis dengan hasil belajar biologi siswa, dan (2 kemampuan berpikir kritis memberikan sumbangan lebih besar bila dibandingkan dengan ketrampilan metakognitif terhadap hasil belajar Biologi siswa. Kata kunci: keterampilan metakognitif, kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar biologi siswa, PBL

  4. iPBL --本土化的依托项目英语教学模式%iPBL:A Localized Project-based English Teaching and Learning Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文忠

    2015-01-01

    依托项目的学习(P B L)带给学生诸多益处,而以创新训练为取向的项目研究更是直接针对英语专业学生思辨能力和创新能力培养的教学薄弱环节。有鉴于此,英语专业教育应该充分借鉴该理念,经本土化实践后,融入现有英语专业课程和教学体系。笔者借鉴国外相关研究,基于南开大学连续6年实施依托项目的研究式学习之教学实践,尝试构建本土化的研究式学习实践模式,谓之iPBL。iPBL模式以培养创新能力为核心目标取向,以“课程项目化、项目课程化”为总原则,是以6阶段推进、多里程碑凸显、综合素质集成训练为特色的研究式学习教学模式。我们期望,iPBL能够成为对英语专业学生进行思辨和创新训练的重要手段和盘活学生已学语言知识和技能的有效途径。%Project-based learning (PBL) introduces a whole array of beneifts to learners which become especially evident in innovation-oriented project work aiming to promote critical thinking and innovative ability in English majors, an aspect that is allegedly underdeveloped in English major education. English major education should draw on PBL theory, localize and integrate its practice into the current English curricula and education system. With reference to related studies abroad, and based on his six-year PBL practice in Nankai University, the author proposes a localized research-based teaching and learning model namediPBL. The iPBL model orients itself to innovative ability cultivation, abides by the principle of“curriculum as project and project as curriculum”, and is characterized by featuring six progression stages with milestones for each and promoting integrated comprehensive training. TheiPBL model is expected to constitute an important approach to promoting critical thinking and innovative training for English majors and at the same time serve as an effective means for mobilizing their

  5. A Content Analysis of Phonological Awareness and Phonics in Commonly Used Head Start Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibbe, Lori E.; Gerde, Hope K.; Wright, Tanya S.; Samples-Steele, Chelsea R.

    2016-01-01

    Commonly used early childhood curricula were examined to consider the degree to which they support research-based instruction for phonological awareness (PA) and phonics. A content analysis was completed for two types of curricula widely used in Head Start: overarching general curricula and lesson-based curricula, which usually provide more…

  6. A Content Analysis of Phonological Awareness and Phonics in Commonly Used Head Start Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibbe, Lori E.; Gerde, Hope K.; Wright, Tanya S.; Samples-Steele, Chelsea R.

    2016-01-01

    Commonly used early childhood curricula were examined to consider the degree to which they support research-based instruction for phonological awareness (PA) and phonics. A content analysis was completed for two types of curricula widely used in Head Start: overarching general curricula and lesson-based curricula, which usually provide more…

  7. Developing sustainability curriculum using the PBL method in a Chinese context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is receiving increasing amounts of attention in higher education in terms of how it can best be integrated with university curricula. Sustainability is closely related to complexity, innovation, and interdisciplinarity; therefore, it requires alternative approaches rather than trad...

  8. Students′ satisfaction to hybrid problem-based learning format for basic life support/advanced cardiac life support teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Chilkoti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Students are exposed to basic life support (BLS and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS training in the first semester in some medical colleges. The aim of this study was to compare students′ satisfaction between lecture-based traditional method and hybrid problem-based learning (PBL in BLS/ACLS teaching to undergraduate medical students. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 118 1 st -year medical students from a university medical college in the city of New Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the students′ satisfaction between lecture-based and hybrid-PBL method in BLS/ACLS teaching. Likert 5-point scale was used to assess students′ satisfaction levels between the two teaching methods. Data were collected and scores regarding the students′ satisfaction levels between these two teaching methods were analysed using a two-sided paired t-test. Results: Most students preferred hybrid-PBL format over traditional lecture-based method in the following four aspects; learning and understanding, interest and motivation, training of personal abilities and being confident and satisfied with the teaching method (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Implementation of hybrid-PBL format along with the lecture-based method in BLS/ACLS teaching provided high satisfaction among undergraduate medical students.

  9. Revitalisering af PBL i videregående uddannelser gennem Learning Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Davidsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gennem de sidste 10 år har større studenteroptag og begrænsede ressourcer på Aalborg Universitet (AAU ledt til flere klassiske forelæsninger, hvilket har resulteret i en udvanding og af de grundlæggende PBL principper. Vi argumenterer for, at en revitalisering af PBL gennem brugen af Learning Designs er en mulighed til at kvalificere den tilgang til læring og uddannelse, som i mere end 40 år har været kendetegn for AAU. Med afsæt i en case fra Kommunikation og Digitale Medier (KDM afdækker vi, hvordan Learning Design kan fungere som et deskriptivt sprog og en form, der kan danne grundlag for udvikling og kvalificering af kurser, undervisnings- og læringsaktiviteter. Indenfor feltet Learning Design spores to retninger: 1 en retning med fokus effektivisering og standardisering af uddannelse og 2 en retning med fokus på udvikling, formgivning og kvalificering af uddannelse. I denne artikel diskuterer vi potentialer og udfordringer ved at konceptualisere PBL forløb som et Learning Design. Abstract Through the last 10 years, increasing numbers of students and a lack of resources at Aalborg University (AAU have resulted in more classical lectures, which have occasioned a watering down and ritualization of the founding principles of PBL. In this paper, we argue that a revitalization of the PBL at AAU could be facilitated through the application of Learning Design. By using a case from Communication and Digital Media (CDM we explore how Learning Design can act as a descriptive language and form, which can support the development of courses, teaching, and learning activities. Within the field of Learning Design two positions can be identified: 1 a position focusing on finding more effect and standard ways of running education, and 2 a position focusing on development and design of education. In this paper we discuss potentials and challenges of conceptualizing PBL as a Learning Design.

  10. PBL BERNUANSA ADIWIYATA DENGAN BLENDED LEARNING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH DAN KARAKTER PEDULI LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titien Sulistiyoningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk memperoleh keefektifan dan implementasi dari model pembelajaran tersebut serta untuk memperoleh temuan pengetahuan mengenai kemampuan pemecahan masalah dan karakter peduli lingkungan berdasarkan perbedaan gender. Jenis penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Pengolahan data secara kuantitatif  menggunakan yaitu uji ketuntasan, uji banding dengan two way ANOVA dan uji pengaruh, sedangkan kualitatif dengan triangulasi data dari dokumen, wawancara dan pengamatan pada subjek penelitian pilihan yang terdiri dari 5 siswa laki-laki dan 5 siswa perempuan dari kelompok tinggi, sedang dan rendah. Hasil penelitian ini sebagai berikut: (1 Pembelajaran matematika dinyatakan efektif, yaitu: a KPM (Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah mencapai ketuntasan; b adanya pengaruh positif keterampilan pemecahan masalah dan karakter peduli lingkungan terhadap KPM; c Rata-rata KPM dan karakter peduli lingkungan untuk kelas dengan pembelajaran PBL bernuansa adiwiyata menggunakan blended  learning lebih baik dibanding kelas dengan pembelajaran PBL menggunakan blended  learning dan kelas dengan pembelajaran PBL. (2 Kemampuan pemecahan masalah dan karakter peduli lingkungan siswa perempuan lebih tinggi dibanding siswa laki-laki.The purpose of this study  was to obtain the effectiveness and implementation of the learning model as well as to acquire knowledge about problem solving ability and environment caring character based on gender differences. This research is both quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data processing is held use completion test, comparative test with two-way ANOVA and influence test while qualitative data processing is held by triangulate data from document, interview and observation from selected research subject that consists of 5 male students and 5 female students from high, medium and low group. Results of this study as follows: (1 Learning mathematics is declared effective, namely: a KPM achieve mastery

  11. Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching in student-centred medical curricula: the impact of context and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Johanna C G; van Luijk, Scheltus J; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Scheele, Fedde

    2016-09-21

    Gibbs and Coffey (2004) have reported that teaching practices are influenced by teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching. In our previous research we found significant differences between teachers' conceptions in two medical schools with student-centred education. Medical school was the most important predictor, next to discipline, gender and teaching experience. Our research questions for the current study are (1) which specific elements of medical school explain the effect of medical school on teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching? How? and (2) which contextual and personal characteristics are related to conceptions of learning and teaching? How? Individual interviews were conducted with 13 teachers of the undergraduate curricula in two medical schools. Previously their conceptions of learning and teaching were assessed with the COLT questionnaire. We investigated the meanings they attached to context and personal characteristics, in relation to their conceptions of learning and teaching. We used a template analysis. Large individual differences existed between teachers. Characteristics mentioned at the medical school and curriculum level were 'curriculum tradition', 'support by educational department' and 'management and finances'. Other contextual characteristics were 'leadership style' at all levels but especially of department chairs, 'affordances and support', 'support and relatedness', and 'students' characteristics'. Personal characteristics were 'agency', 'experience with PBL (as a student or a teacher)','personal development', 'motivation and work engagement'and 'high content expertise'. Several context and personal characteristics associated with teachers' conceptions were identified, enabling a broader view on faculty development with attention for these characteristics, next to teaching skills.

  12. Tool-Based Curricula and Visual Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Vasileska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years nanotechnology hasrevolutionized the world of information theory, computers andother important disciplines, such as medicine, where it hascontributed significantly in the creation of more sophisticateddiagnostic tools. Therefore, it is important for people working innanotechnology to better understand basic concepts to be morecreative and productive. To further foster the progress onNanotechnology in the USA, the National Science Foundation hascreated the Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCNand the dissemination of all the information from member andnon-member participants of the NCN is enabled by thecommunity website www.nanoHUB.org. nanoHUB’s signatureservices online simulation that enables the operation ofsophisticated research and educational simulation engines with acommon browser. No software installation or local computingpower is needed. The simulation tools as well as nano-conceptsare augmented by educational materials, assignments, and toolbasedcurricula, which are assemblies of tools that help studentsexcel in a particular area.As elaborated later in the text, it is the visual mode of learningthat we are exploiting in achieving faster and better results withstudents that go through simulation tool-based curricula. Thereare several tool based curricula already developed on thenanoHUB and undergoing further development, out of which fiveare directly related to nanoelectronics. They are: ABACUS –device simulation module; ACUTE – Computational Electronicsmodule; ANTSY – bending toolkit; and AQME – quantummechanics module. The methodology behind tool-based curriculais discussed in details. Then, the current status of each module ispresented, including user statistics and student learningindicatives. Particular simulation tool is explored further todemonstrate the ease by which students can grasp information.Representative of Abacus is PN-Junction Lab; representative ofAQME is PCPBT tool; and

  13. Creating an effective PBL case in oral and maxillofacial surgery at a Chinese dental school: a dental education primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia Wei; Zhang, Shan Yong; Yang, Chi; Zhang, Zhi Yuan; Shen, Guo Fang

    2011-11-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a widely accepted educational method centered on the discussion and learning that emerge from a clinically based problem; however, little has been reported on the details of PBL case-writing in the dental education literature. This article outlines some principles of writing a PBL case as it is practiced at a Chinese dental school and presents, as an example, an actual case based on a clinical problem (ameloblastoma of the jaw) intended to provide a learning focus for predoctoral dental students. A good PBL case should allow for progressive, interdependent actions to be taken in the evaluation and overall management of the patient in context and should trigger inquiry and discussion among students in both the basic sciences (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, pathophysiology, etc.) and related clinical sciences. The epidemiological, sociological, and ethical considerations related to each problem should also be emphasized as an essential component of effective health care provision.

  14. Revival of the case method: a way to retain student-centred learning in a post-PBL era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tärnvik, Arne

    2007-02-01

    In current renewal of medical education, problem-based learning (PBL) is the predominant approach. PBL is afflicted with limitations, which cause uncertainness about its future. A profoundly different approach is the case method, developed a century ago and today attracting much less interest in developmental work than PBL. To compare the characteristics of PBL and the case method and ask the question of whether the case method may serve as an alternative approach to student-centred learning. The comparison was literature-based. PBL implicates fostering of self-directed learning and its prospects deal with depth and retention of knowledge and clinical reasoning skills. Problems are used to define learning goals and to stimulate students' interest in various aspects of an item, rather than just for problem-solving. In the small-group tutorials of a PBL curriculum, the teacher is assigned to facilitate the process of self-directed learning and needs not necessarily be a subject-matter expert. In spite of its exciting philosophy and an increased input of students' and teachers' time, the superiority of PBL as a mode of learning has not been convincingly demonstrated, either in terms of acquisition of knowledge or in clinical performance. Moreover, dysfunction is a well-recognized phenomenon. In some PBL tutorials, indifference towards the group discussion is encountered, including individual quietness or dominant behaviour and incomplete attendance. To cope with dysfunctional problems, efforts are recommended aiming to increase PBL tutors' and students' understanding of the group process. As opposed to PBL, the case method relies strongly on teacher-directed learning. Students are placed in a dilemma or a problem to be solved. After preparatory work, they meet for a discussion, lead by a subject-matter expert, who preferably has experienced the case in reality. As a chairperson, the teacher is supposed to stimulate the discussion and detect gaps and misunderstandings

  15. Warming up for PBL: a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving for engineering students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Wedelin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The step from traditional teaching to PBL is considerable and it has previously been proposed that students should be skilled at problem solving before entering a PBL course. In this paper, we first discuss some key ideas behind the design of a successful course in mathematical modelling and problem solving for engineering students. A central aim of the course is to help the students to understand the power of learning by exploration, a missing key component in the students’ ability to solve problems. We then discuss how this kind of course can serve as an intermediate step in a progression towards more self-directed project-based and problem-based learning.

  16. Impact of WRF model PBL schemes on air quality simulations over Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R F; Baldasano, J M

    2016-12-01

    Here we analyze the impact of four planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parametrization schemes from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model on simulations of meteorological variables and predicted pollutant concentrations from an air quality forecast system (AQFS). The current setup of the Spanish operational AQFS, CALIOPE, is composed of the WRF-ARW V3.5.1 meteorological model tied to the Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme, HERMES v2 emissions model, CMAQ V5.0.2 chemical transport model, and dust outputs from BSC-DREAM8bv2. We test the performance of the YSU scheme against the Assymetric Convective Model Version 2 (ACM2), Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ), and Bougeault-Lacarrère (BouLac) schemes. The one-day diagnostic case study is selected to represent the most frequent synoptic condition in the northeast Iberian Peninsula during spring 2015; regional recirculations. It is shown that the ACM2 PBL scheme performs well with daytime PBL height, as validated against estimates retrieved using a micro-pulse lidar system (mean bias=-0.11km). In turn, the BouLac scheme showed WRF-simulated air and dew point temperature closer to METAR surface meteorological observations. Results are more ambiguous when simulated pollutant concentrations from CMAQ are validated against network urban, suburban, and rural background stations. The ACM2 scheme showed the lowest mean bias (-0.96μgm(-3)) with respect to surface ozone at urban stations, while the YSU scheme performed best with simulated nitrogen dioxide (-6.48μgm(-3)). The poorest results were with simulated particulate matter, with similar results found with all schemes tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. On two-layer models and the similarity functions for the PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    An operational Planetary Boundary Layer model which employs similarity principles and two-layer patching to provide state-of-the-art parameterization for the PBL flow is used to study the popularly used similarity functions, A and B. The expected trends with stratification are shown. The effects of baroclinicity, secondary flow, humidity, latitude, surface roughness variation and choice of characteristic height scale are discussed.

  18. Are deep strategic learners better suited to PBL? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papinczak, Tracey

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if medical students categorized as having deep and strategic approaches to their learning find problem-based learning (PBL) enjoyable and supportive of their learning, and achieve well in the first-year course. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from first-year medical students (N = 213). All students completed the Medical Course Learning Questionnaire at the commencement and completion of their first year of medical studies. The instrument measured a number of different aspects of learning, including approaches to learning, preferences for different learning environments, self-efficacy, and perceptions of learning within PBL tutorials. Qualitative data were collected from written responses to open questions. Results of students' performance on two forms of examinations were obtained for those giving permission (N = 68). Two-step cluster analysis of the cohort's responses to questions about their learning approaches identified five clusters, three of which represented coherent combinations of learning approaches (deep, deep and strategic, and surface apathetic) and two clusters which had unusual or dissonant combinations. Deep, strategic learners represented 25.8% of the cohort. They were more efficacious, preferred learning environments which support development of understanding and achieved significantly higher scores on the written examination. Strongly positive comments about learning in PBL tutorials were principally described by members of this cluster. This preliminary study employed a technique to categorize a student cohort into subgroups on the basis of their approaches to learning. One, the deep and strategic learners, appeared to be less vulnerable to the stresses of PBS in a medical course. While variation between individual learners will always be considerable, this analysis has enabled classification of a student group that may be less likely to find PBL problematic. Implications for practice and

  19. Sensitivity of WRF model estimates to various PBL parameterizations in different climatic zones over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunwani, Preeti; Mohan, Manju

    2017-09-01

    In the present work sensitivity of Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) Model has been carried out using five planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes - Yonsei University Scheme (YSU), Mellor-Yamada-Janjić scheme (MYJ), Aymmetric Convective Model version 2 (ACM2), Quasi Normal Scale Elimination scheme (QNSE), Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino scheme (MYNN) in different climatic zones over India namely Tropical, Temperate and Arid for surface meteorological parameters, upper air variables and planetary boundary layer height during summer and winter season. The model outputs have been compared with observations through standard statistical measures. The aim is to study the relative performance of these schemes, selecting the best option climatic zone-wise and thereby minimizing uncertainty in model predictions. WRF model performance evaluation shows better agreement for temperature and relative humidity compared to wind speed. Overall for India, ACM2, QNSE show good performance for temperature and relative humidity whereas ACM2, MYNN show better performance for wind speed though these may vary for different climatic zones. Geopotential height and wind over 850 hPa is well simulated by ACM2 and MYNN over India. For PBL height ACM2, MYNN and MYJ works best for Chennai, New Delhi and Kolkata respectively during summer period. However, for winter period MYJ works best for Chennai while, QNSE works best for New Delhi and Kolkata. Considering all meteorological parameters together, it is seen that for arid zone ACM2, QNSE and MYJ schemes work reasonably well. For temperate zone, ACM2, QNSE and MYNN schemes show better results. For tropical zone all PBL schemes work closely. Hence, depending on the application, parameter and climate zone, this study provides suitable recommendations for choosing PBL schemes appropriately for each zone and parameter separately for the Indian region.

  20. To what extent can PBL principles be applied in blended learning: Lessons learned from health master programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N; Krumeich, J S M; Verstegen, D M L

    2017-02-01

    Maastricht University has been actively exploring blended learning approaches to PBL in Health Master Programs. Key principles of PBL are, learning should be constructive, self-directed, collaborative, and contextual. The purpose is to explore whether these principles are applicable in blended learning. The programs, Master of Health Services Innovation (case 1), Master Programme in Global Health (case 2), and the Master of Health Professions Education (case 3), used a Virtual Learning Environment for exchanging material and were independently analyzed. Quantitative data were collected for cases 1 and 2. Simple descriptive analyses such as frequencies were performed. Qualitative data for cases 1 and 3 were collected via (focus group) interviews. All PBL principles could be recognized in case 1. Case 2 seemed to be more project-based. In case 3, collaboration between students was not possible because of a difference in time-zones. Important educational aspects: agreement on rules for (online) sessions; visual contact (student-student and student-teacher), and frequent feedback. PBL in a blended learning format is perceived to be an effective strategy. The four principles of PBL can be unified in PBL with a blended learning format, although the extent to which each principle can be implemented can differ.

  1. How we capitalised on casual PBL facilitators' expertise and experience to add value to our medical programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Michelle; Arrigoni, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    While problem-based learning (PBL) has been widely implemented in medical education, it has been acknowledged to be resource-intensive, particularly in terms of academics' time. In some institutions, such as Bond University (Australia), casual facilitators have been employed (paid hourly) to oversee the PBL tutorials. Apart from considerable experience as PBL facilitators, they also have expertise as allied health professionals or biomedical scientists. Several facilitators have educational qualifications. Recognising that their roles have expanded beyond the PBL tutorial room, we canvassed PBL facilitators in terms of their contributions to Bond University's medical programme. We can report that our facilitators have contributed to the renewal of Bond's medical programme, from design (e.g. curriculum structure, case-writing) to PBL case reviews. They are also involved in formative and summative assessment. Facilitators identified that, because of their prolonged involvement with the students in small groups, they consider themselves more than facilitators of student learning. They are role models and personal guides. Recognising the value these casually employed facilitators have added to our medical programme, we will continue to develop their skills in, for example, reviewing cases and assessment. We recommend that if institutions do employ casual facilitators, their expertise and experience can add value to the curriculum and to students' experience.

  2. Transversal knowledge formations in Professional Bachelor Education employing Problem Based Learning (PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verner Larsen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the principles underlying how various knowledge areas blend into transversal formations in two educational contexts employing PBL. Such ‘transversality’ has often been referred to as inter- cross- or trans-disciplinarity. However, these terms are ambiguous, especially in relation to Problem Based Learning. There is a growing need for stronger language to express underlying principles of knowledge formations and the constitution of such. The term transversality suggests that knowledge formations are not based on a relationship between strong independent disciplines, but rather on a number of subject areas that are combined during students’ PBL-studies. As such, the curriculum organized knowledge, as well as students’ reflections of various types at the level of teaching and learning, constitute certain ‘modalities’ of transversal knowledge formations. Two institutional case studies - Nursing and the Constructing Architect education - have been researched, compared and contrasted in order to demonstrate how institutional practices demonstrate different modalities of transversal knowledge in their PBL-courses. For the purpose of this paper Nursing Education will be abbreviated as NE and Constructing Architect as CAE.

  3. Can students adequately evaluate the activities of their peers in PBL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Rachelle J A; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Van Berkel, Henk J M; Schmidt, Henk G

    2011-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), high-quality discussions are crucial for student learning. The quality of the discussion is affected by the quality of the contributions students make during PBL tutorials. This study investigated whether students are able to evaluate the activities of their peers in PBL groups in a reliable and valid way. For this purpose, the Maastricht-Peer Activity Rating Scale (M-PARS) was developed. The M-PARS was well-founded on the literature about effective tutorial performance. With this scale, students (N = 196) were evaluated by their peers on three main aspects: their constructive, collaborative, and motivational contributions to the group. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the data fitted the three-factor model reasonably well. The generalizability studies demonstrated good internal consistency when students were evaluated by, at least, four of their peers. Furthermore, Hancock's coefficients indicated good construct reliability. The results prove that peers are able to provide reliable and valid information about a student's active participation in the tutorial group, if at least four peer ratings are attainable, out of a group of eight students. In conclusion, the M-PARS is a valid and reliable instrument.

  4. Problem Based Learning (PBL) - An Effective Approach to Improve Learning Outcomes in Medical Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preeti, Bajaj; Ashish, Ahuja; Shriram, Gosavi

    2013-12-01

    As the "Science of Medicine" is getting advanced day-by-day, need for better pedagogies & learning techniques are imperative. Problem Based Learning (PBL) is an effective way of delivering medical education in a coherent, integrated & focused manner. It has several advantages over conventional and age-old teaching methods of routine. It is based on principles of adult learning theory, including student's motivation, encouragement to set goals, think critically about decision making in day-to-day operations. Above all these, it stimulates challenge acceptance and learning curiosity among students and creates pragmatic educational program. To measure the effectiveness of the "Problem Based Learning" as compared to conventional theory/didactic lectures based learning. The study was conducted on 72 medical students from Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Two modules of problem based sessions designed and delivered. Pre & Post-test score's scientific statistical analysis was done. Student feed-back received based on questionnaire in the five-point Likert scale format. Significant improvement in overall performance observed. Feedback revealed majority agreement that "Problem-based learning" helped them create interest (88.8 %), better understanding (86%) & promotes self-directed subject learning (91.6 %). Substantial improvement in the post-test scores clearly reveals acceptance of PBL over conventional learning. PBL ensures better practical learning, ability to create interest, subject understanding. It is a modern-day educational strategy, an effective tool to objectively improve the knowledge acquisition in Medical Teaching.

  5. Gap analysis survey: an aid in transitioning to standardized curricula for nuclear medicine technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bires, Angela Macci; Mason, Donna L; Gilmore, David; Pietrzyk, Carly

    2012-09-01

    certificate or associate level to the baccalaureate level. The greatest obstacle is in expanding curricula to meet the recommendations of the fourth edition Curriculum Guide. Such expansion to entry-level competency may be met by incorporating hybrid imaging courses, secondary-level courses, and equivalency courses on the basic sciences and emerging technologies.

  6. ASSURING QUALITY IN FARM ANIMAL WELFARE CURRICULA: THE CASE OF WELFOOD CURRICULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze virtual learning environments and to provide a framework for assuring quality in farm animal welfare curricula. The framework is constructed according to the experimental learning for a case study developed in the context of the Leonardo da Vinci Community Vocational Training Action Pilot Project entitled “WELFOOD-Promoting quality assurance in animal welfare-environment-food quality interaction studies through upgraded e-Learning”. WELFOOD addressed objectives such as improvement and competencies of the skills in vocational training to promote employability and facilitate integration and reintegration in terms of capabilities and knowledge, needed for improved technologies in animal husbandry and food industry.

  7. The Importance and Current Limitations of Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Retrieval from Space for Land-Atmosphere Coupling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, J. A., Jr.; Schaefer, A.

    2016-12-01

    There is an established need for improved PBL remote sounding over land for hydrology, land-atmosphere (L-A), PBL, cloud/convection, pollution/chemistry studies and associated model evaluation and development. Most notably, the connection of surface hydrology (through soil moisture) to clouds and precipitation relies on proper quantification of water's transport through the coupled system, which is modulated strongly by PBL structure, growth, and feedback processes such as entrainment. In-situ (ground-based or radiosonde) measurements will be spatially limited to small field campaigns for the foreseeable future, so satellite data is a must in order to understand these processes globally. The scales of these applications require diurnal resolution (e.g. 3-hourly or finer) at PBL coupling and water and energy cycles at their native scales. Today's satellite sensors (e.g. advanced IR, GEO, lidar, GPS-RO) do not reach close to these targets in terms of accuracy or resolution, and each of these sensors has some advantages but even more limitations that make them impractical for PBL and L-A studies. Unfortunately, there is very little attention or planning (short or long-term) in place for improving lower tropospheric sounding over land, and as a result PBL and L-A interactions have been identified as `gaps' in current programmatic focal areas. It is therefore timely to assess how these technologies can be leveraged, combined, or evolved in order to form a dedicated mission or sub-mission to routinely monitor the PBL on diurnal timescales. In addition, improved PBL monitoring from space needs to be addressed in the next Decadal Survey. In this talk, the importance of PBL information (structure, evolution) for L-A coupling diagnostics and model development will be summarized. The current array of PBL retrieval methods and products from space will then be assessed in terms of meeting the needs of these models, diagnostics, and scales, with a look forward as to how this can

  8. Knowledge, transfer, and innovation in physical literacy curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine D. Ennis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Literate individuals possess knowledge and skill and can apply these to perform tasks in novel settings. Knowledge is at the heart of physical literacy and provides the foundation for knowing what to do and how and when to perform. In this paper I argue that physical literacy includes not only knowledge for performance but also the ability to apply knowledge and use knowledge for innovation. Scholars since the 1930s have addressed the role of knowledge in physical literacy designing curricula centered on transmitting knowledge through a range of interdisciplinary approaches to physical education. This emphasis on physical literacy curricula continues today in the Science, PE, & Me! and The Science of Healthful Living interdisciplinary curricula.

  9. [Traditional and non-traditional curricula. Definitions and terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, N

    1995-03-30

    Differences between traditional (conventional) and innovative curricula are described. Technical terms are defined or explained. In traditional tracks, basic and clinical sciences are studied separately. The students meet the first patient after several years. The education is mainly discipline-, teacher-, lecture- and hospital-based. In innovative programmes, basic sciences are taught throughout the study parallel with clinical subjects (vertical integration), and subjects from related disciplines are often taught concurrently (horizontal integration). The students meet patients from the first day at the university, participate from the first week in courses in clinical skills, and, after some months, attend continuity clinics in the community. Teaching is student-directed, problem-based and/or community-oriented, with several electives. Many of the strategies above are also used in traditional curricula. The main difference between traditional and innovative curricula is whether basic and clinical sciences are vertically integrated or not.

  10. A new methodology for PBL height estimations based on lidar depolarization measurements: analysis and comparison against MWR and WRF model-based results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; de Arruda Moreira, Gregori; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; José Granados-Muñoz, María; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Pozo-Vázquez, David; Arbizu-Barrena, Clara; José Olmo Reyes, Francisco; Mallet, Marc; Alados Arboledas, Lucas

    2017-06-01

    The automatic and non-supervised detection of the planetary boundary layer height (zPBL) by means of lidar measurements was widely investigated during the last several years. Despite considerable advances, the experimental detection still presents difficulties such as advected aerosol layers coupled to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) which usually produces an overestimation of the zPBL. To improve the detection of the zPBL in these complex atmospheric situations, we present a new algorithm, called POLARIS (PBL height estimation based on lidar depolarisation). POLARIS applies the wavelet covariance transform (WCT) to the range-corrected signal (RCS) and to the perpendicular-to-parallel signal ratio (δ) profiles. Different candidates for zPBL are chosen and the selection is done based on the WCT applied to the RCS and δ. We use two ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) campaigns with lidar and microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements, conducted in 2012 and 2013, for the POLARIS' adjustment and validation. POLARIS improves the zPBL detection compared to previous methods based on lidar measurements, especially when an aerosol layer is coupled to the PBL. We also compare the zPBL provided by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with respect to the zPBL determined with POLARIS and the MWR under Saharan dust events. WRF underestimates the zPBL during daytime but agrees with the MWR during night-time. The zPBL provided by WRF shows a better temporal evolution compared to the MWR during daytime than during night-time.

  11. A model for the development of university curricula in nanoelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Nielsen, I

    2010-01-01

    into account that nanotechnology affects not only physics but also electrical engineering and computer engineering because of the advent of new nanoelectronics devices. The model suggests that curriculum development tends to follow one of three major tracks: physics; electrical engineering; computer......Nanotechnology is having an increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering and in physics. Major influencers affecting developments in university programmes related to nanoelectronics are discussed and a model for university programme development is described. The model takes...... engineering. Examples of European curricula following this framework are identified and described. These examples may serve as sources of inspiration for future developments and the model...

  12. Dental Students' Perceptions of Learning Value in PBL Groups with Medical and Dental Students Together versus Dental Students Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Maryam; Zulla, Rosslynn; Gaudet-Amigo, Gisele; Patterson, Steven; Murphy, Natalie; Ross, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    At a dental school in Canada, problem-based learning (PBL) sessions were restructured from an integrated dental-medical model to a separate dental model, resulting in three groups of students available for study: those who had participated in the two-year dental and medical combined, the one-year dental and medical combined, the one-year dental alone, and the two-year dental alone. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the extent to which the PBL structure affected the dental students' perceptions of the learning value of PBL in the different models. A total of 34 first-, second-, and third-year dental students participated in six focus groups in May and June 2011 (34% of students in those total classes). Semistructured questions explored their experiences in the different PBL structures. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was employed. The results showed positive and negative perceptions for both the combined dental and medical settings and the settings with dental students alone. For students in the combined PBL groups, positive perceptions included gaining information from medical peers, motivation to learn, and interdisciplinary collaborations. The negative perceptions mainly related to irrelevant content, dominating medical students, and ineffective preceptors. Members of the separate dental groups were more positive about the content and felt a sense of belonging. They appreciated the dental preceptors but were concerned about the inadequacy of their medical knowledge. Overall, the dental students valued the combined PBL experience and appreciated the opportunity to learn with their medical colleagues. Close attention, however, must be paid to PBL content and the preceptor's role to optimize dental students' experience in combined medical and dental groups.

  13. PBL triggers in relation to students' generated learning issues and predetermined faculty objectives: Study in a Malaysian public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslai, Nurul Hidayati; Salam, Abdus

    2016-01-01

    Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students' inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students' generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives. It was a retrospective study conducted in 2014 analyzing all 24 PBL-triggers used at Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, in four semesters during two consecutive years 2011 and 2012. Triggers were used as textual and illustration format equally in each semester. Total 16 PBL-triggers with highest and lowest achieving similarities of learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives were selected equally from each semester and format. The trigger quality and learning issues related to predetermine faculty objectives were analyzed and presented as mean and percent distribution. Mean similarities score of students' generated learning issues were 3.4 over 5 predetermined faculty objectives which was 68%, varied from 58% to 79%. More than 70% similarities were generated from five textual and four illustrated triggers, while PBL, it is the designing considering influential variables that influence higher outcomes. Triggers should have planned clues that lead students to generate issues correlate with faculty objectives. Educational institution should emphasize on training needs of faculty at regular interval to develop and re-in force teachers' skills in trigger design, thereby to promote a sustainable educational and organizational development.

  14. [Application of PBL combined with SP method in during-course practice of endodontics for undergraduate dental students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Li-Na; Qiu, Li-Hong; Zhan, Fu-Liang; Xue, Ming

    2016-10-01

    To apply problem-based learning (PBL) combined with standardized patients(SP) in during-course practice of endodontics for undergraduate dental students, in order to improve the teaching quality. One hundred and four undergraduate dental students of China Medical University School of Stomatology were randomly divided into 2 groups, 52 students in each group. One group were taught with PBL combined with SP while the other group with lecture-based learning (LBL) alone. The teaching effect was measured with examination and questionnaire survey. The data were analyzed by Student's t test using SPSS 11.5 software package. Students in PBL combined with SP group was better than LBL group in case analysis, didactic tests, practical tests and total scores, and there was significant difference between the two groups (PPBL combined with SP group in basic theoretical knowledge scores, and there was significant difference between the two groups (PPBL combined with SP method were welcomed by undergraduate dental students. The abilities of undergraduate dental students can be improved by PBL combined with SP in different aspects. PBL combined with SP achieves satisfactory teaching effect, and can be applied in during-course practice of endodontics to undergraduate dental students.

  15. Assessment of a Bioinformatics across Life Science Curricula Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David R.; Miskowski, Jennifer A.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Abler, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, we have undertaken a program to integrate the study of bioinformatics across the undergraduate life science curricula. Our efforts have included incorporating bioinformatics exercises into courses in the biology, microbiology, and chemistry departments, as well as coordinating the efforts of faculty within…

  16. Sustainability Champions? Academic Identities and Sustainability Curricula in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bronwyn E.; Cornforth, Sue; Beals, Fiona; Taylor, Mike; Tallon, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of academic staff who are committed to embedding sustainability within tertiary curricula and pedagogy. Design/Methodology/Approach: The focus of this paper is on a New Zealand university. A survey of staff was undertaken and in-depth interviews conducted with 11 sustainability…

  17. Homeschooling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…

  18. Final Report of the Careers and Curricula Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.; And Others

    The Center's Career and Curricula program bases its work upon a theory of career development. The report presents summaries of the theory upon which the program was based, of the work accomplished by the program, and of the research conducted. It also provides abstracts and ordering sources for the various reports completed. The theory assumes…

  19. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, or intersexed content for nursing curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Ann Marie Walsh; Barnsteiner, Jane; Siantz, Mary Lou de Leon; Cotter, Valeri T; Everett, Janine

    2012-01-01

    There has been limited identification of core lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, or intersexed (LGBTI) experience concepts that should be included in the nursing curricula. This article addresses the gap in the literature. To move nursing toward the goals of health equity and cultural humility in practice, education, and research, nursing curricula must integrate core LGBTI concepts, experiences, and needs related to health and illness. This article reviews LGBTI health care literature to address the attitudes, knowledge, and skills needed to address curricular gaps and provide content suggestions for inclusion in nursing curricula. Also considered is the need to expand nursing students' definition of diversity before discussing the interplay between nurses' attitudes and culturally competent care provided to persons who are LGBTI. Knowledge needed includes a life span perspective that addresses developmental needs and their impact on health concerns throughout the life course; health promotion and disease prevention with an articulation of unique health issues for this population; mental health concerns; specific health needs of transgender and intersex individuals; barriers to health care; interventions and resources including Internet sites; and legal and policy issues. Particular assessment and communication skills for LGBTI patients are identified. Finally, there is a discussion of didactic, simulation, and clinical strategies for incorporating this content into nursing curricula at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  20. Making Curricula Competence-oriented at Vietnamese Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosma, RH.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many academic curricula suffer from a teacher-centred focus on knowledge transfer and do not consider the societal needs for competences. This paper reflects on the transformation from theory-centred towards competency-oriented curricula at three Vietnamese Agriculture Universities with support of a Netherlands-funded project. Experts guided the implementation, from analysis of labour market to evaluation of new courses. Based on students' evaluation and lecturers' experiences, both types of respondents reported that after having been exposed to a series of trainings and hands-on experience in and outside classrooms, they gained new sets of knowledge and skills. However, some issues emerged in the process. Among these are the lack of competence among lecturers to design curricula based on outcomes, particularly addressing competence of students' knowledge, skills and attitudes; lack of staff to develop and implement a competence-based curricula; non- aggregation of closely related courses in modules that avoid repetitions and provides time for training of skills and attitudes. There is also a need to train students for competency in performing more complex learning outcomes, such as critical thinking. For this change to happen, lecturers need continuous training in didactics for active teaching, and Universities need to provide means for participative learning.

  1. Curricula and Organization of Primary Care Residencies in Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, John M.

    1980-01-01

    The organization and curricula of internal medicine residencies programs that emphasize primary care are described and compared with traditional residencies in internal medicine. It is noted that primary care residents spend more time in ambulatory care and are allowed more electives in specialties outside of internal medicine. Out-of-hospital…

  2. Survival Mode: The Stresses and Strains of Computing Curricula Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Grace; Venables, Anne

    2008-01-01

    In an ideal world, review and changes to computing curricula should be driven solely by academic concerns for the needs of students. The process should be informed by industry accreditation processes and international best practice (Hurst et al., 2001). However, Australian computing curricular review is often driven by the need for financial…

  3. The Status of Fluid Mechanics in Bioengineering Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gerald E.; Hyman, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the status of fluid mechanics courses in bioengineering curricula. A survey of institutions offering bioengineering degrees indicates that over half do not require fluid mechanics courses. Suggests increasing number of mechanics courses to increase the quality of bioengineering students and to prepare students for graduate work and more…

  4. Honors Thesis Preparation: Evidence of the Benefits of Structured Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Steven

    2016-01-01

    A recent study of honors curricula across the nation indicates that 75.6% of honors programs and colleges at four-year institutions have thesis or capstone requirements (Savage and Cognard-Black). In addition to institutions with thesis requirements, many more also have the option for students to complete theses. For example, an earlier study…

  5. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    State minimum core curricula for two-year and four-year colleges and universities have been approved by the Arkansas Board of Higher Education. Within the framework of the State Minimum Core, each state institution is required to propose 35 semester/credit hours from its institutional general education core to be recognized for purposes of the…

  6. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This document provides state minimum core curricula for each two- and four-year institution of higher education in Arkansas, determined by the Department of Higher Education. Courses within this core are to apply toward the general education core curriculum requirements for baccalaureate degrees at state-supported institutions and should be fully…

  7. Success factors of master of science curricula in business administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, Monique; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boshuizen, Els

    2010-01-01

    Bijker, M. M., Van der Klink, M. R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Success factors of master of science curricula in business administration. Paper presented at the 5th EARLI-SIG14, Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  8. The Internationalization of the Business Administration Curricula in Arab Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Abdel-Rahman

    2006-01-01

    This is a study of the extent of the internationalization of the business administration curricula in Arab universities. It is based on a survey of 110 Arab colleges of business that comprise more than half of the overall population, 35% of whom responded. The study found that Arab colleges of business appear to be only moderately…

  9. Assessment of a Bioinformatics across Life Science Curricula Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David R.; Miskowski, Jennifer A.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Abler, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, we have undertaken a program to integrate the study of bioinformatics across the undergraduate life science curricula. Our efforts have included incorporating bioinformatics exercises into courses in the biology, microbiology, and chemistry departments, as well as coordinating the efforts of faculty within…

  10. Sustainability Champions? Academic Identities and Sustainability Curricula in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bronwyn E.; Cornforth, Sue; Beals, Fiona; Taylor, Mike; Tallon, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of academic staff who are committed to embedding sustainability within tertiary curricula and pedagogy. Design/Methodology/Approach: The focus of this paper is on a New Zealand university. A survey of staff was undertaken and in-depth interviews conducted with 11 sustainability…

  11. Campus Sustainability: Emerging Curricula Models in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, Tamara; McKenna, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to build a detailed description of the Global Seminar (GS) curricula model by exploring its on-the-ground participatory practices in America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Within a qualitative research design framework, the authors interviewed 20 faculty members from the…

  12. The Current Landscape of the School Librarianship Curricula in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan; Turner, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The current landscape of the School Librarianship educational programs and curricula of master's degrees in the USA has been explored. The master's programs are currently offered in the following four venues: (1) programs that are American Library Association (ALA) accredited but not American Association of School Librarians (AASL) recognized,…

  13. Matrices to Revise Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Mary C.; Longer, David; Miller, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduate curricula for natural resource and agronomic programs have been introduced and revised during the past several decades with a desire to stay current with emerging issues and technologies relevant to constituents. For the past decade, the Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences (CSES) faculty at the University of Arkansas…

  14. Engineering Faculty Attitudes to General Chemistry Courses in Engineering Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Mehmet; Erdil, Erzat; Bilsel, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…

  15. Visual and Plastic Arts in Teaching Literacy: Null Curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeland, Robin Gay

    2010-01-01

    Visual and plastic arts in contemporary literacy instruction equal null curricula. Studies show that painting and sculpture facilitate teaching reading and writing (literacy), yet such pedagogy has not been formally adopted into USA curriculum. An example of null curriculum can be found in late 19th - early 20th century education the USA…

  16. A Model for the Development of University Curricula in Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, E.; Nielsen, I.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is having an increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering and in physics. Major influencers affecting developments in university programmes related to nanoelectronics are discussed and a model for university programme development is described. The model takes into account that nanotechnology affects not only…

  17. Vocabulary Instruction in Commonly Used Kindergarten Core Reading Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tanya S.; Neuman, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which commonly used core reading curricular materials supported research-based pedagogical features for oral vocabulary instruction in kindergarten. A document analysis was completed for 12 weeks of instructional materials from the teacher's editions of the 4 most widely used curricula.…

  18. Nature's Nature: Ideas of Nature in Curricula for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Maurice, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Two contrasting sets of ideas about nature in environmental education are described. An analytical framework is developed from inter-disciplinary histories of ideas and used in evaluating a specific curriculum. In conclusion, some general implications are suggested for curricula in environmental education. [This article was reprinted from…

  19. A Toolkit to Implement Graduate Attributes in Geography Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken-Smith, Rachel; McLean, Angela; Smith, Nell; Bond, Carol; Jenkins, Martin; Marshall, Stephen; Frielick, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    This article uses findings from a project on engagement with graduate outcomes across higher education institutions in New Zealand to produce a toolkit for implementing graduate attributes in geography curricula. Key facets include strong leadership; academic developers to facilitate conversations about graduate attributes and teaching towards…

  20. The Status of Fluid Mechanics in Bioengineering Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gerald E.; Hyman, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the status of fluid mechanics courses in bioengineering curricula. A survey of institutions offering bioengineering degrees indicates that over half do not require fluid mechanics courses. Suggests increasing number of mechanics courses to increase the quality of bioengineering students and to prepare students for graduate work and more…

  1. Financial Capability and Asset Building in the Curricula: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Vernon; Birkenmaier, Julie; Hageman, Sally A.

    2017-01-01

    Although social work education competencies include economic justice, and practice includes addressing client finances and assets, social work curricula lack an emphasis on these topics. Little is known about students' perceptions of the relevancy of this information or how well their program is preparing them for contemporary practice. This study…

  2. Graduate Museum Studies Curricula: Meeting the Needs of the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomar, William Frank

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess how graduate museum studies programs are meeting the current and anticipated future needs of the museum profession. A comprehensive assessment was conducted to determine the knowledge and skills most emphasized in graduate museum studies curricula and those most valued by leading museum practitioners. A total…

  3. The Traditional in Contemporary Curricula of Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina; Savovic, Margit

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary curricula of preschool education are the result of the improvement of pedagogical and didactic theories. They imply a technical plan with which it is possible to achieve measurable objectives of preschool education. The curriculum is also defined as a tool for quality and equal education for all. It represents a reflection of the…

  4. Planetary boundary layer (PBL) monitoring by means of two laser radar systems: experimental results and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Serafini, C.; Ventura, P.

    2010-10-01

    The PBL is the lower layer of the atmosphere that is sensitive to the effect of the Earths surface, it controls the flow of heat and momentum between the surface and the free atmosphere, thus playing a key role in atmospheric circulation. At University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Quantum Electronic and Plasma Laboratories (EQP), two mobile Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems have been developed. With these systems the monitoring of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) has been performed. The first mobile Lidar system is based on a pulsed Nd:YAG Q-Switched laser source operating at three wavelengths: 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm. Acquiring the elastic backscattered signals, it has been possible to estimate the aerosolitic backscattering coefficient at the aim to reconstruct the vertical aerosol profiles. The second one is a Differential Absorption Lidar system (DIAL), composed by a CO2 laser, working in the window spectral range between 9 and 11μm. With this system it has been estimated the water vapour concentration in the PBL region using the two wavelengths 10R20 (10.591 μm) and 10R18 (10.571 μm), which represent, respectively, the absorbing wavelength and non-absorbing one of the water molecule. The comparison of the backscattered radiation at these wavelengths yields the trace gas number density as a function of distance along the field-of-view of the receiving telescope. Diurnal and nocturnal measurements have been performed simultaneity using the two Lidar/Dial systems. Vertical profiles of the aerosolitic backscattering coefficient and water vapour concentration profiles have been estimated. The results and their comparison will be present in this work.

  5. Perioperative hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) infusions improve hepatic regeneration following portal branch ligation (PBL) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangieri, Christopher W; McCartt, Jason C; Strode, Matthew A; Lowry, John E; Balakrishna, Prasad M

    2017-07-01

    As hepatic surgery has become safer and more commonly performed, the extent of hepatic resections has increased. When there is not enough expected hepatic reserve to facilitate primary resection of hepatic tumors, a clinical adjunct to facilitating primary resection is portal vein embolization (PVE). PVE allows the hepatic remnant to increase to an appropriate size prior to resection via hepatocyte regeneration; however, PVE is not always successful in facilitating adequate regeneration. One of the strongest trophic factors for hepatocyte regeneration is hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The purpose of this study was to improve hepatic regeneration with perioperative HGF infusions in an animal model that mimics PVE. Portal branch ligation (PBL) in rodents is equivalent to PVE in humans. We performed left-sided PBL in Sprague-Dawley rodents with the experimental group receiving perioperative HGF infusions. Baseline and postoperative liver volumetrics were obtained with CT scanning methods as performed in clinical practice. Baseline and postoperative liver functions were assessed via indocyanine green (ICG) elimination testing. HGF infused rodents had statistically significant increase in all postoperative liver volumetrics. Most clinically relevant were increased right liver volumes (RLV), 14.10 versus 7.85 cm(3) (p value 0.0001), and increased degree of hypertrophy (DH %), 159.23 versus 47.11 % (p value 0.0079). HGF infused rodents also had a quick return to baseline liver function, 2.38 days compared to 6.13 days (p value 0.0001). Perioperative HGF infusions significantly increase hepatic regeneration following PBL in rodents. Perioperative HGF infusions following PVE are a possible adjunct to increase the amount of patients able to successfully undergo primary resection for hepatic tumors. Further basic science is warranted in examining the use of HGF infusions to increase hepatic regeneration and translating that basic science work to clinical practice.

  6. Proteome Dynamics in Biobanked Horse Peripheral Blood Derived Lymphocytes (PBL) with Induced Autoimmune Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Stefanie M; Lepper, Marlen F; Hertl, Michael; Sekundo, Walter; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2017-10-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis is the only spontaneous model for recurrent autoimmune uveitis in humans, where T cells target retinal proteins. Differences between normal and autoaggressive lymphocytes were identified in this study by analyzing peripheral blood derived lymphocytes (PBL) proteomes from the same case with interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein induced uveitis sampled before (Day 0), during (Day 15), and after uveitic attack (Day 23). Relative protein abundances of PBL were investigated in a quantitative, label-free differential proteome analysis in cells that were kept frozen for 14 years since the initial experiment. Quantitative data could be acquired for 2632 proteins at all three time points. Profound changes (≥2-fold change) in PBL protein abundance were observed when comparing Day 0 with 15, representing acute inflammation (1070 regulated proteins) and Day 0 with 23 (cessation; 1571 regulated). Significant differences applied to proteins with functions in integrin signaling during active uveitis, involving "Erk and pi-3 kinase are necessary for collagen binding in corneal epithelia," "integrins in angiogenesis," and "integrin-linked kinase signaling" pathways. In contrast, at cessation of uveitic attack, significantly changed proteins belonged to pathways of "nongenotropic androgen signaling," "classical complement pathway," and "Amb2 integrin signaling." Several members of respective pathways were earlier shown to be changed in naturally occurring uveitis, underscoring the significance of these findings here and proofing the value of the induced model in mimicking spontaneous autoimmune uveitis. All MS data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (dataset identifier PXD005580). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Komparasi Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah pada Pembelajaran PBL dan RME dalam Setting INNOMATTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shofiayuningtyas Yusuf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kesesuaian proses pembelajaran dengan RPP yang dibuat guru, apakah terdapat perbedaan serta manakah yang lebih baik antara pembela-jaran dengan pendekatan Realistic Mathematics Education (RME dan Problem Based Learn-ing (PBL pada siswa kelas VII materi Pertidaksamaan Linear Satu Variabel. Pelaksanaan pembelajaran dilakukan dalam setting model pelatihan INNOMATTS dengan quasi experi-mental design. Data kemampuan pemecahan masalah dianalisis menggunakan uji proporsi dan uji beda rata-rata. Hasil yang diperoleh yakni terdapat kesesuaian langkah-langkah setiap pendekatan yang digunakan dengan RPP yang dibuat guru. Berdasarkan uji proporsi, diper-oleh lebih dari 85 % siswa kedua kelas eksperimen mencapai nilai ketuntasan belajar indivi-du, yaitu 70. Selain itu, diperoleh adanya perbedaan hasil kemampuan pemecahan masalah antar kedua kelas eksperimen dan kemampuan pemecahan masalah siswa kelas eksperimen II le-bih baik daripada siswa kelas eksperimen I. Kata Kunci:      RME; Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah; Komparasi; INNOMATTS; PBL.  AbstractThe purpose of this study was determining the conformance between the steps of each ap-proach used towards contained suitability of teacher’s lesson plans, whether there is a difference and which is better between learning approaches of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME and Problem Based Learning (PBL in grade VII with One Variable Linear Inequalities material can achieve mastery learning. The implementation of the learning is done in the setting of the INNOMATTS training model with quasi experimental design. The problem solving data is analyzed by proportion test and independent t test. The test results was obtained that there is conformance between the steps of each approach used towards contained suitability of teacher’s lesson plans. Basec on proportion test, the result was more than 85% of students in each experiment class achieved mastery

  8. Identifikasi Tahap Berpikir Kritis Siswa Menggunakan PBL dalam Tugas Pengajuan Masalah Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Setyaningsih

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan mendeskripsikan tahap berpikir kritis siswa yang dikenai pembelajaran PBL dalam tugas pengajuan masalah. Prosedur pengumpulan datanya yaitu (1 validasi, (2 pembelajaran PBL, (3 tes TPM, (4 analisis tes TPM, (5 wawancara berbasis tugas, dan (6 catatan lapangan. Penelitian ini akhirnya menghasilkan identifikasi tahap berpikir kritis sebagai berikut. Pada tahap klarifikasi, untuk kelompok kritis, cukup kritis, dan kurang kritis, siswa mampu mengidentifikasi masalah secara utuh dan menggunakan pengetahuan yang dimiliki untuk menambahkan informasi. Pada tahap asesmen, untuk kelompok kritis mampu memunculkan pertanyaan dan ide penyelesaian yang berasal dari diri sendiri. Pada tahap penyimpulan, pada kelompok tidak kritis, siswa belum mampu bernalar untuk penambahan informasi yang relevan. Pada tahap strate-gi/taktik, untuk kelompok tidak kritis, siswa belum dapat memunculkan strategi, sedangkan pada kelompok yang lain, siswa menjadikan pertanyaan awal sebagai acuan untuk mengga-li pertanyaan selanjutnya. Hasil penelitian ini dapat dijadikan sebagai pedoman guru dalam mengidentifikasi kelemahan dan kekuatan siswa dalam berpikir kritis.The purpose of this research is description of student’s critical thinking stage whith PBL in problem posing activities. The procedure of data collection are (1 validation, (2 PBL learning, (3 TPM test, (4 analysis of TPM test, (5 interview based on the test, and (6 field notes. This research finally leads to the identification of critical thinking stage as follows. In clarification stage, for the critical group, critical enough, and less critical, students were able to identify the problem as a whole and use their knowledge to add information. In assessment stage, for the critical group, student were able to make questions and solution ideas by theirself. In the inference stage, the not critical group, student have not be able to make a reasoning for the the addition of relevant information. In the

  9. A Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) Approach to Motivate Group Creativity in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how engineering students are motivated to develop group creativity in a Problem and Project- Based Learning (PBL) environment. Theoretically, we take a social cultural approach to group creativity and emphasize the influences of a learning environment on student motivation...... creativity. Thus, the supervisors are encouraged to be more aware of the complex relationships between student, teacher and task and the student response....... in group creativity development. Empirically, a case study was carried out on a student satellite project in the Department of Electronic System at Aalborg University in Denmark, by using qualitative methods including interviews and observation. The findings show that student motivation is stimulated...

  10. A Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) Approach to Motivate Group Creativity in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how engineering students are motivated to develop group creativity in a Problem and Project- Based Learning (PBL) environment. Theoretically, we take a social cultural approach to group creativity and emphasize the influences of a learning environment on student motivation...... in group creativity development. Empirically, a case study was carried out on a student satellite project in the Department of Electronic System at Aalborg University in Denmark, by using qualitative methods including interviews and observation. The findings show that student motivation is stimulated...

  11. Sensitivity of PBL and Cumulus schemes for Thunderstorm prediction over an Indian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Charan Mohanty, Uma; Kumar, Krishan

    2015-04-01

    The cloud processes play an important role in all forms of precipitation. Its proper representation is one of the challenging tasks in mesoscale numerical simulation. Studies have revealed that mesoscale feature require proper initialization which may likely to improve the convective system rainfall forecasts. Understanding the precipitation process, model initial condition accuracy and resolved/sub grid-scale precipitation processes representation, are the important areas which needed to improve in order to represent the mesoscale features properly. Various attempts have been done in order to improve the model performance through grid resolution, physical parameterizations, etc. But it is the physical parameterizations which provide a convective atmosphere for the development and intensification of convective events. Further, physical parameterizations consist of cumulus convection, surface fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and vertical mixing in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). How PBL and Cumulus schemes capture the evolution of thunderstorm have been analysed by taking thunderstorm cases occurred over Kolkata, India in the year 2011. PBL and cumulus schemes were customized for WSM-6 microphysics because WSM series has been widely used in operational forecast. Results have shown that KF (PBL scheme) and WSM-6 (Cumulus Scheme) have reproduced the evolution of surface variable such as CAPE, temperature and rainfall very much like observation. Further, KF and WSM-6 scheme also provided the increased moisture availability in the lower atmosphere which was taken to higher level by strong vertical velocities providing a platform to initiate a thunderstorm much better. Overestimation of rain in WSM-6 occurs primarily because of occurrence of melting and freezing process within a deeper layer in WSM-6 scheme. These Schemes have reproduced the spatial pattern and peak rainfall coverage closer to TRMM observation. It is the the combination of WSM-6, and KF schemes

  12. Case study findings of PHOTON problem-based learning (PBL) with high school photonics outreach programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard-Clark, Joyce; Gilchrist, Pamela; Allgood, Sherri

    2009-08-01

    Using the Photonics Leaders program model, recruitment and retention, photonics content, parental engagement, internship, and PHOTON PBL challenges, the session's goal is to inform educators of strategies that can be used to motivate and develop cognitive skills in the discipline of Physics. The program caters to ethnically diverse students who traditionally lack experiences in the discipline. This paper discusses the initial findings of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program through which high school students and teachers were given the opportunity to participate in shared lessons, and coordinate projects through cooperative learning at The Science House at North Carolina State University.

  13. Application of PBL Teaching Method to the Teaching of Internal Medicine Nursing%PBL 教学法在《内科护理学》教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To Observe the application effect of PBL teaching method on teaching internal medicine nursing. Methods:80 nursing majors from Grade 2011 were randomly divided into the observation group(40 students)and the control group(40 students). The observation group was taught in PBL teaching method while the control group was taught in traditional teaching method. Results:The teaching effect evaluation of the observation group is better than that of the control group,with such abilities as problem - analyzing and solving ability,communication abili-ty,cooperation ability,self - learning ability,innovation ability and research ability remarkably better than those in the control group. Conclu-sion:PBL teaching method can improve the teaching quality of internal medicine nursing.%目的:观察 PBL 教学法在《内科护理学》教学中的应用效果。方法:随机将2011级护理专业专科学生80名分为实验班和对照班各40名,实验班采用 PBL 教学法进行教学,对照班采用传统式教学法。结果:实验班教学效果评价明显优于对照班,并且实验班分析解决问题能力、锻炼表达沟通能力、团结协作能力、自学能力、创新实践能力、研究能力均优于对照班。结论:PBL 教学法可提高《内科护理学》教学的质量。

  14. Internationalization of University Curricula in Japan: Major Policies and Practice since the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2006-01-01

    This article begins by discussing the context and major policies as well as the rationales related to internationalization of the university curricula in Japan. It then touches on internationalization of the curricula in Japanese higher education institutions at home and on development of cross-border curricula that are both imported into Japan…

  15. Interplay between Individual Creativity and Group Creativity in Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) Environment in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies regard Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL) as providing a learning environment which fosters both individual and group creativity. This paper focuses on the question: In a PBL environment, how do students perceive the interplay between individual and group creativity...... individual and group creativity: (1) the project as ‘‘an extra member’’ in student groups; (2) tacit modes of collaboration in student groups; and (3) students have both domain-general and domain-specific understandings of creativity. These findings suggest the need for improved approaches to develop......? Empirically, qualitative interviews were carried out with 53 students (12 groups) in Computer Science, Electronic Systems, Architecture and Design, and Medialogy at Aalborg University, Denmark. The data analysis shows that there are three aspects to the influences of a PBL environment on the interplay between...

  16. Interplay between Individual Creativity and Group Creativity in Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) Environment in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies regard Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL) as providing a learning environment which fosters both individual and group creativity. This paper focuses on the question: In a PBL environment, how do students perceive the interplay between individual and group creativity......? Empirically, qualitative interviews were carried out with 53 students (12 groups) in Computer Science, Electronic Systems, Architecture and Design, and Medialogy at Aalborg University, Denmark. The data analysis shows that there are three aspects to the influences of a PBL environment on the interplay between...... individual and group creativity: (1) the project as ‘‘an extra member’’ in student groups; (2) tacit modes of collaboration in student groups; and (3) students have both domain-general and domain-specific understandings of creativity. These findings suggest the need for improved approaches to develop...

  17. Lidar Observation of Aerosol and Temperature Stratification over Urban Area During the Formation of a Stable Atmospheric PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, I.; Parvanov, O.; Kaprielov, B.; Mitev, V.; Simeonov, V.; Grigorov, I.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the processes in the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) over urban areas were intensely investigated, due to ecological problems related to the air, soil, and water pollution. New pollution sources in new residential districts, when in contradiction to the microclimate and topography requirements of that region, create a number of considerable hazards and problems. The present study is a continuation of our preceding investigations and aims at revealing the aerosol structure and stratification during the transition after sunset as measured by two lidars. Such observation of the nocturnal, stable PBL formation over an urban area in Bulgaria has not been reported before. The lidars' high time and spatial resolutions allow the changes of the internal structure of the PBL's part located above the surface layer to be observed.

  18. Problem-based learning (PBL): getting the most out of your students - their roles and responsibilities: AMEE Guide No. 84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Emily; Hommes, Juliette; Duvivier, Robbert; Taylor, David C M

    2014-01-01

    This Guide discusses the considerable literature on the merits or shortcomings of Problem-based learning (PBL), and the factors that promote or inhibit it, when seen through the eyes of the student. It seems to be the case that PBL works best when students and faculty understand the various factors that influence learning and are aware of their roles; this Guide deals with each of the main issues in turn. One of the most important concepts to recognise is that students and Faculty share the responsibility for learning and there are several factors that can influence its success. They include student motivation for PBL and the various ways in which they respond to being immersed in the process. As faculty, we also need to consider the way in which the learning environment supports the students develop the habit of life-long learning, and the skills and attitudes that will help them become competent reflective practitioners. Each of these elements place responsibilities upon the student, but also upon the Faculty and learning community they are joining. Although all of the authors work in a European setting, where PBL is used extensively as a learning strategy in many medical schools, the lessons learned we suggest, apply more widely, and several of the important factors apply to any form of curriculum. This Guide follows on from a previous review in the AMEE Guides in Medical education series, which provided an overview of PBL and attempts to emphasise the key role that students have in mastering their subject through PBL. This should render the business of being a student a little less mystifying, and help faculty to see how they can help their students acquire the independence and mastery that they will need.

  19. Improving the teaching skills of residents as tutors/facilitators and addressing the shortage of faculty facilitators for PBL modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Wasim; Mumtaz, Khalid; Burdick, William P; Morahan, Page S; Freeman, Rosslynne; Zehra, Tabassum

    2007-10-08

    Residents play an important role in teaching of medical undergraduate students. Despite their importance in teaching undergraduates they are not involved in any formal training in teaching and leadership skills. We aimed to compare the teaching skills of residents with faculty in facilitating small group Problem Based Learning (PBL) sessions. This quasi experimental descriptive comparative research involved 5 postgraduate year 4 residents and five senior faculty members. The study was conducted with all phase III (Final year) students rotating in Gastroenterology. The residents and faculty members received brief training of one month in facilitation and core principles of adult education. Different aspects of teaching skills of residents and faculty were evaluated by students on a questionnaire (graded on Likert Scale from 1 to 10) assessing i) Knowledge Base-content Learning (KBL), ii) PBL, iii) Student Centered Learning (SCL) and iv) Group Skills (GS). There were 33 PBL teaching sessions in which 120 evaluation forms were filled; out of these 53% forms were filled for residents and 47% for faculty group. The faculty showed a statistically greater rating in "KBL" (faculty 8.37 Vs resident 7.94; p-value 0.02), "GS" (faculty 8.06 vs. residents 7.68; p-value 0.04). Differences in faculty and resident scores in "the PBL" and "SCL" were not significant. The overall score of faculty facilitators, however, was statistically significant for resident facilitators. (p = .05). 1) Residents are an effective supplement to faculty members for PBL; 2) Additional facilitators for PBL sessions can be identified in an institution by involvement of residents in teacher training workshops.

  20. Opposite long-term trends in aerosols between low and high altitudes: a testimony to the aerosol-PBL feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zipeng; Li, Zhanqing; Yu, Xing; Cribb, Maureen; Li, Xingmin; Dai, Jin

    2017-06-01

    Interactions between absorbing aerosols and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) play an important role in affecting air pollution near the surface. In this study, a unique feature of the aerosol-PBL interaction is identified that has important implications in monitoring and combating air pollution. Opposite trends in aerosol loading between the lower and upper PBL are shown on a wide range of timescales and data acquired by various platforms: from a short-term field experiment to decadal satellite observations and multidecadal ground observations in China. A novel method is proposed to obtain the vertical profiles of aerosol loading from passive sensors by virtue of varying elevations. The analyses of visibility, aerosol optical depth, and extinction with different temporal scales exhibit the similar trend, i.e., increasing in the lower atmosphere but decreasing in the upper atmosphere. Integration of the reversal aerosol trend below and above the PBL resulted in a much less change in the column-integrated quantities. The surface cooling effect, together with the change in the heating rate induced by the absorbing aerosol, unevenly modifies the atmospheric temperature profile, causing a more stable atmosphere inside the PBL but a destabilized atmosphere above the PBL. Such a change in the atmospheric stability favors the accumulation of pollutants near the surface and the vertical diffusion of aerosol particles in the upper atmosphere, both of which are consistent with the observed reversal aerosol trends. These findings have multiple implications in understanding and combating air pollution, especially in many developing countries with high emissions of light-absorbing aerosols.

  1. Improving the teaching skills of residents as tutors/facilitators and addressing the shortage of faculty facilitators for PBL modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morahan Page S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residents play an important role in teaching of medical undergraduate students. Despite their importance in teaching undergraduates they are not involved in any formal training in teaching and leadership skills. We aimed to compare the teaching skills of residents with faculty in facilitating small group Problem Based Learning (PBL sessions. Methods This quasi experimental descriptive comparative research involved 5 postgraduate year 4 residents and five senior faculty members. The study was conducted with all phase III (Final year students rotating in Gastroenterology. The residents and faculty members received brief training of one month in facilitation and core principles of adult education. Different aspects of teaching skills of residents and faculty were evaluated by students on a questionnaire (graded on Likert Scale from 1 to 10 assessing i Knowledge Base-content Learning (KBL, ii PBL, iii Student Centered Learning (SCL and iv Group Skills (GS. Results There were 33 PBL teaching sessions in which 120 evaluation forms were filled; out of these 53% forms were filled for residents and 47% for faculty group. The faculty showed a statistically greater rating in "KBL" (faculty 8.37 Vs resident 7.94; p-value 0.02, "GS" (faculty 8.06 vs. residents 7.68; p-value 0.04. Differences in faculty and resident scores in "the PBL" and "SCL" were not significant. The overall score of faculty facilitators, however, was statistically significant for resident facilitators. (p = .05. Conclusion 1 Residents are an effective supplement to faculty members for PBL; 2 Additional facilitators for PBL sessions can be identified in an institution by involvement of residents in teacher training workshops.

  2. Leadership in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Programs: A Pilot Study Comparing Stand-Alone Leadership Courses and Leadership-Infused Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Farnsworth, Tracy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the extent to which leadership and leadership skills are taught in dental hygiene degree completion programs by comparing stand-alone leadership courses/hybrid programs with programs that infuse leadership skills throughout the curricula. The study involved a mixed-methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course, a hybrid program, or leadership-infused courses in these programs. A quantitative comparison of course syllabi determined differences in the extent of leadership content and experiences between stand-alone leadership courses and leadership-infused curricula. Of the 53 U.S. dental hygiene programs that offer degree completion programs, 49 met the inclusion criteria, and 19 programs provided course syllabi. Of the program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course or leadership-infused curriculum, 16 participated in the interview portion of the study. The results suggested that competencies related to leadership were not clearly defined or measurable in current teaching. Reported barriers to incorporating a stand-alone leadership course included overcrowded curricula, limited qualified faculty, and lack of resources. The findings of this study provide a synopsis of leadership content and gaps in leadership education for degree completion programs. Suggested changes included defining a need for leadership competencies and providing additional resources to educators such as courses provided by the American Dental Education Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association.

  3. The Impact of Problem Based Learning (PBL) on Student Attitudes toward Science, Problem-Solving Skills, and Sense of Community in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria M.; Trudel, Anthony R.

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a constructivist pedagogical approach to learning in which students work together to find solutions to a complex problem. This study used a mixed-method approach to examine the impact of PBL on student attitudes toward science, problem-solving skills and their perceptions of the learning environment. Forty-eight…

  4. Building on and Honoring Forty Years of PBL Scholarship from Howard Barrows: A Scientometric, Large-Scale Data, and Visualization-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Hanjun; Madhavan, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Over the past forty years, Howard Barrows' contributions to PBL research have influenced and guided educational research and practice in a diversity of domains. It is necessary to make visible to all PBL scholars what has been accomplished, what is perceived as significant, and what is the scope of applicability for Barrows' groundbreaking…

  5. An Exploration of the Differing Perceptions of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) from Students and Facilitators of Diverse Cultural Backgrounds, in the Fields of Theological and Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Nancy L. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Theological education has not widely utilized the PBL approach and there is very little research examining the utility of PBL in theological education. Lectures are currently the preferred teaching method in theological education, however, it is recognized that there is a need for a more holistic approach. As theological education is used in both…

  6. Coaching Tutors to Observe and Regulate Leadership in PBL Student Teams or You Can Lead a Horse to Water but You Can't Make It Drink…

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Noreen; Verzat, Caroline; Raucent, Benoit; Ducarme, Delphine; Bouvy, Thérèse; Herman, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how PBL student teams develop specific leadership configurations when implementing interdisciplinary projects and whether or not tutors help in dealing with the group interactions that are subsequently generated. The data set was drawn from 2 cohorts of first-year students engaged in PBL activities in an…

  7. The Impact of Problem Based Learning (PBL) on Student Attitudes toward Science, Problem-Solving Skills, and Sense of Community in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria M.; Trudel, Anthony R.

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a constructivist pedagogical approach to learning in which students work together to find solutions to a complex problem. This study used a mixed-method approach to examine the impact of PBL on student attitudes toward science, problem-solving skills and their perceptions of the learning environment. Forty-eight…

  8. Measuring change in critical thinking skills of dental students educated in a PBL curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardamean, Bens

    2012-04-01

    This study measured the change in critical thinking skills of dental students educated in a problem-based learning (PBL) pedagogical method. The quantitative analysis was focused on measuring students' critical thinking skills achievement from their first through third years of dental education at the University of Southern California. This non-experimental evaluation was based on a volunteer sample of ninety-eight dental students who completed a demographics/academic questionnaire and a psychometric assessment known as the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT). The HSRT produced the overall critical thinking skills score. Additionally, the HSRT generated five subscale scores: analysis, inference, evaluation, deductive reasoning, and inductive reasoning. The results of this study concluded that the students showed no continuous and significant incremental improvement in their overall critical thinking skills score achievement during their PBL-based dental education. Except for the inductive reasoning score, this result was very consistent with the four subscale scores. Moreover, after performing the statistical adjustment on total score and subscale scores, no significant statistical differences were found among the three student groups. However, the results of this study found some aspects of critical thinking achievements that differed by categories of gender, race, English as first language, and education level.

  9. PENYUSUNAN MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN BERBANTUAN KOMPUTER UNTUK PBL DAN KEEFEKTIFANNYA TERHADAP CTS PESERTA DIDIK SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik Kurniawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate: (1 the feasibility of computer-assisted learning media based problem based learning (PBL on Environmental Pollution materials for high school students of class X, and (2 the effectiveness of instructional media for improving of critical thinking skill (CTS learners class X SMA Negeri 5 Magelang. This research was adapted from the ADDIE model of development that includes analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate. Products validated by subject matter experts, media experts, educators of Biology, and peer reviewer. Subject of this study is tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 5 Magelang. Collecting data was using questionnaires, observation sheets, and test critical thinking skills. The media according to the validator and the students is classified to the category of good. Instructional media was improved to learners' critical thinking skills effectively, which demonstrated by the significant value of 0:00. This results showed that media computer-assisted learning based PBL is effective for improving of the critical thinking skills of learners.

  10. Aerosol monitoring in the PBL over big cities using a mobile eye safe LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Laurent; Chazette, Patrick

    2005-10-01

    The Laboratory of Science of Climate and Environment (CEA/ CNRS) and LEOSPHERE Company have jointly developed an eye safe, rugged and unattended high resolution scanning lidar ("easy lidar", www.lidar.fr). This system has been used in the frame of the POVA program and has been used in a compact version during the LISAIR (LIdar to Survey the AIR) program in May 2005 in the Paris city, France. The mobile lidar has been used to follow aerosol particles in highways subject to heavy traffic. High spatial and temporal resolution data on the entire planetary boundary layer (1.5 m and 1s respectively) allowed to monitor for aerosol load variability on board a moving car and also to detect for local sources. We observed the doubling of the optical thickness in the morning when traffic is high in the city ring. We also have shown local effect of waste burning plants and train stations. This new type of eye safe lidar will allow to monitor continuously the entire area of a town and suburbs, in order to detect main sources of pollution (transport, traffic jams, industrial plants, natural dust), follow in real time the evolution of the PBL height and provide an estimation of the mass concentration of the aerosol in the PBL.

  11. Medical students' attitudes in a PBL curriculum: trust, altruism, and cynicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, W Patrick; Scheetz, Allison P; Dane, Francis C; Parish, David C; O'Shea, James T

    2003-04-01

    Studies have shown that medical students become more cynical and less altruistic as they advance in training. However, these studies were conducted in traditional medical schools, and many used unvalidated tools. This study examined students' attitudes in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum using reliable and valid measures. Medical students and PGY-1 residents at Mercer University School of Medicine in Macon, Georgia, completed Wrightsman's Philosophies of Human Natures Scale (PHNS) in 1999 and 2000. Chronbach's alpha assessed internal reliability among subscales, and test-retest reliability coefficients confirmed acceptable reliability. For 114 students who completed both surveys, changes in PHNS scores were analyzed, with particular attention to the subscales of trustworthiness, altruism, and cynicism. Students assessed at the beginning of their second year increased the extent to which they believed people are trustworthy and increased their beliefs in how altruistic people are. They also showed a significant decrease in cynicism. There was not a significant change in trustworthiness, altruism, or cynicism among the participants beyond first year. In general, female students held less cynical views about others and believed people to be more trustworthy. Contrary to prior reports, this study found that more advanced trainees were not more cynical or less altruistic than their more junior counterparts. Indeed, a significant and positive change of attitudes among the participants during their first year of medical school refuted earlier reports. Thus, results of earlier studies and the effect of a PBL curriculum on attitudes of medical students need to be re-examined.

  12. PENERAPAN PEMBELAJARAN PROBLEM BASED LEARNING (PBL UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR MATEMATIKA SISWA KELAS IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida Rahmantika Hadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the steps to the application of PBL learning to improve student learning outcomes in the material fractions. This research was a class act. In this study the data source was the teacher and the student. Data collection techniques used in this study consisted of (a observation, (b interviews, and (c test. Methods of data analysis used in this research is descriptive qualitative and descriptive comparative. The steps of learning by PBL method are (1 the stage of cooperation where students formed into groups of 4-5 students, (2 the orientation of students to the problem, namely the provision of problems related to everyday life, (3 organization students to learn independently in a group, (4 guided inquiry groups using worksheets to gather the appropriate information, and (5 develop and present the results of discussions through presentations to the class. The resulting increases in students' mathematics learning of the results of the pre-action test 71.31 and increased in the first cycle to 75.78, on the second cycle increased by 82.63.

  13. [Application of PBL method and LBL method in the teaching of Acupuncutre and Moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Jin; Ruan, Zhizhong

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve teaching lever and explore teaching approach, the feasibility study on the combination of the problembased learning method CPBL) and the lecture-based learning method (LBL) was conducted in the teaching of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. The 2010 undergraduates in the major of clinical integrated Chinese and western medicine of five years were randomized into a PBL and LBL group and a LEL group. In the first semester, according to the basic teaching requirement, LBL was used to accomplish the teaching of basic theory. In the internship teaching section, the different teaching method was applied. In the PBL and LEL group, PEL was used, and in the LBL group, LBL was given. At the end of semester, the examination results of the theory learning and medical cases learning were evaluated. The questionnaire was summarized in the teachers and students. The final examination result of theory learning was not different significantly between the two groups (P >0. 05), but the result of medical cases learning in the PEL and LEL group was better than that in LEL group (84. 47±10. 72 vs 76. 00±9. 97, PPBL and LEL is feasible in teaching of Acupuncture and Moxibustion and the teaching outcome is superior to the simple LBL, which provides the new approach to the teaching reform.

  14. To what extent do tutor-related behaviours influence student learning in PBL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Esther; Yew, Elaine H J; Schmidt, Henk G

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how tutor behaviours influence learning in problem-based learning (PBL). A previous study had indicated a significant influence of the tutor's social congruent behaviour on the PBL process and this study further investigates this finding by examining two groups of tutors displaying differences in social congruence. The participants were 77 students under the tutelage of four tutors and a self-report questionnaire ranked two tutors to be more socially congruent as compared to the other two. Student learning was measured by a concept recall test and the results from the analysis of covariance indicated a significant impact of the tutor's social congruent behaviour on learning after the problem analysis phase but not on the self-directed learning and reporting phases. It was concluded that the academic abilities of students and the small number of tutors involved may have affected the results, which led to the second part of this study. A group of 11 tutors were selected and the impact of their behaviours on student achievement measured by the module grade was examined. Results indicated that the tutor behaviours had a greater influence on average students as compared to the academically stronger and weaker students. This finding suggests that students who are academically stronger are not as reliant on the tutor while average students may depend more on the tutor to guide and motivate them in order to achieve the learning goals.

  15. Where's the bling of the thing?: Ethics, gaming and PBL-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P. McCarthy

    Full Text Available This paper describes an evaluation of PBL-Interactive (PBL-I as authoring tool for an ethical decision-making game, in the Dip ICT course, ET600 Ethics and professionalism, at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT. While the prototype was developed and the usability testing conducted with student volunteers returned positive results, the limitations of the authoring tool to create a multi-linear ethics game outweighed its affordances. In particular, the authoring mode interface lacked ease of use and functionality for advanced features such as video and audio, desirable options to motivate computing students with advanced gaming experience, in online and face-to-face learning environments. Scenario-based problem solving can be used in serious games to explore ethical decision making. However, authoring tools for tertiary educators should be easy to use, including for multi-linear scenarios. Groups should be able to work through the ethical game scenario in multiple ways, with the potential for students to create new content for future participants. Otherwise, deep thinking is displaced by astute guessing of a \\'right answer\\' from a list. Ethical decision-making may be constrained, more simplistic, and deterministic. Cross cultural issues may be used stereotypically, without developing insight or empathy. Opportunities for international students to make a contribution as subject matter experts may not eventuate.

  16. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  17. The need to integrate values into environmental curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, John

    1989-03-01

    Many environmental problems are controversial because of conflicting values people hold and because there is not a consensus as to which values should have precedence over others. If environmental managers are to make ethical decisions that reflect environmental values, they must have full understanding of such values and types of ethics and principles of moral reasoning to use in the decision-making process. Unfortunately, integration of values into environmental curricula has often not been explicit or comprehensive. One result is that university-trained environmental managers do not possess the knowledge, skills, and methods necessary for more ethically based decisions. An analysis of attitudes about integrating values and/or ethics into environmental curricula and approaches to do so yields the conclusion that environmental programs should more fully include teaching about values and ethics so that environmental managers can make more ethically sound decisions.

  18. Practice of the PBL Teaching Mode in the Medical Information Retrieval Course for Graduate Students%研究生医学信息检索课 PBL 教学模式实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红

    2015-01-01

    以辽宁医学院为例,将PBL教学法引入到研究生医学信息检索课的教学中,介绍PBL教学总体设计和安排及教学实施过程,通过问卷调查、分析个人检索报告和评价PBL的教学效果,指出存在的问题,提出优化PBL教学的几点措施。%Taking Liaoning Medical University as an example , the paper introduces the Problem -based learning ( PBL) teaching mode into the teaching of the medical information retrieval course for graduate students .It introduces the overall design and arrangement of PBL teaching and the implementation process of teaching .By questionnaire surveys , analysis of individual retrieval reports and assess-ment of PBL teaching effects , it points out existing problems and proposes several measures for optimizing PBL teaching .

  19. Assessment of health promotion content in undergraduate physiotherapy curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebogile Mokwena

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The integration of health promotion in the treatment of patients should be included in all academic curricula in primary training of health professionals. However, the extent to which health promotion is included in the various curricula at undergraduate level is not known.Objective: To assess the extent to which health promotion content is integrated in undergraduate physiotherapy training programmes in South Africa. Method: This was a qualitative and descriptive study, using in-depth interviews with representatives of physiotherapy academic departments.Results: All universities have some content of health promotion, with the weighting varying between 12% and 40%. Health promotion is taught at various levels of study, and health promotion training blocks are in both urban and rural settings and include communities, schools and old-age homes. The theories of advocacy, enabling and mediation are covered, but there is limited practical training on these elements. There are limited human resources trained in health promotion, as well as a lack of clear processes of developing and reviewing teaching and training materials.Conclusion: There is lack of consensus on the weighting of health promotion, the level at which it is taught and how it is evaluated across universities. Challenges to integrate health promotion in physiotherapy curricula include lack of frequent curricula reviews, inadequate training of lecturers and lack of conducive practical sites.The physiotherapy profession needs to reach a consensus on minimum standards for integration of health promotion in undergraduate training, and the physiotherapy professional board has the potential to provide the required leadership.

  20. Development of mechanical engineering curricula at the University of Minho

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. F. Teixeira; Silva, Jaime F. da; Flores, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of the Bologna protocol in the European Union has set new goals for the whole higher education system as: (a) a quality assessment for university courses; (b) a framework for the exchange of students and academics; and (c) an opportunity for changing the teaching/learning procedures and methodologies. Within the context, the mechanical engineering curricula at the University of Minho have been comprehensively formulated in order to meet these and future challenges and expec...

  1. Preservation of the discipline "Safety" by means of changing curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Kaslin, N. D.; Bogatov, О. І.

    2015-01-01

    During the past five years the regulatory and legal framework of education in Ukraine has been changing significantly. Especially important changes in the content and organization of education were stipulated by the law on “Higher Education” and the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “List of Specialties” (correspondingly of 2014 and 2015 years of enactment). The introduction of the European credit transfer system in education has changed the structure of curricula and the list...

  2. Networked curricula: fostering transnational partnership in open and distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz Cacheiro-González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transnational Networked Curricula (TNC provides many benefits to the institutions that offer them as well as to the different stakeholders involved, not only the students but also the academics, the institutions as a whole, and the wider society. Supporting Higher Education Institutions in enhancing and implementing international networked practices in virtual campus building is the main aim of the NetCU project, which has been developed by the EADTU, in partnership with 14 member organizations, from 2009 to 2012. The project outcomes intend to facilitate the future set-up of networked curricula in Higher Education institutions and potentially lead to more transnational partnerships in Open and Distance Education (ODE and blended learning, showing challenges, obstacles and ways to overcome them. This paper presents the main products developed in the project, assesses its completeness and usage, and discusses on the challenges of curricula networking starting from the ideas and opinions shared in different stakeholders workshops organized under the NetCU project.

  3. Teaching percussion in a music therapy training context: reflections on different cultures, PBL and ways of teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson-Ingstrup, Jens; Gattino, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    This publication deals with reflections on teaching percussion in the music therapy training at Aalborg University (Denmark). Discussions are focused in challenges and characteristics of this teaching as follows: cultural differences, teaching based on Problem Based Methodology (PBL) and the ways...

  4. Writing the Book…Literally: The Convergence of Authentic Intellectual Work (AIW) and Project-Based Learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmiller, Tom M.; Kruse, Jerrid W.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Project-Based Learning (PBL) and Authentic Intellectual Work (AIW) models, we sought to create coursework that had value beyond the classroom. Refinements in the self-publishing book industry provide the opportunity to present student work to a larger audience and in a different, more engaging format. With the help of free software, our…

  5. A University's Strategic Adoption Process of an PBL-Aligned eLearning Environment: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Much has been written about the promise and peril of technology in education. This paper presents an empirical study that explores how technology can play a pivotal role in student learning and how teaching staff can adopt innovative technology-based approaches in the creation of interactive online problem-based learning (PBL) resources, allowing…

  6. Introducing Problem-Based Learning (PBL) into a Foundation Programme to Develop Self-Directed Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Sharon B.; Ndlovu, Mdutshekelwa; Engelbrecht, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the qualitative aspects of a study that examined whether introducing a "Problem-based Learning" ("PBL") approach in a one-year foundation programme can create conditions for learners to develop and sustain self-directed learning skills. This interpretive constructivist case study was located in…

  7. A University's Strategic Adoption Process of an PBL-Aligned eLearning Environment: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Much has been written about the promise and peril of technology in education. This paper presents an empirical study that explores how technology can play a pivotal role in student learning and how teaching staff can adopt innovative technology-based approaches in the creation of interactive online problem-based learning (PBL) resources, allowing…

  8. Ozone Diurnal Variation in the PBL at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory During Summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, M.; Alvarez, R. J. _II, II; Brewer, A.; Brown, S. S.; Carrion, W.; Delgado, R.; De Young, R.; Huang, G.; Johnson, B.; Kuang, S.; Langford, A. O.; Lundquist, J. K.; McGee, T. J.; Pliutau, D.; Senff, C. J.; Sullivan, J. T.; Sumnicht, G. K.; Twigg, L.; Wang, L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the diurnal variation of PBL ozone at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in July 2014 using multiple observations, including three ozone DIALs, several wind Doppler lidars, free-launched and tethered ozonesondes, and in-situ measurements on the BAO tower. Three mobile lidars from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar NETwork (TOLNET) provide high spatial and temporal ozone profiles from near surface to the top of the troposphere. The combination of multiple observations will provide detailed structure of the diurnal variation of ozone. This ozone information will help the satellite and modeling communities to study the character of lower tropospheric ozone for the improvements of satellite retrieval and air-quality models. In addition, a Large-Eddy Simulation model will calculate ozone in the mixed layer to explain the processes responsible for the observations.

  9. Theoretical and behavioral features to be considered when planning and implementing a pbl curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D' Ottavio, Alberto Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This work complements former articles about an Argentinean PBL curriculum after twelve years of development. In this context, it points out determined inflexible features linked to its theoretical-pedagogical basis and certain counter-productive behaviors detected in some planners, teachers and students during its design and/or enduring implementation. Hence, reflections are made on learning and adult learning (andragogy) theories. Furthermore, related questions and some aspects to be overcome are presented and analyzed. In this way, it also intends to honestly and responsibly warn well-trained curriculum planners and executors to be cautious when choosing and managing learning theories. Likewise, it complementarily highlights the need of refocusing teachers that, pretending to be forward-looking ones, end up harming what at first proclaimed to benefit: the students.

  10. Analysis of the Difficulties and Improvement Method on Introduction of PBL Approach in Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Takasei; Sessa, Salvatore

    In the field of international cooperation, it is increasing to introduce Japanese engineering educational model in the developing country to improve the quality of education and research activity. A naive implementation of such model in different cultures and educational systems may lead to several problems. In this paper, we evaluated the Project Based Learning (PBL) class, developed at Waseda University in Japan, and employed to the Egyptian education context at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST) . We found difficulties such as : non-homogeneous student’ s background, disconnection with the student’ s research, weak learning style adaptation, and irregular course conduction. To solve these difficulties at E-JUST, we proposed : the groupware introduction, project theme choice based on student’ s motivation, and curriculum modification.

  11. Dental students' perception of their approaches to learning in a PBL programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, H; Ghorbani, A; Rohlin, M

    2017-08-01

    To compare dental students' perceptions of their learning approaches between different years of a problem-based learning (PBL) programme. The hypothesis was that in a comparison between senior and junior students, the senior students would perceive themselves as having a higher level of deep learning approach and a lower level of surface learning approach than junior students would. This hypothesis was based on the fact that senior students have longer experience of a student-centred educational context, which is supposed to underpin student learning. Students of three cohorts (first year, third year and fifth year) of a PBL-based dental programme were asked to respond to a questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) developed to analyse students' learning approaches, that is deep approach and surface approach, using four subscales including deep strategy, surface strategy, deep motive and surface motive. The results of the three cohorts were compared using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P-value was set at <0.05 for statistical significance. The fifth-year students demonstrated a lower surface approach than the first-year students (P = 0.020). There was a significant decrease in surface strategy from the first to the fifth year (P = 0.003). No differences were found concerning deep approach or its subscales (deep strategy and deep motive) between the mean scores of the three cohorts. The results did not show the expected increased depth in learning approaches over the programme years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Diagnostic reasoning and underlying knowledge of students with preclinical patient contacts in PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemers, Agnes D; van de Wiel, Margje W J; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Baarveld, Frank; Dolmans, Diana H J M

    2015-12-01

    Medical experts have access to elaborate and integrated knowledge networks consisting of biomedical and clinical knowledge. These coherent knowledge networks enable them to generate more accurate diagnoses in a shorter time. However, students' knowledge networks are less organised and students have difficulties linking theory and practice and transferring acquired knowledge. Therefore we wanted to explore the development and transfer of knowledge of third-year preclinical students on a problem-based learning (PBL) course with real patient contacts. Before and after a 10-week PBL course with real patients, third-year medical students were asked to think out loud while diagnosing four types of paper patient problems (two course cases and two transfer cases), and explain the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the patient features. Diagnostic accuracy and time needed to think through the cases were measured. The think-aloud protocols were transcribed verbatim and different types of knowledge were coded and quantitatively analysed. The written pathophysiological explanations were translated into networks of concepts. Both the concepts and the links between concepts in students' networks were compared to model networks. Over the course diagnostic accuracy increased, case-processing time decreased, and students used less biomedical and clinical knowledge during diagnostic reasoning. The quality of the pathophysiological explanations increased: the students used more concepts, especially more model concepts, and they used fewer wrong concepts and links. The findings differed across course and transfer cases. The effects were generally less strong for transfer cases. Students' improved diagnostic accuracy and the improved quality of their knowledge networks suggest that integration of biomedical and clinical knowledge took place during a 10-week course. The differences between course and transfer cases demonstrate that transfer is complex and time-consuming. We

  13. Human BLyS facilitates engraftment of human PBL derived B cells in immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn R Schmidt

    Full Text Available The production of fully immunologically competent humanized mice engrafted with peripheral lymphocyte populations provides a model for in vivo testing of new vaccines, the durability of immunological memory and cancer therapies. This approach is limited, however, by the failure to efficiently engraft human B lymphocytes in immunodeficient mice. We hypothesized that this deficiency was due to the failure of the murine microenvironment to support human B cell survival. We report that while the human B lymphocyte survival factor, B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF enhances the survival of human B cells ex vivo, murine BLyS has no such protective effect. Although human B cells bound both human and murine BLyS, nuclear accumulation of NF-kappaB p52, an indication of the induction of a protective anti-apoptotic response, following stimulation with human BLyS was more robust than that induced with murine BLyS suggesting a fundamental disparity in BLyS receptor signaling. Efficient engraftment of both human B and T lymphocytes in NOD rag1(-/- Prf1(-/- immunodeficient mice treated with recombinant human BLyS is observed after adoptive transfer of human PBL relative to PBS treated controls. Human BLyS treated recipients had on average 40-fold higher levels of serum Ig than controls and mounted a de novo antibody response to the thymus-independent antigens in pneumovax vaccine. The data indicate that production of fully immunologically competent humanized mice from PBL can be markedly facilitated by providing human BLyS.

  14. 对以问题为基础的学习认识的几个误区%Several misunderstandings on PBL teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗自强; 岳少杰

    2015-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been widely used all around the country.But there are still many misconceptions on the understanding of the PBL teaching in the process of teaching practice,which reduces the PBL teaching effect.For example,it is a misunderstanding to put problems to asking for answers to the questions other than solving the problems and to put case-based learning (CBL) and team-based learning (TBL) to PBL.In this paper,we combined the references with the practice experience to compare PBL with CBL,TBL and flipped instruction in both features and connotations based on the brief discussion of the "problem" in PBL teaching,to further strengthen the understanding of the PBL teaching.It is only the use of clinical cases to guide students to find the defects of the knowledge required for solving the problem and the process of acquiring the scientific knowledge which is implicit in the problem through the students' autonomous learning that can be called as PBL teaching.%以问题为基础的学习(problem-based learning,PBL)已经在国内得到广泛应用,但教学实践过程中对PBL的认识仍存在许多误区.如,把问题误解为要求回答题目而非需要加以解决的疑难,把案例教学(case-based learning,CBL)等同为PBL,把以团队为基础的学习(team-based learning,TBL)误认为PBL,降低了PBL教学效果.为此,结合文献及教学实践经验,在简要探讨PBL教学中“问题”内涵的基础上,比较PBL与CBL、PBL与TBL、PBL与翻转课堂的特征和内涵,从而对PBL教学认识的误区进行深入剖析.由此提出,只有利用临床案例情景引导学生发现自身解决问题所需知识的缺陷,并通过学生自主学习获取隐含于问题背后的科学知识的过程,才是真正意义上的PBL.

  15. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  16. Leadership and management in UK medical school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Richard; Sheriff, Ibrahim H N; Matthews, Jacob H; Jagger, Olivia; Curtis, Sarah; Lees, Peter; Spurgeon, Peter C; Fountain, Daniel Mark; Oldman, Alex; Habib, Ali; Saied, Azam; Court, Jessica; Giannoudi, Marilena; Sayma, Meelad; Ward, Nicholas; Cork, Nick; Olatokun, Olamide; Devine, Oliver; O'Connell, Paul; Carr, Phoebe; Kotronias, Rafail Angelos; Gardiner, Rebecca; Buckle, Rory T; Thomson, Ross J; Williams, Sarah; Nicholson, Simon J; Goga, Usman

    2016-10-10

    Purpose Although medical leadership and management (MLM) is increasingly being recognised as important to improving healthcare outcomes, little is understood about current training of medical students in MLM skills and behaviours in the UK. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study used validated structured interviews with expert faculty members from medical schools across the UK to ascertain MLM framework integration, teaching methods employed, evaluation methods and barriers to improvement. Findings Data were collected from 25 of the 33 UK medical schools (76 per cent response rate), with 23/25 reporting that MLM content is included in their curriculum. More medical schools assessed MLM competencies on admission than at any other time of the curriculum. Only 12 schools had evaluated MLM teaching at the time of data collection. The majority of medical schools reported barriers, including overfilled curricula and reluctance of staff to teach. Whilst 88 per cent of schools planned to increase MLM content over the next two years, there was a lack of consensus on proposed teaching content and methods. Research limitations/implications There is widespread inclusion of MLM in UK medical schools' curricula, despite the existence of barriers. This study identified substantial heterogeneity in MLM teaching and assessment methods which does not meet students' desired modes of delivery. Examples of national undergraduate MLM teaching exist worldwide, and lessons can be taken from these. Originality/value This is the first national evaluation of MLM in undergraduate medical school curricula in the UK, highlighting continuing challenges with executing MLM content despite numerous frameworks and international examples of successful execution.

  17. Creating Educational Technology Curricula for Advanced Studies in Learning Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Nakayama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Curriculum design and content are key factors in the area of human resource development. To examine the possibility of using a collaboration of Human Computer Interaction (HCI and Educational Technology (ET to develop innovative improvements to the education system, the curricula of these two areas of study were lexically analyzed and compared. As a further example, the curriculum of a joint course in HCI and ET was also lexically analyzed and the contents were examined. These analyses can be used as references in the development of human resources for use in advanced learning environments.

  18. Searching for scientific literacy and critical pedagogy in socioscientific curricula: A critical discourse analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kristina M.

    The omnipresence of science and technology in our society require the development of a critical and scientifically literate citizenry. However, the inclusion of socioscientific issues, which are open-ended controversial issues informed by both science and societal factors such as politics, economics, and ethics, do not guarantee the development of these skills. The purpose of this critical discourse analysis is to identify and analyze the discursive strategies used in intermediate science texts and curricula that address socioscientific topics and the extent to which the discourses are designed to promote or suppress the development of scientific literacy and a critical pedagogy. Three curricula that address the issue of energy and climate change were analyzed using Gee's (2011) building tasks and inquiry tools. The curricula were written by an education organization entitled PreSEES, a corporate-sponsored group called NEED, and a non-profit organization named Oxfam. The analysis found that the PreSEES and Oxfam curricula elevated the significance of climate change and the NEED curriculum deemphasized the issue. The PreSEES and Oxfam curricula promoted the development of scientific literacy while the NEED curricula suppressed its development. The PreSEES and Oxfam curricula both promoted the development of the critical pedagogy; however, only the Oxfam curricula provided authentic opportunities to enact sociopolitical change. The NEED curricula suppressed the development of critical pedagogy. From these findings, the following conclusions were drawn. When socioscientific issues are presented with the development of scientific literacy and critical pedagogy, the curricula allow students to develop fact-based opinions about the issue. However, curricula that address socioscientific issues without the inclusion of these skills minimize the significance of the issue and normalize the hegemonic worldview promoted by the curricula's authors. Based on these findings

  19. Implementation of team-based learning in year 1 of a PBL based medical program: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Ayton, Tom; Mellis, Craig

    2016-02-04

    A traditional and effective form of teaching within medical education has been Problem Based Learning (PBL). However, this method of teaching is resource intensive, normally requiring one tutor for every ten students. Team-based learning (TBL) has gained recent popularity in medical education, and can be applied to large groups of up to 100 students. TBL makes use of the advantages of small group teaching and learning, but in contrast to PBL, does not need large numbers of teachers. This study sought to explore the efficacy of using TBL in place of PBL in Year 1 of a medical program. In Year 1 of the medical program, two iterations of TBL, with 20 students, were run following four iterations of PBL within the Cardiology teaching block. Student feedback following PBL and TBL was collected by questionnaire, using closed and open ended questions. Additionally, individual and team tests were held at the beginning of each TBL class, and results of each week were compared. All students (n = 20) participated in the test in week 1, and 18/20 students participated in week 2. In total, 19/20 (95%) of students completed the questionnaires regarding their PBL and TBL experiences. The use of small groups, the readiness assurance tests, immediate feedback from an expert clinician, as well as time efficiency were all aspects of the TBL experience that students found positive. The clinical problem-solving activity, however, was considered to be less effective with TBL. There was a significant improvement (p = 0.004) in students' score from the week 1 assessment (median = 2) to the week 2 (median = 3.5) assessment. Interestingly, all teams but one (Team 1) achieved a lower score on their second week assessment than on their first. However, the lowest performing team in week 1 outperformed all other teams in week 2. Students favoured many aspects of the TBL process, particularly motivation to do the pre-reading, and better engagement in the process. Additionally, the

  20. ANALISIS DESKRIPTIF DALAM PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PBL (PROBLEM BASED LEARNING OLEH GURU MATA PELAJARAN EKONOMI SMA NEGERI 1 SLIYEG KABUPATEN INDRAMAYU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla Az Zahra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan dalam penelitian ini antara lain : (1 Perencanaan pembelajaran PBL oleh guru Ekonomi (2 Pelaksanaan pembelajaran PBL oleh guru Ekonomi di SMAN 1 Sliyeg (3 Evaluasi pembelajaran PBL oleh guru Ekonomi. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kualitatif. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di SMA Negeri 1 Sliyeg Kabupaten Indramayu. Alat analisis data adalah analisis interaksi. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan wawancara dan dokumentasi. Informan utama adalah guru mata pelajaran Ekonomi. Teknik analisis data dalam penelitian ini meliputi : pengumpulan data, reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan atau verifikasi data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa guru-guru mata pelajaran Ekonomi di SMAN 1 Sliyeg selalu membuat perangkat pembelajaran di awal semester dan selalu menyusun dan mempersiapkan RPP sebelum mengajar. Pelaksanaan pembelajaran PBL oleh guru Ekonomi sudah cukup baik dan guru pun cukup memahami mengenai PBL dan mendapat respon positif dari siswa. Evaluasi dan penilaian dari guru Ekonomi masing-masing mempunyai cara yang berbeda, seperti quiz dan tanya jawab, lalu guru memberi nilai tambahan kepada siswa yang aktif dalam menjawab. Saran yang diberikan dalam penelitian ini adalah guru sebaiknya meningkatkan pemahaman mengenai pembelajaran PBL. Guru harus lebih berwawasan luas, meningkatkan kretivitas dan inovatif dalam pelaksanaan PBL. Guru harus memperluas wawasan dan lebih kreatif lagi dalam mengembangkan cara evaluasi pada akhir pembelajaran. One of these models is the learning of model PBL (Problem Based Learning. It is expected that a better model of PBL to increase student activity when compared with the model konvesional.So far this learning process is still dominated by a paradigm that states that a knowledge of the facts is to be memorized. Problems in this study include: (1 Planning of PBL learning by teachers of Economics (2 The implementation of PBL learning by Economics teacher at SMAN 1

  1. The introduction of digital dental technology into BDS curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham, C; Spencer, M H; Wood, D J; Johnson, A

    2014-12-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which digital dental technologies have been introduced into the curricula of UK dental schools. A survey was carried out of all the UK dental schools that teach undergraduate dental students. The survey contained six questions and was designed to determine if digital dental technology techniques or systems were being taught in the curricula, what these techniques were, and whether the school dental laboratories supported these techniques. Sixteen schools were surveyed and 11 replied: a response rate of 69%. Forty-five percent of the schools that replied did not teach digital dental technology in their curriculum. Of the 55% of schools who did teach digital dental technology, 50% gave lectures or demonstrations while the other 50% allowed practical involvement by the student. Two thirds of these stated that not all the students participated in practical usage. Seventy-three percent of the schools that replied had dental laboratories using some, but not all the digital dental technology techniques listed. Eighty percent of the schools that were not teaching digital dental technology said it was because it was not included in the curriculum, and 20% stated it was due to a lack of technical expertise or support.

  2. Capacity Building through Geospatial Education in Planning and School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Siddiqui, A.; Gupta, K.; Jain, S.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    Geospatial technology has widespread usage in development planning and resource management. It offers pragmatic tools to help urban and regional planners to realize their goals. On the request of Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India, the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), Dehradun has taken an initiative to study the model syllabi of All India Council for Technical Education for planning curricula of Bachelor and Master (five disciplines) programmes. It is inferred that geospatial content across the semesters in various planning fields needs revision. It is also realized that students pursuing planning curricula are invariably exposed to spatial mapping tools but the popular digital drafting software have limitations on geospatial analysis of planning phenomena. Therefore, students need exposure on geospatial technologies to understand various real world phenomena. Inputs were given to seamlessly merge and incorporate geospatial components throughout the semesters wherever seems relevant. Another initiative by IIRS was taken to enhance the understanding and essence of space and geospatial technologies amongst the young minds at 10+2 level. The content was proposed in a manner such that youngsters start realizing the innumerable contributions made by space and geospatial technologies in their day-to-day life. This effort both at school and college level would help in not only enhancing job opportunities for young generation but also utilizing the untapped human resource potential. In the era of smart cities, higher economic growth and aspirations for a better tomorrow, integration of Geospatial technologies with conventional wisdom can no longer be ignored.

  3. Unexpected attitudinal growth in a course combining reformed curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Hull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show data from the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey that suggests that Georgetown physics majors become increasingly expert in their attitudes towards physics learning and knowing after taking a course that combines two reformed curricula, Matter and Interactions (M&I and Tutorials in Introductory Physics (TIPs. This occurs even though the two curricula do not send a consistent epistemological message to students. We analyze interview video data of two of these students to illustrate examples of this growth. We examine video data of one of these students in a tutorial session to describe a possible mechanism that may have contributed to the growth. Finally, we compare this qualitative video data with quantitative data from the newly developed Perceptions of Physics Classes survey and discuss aggregate responses to this survey in considering the ways in which other students developed more expertlike attitudes in this course. We conclude that the attitudinal growth observed cannot be explained simply “as the result of” either M&I or of TIPs but rather find the most plausible explanation to be that the growth is an emergent phenomena produced by M&I and TIPs working together in concert with other factors.

  4. Transcultural Nursing in Turkey's Bachelor's of Science Nursing Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülbu Tanrıverdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of this manuscript are to examine the presence of transcultural Nursing concept and foundations in Turkey's Bachelor's Of Science In Nursing curricula.Methods: Tis study was planned as a descriptive study during the 2004-2005 academic year in Turkey's Bachelor's of Science in Nursing Curricula. The manuscript data were collected by internet, mail, fax and telephone calls. Percentage was used in the statistical evaluation.Results: According to findings none of the 66 Bachelor's of Science in Nursing curriculum programs had "transcultural Nursing" as a required course. There was only one nursing school that did have the course as an elective. However, There was courses like Socio-Anthropology, Medical Anthropology, Health Sociology and Anthropology which has the elements of transcultural nursing concept are included in BSN programs.Conclusions: Based on the findings it is recommended that Turkey's university curriculum programs in Nursing College and Health Colleges to be reevaluated for the inclusion of a transcultural Nursing Course.

  5. Unexpected attitudinal growth in a course combining reformed curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Michael M.; Lindsey, Beth A.; Archambault, Matthew; Davey, Kathleen; Liu, Amy Y.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we show data from the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey that suggests that Georgetown physics majors become increasingly expert in their attitudes towards physics learning and knowing after taking a course that combines two reformed curricula, Matter and Interactions (M&I) and Tutorials in Introductory Physics (TIPs). This occurs even though the two curricula do not send a consistent epistemological message to students. We analyze interview video data of two of these students to illustrate examples of this growth. We examine video data of one of these students in a tutorial session to describe a possible mechanism that may have contributed to the growth. Finally, we compare this qualitative video data with quantitative data from the newly developed Perceptions of Physics Classes survey and discuss aggregate responses to this survey in considering the ways in which other students developed more expertlike attitudes in this course. We conclude that the attitudinal growth observed cannot be explained simply "as the result of" either M&I or of TIPs but rather find the most plausible explanation to be that the growth is an emergent phenomena produced by M&I and TIPs working together in concert with other factors.

  6. Sensitivity of boundary-layer variables to PBL schemes in the WRF model based on surface meteorological observations, lidar, and radiosondes during the HygrA-CD campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Robert F.; Tiana-Alsina, Jordi; Baldasano, José María; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Papayannis, Alexandros; Solomos, Stavros; Tzanis, Chris G.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality forecast systems need reliable and accurate representations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to perform well. An important question is how accurately numerical weather prediction models can reproduce conditions in diverse synoptic flow types. Here, observations from the summer 2014 HygrA-CD (Hygroscopic Aerosols to Cloud Droplets) experimental campaign are used to validate simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the complex, urban terrain of the Greater Athens Area. Three typical atmospheric flow types were identified during the 39-day campaign based on 2-day backward trajectories: Continental, Etesians, and Saharan. It is shown that the numerical model simulations differ dramatically depending on the PBL scheme, atmospheric dynamics, and meteorological parameter (e.g., 2-m air temperature). Eight PBL schemes from WRF version 3.4 are tested with daily simulations on an inner domain at 1-km grid spacing. Near-surface observations of 2-m air temperature and relative humidity and 10-m wind speed are collected from multiple meteorological stations. Estimates of the PBL height come from measurements using a multiwavelength Raman lidar, with an adaptive extended Kalman filter technique. Vertical profiles of atmospheric variables are obtained from radiosonde launches, along with PBL heights calculated using bulk Richardson number. Daytime maximum PBL heights ranged from 2.57 km during Etesian flows, to as low as 0.37 km during Saharan flows. The largest differences between model and observations are found with simulated PBL height during Saharan synoptic flows. During the daytime, campaign-averaged near-surface variables show WRF tended to have a cool, moist bias with higher simulated wind speeds than the observations, especially near the coast. It is determined that non-local PBL schemes give the most agreeable solutions when compared with observations.

  7. Assessing impacts of PBL and surface layer schemes in simulating the surface-atmosphere interactions and precipitation over the tropical ocean using observations from AMIE/DYNAMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Berg, Larry K.; Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Yang, Ben; Huang, Maoyi

    2016-11-01

    Accuracy of turbulence parameterization in representing Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) processes in climate models is critical for predicting the initiation and development of clouds, air quality issues, and underlying surface-atmosphere-cloud interactions. In this study, we 1) evaluate WRF model-simulated spatial patterns of precipitation and surface fluxes, as well as vertical profiles of potential temperature, humidity, moist static energy and moisture tendency terms as simulated by WRF at various spatial resolutions and with PBL, surface layer and shallow convection schemes against measurements, 2) identify model biases by examining the moisture tendency terms contributed by PBL and convection processes through nudging experiments, and 3) evaluate the dependence of modeled surface latent heat (LH) fluxes onPBL and surface layer schemes over the tropical ocean. The results show that PBL and surface parameterizations have surprisingly large impacts on precipitation, convection initiation and surface moisture fluxes over tropical oceans. All of the parameterizations tested tend to overpredict moisture in PBL and free atmosphere, and consequently result in larger moist static energy and precipitation. Moisture nudging tends to suppress the initiation of convection and reduces the excess precipitation. The reduction in precipitation bias in turn reduces the surface wind and LH flux biases, which suggests that the model drifts at least partly because of a positive feedback between precipitation and surface fluxes. The updated shallow convection scheme KF-CuP tends to suppress the initiation and development of deep convection, consequently decreasing precipitation. The Eta surface layer scheme predicts more reasonable LH fluxes and the LH-Wind Speed relationship than the MM5 scheme, especially when coupled with the MYJ scheme. By examining various parameterization schemes in WRF, we identify sources of biases and weaknesses of current PBL, surface layer and shallow

  8. Influence of national culture on the adoption of integrated medical curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jippes, Mariëlle; Majoor, Gerard D

    2011-03-01

    Integrated curricula have been implemented in medical schools all over the world. However, among countries different relative numbers of schools with integrated curricula are found. This study aims to explore the possible correlation between the percentage of medical schools with integrated curricula in a country and that country's cultural characteristics. Curricula were defined as not integrated if in the first 2 years of the program at least two out of the three monodisciplinary courses Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry were identified. Culture was defined using Hofstede's dimensions Power distance, Uncertainty avoidance, Masculinity/Femininity, and Individualism/Collectivism. Consequently, this study had to be restricted to the 63 countries included in Hofstede's studies which harbored 1,195 medical schools. From each country we randomly sampled a maximum of 15 schools yielding 484 schools to be investigated. In total 91% (446) of the curricula were found. Correlation of percent integrated curricula and each dimension of culture was determined by calculating Spearman's Rho. A high score on the Power distance index and a high score on the Uncertainty avoidance index correlated with a low percent integrated curricula; a high score on the Individualism index correlated with a high percent integrated curricula. The percentage integrated curricula in a country did not correlate with its score on the Masculinity index. National culture is associated with the propensity of medical schools to adopt integrated medical curricula. Consequently, medical schools considering introduction of integrated and problem-based medical curricula should take into account dimensions of national culture which may hinder the innovation process.

  9. A comparison between the effectiveness of PBL and LBL on improving problem-solving abilities of medical students using questioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yunfeng; Du, Xiangyun; Toft, Egon

    2017-01-01

    In daily patient-history taking and diagnosis practice, doctors ask questions to gather information from patients and narrow down diagnostic hypotheses. Training medical students to be efficient problem solvers through the use of questioning is therefore important. In this study, the effectiveness...... of problem-based learning (PBL) and lecture-based learning in improving the questioning abilities of medical students (N = 104) was assessed by a modified 20-question task. In this task, the participants were asked to identify target pictures by asking questions, the problem-solving process of which...... resembles that of the diagnosis scenario. Moreover, this task requires no medical knowledge, and therefore allows knowledge- irrelevant questioning abilities to be assessed independently. The results show that PBL students generally ask more efficient questions and use fewer questions to complete the task...

  10. Influence of an urban canopy model and PBL schemes on vertical mixing for air quality modeling over Greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Sartelet, Karine; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Chazette, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Impacts of meteorological modeling in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and urban canopy model (UCM) on the vertical mixing of pollutants are studied. Concentrations of gaseous chemical species, including ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter over Paris and the near suburbs are simulated using the 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model Polair3D of the Polyphemus platform. Simulated concentrations of O3, NO2 and PM10/PM2.5 (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm/2.5 μm, respectively) are first evaluated using ground measurements. Higher surface concentrations are obtained for PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 with the MYNN PBL scheme than the YSU PBL scheme because of lower PBL heights in the MYNN scheme. Differences between simulations using different PBL schemes are lower than differences between simulations with and without the UCM and the Corine land-use over urban areas. Regarding the root mean square error, the simulations using the UCM and the Corine land-use tend to perform better than the simulations without it. At urban stations, the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are over-estimated and the over-estimation is reduced using the UCM and the Corine land-use. The ability of the model to reproduce vertical mixing is evaluated using NO2 measurement data at the upper air observation station of the Eiffel Tower, and measurement data at a ground station near the Eiffel Tower. Although NO2 is under-estimated in all simulations, vertical mixing is greatly improved when using the UCM and the Corine land-use. Comparisons of the modeled PM10 vertical distributions to distributions deduced from surface and mobile lidar measurements are performed. The use of the UCM and the Corine land-use is crucial to accurately model PM10 concentrations during nighttime in the center of Paris. In the nocturnal stable boundary layer, PM10 is relatively well modeled, although it is over-estimated on 24 May and under-estimated on 25 May. However, PM10 is

  11. The Impact of the Implementation of the PBL for EFL Interdisciplinary Study in a Local Thai Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coffin, Prarthana

    2013-01-01

    of restructuring English as a foreign language (EFL) writing course, called Writing3, at a Thai university. The study also examines students’ and teachers’ perceptions as related to their learning experiences. The case study involves 182 English major students and 3 English teachers who participated in learning......Can Problem-Based Learning (PBL) principles and practices be applied to language education, especially within an academic writing course? The answer to this question remains ambivalent to many language teachers and educators. This study describes how PBL principles are used as the fundamental basis...... and teaching of an EFL academic writing course (Writing 3) in the first semester of academic year of 2012. Pre and post survey questionnaires (N=166) are used and the results are analyzed through a paired samples t-test to compare whether there is a significant difference in students’ perception towards...

  12. Community of learners: charting learning in first year graduate entry medical students during problem-based learning (PBL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Paul; Zvauya, R

    2015-05-01

    This study considers social learning practices within and outside the overt curriculum. A thematic approach was used to analyse data from six focus group interviews with 11 graduate entry medical students from a UK university over a year of study. The results indicate that: (1) during their first year of study students form a community of learning practice, (2) this community of practice influences learning inside and outside the overt curriculum, (3) there is a changing community profile over the year of practice, (4) the students' engagement in problem-based learning (PBL) as part of their overt curriculum strongly influences the development of a community of practice and hence learning both inside and outside the overt curriculum. Findings are discussed in terms of Wenger's community of practice framework, the role of distributed cognition and social learning. It is concluded that PBL is an effective approach for academics to enrich students' social learning practices.

  13. Role and tasks of teachers in PBL%PBL教学中教师的角色和作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜春明; 王竹颖

    2011-01-01

    PBL与传统教学方式有很大不同.PBL强调以学生为中心,而非教师的讲授.教师不给学生提供问题答案,而是引导学生如何探究问题的答案,促进学生自主学习.PBL教学中,教师所起的作用趋向于多元化.%PBL tutoring is quite different from the traditional tutoring and emphasizes the importance of student-centred instead of teacher-centred education.In PBL,teachers guide students to find answers to their own questions and facilitate students' learning process.Therefore,the tutor role is complex and has a fundamental change.

  14. A Web-based interactive training for the selfacquisition of information retrieval skills targeting the PBL students

    OpenAIRE

    Chalon, Patrice X.; Pasleau, Françoise

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide the medical students involved in Problem-Based Learning (PBL) with a remotely accessible training tool for the self acquisition of information retrieval skills. CONTENT: Access to the training tool is made trough a portal Web site. The tool is initiated with a clinical case. A selection of relevant electronic resources such as dictionaries, encyclopaedias, textbooks, and bibliographical databases is proposed. Each resource comes with search examples achieved by librar...

  15. Perception of social networking benefits in the support of a PBL module according to students' performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekarattanawong, Sophapun; Thuppia, Amornnat; Chamod, Pholasit; Pattharanitima, Pattharawin; Suealek, Nuchanart; Rojpibulstit, Panadda

    2015-03-01

    The use ofsocial networking to all levels of medical teaching as a communication tool between instructors and students has drawn much interest and increased usage. As Facebook is one of the most popular social networking sites among students, a Facebook page has been used in the Genitourinary System problem-based learning (PBL) course at the Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University in the year 2014. The objective of this work is to study the perception ofusing a Facebook page to support PBL in an integrated pre- clinical year course. The Genitourinary System course committee introduced Facebook page to the 2"d year medical students who enrolled and instructors involved in the course. At the beginning ofthe course, the objectives ofFacebook page setting were informed as follows: 1) public relations, 2) channelfor questions and responses to address curiosities between students and instructors, 3) learning stimulation and 4) supporting good relationship between course coordinators and students. The participants consisted of 177 students who voluntarily allowed their opinion to be used in analysis and dissemination after completing a questionnaire about using the Facebook page in PBL at the end. A Likert scale was used to determine satisfaction scores for nine questions. Finally, the mean satisfaction was compared for each question and for students with different academic performances (great, good, fine, weak). The students liked the page (averaged satisfaction score 4.64) and wanted it to continue to be used in coursework (4.63), especiallyfor students at mid-level when compared to students with great performances (pPBL-styled courses.

  16. Assessment of the WRF-ARW model during fog conditions in a coastal arid region using different PBL schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temimi, Marouane; Chaouch, Naira; Weston, Michael; Ghedira, Hosni

    2017-04-01

    This study covers five fog events reported in 2014 at Abu Dhabi International Airport in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We assess the performance of WRF-ARW model during fog conditions and we intercompare seven different PBL schemes and assess their impact on the performance of the simulations. Seven PBL schemes, namely, Yonsei University (YSU), Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ), Moller-Yamada Nakanishi and Niino (MYNN) level 2.5, Quasi-Normal Scale Elimination (QNSE-EDMF), Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM2), Grenier-Bretherton-McCaa (GBM) and MYNN level 3 were tested. Radiosonde data from the Abu Dhabi International Airport and surface measurements of relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature, wind speed, and temperature profiles were used to assess the performance of the model. All PBL schemes showed comparable skills with relatively higher performance with the QNSE scheme. The average RH Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and BIAS for all PBLs were 15.75 % and -9.07 %, respectively, whereas the obtained RMSE and BIAS when QNSE was used were 14.65 % and -6.3 % respectively. Comparable skills were obtained for the rest of the variables. Local PBL schemes showed better performance than non-local schemes. Discrepancies between simulated and observed values were higher at the surface level compared to high altitude values. The sensitivity to lead time showed that best simulation performances were obtained when the lead time varies between 12 and 18 hours. In addition, the results of the simulations show that better performance is obtained when the starting condition is dry.

  17. Influence of Different PBL Schemes on Secondary Eyewall Formation and Eyewall Replacement Cycle in Simulated Typhoon Sinlaku (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yutao

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the different planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes on the secondary eyewall formation (SEF) and eyewall replacement cycle (ERC) in Typhoon Sinlaku (2008) are investigated by using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) with six different PBL schemes. The SEF and ERC have been successfully simulated with all the six PBL schemes and the mechanism of the SEF and ERC proposed in our previous study has been reconfirmed: It is demonstrated that both the intensification of the storm and the inward-moving outer spiral rainband contribute to the SEF. After the SEF, the associated diabatic heating enhances the secondary eyewall further and transfer of the moist air from outer region to the primary eyewall is cut off by the secondary eyewall. In such a way the primary eyewall dies and an ERC completes. It is found that some simulated features of the SEF and ERC, such as the time and location of the SEF and duration of the ERC, do vary from one simulation to another. In order to describe the feature of the SEF and ERC quantitatively, a concentric eyewall index (CEI) is defined and a threshold of the CEI is suggested to determine the onset of the secondary eyewall. The differences of the simulated SEF and ERC are discussed and some possible causes are suggested. In addition, based on the threshold of the CEI and the conservation law of the angular momentum a formula to predict the location of the SEF is also suggested and applied to all the six simulations. The success and failure of the formula are also discussed. Key words: eye-wall replacement cycle, secondary eye-wall formation, PBL scheme, CEI

  18. "For most of us Africans, we don't just speak": a qualitative investigation into collaborative heterogeneous PBL group learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaram, Veena S; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Stevens, Fred; Dolmans, Diana H J M

    2011-08-01

    Collaborative approaches such as Problem Based Learning (PBL) may provide the opportunity to bring together diverse students but their efficacy in practice and the complications that arise due to the mixed ethnicity needs further investigation. This study explores the key advantages and problems of heterogeneous PBL groups from the students' and teachers' opinions. Focus groups were conducted with a stratified sample of second year medical students and their PBL teachers. We found that students working in heterogeneous groupings interact with students with whom they don't normally interact with, learn a lot more from each other because of their differences in language and academic preparedness and become better prepared for their future professions in multicultural societies. On the other hand we found students segregating in the tutorials along racial lines and that status factors disempowered students and subsequently their productivity. Among the challenges was also that academic and language diversity hindered student learning. In light of these the recommendations were that teachers need special diversity training to deal with heterogeneous groups and the tensions that arise. Attention should be given to create 'the right mix' for group learning in diverse student populations. The findings demonstrate that collaborative heterogeneous learning has two sides that need to be balanced. On the positive end we have the 'ideology' behind mixing diverse students and on the negative the 'practice' behind mixing students. More research is needed to explore these variations and their efficacy in more detail.

  19. Effect of route of infection on outcome of Toxoplasma gondii infection in hu-PBL SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Desiree J; Allan, Jane E; Beaman, Miles H

    2013-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) causes serious infection, especially in immunocompromised hosts. The relevance of animal models of toxoplasmosis to human disease is unclear, but have indicated that the route of Toxoplasma infection may affect the outcome. A humanized model of toxoplasmosis of immunocompromised mice (i.e. hu-PBL SCID), using the intraperitoneal (IP) route demonstrated long-term engraftment of human cells and worsening of inflammation compared to controls. In this study, we examined the effect of route of infection on this hu-PBL SCID model using a Toxoplasma strain (i.e. DAG) isolated from an immunocompromised human. Oral infection led to an asymptomatic infection, whereas animals infected by the IP route succumbed more quickly to infection. Human cells, detected through species-specific β-actin mRNA, were not as prominent in IP-infected animals as compared to orally infected and uninfected animals. There was evidence of control of toxoplasmosis in some orally infected animals, and this was associated with the presence of human cells in multiple tissues. Thus, the route of infection dramatically affects the outcome of infection, either by affecting parasite replication or expansion of human immune cells. Further studies of oral Toxoplasma infection using hu-PBL SCID mice may help in developing chemotherapies and immunotherapeutic strategies for toxoplasmosis.

  20. Assessing Cardiff University's Curricula Contribution to Sustainable Development Using the STAUNCH[superscript (RTM)] System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Peattie, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of the sustainable development curricula assessment undertaken at 19 of the 28 schools of Cardiff University using the Sustainability Tool for Assessing UNiversity's Curricula Holistically (STAUNCH[superscript (RTM)]. STAUNCH[superscript (RTM)] was developed with two objectives: (1) to systematically assess how…

  1. Curricula and Instruction for Young Handicapped Children: A Guideline for Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Rebecca; Kelley, Jean

    The paper examines the theoretical constructs that underlie currently used curricula for young handicapped children and suggests guidelines for selecting and evaluating curricula. Three developmental perspectives are reviewed: the age related developmental milestones identified by A. Gesell and adhered to by diagnostic prescriptive advocates, the…

  2. Comparison of Elementary Social Studies Curricula of Turkey and the United States on Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merey, Zihni; Kus, Zafer; Karatekin, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the social studies teaching curricula of Turkey and the United States in terms of values education. The study is a model case study that relies upon one of the qualitative research methods. The data come from the elementary social studies curricula of both countries through the documents analysis method. The…

  3. Sustainbility and Undergraduate Management Curricula: Changes over a 5-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Josie; Bonn, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Global initiatives and a rapidly expanding academic literature identify the responsibility that universities have to incorporate sustainability education into their curricula. This study had two aims: first, to investigate the extent to which Australian undergraduate management curricula explicitly identified a focus on sustainability and, second,…

  4. On the Making and Faking of Knowledge Value in Higher Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordern, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses Bernstein's sociology of knowledge and studies of professional knowledge and expertise to identify how knowledge value is constituted in higher education curricula. It is argued that different knowledge structures and forms of disciplinary community influence how curricula are determined, and lead to distinctive types of knowledge…

  5. Ideas, Institutions, and School Curricula: Explaining Variation between England and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This study raises the question of why the French secondary school history curricula introduced in the late 2000s prescribed more extensive coverage of plural histories than did secondary school history curricula for English schools introduced in the same time period. Both countries share similar societal diversity. To explain the variation in…

  6. Algebra for All: California's Eighth-Grade Algebra Initiative as Constrained Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domina, Thurston; Penner, Andrew M.; Penner, Emily K.; Conley, AnneMarie

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Across the United States, secondary school curricula are intensifying as a growing proportion of students enroll in high-level academic math courses. In many districts, this intensification process occurs as early as eighth grade, where schools are effectively constraining their mathematics curricula by restricting course…

  7. A Historical Analysis of Primary Mathematics Curricula in Terms of Teaching Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2017-01-01

    This study carries out a comparative analysis of primary mathematics curricula put into practice during Turkish Republican period. The data for this study are composed of official curricula documents which are examined in terms of teaching principles. The study adopts a qualitative approach and employs document analysis method. The official…

  8. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  9. Using Variables in School Mathematics: Do School Mathematics Curricula Provide Support for Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogbey, James

    2016-01-01

    This study employed content analysis to examine 3 popular middle-grades mathematics curricula in the USA on the support they provide for teachers to implement concepts associated with variables in school mathematics. The results indicate that each of the 3 curricula provides some type of support for teachers, but in a varied amount and quality.…

  10. Micro Computer Technician Course. Course Design, Course Curricula, Learning Units, Resource Requirements. InfoTVE 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech. (Australia).

    This guide to the core curricula for the training of microcomputer technicians is designed for school leavers after 10 or more years of general/vocational education with a science and mathematics background. The 2-year course is to be administered in four semesters. An introductory outline of course design and curricula provides the rationale,…

  11. A Cross-National Comparison of Art Curricula for Kindergarten-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejin; Kim, Hajin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to make a cross-national comparison of art curricula for kindergarten-aged children across five countries--Korea, Norway, New Zealand, Slovakia and Singapore. A document analysis was conducted on the five curricula using a constant comparative approach for selected qualitative statements to analyse two major constructs:…

  12. Found in transition: applying milestones to three unique discharge curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B. Meade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A safe and effective transition from hospital to post-acute care is a complex and important physician competency. Milestones and Entrustable Professional Activities (EPA form the new educational rubric in Graduate Medical Education Training. “A safe and effective discharge from the hospital” is an EPA ripe for educational innovation.Methods. The authors collaborated in a qualitative process called mapping to define 22 of 142 Internal Medicine (IM curricular milestones related to the transition of care. Fifty-five participant units at an Association for Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM workshop prioritized the milestones, using a validated ranking process called Q-sort. We analyzed the Q-sort results, which rank the milestones in order of priority. We then applied this ranking to three innovative models of training IM residents in the transitions of care: Simulation (S, Discharge Clinic Feedback (DCF and TRACER (T.Results. We collected 55 Q-sort rankings from particpants at the APDIM workshop. We then identified which milestones are a focus of the three innovative models of training in the transition of care: Simulation = 5 of 22 milestones, Discharge Clinic Feedback = 9 of 22 milestones, and TRACER = 7 of 22 milestones. Milestones identified in each innovation related to one of the top 8 prioritized milestones 75% of the time; thus, more frequently than the milestones with lower priority. Two milestones are shared by all three curricula: Utilize patient-centered education and Ensure succinct written communication. Two other milestones are shared by two curricula: Manage and coordinate care transitions across multiple delivery systems and Customize care in the context of the patient’s preferences. If you combine the three innovations, all of the top 8 milestones are included.Discussion. The milestones give us a context to share individual innovations and to compare and contrast using a standardized frame. We

  13. Experiencing the Implementation of New Inquiry Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ower, Peter S.

    Using a phenomenological methodology, a cohort of four experienced science teachers was interviewed about their experience transitioning from traditional, teacher and fact-centered science curricula to inquiry-based curricula. Each teacher participated in two interviews that focused on their teaching backgrounds, their experience teaching the prior traditional curriculum, and their experience teaching the new inquiry-based curriculum. The findings are presented as a narrative of each teachers' experience with the new curriculum implementation. Analyzing the data revealed four key themes. 1) The teachers felt trapped by the old curriculum as it did not align with their positive views of teaching science through inquiry. 2) The teachers found a way to fit their beliefs and values into the old and new curriculum. This required changes to the curriculum. 3) The teachers attempted to make the science curriculum as meaningful as possible for their students. 4) The teachers experienced a balancing act between their beliefs and values and the various aspects of the curriculum. The revealed essence of the curriculum transition is one of freedom and reconciliation of their beliefs. The teachers experienced the implementation of the new curriculum as a way to ensure their values and beliefs of science education were embedded therein. They treated the new curriculum as a malleable structure to impart their grander ideas of science education (e.g. providing important skills for future careers, creating a sense of wonder, future problem solving) to the students. Their changes were aligned with the philosophy of the curriculum kits they were implementing. Thus, the fidelity of the curriculum's philosophy was not at risk even though the curriculum kits were not taught as written. This study showed that phenomenological methods are able to reveal the relationship between a teacher's prior experiences, values and beliefs and their current instructional philosophy in science

  14. Applying an e-PBL Platform to Develop a Storytelling-Based Arithmetic Card Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Li Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is a very important learning subject. Mathematical knowledge can be learned by traditional or distance learning, but the mathematical problem solving ability is hard to improve without experiences through practice. Therefore, developing an interesting learning game to enhance students’ problem solving ability is the major concern in this paper. Since the storytelling strategy has been proved to be useful to enhance the students thinking ability, we develop a storytelling-based arithmetic card game to encourage and guide students to speak out their thinking process of problem solving, where the e-Project-Based Learning (e-PBL platform has been applied to brainstorm the characteristics of the game and construct the storytelling script. Thus, the misconceptions can be easily diagnosed. To evaluate the performance of our approach, 40 5-grade primary school students have participated in the storytelling-based arithmetic card game experiment. The experimental result shows that the storytelling-based learning can enhance the mathematical problem solving ability via playing the game.

  15. Students' and teachers' perceptions of clinical assessment program: A qualitative study in a PBL curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vleuten Cees

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Examinations drive students' learning." This statement refers to what is assumed to be one of the strongest relationships in education. We explored in this research how and why students differ in their approaches to learning, how assessment affects deep learning, and which barriers stand in the way of good assessment and learning in the clinical years of a Problem Based Learning (PBL graduate entry medical curriculum. Findings Method: We conducted a qualitative, phenomenological study using semi-structured group interviews with students and semi-structured individual interviews with teachers and students. The transcripts were analyzed, and themes were identified. Setting: The research was conducted at the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from November 2007 to March 2008. Results: A total of 28 students participated in 7 focus group interviews. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 12 teachers and 12 students. The analysis yielded four themes: summative assessment, formative assessment, continuous assessment of clinical attachments, and learning objectives. Conclusions The results of this study confirm that assessment affects students' perceptions of learning and how they learn. These effects are not uniformly positive. According to the students, the predominantly summative assessment program offers little inducement to engage in deep learning. They express a clear preference for formative assessment, which may foster a deeper approach to learning. Efforts to achieve more clinically relevant assessment with adequate balance between the various types of assessment are required. Research is needed to decide this balance.

  16. Investigating the constraint imposed by column averaged PBL CO2 data within an atmospheric inversion framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, A. E.; Kawa, S. R.; Denning, A. S.; Baker, D. F.; Ramanathan, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    It was initially hoped that the proposed Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) NASA mission could rectify diurnal fluxes through it's ability to measure during both days and nights. However, initial simulation results (Kawa et al 2010) showed limited skill at identifying diurnal differences in fluxes. We investigate the possibility of (1) supplementing ASCENDS with well chosen in-situ surface sites and/or (2) adding distinct column measurements for the PBL and free troposphere into the inversion framework to determine the impact on recovering net ecosystem exchange (NEE), as well as distinct gross primary production (GPP) and respiration fluxes. In particular, we run forward simulations and inversions with distinct respiration and GPP fluxes calculated from the SiB model (Baker et al 2008) and test the ability of an EnKF based inversion framework to recover a hypothetical tropical CO2 fertilization effect resulting in enhanced GPP. Baker, I. T.; Prihodko, L.; Denning, A. S.; Goulden, M.; Miller, S. & da Rocha, H. R. (2008), 'Seasonal drought stress in the Amazon: Reconciling 3 models and observations', Journal of Geophysical Research 113. Kawa, S. R.; MAO, J.; ABSHIRE, J. B.; J., C. G.; SUN, X. & WEAVER, C. J. (2010), 'Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission.', Tellus B 62, 759-769.

  17. [Educational effects of PBL for students in the Faculty of Dentistry--with special reference to the educational effects on dysphagia--].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimiya, Yoichiro

    2007-03-01

    Although the importance of student education has long been emphasized and various educational strategies have been attempted, the PBL method is deemed to be effective among them. Recently, the PBL method was therefore employed in our lecture on dysphagia in order to examine its efficacy. Thirty-one female and 35 male students (66 in total, 6th-grade students in the Department of Dentistry) were enrolled in this study which was performed from February 9 to June 29, 2006. The students were allocated into 2 groups, 3-4 per group. Two kinds of educational training program on dysphagia were given by a director/tutor experienced in clinical practice for dysphagia. The first group received a lecture of the conventional type (conventional group), while the latter group received a lecture of PBL (PBL group). In both groups, an identical X-ray film taken during swallowing was evaluated. In addition, the students' impression on the lecture they received was obtained by means of questionnaires. The coincident rate of evaluation on the swallowing image was better in the PBL group than the conventional group on average. Among 23 evaluation items, a coincident rate more than moderate was obtained on 4 and 8 items in the conventional and PBL groups respectively. From the results of the questionnaire survey, it was revealed that the item "motivation" was rated to be significantly better in the PBL than in the conventional group. A lecture on dysphagia was given by 2 kinds of educational strategy. From the results of this study, it was revealed that the PBL method was more effective for enhancing the students' motivation on the lecture. In the PBL group, the lecture was given by individual cases with subsequently increased questions and answers and promoted positive participation in the lecture as compared to the conventional group. Furthermore, students' motivation was raised probably due to a good understanding of the case details upon evaluation of the swallowing image with the

  18. Baccalaureate nursing students' attitudes toward poverty: implications for nursing curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Wendy; Reutter, Linda; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Rideout, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Given the link between poverty and health, nurses, in their work in hospitals and in the community, often come into contact with people who are poor. To be effective care providers, nurses must have an adequate understanding of poverty and a positive attitude toward people who are poor. This study examined attitudes toward poverty among baccalaureate nursing students (N = 740) at three Canadian universities. Students' attitudes were neutral to slightly positive. Personal experiences appeared to have an important influence on the development of favorable attitudes. The findings point to several considerations for nursing curricula. Students should not only be provided with classroom opportunities for critical exploration of poverty and its negative effects on individuals and society, but also have clinical learning experiences that bring them face-to-face with people who are poor, their health concerns, and the realities of their circumstances. Thoughtful critique of poverty-related issues and interpersonal contact may be effective strategies to foster attitude change.

  19. Teaching strategies to incorporate genomics education into academic nursing curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo Garcia, Sylvia P; Greco, Karen E; Loescher, Lois J

    2011-11-01

    The translation of genomic science into health care has expanded our ability to understand the effects of genomics on human health and disease. As genomic advances continue, nurses are expected to have the knowledge and skills to translate genomic information into improved patient care. This integrative review describes strategies used to teach genomics in academic nursing programs and their facilitators and barriers to inclusion in nursing curricula. The Learning Engagement Model and the Diffusion of Innovations Theory guided the interpretation of findings. CINAHL, Medline, and Web of Science were resources for articles published during the past decade that included strategies for teaching genomics in academic nursing programs. Of 135 articles, 13 met criteria for review. Examples of effective genomics teaching strategies included clinical application through case studies, storytelling, online genomics resources, student self-assessment, guest lecturers, and a genetics focus group. Most strategies were not evaluated for effectiveness.

  20. Problem Based Internship in Surveying and Planning Curricula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Esben Munk; Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    another consulting agency ore company with a surveying ore land management profile. The internship is not focusing on practice training alone. The student has to prepare the internship by formulating a problem reflecting what they want to learn and how the can contribute to develop products, procedures...... by the society to serve the community with still more new knowledge and technology transfer from the international research community. The internship and still more real world influenced problem based learning by writing thesis will be and important bridge builder in the following years.......The University Programme for the education of Masters in Surveying and Planning has been reorganized. First of all the basic concept of Problem Based Learning at Aalborg University is still dominating the full curricula of the Danish Master Programme in Surveying and Planning. The five year...

  1. Integration of social responsability in the curricula: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angela Prialé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The document presented below combines the review of existing literature in the field of teaching ethics and social responsibility with a case study through which the integration of social responsibility is analyzed transversely in the curricula of undergraduate programs offered by a Peruvian university specializing in economics and business. An analysis method that exploits the concept of social responsibility defined in ISO 26000, to generate items that allow to evaluate the approach to social responsibility for the contents of 215 compulsory courses offered by the different academic departments of the university was created. The review of the courses was conducted using the discernment of five experts. The first contribution of this research is to design a transferable and replicable method for mapping if a generic competence, as is the social responsibility develops gradually throughout the whole training process. On the other hand, the case study shows that 21% of the courses offered address some of the subjects of social responsibility

  2. Identifying content for simulation-based curricula in urology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Bølling Hansen, Rikke; Lindorff-Larsen, Karen

    2017-01-01

    to identify technical procedures in urology that should be included in a simulation-based curriculum for residency training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national needs assessment was performed using the Delphi method involving 56 experts with significant roles in the education of urologists. Round 1 identified......OBJECTIVE: Simulation-based training is well recognized in the transforming field of urological surgery; however, integration into the curriculum is often unstructured. Development of simulation-based curricula should follow a stepwise approach starting with a needs assessment. This study aimed...... technical procedures that newly qualified urologists should perform. Round 2 included a survey using an established needs assessment formula to explore: the frequency of procedures; the number of physicians who should be able to perform the procedure; the risk and/or discomfort to patients when a procedure...

  3. An Evaluation of Relevance of Computing Curricula to Industry Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Chan Mow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research documented in this paper attempted to answer the question of how relevant the content of the Computing courses offered within programs of the Computing Department at the National University of Samoa (NUS were to meet the needs of industry and the workforce. The RINCCII study which was conducted in 2013 to 2014, surveyed 13 institutions and 19 graduates from the Computing programs. Findings from the survey indicated that the current course offerings within the Computing department are relevant to the needs of industry and the workplace. However there are aspects or topics which need inclusion or better coverage. The study also recommended regular surveys to gauge relevance of curricula to needs of industry.

  4. Multimedia and Communication Curricula: The Medium vs. the Message

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Azzi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia technology is restructuring the field of communication in various ways. The prevalent nature of this new media invites flexibility which can make communication curricula accommodate a wide range of competencies including technical competency. I have argued in this paper that multimedia, much like printing, radio, television and film, is mainly the means whereby content is delivered. Central to multimedia are content and effects. Content requires perspective which can then be reproduced in texts and images, while effects involves assessment of the influence of multimedia on society and culture. As such, multimedia needs to be approached from a mass communication perspective which preserves the identity of the field and provides a vital link between theory and practical application.

  5. Decolonising medical curricula through diversity education: lessons from students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Mahdi; Kendall, Kathleen; Day, Lawrence; Nazar, Hamde

    2015-04-01

    The General Medical Council (GMC) expects that medical students graduate with an awareness of how the diversity of the patient population may affect health outcomes and behaviours. However, little guidance has been provided on how to incorporate diversity teaching into medical school curricula. Research highlights the existence of two different models within medical education: cultural competency and cultural humility. The Southampton medical curriculum includes both models in its diversity teaching, but little was known about which model was dominant or about the students' experience. Fifteen semi-structured, in-depth interviews were carried out with medical students at the University of Southampton. Data were analysed thematically using elements of grounded theory and constant comparison. Students identified early examples of diversity teaching consistent with a cultural humility approach. In later years, the limited diversity teaching recognised by students generally adopted a cultural competency approach. Students tended to perceive diversity as something that creates problems for healthcare professionals due to patients' perceived differences. They also reported witnessing a number of questionable practices related to diversity issues that they felt unable to challenge. The dissonance created by differences in the largely lecture based and the clinical environments left students confused and doubting the value of cultural humility in a clinical context. Staff training on diversity issues is required to encourage institutional buy-in and establish consistent educational and clinical environments. By tackling cultural diversity within the context of patient-centred care, cultural humility, the approach students valued most, would become the default model. Reflective practice and the development of a critical consciousness are crucial in the improvement of cultural diversity training and thus should be facilitated and encouraged. Educators can adopt a

  6. Graduate Ethics Curricula for Future Geospatial Technology Professionals (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.; Dibiase, D.; Harvey, F.; Solem, M.

    2009-12-01

    Professionalism in today's rapidly-growing, multidisciplinary geographic information science field (e.g., geographic information systems or GIS, remote sensing, cartography, quantitative spatial analysis), now involves a commitment to ethical practice as informed by a more sophisticated understanding of the ethical implications of geographic technologies. The lack of privacy introduced by mobile mapping devices, the use of GIS for military and surveillance purposes, the appropriate use of data collected using these technologies for policy decisions (especially for conservation and sustainability) and general consequences of inequities that arise through biased access to geospatial tools and derived data all continue to be challenging issues and topics of deep concern for many. Students and professionals working with GIS and related technologies should develop a sound grasp of these issues and a thorough comprehension of the concerns impacting their use and development in today's world. However, while most people agree that ethics matters for GIS, we often have difficulty putting ethical issues into practice. An ongoing project supported by NSF seeks to bridge this gap by providing a sound basis for future ethical consideration of a variety of issues. A model seminar curriculum is under development by a team of geographic information science and technology (GIS&T) researchers and professional ethicists, along with protocols for course evaluations. In the curricula students first investigate the nature of professions in general and the characteristics of a GIS&T profession in particular. They hone moral reasoning skills through methodical analyses of case studies in relation to various GIS Code of Ethics and Rules of Conduct. They learn to unveil the "moral ecologies" of a profession through actual interviews with real practitioners in the field. Assignments thus far include readings, class discussions, practitioner interviews, and preparations of original case

  7. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  8. Metode Jaringan Syaraf Tiruan Untuk Prediksi Performa Mahasiswa Pada Pembelajaran Berbasis Problem Based Learning (PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badieah Badieah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve academic quality in higher education, students’ performance evaluation is becoming important. To prevent increasing failure rate in the course, we need a system that is capable of predicting student’s performance in the end of the course. The research used several factors that are considered to affect students' performance on Problem Based Learning (PBL, such as students’ demography, students’ prior knowledge and group heterogeneity.  The method used in the study was Artificial Neural Network (ANN with backpropagation training algorithm. Total 8 neurons were used as inputs for ANN which were obtained from gender variable (2 neurons, age variable (1 neuron, students’ average knowledge variable (1 neuron, students’ average skill variable (1 neuron and group heterogeneity variable (3 neurons. Several different ANN architecture were tested in the study using 2, 7 and 12 hidden neurons respectively. Each architecture was trained using various different training parameters in order to find the best ANN architecture. Dataset used  in the research were obtained from Academic Information System in Faculty of Dentistry Unissula which contained Adult and Elderly Diseases Course’s participants from year 2009 to 2013. The ANN output were numeric values which represented students’ performance in Adult and Elderly Diseases Course. The output of this study is a system that is able to predict the student performance in block course. The result shows that using 7 hidden neurons in the network combining with 0.5 ,0.1 and  9000 for learning rate, momentum and epoch respectively, were the best ANN architechture and parameters in the study. The MSE obtained from validation test was 0,011926 with correlation coefficient (R 0,796879. The prediction system are expected to help faculty and academic evaluation team to conduct actions to improve student’s academic performance and prevent them from failure in the course.

  9. Teaching science problem based learning (PBL) implementation of rocks and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carla; Ruas, Fátima; Godinho, Margarida; Martins, Anabela

    2016-04-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) is a teaching methodology based on the Inquiry Teaching approach, which consists of finding a solution to a problem that requires the use of higher-level cognitive skills. It's best carried out in small groups. (I) First the teacher asks some questions related to the implementation of rocks and minerals in the schooĺs area and in our life. (II) Then the teacher leads students to an area of the city (Avenida dos Aliados - Porto) and asks them to look at the buildings and the objects there are. They should take pictures and notes. (III) Finally, in the classroom, the teacher gives an object (phone, CD, lamp, lipstick, dish/cup, etc.) to each group and asks them to do a research to find out what materials they contain or are made of. The teacher helps students to think about where and how they can find information about the subject. Students should proceed with their research by presenting the results to their colleagues, discussing in groups, doing brainstorming and collaborating in the learning process. After the discussion the students must present their conclusions. The main aims are: to report some applications of rocks in society; to recognize the rocks used in some buildings of the region where the school is located; to respect and preserve the traditional architecture of the rocks in each region; and to raise awareness among young people about environmental issues of preservation and sustainability of our planet. The teacher finishes the lesson, asking some other questions: Will it be possible to use the natural resources of other planets? Can human beings use them to their advantage? This educational approach motivates students towards science, helping them to solve problems from their daily life and in collaborative work. The cognitive strand continues to be the most valued for pupils.

  10. Introducing integrated laboratory classes in a PBL curriculum: impact on student’s learning and satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background With the introduction of integrated problem-based learning (PBL) program in the medical curriculum, there is a need to create laboratory classes that suit students’ learning needs and the changes introduced to the curriculum. This paper outlines the development and implementation of four integrated laboratory classes (ILCs) at King Saud University College of Medicine. It also examines whether core concepts addressed in these classes were learned and retained and how the students perceived the ILCs. Methods ILCs are based on enhancing enquiry-based learning, and encouraging students to work on tasks in small groups (apply and integrate knowledge from biochemistry, pathology and microbiology) and conduct a laboratory procedure (practical part). In two of these ILCs, a pretest comprising 15 multiple-choice questions were administrated at the start of the class and an identical posttest was administrated at the end of these classes. Performance of the students in the Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE) at the end of the blocks was also evaluated. Students’ perceptions were evaluated using a questionnaire completed at the end of each class. Results A total of 247, 252, 238, and 244 students participated in practical classes covering cerebrospinal fluid infection, small intestine, liver function tests and adrenal gland function, respectively. Students got higher scores in posttests compared to pre-test scores in two classes (12.68 ± 2.03 vs 6.58 ± 3.39 and 13.02 ± 2.03 vs 7.43 ± 2.68, respectively). Paired t-test showed that the difference was significant (P learning. Conclusions Given the increase in the posttest scores (short-term retention) and the satisfactory performance of students at the end of block examinations (long-term retention) together with the students’ satisfaction, the study suggests that the core concepts addressed in these classes were learned and retained. PMID:23706014

  11. Introducing integrated laboratory classes in a PBL curriculum: impact on student's learning and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; Hasanato, Rana; Al-Nassar, Sami; Somily, Ali; AlSaadi, Muslim M

    2013-05-24

    With the introduction of integrated problem-based learning (PBL) program in the medical curriculum, there is a need to create laboratory classes that suit students' learning needs and the changes introduced to the curriculum. This paper outlines the development and implementation of four integrated laboratory classes (ILCs) at King Saud University College of Medicine. It also examines whether core concepts addressed in these classes were learned and retained and how the students perceived the ILCs. ILCs are based on enhancing enquiry-based learning, and encouraging students to work on tasks in small groups (apply and integrate knowledge from biochemistry, pathology and microbiology) and conduct a laboratory procedure (practical part). In two of these ILCs, a pretest comprising 15 multiple-choice questions were administrated at the start of the class and an identical posttest was administrated at the end of these classes. Performance of the students in the Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE) at the end of the blocks was also evaluated. Students' perceptions were evaluated using a questionnaire completed at the end of each class. A total of 247, 252, 238, and 244 students participated in practical classes covering cerebrospinal fluid infection, small intestine, liver function tests and adrenal gland function, respectively. Students got higher scores in posttests compared to pre-test scores in two classes (12.68 ± 2.03 vs 6.58 ± 3.39 and 13.02 ± 2.03 vs 7.43 ± 2.68, respectively). Paired t-test showed that the difference was significant (P learning. Given the increase in the posttest scores (short-term retention) and the satisfactory performance of students at the end of block examinations (long-term retention) together with the students' satisfaction, the study suggests that the core concepts addressed in these classes were learned and retained.

  12. Application of TBL combined with PBL to imaging diagnostics in the network environment%网络环境下 TBL 和 PBL 联合模式在影像诊断学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    利; 毕肖红; 李沁梅; 余林; 温宇; 谭理连; 陈德基

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the outcome of applying TBL combined with case-based PBL mode in undergraduate internship teaching of Imaging Diagnostics in the multimedia-and network-based teaching environment.We analyzed students'feedback on the teaching effects.Results show that this teaching mode can improve students'abilities in learning on their initiative,teamwork and communi-cation.It can also prompt students to effectively master theory,make use of knowledge and innovate and bring satisfactory overall teaching effects.However,there are still some problems that require immediate solution and further exploration.%为了探讨基于多媒体网络教学环境下,TBL 联合案例式 PBL 方式在《影像诊断学》中的应用效果,在医学影像学本科见习课中采用 TBL +案例式 PBL 联合方式进行授课,并对教学成效进行反馈、统计分析。结果显示,此方式可提高学生主动学习、团队协作、良好沟通等多方面的能力,亦能促进学生有效掌握理论、运用知识、创新的能力,总体教学效果良好;但仍存在一些急需解决的问题,有待于进一步探讨。

  13. The Use of a Hybrid Strategy Combining Problem-based Learning and Magisterial Lectures to Enhance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Acosta-Nassar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of capturing the attention of intermediate level students in the Thermodynamics 1 course from the Mechanical and Agricultural Engineering Program, with the purpose of helping students improve their learning process. A hybrid teaching strategy was proposed based on Problem-based Learning (PBL principles combined with magisterial lectures. Digital and traditional didactic resources were also used in order to find the best mean to minimize the lack of attention in learners. The strategy was developed by sensitizing students to get involved in their formation process. PowerPoint presentations, video clips, the traditional white board and an ultra slim digital tablet board were used to develop the theoretical issues and present the solutions to the problems chosen for the PBL strategy. Finally, the strategy was evaluated and results were analyzed, indicating that using a hybrid strategy combining PBL and traditional magisterial lectures is an optimal resource to improve the learning process of students taking Thermodynamics 1. In addition, it was also concluded that the ultra slim digital tablet board is the optimal didactic resource.

  14. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  15. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  16. Influence of PBL Teaching on Students' Autonomous Learning Ability%PBL教学对学生自主学习能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付连国; 孙丽丽; 姚荣英; 韩慧; 张勤; 吴学森; 庄颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the inlfuence of PBL teaching on student self-learning ability, provide the basis for improving PBL teaching effect. Methods50 students who have learned preventive medicine were selected to take part in the 3 times PBL teaching on Child and Adolescent Health. Teacher evaluation questionnaire made by self were used to evaluate student self-learning ability after each time PBL teaching. The difference of student self-learning ability was analyzed among 3 times PBL teaching.Results Based on the teacher evaluation questionnaire, the evaluation score of self-learning ability in the ifrst PBL and the second PBL was higher than that in third PBL (P<0.01), respectively, the result showed mainly in students having better or best self-learning ability.Conclusion Student self-learning ability being from teacher evaluation questionnaire was the descend trend with increase of PBL teaching times.%目的:分析PBL教学对学生自主学习能力的影响,为提升PBL教学效果提供依据。方法选取50名预防医学专业本科生作为研究对象,对其开展3次《儿童少年卫生学》PBL教学,采用自编制《教师对学生评价问卷》评价学生自主学习能力,比较3次PBL教学后《教师对学生评价问卷》评分的差异。结果研究结果显示,第1次PBL、第2次PBL教师评价学生自主学习能力评分高于第3次PBL(P<0.01),主要体现在本身自主学习能力为良好、优秀的学生。结论伴随PBL教学次数的增加,教师评价学生自主学习能力呈现下降趋势。

  17. The Application of PBL in Pediatric Dentistry%PBL教学法在儿童口腔医学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林育华; 池政兵

    2015-01-01

    为了提高儿童口腔教学的质量,引入了以问题为基础的教学法(Problem-based learning, PBL),对上海交通大学口腔医学院08级和09级口腔专业本科阶段学生开展儿童口腔科学PBL教学,采用问卷的方法进行结果评价.PBL教学在一定程度上提高了学生的自主性和综合思考能力,可以在儿童口腔教学中推广应用.%In order to improve the effects of pedodontics dentistry teaching, problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced. Dental students in grade 08 and 09 of College of Stomatology Shanghai Jiao Tong University were taught with PBL method in Pediatric Dentistry teaching. The teaching effect was measured with questionnaire survey. The self- learning ability and comprehensive thinking ability were developed by application of PBL teaching. Problem-based learning (PBL) could be applied and spread in Pediatric Dentistry teaching.

  18. Acquisition of transversal skills through PBL: a study of the perceptions of the students and teachers in materials science courses in engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lidón Moliner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is describing the experience in using Project Based Learning (PBL methodology in Materials Science courses in several Engineering degrees. The courses were taught simultaneously in four different Spanish universities. In addition, the impact of this proposal on the acquisition of transversal skills through the perceptions of students and teachers is assessed. In order to do so, voices of over 54 students and 5 lecturers involved in the work have been gathered and studied descriptively. Discussion groups and self-reports have been collected and subsequently analysed. The analysis of the data collected by these two instruments has been coded and categorized into general dimensions. The results show how, through the PBL, self-learning is encouraged and the development of transversal skills such as teamwork are enhanced. Meanwhile, the lecturers consider PBL an appropriate methodology for Materials Science courses; however its implementation requires a higher work load. The faculty acknowledged PBL as a very interesting tool to work and evaluate transversal competences. Hence, the PBL methodology stands as one of the most effective methods that meet the demands of the 21st century and enables students to acquire not only content based knowledge, but also other abilities.

  19. Comparison of student success using "atoms first" versus "traditional" curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesheim, Christina S.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between the "atoms first" and the "traditional" curricula. Specifically focusing on which curriculum better aligns to curricular expectations, leads to higher student success when students are grouped together, and when students are differentiated based on several factors. The main difference between the two approaches being the sequence of topics presented in the first semester general chemistry course. This study involves more than 9,500 general chemistry I and II students over 7 semesters with about half of them being taught using the "atoms first" approach. Student success was measured using the American Chemical Society's (ACS) final examination scores and the final letter grades. Alignment to curricular expectations was determined via a qualitative review of textbooks written for each of the approaches. This showed that the "atoms first" approach better aligns to research supported best practices. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to determine if there is a significant difference between the "atoms first" and the "traditional" curricula. The "traditional" approach was found to lead to higher student achievement for both measures of student success in both chemistry I and II courses. Lastly, multiple linear, multinomial logistic, and binary logistic regressions were run using all of the subgroups---gender, race/ethnicity, major, ACT composite, math ACT, overall GPA, and classroom size---as predictor variables to determine if any significant interactions between the curricular methods and the different subgroups existed. Results found that the relationship between gender, GPA, and classroom size groupings significantly impact student achievement in general chemistry. Specifically, the "traditional" approach lead to higher student success compared to the "atoms first" approach for males, females, below average GPA students, above average GPA students, and students in large classroom

  20. Self-perceived preparedness for dental practice amongst graduates of The University of Hong Kong's integrated PBL dental curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, C K Y; McGrath, C; Bridges, S; Corbet, E F; Botelho, M G; Dyson, J E; Chan, L K

    2012-02-01

    To determine how prepared for dental practice graduates from the integrated problem-based learning (PBL) dental undergraduate curriculum at The University of Hong Kong (HKU) perceive themselves to be and to identify factors associated with self-perceived preparedness. A postal questionnaire was sent to five cohorts of dentists who had graduated from HKU's integrated PBL curriculum between 2004 and 2008. Using a 4-point Likert scale, the questionnaire assessed the self-perceived level of preparedness in 59 competencies grouped in nine domains. Responses were dichotomised into 'poorly prepared' and 'well prepared'. The response rate was 66% (159/241). The mean proportion (±standard deviation) of respondents indicating well-preparedness was 72.0±15.1% overall, and for each domain was as follows: general patient management, 93.1±12.1%; practice management, 81.0±22.2%; periodontology and dental public health, 73.5±19.3%; conservative dentistry, 92.5±13.1%; oral rehabilitation, 62.8±24.0%; orthodontics, 23.0±32.9%; managing children and special-needs patients, 64.8±28.9%; oral and maxillofacial surgery, 52.2±25.2%; and drug and emergency management, 84.7±22.6%. The odds of self-perceived well-preparedness were increased for cohorts graduating in 2004 and 2005 and graduates working in a non-solo dental practice. Dental graduates of HKU's integrated PBL curriculum felt well prepared for the most fundamental aspects of dental practice. However, apparent deficiencies of training in orthodontics and oral and maxillofacial surgery will need to be addressed by continuing education, postgraduate training and planning for the new 6-year undergraduate curriculum in 2012. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.