WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid motor vehicle

  1. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of the Three Phase Induction Motor Couple to DC Motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Lubis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With emphasis on a cleaner environment and efficient operation, vehicles today rely more and more heavily on electrical power generation for success. Approach: Mathematical modeling the components of the HEV as the three phase induction motor couple to DC motor in hybrid electric vehicle was introduced. The controller of Induction Motor (IM was designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. It allowed greater electrical generation capacity and the fuel economy and emissions benefits of hybrid electric automotive propulsion. Results: A typical series hybrid electric vehicle was modeled and investigated. Conclusion: Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp and fuel consumption and emission were performed on the proposed model of 3 phase induction motor coupler DC motor in electric hybrid vehicles drive.

  3. Cascade Control Solution for Traction Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Preitl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid electric vehicle is considered, which contains both aninternal combustion engine and an electric motor (EM. Without focusing on the othercomponents of the vehicle, the EM is treated in detail, both regarding modelling aspectsand control solutions.After a brief modelling of the plant, two cascade speed control solutions are presented: firsta classical PI+PI cascade control solution is presented. The control systems related totraction electric motors (used in vehicle traction must be able to cope with differentrequests, such as variation of the reference signal, load disturbances which depend on thetransport conditions and parametric disturbances regarding changes in the total mass ofthe vehicle. For this purpose, in the design of the speed controller (external loop a specificmethodology based on extension of the symmetrical optimum method is presented. Thecontrollers are developed using the Modulus–Optimum method for the inner loop, and theExtended Symmetrical Optimum Method, corrected based on the 2p-SO-method, for theouter loop (for a more efficient disturbance rejection.In order to force the behaviour of the system regarding the reference input, a correctionterm is introduced as a non-homogenous structured PI controller solution.Simulations were performed using numerical values taken from a real applicationconsisting in a hybrid vehicle prototype, showing satisfactory behaviour.

  4. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  5. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  6. From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

  7. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ...As required by the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 this rule proposes to establish a Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) setting minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. This new standard would require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs), medium and heavy duty, trucks, and buses, low speed vehicles (LSVs), and motorcycles to produce sounds meeting the requirements of this standard. This proposed standard applies to electric vehicles (EVs) and to those hybrid vehicles (HVs) that are capable of propulsion in any forward or reverse gear without the vehicle's internal combustion engine (ICE) operating. This standard would ensure that blind, visually-impaired, and other pedestrians are able to detect and recognize nearby hybrid and electric vehicles, as required by the PSEA, by requiring that hybrid and electric vehicles emit sound that pedestrians would be able to hear in a range of ambient environments and contain acoustic signal content that pedestrians will recognize as being emitted from a vehicle. The benefit of reducing the pedestrian injury rate per registered vehicle of HVs to ICE vehicles when 4.1% of the fleet is HV and EV would be 2790 fewer pedestrian and pedalcyclist injuries. We also estimate that this proposal will result in 10 fewer pedestrian and pedalcyclist injuries caused by LSVs. Thus, 2800 total injured pedestrians are expected to be avoided due to this proposal representing 35 equivalent lives saved. We do not estimate any quantifiable benefits for EVs because it is our view that EV manufacturers would have installed alert sounds in their cars without passage of the PSEA and this proposed rule. Comparison of costs and benefits expected due to this rule provides a cost of $0.83 to $0.99 million per equivalent life saved across the 3 and 7 percent discount levels for the light EV and HV and LSV fleet. According to our present model, a countermeasure that allows a vehicle

  8. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Sadeghi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicle performance,dynamic modeling of the motor and other components is necessary. Whereas the switchedreluctance machine is well suited for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, due to the simpleand rugged construction, low cost, and ability to operate over a wide speed range atconstant power, in this paper dynamic performance of the switched reluctance motor for eseries hybrid electric vehicles is investigated. For this purpose a switched reluctance motorwith its electrical drive is modeld and simulated first, and then the other components of aseries hybrid electric vehicle, such as battery, generator, internal combusion engine, andgearbox, are designed and linked with the electric motor. Finally a typical series hybridelectric vehicle is simulated for different drive cycles. The extensive simulation results showthe dynamic performance of SRM, battery, fuel consumption, and emissions.

  9. Cyclic Parameter Refinement of 4S-10 Hybrid Flux-Switching Motor for Lightweight Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, J. Abd; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the reduction of lighting the vehicle because the lighter the vehicle the energy consumption is comparatively low. Hence, the lightweight electric vehicle was introduced for lower carbon footprint and the sizing of the vehicle itself. One of the components to reduce the weight of the vehicle is the propulsion system which comprised of electric motor functioning as the source of torque to drive the propulsion system of the machine. This paper presents the refinement methodology for the optimized design of the 4S-10P E-Core hybrid excitation flux switching motor. The purpose of the refinement methodology is to improve the torque production of the optimized motor. The result of the successful improvement of the torque production is justifiable for a lightweight electric vehicle to drive the propulsion system.

  10. CURRENT VECTOR CONTROL OF PERMANENT-MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR OF HYBRID VEHICLE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of traction permanent-magnet synchronous motor under current vector optimum control in the possible traction-speed mode area which are relevant for hybrid vehicle engine have been investigated. As a criterion of optimality a maximum of electromagnetic moment per unit of current have been taken.

  11. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  12. A dual-channel flux-switching permanent magnet motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Wu, Zhongze; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Baoan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhou, Shigui

    2012-04-01

    The flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motor is a relatively novel brushless machine having both magnets and concentrated windings in the stator, which exhibits inherently sinusoidal PM flux-linkage, back-EMF waveforms, and high torque capability. However, in the application of hybrid electric vehicles, it is essential to prevent magnets and armature windings moving in radial direction due to the possible vibration during operation, and to ensure fault-tolerant capability. Hence, in this paper based on an original FSPM motor, a dual-channel FSPM (DC-FSPM) motor with modified structure to fix both armature windings and magnets and improved reliability is proposed for a practical 10 kW integral starter/generator (ISG) in hybrid electric vehicles. The influences of different solutions and the end-effect on the static characteristics, are evaluated based on the 2D and 3D finite element analysis, respectively. Finally, both the predicted and experimental results, compared with a prototype DC-FSPM motor and an interior PM motor used in Honda Civic, confirm that the more sinusoidal back-EMF waveform and lower torque ripple can be achieved in the DC-FSPM motor, whereas the torque is smaller under the same coil current.

  13. MODELLING AND TORQUE TRACKING CONTROL OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabirin Rahmat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed derivation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor, which may be used as the electric power train for the simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle. A torque tracking control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed by using an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative controller. Several tests such as step function, saw tooth function, sine wave function and square wave function were used in order to examine the performance of the proposed control structure. The effectiveness of the proposed controller was verified and compared with the same system under a PID controller and the desired control. The result of the observations shows that the proposed control structure proves to be effective in tracking the desired torque with a good response. The findings of this study will be considered in the design, optimisation and experimentation of series hybrid electric vehicle.

  14. Sensorless torque control scheme of induction motor for hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LIU; Cheng SHAO

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the sensorless torque robust tracking problem of the induction motor for hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)applications is addressed.Because motor parameter variations in HEV applications are larger than in industrial drive system,the conventional field-oriented control(FOC)provides poor performance.Therefore,a new robust PI-based extension of the FOC controller and a speed-flux observer based on sliding mode and Lyapunov theory are developed in order to Improve the overall performance.Simulation results show that the proposed sensorless torque control scheme is robust with respect to motor parameter variations and loading disturbances.In addition,the operating flux of the motor is chosen optimally to minimize the consumption of electric energy,which results in a significant reduction in energy losses shown by simulations.

  15. Study on Power Switching Process of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles with in-wheel motors (IWM achieve a variety of driving modes by two power sources—the engine and the IWM. One of the critical problems that exists in such vehicle is the different transient characteristics between the engine and the IWM. Therefore, switching processes between the power sources have noteworthy impacts on vehicle dynamics and driving performance. For the particular switching process of the pure electric mode to the engine driving mode, a specific control strategy coordinating clutch torque, motor torque, and engine torque was proposed to solve drivability issues caused by inconsistent responses of different power sources during the mode transition. The specific switching process could be described as follows: the engine was started by IWM with the clutch serving as a key enabling actuator, dynamic torque compensation through IWM was implemented after engine started, and, meanwhile, engine speed was controlled to track the target speed through the closed loop PID control strategy. The bench tests results showed that the vehicle jerk caused during mode switching was reduced and fast and smooth mode switching was realized, which leads to the improvement of vehicle’s riding comfort.

  16. Initial position estimation strategy for a surface permanent magnet synchronous motor used in hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing TIAN; Qun-tao AN; Li SUN‡; Dong-yang SUN; Jian-dong DUAN

    2016-01-01

    A novel nonlinear model for surface permanent magnet synchronous motors (SPMSMs) is adopted to estimate the initial rotor position for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Usually, the accuracy of initial rotor position estimation for SPMSMs relies on magnetic saturation. To verify the saturation effect, the transient finite element analysis (FEA) model is presented first. Hybrid injection of a static voltage vector (SVV) superimposed with a high-frequency rotating voltage is proposed. The magnetic polarity is roughly identified with the aid of the saturation evaluation function, based on which an estimation of the position is performed. During this procedure, a special demodulation is suggested to extract signals of iron core saturation and rotor position. A Simulink/MATLAB platform for SPMSMs at standstill is constituted, and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified. The proposed method is also validated by experimental results of an SPMSM drive.

  17. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  18. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  19. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  20. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Wensong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Sun, Pengwei [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leslie, Scott [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Prusia, Duane [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Arnet, Beat [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Smith, Chris [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Cogan, Art [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  1. Design and development of split-parallel through-the road retrofit hybrid electric vehicle with in-wheel motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, S. A.; Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Maharun, M.; Bakar, N. S. A.; Idris, S.; Samsudin, S. H.; Firmansyah; Adz, J. J.; Misbahulmunir, M.; Abidin, E. Z. Z.; Syafiq Mohd, M.; Saad, N.; Aziz, A. R. A.

    2015-12-01

    One configuration of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is the split-axle parallel hybrid, in which an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles. A particular sub-type of the split-parallel hybrid does not have the electric motor installed on board the vehicle; instead, two electric motors are placed in the hubs of the non-driven wheels, called ‘hub motor’ or ‘in-wheel motor’ (IWM). Since propulsion power from the ICE and IWM is coupled through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves, this particular configuration is termed ‘through-the-road’ (TTR) hybrid. TTR configuration enables existing ICE-powered vehicles to be retrofitted into an HEV with minimal physical modification. This work describes design of a retrofit- conversion TTR-IWM hybrid vehicle - its sub-systems and development work. Operating modes and power flow of the TTR hybrid, its torque coupling and resultant traction profiles are initially discussed.

  2. Optimal Energy Management for a Complex Hybrid Electric Vehicle:Tolerating Power-loss of Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pei-zhi; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Yong; WU Zhi-wei

    2009-01-01

    The energy management may perform well under normal conditions, but may lead to poor behavior under abnormal situations. To tackle this problem, an optimal control strategy called rule-based equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (RECMS) is developed for a new complex hybrid electric vehicle (CHEV).It optimizes the energy efficiency and drive performance to cater for normal and power-loss operations of the tractive motor. Firstly, the strategy formulates a novel objective function based on the equivalent fuel concept.By accounting for the actual fuel cost, the equivalent fuel cost for the electric machines and virtual fuel cost for the drivability, the cost function is obtained. Furthermore, some penalty factors are presented to optimize the performance target. Finally, experiments for a practical CHEV are performed to validate a simulation model.Then simulations are carried out for both rule-based and RECMS. The results show that the optimal energy management is working well.

  3. Uncertainty analysis and design optimization of hybrid rocket motor powered vehicle for suborbital flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an uncertainty analysis and design optimization method and its applications on a hybrid rocket motor (HRM powered vehicle. The multidisciplinary design model of the rocket system is established and the design uncertainties are quantified. The sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties shows that the uncertainty generated from the error of fuel regression rate model has the most significant effect on the system performances. Then the differences between deterministic design optimization (DDO and uncertainty-based design optimization (UDO are discussed. Two newly formed uncertainty analysis methods, including the Kriging-based Monte Carlo simulation (KMCS and Kriging-based Taylor series approximation (KTSA, are carried out using a global approximation Kriging modeling method. Based on the system design model and the results of design uncertainty analysis, the design optimization of an HRM powered vehicle for suborbital flight is implemented using three design optimization methods: DDO, KMCS and KTSA. The comparisons indicate that the two UDO methods can enhance the design reliability and robustness. The researches and methods proposed in this paper can provide a better way for the general design of HRM powered vehicles.

  4. The electric motor in the hybrid vehicle. A comparison of three different types of electric motors; Der Elektromotor im Hybridfahrzeug. Vergleich von drei unterschiedlichen Elektromotorentypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschnik, Harald

    2009-07-01

    According to the experts, hybrid technology is the key technology in the automotive industry for the next few decades. Many of the well established automobile manufacturers are focusing their research and development activities on this upcoming technology. The big advantage of hybrid vehicles is the electrified powertrain. Due to intelligent combination of the combustion- and electric engine, the benefits of the two different powertrain configurations can be used. The following research is concerned and closely examines the role of the electric engine in the hybrid vehicle. The scope of the research is focused on the demands of an electric engine, the technical configuration, functionality and economy of three different engine types which are often used in the serial production and prototyping. In order to make a direct comparison of the performance of this different engine types, they were all tested in a go-cart. The go-carts for each engine were constructed in the same way. The interpretation of the measurement results showed that the synchronous engine with permanent magnets had the best performance when considering the level of electrical efficiency, closely followed by the switched reluctance motor. The efficiency of the electrical motor makes a high contribution to the total efficiency of the vehicle. The measurement result confirms the selection of a synchronous motor is, under consideration of the electrical efficiency, the most advantageous solution for hybrid vehicles. (orig.)

  5. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting

  6. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance

  7. Powertrain Matching and Optimization of Dual-Motor Hybrid Driving System for Electric Vehicle Based on Quantum Genetic Intelligent Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the driving range and improve the overall performance of all-electric vehicles, a new dual-motor hybrid driving system with two power sources was proposed. This system achieved torque-speed coupling between the two power sources and greatly improved the high performance working range of the motors; at the same time, continuously variable transmission (CVT was achieved to efficiently increase the driving range. The power system parameters were determined using the “global optimization method”; thus, the vehicle’s dynamics and economy were used as the optimization indexes. Based on preliminary matches, quantum genetic algorithm was introduced to optimize the matching in the dual-motor hybrid power system. Backward simulation was performed on the combined simulation platform of Matlab/Simulink and AVL-Cruise to optimize, simulate, and verify the system parameters of the transmission system. Results showed that quantum genetic algorithms exhibited good global optimization capability and convergence in dealing with multiobjective and multiparameter optimization. The dual-motor hybrid-driving system for electric cars satisfied the dynamic performance and economy requirements of design, efficiently increasing the driving range of the car, having high performance, and reducing energy consumption of 15.6% compared with the conventional electric vehicle with single-speed reducers.

  8. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  9. Control and Performance Evaluation of Multiphase FSPM Motor in Low-Speed Region for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The flux-switching permanent-magnet (FSPM motor has been viewed as a highly reliable machine with both armature windings and magnets on the stator. Owing to the high torque-production capability with low torque ripple, FSPM motors with a higher number of phases are potential candidates for traction applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. However, existing research has mostly focused on the principles and static performance of multiphase FSPM motors, and little attention has been paid to advanced control strategies. In this paper, the fully decoupled current control of a 36/34-pole nine-phase FSPM (NP-FSPM motor is developed and the performance under different operating conditions is investigated. The aim of the design is to alleviate cross coupling effects and unwanted low-order stator harmonic currents, to guarantee fast transient response and small steady-state error. In addition, its fault-tolerance is further elaborated. These features are very important in automotive applications where low torque pulsation, high fault-tolerant capability and high dynamic performance are of major importance. Firstly, the research status of multiphase FSPM motors is briefly reviewed. Secondly, the mathematical model in the dq reference frames and control strategies are presented. Then, the control and performance of the NP-FSPM motor are evaluated by using MATLAB/Simulink. Finally, experiments on an NP-FSPM motor prototype are carried out to validate the study.

  10. Performance Evaluation of an In-Wheel Motor Cooling System in an Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High power and miniaturization of motors in an in-wheel drive system, which is installed inside the wheels of a vehicle, are required for directly driving the wheels. In addition, an efficient cooling system is required to ensure high driving performance and durability. This study experimentally evaluated the heat dissipation performance of a 35-kW-class large-capacity in-wheel motor equipped with an internal-circulation-type oil-cooling system that exhibits high cooling performance and can be easily miniaturized to this motor. Temperatures of the coil and stator core of cooling systems with and without a radiator were measured in real time under in-wheel motor driving conditions. It was found that operating the cooling system at a continuous-rating maximum speed without the radiator was difficult. We confirmed that under continuous-rating base speed and continuous-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator showed thermally stable operation. Furthermore, under maximum-rating base speed and maximum-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator provided additional driving times of approximately 22 s and 2 s, respectively.

  11. Design and Analysis of Electro-mechanical Hybrid Anti-lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Utilizing Motor Regenerative Braking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianlong; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2009-01-01

    Braking on low adhesion-coefficient roads, hybrid electric vehicle's motor regenerative torque is switched off to safeguard the normal anti-lock braking system (ABS) function. When the ABS control is terminated, the motor regenerative braking is readmitted.Aiming at avoiding permanent cycles from hydraulic anti-lock braking to motor regenerative braking, a novel electro-mechanical hybrid anti-lock braking system using fuzzy logic is designed. Different from the traditional single control structure, this system has a two-layered hierarchical structure. The first layer is responsible for harmonious adjustment or interaction between regenerative system and anti-lock braking system. The second layer is responsible for braking torque distribution and adjustment. The closed-loop simulation model is built. Control strategy and method for coordination between regenerative and anti-lock braking are developed. Simulation braking on low adhesion-coefficient roads with fuzzy logic control and real vehicle braking field test are presented. The results from simulating analysis and experiment show braking performance of the vehicle is perfect, harmonious coordination between regenerative and anti-lock braking function, significant amount of braking energy can be recovered and the proposed control strategy and method are effective.

  12. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  13. Thermal Performance of Motor and Inverter in an Integrated Starter Generator System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If the integrated starter generator (ISG motor and inverter operate under continuously high loading conditions, the system’s performance and durability will decrease and the heat dissipation requirements will increase. Therefore, in this study, we developed two cooling designs for the ISG motor and inverter, and then carried out both a model analysis and an experiment on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the system under various operating conditions. As the outdoor temperature increased from 25 °C to 95 °C, the coil temperature of the air-cooled motor increased by about 82 °C. Under the harsh-air condition of 95 °C, the coil of the air-cooled motor increased to a maximum temperature of about 158.5 °C. We also determined that the temperature of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET chip in the liquid-cooled inverter increased to a maximum temperature of about 96.8 °C under a coolant flow rate of 4 L/min and a coolant temperature of 65 °C. The observed thermal performance of the ISG motor and inverter using the proposed cooling structures was found to be sufficient for heat loads under various real driving conditions for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV.

  14. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to be safer on the road: Make sure your vehicle is safe and in working order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don' ...

  15. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  16. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  17. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  18. Hybrid propulsion system with a gyro component for economic and dynamic operation. [of motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giera, B.; Helling, J.; Schreck, J.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a hybrid drive with gyro components is described and its drive components for a medium class private car are discussed. The gyro component affects the short-period output of the drive by accelerating and slowing down and -- because of the mechanical transfer of kinetic energy between the gyro and the vehicle -- it affects also the energy balance in the case of intermittent operation. Energy can be taken in as desired either in the form of fuel or as fuel and current. A high energy recovery efficiency as well as the favorable operating range of the interval combustion engine makes it possible to reduce the fuel consumption per unit distance travelled to almost half that for a private car with a traditional engine.

  19. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  20. Design study and performance analysis of 12S-14P field excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Khan, Faisal; Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new structure of 12slot-14pole field excitation flux switching motor (FEFSM) as an alternative candidate of non-Permanent Magnet (PM) machine for HEV drives. Design study, performance analysis and optimization of field excitation flux switching machine with non-rare-earth magnet for hybrid electric vehicle drive applications is done. The stator of projected machine consists of iron core made of electromagnetic steels, armature coils and field excitation coils as the only field mmf source. The rotor is consisted of only stack of iron and hence, it is reliable and appropriate for high speed operation. The design target is a machine with the maximum torque, power and power density, more than 210Nm, 123kW and 3.5kW/kg, respectively, which competes with interior permanent magnet synchronous machine used in existing hybrid electric vehicle. Some design feasibility studies on FEFSM based on 2D-FEA and deterministic optimization method will be applied to design the proposed machine.

  1. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  2. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Na Zhu

    2016-01-01

    An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid veh...

  3. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  4. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  5. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  6. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  7. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  8. Remote control for motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  9. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  10. Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G

    2012-06-01

    These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 1926.601 Section 1926.601 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.601 Motor vehicles. (a) Coverage. Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  13. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  14. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  15. New Integrated Multilevel Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Flexible Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chun; Wu, Jianhua; Hu, Yihua;

    2017-01-01

    . In generator driving mode, the battery bank is employed to elevate the phase voltage for fast excitation and demagnetization. In battery driving mode, the converter is reconfigured as a four-level converter, and the capacitor is used as an additional charge capacitor to produce multilevel voltage outputs......, which enhances the torque capability. The operating modes of the proposed drive are explained and the phase current and voltage are analyzed in details. The battery charging is naturally achieved by the demagnetization current in motoring mode and by the regenerative current in braking mode. Moreover......, the battery can be charged by the external AC source or generator when the vehicle is in standstill condition. The SRM-based PHEV can operate at different speeds by coordinating power flow from the generator and battery. Simulation in MATLAB/Simulink and experiments on a three-phase 12/8 SRM confirm...

  16. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... government is Tracking the nation’s progress in reducing crash injuries and deaths. www.cdc.gov/psr/national-summary/ ... Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety CDC: Child Passenger ...

  18. Application of simplified model for the analysis of a novel battery used in General Motors' Precept hybrid electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbrugge, M.W. [General Motors Corp., Troy, MI (United States). Advanced Technology Vehicles

    2000-07-01

    The challenges facing the integration of a battery module into an electric vehicle (EV) was discussed and some simple approaches to address these challenges were proposed. The cost of EV batteries inhibits large-scale commercialization. Other challenges include the current, potential and state of charge (SOC) as well as the thermal system requirements and design. One solution is to develop hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) which would mean the battery size could be significantly reduced because the engine would supply most of the needed energy to power the vehicle. The author suggested a simple mathematical method to analyze HEV batteries and conduct trade-offs in order to optimize a car's energy storage, high voltage and thermal systems. A newly developed HEV nickel-metal hydride battery system which is found in General Motors' Precept HEV was used to test the approach. The analysis is partly based on understanding how the past charges and discharges influence the apparent hysteresis characterizing the SOC versus open-circuit potential relationship. The method does not address the temperature deviations with the battery pack. The difference between liquid and air cooling was also determined. It is hoped that battery suppliers will adopt this method to speed the advancement of this sector of development. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  20. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  1. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY: National.... SUMMARY: This document adopts amendments to the Federal motor vehicle safety standards on platform...

  2. DOE Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Test Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yimin [Advanced Vehicle Research Center, Danville, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    Based on the contract NT-42790 to the Department of Energy, “Plug-in Hybrid Ethanol Research Platform”, Advanced Vehicle Research Center (AVRC) Virginia has successfully developed the phase I electric drive train research platform which has been named as Laboratory Rapid Application Testbed (LabRAT). In phase II, LabRAT is to be upgraded into plug-in hybrid research platform, which will be capable of testing power systems for electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles running on conventional as well as alternative fuels. LabRAT is configured as a rolling testbed with plentiful space for installing various component configurations. Component connections are modularized for flexibility and are easily replaced for testing various mechanisms. LabRAT is designed and built as a full functional vehicle chassis with a steering system, brake system and four wheel suspension. The rear drive axle offers maximum flexibility with a quickly changeable gear ratio final drive to accommodate different motor speed requirements. The electric drive system includes an electric motor which is mechanically connected to the rear axle through an integrated speed/torque sensor. Initially, a 100 kW UQM motor and corresponding UQM motor controller is used which can be easily replaced with another motor/controller combination. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is installed, which consists of 108 cells of 100 AH capacity, giving the total energy capacity of 32.5 kWh. Correspondingly, a fully functional battery management system (BMS) is installed to perform battery cell operation monitoring, cell voltage balancing, and reporting battery real time operating parameters to vehicle controller. An advanced vehicle controller ECU is installed for controlling the drive train. The vehicle controller ECU receives traction or braking torque command from driver through accelerator and brake pedal position sensors and battery operating signals from the BMS through CAN BUS

  3. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule...

  4. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  5. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has been...

  6. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  7. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  8. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  9. Hybrid Vehicle Technologies and their potential for reducing oil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, John

    2006-04-01

    Vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric powertrains are starting to gain market share. Current hybrid vehicles add an electric motor, battery pack, and power electronics to the conventional powertrain. A variety of engine/motor configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages. In general, efficiency is improved due to engine shut-off at idle, capture of energy during deceleration that is normally lost as heat in the brakes, downsizing of the conventional engine, and, in some cases, propulsion on the electric motor alone. Ongoing increases in hybrid market share are dependent on cost reduction, especially the battery pack, efficiency synergies with other vehicle technologies, use of the high electric power to provide features desired by customers, and future fuel price and availability. Potential barriers include historically low fuel prices, high discounting of the fuel savings by new vehicle purchasers, competing technologies, and tradeoffs with other factors desired by customers, such as performance, utility, safety, and luxury features.

  10. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  11. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The...

  12. Hybrid Technologies for Clandestine Electric Reconnaissance Vehicles (CERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    of other on board equipment. The OPC and high voltage Energy Storage system operate in concert with the Motor-Generator and Controller to form...the Vehicle DC Bus. When operating in PHEV mode from external power, the OPC provides power to the Vehicle DC Bus if either the Energy Storage System...commercial electric and hybrid buses. He has designed several motor drives including a 500 HP drive for sonar pulse power using a flywheel for energy

  13. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration..., and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early enough to ensure that...

  14. 75 FR 5553 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... NPRM proposes to amend FMVSS No. 116, Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids, so that brake fluids would be tested... Date VII. Rulemaking Analyses and Notices VIII. Public Participation I. Background Federal...

  15. General motors front wheel drive 2-mode hybrid transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, James [General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI (United States). New Transmission Products Group.; Holmes, Alan G. [General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI (United States). Powertrain Hybrid Architecture

    2009-07-01

    General Motors now expands the application of two-mode hybrid technology to front wheel drive vehicles with the development of a hybrid electric transmission packaged into essentially the same space as a conventional automatic transmission for front wheel drive. This was accomplished using a space-efficient arrangement based on two planetary gear sets and electric motor-generators with large internal diameters. A combination of damper and hydraulically-controlled clutch allow comfortable shutdown and restarting of large-displacement engines in front wheel drive vehicles. The hybrid system delivers electric low-speed urban driving, two continuously variable ranges of transmission speed ratios, four fixed transmission speed ratios, electric acceleration boosting, and regenerative braking. In the first vehicle application, the two-mode hybrid helps to reduce vehicle fuel consumption by approximately one-third. (orig.)

  16. 49 CFR 574.9 - Requirements for motor vehicle dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for motor vehicle dealers. 574.9... RECORDKEEPING § 574.9 Requirements for motor vehicle dealers. (a) Each motor vehicle dealer who sells a used motor vehicle for purposes other than resale, who leases a motor vehicle for more than 60 days, that...

  17. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  18. 48 CFR 908.7101 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 908.7101 Section 908.7101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7101 Motor vehicles....

  19. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  20. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  1. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  2. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  3. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

  4. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  5. 32 CFR 935.140 - Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. 935.140... AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.140 Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. (a) Each person who has custody of a motor vehicle on Wake Island shall present that vehicle...

  6. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  7. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid vehicle systems available in market and under development. Hybrid vehicle technology is a new area and developed rapidly in the field of automotive and mechanical engineering. Students need not only the fundamentals and concepts from college, but also the ability to keep up with the latest technology after their graduation. Therefore, a blended course type is employed to help students have a better understanding of the fundamentals of hybrid vehicle and developing their self-studying ability. Topics in the course have three steps of learning. Firstly, on-ground lecture is given in class, where the instructor explains basic knowledge, such as principles, equations, and design rules.  In this way, the students will have enough background knowledge and be able to conduct further self-reading and research work. Secondly, students are required to go to university’s desire to learn (D2L online system and finish the online part of the topic. In the D2L system, students will find a quiz and its supporting materials. Thirdly, students come back to the on-ground lecture and discuss the quiz in groups with instructor. After the discussion, the instructor gives students a conclusion of the topic and moves forward to the next topic. A computer simulation class is also given to help student better understand the operation strategies of the hybrid vehicle systems and have a trial of design of hybrid vehicle.

  8. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  9. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... 2017, as part of a systems approach to addressing the impacts of motor vehicles and fuels on air...

  10. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  11. ESTIMATION OF THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRACTION BLDC MOTOR ON THE BASIS OF VEHICLE ALTERNATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A method of estimation of basic parameters of the BLDC motor based on the vehicle powerful alternator to convert an ordinary vehicle into a hybrid one is offered. The results of estimation of basic characteristics of the electric motor on the basis of the automobile alternator G290 are presented.

  12. ENERGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Jinhuan; Yin Chengliang; ZhangJianwu

    2005-01-01

    Energy management strategy (EMS) is the core of the real-time control algorithm of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A novel EMS using the logic threshold approach with incorporation of a stand-by optimization algorithm is proposed. The aim of it is to minimize the engine fuel consumption and maintain the battery state of charge (SOC) in its operation range, while satisfying the vehicle performance and drivability requirements. The hybrid powertrain bench test is carried out to collect data of the engine, motor and battery pack, which are used in the EMS to control the powertrain. Computer simulation model of the HEV is established in the MATLAB/Simulink environment according to the bench test results. Simulation results are presented for behaviors of the engine, motor and battery. The proposed EMS is implemented for a real parallel hybrid car control system and validated by vehicle field tests.

  13. Syncope and Motor Vehicle Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Numé, Anna-Karin; Gislason, Gunnar; Christiansen, Christine B

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Syncope may have serious consequences for traffic safety. Current clinical guideline recommendations on driving following syncope are primarily based on expert consensus. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether there is excess risk of motor vehicle crashes among patients with syncope compared.......74-1.91) after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and relevant comorbidities and pharmacotherapy. Men had a relatively higher rate of motor vehicle crashes (RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.79-2.03) than women (RR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.63-1.87). The excess risk of motor vehicle crashes persisted throughout...... identified 41 039 individuals with a first-time diagnosis of syncope from emergency department or hospital. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Rate of motor vehicle crashes (including nonfatal and fatal crashes), based on multivariate Poisson regression models, using the total Danish population as reference...

  14. Alcohol Advertising and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect of alcohol advertising on motor vehicle fatalities. The concept of an industry level advertising response function is developed and other empirical issues in estimating the effects of advertising are reviewed. The data set consists of quarterly observations, from 1986 to 1989, for 75 advertising markets in the United States and includes 1200 observations. Since motor vehicle fatalities and alcohol advertising are jointly determin...

  15. DIAGNOSTICS CONCEPTION OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE OF A HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Borodenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual approach to creat the diagnostic system of the power elements of the electric drive of the hybrid vehicle has been considered. Approbation of the imitation model of electric drive with brushless DC electric motor as a diagnostic object has been carried out.

  16. 48 CFR 945.570-8 - Reporting motor vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting motor vehicle... Reporting motor vehicle data. (a) Contractors conducting motor vehicle operations shall forward annually (on or before December 1) to the contracting officer their plan for acquisition of motor vehicles for...

  17. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  18. 47 CFR 32.6112 - Motor vehicle expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle expense. 32.6112 Section 32.6112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6112 Motor vehicle expense. (a... motor vehicles, such as chauffeurs and shuttle bus drivers. The costs of users of motor vehicles...

  19. 36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of motor vehicle... SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an... by this section do not relieve the operator and occupants of a motor vehicle involved in an...

  20. 40 CFR 85.1703 - Definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of motor vehicle. 85.1703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1703 Definition of motor vehicle. (a) For the purpose of determining...

  1. 32 CFR 935.139 - Motor vehicle operator qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle operator qualifications. 935.139... AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.139 Motor vehicle operator qualifications. (a) No person may operate a privately owned motor vehicle on Wake Island unless he has an...

  2. Physical context management for a motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Kevin R [Albuquerque, NM; Forsythe, James C [Sandia Park, NM; Lippitt, Carl E [Albuquerque, NM; Lippitt, legal representative, Lois Diane

    2009-10-27

    Computer software for and a method of enhancing safety for an operator of a motor vehicle comprising employing a plurality of sensors of vehicle and operator conditions, matching collective output from the sensors against a plurality of known dangerous conditions, and preventing certain activity of the operator if a known dangerous condition is detected.

  3. 41 CFR 109-38.5103 - Motor vehicle utilization standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5103 Motor vehicle utilization standards. (a) The following average utilization...

  4. PROBLEMS OF SAFETY OF MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the up-to-date problem of motor vehicles safety. The author concludes that traffic safety in the transport system depends on the type and, accordingly, the measures taken in vehicles to protect objects from unauthorized access and, as a consequence, from the possibility of accident or disaster occurrence, while the safety of vehicles on a traffic route is determined by external natural impacts.

  5. 76 FR 51120 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Denial of motor... System (FARS) tracks all fatal crashes involving motor vehicles in the United States. An analysis...

  6. Variable-Reluctance Motor For Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes research on variable-reluctance electric-motor drive for eventual use in electric-vehicle propulsion. Primary design and performance criteria were torque and power output per unit mass of motor, cost, and drive efficiency. For each criterion, optimized drive design developed, and designs unified to yield single electric-vehicle drive. Scaled-down motor performed as expected. Prototype of paraplegic lift operated by toggle switch and joystick. Lift plugs into household electrical outlet for recharging when not in use.

  7. Management, Acquisition, and Use of Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    issuing authority. e. Report suspension or revocation of their State motor vehicle operator license as required by the vehicle issuing authority. f...40,000 and Up All 25,000 Motorcycle 4/A All 3,000 Scooter , 3- or 4-Wheel N/A Gasoline 2,400 2-10 Figure 2-1. DD Form 1970, "Motor Equipment Utilization...adequately supported through the use of alternative transportation resources (such as scooters , bicycles, mopeds)? (4) Will the vehicle meet utilization

  8. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  9. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  10. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  11. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  12. The Federal electric and hybrid vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The commercial development and use of electric and hybrid vehicles is discussed with respect to its application as a possible alternative transportation system. A market demonstration is described that seeks to place 10,000 electric hybrid vehicles into public and private sector demonstrations.

  13. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  14. EMI Measurement and Mitigation Testing for the ARPA Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-27

    will be a more realistic approach for evaluating the EMI radiated from the electric vehicles . Vehicle Converter TyJ:!e OJ:!en-Field Screen Room...radiation from the electric vehicles considered were motor controllers, de to de converters , power steering motors, brake vacuum pumps, distribution...the ARPA Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program Anthony B. Bruno Engineering and Technical Services Department Oscar R. Zelaya Submarine Electromagnetic

  15. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  16. STRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND SIMULATION OF PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marozka; Yu. N. Petrenko

    2013-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) have gained attention, especially in the context of growing concerns about global warming and energy security aspects associated with road transport. The main characteristic of EDVs is that the torque is supplied to the wheels by an electric motor that is powered either solely by a battery or in combination with an internal combustion engine (ICE). This covers hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

  17. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  18. 48 CFR 908.7101-4 - Replacement of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement of motor....7101-4 Replacement of motor vehicles. (a) The replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with... Heads of Contracting Activities may arrange to sell, as exchange sales, used motor vehicles...

  19. 36 CFR 261.13 - Motor vehicle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle use. 261.13... General Prohibitions § 261.13 Motor vehicle use. After National Forest System roads, National Forest... have been identified on a motor vehicle use map, it is prohibited to possess or operate a motor...

  20. 48 CFR 945.570-7 - Disposition of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of motor... Disposition of motor vehicles. (a) The contractor shall dispose of DOE-owned motor vehicles as directed by the contracting officer. (b) DOE-owned motor vehicles may be disposed of as exchange/sale items when directed...

  1. 78 FR 4193 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Volvo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the... the MY 2014 S60 vehicle line is effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft. Volvo...

  2. 78 FR 77790 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... full General Motors Corporation's (GM) petition for an exemption of the Cadillac SRX vehicle line...

  3. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  4. Electronically commutated motors for vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.

    1980-02-01

    Two permanent magnet electronically commutated motors for electric vehicle traction are discussed. One, based on existing technology, produces 23 kW (peak) at 26,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 18,000 rpm. The motor has a conventional design: a four-pole permanent magnet rotor and a three-phase stator similar to those used on ordinary induction motors. The other, advanced technology motor, is rated at 27 kW (peak) at 14,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 10,500 rpm. The machine employs a permanent magnet rotor and a novel ironless stator design in an axial air gap, homopolar configuration. Comparison of the new motors with conventional brush type machines indicates potential for substantial cost savings.

  5. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  6. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  7. Fetal trauma from motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Greg; Wojciehoski, Randal F

    2005-07-01

    To summarize: The best fetal protection is proper maternal use of seat belt restraints. All pregnant occupants in a motor vehicle crash require physician evaluation. Focus on maternal assessment. Maternal stability is the best indicator of fetal stability. Key treatments are high-flow oxygen, i.v. fluid loading and immobilizing in left lateral position. Evaluate the fetus after maternal stabilization.

  8. Electromechanical Energy Transduction for Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Vanja, Sridhar; Kelly, Michael W.; Caruso, A. N.

    2010-03-01

    Hybrid vehicle technology seeks to reduce the total energy consumption used for vehicle locomotion by recovering and reutilizing kinetic energy that is otherwise unrecovered or dissipated in conventional vehicle deceleration. The goal of the work is to determine the transduction mechanisms that work towards a Carnot efficiency without considering constraints or limitations placed by cost or materials. Specifically, this talk will present ideal thermodynamic models of energy exchange between mechanical, electrostatic, electromechanical and electrochemical devices with a goal of projecting an ideal hybrid vehicle.

  9. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with... (NPRM) proposing to upgrade FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119), which applies to new pneumatic tires...

  10. Dynamics of Motorized Vehicle Flow under Mixed Traffic Circumstance*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO nong-Wei; GAO Zi-You; ZHAO Xiao-Mei; XIE Dong-Fan

    2011-01-01

    To study the dynamics of mixed traffic flow consisting of motorized and non-motorized vehicles, a carfollowing model based on the principle of collision free and cautious driving is proposed.Lateral friction and overlapping driving are introduced to describe the interactions between motorized vehicles and non-motorized vehicles.By numerical simulations, the flux-density relation, the temporal-spatial dynamics, and the velocity evolution are investigated in detail.The results indicate non-motorized vehicles have a significant impact on the motorized vehicle flow and cause the maximum flux to decline by about 13%.Non-motorized vehicles can decrease the motorized vehicle velocity and cause velocity oscillation when the motorized vehicle density is low.Moreover, non-motorized vehicles show a significant damping effect on the oscillating velocity when the density is medium and high, and such an effect weakens as motorized vehicle densityincreases.The results also stress the necessity for separating motorized vehicles from non-motorized vehicles.

  11. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  12. A new type of hybrid vehicle in Japan; Un nouveau type de vehicule hybride au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, P.

    2004-04-01

    During the 37. edition of the Tokyo Motor Show in October 2003, several fuel cell hybrid vehicles were presented by Japanese car makers who grant considerable budgets to develop less polluting vehicles. The trend chosen by Japanese car manufacturers concerns the hybrid system combining fuel cell and battery. Stress has been put also on intelligent systems for navigation and safety but also on the design and comfort. However, even if the environment protection is the main challenge of the Japanese automotive industry, the driving pleasure remains the most profitable medium-term market to be exploitable by industrialists. (J.S.)

  13. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated...

  14. 28 CFR 29.9 - Motor vehicles for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles for hire. 29.9 Section 29.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.9 Motor vehicles for hire. (a) Any person who is in the business of renting or leasing...

  15. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  16. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  17. 76 FR 24402 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 RIN 2127-AK81 Federal Motor Vehicle Theft... areas on high theft major parts of motor vehicles. E-mail is now included as a means to submit the... motor vehicle lines subject to parts marking, and manufacturers of replacement parts designed for...

  18. 41 CFR 101-25.402 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Motor vehicles. 101-25.402 Section 101-25.402 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Standards § 101-25.402 Motor vehicles. Replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with...

  19. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL03 Federal Motor Vehicle.... The changes proposed in this NPRM to the Federal motor vehicle safety standard on glazing...

  20. 32 CFR 935.51 - Motor vehicle violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle violations. 935.51 Section 935.51... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Penalties § 935.51 Motor vehicle violations. Whoever is found guilty of a... than 30 days, or suspension or revocation of his motor vehicle operator's permit, or any combination...

  1. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rule amended the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011)....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting...

  3. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in...

  4. 77 FR 73912 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final... review of its Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule (``Used Car Rule'' or ``Rule'') as part of the FTC...; and (3) a list of fourteen major systems of a used motor vehicle and the major defects that may...

  5. 77 FR 74745 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... December 17, 2012 Part II Federal Trade Commission 16 CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule...; ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade... Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule (``Used Car Rule'' or ``Rule'') as part of the FTC's...

  6. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress...

  7. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are...

  8. 76 FR 12221 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... of Toyota Motor North America, Inc's., (Toyota) petition for an exemption of the Corolla vehicle line... equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with...

  9. 77 FR 29752 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar Land Rover... is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard, 49 CFR part...

  10. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  11. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To suppor

  12. CHOOSING DRIVING CYCLE OF HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vorona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing driving cycles was performed. After comparing some of the cycles, one specific driving cycle was selected for the hybrid vehicle as the most reliable in representing the real moving of the vehicle in operating conditions and which may be reproduced at experimental tests at the modeling roller stand.

  13. The near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Performance specifications were determined for a hybrid vehicle designed to achieve the greatest reduction in fuel consumption. Based on the results of systems level studies, a baseline vehicle was constructed with the following basic paramaters: a heat engine power peak of 53 kW (VW gasoline engine); a traction motor power peak of 30 kW (Siemens 1GV1, separately excited); a heat engine fraction of 0.64; a vehicle curb weight of 2080 kg; a lead acid battery (35 kg weight); and a battery weight fraction of 0.17. The heat engine and the traction motor are coupled together with their combined output driving a 3 speed automatic transmission with lockup torque converter. The heat engine is equipped withe a clutch which allows it to be decoupled from the system.

  14. Development of hybrid electric vehicle powertrain test system based on virtue instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Guo, Konghui; Chen, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid powertrain has become the standard configuration of some automobile models. The test system of hybrid vehicle powertrain was developed based on virtual instrument, using electric dynamometer to simulate the work of engines, to test the motor and control unit of the powertrain. The test conditions include starting, acceleration, and deceleration. The results show that the test system can simulate the working conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain under various conditions.

  15. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  16. Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  17. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Heather; Park, Haram; Paolini, Maion

    2012-04-23

    Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this "hybrid premium" is the cost of the vehicles' batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  18. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  19. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.

    1979-09-30

    The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop the hybrid vehicles and to determine R and D priorities. It was concluded that by the year 2010 hybrid vehicles could replace 80% of the automotive power that would otherwise be produced from petroleum fuels; the public should not suffer any mobility loss through the use of hybrid vehicles; high initial and life-cycle costs are a limiting factor; and R and D funds should be spent for systems design and the development of low-cost batteries and controllers. (LCL)

  20. Simulation of hybrid vehicle propulsion with an advanced battery model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallabolu, S.; Kostetzer, L.; Rudnyi, E. [CADFEM GmbH, Grafing (Germany); Geppert, M.; Quinger, D. [LION Smart GmbH, Frieding (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years there has been observed an increasing concern about global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to the environmental issues the predicted scarcity of oil supplies and the dramatic increase in oil price puts new demands on vehicle design. As a result energy efficiency and reduced emission have become one of main selling point for automobiles. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have therefore become an interesting technology for the governments and automotive industries. HEV are more complicated compared to conventional vehicles due to the fact that these vehicles contain more electrical components such as electric machines, power electronics, electronic continuously variable transmissions (CVT), and embedded powertrain controllers. Advanced energy storage devices and energy converters, such as Li-ion batteries, ultracapacitors, and fuel cells are also considered. A detailed vehicle model used for an energy flow analysis and vehicle performance simulation is necessary. Computer simulation is indispensible to facilitate the examination of the vast hybrid electric vehicle design space with the aim to predict the vehicle performance over driving profiles, estimate fuel consumption and the pollution emissions. There are various types of mathematical models and simulators available to perform system simulation of vehicle propulsion. One of the standard methods to model the complete vehicle powertrain is ''backward quasistatic modeling''. In this method vehicle subsystems are defined based on experiential models in the form of look-up tables and efficiency maps. The interaction between adjacent subsystems of the vehicle is defined through the amount of power flow. Modeling the vehicle subsystems like motor, engine, gearbox and battery is under this technique is based on block diagrams. The vehicle model is applied in two case studies to evaluate the vehicle performance and fuel consumption. In the first case study the affect

  1. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  2. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Heather

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  3. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil. PMID:22540987

  4. 77 FR 30765 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy... 571 RIN 2127-AK97 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for... a new Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 136 to require electronic stability control (ESC...

  5. ATVs: motorized toys or vehicles for children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, N L; Kennedy, R; Russell, C

    2006-02-01

    To compare the nature of injuries from all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) to those from bicycling, dirtbikes/motocross, and motor vehicle crashes. Data on injuries from the mechanisms outlined above were obtained through CHIRPP (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) and hospital records. A Canadian tertiary pediatric center. Cases presenting to the emergency department over a 10 year period. Comparison between demographics, mechanisms and natures of injuries sustained, disposition from the emergency department, and lengths of hospital stay. Contrary to bicycling, ATV related injuries occurred among older ages and appeared to result less often from loss of control. Severe injuries resulting in deep soft tissue trauma and fracture/dislocations were 1.7 and 1.5 times, respectively, more frequent among ATV trauma than bicycling (p<0.01). In addition, ATV related injuries were located more frequently in the trunkal, hip, lower extremity, and spinal regions. Conversely, ATV related trauma bore significant similarities regarding body part and nature of the injury to both motor vehicle crash (MVC) and dirtbike related injuries. Akin to dirtbike and MVC related trauma, ATV related injuries more frequently required admission to the ward or intensive care unit compared to bicycling injuries (30.8% v 9.6%, p<0.0001), and used a proportionally larger amount of hospital resources with respect to overall in-hospital and intensive care unit days. Although ATVs may be considered recreational for children, their associated injury patterns, severity, and costs to the healthcare system more closely resemble those from motorized vehicles and are more significant than bicycling. Strict policy to reflect this must be developed and acknowledged by the public, industry, and legislative bodies.

  6. 40 CFR 52.2311 - Motor vehicle antitampering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle antitampering. 52.2311... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2311 Motor vehicle... Emissions from Motor Vehicles” and 114.5 “Exclusions and Exceptions” on February 24, 1989, and September...

  7. 48 CFR 945.570-2 - Acquisition of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of motor... Acquisition of motor vehicles. (a) The GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (GSA-IFMS) is the first source of supply for providing motor vehicles to contractors; however, contracting officer approval...

  8. 78 FR 3081 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Grant of petition for exemption. SUMMARY: This document grants in full Toyota Motor... to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the...

  9. 76 FR 12220 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... on the line as standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor... deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with ] the parts-marking requirements of the Theft...

  10. Military Hybrid Vehicle Optimization and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    and energy security, as well as reduce overall energy u ’C the concept of a microgrid has been introduced [7 ]. A microgricl is defined as an...vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has been show to have the ability to upport the microgrid ru a source, but also a storage device for excess energy [9...understood. The scope of this proposal includes introducing the concept of regarding a military hybrid vehicle as a microgrid and utilizing battery state

  11. Development history of the Hybrid Test Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummel, M. C.; Burke, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Phase I of a joint Department of Energy/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Program undertook the development of the Hybrid Test Vehicle (HTV), which has subsequently progressed through design, fabrication, and testing and evaluation phases. Attention is presently given to the design and test experience gained during the HTV development program, and a discussion is presented of the design features and performance capabilities of the various 'mule' vehicles, devoted to the separate development of engine microprocessor control, vehicle structure, and mechanical components, whose elements were incorporated into the final HTV design. Computer projections of the HTV's performance are given.

  12. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  13. 78 FR 2236 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of More Than 4,536 Kilograms (10,000 Pounds... Standard (FMVSS) No. 119, New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR... first issued in 1973 until it was inadvertently omitted in 2003. The breaking energy requirement...

  14. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  15. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  16. A comparative study of hybrid electric vehicle fuel consumption over diverse driving cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution and declining resources of fossil fuels in recent years,have increased demand for better fuel economy and less pollution for ground transportation.Among the alternative solutions provided by researchers in recent decades,hybrid electric vehicles consisted of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor have been considered as a promising solution in the short-term.In the present study,fuel economy characteristics of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle are investigated by using ...

  17. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  18. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the

  19. A Comprehensive Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiying Shen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the environmental pollution and energy crises are getting more and more remarkable, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs have taken on an accelerated pace in the world. A comprehensive overview of HEVs is presented in this paper, with the emphasis on configurations, main issues, and energy management strategies. Conclusions are discussed finally.

  20. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  1. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  2. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  3. Contributions to motor vehicle emissions analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Sajal Sharma

    While motor vehicles are a major source of atmospheric pollutants, their in-use emissions remain inadequately characterized. Remote sensing devices (RSD) have been shown to be efficient tools for measuring CO, HC and NO in on-road vehicle exhaust. This work utilizes RSD data to illuminate new phenomena related to automobile emissions. Model year averaged RSD data are shown to correlate extremely well with IM240 measurements. IM240 is a loaded-mode dynamometer test used by several states as part of their emissions reduction strategy. The high degree of correlation helps to validate remote sensing as an instrument for IM240 evaluation. Such evaluations of programs in Chicago and Denver indicate an Inspection and Maintenance benefit of less than 10%. Fleet average on-road emissions have continually decreased over several years of measurement at the same locations in four U.S. cities: Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles and Phoenix. Together with the decrease in overall emissions, the distribution has become even more skewed. Fewer automobiles are responsible for a larger fraction of the decreasing total pollutant emissions. Analysis of the newest model year vehicles year after year at the four locations indicates that successive model years have become lower emitting. It is believed that more stringent government mandated emission standards and continuous improvement in the ability of automobile manufacturers to meet these standards is responsible for the emissions reductions. Comparison of emissions among the four cities, adjusted for load and model year, indicates that older vehicles in the Los Angeles area have higher CO and lower NO emissions. The fact that California had more stringent NO emission standards and more lenient CO ones compared to the rest of the states suggests, once again, the significant benefits of emission standards and new vehicle emission control technology.

  4. Electrification of General Motors' vehicles. A portfolio of solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, Uwe D.; Nitz, Larry T. [General Motors Company, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The electrification of the automobile is progressing fast and is changing the architecture of future vehicles tremendously. This trend is a result of the need for higher vehicle efficiency and the desire to diversify the energy sources used for transportation. General Motors offers a wide portfolio of solutions for vehicle electrification to meet the expectations of customers. Micro-hybrid systems for engine stop-start will become a standard solution for many market segments. Mild and strong hybrid systems together with optimized combustion engines enable the next level of propulsion system efficiency. Plugin hybrids offer the possibility to supplement the energy in the fuel with energy from the grid. The Chevrolet Volt and the Opel Ampera are electric vehicles with extended range. They operate as an electric vehicle as long as there is useful energy in the battery. However, unlike a battery electric vehicle they do not suffer from lost vehicle utility when the battery is depleted. Volt and Ampera can continue operation by using an internal combustion engine. General Motors will widen its portfolio by offering battery-electric vehicles and fuel cellelectric vehicles in the near future. GM sees a coexistence of all the different electrified propulsion systems over the coming decades. (orig.)

  5. Mortality among hourly motor vehicle manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzell, Elizabeth; Brown, David A; Matthews, Robert

    2003-08-01

    We evaluated mortality among 198,245 motor vehicle industry workers during the period of 1973 to 1995. Workers' mortality rates were lower than expected overall (40,131 observed/43,859 expected deaths, standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 92, CI = 91-92) and for all major cause of death categories except cancer (SMR = 100, CI = 98-102). Mortality rates were higher than expected for lung cancer overall (SMR = 110, CI = 107-113) and among employees in transmission/gear manufacturing (SMR = 121, CI = 112-130), casting operations (SMR = 122, CI = 110-135), engine manufacturing (SMR = 111, CI = 101-123), and vehicle assembly (SMR = 111, CI = 105-117); for stomach cancer in engine manufacturing (SMR = 147, CI = 110-192); and for prostate cancer in casting operations (SMR = 128, CI = 102-158). Excesses of lung cancer in transmission, vehicle assembly, and casting operations and of stomach cancer in engine manufacturing have been observed in other investigations. Further information on employees' occupational exposures and personal attributes is required to clarify the interpretation of these results.

  6. 40 CFR 85.1715 - Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. 85.1715 Section 85.1715 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1715 Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle. This section applies for aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle in § 85.1703. (a) For...

  7. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines ] EPA is, pursuant... standards relating to the control of emissions for new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines...

  8. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request... control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this part. No state... crankcase emission standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle...

  9. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  10. 41 CFR 109-38.5105 - Motor vehicle local use objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle local use..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5105 Motor vehicle local use objectives. (a) Individual motor vehicle utilization cannot always...

  11. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  12. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  13. Regarding the NVH Behaviour of the more Electric Vehicles. Study Case of a Small PM Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Lazăr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The noise and vibration behaviour of electric and hybrid vehicles is dramatically different from conventional vehicles. The noise and vibration mechanisms of the individual components (combustion engine, electric motor, transmission etc. are known in principle, but an electric or hybrid powertrain features additional and different components as well as new operation modes compared to a conventional powertrain. This results in new interactions which are uncommon in this form for conventional vehicles. In the case of the electric traction, the electric motor becomes an important noise and vibrations source. Depending on the design of the motor, the electromagnetic (EM pulses and corresponding torque pulses from the motor can be very strong. These can be radiated as noise directly from the motor housing and can also be transmitted structurally to the support structure through the motor mounts. However, the EM forces are generally lower than the combustion and reciprocating mass forces of an IC engine, and significantly, they are at a much higher frequency. On the other side, the electric drives are quite numerous in cars. Lot of smaller motors are involved in X-by-wire systems or other comfort oriented systems. As a study case, the paper is focused on the NVH produced by a 0.25kW PM motor.

  14. 78 FR 55137 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL40 Federal Motor Vehicle... document responds to petitions for reconsideration of a 2011 final rule that established Federal...

  15. 78 FR 10573 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule (``Used Car Rule'' or ``Rule''). The notice stated...

  16. 77 FR 54836 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards CFR...; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds)...

  17. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  18. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  19. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  20. Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.

  1. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  2. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  3. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  4. Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Brian D.

    For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the

  5. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and "through-the-ground" parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains.

  6. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and ''through-the-ground'' parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains. (author)

  7. 49 CFR 383.91 - Commercial motor vehicle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial motor vehicle groups. 383.91 Section 383.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

  8. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driving of motor vehicles. 398.4 Section 398.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF...

  9. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Julian D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-05-22

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  10. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  11. 77 FR 4396 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... full the petition of Toyota Motor North America, Inc's., (Toyota) petition for an exemption of the... the line as standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor...

  12. Gasoline hybrid pneumatic engine for efficient vehicle powertrain hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The largest applied convertors in passenger cars are the internal combustion engines – gasoline, diesel, adapted also for operating on alternative fuels and hybrid modes. The number of components that are necessary to realize modern future propulsion system is inexorably increasing. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the compressed air is investigated as an innovative solu...

  13. Simulation of a Hybrid Locomotion Robot Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, P.

    2002-10-01

    This study describes a simulation process of a mobile robot. The focus is in kinematic and dynamic behavior simulations of hybrid locomotion robot vehicles. This research is motivated by the development needs of the WorkPartner field service robot. The whole robot system consists of a mobile platform and a two-hand manipulator. The robot platform, called Hybtor, is a hybrid locomotion robot capable of walking and driving by wheels as well as combining these two locomotion modes. This study describes first the general problems and their solutions in the dynamic simulation of mobile robots. A kinematic and dynamic virtual model of the Hybtor robot was built and simulations were carried out using one commercial simulation tool. Walking, wheel driven and rolking mode locomotion, which is a special hybrid locomotion style, has been simulated and analyzed. Position and force control issues during obstacle overrun and climbing were also studied.

  14. Regression Rate Study in HTPB/GOX Hybrid Rocket Motors.

    OpenAIRE

    Philmon George; Krishnan, S; Lalitha Ramachandran; P. M. Varkey; Raveendran, M.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical and experimenIal studies on hybrid rocket motor combustion research are briefly reviewed and the need for a clear understanding of hybrid rocket fuel regression rate mechanism is brought out. A test facility established at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, for hybrid rocket motor research study is described.The results of an experimental study on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene and gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor are presented. Fuel grains with ammonium perchlor...

  15. Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System Jarrett Goodell and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System 5a...for ~ 22 ton tracked vehicle • Tested and Developed: – Motors, Generators, Batteries, Inverters, DC-DC Converters , Thermal Management, Pulse Power

  16. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles advanced simulation methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu; Moldovanu, Dan; Iclodean, Calin

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed as an interdisciplinary platform for specialists working in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles powertrain design and development, and for scientists who want to get access to information related to electric and hybrid vehicle energy management, efficiency and control. The book presents the methodology of simulation that allows the specialist to evaluate electric and hybrid vehicle powertrain energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption. The mathematics behind each electric and hybrid vehicle component is explained and for each specific vehicle the powertrain

  17. Conversion of Gasoline Vehicles to CNG Hybrid Vehicles (CNG-Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Halvaei Niasar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigation of the feasibility and advantages of using the natural gas as an alternative to gasoline as a fuel for hybrid electric vehicles. Operating CNG vehicles are really beneficial in the Middle East region considering the fact that gasoline is offered at a heavily subsidized price and therefore, by converting a significant portion of the automobiles to run on CNG, the gasoline internal consumption could be reduced. This in turn will result in more oil being available for export which will be beneficial to the economy of country. Hybrid Vehicles mainly have a CNG engine along with an electric drive. The batteries of Hybrid Vehicles are charged by a CNG engine. The engine size is smaller and emissions may be considerably less in hybrid vehicles relative to typical vehicles since the CNG engine is employed only to recharge the electric batteries. Although CNG-Electric hybrid vehicles are less common than Diesel-Electric hybrids, but they have been tested in several U.S. cities such as Denver and Seattle. CNG-electric hybrids hold huge potential for the future in the fact that they are significantly cleaner sources of energy and are conveniently suited to serve the needs of the current economy and modes of transportation. The use of these alternative sources of fuels requires investment and significant studies need to be made to evaluate their efficiencies and reliability. This study would cover most of these aspects and also explores the use of these technologies with particular reference to Qatar and the Middle East.

  18. 41 CFR 109-38.301-1.53 - Responsibilities of motor vehicle operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle operators. 109-38.301-1.53 Section 109-38.301-1.53 Public Contracts and Property... MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.3-Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 109-38.301-1.53 Responsibilities of motor vehicle...

  19. 49 CFR 567.4 - Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles... manufacturers of motor vehicles. (a) Each manufacturer of motor vehicles (except vehicles manufactured in two or... applicable Federal motor vehicle safety, bumper, and theft prevention standards in effect on the date...

  20. Solid Rocket Motor Design Using Hybrid Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Albarado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A particle swarm/pattern search hybrid optimizer was used to drive a solid rocket motor modeling code to an optimal solution. The solid motor code models tapered motor geometries using analytical burn back methods by slicing the grain into thin sections along the axial direction. Grains with circular perforated stars, wagon wheels, and dog bones can be considered and multiple tapered sections can be constructed. The hybrid approach to optimization is capable of exploring large areas of the solution space through particle swarming, but is also able to climb “hills” of optimality through gradient based pattern searching. A preliminary method for designing tapered internal geometry as well as tapered outer mold-line geometry is presented. A total of four optimization cases were performed. The first two case studies examines designing motors to match a given regressive-progressive-regressive burn profile. The third case study studies designing a neutrally burning right circular perforated grain (utilizing inner and external geometry tapering. The final case study studies designing a linearly regressive burning profile for right circular perforated (tapered grains.

  1. Stochastic Optimal Control of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategies (EMSs in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are highly related to the fuel economy and emission performances. However, EMS constitutes a challenging problem due to the complex structure of a HEV and the unknown or partially known driving cycles. To meet this problem, this paper adopts a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP method for the EMS of a specially designed vehicle, a pre-transmission single-shaft torque-coupling parallel HEV. In this parallel HEV, the auto clutch output is connected to the transmission input through an electric motor, which benefits an efficient motor assist operation. In this EMS, demanded torque of driver is modeled as a one-state Markov process to represent the uncertainty of future driving situations. The obtained EMS has been evaluated with ADVISOR2002 over two standard government drive cycles and a self-defined one, and compared with a dynamic programming (DP one and a rule-based one. Simulation results have shown the real-time performance of the proposed approach, and potential vehicle performance improvement relative to the rule-based one.

  2. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle.

  3. Epidemiology of Child Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries and Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    Although children represent only 10-15 % of the overall traffic fatality burden in the United States, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remain the leading cause of death and disability for children and young adults; and, close to half of all unintentional injury deaths to children and adolescents (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System [CDC NCIPC WISQARS] 2010). Moreover, their exposure to motor vehicle risk is significant because they travel by motor vehicles nearly as much as adults. Prevention of the fatalities, injuries and disability associated with MVC must be a priority for ensuring our children's overall health.

  4. 分布式电驱动汽车 AFS 与电液复合制动集成控制%Integrated Control of Active Front Steering and Motor/Hydraulic Hybrid Braking in Distributed Electric Drive Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁希文; 桂林; 周兵

    2016-01-01

    针对分布式电驱动汽车,以实现车辆主动安全性同时兼顾制动能量回收为目标,提出一种主动前轮转向(AFS)与电液复合制动集成的控制策略.AFS 控制器采用滑模变结构控制,滑移率控制器采用滑模极值搜索算法,基于分层结构(上层为期望制动力矩计算模块,中层为考虑执行器带宽的动态控制分配模块,下层为电机与液压复合执行器),并考虑位置与速率约束.转向制动时,考虑车辆纵向动力学对侧向动力学的影响,引入前轮转角对滑移率控制律进行了修正.在 MATLAB/Simulink 中建立七自由度整车模型,对控制算法进行了验证.结果表明:分离路面直线制动时,所提出的控制策略可以同时保证制动能量回收和制动方向稳定性;转弯制动时,可以更好地跟踪理想横摆角速度,提高了车辆的侧向稳定性.%A new control strategy was proposed by integrating active front steering and electro-hydrau-lic braking in distributed electric drive vehicles to ensure vehicle active safety by taking into account bra-king energy recuperation.The AFS controller was synthesized by means of sliding mode control.The wheel slip controller was designed with a hierarchical control structure.In the upper layer,sliding mode extremum-seeking algorithm was adopted to obtain the desired braking torque,and a dynamic control allo-cator considering different actuators bandwidths was employed to determine the optimal split between the electric and friction brake torque in the middle layer.In the lower layer,a hybrid actuator system consis-ting of the hydraulic brake and the electrical motor was designed on the basis of actuator position and rate constraints.The wheel slip control law was modified by introducing the road wheel angle factor consider-ing the strongly coupled dynamics of steering and braking systems when braking-in-turn.Simulation re-sults obtained with a 7-Do

  5. Preliminary Design of Reluctance Motors for Light Electric Vehicles Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIFA, V.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the aspects regarding FEM analysis of a reluctant motor for direct driving of the light electric vehicles. The reluctant motor take into study is of special construction suitable for direct drive of a light electric vehicle. It is an inverse radial reluctant motor, with a fixed stator mounted on front wheel shaft and an external toothed rotor fixed on the front wheel itself. A short presentation of preliminary design is continued with the FEM analysis in order to provide the optimal geometry of the motor and adequate windings.

  6. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  7. High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 9-11 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER CONVERTERS FOR MILITARY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES ABSTRACT...SUBTITLE High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...public release High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles Page 2 of 8 I. INTRODUCTION Today, wide bandgap devices

  8. Design optimisation of a flywheel hybrid vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, D.B.

    1999-11-04

    This thesis describes the design optimisation of a flywheel hybrid vehicle with respect to fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. The driveline of this passenger car uses two power sources: a small spark ignition internal combustion engine with three-way catalyst, and a highspeed flywheel system for kinetic energy storage. A custom-made continuously variable transmission (CVT) with so-called i{sup 2} control transports energy between these power sources and the vehicle wheels. The driveline includes auxiliary systems for hydraulic, vacuum and electric purposes. In this fully mechanical driveline, parasitic energy losses determine the vehicle's fuel saving potential to a large extent. Practicable energy loss models have been derived to quantify friction losses in bearings, gearwheels, the CVT, clutches and dynamic seals. In addition, the aerodynamic drag in the flywheel system and power consumption of auxiliaries are charted. With the energy loss models available, a calculation procedure is introduced to optimise the flywheel as a subsystem in which the rotor geometry, the safety containment, and the vacuum system are designed for minimum energy use within the context of automotive applications. A first prototype of the flywheel system was tested experimentally and subsequently redesigned to improve rotordynamics and safety aspects. Coast-down experiments with the improved version show that the energy losses have been lowered significantly. The use of a kinetic energy storage device enables the uncoupling of vehicle wheel power and engine power. Therefore, the engine can be smaller and it can be chosen to operate in its region of best efficiency in start-stop mode. On a test-rig, the measured engine fuel consumption was reduced with more than 30 percent when the engine is intermittently restarted with the aid of the flywheel system. Although the start-stop mode proves to be advantageous for fuel consumption, exhaust gas emissions increase temporarily

  9. Energy management strategies for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Sheldon S

    2013-01-01

    Covers power electronics and motor drives for energy management of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Addresses specific issues and design solutions related to photovoltaic/grid based EV battery charging infrastructures and on-board battery management systems Emphasis on power electronic converter topologies for on-board battery management

  10. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W(center dot)h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  11. The mechanical hybrid vehicle: an investigation of a flywheel-based vehicular regenerative energy capture system

    OpenAIRE

    Diego-Ayala, U.; Martinez-Gonzalez, P.; McGlashan, N; Pullen, K. R.

    2008-01-01

    Capturing braking energy by regeneration into an onboard energy storage unit offers the potential to reduce significantly the fuel consumption of vehicles. A common technique is to generate electricity in the motors of a hybrid electric vehicle when braking, and to use this to charge an onboard electrochemical battery. However, such batteries are costly, bulky, and generally not amenable to fast charging as this affects battery life and capacity. In order to overcome these problems, a mechani...

  12. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.522 May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel...

  13. US Forest Service Motor Vehicle Use Map: Roads and Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Forest Service roads and trails that are designated for motor vehicle use under the official U.S. Government Code of Federal...

  14. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design of a hybrid vehicle which fully meets or exceeds the requirements set forth in the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle Program is documented. Topics addressed include the general layout and styling, the power train specifications with discussion of each major component, vehicle weight and weight breakdown, vehicle performance, measures of energy consumption, and initial cost and ownership cost. Alternative design options considered and their relationship to the design adopted, computer simulation used, and maintenance and reliability considerations are also discussed.

  15. Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-29

    operate as a generator to convert mechanical energy from the diesel t~nginc 01 from regenerative braking to electrical energy. A vehicle control module...Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid- Electric Vehicle Ning Wu’, Curtis Rands t , Charles E. Lucas!, Eric A. Walters§, and Maher A...Masrurit US Army RDECOM-TARDEC, Warren, MI, 48397 Hybrid- electric military vehicles provide many advantages over conventional military vehicles powered

  16. Efficiency Characteristics of Low Power Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Ahn, Jin-Woo

    2009-01-01

    Switched reluctance motors (SRM) are usually considered inferior in terms of efficiency as compared to permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) and brushless DC-motors (BLDC), but less costly. This article presents a test of a 70W hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM), that archieves a peak...... efficiency for the motor drive of more than 74%, and an efficiency for the motor of almost 80%....

  17. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  18. New Energy Vehicles Standardjzation Practice of DONGFENG MOTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.Introduction Ministry of Finance (MOF) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) have jointly issued several policies concerning new energy vehicles since 2009,such as "Circular on Energy Saving and New Energy Vehicle Model operation and Promotion","Circular on the Promotion of Energy Saving and New Energy Vehicle in Public service Areas ","Circular on the Subsidy for IndividualsPurchasing New Energy Vehicles ","Circular on Releasing 'Regulations of Promotion of Energy Saving Vehicles (Passenger Vehicles under 1.6 L) in the Energy Saving Products People-Benefit Project' ",etc.,to encourage the development and production of new energy vehicle enterprises by means of fiscal and tax measures.Currently,DONGFENG MOTOR's new energy vehicles such as S30,EQ6420PFN1,DFL160MAK,etc.,have entered the energy saving vehicle promotion list of national "Energy Saving Products People-Benefit Project".

  19. Retrofits Convert Gas Vehicles into Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Successful space missions can rarely be attributed to a single thing. Rather, they are the result of a system of systems: integrated elements functioning effectively in their individual roles and together with related components, then those systems interacting with and supporting other systems to form a collaborative whole - from the spacecraft itself to the engineering and research teams that design and build it. An example is found in spacecraft power systems. Unlike a gas-powered car or a battery-powered laptop, most spacecraft are powered by multiple energy sources - such as photovoltaic panels, fuel cells, and batteries - working in tandem to ensure the spacecraft functions throughout the course of a mission. As with any system, the appropriate combination of elements and the method of their management are key to high performance and efficiency. One initiative at Glenn Research Center, the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) program, focused on joining new and mature technologies for optimal power systems applications in space and on Earth, with the goal not only to develop ultra-efficient space power systems, but to advance HPM to address global energy issues. The HPM program emerged from Glenn s long history of electric vehicle research dating back to the 1970s, including the NASA Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB) project in the 1990s, which was the largest vehicle to use supercapacitor energy storage.

  20. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  1. 75 FR 15621 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK38 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 114 that certain motor vehicles with an automatic transmission..., or ``Act'') was signed into law.\\1\\ This Act relates to several aspects of motor vehicle...

  2. 41 CFR 101-39.204 - Obtaining motor vehicles for indefinite assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining motor vehicles..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services § 101-39.204 Obtaining motor vehicles for indefinite assignment. Motor vehicles...

  3. 77 FR 9239 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling... relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this... standards (other than crankcase emission standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or...

  4. 75 FR 11878 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Zero...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Zero... certification, inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March...

  5. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling... certification, inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March...

  6. Alternating-Current Motor Drive for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Rippel, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    New electric drive controls speed of a polyphase as motor by varying frequency of inverter output. Closed-loop current-sensing circuit automatically adjusts frequency of voltage-controlled oscillator that controls inverter frequency, to limit starting and accelerating surges. Efficient inverter and ac motor would give electric vehicles extra miles per battery charge.

  7. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Hybrid Rocket Motors Transient Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Barato, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    As the space business is shifting from pure performances to affordability a renewed interest is growing about hybrid rocket propulsion. Hybrid rocket motors are attractive for their inherent advantages like simplicity, reliability, safety and reduced costs. Moreover hybrid motors are easy to throttle and thus they are ideal candidate when soft-landing or energy management capabilities are required. This thesis is mainly involved with a theoretical/numerical study of hybrid transie...

  8. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-16

    In our highly mobile society, travel in vehicles is an almost daily occurrence for most Americans. Every trip places us at risk for serious injury. In this podcast, Dr. Gwen discusses ways to avoid serious injuries in motor vehicles.  Created: 10/16/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/16/2014.

  9. 41 CFR 109-38.903-50 - Reporting DOE motor vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting DOE motor... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.9-Federal Motor Vehicle Fleet Report § 109-38.903-50 Reporting DOE motor vehicle data. (a) DOE offices and designated...

  10. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  11. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume IV. Series systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popinski, Z.

    1979-09-30

    In the Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task three major powertrain configurations (parallel, parallel with flywheel, and series) were studied. An evaluation of the series configuration is presented. The series configuration has the advantage that the engine is mechanically uncoupled from the wheels and can be operated at its best economy point much of the time. The mechanical energy produced by the engine is converted through a generator into electrical energy which is used to drive the motor or charge the batteries. This configuration offers a good degree of flexibility. It has the disadvantage that substantial losses of energy occur since the mechanical energy from the engine passes through several components before being used to drive the wheels. The energy produced by the engine is reduced by the product of efficiencies of components connected in series. Trade-offs involved in the study of the series configuration were directed toward establishing the size of the engine, motor and generator to meet vehicle acceleration performance; determining what level to operate the engine, and determining when to use the battery. These results were then used in the electric range simulation.

  12. Development of commercial hybrid electric vehicle with native key components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bakhmutov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives of development of medium weight cargo vehicles with hybrid powertrain including Russian native key components are considered in this article. Series-parallel scheme of HEV is more relevant owing to limitations of series and parallel schemes. An example of this technology is described. This technical solution has good facilities for variation of HEV and AWD type. The authors have patented it. In addition, another main issue is to choose the types of key components with good correlation for parameters of ICE, electric motors, batteries, and inverter. Using mathematical model of the vehicle a selection and correlation of technical characteristics were carried out to meet ecological and economical requirements. After computing calculation two control strategies were accepted. The first strategy contributes to good fuel consumption, while the other one is aimed at ecology. Researchers use test benches to confirm the results of calculation, and this one was built by the authors applying native components. The result of experiment on the test bench is the growth of fuel consumption of the medium weight cargo vehicle by 25% and compliance with ecological class Euro-4.

  13. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume VI. Cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, K.S.

    1979-09-30

    The purpose of the cost analysis is to determine the economic feasibility of a variety of hybrid vehicles with respect to conventional vehicles specifically designed for the same duty cycle defined by the mission analysis. Several different hybrid configurations including parallel, parallel-flywheel, and series vehicles were evaluated. The ramifications of incorporating examples of advanced batteries, these being the advanced lead-acid, nickel-zinc, and sodium sulfur were also investigated. Vehicles were specifically designed with these batteries and for the driving cycles specified by the mission. Simulated operation on the missions yielded the energy consumption (petroleum and/or electricity) over the driving cycles. It was concluded that: in the event that gasoline prices reach $2.50 to $3.00/gal, hybrid vehicles in many applications will become economically competitive with conventional vehicles without subsidization; in some commercial applications hybrid vehicles could be economically competitive, when the gasoline price ranges from $1.20 to $1.50/gal. The cost per kWh per cycle of the advanced batteries is much more important economically than the specific energy; the series hybrid vehicles were found to be more expensive in comparison to the parallel or parallel-flywheel hybrids when designed as passenger vehicles; and hybrid vehicles designed for private use could become economically competitive and displace up to 50% of the fuel normally used on that mission if subsidies of $500 to $2000 were supplied to the owner/operator. (LCL)

  14. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  15. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  16. Assessment of the potential of hybrid vehicles: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surber, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of hybrid vehicles as a replacement of the conventional gasoline or diesel fueled internal combustion engine vehicle within the next 20 to 30 years, was assessed. Hybrid vehicle designs and applications which are technically and economically viable were studied to determine if reductions in petroleum usage were large enough to warrant major expenditures of research and development funds. Critical technical areas where research and development can be most usefully concentrated were identified.

  17. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  19. Regression Rate Study in HTPB/GOX Hybrid Rocket Motors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philmon George

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimenIal studies on hybrid rocket motor combustion research are briefly reviewed and the need for a clear understanding of hybrid rocket fuel regression rate mechanism is brought out. A test facility established at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, for hybrid rocket motor research study is described.The results of an experimental study on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene and gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor are presented. Fuel grains with ammonium perchlorate "additive" have shownenhanced oxidizermass flux dependence. Smallergrains have higher regression rates than those of the larger ones.

  20. Hybrids - Best of both worlds. [liquid and solid propellants mated for safe reliable and low cost launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben E.; Wiley, Dan R.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of hybrid rocket propulsion systems whereby combining solids and liquids for launch vehicles could produce a safe, reliable, and low-cost product. The primary subsystems of a hybrid system consist of the oxidizer tank and feed system, an injector system, a solid fuel grain enclosed in a pressure vessel case, a mixing chamber, and a nozzle. The hybrid rocket has an inert grain, which reduces costs of development, transportation, manufacturing, and launch by avoiding many safety measures that must be taken when operating with solids. Other than their use in launch vehicles, hybrids are excellent for simulating the exhaust of solid rocket motors for material development.

  1. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  2. A control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles based on extremum seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçmen, Erkin; Aksun Güvenç, Bilin

    2012-02-01

    An energy management control strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle based on the extremum-seeking method for splitting torque between the internal combustion engine and electric motor is proposed in this paper. The control strategy has two levels of operation: the upper and lower levels. The upper level decision-making controller chooses the vehicle operation mode such as the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, use of only the electric motor, use of only the internal combustion engine, or regenerative braking. In the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, the optimum energy distribution between these two sources of energy is determined via the extremum-seeking algorithm that searches for maximum drivetrain efficiency. A dynamic programming solution is also obtained and used to form a benchmark for performance evaluation of the proposed method based on extremum seeking. Detailed simulations using a realistic model are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology.

  3. Fuel cell vehicles at general motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmolt, R. von [GM Fuel Cell Activities, Adam Opel AG, IPC 81-90, D-65423 Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    An overview of GM/Opel's hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is presented. Three vehicle generations have been put into operation within the past four years, and valuable practical experience has been gained. GM/Opel's development targets are today shifting from pure performance optimisation to more varied aims, including reliability and durability considerations. Increased attention is also being paid to the fuel storage factor, which is a major issue for hydrogen cars. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Design of Solar/Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV) System with Charge Pattern Optimization for Energy Cost

    OpenAIRE

    T Balamurugan; Dr.S.Manoharan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a Solar Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV) system which solves the major problems of fuel and pollution. An electric vehicle usually uses a battery which has been charged by external electrical power supply. All recent electric vehicles present a drive on AC power supplied motor. An inverter set is required to be connected with the battery through which AC power is converted to DC power. During this conversion many losses take place and also the maintenance cost of th...

  5. 41 CFR 109-38.204-50 - Records of exempted motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 109-38.204-50 Section 109-38.204-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.2-Registration, Identification, and Exemptions § 109-38.204-50 Records of exempted motor vehicles. The Director, Office...

  6. 76 FR 34693 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for... or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or... any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  7. 76 FR 61095 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and... certification, inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle...) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor engines prior to March 30, 1966,\\9...

  8. An Investigation into Regenerative Braking Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dong; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Jian-wu

    2005-01-01

    Energy regeneration during braking is an important technique for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to improve their fuel economy and extend their driving range. Due to the effect of regenerative braking torque which is added by electric motor, the braking torque distribution between front and rear axles should be changed and the control logic of anti-lock braking system (ABS) ought to be adjusted according to the regenerative braking torque. This paper put forward a braking control strategy for hybrid electric vehicle; the control strategy is implemented with eight DOFs (Degree-of-Freedom) nonlinear vehicle forward simulation model which is built under the environment of Matlab/Simulink. Based on target wheel slip ratio, a fuzzy logic approach was applied to maintain the optimal target slip ratio so that best compromise between hydraulic torque and regenerative torque can be obtained for the vehicle.

  9. Controlling Torque Distribution for Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Based on Hierarchical Structure Fuzzy Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangMiao-hua; JinGuo-dong

    2003-01-01

    The Hierarchical Structure Fuzzy Logic Control(HSFLC) strategies of torque distribute for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) in the mocle of operation of the vehicle i. e. , acceleration, cruise, deceleration etc. have been studied. Using secondly developed the hybrid vehicle simulation tool ADVISOR, the dynamic model of PHEV has been set up by MATLAB/SIMULINK. The engine, motor as well as the battery characteristics have been studied. Simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical structured fuzzy logic control strategy is effective over the entire operating range of the vehicle in terms of fuel economy. Based on the analyses of the simulation results and driver's experiences, a fuzzy controller is designed and developed to control the torque distribution. The controller is evaluated via hardware-in-the-loop simulator (HILS). The results show that controller verify its value.

  10. 75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... for reconsideration of a final rule published December 4, 2007 which amended the Federal motor vehicle... problem of light vehicle, motor home and recreation vehicle trailer overloading by requiring...

  11. 76 FR 21035 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Kelly Services and Voith Industrial Services, Inc., Formerly...

  12. 77 FR 6587 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Shreveport Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Kelly Services and Voith Industrial Services, Inc., Formerly...

  13. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase 1: Petroleum savings analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive analysis of near term electric hybrid vehicles are presented, with emphasis on their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles are first modeled. The projected U.S. fleet composition is estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs are conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates are then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of sevral conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle mission battery combination. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  14. "Bait vehicle" technologies and motor vehicle theft along the southwest border.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, over 33% of all the vehicles reported stolen in the United States occurred in the four southwestern border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, which all have very high vehicle theft rates in comparison to the national average. This report describes the utilization of 'bait vehicles' and associated technologies in the context of motor vehicle theft along the southwest border of the U.S. More than 100 bait vehicles are estimated to be in use by individual agencies and auto theft task forces in the southwestern border states. The communications, tracking, mapping, and remote control technologies associated with bait vehicles provide law enforcement with an effective tool to obtain arrests in vehicle theft 'hot spots'. Recorded audio and video from inside the vehicle expedite judicial proceedings as offenders rarely contest the evidence presented. At the same time, law enforcement is very interested in upgrading bait vehicle technology through the use of live streaming video for enhanced officer safety and improved situational awareness. Bait vehicle effectiveness could be enhanced by dynamic analysis of motor theft trends through exploitation of geospatial, timeline, and other analytical tools to better inform very near-term operational decisions, including the selection of particular vehicle types. This 'information-led' capability would especially benefit from more precise and timely information on the location of vehicles stolen in the United States and found in Mexico. Introducing Automated License Plate Reading (ALPR) technology to collect information associated with stolen motor vehicles driven into Mexico could enhance bait vehicle effectiveness.

  15. Possibilities of Using Hydrogen as Motor Vehicle Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bukljaš

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the fuel of the future, since it is the element ofwater (H20 whichsun·ounds us and the resources of which areunlimited. First water is divided into hydrogen and oxygen. Thepaper presents the laboratory and industrial methods of obtain·ing hydrogen, types of fuel cells for various purposes, hydrogen-propelled motor vehicles, as well as advantages and drawbacksof hydrogen used as fuel under the conditions that haveto be met in order to use it as propulsion energy for motor vehicles.

  16. Steering Control of Wheeled Armored Vehicle with Brushless DC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Considering the steering characters of one type of wheeled armored vehicle, a brushless direct current (DC) motor is adapted as the actuator for steering control. After investigating the known algorithms, one kind of algorithm, which combines the fuzzy logic control with the self-adapting PID control and the startup and pre-brake control, is put forward. Then a test-bed is constructed, and an experiment is conducted. The result of experiment confirms the validity of this algorithm in steering control of wheeled armored vehicle with brushless DC motor.

  17. Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear in a Battery Electrical Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Mathe, Laszlo; Berg, Nick Ilsø

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV) and the......This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV...

  18. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of

  19. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of

  20. Wheelchair rider risk in motor vehicles: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G

    2000-01-01

    A better understanding of the risk involved in riding different sizes and types of motor vehicles is required to make informed decisions regarding a reasonable level of protection for wheelchair riders. Wheelchair rider accident information that can be used to estimate risk is quite limited. This paper reviewed the resources available, including the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Motor vehicle accident data for the general public were analyzed in order to better characterize wheelchair rider risk. Using the National Safety Council annual transportation mode fatality rates and the (inverse) relationship of vehicle mass and occupant fatality rate, fatality rates for vehicles that transport wheelchair riders (minivans, vans, paratransit vans, and small and large buses) were estimated. Despite the large margins of error that must be assumed for accident data and the conclusions drawn from it, the available information suggests that 1) the majority of wheelchair rider injuries could be prevented by providing protection for abrupt vehicle maneuvers; 2) the type, size, and mass of the vehicle have a substantial effect on the fatality rate, although this effect decreases for heavier (<3,000 kg) vehicles; and 3) wheelchair riders who cannot properly use tiedown and occupant restraint systems or who are frail would face a lower risk of injury if transported in larger vehicles.

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.305 - What forms do we use to transfer ownership when selling a motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., farm machinery, and certain military-design motor vehicles and motor vehicles that are damaged beyond... transfer ownership when selling a motor vehicle? 102-34.305 Section 102-34.305 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.305 What...

  2. Motor vehicle insurance rating with pseudo emissions coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickson, Allister [University of Manitoba Transport Instititute, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2006-06-10

    There is general agreement amongst economists and ecologists that transportation is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Typical proposals to reduce the demand for transportation, and consequently emissions, focus on imposing a fuel tax or a direct fee on vehicles. This paper outlines the method and advantages of treating the environmental risk as additional pseudo coverage rated under existing property and liability motor vehicle insurance systems. (author)

  3. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  4. Mechanism of hybrid-magnetic-circuit multi-couple motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the interval between laminations in a permanent-magnet inductor motor which makes the air-gap magnetic field produced by the permanent magnet very uneven in the axial direction, and limits the performance of a motor. Proposes a hybrid-magnetic-circuit multi-couple motor to compensate for the uneven air-gap magnetic field, thereby improving the performance of a motor.

  5. Brainstem injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S

    2017-10-03

    This is a descriptive study of the frequency and risk for brainstem injury by crash type, belt use, and crash severity (delta-V). NASS-CDS electronic cases were reviewed to see whether the transition from vehicles without advanced airbags and seat belts and side airbags and curtains to vehicles with the safety technologies has influenced the risk for brainstem injury. 1994-2013 NASS-CDS was analyzed to determine the number of brainstem injuries in nonejected adults (15+ years old) in vehicle crashes. Crashes were grouped by front, side, rear, and rollover. The effect of belt use was investigated. Light vehicles were included with model year (MY) 1994+. Occupants with severe head injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 4+) and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 4+F injury were also determined. The risk for injury with standard errors was determined using the MAIS 0+F exposure by belt use and crash type. NASS-CDS electronic cases were studied with brainstem injury in 2001-2013 MY vehicles. NASS-CDS indicates there are 872 ± 133 cases of brainstem injury per year. About 16.0% of AIS 4+ head injury involves the brainstem. For belted occupants, the highest risk for brainstem injury was in side impacts at 0.065 ± 0.010%. In contrast, the highest risk for brainstem injury was 0.310 ± 0.291% in rear impacts and 0.310 ± 0.170% in rollovers for unbelted occupants. The risk for brainstem injury increased with crash severity. The highest risk for brainstem injury was 3.54 ± 1.45% in crashes with >72 km/h (>45 mph) delta-V. Exponential functions fit the change in risk with delta-V. Eighteen NASS-CDS electronic cases showed that brainstem injury occurred in very severe collisions where the occupant experienced multiple injuries from intrusion or impact on vehicle structures stiffened by deformation. The risk for brainstem injury in belted occupants has remained essentially constant over 20 years, whereas the risk for MAIS 4+F injury has declined 38.3%. The prevention

  6. Development of a Electrically Inspired Low Emission Microcontroller Based Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habib Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, influx of research afford is being concentrated in automobile engineering to develop low emission hybrid electric vehicle to reduce the greenhouse gases such as hydro-carbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, produces from the vehicle. Approach: Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs powered by electric machines and an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE are a promising mean of reducing emissions and fuel consumption without compromising vehicle functionality and driving performances. Reduction of emission is a significant issue to save the environment from pollution that cause of many diseases in urban areas is almost entirely due to transport using fossil fuel. Although zero emission transport has not been developed and used practically yet. Results: This study introduce a control mechanism for alternative hybrid electric vehicle combination of electric motor and gasoline engine that reduce the use of fossil fuel without compromising the overall car performance. Conclusion: In this study, a microcontroller based control mechanism of HEV is introduced which consists of battery, voltage indicator, DC motor controller and battery charger."

  7. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern; Meissner, Eberhard; Shirazi, Sepehr

    More and more vehicles hit the European automotive market, which comprise some type of micro-hybrid functionality to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. Most carmakers already offer at least one of their vehicles with an optional engine start/stop system, while some other models are sold with micro-hybrid functions implemented by default. But these car concepts show a wide variety in detail-the term "micro-hybrid" may mean a completely different functionality in one vehicle model compared to another. Accordingly, also the battery technologies are not the same. There is a wide variety of batteries from standard flooded and enhanced flooded to AGM which all are claimed to be "best choice" for micro-hybrid applications. A technical comparison of micro-hybrid cars available on the European market has been performed. Different classes of cars with different characteristics have been identified. Depending on the scope and characteristics of micro-hybrid functions, as well as on operational strategies implemented by the vehicle makers, the battery operating duties differ significantly between these classes of vehicles. Additional laboratory investigations have been carried out to develop an understanding of effects observed in batteries operated in micro-hybrid vehicles pursuing different strategies, to identify limitations for applications of different battery technologies.

  8. Global time trends in PAH emissions from motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Su, Shenshen; Huang, Ye; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Sun, Kang

    2011-04-01

    Emission from motor vehicles is the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas. Emission factors of individual PAHs for motor vehicles reported in the literature varied 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission inventory. In this study, key factors affecting emission factors of PAHs (EF PAH) for motor vehicles were evaluated quantitatively based on thousands of EF PAH measured in 16 countries for over 50 years. The result was used to develop a global emission inventory of PAHs from motor vehicles. It was found that country and vehicle model year are the most important factors affecting EF PAH, which can be quantified using a monovariate regression model with per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity) as a sole independent variable. On average, 29% of variation in log-transformed EF PAH could be explained by the model, which was equivalent to 90% reduction in overall uncertainty on arithmetic scale. The model was used to predict EF PAH and subsequently PAH emissions from motor vehicles for various countries in the world during a period from 1971 to 2030. It was estimated that the global emission reached its peak value of approximate 101 Gg in 1978 and decreased afterwards due to emission control in developed countries. The annual emission picked up again since 1990 owing to accelerated energy consumption in China and other developing countries. With more and more rigid control measures taken in the developing world, global emission of PAHs is currently passing its second peak. It was predicted that the emission would decrease from 77 Gg in 2010 to 42 Gg in 2030.

  9. The Pneumatic Hybrid Vehicle - A New Concept for Fuel Consumption Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trajkovic, Sasa

    2010-07-01

    Urban traffic involves frequent acceleration and deceleration. During deceleration, the energy previously used to accelerate the vehicle is mainly wasted on heat generated by the friction brakes. If this energy that is wasted in traditional internal combustion engines (ICE) could be saved, the fuel economy would improve. Today there are several solutions to meet the demand for better fuel economy and one of them is the pneumatic hybrids. The idea with pneumatic hybridization is to reduce the fuel consumption by taking advantage of the, otherwise lost, brake energy. In the work presented in this study heavy duty Scania engines were converted to operate as pneumatic hybrid engines. During pneumatic hybrid operation the engine can be used as a 2-stroke compressor for generation of compressed air during vehicle deceleration (compressor mode) and during vehicle acceleration the engine can be operated as an air-motor driven by the previously stored pressurized air (air-motor mode). The compressed air is stored in a pressure tank connected to one of the inlet ports. One of the engine inlet valves has been modified to work as a tank valve in order to control the pressurized air flow to and from the pressure tank. In order to switch between different modes of engine operation there is a need for a fully variable valve actuation (FVVA) system. The engines used in this study are equipped with pneumatic valve actuators that use compressed air in order to drive the valves and the motion of the valves is controlled by a combination of electronics and hydraulics. Initial testing concerning the different pneumatic hybrid engine modes of operation was conducted. Both compressor mode (CM) and air-motor mode (AM) were executed successfully. Optimization of CM and AM with regards to valve timing and valve geometry has been done with great improvements in regenerative efficiency which is defined as the ratio between the energy extracted during AM and the energy consumed during CM. A

  10. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve t...... SRM reduce the negative torque before zero-crossing point of torque curve, and build desired phase current to generate more power. Some experimental results are done to verify the performance of proposed hybrid SRM drive system....

  11. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk

  12. Dynamic Performance of Subway Vehicle with Linear Induction Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingbo; Luo, Ren; Hu, Yan; Zeng, Jing

    The light rail vehicle with Linear Induction Motor (LIM) bogie, which is a new type of urban rail traffic tool, has the advantages of low costs, wide applicability, low noise, simple maintenance and better dynamic behavior. This kind of vehicle, supported and guided by the wheel and rail, is not driven by the wheel/rail adhesion force, but driven by the electromagnetic force between LIM and reaction plate. In this paper, three different types of suspensions and their characteristic are discussed with considering the interactions both between wheel and rail and between LIM and reaction plate. A nonlinear mathematical model of the vehicle with LIM bogie is set up by using the software SIMPACK, and the electromechanical model is also set up on Simulink roof. Then the running behavior of the LIM vehicle is simulated, and the influence of suspension on the vehicle dynamic performance is investigated.

  13. Hybrid Computational Model for High-Altitude Aeroassist Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid continuum/noncontinuum computational model will be developed for analyzing the aerodynamics and heating on aeroassist vehicles. Unique features of this...

  14. assessment of capacity building needs among motor vehicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    theory and practice of motor vehicle mechanics should imbibe continuous .... society because they represent focal points where ... argued that the technology gap should not be defined narrowly as a ..... Journal of Library Archives and Information Science. Vol.17 (2) ... www.aaicar.com, making sense of engine sensors ...

  15. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  16. Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Movig, K.L.; Mathijssen, M.P.; Nagel, P.H.; van Egmond, T.; de Gier, J.J.; Leufkens, H.G.; Egberts, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    The driving performance is easily impaired as a consequence of the use of alcohol and/or licit and illicit drugs. However, the role of drugs other than alcohol in motor vehicle accidents has not been well established. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between psychoactive d

  17. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-16

    Motor vehicle crashes are among the leading causes of injury in the U.S. This podcast discusses the importance of being sober and buckled up during ever automobile trip.  Created: 10/16/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/16/2014.

  18. Particulate Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: A Putative Proallergic Hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution generated from motor vehicle exhaust has become a major cause for scientific and public concern worldwide over recent years. The rapid and marked increase in the motor vehicle traffic and its associated emissions in urban areas have paralleled a sharp increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between people living in close proximity to roads with high traffic density and increased allergic symptoms, reduced lung function and increased sensitization to common aeroallergens. Several laboratory-based studies have demonstrated that pollutants emitted from motor vehicles can induce allergic inflammation and increase airway hyperresponsiveness, which may provide an underlying mechanism for the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Although the detrimental effects of air pollution on human health have been brought to public attention, it appears that less attention has been given to the potential role of road traffic fumes in the induction of the allergic state. Legislators should consider pollutants emitted from motor vehicle exhausts as a potential pro-allergic hazard, before making important changes in environmental policy.

  19. 76 FR 76622 - Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Change 2011-03; FMR Case 2011-102-2; Docket 2011-0011; Sequence 2] RIN 3090-AJ14 Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, (GSA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration is amending the Federal Management Regulation (FMR)...

  20. 76 FR 31545 - Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Part 102-34 RIN 3090-AJ14 Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management AGENCY...: The General Services Administration is proposing to amend the Federal Management Regulation (FMR) by....C. 553(a)(2) because it applies to agency management. However, this proposed rule is being...

  1. Neck sprain after motor vehicle accidents in drivers and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Neck sprain is a general term denoting a soft tissue injury of the neck, which seldom causes major disability but is considered a modem epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sprain of the neck injury due to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) in both drivers and pa

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crashes, and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in the US—harmful and expensive. What works to prevent crash injuries? Using primary enforcement seat belt laws that cover everyone in the car. A primary enforcement law means a police officer ...

  3. Concussion in Motor Vehicle Accidents: The Concussion Identification Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Motor Vehicle Accidents; TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury); Brain Contusion; Brain Injuries; Cortical Contusion; Concussion Mild; Cerebral Concussion; Brain Concussion; Accidents, Traffic; Traffic Accidents; Traumatic Brain Injury With Brief Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With no Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With Loss of Consciousness

  4. Study and review of permanent magnets for electric vehicle propulsion motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnat, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of permanent magnets (PM) was performed in support of the DOE/NASA electric and hybrid vehicle program. PM requirements for electric propulsion motors are analyzed, design principles and relevant properties of magnets are discussed. Available PM types are reviewed. For the needed high-grade magnets, design data, commercial varieties and sources are tabulated, based on a survey of vendors. Economic factors such as raw material availability, production capability and cost are analyzed, especially for cobalt and the rare earths. Extruded Mn-Al-C magnets from Japan were experimentally characterized. Dynamic magnetic data for the range -50 deg to +150 deg C and some mechanical properties are reported. The state of development of the important PM material families is reviewed. Feasible improvements or new developments of magnets for electric vehicle motors are identified.

  5. Hybrid Vehicle Comparison Testing Using Ultracapacitor vs. Battery Energy Storage (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.; Lustbader, J.; Tataria, H.

    2010-02-01

    With support from General Motors, NREL researchers converted and tested a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with three energy storage configurations: a nickel metal-hydride battery and two ultracapacitor (Ucap) modules. They found that the HEV equipped with one Ucap module performed as well as or better than the HEV with a stock NiMH battery configuration. Thus, Ucaps could increase the market penetration and fuel savings of HEVs.

  6. 41 CFR 109-26.501 - Purchase of new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of new motor vehicles. 109-26.501 Section 109-26.501 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... motor vehicles....

  7. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  8. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  9. Energy management in hybrid electric vehicles: benefit of prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Jager, B. de; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles require a supervisory algorithm, often referred to as energy management strategy, which governs the drivetrain components. In general the energy management strategy objective is to minimize the fuel consumption subject to constraints on the components, vehicle performance and driver

  10. The Impact of Hybrid Vehicles on Street Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Salisbury, Brad; Rozema, Randall

    2006-01-01

    The authors had three purposes: (a) to compare the sound output of a Toyota Corolla, a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE) with that of a hybrid vehicle (Prius) under conditions of acceleration and approach in relation to the potential decision of a pedestrian who is visually impaired to begin to cross the street, (b) to…

  11. Bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS) for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Mourad, S.; Have, P. ten

    1999-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) the requirements on batteries for energy storage are completely different from those in battery powered electric vehicles (BEV's). In order to come to a succesful development of HEV's, beside fullfilling the technical requirements, the battery has to have a long

  12. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  13. Bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS) for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Mourad, S.; Have, P. ten

    1999-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) the requirements on batteries for energy storage are completely different from those in battery powered electric vehicles (BEV's). In order to come to a succesful development of HEV's, beside fullfilling the technical requirements, the battery has to have a long l

  14. Bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS) for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.

    1998-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) the requirements on batteries for energy storage are completely different from those in battery powered electric vehicles (BEV's). In order to come to a succesful development of HEV's, beside fullfilling the technical requirements, the battery has to have a long l

  15. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-09-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  16. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  17. Real-world environmental performance of hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Foster, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    With the further development and market introduction of hybrid vehicle technologies in recent years we are now at a stage where we can test whether the proclaimed advantages of hybrid propulsion in terms of fuel efficiency and emission reduction are actually realised. An important issue is that

  18. Real-world environmental performance of hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Foster, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    With the further development and market introduction of hybrid vehicle technologies in recent years we are now at a stage where we can test whether the proclaimed advantages of hybrid propulsion in terms of fuel efficiency and emission reduction are actually realised. An important issue is that sign

  19. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

  20. Economic and environmental comparison of conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Published data from various sources are used to perform economic and environmental comparisons of four types of vehicles: conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell. The production and utilization stages of the vehicles are taken into consideration. The comparison is based on a mathematical procedure, which includes normalization of economic indicators (prices of vehicles and fuels during the vehicle life and driving range) and environmental indicators (greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions), and evaluation of an optimal relationship between the types of vehicles in the fleet. According to the comparison, hybrid and electric cars exhibit advantages over the other types. The economic efficiency and environmental impact of electric car use depends substantially on the source of the electricity. If the electricity comes from renewable energy sources, the electric car is advantageous compared to the hybrid. If electricity comes from fossil fuels, the electric car remains competitive only if the electricity is generated on board. It is shown that, if electricity is generated with an efficiency of about 50-60% by a gas turbine engine connected to a high-capacity battery and an electric motor, the electric car becomes advantageous. Implementation of fuel cells stacks and ion conductive membranes into gas turbine cycles permits electricity generation to increase to the above-mentioned level and air pollution emissions to decrease. It is concluded that the electric car with on-board electricity generation represents a significant and flexible advance in the development of efficient and ecologically benign vehicles.

  1. Predictive control strategy for power management in parallel hybrid-electric vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodeh, Mohammad Taqi; Gholizade, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid model-based nonlinear optimal control method is used to compute the optimal power distribution and power management in parallel hybrid electric vehicles. In the power management strategy, for optimal power distribution between the internal combustion engine, electrical...... system and the other subsystems, nonlinear predictive control is applied. In order to achieve this goal, a hierarchical control structure is utilized. This type of control structure consists of three levels of monitoring, coordinating and local controllers. Nonlinear modeling and performance index...... in the proposed method should be formulated at the regulatory level of the controller. Discrete dynamic mode of operation (motor-generator) in hybrid electric vehicle requires to use a dual-mode switch model and to define an alternative expression of performance index for the optimal control problem...

  2. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  3. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial... 37122) amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to...

  4. 22 CFR 151.8 - Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles. 151.8... LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.8 Evidence of insurance for motor vehicles... insurance throughout the period of registration on all motor vehicles owned or leased or otherwise...

  5. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK56 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Action Plan, NHTSA is issuing this NPRM to propose to amend the Federal motor vehicle safety standard... crash must involve a motor vehicle traveling on a traffic way customarily open to the public, and...

  6. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1159 - Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and... Enhanced Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance. (a) Revisions submitted by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection on October 20, 2000, to the motor vehicle inspection and...

  8. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer... two revisions are appropriate and would not result in any degradation of motor vehicle safety....

  9. 49 CFR 565.14 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles imported into the United States...) REQUIREMENTS VIN Requirements § 565.14 Motor vehicles imported into the United States. (a) Importers shall utilize the VIN assigned by the original manufacturer of the motor vehicle. (b) All passenger...

  10. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... published a final rule in the Federal Register amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)...

  11. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to require improved...

  12. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.501 - Purchase of new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purchase of new motor... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501 Purchase of new motor vehicles. (a) It shall be the policy to procure commercially available motor vehicles, unless other vehicles...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  15. 19 CFR 10.310 - Election to average for motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to average for motor vehicles. 10.310... Free Trade Agreement § 10.310 Election to average for motor vehicles. (a) Election. In determining whether a motor vehicle is originating for purposes of the preferences under the Agreement or a...

  16. 49 CFR 565.24 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles imported into the United States...) REQUIREMENTS Alternative VIN Requirements In Effect for Limited Period § 565.24 Motor vehicles imported into... motor vehicle. (b) A passenger car certified by a Registered Importer under 49 CFR part 592 shall have...

  17. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using...

  18. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel....532 How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? (a) Credit use stipulations....

  19. 40 CFR 80.531 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated? (a) Generation of credits from June 1, 2006...

  20. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... posted speed limit of 55 mph that was in effect in 1991. \\2\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control... improved truck designs. \\3\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control Devices (1991), DOT HS 807 725. TCA... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

  1. 40 CFR 80.24 - Controls applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controls applicable to motor vehicle... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Controls and Prohibitions § 80.24 Controls applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers. (a) (b) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle equipped with an...

  2. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each cargo tank or cargo tank motor vehicle design type, including its required accident damage... specification cargo tank motor vehicles. 178.320 Section 178.320 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Transportation § 178.320 General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles....

  3. 76 FR 14014 - Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Trade... pertaining to motor vehicle sales and leasing, the FTC is hosting a series of public roundtables in 2011. The... interested parties to discuss consumer protection issues in connection with motor vehicle sales and...

  4. 14 CFR 1204.1600 - Issuance of motor vehicle for home-to-work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Temporary Duty Travel-Issuance of Motor Vehicle for Home-to-Work... travel is authorized to travel by Government motor vehicle and the official authorizing the travel determines that there will be a significant savings in time, a Government motor vehicle may be issued at...

  5. The speed of change : motor vehicles and people in Africa, 1890-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Luning, Sabine; Walraven, van K.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1900s the motor-vehicle (car, bus, lorry or motorcycle) was introduced in sub-Saharan Africa. Initially the plaything and symbol of colonial domination, the motor-vehicle transformed the economic and social life of the continent. Indeed, the motor-vehicle is arguably the single most imp

  6. 41 CFR 102-34.50 - What size motor vehicles may we obtain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.50 What size motor vehicles may we obtain? (a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What size motor vehicles may we obtain? 102-34.50 Section 102-34.50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  7. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management... fleet motor vehicle? After meeting the replacement standards under subpart E of this part, you may dispose of a Government-owned domestic fleet motor vehicle. Detailed instructions for the transfer of...

  8. 76 FR 8736 - Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... AGENCY Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation Conformity Purposes; Connecticut; Notice of Withdrawal of Adequacy of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets AGENCY... public that EPA has withdrawn its previous adequacy finding on the 2012 motor vehicle emission...

  9. 76 FR 7204 - Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... AGENCY Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation... Adequacy of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... the 2010 particulate matter of ten microns or less (PM-10) motor vehicle emission budget (MVEB)...

  10. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012......In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...

  11. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...... developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012...

  12. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...... based approach is used to control the DC/DC power converters associated with the DC sources, the backstepping technique combined with the field oriented control strategy are invoked in order to control the induction motor. It is formally shown, using a theoretical analysis and simulation results...

  13. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  14. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight.This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estimated by evaluating the prevailing weather at the time and place of the crash compared with the weather at the same hour and location on control days a week earlier and a week later.The majority of patients (n = 6962) were injured during daylight hours and bright sunlight was the most common weather condition at the time and place of the crash. The risk of a life-threatening crash was 16% higher during bright sunlight than normal weather (95% confidence interval: 9-24, P vehicle crash. An awareness of this risk might inform driver education, trauma staffing, and safety warnings to prevent a life-threatening motor vehicle crash.

  15. Hybrid Adaptive Observer for a Brushless DC Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemczyk, Piotr; Porchez, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2008-01-01

    A novel hybrid adaptive observer for Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM) is presented. It uses two current measurements of BLDCM phases to estimate the angle and the speed of the rotor. The observer is designed on the basis of a hybrid model, which is also presented in this paper. The parameters...

  16. A Hybrid Model of a Brushless DC Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Hansen, Hans Brink; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to modeling of a Brush-Less Direct Current Motor (BLDCM) driven by an inverter using hybrid systems theory. Hybrid systems combine continuous and discrete (event-based) dynamics, which is exactly the case in an inverter-driven BLDCM. The model presented in thi...

  17. 75 FR 72987 - Brokers of Household Goods Transportation by Motor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 371, 375, 386, and 387 RIN 2126-AA84 Brokers of Household Goods Transportation by Motor Vehicle AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... household goods brokers which ``shall provide for the protection of shippers by motor vehicle'' (49...

  18. 78 FR 57585 - Minimum Training Requirements for Entry-Level Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 380, 383, and 384 RIN 2126-AB06 Minimum Training Requirements for Entry-Level Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... applying for a commercial driver's license (CDL) to operate commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...

  19. 77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK13 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... rulemaking proposal to rescind Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 219, ``Windshield zone... members included: BMW Group, Chrysler LLC, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz...

  20. 41 CFR 109-38.204-4 - Report of exempted motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of exempted motor..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.2-Registration, Identification, and Exemptions § 109-38.204-4 Report of exempted motor vehicles. DOE offices shall provide upon request...

  1. 76 FR 5368 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within-the... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  2. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas... shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  3. 76 FR 70128 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Heavy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Heavy... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  4. 41 CFR 109-38.105 - Agency purchase and lease of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient Motor... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency purchase and lease of motor vehicles. 109-38.105 Section 109-38.105 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  5. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase I. Petroleum savings analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of near-term electric-hybrid vehicles. Its purpose was to estimate their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles were first modeled. The projected US fleet composition was estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs were conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates were then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of several conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle-mission-battery combination. A discussion of lessons learned during the construction and test of the General Electric Hybrid Test Vehicle is also presented. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  6. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  7. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  8. Improvement the DTC system for electric vehicles induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor is used as a propulsion system of an electric vehicle (EV. Two different control methods have been designed. The first is based on the conventional DTC Scheme adapted for three level inverter. The second is based on the application of fuzzy logic controller to the DTC scheme. The motor is controlled at different operating conditions using a FLC based DTC technique. In the simulation the novel proposed technique reduces the torque and current ripples. The EV dynamics are taken into account.

  9. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  10. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  11. Demonstration of Heavy Hybrid Diesel Fleet Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    losses due to uneven pavement , and representative of most installations. • Track Weather Station: ATC setup equipment to measure and record weather...the conventional utility truck provide a better, more rigid ride. Acceleration of the vehicle is very poor. The vehicles continuously fall behind

  12. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estimated by evaluating the prevailing weather at the time and place of the crash compared with the weather at the same hour and location on control days a week earlier and a week later. The majority of patients (n = 6962) were injured during daylight hours and bright sunlight was the most common weather condition at the time and place of the crash. The risk of a life-threatening crash was 16% higher during bright sunlight than normal weather (95% confidence interval: 9–24, P < 0.001). The increased risk was accentuated in the early afternoon, disappeared at night, extended to patients with different characteristics, involved crashes with diverse features, not apparent with cloudy weather, and contributed to about 5000 additional patient-days in hospital. The increased risk extended to patients with high crash severity as indicated by ambulance involvement, surgical procedures, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission, and patient mortality. The increased risk was not easily attributed to differences in alcohol consumption, driving distances, or anomalies of adverse weather. Bright sunlight is associated with an increased risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash. An awareness of this risk might inform driver education, trauma staffing, and safety warnings to prevent a life-threatening motor vehicle crash. Level of evidence: Epidemiologic Study, level III. PMID:28072708

  13. Role of motor vehicle lifetime extension in climate change policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Hubacek, Klaus; Suh, Sangwon; Minx, Jan; Kudoh, Yuki; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2011-02-15

    Vehicle replacement schemes such as the "cash for clunkers" program in the U.S. and the "scrappage scheme" in the UK have featured prominently in the economic stimulation packages initiated by many governments to cope with the global economic crisis. While these schemes were designed as economic instruments to support the vehicle production industry, governments have also claimed that these programs have environmental benefits such as reducing CO2 emissions by bringing more fuel-efficient vehicles onto the roads. However, little evidence is available to support this claim as current energy and environmental accounting models are inadequate for comprehensively capturing the economic and environmental trade-offs associated with changes in product life and product use. We therefore developed a new dynamic model to quantify the carbon emissions due to changes in product life and consumer behavior related to product use. Based on a case study of Japanese vehicle use during the 1990-2000 period, we found that extending, not shortening, the lifetime of a vehicle helps to reduce life-cycle CO2 emissions throughout the supply chain. Empirical results also revealed that even if the fuel economy of less fuel-efficient ordinary passenger vehicles were improved to levels comparable with those of the best available technology, i.e. hybrid passenger cars currently being produced in Japan, total CO2 emissions would decrease by only 0.2%. On the other hand, we also find that extending the lifetime of a vehicle contributed to a moderate increase in emissions of health-relevant air pollutants (NOx, HC, and CO) during the use phase. From the results, this study concludes that the effects of global warming and air pollution can be somewhat moderated and that these problems can be addressed through specific policy instruments directed at increasing the market for hybrid cars as well as extending lifetime of automobiles, which is contrary to the current wisdom.

  14. 78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Program. 536 Transfer and Trading of Fuel Economy Credits. ] 537 Automotive Fuel... Sealed Beam Headlamp Information. 565 Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) Requirements. 566 Manufacturer...: Have we organized the material to suit the public's needs? Are the requirements in the rule...

  15. Systematic review of military motor vehicle crash-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahl, Pamela L; Jankosky, Christopher J; Thomas, Richard J; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2010-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for nearly one third of U.S. military fatalities annually. The objective of this review is to summarize the published evidence on injuries due specifically to military motor vehicle (MMV) crashes. A search of 18 electronic databases identified English language publications addressing MMV crash-related injuries between 1970 and 2006 that were available to the general public. Documents limited in distribution to military or government personnel were not evaluated. Relevant articles were categorized by study design. The search identified only 13 studies related specifically to MMV crashes. Most were case reports or case series (n=8); only one could be classified as an intervention study. Nine of the studies were based solely on data from service-specific military safety centers. Few studies exist on injuries resulting from crashes of military motor vehicles. Epidemiologic studies that assess injury rates, type, severity, and risk factors are needed, followed by studies to evaluate targeted interventions and prevention strategies. Interventions currently underway should be evaluated for effectiveness, and those proven effective in the civilian community, such as graduated driver licensing, should be considered for implementation and evaluation in military populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. 77 FR 22383 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; TESLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Theft Prevention Standard; TESLA AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... full the petition of Tesla Motors Inc's. (Tesla) for an exemption of the Model S vehicle line in... Prevention Standard. Tesla requested confidential treatment for specific information in its petition. The...

  17. Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Based on Hybrid Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sideslip angle is essential for active safety control systems. This paper presents a new hybrid Kalman filter to estimate vehicle sideslip angle based on the 3-DoF nonlinear vehicle dynamic model combined with Magic Formula tire model. The hybrid Kalman filter is realized by combining square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF, which has quick convergence and numerical stability, with square-root cubature based receding horizon Kalman FIR filter (SCRHKF, which has robustness against model uncertainty and temporary noise. Moreover, SCKF and SCRHKF work in parallel, and the estimation outputs of two filters are merged by interacting multiple model (IMM approach. Experimental results show the accuracy and robustness of the hybrid Kalman filter.

  18. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  19. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-08-19

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  20. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs. Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator permanent magnet (stator-PM motor, a hybrid-excitation motor, a flux memory motor and a redundant motor structure. Then, it illustrates advanced electric drive systems, such as the magnetic-geared in-wheel drive and the integrated starter generator (ISG. Finally, three machine-based implementations of the power split devices are expounded, built up around the dual-rotor PM machine, the dual-stator PM brushless machine and the magnetic-geared dual-rotor machine. As a conclusion, the development trends in the field of electric machines and machine-based systems for EVs are summarized.

  1. M1078 Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicle Fuel Economy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 28-09-2012 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED (From...system shakedown and developmental testing. During developmental testing, a hydraulic motor failure occurred. Although not catastrophic, the motor...main hydraulic hybrid system control module to request the TCM to shift the transmission. Clutch Operation with engine- off (hydraulic-only power) or

  2. Power Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Quadratic Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An energy management strategy (EMS considering both optimality and real-time performance has become a challenge for the development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs in recent years. Previous EMSes based on the optimal control theory minimize the fuel consumption, but cannot be directly implemented in real-time because of the requirement for a prior knowledge of the entire driving cycle. This paper presents an innovative design concept and method to obtain a power management strategy for HEVs, which is independent of future driving conditions. A quadratic performance index is designed to ensure the vehicle drivability, maintain the battery energy sustainability and average and smooth the engine power and motor power to indirectly reduce fuel consumption. To further improve the fuel economy, two rules are adopted to avoid the inefficient engine operation by switching control modes between the electric and hybrid modes according to the required driving power. The derived power of the engine and motor are related to current vehicle velocity and battery residual energy, as well as their desired values. The simulation results over different driving cycles in Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the fuel economy, which is very close to the optimal strategy based on Pontryagin’s minimum principle.

  3. 75 FR 76185 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Rearview Video Systems viii. Development of a Performance-Based or Technology-Neutral Standard ix. Other... scene and vehicle, as well as interviews of the involved parties when possible. When an on-site...

  4. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  5. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  6. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  7. Preliminary design data package, appendix C. [hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.

  8. Thermal simulation of a cooling system of hybrid commercial vehicles; Thermalsimulation eine Hybrid-LKW-Kuehlsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, Christoph; Schnoerch, Stefan; Rathberger, Christian [Magna Powertrain Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co. KG, St. Valentin (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    In the past few years hybrid vehicles have been in the center of automotive engineering efforts, in particular in the field of passenger cars. But hybrid powertrains will also be important for commercial trucks. This focus on hybrid vehicles leads to high demands on thermal management since the additional components in a hybrid vehicle need appropriate cooling or even heating. In the given paper the simulation of a complete cooling system of a hybrid commercial vehicle will be explained. For this virtual examination the commercial 1D thermal management software KULI will be used, a co-simulation with several programs will not be done deliberately. Yet all aspects which are relevant for a global assessment of the thermal management are considered. The main focus is put on the investigation of appropriate concepts for the fluid circuits, including low and high temperature circuits, electric water pumps, etc. Moreover, also a refrigerant circuit with a chiller for active battery cooling will be used, the appropriate control strategy is implemented as well. For simulating transient profiles a simple driving simulation model is included, using road profile, ambient conditions, and various vehicle parameters as input. In addition an engine model is included which enables the investigation of fuel consumption potentials. This simulation model shows how the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle can be investigated with a single program and with reasonable effort. (orig.)

  9. Unregulated emissions from light-duty hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Astorga, C.

    2016-07-01

    The number of registrations of light duty hybrid electric vehicles has systematically increased over the last years and it is expected to keep growing. Hence, evaluation of their emissions becomes very important in order to be able to anticipate their impact and share in the total emissions from the transport sector. For that reason the emissions from a Euro 5 compliant hybrid electric vehicle (HV2) and a Euro 5 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHV1) were investigated with special interest on exhaust emissions of ammonia, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Vehicles were tested over the World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) at 23 and -7 °C using two different commercial fuels E5 and E10 (gasoline containing 5% and 10% vol/vol of ethanol, respectively). PHV1 resulted in lower emissions than HV2 due to the pure electric strategy used by the former. PHV1 and HV2 showed lower regulated emissions than conventional Euro 5 gasoline light duty vehicles. However, emissions of ammonia (2-8 and 6-15 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively), ethanol (0.3-0.8 and 2.6-7.2 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) and acetaldehyde (∼0.2 and 0.8-2.7 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) were in the same range of those recently reported for conventional gasoline light duty vehicles.

  10. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  11. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  12. Statics of levitated vehicle model with hybrid magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desheng LI; Zhiyuan LU; Tianwu DONG

    2009-01-01

    By studying the special characteristics of permanent and electronic magnets, a levitated vehicle model with hybrid magnets is established. The mathematical model of the vehicle is built based on its dynamics equation by studying its machine structure and working principle. Based on the model, the basic characteristics and the effect between the excluding forces from permanent magnets in three different spatial directions are analyzed, statics characteristics of the interference forces in three different spatial directions are studied, and self-adjusting equilibrium characteristics and stabilization are analyzed. Based on the structure above, the vehicle can levitate steadily by control system adjustment.

  13. Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Analysis (Milestone Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; O' Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Thornton, M.

    2006-11-01

    NREL's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) analysis activities made great strides in FY06 to objectively assess PHEV technology, support the larger U.S. Department of Energy PHEV assessment effort, and share technical knowledge with the vehicle research community and vehicle manufacturers. This report provides research papers and presentations developed in FY06 to support these efforts. The report focuses on the areas of fuel economy reporting methods, cost and consumption benefit analysis, real-world performance expectations, and energy management strategies.

  14. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  16. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor...

  17. 41 CFR 109-38.5106 - Application of motor vehicle use goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of motor vehicle use goals. 109-38.5106 Section 109-38.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Equipment § 109-38.5106 Application of motor vehicle use goals. (a) At least annually, the motor...

  18. 75 FR 12123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Motors, Porsche, Toyota, and Volkswagen. Lead time. The final rule specified that manufacturers must... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK48 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety..., 2007, final rule that upgraded Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 214, ``Side impact...

  19. 76 FR 36486 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ....5216 156 VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT 16 31,310 0.5110 157 GENERAL MOTORS......... SATURN SKY 2 4,078 0.4904 158... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2009...

  20. 76 FR 52880 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Rover, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz USA, Mitsubishi Motors, Porsche, Toyota, and Volkswagen. III. Response to... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK82 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Manufacturers regarding a March 2010 final rule on the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for side impact...

  1. 77 FR 58500 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT 4 13,204 0.3029 160 GENERAL MOTORS...... GMC TERRAIN......... 13 48,605 0.2675 161 SUZUKI... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... thefts of model year (MY) 2010 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2010. The...

  2. 75 FR 11005 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... QUATTRO.. 8 6992 1.1442 111 VOLKSWAGEN..... GOLF/RABBIT/GTI..... 46 41314 1.1134 112 GENERAL MOTORS... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... thefts of model year (MY) 2007 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2007. The...

  3. 78 FR 41016 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... 100 181,785 0.5501 132 GENERAL MOTORS..... CADILLAC SRX...... 32 59,077 0.5417 133 VOLKSWAGEN... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2011...

  4. Intelligent Energy Management Strategy for a Separated-Axle Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fallahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV in addition to provide the benefits of electric vehicles could satisfy consumers for some performances of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles such as acceleration and long range. On this way, suitable energy optimization strategies should be employed to get desired efficiency, less fuel consumption and pollution. One of the favorite and simple configurations of HEVs is parallel type. A student team at University of Kashan, IRAN have designed and manufactured Shaheb 2 hybrid electric vehicle. It is a separated-axle (or Through-to-Road (TTR parallel HEV type based on Pride platform. Employed energy management in Shaheb 2 is on/off strategy and three modes; motor, engine and hybrid have been implemented. This paper investigates the modeling of separated-axle (or TTR parallel type of HEV in ADVISOR software and then evaluates two control strategies for Shaheb 2; on/off strategy and an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic. On this way, maximizing the engine is considered as objective function. The simulation results indicate that the fuzzy strategy leads to less fuel consumption and lower pollution for given UDDS driving cycle rather than on/off strategy for Shaheb 2.

  5. 76 FR 55829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL02 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... changes to a new Federal motor vehicle safety standard requiring light vehicles to be equipped with...

  6. Quinone emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakober, Chris A; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M Judith; Green, Peter G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2007-07-01

    Gas- and particle-phase emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers were collected using annular denuders, quartz filters, and PUF substrates. Quinone species were measured using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine quinones were observed, ranging from C6 to C16. New species identified in motor vehicle exhaust include methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQN), and aceanthrenequinone. Gas-phase motor vehicle emissions of quinones are also reported for the first time. Six gas-phase quinones were quantified with emission rates of 2-28 000 microg L(-1) fuel consumed. The most abundant gas-phase quinones were 1,4-benzoquinone (BON) and MNQN. The gas-phase fraction was > or = 69% of quinone mass for light-duty gasoline emissions, and > or = 84% for heavy-duty diesel emissions. Eight particle-phase quinones were observed between 2 and 1600 microg L(-1), with BQN the most abundant species followed by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,2-naphthoquinone. Current particle-phase quinone measurements agree well with the few available previous results. Further research is needed concerning the gas-particle partitioning behavior of quinones in ambient and combustion source conditions.

  7. Crash and burn? Vehicle, collision, and driver factors that influence motor vehicle collision fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, T L; Slavova, S; Robertson, M

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective population-based case-control study was performed to determine the association between vehicle fires, and vehicle, collision, and driver factors on highways with a posted speed limit of at least 55mph. Data were obtained from the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic files for 2000-2009 from the Kentucky State Police Records Sections. The results from the final multiple logistic regression show that large trucks were at a higher risk for a collision involving a fire than passenger vehicles and pickup trucks. When controlling for all other variables in the model, vehicles 6 years old and older, driving straight down the highway, and single vehicle collisions were also identified as factors that increase the risk of motor vehicle collision fires on roadways with a posted speed limit of ≥55mph. Of the 2096 vehicles that caught fire, there were 632 (30%) non-fatally injured drivers and 224 (11%) fatally injured drivers. The results of this study have the potential to inform public health messages directed to the transportation industry, particularly semi truck drivers, in regard to fire risk.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  9. Handling performance control for hybrid 8-wheel-drive vehicle and simulation verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Hu, Jibin

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve handling performance of a hybrid 8-Wheel-Drive vehicle, the handling performance control strategy was proposed. For armoured vehicle, besides handling stability in high speed, the minimum steer radius in low speed is also a key tactical and technical index. Based on that, the proposed handling performance control strategy includes 'Handling Stability' and 'Radius Minimization' control modes. In 'Handling Stability' control mode, 'Neutralsteer Radio' is defined to adjust the steering characteristics to satisfy different demand in different speed range. In 'Radius Minimization' control mode, the independent motors are controlled to provide an additional yaw moment to decrease the minimum steer radius. In order to verify the strategy, a simulation platform was built including engine and continuously variable transmission systems, generator and battery systems, independent motors and controllers systems, vehicle dynamic and tyre mechanical systems. The simulation results show that the handling performance of the vehicle can be enhanced significantly, and the minimum steer radius can be decreased by 20% which is significant improvement compared to the common level of main battle armoured vehicle around the world.

  10. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  11. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  12. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-01-01

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles’ in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians. PMID:27548179

  13. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  14. ADОPTIVE CONTROL OF THE HYBRID VEHICLE POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive control of the hybrid vehicle power unit, which makes it possible to minimize the quality criterion under constraints on the state parameters and the control vector is considered. A formal statement of the optimization problem is given. The solution of this problem by the method of neural network control based on the adaptive criticism is considered.

  15. Sensorless Suitability Analysis of Hybrid PM Machines for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben Nørregaard; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    Electrical machines for traction in electric vehicles are an essential component which attract attention with respect to machine design and control as a part of the emerging renewable industry. For the hybrid electric machine to replace the familiar behaviour of the combustion engine torque...

  16. Design of Solar/Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV System with Charge Pattern Optimization for Energy Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Balamurugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Solar Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV system which solves the major problems of fuel and pollution. An electric vehicle usually uses a battery which has been charged by external electrical power supply. All recent electric vehicles present a drive on AC power supplied motor. An inverter set is required to be connected with the battery through which AC power is converted to DC power. During this conversion many losses take place and also the maintenance cost of the AC System is very high. The proposed topology has the most feasible solar/electric power generation system mounted on the vehicle to charge the battery during all durations. With a view of providing ignited us to develop this “Solar/Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle” [SEPHV].This multi charging vehicle can charge itself from both solar and electric power. The vehicle is altered out of a Maruti Omni vehicle by replacing its engine with a 1.2HP, 24V Permanent Magnet DC [PMDC] Motor. The Supply to the motor is obtained from a battery set of 12V, 150AH. The household electric supply of 230V is reduced with a step-down transformer to 48V and then it is converted to the DC with a rectifying unit to charge the battery. Two solar panels each with a rating of 230watts are attached to the top of the Vehicle to grab the solar energy and is controlled with a help of charge controller. The SEPHV can be driven by 1.2 HP PMDC motor consisting of two 230 watts PV panel in the voltage rating of 24 V. The power which is absorbed by the PV panel is stored into the four 150 AH 12 V batteries. When there is no presence of sun, electric power supply act as an auxiliary energy source. For controlling speed of the motor, a switch is designed with four tapping, provided with different values of resistance at each tapping. It acts as a speed control switch for Solar/Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle. This type of technique is to reduce the running cost and increasing the running

  17. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP, we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.

  18. Selective detection and characterization of nanoparticles from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Murray V; Klems, Joseph P; Zordan, Christopher A; Pennington, M Ross; Smith, James N

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that exposure to motor vehicle emissions increases the probability of heart attacks, asthma attacks, and hospital visits among at-risk individuals. However, while many studies have focused on measurements of ambient nanoparticles near highways, they have not focused on specific road-level domains, such as intersections near population centers. At these locations, very intense spikes in particle number concentration have been observed. These spikes have been linked to motor vehicle activity and have the potential to increase exposure dramatically. Characterizing both the contribution and composition of these spikes is critical in developing exposure models and abatement strategies. To determine the contribution of the particle spikes to the ambient number concentration, we implemented wavelet-based algorithms to isolate the particle spikes from measurements taken during the summer and winter of 2009 in Wilmington, Delaware, adjacent to a roadway intersection that approximately 28,000 vehicles pass through daily. These measurements included both number concentration and size distributions recorded once every second by a condensation particle counter (CPC*; TSI, Inc., St. Paul, MN) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). The high-frequency portion of the signal, consisting of a series of abrupt spikes in number concentration that varied in length from a few seconds to tens of seconds, accounted for 3% to 35% of the daily ambient number concentration, with spike contributions sometimes greater than 50% of hourly number concentrations. When the data were weighted by particle volume, this portion of the signal contributed an average of 10% to 20% to the daily concentration of particulate matter (PM) vehicles accelerated after a red traffic light turned green. As the distance or transit time from emission to sampling increased, the size distribution shifted to a larger particle size, which confirmed the source assignments. To determine the

  19. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  20. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  1. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  2. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  3. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  4. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  5. Experimental study on wheel-hub motor driven electric vehicles with hybrid brake%轮毂电机驱动电动车复合制动控制实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海峰

    2011-01-01

    为降低轮毂电机驱动电动车功率、元件损耗,提高能量使用效率,研究了一种新颖的机电复合制动方案.轻度制动或缓速制动初期优先采用回馈制动;高制动强度时,回馈制动与机械制动共同作用,在保证足够制动力矩前提下,尽可能提高制动能量回收程度.制动控制中,采用Mamdani模糊控制器对制动电流进行设定.实验结果表明该方案安全可靠,制动能量回收效率较高,并能有效减少车辆制动距离.%In order to reduce losses and improve the efficiency of energy use, a new hybrid braking scheme is proposed. Regenerative brake has priority in mild braking situations. Working together of regenerative braking and mechanical braking can maximize braking energy recovery. Meanwhile, it can ensure adequate braking torque in high intensity brake situations. Mamdani fuzzy controller is used to set the conference brake current.Experimental results show that the designed scheme is valid, and the efficiency of braking energy recovery is high. It is effective to reduce the braking distance of electric vehicles.

  6. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  7. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  8. Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle utility factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Quinn, Casey W.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can be fueled from both conventional liquid fuels and grid electricity. To represent the total contribution of both of these fuels to the operation, energy use, and environmental impacts of PHEVs, researchers have developed the concept of the utility factor. As standardized in documents such as SAE J1711 and SAE J2841, the utility factor represents the proportion of vehicle distance travelled that can be allocated to a vehicle test condition so as to represent the real-world driving habits of a vehicle fleet. These standards must be used with care so that the results are understood within the context of the assumptions implicit in the standardized utility factors. This study analyzes and derives alternatives to the standard utility factors from the 2001 National Highway Transportation Survey, so as to understand the sensitivity of PHEV performance to assumptions regarding charging frequency, vehicle characteristics, driver characteristics, and means of defining the utility factor. Through analysis of these alternative utility factors, this study identifies areas where analysis, design, and policy development for PHEVs can be improved by alternative utility factor calculations.

  9. Hybrid vehicles - an alternative for the Swedish market; Hybridfordon - ett alternativ foer den svenska bilparken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, Karl-Erik; Bucksch, S.

    2000-06-01

    The object of this report is to assemble information on and describe the situation for the development of hybrid vehicles and various alternatives within this field of development. In the report the description is concentrated mainly on the combination of combustion engine and electric battery, which is the most common combination in present day hybrid vehicles. In order to take a glimpse into the future even the combination of fuel cells and electric battery is described. The light duty electric hybrid vehicles which have been developed up to now are mainly parallel hybrids. If the development of hybrid systems takes place it will most certainly concern light duty vehicles which will come to be parallel hybrids equipped with an Otto or a diesel engine, depending on what the manufacturers wish to back. In the report the use of series hybrid vehicles is estimated to be limited to heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. Hybrids will not be likely to be relevant for heavy-duty vehicles, with the exception of those lorries which operate in city centres, i.e. lorries which are used to distribute goods to shops, garbage vehicles and certain types of working vehicle for service purposes. Continued development of the hybrid system for buses seems uncertain for various reasons. If there is a technical breakthrough in the manufacture of batteries and simultaneously the manufacturers increase their efforts to develop hybrid vehicles, the situation can be changed so that there is a speedier introduction of hybrid vehicles for heavy-duty vehicles.

  10. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.

    2014-03-01

    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  11. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  12. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) - NMVCCS XML Case Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  13. THE STATUS OF MEASURES TO COMBAT MOTOR VEHICLE AIR POLLUTION AND OUTSTANDING ISSUES IN JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuji SUZUKI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quarter century since fiscal 1970, air pollution generated by motor vehicles has not improved sufficiently, and the state is severe, particularly in major cities. This is caused directly by the increasing volume of motor vehicle traffic that is, in turn, a result of the fact that contemporary socio-economic systems and lifestyles depend largely on the use of the motor vehicle. Social cost of air pollution must be internalized to solve the air pollution problem and the total volume of motor vehicle emission must be reduced and controlled to meet environmental quality standards, not just regulated on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis. This will require a review of the prevailing vehicle-dependent socio-economic systems and lifestyles, and necessitate that we look at a set of drastic measures which strike at the fundamentals of our vehicle usage.

  14. A Practical Permanent Magnetic Motor Drive for Hybrid Motorcycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔巍; 江建中; 邵定国; 杨斌

    2003-01-01

    A novel embedded-type permanent magnetic motor for hybrid motorcycle, which employs asymmetric design of eccentric air-gap, is proposed in the paper. This special design of air-gap well conforms to the mono-directional operation characteristic of motorcycle and effectively suppresses the distortion of air-gap magnetic field caused by armature reaction. Hence the torque ripple is reduced. A drive system consisting of the newly-designed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet synchronous motor and parallel-MOSFET threephase inverter for hybrid motorcycle propulsion is established. Wide-range speed operation is realized through a simple and novel control strategy. Computer simulation is described and experimental results given to verify the practicality of the proposed motor design and control strategy.

  15. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... rulemaking submitted by Mr. Michael R. Schramm, to amend the Federal motor vehicle safety standard on seat... during normal vehicle operation and certain crash scenarios, resulting in increased risk to vehicle...

  16. Electro-mechanical Braking Method in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Feedback Control Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; YU Jun-quan; LIU Zheng-yu; CHANG Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the hybrid electric vehicle braking process is researched, by using variables consists of HEV speed, motor speed, and state of charge established, functions of mechanical braking force, regenerative braking force and efficiency of energy recovery are constructed, and the control goal is to maximization the energy recovery efficiency. Under the feedback control strategy, with the constrain condition of braking strength and braking stability, combining experiments in ADVISOR, in different experiments of different working conditions, we can see that in UDDS Cycle, the regenerative braking efficiency is the best. What’s more, compared with strategies in ADVISOR, strategy proposed in this paper is obviously better.

  17. Emergency Department and Older Adult Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfipour, Shahram

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported there were 33 million licensed drivers 65 years and older in the U.S. This represents a 23 percent increase from 1999, number that is predicted to double by 2030. Although, motor vehicle collisions (MVC-related to emergency department (ED visits for older adults are lower per capita than for younger adults, the older-adults MVCs require more resources, such as additional diagnostic imaging and increased odds of admission. Addressing the specific needs of older-adults could lead to better outcomes yet not enough research currently exists. It is important to continue training emergency physicians to treat the increasing older-patient population, but its also imperative we increase our injury prevention and screening methodology. We review research findings from the article: Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions: A Five-year national study, with commentary on current recommendation and policies for the growing older-adult driving population. [West J Emerg Med.2013;14(6:582–584.

  18. Disparity surveillance of nonfatal motor vehicle crash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Lin, Ge

    2013-01-01

    The lack of race information for nonfatal motor vehicle crash injuries in the United States has limited the understanding of racial disparities in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). In this article, we describe a pilot surveillance project in Nebraska that linked crash reports and driver's license records to investigate racial disparity among nonfatal MVC injuries. The project linked 43,157 severely and nonseverely injured drivers from crash reports between 2006 and 2010 to the corresponding state driver's license database so that drivers' race information from each MVC could be retrieved. A log rate model was used to examine the likelihood of MVC injuries by drivers' race along the dimensions of age, sex, and place of residence. Black drivers had 31.6 and 87 percent more severe and nonsevere injuries, respectively, than white drivers. Rural residents were more likely than urban residents to have severe MVC injuries. Controlling for residence status, age, and sex did not alter the basic pattern that black drivers had higher rates of nonfatal MVC injuries. The linkage approach provides an effective way to obtain additional information for MVC injury disparity surveillance. To reduce racial disparities in severe and nonsevere MVC injuries, race-sex-, race-age-, and race-location-specific interventions should be considered based on their significant contributions to disparity.

  19. Rhabdomyolysis and unilateral renal infarction after a motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanai, Toru; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Murata, Akinari; Ukon, Kei; Fuchigami, Kazumi

    2007-01-01

    A 46-year-old man with no previous history of abnormal urinalysis findings or renal dysfunction was admitted to a local hospital because of a motor vehicle crash. An open laparotomy was performed to treat a perforation of the small intestine. After operation, oliguria and renal dysfunction developed, and he was admitted to our hospital because of acute renal failure after trauma. Acute renal failure was assumed to be due to rhabdomyolysis with elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and creatine kinase levels and myoglobinemia. Left flank pain occurred several days after admission, and the serum alkaline phosphatase level increased between days 5 and 12 following admission. Although hemodialysis was performed 9 times and the urine output was satisfactory, the creatinine clearance levels increased only to about 50 mL/min/1.73 m2 (0.84 mL/s/m2) at 6 weeks following admission. As a result, a diagnosis of renal infarction due to acute renal artery occlusion was considered. The left kidney was atrophic on an abdominal computed tomographic scan and was nonfunctioning on a renogram. This case shows the importance of not overlooking the possibility of a renal infarction associated with rhabdomyolysis after a motor vehicle crash. In particular, the changes in the serum alkaline phosphatase levels were important in making a correct diagnosis in this case.

  20. Accidents involving off-road motor vehicles in a northern community.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselback, P; Wilding, H R

    1987-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents associated with off-road motor vehicles used for recreational purposes prompted this prospective study. During 1985 the records of victims of all motor vehicle accidents who were seen at the Hudson Bay Union Hospital, Hudson Bay, Sask., were studied; patients involved in on-road vehicle accidents were included for comparison. Emphasis was placed on age, vehicle type, mechanism of accident, injury severity and the use of safety features. Almost half of the vi...

  1. Battery thermal models for hybrid vehicle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    This paper summarizes battery thermal modeling capabilities for: (1) an advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR); and (2) battery module and pack thermal design. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) ADVISOR is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. There are several battery models in ADVISOR for various chemistry types. Each one of these models requires a thermal model to predict the temperature change that could affect battery performance parameters, such as resistance, capacity and state of charges. A lumped capacitance battery thermal model in the Matlab/Simulink environment was developed that included the ADVISOR battery performance models. For thermal evaluation and design of battery modules and packs, NREL has been using various computer aided engineering tools including commercial finite element analysis software. This paper will discuss the thermal ADVISOR battery model and its results, along with the results of finite element modeling that were presented at the workshop on "Development of Advanced Battery Engineering Models" in August 2001.

  2. Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

  3. Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared

    2011-01-01

    Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

  4. The research of controller area network on hybrid electrical vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hongxing; Song Liwei; Kou Baoquan; Cheng Shukang

    2006-01-01

    It is of increasing importance to design and implement vehicle networks for transferring information between electrical control units on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV). This paper presents a scheme of using Controller Area Network (CAN) technology to realize communication and datasharing between the electrical units on the HEV. The principle and communication protocol of Electrical Control Units (ECU) CAN node are introduced. By considering different sensitivity of the devices to the latency of data transportation, a new design procedure is proposed for the purpose of simplifying network codes and wiring harness, reducing assembly space and weight, improving assembly efficiency, and enhancing fault-diagnose in auto networks.

  5. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Laboratory

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  6. An Effective Hybrid Optimization Algorithm for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem. However, it is quite difficult to achieve an optimal solution with the traditional optimization methods owing to the high computational complexity. A hybrid algorithm was developed to solve the problem, in which an artificial immune clonal algorithm (AICA) makes use of the global search ability to search the optimal results and simulated annealing (SA) algorithm employs certain probability to avoid becoming trapped in a local optimum. The results obtained from the computational study show that the proposed algorithm is a feasible and effective method for capacitated vehicle routing problem.

  7. Design,analysis and control of hybrid excited doubly salient stator-permanent-magnet motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,a new hybrid excited doubly salient stator-permanent-magnet motor is proposed,where both permanent magnets and DC field windings are located in the stator.In theory,the mathematical model and design method of the motor are developed.The corresponding output power equation and the relationship between the flux control capability and the extended speed range are deduced in details.By using an efficient "one-step" three-dimensional(3D) finite element method,the electromagnetic performances are analyzed,in which the leakage flux outside the stator circumference and end-effect are taken into account.Based on the operation principle of the motor,the control strategy and scheme are developed and implemented experimentally.Both experimental results and finite element analysis show that the proposed motor not only maintains the advantages of doubly salient permanent magnet motors,but also offers high energy efficiency over a wide speed range,which makes the motor an interesting candidate for electric vehicles.

  8. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    As the vehicle population in China increases, oil consumption and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions associated with on-road transportation are rising dramatically. During this study, we developed a methodology to project trends in the growth of the vehicle population, oil demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions associated with on-road transportation in China. By using this methodology, we projected--separately--the number of highway vehicles, motorcycles, and rural vehicles in China through 2050. We used three scenarios of highway vehicle growth (high-, mid-, and low-growth) to reflect patterns of motor vehicle growth that have occurred in different parts of the world (i.e., Europe and Asia). All are essentially business-as-usual scenarios in that almost none of the countries we examined has made concerted efforts to manage vehicle growth or to offer serious alternative transportation means to satisfy people's mobility needs. With this caveat, our projections showed that by 2030, China could have more highway vehicles than the United States has today, and by 2035, it could have the largest number of highway vehicles in the world. By 2050, China could have 486-662 million highway vehicles, 44 million motorcycles, and 28 million rural vehicles. These numbers, which assume essentially unmanaged vehicle growth, would result in potentially disastrous effects on the urban infrastructure, resources, and other social and ecological aspects of life in China. We designed three fuel economy scenarios, from conservative to aggressive, on the basis of current policy efforts and expectations of near-future policies in China and in developed countries. It should be noted that these current and near-future policies have not taken into consideration the significant potential for further fuel economy improvements offered by advanced technologies such as electric drive technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles). By using vehicle growth projections and

  9. Modeling Hot Spot Motor Vehicle Theft Crime in Relation to Landuse and Settlement Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowd of Yogyakarta urban has impacted its surrounding area, including Depok sub district, which is indicated by the rising of physical development, for example education facilities and settlements. The progress does not only bring positive impact, but also negative impact for instance the rising of crime number i.e. motor vehicle robbery. The aims of this research are 1 mapping motor vehicle robbery data as the distribution map and identifying motor vehicle robbery hot spot base on distrbution map; and 2 studying the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot with physical environment phenomena, i.e. land use type and settlement pattern. The research method consists of two parts; they are motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis and the relation of motor vehicle robbery and physical environment analysis. Motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis is using distribution data, which analyzes the distribution into motor vehicle robbery hot spot with nearest neighbor tehnique. Contingency coefficient and frequency distribution analysis is used to analyze the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot and physical environment. Contingency coefficient is used to study the relation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot polygon with physical environment condition, whereas frequency distribution is used to study the distribution of motor vehicle robbery in the hot spot with physical environment condition. Physical environment which consists of land use type, housing density, house regularity pattern, and the average of building size, are obtained from interpretation of black and white panchromatic aerial photograph year 2000, in the scale 1 : 20.000. the most motor vehicle robbery hot spot is found on the settlement area, 68,3% from 378 motor vehicle robbery cases in the hot spot. The seond level is found on the education area (16.4%. The most motor vehicle hot spot in the settlement is found on the hight density and irregular settlement, which have big

  10. Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E; Hobson, Douglas A; Karg, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals using wheeled mobility devices (WMDs) often use them as motor vehicle seats during transportation. Wheelchair occupant restraint systems (WORSs), consisting of upper torso and pelvic restraints, are usually mounted to the structure of transit vehicles to secure individuals within their wheelchair seats. This preliminary study attempts to evaluate the use and satisfaction of currently installed vehicle-mounted WORSs for individuals using WMD as seats in motor vehicles. A survey was conducted among 33 adults who use their WMD to travel in motor vehicles. Results from the survey showed that upper torso and pelvic restraints installed in private vehicles are quick, comfortable, and easy to use. However, WORS installed in mass transit and paratransit are often uncomfortable to wear, difficult to reach, and time-consuming to use. This preliminary study documents the growing need for developing alternative WORS that are safe, comfortable, and that allow independent usage for wheelchair occupants while traveling in a motor vehicle.

  11. The new wave of hybrid vehicles in Japan; La nouvelle vague de vehicules hybrides au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moille, F.

    2000-05-01

    The Japan Ministry of international trade and industry (MITI) has foreseen a 23% reduction of the consumption of internal combustion engines between 1995 and 2010. The Japanese automotive companies are seriously working on the development of less polluting and more economical vehicles. After the domination of the internal combustion engine with its good performances, and the quasi-exclusive use of electric-powered vehicles in urban areas for autonomy reasons, time has come for the development of hybrid vehicles which combine the advantages of both principles. With a very simple use for the driver, the hybrid vehicle is in fact based on a particularly complex technology which is explained for some prototypes presented in this paper. (J.S.)

  12. AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER HYBRID VEHICLE FOR OCEAN SURVEILLANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRUBAKARAN.S,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are among the most vulnerable of all regions to global climate change. Projected impacts from global warming include rising sea levels, intensification of tropical cyclones, larger storm surges, increasing sea-surface temperatures, and – as the oceans absorb more of the carbon dioxide human activities emit to theatmosphere – growing acidification of surface waters. With an estimated 50 per cent of the world’s population now living within 60km of the coast and 60 per cent of cities with population over 5 million located within 100 km of the coast, the Potential impacts of climate change on coastal development and infrastructure is considerable. On-going development has manifested in the form of urban centers, tourist resorts, ports and Industrial areas. The rising sea levels and larger storm surges caused by climate change Threaten to compound such risks. In order to understand the Ocean systems, continuous time series Observation is essential and development of innovative Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV with suite of sensors would be very useful.

  13. Drivability improvements for a single-motor parallel hybrid electric vehicle using robust controls%基于鲁棒控制的一种单电机并联式混合动力电动汽车的驾驶性改善方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu ZHANG; Cun-lei WANG; Yong ZHANG; Jun-yi LIANG; Cheng-liang YIN

    2014-01-01

    For a single-motor parallel hybrid electric vehicle, during mode transitions (especially the transition from electric drive mode to engine/parallel drive mode, which requires the clutch engagement), the drivability of the vehicle will be signifi-cantly affected by a clutch torque induced disturbance, driveline oscillations and jerks which can occur without adequate controls. To improve vehicle drivability during mode transitions for a single-motor parallel hybrid electric vehicle, two controllers are proposed. The first controller is the engine-side controller for engine cranking/starting and speed synchronization. The second controller is the motor-side controller for achieving a smooth mode transition with reduced driveline oscillations and jerks under the clutch torque induced disturbance and system uncertainties. The controllers are all composed of a feed-forward control and a robust feedback control. The robust controllers are designed by using the mu synthesis method. In the design process, control-oriented system models that take account of various parameter uncertainties and un-modeled dynamics are used. The results of the simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.%研究目的:改善一种单电机并联式混合动力电动汽车的驾驶性能。  创新要点:1.建立面向控制器设计的系统模型,并且考虑系统参数的不确定性和CAN通讯延迟;2.设计基于mu综合的鲁棒控制器,减小了模式切换时车辆的冲击度,改善车辆的驾驶性能。  研究方法:1.将发动机端和电机端的控制解耦,并对其进行单独的控制设计(图5、8);2.发动机端控制主要用于发动机调速,电机端控制主要用于补偿离合器转矩对传动系造成的干扰;3.控制器设计时采用前馈控制和鲁棒控制结合的方法。  重要结论:通过采用鲁棒控制,使得一种单电机并联式混合动力电动汽车的驾驶性得

  14. Hybrid power train for light commercial vehicles; Hybridantriebsstrang fuer leichte Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somschor, B.; Buchhold, O. (ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen)

    2007-07-01

    Light commercial vehicles are a rapidly growing vehicle segment. These vehicles are used for several purposes e.g. supply of different goods, construction areas, special applications. A high number of vehicles are used in cities or in urban arena with a high density of traffic and typical environmental polluting. In the meantime legislation in several industrialized countries around the world have the target to protect environment, e.g., Euro 4 or 5 regulations or Japan 10. In parallel the automotive industries (ACEA) in Europe has given a self obligation to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission until 2008 to a value of 140 g/km. A lot of activities are started by automotive industry and there suppliers in the past to meet these requirements. Beside already well known development activities like weight optimisation, lower driving and air resistance or improved diesel engine the hybrid power train, a combination of electric motor generator and combustion engine seems to be in the future an imported solution to meet these requirements in the future. Several possibilities to realize a hybrid power train for these applications is shown including the possibilities ZF have to show a hybrid power train for these types of applications. Advantages and disadvantages of the several possibilities are discussed from different point of view. The needed basic functions of a hybrid power train are discussed and system is recommended to use for these types of applications. A simulation model is shown and described including the realisation and results for different driving cycles. The influence on fuel consumption and emissions divided by functions are shown. A solution optimised for light commercial application is shown. Further more first results based on practical experiences are described. (orig.)

  15. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  16. Multivariable speed synchronisation for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, B.; Antritter, F.; Svaricek, F.; Schultalbers, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this article, a new drivetrain configuration of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle is considered and a novel model-based control design strategy is given. In particular, the control design covers the speed synchronisation task during a restart of the internal combustion engine. The proposed multivariable synchronisation strategy is based on feedforward and decoupled feedback controllers. The performance and the robustness properties of the closed-loop system are illustrated by nonlinear simulation results.

  17. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    P. Suntharalingam

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  18. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  19. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Department of Energy. 2007. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. “Freedom CAR and vehicle technology program; Plug-In hybrid- electric vehicle R&D Plan...ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES by Eddie E. McCown September 2014 Thesis...HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Eddie E. McCown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  20. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni;

    2011-01-01

    phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid...... SRM reduce the negative torque before zero-crossing point of torque curve, and build desired phase current to generate more power. Some experimental results are done to verify the performance of proposed hybrid SRM drive system....

  1. Development & optimization of a rule-based energy management strategy for fuel economy improvement in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfoor, Mostafa

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of conventional vehicle drive systems. This dissertation builds on prior hybrid powertrain development at the University of Idaho. Advanced vehicle models of a passenger car with a conventional powertrain and three different hybrid powertrain layouts were created using GT-Suite. These different powertrain models were validated against a variety of standard driving cycles. The overall fuel economy, energy consumption, and losses were monitored, and a comprehensive energy analysis was performed to compare energy sources and sinks. The GT-Suite model was then used to predict the formula hybrid SAE vehicle performance. Inputs to this model were a numerically predicted engine performance map, an electric motor torque curve, vehicle geometry, and road load parameters derived from a roll-down test. In this case study, the vehicle had a supervisory controller that followed a rule-based energy management strategy to insure a proper power split during hybrid mode operation. The supervisory controller parameters were optimized using discrete grid optimization method that minimized the total amount of fuel consumed during a specific urban driving cycle with an average speed of approximately 30 [mph]. More than a 15% increase in fuel economy was achieved by adding supervisory control and managing power split. The vehicle configuration without the supervisory controller displayed a fuel economy of 25 [mpg]. With the supervisory controller this rose to 29 [mpg]. Wider applications of this research include hybrid vehicle controller designs that can extend the range and survivability of military combat platforms. Furthermore, the

  2. A Novel Direct Torque Control Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive used in Electrical Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohua Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a modified direct torque control (DTC scheme for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is investigated, which enables low torque ripple by using an improved voltage vector selection strategy instead of switching table used in conventional DTC. Based on the control of stator flux, torque angle and torque, voltage vector selection strategy of PMSM DTC drive is proposed. In the proposed voltage vector selection strategy, the applied voltage vector is determined according to outputs of hysteresis comparators for stator flux and torque, angular position of stator flux and torque angle, which is finally synthesized by space vector modulation (SVM. Modeling and experimental results for an interior PMSM used in Honda Civic 06My Hybrid electrical vehicle are given. Simulation and experimental results show torque ripple is reduced and the total harmonics of stator current is decreased when compared those of conventional DTC. And a fixed switching frequency is obtained with the help of SVM. In addition, the proposed DTC doesn’t need any additional PI controller, which maintains the simplicity in conventional DTC. Keywords: direct torque control, permanent magnet synchronous motor, electrical vehicle, torque ripple, switching frequency

  3. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  4. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  5. 76 FR 72404 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets in Submitted PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 226 (Wednesday, November 23, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 72404] [FR Doc No: 2011-30305] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9495-4] Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle... that the Agency has found that the motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for particulate matter...

  6. 49 CFR 177.823 - Movement of motor vehicles in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of motor vehicles in emergency situations. 177.823 Section 177.823 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC HIGHWAY General Information and Regulations § 177.823 Movement of motor vehicles...

  7. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of Tesla... electric passenger vehicles and related powertrain components at the Tesla Motors, Inc., facilities located... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger...

  8. 75 FR 6338 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... to use conditions as a substitute for CFC-12 in motor vehicle air conditioning. The proposed... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 82 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program AGENCY: Environmental...

  9. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  10. 78 FR 8122 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Transportation Conformity Purposes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Transportation Conformity Purposes... transportation conformity purposes. The submittal includes MOVES2010 motor vehicle emissions budgets for 2017 and... submitted SIPs cannot be used for conformity determinations until EPA has affirmatively found them...

  11. 75 FR 23306 - Establishment of Advisory Committee on the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Information System AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice of establishment of the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Advisory Board. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Final Rule, 74 FR 5740, 5774 (January 30, 2009)...

  12. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.5Platform lighting on public use lifts. Public use lifts... be equipped with a public use lift certified as meeting Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 403... subject to paragraph S4.1.1, must be equipped with a platform lift certified as meeting either the public...

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.40 - Who must comply with motor vehicle fuel efficiency requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.40 Who must comply... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must comply...

  14. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57695, Sept. 22, 2010. As prescribed in 48 CFR 970.2307-2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle...

  15. 76 FR 10897 - Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... AGENCY Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation... Adequacy of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Register on February 9, 2011 (76 FR 7204) announcing that EPA has withdrawn its May 30, 2008...

  16. 78 FR 57503 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Approval of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Approval of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets and Determination of Attainment for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particulate Standard; Tacoma... November 28, 2012, to establish motor vehicle emission budgets for the Tacoma-Pierce County...

  17. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL05 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...: This NPRM proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210, ``Seat belt assembly..., MY 2000 Chevrolet S-10, MY 2002 Chevrolet TrailBlazer, MY 2003 Volkswagen Jetta, MY 1996 Ford F-350...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.4902-1781 - GSA Form 1781, Motor Vehicle Requisition-Delivery Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true GSA Form 1781, Motor Vehicle Requisition-Delivery Order. 101-26.4902-1781 Section 101-26.4902-1781 Public Contracts and... GSA Form 1781, Motor Vehicle Requisition—Delivery Order. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  19. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  20. Assessment of the forest landscape along selected motor vehicle routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeczko Emilia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research that aims to analyse and evaluate the attractiveness of the forest landscape in the vicinity of selected motor vehicle routes that differ in terms of technical parameters, such as motorways, regional roads and local (municipal roads. The diversity of landscape units was used as the measure of landscape attractiveness. Landscape diversity analysis allows to establish the details related to specific parts of the road and the options for configuring the road environment. These options relate to the way the forest is managed and mainly involve aspects of infrastructure and cultivation. They include activities such as afforestation work and rebuilding the species composition of forest stands. According to the research, the lower the technical class of a road, the greater is the need to take action to adapt the structural-tree stand system to meet the safety requirements of road users.

  1. Obstructive sleep apnoea, motor vehicle accidents, and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    The obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows a very high prevalence in the middle-age work force population and, between all diseases and medical conditions, is the major risk factor for motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). OSA can be diagnosed and treated, with resultant reduction in MVAs to those seen in the healthy population. It is increasing evidence that it is a major risk factor for occupational accidents also in fields different from the professional transport and for work disability. It is likely that the treatment of OSA results in the reduction of occupational accidents and work performance improvement with expected benefits in work processes and business in general. It is therefore advisable to develop strategies for screening and treatment of OSA in workers. The risk assessment of OSA in workers may also help to reduce the burden on national health care systems.

  2. Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    An elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base was developed using data obtained on sixteen electric, hybrid, and sub-compact production vehicles tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current four-passenger proto-type automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Vehicles were tested at yaw angles up to 40 degrees and a wing weighting analysis is presented which yields a vehicle's effective drag coefficient as a function of wing velocity and driving cycle. Other parameters investigated included the effects of windows open and closed, radiators open and sealed, and pop-up headlights. Complete six-component force and moment data are presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Only limited commentary is offered since, by its very nature, a data base should consist of unrefined reference material. A justification for pursuing efficient aerodynamic design of EHVs is presented.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics challenges for hybrid air vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrin, M.; Biava, M.; Steijl, R.; Barakos, G. N.; Stewart, D.

    2017-06-01

    This paper begins by comparing turbulence models for the prediction of hybrid air vehicle (HAV) flows. A 6 : 1 prolate spheroid is employed for validation of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. An analysis of turbulent quantities is presented and the Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-ω model is compared against a k-ω Explicit Algebraic Stress model (EASM) within the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) framework. Further comparisons involve Scale Adaptative Simulation models and a local transition transport model. The results show that the flow around the vehicle at low pitch angles is sensitive to transition effects. At high pitch angles, the vortices generated on the suction side provide substantial lift augmentation and are better resolved by EASMs. The validated CFD method is employed for the flow around a shape similar to the Airlander aircraft of Hybrid Air Vehicles Ltd. The sensitivity of the transition location to the Reynolds number is demonstrated and the role of each vehicle£s component is analyzed. It was found that the ¦ns contributed the most to increase the lift and drag.

  4. OPTIMAL TORQUE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE WITH AUTOMATIC MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yanchun; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2007-01-01

    In parallel hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) equipped with automatic mechanical transmission (AMT), the driving smoothness and the clutch abrasion are the primary considerations for powertrain control during gearshift and clutch operation. To improve these performance indexes of PHEV, a coordinated control system is proposed through the analyzing of HEV powertrain dynamic characteristics. Using the method of minimum principle, the input torque of transmission is optimized to improve the driving sinoothness of vehicle. Using the methods of fuzzy logic and fuzzy-PID, the engaging speed of clutch and the throttle opening of engine are manipulated to ensure the smoothness of clutch engagement and reduce the abrasion of clutch friction plates. The motor provides the difference between the required input torque of transmission and the torque transmitted through clutch plates. Results of simulation and experiments show that the proposed control strategy performs better than the contrastive control system, the smoothness of driving and the abrasion of clutch can be improved simultaneously.

  5. Real-time optimization power-split strategy for hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA ChaoYing; ZHANG Cong

    2016-01-01

    Energy management strategies based on optimal control theory can achieve minimum fuel consumption for hybrid electric vehicles,but the requirement for driving cycles known in prior leads to a real-time problem.A real-time optimization power-split strategy is proposed based on linear quadratic optimal control.The battery state of charge sustainability and fuel economy are ensured by designing a quadratic performance index combined with two rules.The engine power and motor power of this strategy are calculated in real-time based on current system state and command,and not related to future driving conditions.The simulation results in ADVISOR demonstrate that,under the conditions of various driving cycles,road slopes and vehicle parameters,the proposed strategy significantly improves fuel economy,which is very close to that of the optimal control based on Pontryagin's minimum principle,and greatly reduces computation complexity.

  6. Sleep disorders as a cause of motor vehicle collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio de Mello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that a large proportion of traffic accidents around the world are related to inadequate or disordered sleep. Recent surveys have linked driver fatigue to 16% to 20% of serious highway accidents in the UK, Australia, and Brazil. Fatigue as a result of sleep disorders (especially obstructive sleep apnea, excessive workload and lack of physical and mental rest, have been shown to be major contributing factors in motor vehicle accidents. A number of behavioral, physiological, and psychometric tests are being used increasingly to evaluate the impact of fatigue on driver performance. These include the oculography, polysomnography, actigraphy, the maintenance of wakefulness test, and others. Various strategies have been proposed for preventing or reducing the impact of fatigue on motor vehicle accidents. These have included: Educational programs emphasizing the importance of restorative sleep and the need for drivers to recognize the presence of fatigue symptoms, and to determine when to stop to sleep; The use of exercise to increase alertness and to promote restorative sleep; The use of substances or drugs to promote sleep or alertness (i.e. caffeine, modafinil, melatonin and others, as well as specific sleep disorders treatment; The use of CPAP therapy for reducing excessive sleepiness among drivers who have been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. The evidence cited in this review justifies the call for all efforts to be undertaken that may increase awareness of inadequate sleep as a cause of traffic accidents. It is strongly recommended that, for the purpose of promoting highway safety and saving lives, all disorders that cause excessive sleepiness should be investigated and monitored.

  7. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  8. Motion Analysis of an Electric Vehicle with Two Independent Drive Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 陈全世; 孙逢春

    2004-01-01

    Motion analyses are performed with the help of stability and simulation analysis, which can provide theoretical bases for applications of an electric vehicle with two independent drive motors. Compared with one-motor drive electric vehicle, the two-motor drive electric vehicle has the advantage of easy layout, simple power train and good drivability and handling characteristics. Analysis shows the method connecting armatures of two DC motors in parallel can function as mechanical differential without a steering sensor, which can simplify structure and increase reliability of the controller. Computer simulations and experiment are carried out to verify conclusions.

  9. Research of Ant Colony Optimized Adaptive Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management control strategy of hybrid electric vehicle has a great influence on the vehicle fuel consumption with electric motors adding to the traditional vehicle power system. As vehicle real driving cycles seem to be uncertain, the dynamic driving cycles will have an impact on control strategy’s energy-saving effect. In order to better adapt the dynamic driving cycles, control strategy should have the ability to recognize the real-time driving cycle and adaptively adjust to the corresponding off-line optimal control parameters. In this paper, four types of representative driving cycles are constructed based on the actual vehicle operating data, and a fuzzy driving cycle recognition algorithm is proposed for online recognizing the type of actual driving cycle. Then, based on the equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy, an ant colony optimization algorithm is utilized to search the optimal control parameters “charge and discharge equivalent factors” for each type of representative driving cycle. At last, the simulation experiments are conducted to verify the accuracy of the proposed fuzzy recognition algorithm and the validity of the designed control strategy optimization method.

  10. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  11. A hybrid stepping motor system with dual CPU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晗璎; 赵克; 孙力

    2004-01-01

    An indirect method of measuring the rotor position based on the magnetic reluctance variation is presented in the paper. A single-chip microprocessor 80C196KC is utilized to compensate the phase shift produeed by the process of position signals. At the same time, a DSP (Data Signal Processor) unit is used to realize the speed and current closed-loops of the hybrid stepping motor system. At last, experimental results show the control system has excellent static and dynamic characteristics.

  12. Research on motor braking-based DYC strategy for distributed electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingming; Liao, Weijie; Chen, Lei; Cui, Shumei

    2017-08-01

    In order to bring into full play the advantages of motor braking and enhance the handling stability of distributed electric vehicle, a motor braking-based direct yaw moment control (DYC) strategy was proposed. This strategy could identify whether a vehicle has under-steered or overs-steered, to calculate the direct yaw moment required for vehicle steering correction by taking the corrected yaw velocity deviation and slip-angle deviation as control variables, and exert motor braking moment on the target wheels to perform correction in the manner of differential braking. For validation of the results, a combined simulation platform was set up finally to simulate the motor braking control strategy proposed. As shown by the results, the motor braking-based DYC strategy timely adjusted the motor braking moment and hydraulic braking moment on the target wheels, and corrected the steering deviation and sideslip of the vehicle in unstable state, improving the handling stability.

  13. Study on the ride comfort of vehicles driven by in-wheel motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles driven by in-wheel motors have received more and more attention. However, due to the introduction of in-wheel motors, the ratio between unsprung and sprung mass is increased. In this article, to study the influence of this change on ride comfort of vehicles driven by in-wheel motors, an 11 degrees of freedom of vehicle ride comfort model will be presented and studied with MATLAB/Simulink. Then, road tests will be conducted to corroborate the simulation results. It can be obtained that the vehicle ride comfort becomes poor with the increasing unsprung mass. Finally, semi-active air-suspension proportional–integral–derivative control system will be proposed to improve the vehicle ride comfort. Through the simulation results, one can come to a conclusion that the proportional–integral–derivative control system for air suspension is feasible and effective to improve the ride comfort of the vehicles driven by in-wheel motors.

  14. Flux-weakening control methods for hybrid excitation synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid excitation synchronous motor (HESM, which aim at combining the advantages of permanent magnet motor and wound excitation motor, have the characteristics of low-speed high-torque hill climbing and wide speed range. Firstly, a new kind of HESM is presented in the paper, and its structure and mathematical model are illustrated. Then, based on a space voltage vector control, a novel flux-weakening method for speed adjustment in the high speed region is presented. The unique feature of the proposed control method is that the HESM driving system keeps the q-axis back-EMF components invariable during the flux-weakening operation process. Moreover, a copper loss minimization algorithm is adopted to reduce the copper loss of the HESM in the high speed region. Lastly, the proposed method is validated by the simulation and the experimental results.

  15. Performance Analysis of Induction Motor of Electric Vehicle Using Vector control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu ping

    2012-01-01

    According to the principle of Vector controlused in an asyn- chronous motor,a simulation model of the asynchronous motor in elec-tric vehicle and Vectorcontrolsystem was established with Matlab/Simu-link software. Simulation analysis of the asynchronous motor driving an electric vehicle was performedunder the classic mode of EV , and the simulation results show the modeland control scheme has better stable and dynamic performance,whichcanbe a good candidate for electric ve- hicle propulsion system

  16. A magneto rheological hybrid damper for railway vehicles suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe GHITA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High speed railway vehicles features a specific lateral oscillation resulting from the coupled lateral displacement and yaw of the wheelset which leads to a sinusoid movement of the wheelset along the track, transferred to the entire vehicle. The amplitude of this oscillation is strongly dependant on vehicle’s velocity. Over a certain value, namely the critical speed, the instability phenomenon so-called hunting occurs. To raise the vehicle’s critical speed different designs of the suspension all leading to a much stiffer vehicle can be envisaged. Different simulations prove that a stiffer central suspension will decrease the passenger’s comfort in terms of lateral accelerations of the carboy. The authors propose a semi-active magneto rheological suspension to improve the vehicle’s comfort at high speeds. The suspension has as executive elements hybrid magneto rheological dampers operating under sequential control strategy type balance logic. Using an original mathematical model for the lateral dynamics of the vehicle the responses of the system with passive and semi-active suspensions are simulated. It is shown that the semi-active suspension can improve the vehicle performances.

  17. Energy regenerative suspension test for EEV and hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. A.; Jamil, J. F.; Muhammad, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    The world is demanding on the alternative fuel and reducing the fuel consumption of land transportation especially in the automotive industries. This paper emphasizes the development of the energy regenerative suspension system (EReSS) for energy efficient vehicle (EEV) or hybrid. The EReSS product is fabricated and tested on the laboratory and real vehicle. The test is conducted to test the function of the EReSS system on real vehicle. The test is done using the multimeter to record the reading of voltage produces by the EReSS system that is attached to the vehicle suspension system. The experiment starts by setting the parameters in the EReSS system which is the number of windings with a standard magnet. Road irregularity is one of the important parts of the experiment which is set to be various types of road condition and driving style. A domestic car model is selected for the EReSS test that the system can be installed. The test of the EReSS gives out the maximum output voltage of 5.6 V with 530 windings. Improvement on the material can increase the output voltage. The EReSS is function on the real vehicle by producing voltage by harvesting the kinetic energy from the suspension vibration.

  18. 75 FR 6123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK57 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... final rule that amended the child restraint systems (CRSs) prescribed in Appendix A of Federal Motor... Manufacturers (Alliance),\\5\\ Ford Motor Company (Ford), Evenflo Company, Incorporated (Evenflo), IEE S.A....

  19. 49 CFR 325.13 - Inspection and examination of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and examination of motor vehicles. 325... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Administrative Provisions § 325.13 Inspection...

  20. 75 FR 47720 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... QUATTRO... 8 6992 1.1442 111 VOLKSWAGEN GOLF/RABBIT/GTI...... 46 41314 1.1134 112 GENERAL MOTORS... GENERAL MOTORS........ BUICK RENDEZVOUS..... 14 29187 0.4797 176 VOLKSWAGEN NEW BEETLE 13 27249 0.4771 177... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft...