WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid microcircuit quality

  1. Establishment of quality, reliability and design standards for low, medium, and high power microwave hybrid microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quality, reliability, and design standards for microwave hybrid microcircuits were established. The MSFC Standard 85M03926 for hybrid microcircuits was reviewed and modifications were generated for use with microwave hybrid microcircuits. The results for reliability tests of microwave thin film capacitors, transistors, and microwave circuits are presented. Twenty-two microwave receivers were tested for 13,500 unit hours. The result of 111,121 module burn-in and operating hours for an integrated solid state transceiver module is reported.

  2. Design and quality standards for custom hybrid microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    A hybrid microcircuit standard was developed after a thorough review of applicable NASA, military, industry, and technical society specifications and standards and compilation of comments from technical reviewers throughout the hybrid industry. The draft of the standard submitted to the technical reviewers, the comments from the reviewers, and the completed standard are discussed.

  3. Hybrid microcircuit via development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, D.P.

    1980-06-01

    Manufacturing processes were developed for making holes in alumina substrates, metallizing substrates on both sides and through the holes (vias), dry film photolithographing 6-..mu..m-thick gold to 127-..mu..m line widths and spacings, determining via quality, and protecting vias during HMC assembly processes. The few problems encountered were solved, and via technology is now established as a reliable and repeatable production technology for hybrid microcircuits. Via resistance on product HMCs usually measures from 4 to 6 m..cap omega.. which is well below the 10 m..cap omega.. maximum limit.

  4. Automatic visual inspection of hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    An automatic visual inspection system using a minicomputer and a video digitizer was developed for inspecting hybrid microcircuits (HMC) and thin-film networks (TFN). The system performed well in detecting missing components on HMCs and reduced the testing time for each HMC by 75%.

  5. Feasibilty of electroplated gold for hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blessner, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    Electroplating was investigated as a method of providing thick gold films. Because electroplated gold has never been used for hybrid microcircuit (HMC) substrate metallization, this feasibility study was also designed to determine the characteristics of electroplated gold and its compatibility with present HMC fabrication processes. Ceramic substrates 95 by 114 mm (3.75 by 4.5 in.) were electroplated with 6, 10, and 25 ..mu..m of gold after 0.02 ..mu..m of chromium and 0.5 ..mu..m of gold had been either sputtered or vacuum evaporated onto the substrate surfaces. Substrates vacuum evaporated with 6 ..mu..m of gold were used as a control group. The substrates were evaluated for via resistance, RF electrical characteristics, conductor definition and resolution, solder wettability, thermocompression bondability, and environmental stability.

  6. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.

    1980-08-01

    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  7. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  8. Proceedings of the 1980 ERADCOM Hybrid Microcircuit Symposium, 1980, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    identify in lokmabr Papers discuss apitonof hyri microcircuits ingovernment communication, hybrid microcircuits, past and future were described along...Cos Aseml ,Bn Appoasdchi Facilit C(Minos used Cograms)o Figure Wir. 7ORAM Hyri Cirui Sce2i TalBonomdionoiBnignproce CoonAsemlynon MapenuoWired 4-20K

  9. Development of lead-free solders for hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Frear, D.R.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive work has been conducted by industry to develop lead-free solders for electronics applications. The driving force behind this effort is pressure to ban or tax the use of lead-bearing solders. There has been further interest to reduce the use of hazardous chemical cleaners. Lead-free soldering and low-residue, ``no clean`` assembly processing are being considered as solutions to these environmental issues. Most of the work has been directed toward commercial and military printed wiring board (PWB) technology, although similar problems confront the hybrid microcircuit (HMC) industry, where the development of lead-free HMC solders is generally lagging. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for designing a variety of critical, high reliability hybrid components for radars. Sandia has consequently initiated a project, as part of its Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing program, to develop low-residue, lead-free soldering for HMCs. This paper discusses the progress of that work.

  10. Hybrid microcircuit board assembly with lead-free solders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

    2000-01-11

    An assessment was made of the manufacturability of hybrid microcircuit test vehicles assembled using three Pb-free solder compositions 96.5Sn--3.5Ag (wt.%), 91.84Sn--3.33Ag--4.83Bi, and 86.85Sn--3.15Ag--5.0Bi--5.0Au. The test vehicle substrate was 96% alumina; the thick film conductor composition was 76Au--21Pt--3Pd. Excellent registration between the LCCC or chip capacitor packages and the thick film solder pads was observed. Reduced wetting of bare (Au-coated) LCCC castellations was eliminated by hot solder dipping the I/Os prior to assembly of the circuit card. The Pb-free solders were slightly more susceptible to void formation, but not to a degree that would significantly impact joint functionality. Microstructural damage, while noted in the Sn-Pb solder joints, was not observed in the Pb-free interconnects.

  11. Design guidelines for use of adhesives and organic coatings in hybrid microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, S. V.; Licari, J. J.; Perkins, K. L.; Schramm, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the reliability of organic adhesives in hybrid microcircuits. The objectives were twofold: (1) to identify and investigate problem areas that could result from the use of organic adhesives and (2) to develop evaluation tests to quantify the extent to which these problems occur for commercially available adhesives. Efforts were focused on electrically conductive adhesives. Also, a study was made to evaluate selected organic coatings for contamination protection for hybrid microcircuits.

  12. Proceedings of the ECOM Hybrid Microcircuit Symposium, 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    For Low Cost Avionics W. W. Staley , Westinghouse Electric Corporation 372 SDI Modules J. Fishel, Circuit Technology Inc. 385 Hybrid Thick Film...or Gerber plotters. i Drawings, when required, are usually generated from the circuit layout. They may be used as assembly aids or inspection guides...TCVCXO-I (left) and TCVCXO-II. <A <•SA 4 . .4’.374 SEM/HYBRIDS, PARTN1.RS FOR LOW COST AVIONICS W. W. Staley Systems Development Division

  13. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  14. Design guidelines for use of adhesives in hybrid microcircuits. [for electronic equipment in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, S. V.; Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the use of adhesives in the assembly of hybrid microcircuits offers advantages over other bonding methods, there currently does not exist a set of guidelines for the selection of adhesives which will insure that hybrid microcircuits assembled with them will meet the long use-life, high-reliability requirements of electronic equipment for space applications. This study was directed to the identification of the properties of electrically insulative adhesives that potentially could cause problems in such an application, and to the development of evaluation tests to quantify these properties and thus form the basis for establishing suitable guidelines and, ultimately, specifications. Bond strength, outgassing after cure, and corrosivity were selected for detailed attention since they are considered to be especially critical. Introductory discussion includes enumeration and brief comments on the properties of adhesives considered to be important for the proposed application, a general review of polymeric types of adhesives, and identification of the major types of adhesives commercially available and specifically designed for microelectronic use. The specific tests developed to evaluate bond strength, outgassing after cure, and corrosivity are discussed in detail, and comparative results obtained for selected adhesives representative of the major types are given.

  15. Effect of interface microstructure on the mechanical properties of Pb-free hybrid microcircuit solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, C.L.; Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.

    1998-08-01

    Although Sn-Pb eutectic alloy is widely used as a joining material in the electronics industry, it has well documented environmental and toxicity issues. Sandia National Laboratories is developing alternative solder materials to replace traditional Pb-containing alloys. The alloys are based on the Sn-Ag, Sn-Ag-Bi and Sn-Ag-Bi-Au systems. Prototype hybrid microcircuit (HMC) test vehicles have been developed to evaluate these Pb-free solders, using Au-Pt-Pd thick film metallization. Populated test vehicles with surface mount devices have been designed and fabricated to evaluate the reliability of surface mount solder joints. The test components consist of a variety of dummy chip capacitors and leadless ceramic chip carriers (LCCC`s). Intermetallic compound (IMC) layer reaction products that form at the solder/substrate interface have been characterized and their respective growth kinetics quantified. Thicker IMC layers pose a potential reliability problem with solder joint integrity. Since the IMC layer is brittle, the likelihood of mechanical failure of a joint in service is increased. The effect of microstructure and the response of these different materials to wetting, aging and mechanical testing was also investigated. Solid-state reaction data for intermetallic formation and mechanical properties of the solder joints are reported.

  16. Mechanical properties of Pb-free solder alloys on thick film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, C.L.; Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.; Hosking, F.M.

    1998-03-10

    The technology drivers of the electronics industry continue to be systems miniaturization and reliability, in addition to addressing a variety of important environmental issues. Although the Sn-Pb eutectic alloy is widely used as a joining material in the electronics industry, it has drawn environmental concern due to its Pb content. The solder acts both as an electrical and mechanical connection within the different packaging levels in an electronic device. New Pb-free solders are being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The alloys are based on the Sn-Ag alloy, having Bi and Au additions. Prototype hybrid microcircuit (HMC) test vehicles have been assembled to evaluate Pb-free solders for Au-Pt-Pd thick film soldering. The test components consist of a variety of dummy chip capacitors and leadless ceramic chip carriers (LCCC`s). The mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated. The reflow profiles and the solid state intermetallic formation reaction will also be presented. Improved solder joint manufacturability and increased fatigue resistance solder alloys are the goals of these materials.

  17. A hermetic sealing process for large irregularly shaped hybrid microcircuit enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A system for sealing vacuum baked hybrids in a dry inert atmosphere using an overlapping spot resistance weld is described. A unique electrode configuration and fixturing that permits sealing of large and irregularly shaped gold plated Kovar packages to the hermeticity requirements of MIL-STD-883 was discussed. Metallurgical considerations and comparisons to laser sealing were made. Problems encountered during the development and optimization of the process were highlighted. Solutions to plating, fixturing, warpage, weld splatter and cracked bead problems are presented.

  18. Investigation into environmentally friendly alternative cleaning processes for hybrid microcircuits to replace vapor degreasing with 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B.E.

    1997-02-01

    Two cleaning processes, one aqueous and one nonaqueous, were investigated as potential replacements for the vapor degreasing process using 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) for hybrid microcircuit assemblies. The aqueous process was based upon saponification chemistry. A 10% solution of either Kester 5768 or Armakleen 2001, heated to 140 F, was sprayed on the hybrid at 450 psig and a flow rate of 5 gpm through a specially designed nozzle which created microdroplets. The nonaqueous process was based upon dissolution chemistry and used d-limonene as the solvent in an immersion and spray process. The d-limonene solvent was followed by an isopropyl alcohol spray rinse to remove the excess d-limonene. The aqueous microdroplet process was found to be successful only for solder reflow profiles that did not exceed 210 C. Furthermore, removal of component marking was a problem and the spray pressure had to be reduced to 130 psig to eliminate damage to capacitor end caps. The d-limonene cleaning was found to be successful for solder reflow temperature up to 250 C when using a four-step cleaning process. The four steps included refluxing the hybrid at 80 C, followed by soaking the hybrid in d-limonene which is heated to 80 C, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature d-limonene, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature IPA was developed to remove residual flux from the hybrid microcircuits. This process was the most robust and most closely matched the cleaning ability of TCA.

  19. Cellular signalling properties in microcircuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; El Manira, Abdeljabbar; Wallén, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Molecules and cells are the signalling elements in microcircuits. Recent studies have uncovered bewildering diversity in postsynaptic signalling properties in all areas of the vertebrate nervous system. Major effort is now being invested in establishing the specialized signalling properties at th...

  20. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  1. Towards a 'canonical' agranular cortical microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. Beul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on regularities in the intrinsic microcircuitry of cortical areas, variants of a 'canonical' cortical microcircuit have been proposed and widely adopted, particularly in computational neuroscience and neuroinformatics. However, this circuit is founded on striate cortex, which manifests perhaps the most extreme instance of cortical organization, in terms of a very high density of cells in highly differentiated cortical layers. Most other cortical regions have a less well differentiated architecture, stretching in gradients from the very dense eulaminate primary cortical areas to the other extreme of dysgranular and agranular areas of low density and poor laminar differentiation. It is unlikely for the patterns of inter- and intra-laminar connections to be uniform in spite of strong variations of their structural substrate. This assumption is corroborated by reports of divergence in intrinsic circuitry across the cortex. Consequently, it remains an important goal to define local microcircuits for a variety of cortical types, in particular, agranular cortical regions. As a counterpoint to the striate microcircuit, which may be anchored in an exceptional cytoarchitecture, we here outline a tentative microcircuit for agranular cortex. The circuit is based on a synthesis of the available literature on the local microcircuitry in agranular cortical areas of the rodent brain, investigated by anatomical and electrophysiological approaches. A central observation of these investigations is a weakening of interlaminar inhibition as cortical cytoarchitecture becomes less distinctive. Thus, our study of agranular microcircuitry revealed deviations from the well-known 'canonical' microcircuit established for striate cortex, suggesting variations in the intrinsic circuitry across the cortex that may be functionally relevant.

  2. Neuromodulation of the Feedforward Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Microcircuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Luke Y.; Bacon, Travis J.; Tigaret, Cezar M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on the processes of episodic memory encoding and retrieval. PMID:27799909

  3. Neuromodulation of the feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit

    OpenAIRE

    Luke Yuri Prince; Travis J Bacon; Tigaret, Cezar M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on...

  4. Neuromodulation of the Feedforward Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Microcircuit

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Luke; Travis J Bacon; Tigaret, Cezar; Mellor, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on...

  5. Neuromodulation of the Feedforward Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Luke Y; Bacon, Travis J; Tigaret, Cezar M; Mellor, Jack R

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on the processes of episodic memory encoding and retrieval.

  6. The technology of microcircuit assembly on flexible polyimide substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plis N. I.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to technology of microcircuit assembly on flexible polyimide substrate. It is proved that such microcircuits provide high reliability and have advantage over other IC models when applied in hermetic micro-assemblies in microelectronic devices that operate under high accelerations, shocks and strong radiation.

  7. Power Quality Application of Hybrid Drivetrain

    OpenAIRE

    Rassõlkin, Anton; Hõimoja, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the power conditioning features of hybrid powertrain, especially regarding diesel-electric locomotives. Equipped with an embarked energy buffer for diesel generator support and utility grid interface, such a locomotive can be considered as a plug-in series hybrid vehicle. The driveline inductive components, like generator and motor windings, and capacitive components like dc link capacitors can be used to provide STATCOM functions, and the energy buffer can be u...

  8. Meat quality traits of commercial hybrid pigs in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloveras, M R; Goenaga, P R; Irurueta, M; Carduza, F; Grigioni, G; García, P T; Améndola, A

    2008-07-01

    This report describes the meat quality of two INTA hybrids (hybrid females) sired by Duroc (D) or Yorkshire (Y) boars and a third one from PIC (S), a cross of females C22 to 412 boars. Starting at 30kg live weight, 18 barrows and 18 gilts of each genotype were kept in identical conditions until slaughtered at 110kg. Longissimus dorsi muscles were analyzed. Means differed significantly (Psex effects and no genotype-sex interactions. Distinct differences in meat quality between hybrids do exist, with D superior, S the worst, and Y intermediate.

  9. Microcircuit failure analysis using the SEM. [Scanning Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope adds a new dimension to the knowledge that can be obtained from a failed microcircuit. When used with conventional techniques, SEM assists and clarifies the analysis, but it does not replace light microscopy. The most advantageous features for microcircuit analysis are long working distances and great depth of field. Manufacturer related failure modes of microcircuits are metallization defects, poor bonding, surface and particle contamination, and design and fabrication faults. User related failure modes are caused by abuse, such as overstress. The Physics of Failure Procedure followed by the Astrionics Laboratory in failure analysis is described, which is designed to obtain maximum information available from each step.

  10. Neuromodulation of the feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Yuri Prince

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on the processes of episodic memory encoding and retrieval.

  11. Electromagnetic radiation screening of microcircuits for long life applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, W. G.; Erickson, J. J.; Levy, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    The utility of X-rays as a stimulus for screening high reliability semiconductor microcircuits was studied. The theory of the interaction of X-rays with semiconductor materials and devices was considered. Experimental measurements of photovoltages, photocurrents, and effects on specified parameters were made on discrete devices and on microcircuits. The test specimens included discrete devices with certain types of identified flaws and symptoms of flaws, and microcircuits exhibiting deviant electrical behavior. With a necessarily limited sample of test specimens, no useful correlation could be found between the X-ray-induced electrical response and the known or suspected presence of flaws.

  12. ROOT YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET INVESTIGATED HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of the production values of 10 sugar beet hybrids was conducted at the location Dalj from 2009-2012. Hybrids included in the experiment are owned by four selection houses and represented in wide production. Weather conditions in the years of investigation differed greatly. One was an average, one with increased, and two with small amounts of rainfall in relation to long-term average. Monthly air temperatures during the vegetation were increased in all four years. Root yield and quality of sugar beet varied considerably depending on the year and the hybrid. The best hybrid on the average of the investigation, by the highest root, was Severina (86.66 t ha-1. Three more hybrids: Coyote, Boomerang and Predator are in the same range. There are no significant differences in this indicator. Hybrid Colonia KWS (15.40% had the highest content of sugar in the root and Asketa, Gazeta, Severina and Protecta with no significant differences. Hybrid Colonia KWS was known for the low content of AmN and Na. Sugar yield, significantly higher than other hybrids in the study, has been realized with hybrids Severina (11.05 t ha-1 and Colonia KWS (10.78 t ha-1.

  13. Research News: Are VLSI Microcircuits Too Hard to Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1980-01-01

    This research news article on microelectronics discusses the scientific challenge the integrated circuit industry will have in the next decade, for designing the complicated microcircuits made possible by advancing miniaturization technology. (HM)

  14. Yield and quality of silage of maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Guedes Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the potential of maize hybrids for the production of silage. Hybrids 1671B, 2B433, 20A78, SHS4070, BX1280 and DKB390 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. The hybrids yields were evaluated (average plant height, height of ear insertion, number of broken and lodged plants/ha, leaf:stem and ear:plant ratio and production of of DM, CP and TDN/ha. There was no difference between hybrids for the variables studied, except for the height of ear insertion. With respect to chemical characteristics, N-NH3/NT organic acids, and pH, there was also no difference between cultivars and hybrid silages are rated as of very good quality.

  15. Pain processing by spinal microcircuits: afferent combinatorics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Steven A; Ratté, Stéphanie

    2012-08-01

    Pain, itch, heat, cold, and touch represent different percepts arising from somatosensory input. How stimuli give rise to these percepts has been debated for over a century. Recent work supports the view that primary afferents are highly specialized to transduce and encode specific stimulus modalities. However, cross-modal interactions (e.g. inhibition or exacerbation of pain by touch) support convergence rather than specificity in central circuits. We outline how peripheral specialization together with central convergence could enable spinal microcircuits to combine inputs from distinctly specialized, co-activated afferents and to modulate the output signals thus formed through computations like normalization. These issues will be discussed alongside recent advances in our understanding of microcircuitry in the superficial dorsal horn.

  16. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  17. Obtaining raised density connections by thermosonic microwelding in 3D integrated microcircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanin V. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the processes of obtaining raised density microwelded connections in 3D-integrated microcircuits by the thermosonic microwelding. The processes include the use of the raised frequencies of ultrasound, application of the microinstrument with a thinning of the working end and precision devices for ball formation, which provide reproducibility of connections quality. At a small step of contact pads, the use of a wire of small diameter (not more than 25 µm is necessary for devices with a multilevel arrangement of leads and chess arrangement of contact pads on the chip, providing the maximum length of the formed crosspieces does not exceed 4—5 mm.

  18. FPGA Simulation Engine for Customized Construction of Neural Microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Hugh T; Cong, Jason; Wu, Di

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we describe an FPGA-based platform for high-performance and low-power simulation of neural microcircuits composed from integrate-and-fire (IAF) neurons. Based on high-level synthesis, our platform uses design templates to map hierarchies of neuron model to logic fabrics. This approach bypasses high design complexity and enables easy optimization and design space exploration. We demonstrate the benefits of our platform by simulating a variety of neural microcircuits that perform oscillatory path integration, which evidence suggests may be a critical building block of the navigation system inside a rodent's brain. Experiments show that our FPGA simulation engine for oscillatory neural microcircuits can achieve up to 39× speedup compared to software benchmarks on commodity CPU, and 232× energy reduction compared to embedded ARM core.

  19. Improvement of Power Quality Using a Hybrid Interline UPQC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K.Elango

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed the reduced rating star connected transformer based interline unified power quality conditioner. This work comprises of unified power quality conditioner connected between the two feeders, star connected transformer and LC filter. This hybrid approach significantly improves the performance of UPQC under unbalance source voltage condition. The UPQC adopted to compensate current and voltage-quality problems of sensitive loads and suppressing the load current harmonics under distorted supply conditions. The series converter control strategy is based on the fuzzy-logic controller. The extensive simulation results have carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment power system blockset toolboxes. From the results it has shown that hybrid interline UPQC achieves superior capability of mitigating the effects of voltage sag/swell and suppressing the load current harmonics, phase current harmonics and neutral current under distorted supply conditions. To validate the results produced by the proposed method, it is compared with the conventional UPQC method and better results obtained from the hybrid approach.

  20. Hybrid microcircuit metallization system for the SLL micro actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampy, R. E.; Knauss, G. L.; Komarek, E. E.; Kramer, D. K.; Villaueva, J.

    1976-03-01

    A thin film technique developed for the SLL Micro Actuator in which both gold and aluminum can be incorporated on sapphire or fine grained alumina substrates in a two-level metallization system is described. Tungsten is used as a lateral transition metal permitting electrical contact between the gold and aluminum without the two metals coming in physical contact. Silicon dioxide serves as an insulator between the tungsten and aluminum for crossover purposes, and vias through the silicon dioxide permit interconnections where desired. Tungsten-gold is the first level conductor except at crossovers where tungsten only is used and aluminum is the second level conductor. Sheet resistances of the two levels can be as low as 0.01 ohm/square. Line widths and spaces as small as 0.025 mm can be attained. A second layer of silicon dioxide is deposited over the metallization and opened for all gold and aluminum bonding areas. The metallization system permits effective interconnection of a mixture of devices having both gold and aluminum terminations without creating undesirable gold-aluminum interfaces. Processing temperatures up to 400/sup 0/C can be tolerated for short times without effect on bondability, conductor, and insulator characteristics, thus permitting silicon-gold eutectic die attachment, component soldering, and higher temperatures during gold lead bonding. Tests conducted on special test pattern circuits indicate good stability over the temperature range -55 to +150/sup 0/C. Aging studies indicate no degradation in characteristics in tests of 500 h duration at 150/sup 0/C.

  1. Structured Connectivity Shapes Microcircuit Function in the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Stefanou - Stamatiadis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of new experimental techniques in vivo has shed light on the wiring diagram of cortical networks, revealing the highly non-random connectivity of pyramidal neurons. This structured connectivity is characterized by distance-dependent formation of neuronal clusters and over-represented structural ‘motifs’ (Perin 2011, Ko 2013. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC in particular, pyramidal neurons were shown to form hyper-clusters, compared to other sensory regions. Yet, very little is known about the functional properties of these microcircuits and their role in Persistent Activity (PA, a well known function of the PFC. PA is the spiking activity that persists beyond the stimulus presentation and is considered to be the cellular correlate of working memory. Although, PA was traditionally assumed to emerge in large scale networks, recent in vivo data in the PFC suggest that small microcircuits mediate its functional output (Durstwitz, 2010. Motivated by the above findings this work probes the role of realistic connectivity constraints in shaping the functional output of PFC, through simulations of biophysically and morphologically detailed PFC circuits. Towards this goal, we used a compartmental modeling approach, whereby layer 5 PFC pyramidal neurons are modeled with detailed morphological and biophysical properties. Three different types of interneurons were also implemented; the Fast-spiking (FS, Regular-spiking (RS, and Irregular-spiking (IS. These were biophysically detailed, yet morphologically simplified. Microcircuits consisted of 75 pyramidal neurons, 13 FS, 6 RS and 6 IS. Properties (location /number /amplitude /kinetics of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses were extensively validated against experimental data. The network model was used to investigate the effect of connectivity on the emergence of persistent activity. Two different connectivity profiles of pyramidal cells were implemented: one highly non

  2. Design, processing and testing of LSI arrays: Hybrid microelectronics task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, R. P.; Stuhlbarg, S. M.; Ravetti, R. G.; Zulueta, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical cost factors were generated for both hybrid microcircuit and printed wiring board packaging methods. A mathematical cost model was created for analysis of microcircuit fabrication costs. The costing factors were refined and reduced to formulae for computerization. Efficient methods were investigated for low cost packaging of LSI devices as a function of density and reliability. Technical problem areas such as wafer bumping, inner/outer leading bonding, testing on tape, and tape processing, were investigated.

  3. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  4. Three-dimensional mapping of microcircuit correlation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. James eCotton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Great progress has been made towards understanding the properties of single neurons, yet the principles underlying interactions between neurons remain poorly understood. Given that connectivity in the neocortex is locally dense through both horizontal and vertical con-nections, it is of particular importance to characterize the activity structure of local popula-tions of neurons arranged in three dimensions. However, techniques for simultaneously measuring microcircuit activity are lacking. We developed an in vivo 3D high-speed, ran-dom-access two-photon microscope that is capable of simultaneous 3D motion tracking. This allows imaging from hundreds of neurons at several hundred Hz, while monitoring tissue movement. Given that motion will induce common artifacts across the population, accurate motion tracking is absolutely necessary for studying population activity with ran-dom-access based imaging methods. We demonstrate the potential of this imaging tech-nique by measuring the correlation structure of large populations of nearby neurons in the mouse visual cortex, and find that the microcircuit correlation structure is stimulus-dependent. Three-dimensional random access multiphoton imaging with concurrent mo-tion tracking provides a novel powerful method to characterize the microcircuit activity in vivo.

  5. Wood Quality of Acacia Hybrid and Second-Generation Acacia mangium

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Jusoh; Farawahida Abu Zaharin; Nur Syazni Adam

    2013-01-01

    Two new tree variants, namely Acacia hybrid and second-generation Acacia mangium, have been introduced in plantation forests in Sarawak, Malaysia, and their wood qualities were examined. The mean basic density of Acacia hybrid was comparable with Acacia mangium. However basic density and strength properties of second-generation A. mangium were significantly lower compared to Acacia hybrid. The mean fibre length and fibre wall thickness in the hybrid were found to be greater than that of secon...

  6. Hybrid Wall Construction and Quality Control Issues in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grin, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is the second report on the Wyandotte NSP2 project in Wyandotte, MI and documents refinements to the design, construction, and quality control for the High R-value enclosure. The report will be of interest to designers and builders of production housing in Cold Climates. The focus of the second round of research was on using the hybrid insulation approach to develop a reliable methodof achieving consistently low airtightness numbers. There are two primary outcomes from this research. First, the airtightness measurements demonstrate that with a shallow learning curve, even new builders entering the program having little experience with the technology package are able to achieve consistent results that are less than 1.5 ACH50. Second, the process changes implemented to helpsecure these results were straightforward and ended up encouraging better communication between designer, builder, and the City officials supervising the project.

  7. Hybrid Wall Construction and Quality Control Issues in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is the second report on the Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program 2 project in Wyandotte, MI, and documents refinements to the design, construction, and quality control for the high R-value enclosure. The report will be of interest to designers and builders of production housing in Cold Climates. The focus of the second round of research was on using the hybrid insulation approach to develop a reliable method of achieving consistently low airtightness numbers. There are two primary outcomes from this research. First, the airtightness measurements demonstrate that with a shallow learning curve, even new builders entering the program having little experience with the technology package are able to achieve consistent results that are less than 1.5 ACH50. Second, the process changes implemented to help secure these results were straightforward and ended up encouraging better communication between designer, builder, and the city officials supervising the project.

  8. Encoding and retrieval in a model of the hippocampal CA1 microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Cobb, Stuart; Graham, Bruce P

    2010-03-01

    It has been proposed that the hippocampal theta rhythm (4-7 Hz) can contribute to memory formation by separating encoding (storage) and retrieval of memories into different functional half-cycles (Hasselmo et al. (2002) Neural Comput 14:793-817). We investigate, via computer simulations, the biophysical mechanisms by which storage and recall of spatio-temporal input patterns are achieved by the CA1 microcircuitry. A model of the CA1 microcircuit is presented that uses biophysical representations of the major cell types, including pyramidal (P) cells and four types of inhibitory interneurons: basket (B) cells, axo-axonic (AA) cells, bistratified (BS) cells and oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) cells. Inputs to the network come from the entorhinal cortex (EC), the CA3 Schaffer collaterals and medial septum. The EC input provides the sensory information, whereas all other inputs provide context and timing information. Septal input provides timing information for phasing storage and recall. Storage is accomplished via a local STDP mediated hetero-association of the EC input pattern and the incoming CA3 input pattern on the CA1 pyramidal cell target synapses. The model simulates the timing of firing of different hippocampal cell types relative to the theta rhythm in anesthetized animals and proposes experimentally confirmed functional roles for the different classes of inhibitory interneurons in the storage and recall cycles (Klausberger et al., (2003, 2004) Nature 421:844-848, Nat Neurosci 7:41-47). Measures of recall performance of new and previously stored input patterns in the presence or absence of various inhibitory interneurons are employed to quantitatively test the performance of our model. Finally, the mean recall quality of the CA1 microcircuit is tested as the number of stored patterns is increased.

  9. Thick film fabrication of aluminum nitride microcircuits. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdieu, L.H.

    1994-03-01

    A new substrate material, aluminum nitride (AlN), and 11 new thick film inks were analyzed to determine their chemical compatibility, their electrical properties, their mechanical properties, and their overall suitability for use in the manufacturing of high-power microcircuits with efficient thermal properties. Because high-power chips emit a great deal of heat in a small surface area, a new substrate material was needed to dissipate that heat faster than the substrate material currently in use. Overall, the new materials were found to be acceptable for accomplishing this purpose.

  10. Overestimating hybrid layer quality in polished adhesive/dentin interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Spencer, Paulette

    2004-03-15

    The most popular techniques for determining the quality of the hybrid layer (HL) have relied on morphologic characterization of the polished adhesive/dentin (a/d) interfaces before and after acid-bleach chemical treatment. Using these techniques, the existence of smooth, acid-resistant layers has been consistently reported for most adhesive systems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether popular specimen preparation techniques that include polishing and acid-bleach treatment modify the a/d interface, mask the complexity of the HL, and lead to inaccurate assessment of the quality of the HL. To understand the impact of specimen preparation techniques on the morphology of the resin-dentin interface, polished and unpolished specimens from the same tooth were closely compared after different acid-bleach chemical treatment procedures. Two one-bottle adhesives, that is, 3M Single Bond and Pulpdent UNO, exhibiting distinct differences in hydrophilic/hydrophobic composition, were used in this investigation. Using specimens from the same tooth, the effect of chemical treatments on the morphology of the resin-dentin interdiffusion zone and the differences in the morphology of polished and unpolished specimens after these same treatments were studied with scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that conventional specimen preparation techniques that include polishing and acid-bleach treatment can adversely affect and even obscure the structural detail of the a/d interface in specimens that possess a porous HL. The results indicated that the Pulpdent UNO/dentin interface had better quality than the 3M Single Bond/dentin interface. The difference in the quality of HL can be attributed to factors such as compositional differences that impact the adhesive interaction with water, that is present within the substrate during wet bonding. The inability of the conventional acid-bleach procedure to reveal the differences in the scanning electron microscopy interfacial

  11. The demise of plastic encapsulated microcircuit myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, E. B.; Agarwal, R. K.; Pecht, M.

    1994-10-01

    Production of microelectronic devices encapsulated in solid, molded plastic packages has rapidly increased since the early 1980's. Today, millions of plastic-encapsulated devices are produced daily. On the other hand, only a few million hermetic (cavity) packages are produced per year. Reasons for the increased use of plastic-encapsulated packages include cost, availability, size, weight, quality, and reliability. Markets taking advantage of this technology range from computers and telecommunications to automotive uses. Yet, several industries, the military in particular, will not accept such devices. One reason for this reluctance to use the best available commercial parts is a perceived risk of poor reliability, derived from antiquated military specifications, standards, and handbooks; other common justifications cite differing environments; inadequate screens; inadequate test data, and required government audits of suppliers' processes. This paper describes failure mechanisms associated with plastic encapsulation and their elimination. It provides data indicating the relative reliability of cavity and solid-encapsulated packaging, and presents possible approaches to assuring quality and reliability in the procuring and applying this successful commercial technology.

  12. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Adam; Vasilaki, Eleni; Beste, Christian; Gurney, Kevin; Humphries, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  13. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTomkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  14. Voltage stress effects on microcircuit accelerated life test failure rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of Arrhenius and Eyring reaction rate models for describing microcircuit aging characteristics as a function of junction temperature and applied voltage was evaluated. The results of a matrix of accelerated life tests with a single metal oxide semiconductor microcircuit operated at six different combinations of temperature and voltage were used to evaluate the models. A total of 450 devices from two different lots were tested at ambient temperatures between 200 C and 250 C and applied voltages between 5 Vdc and 15 Vdc. A statistical analysis of the surface related failure data resulted in bimodal failure distributions comprising two lognormal distributions; a 'freak' distribution observed early in time, and a 'main' distribution observed later in time. The Arrhenius model was shown to provide a good description of device aging as a function of temperature at a fixed voltage. The Eyring model also appeared to provide a reasonable description of main distribution device aging as a function of temperature and voltage. Circuit diagrams are shown.

  15. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  16. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  17. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The 250 C, 200C and 125C accelerated tests are described. The wear-out distributions from the 250 and 200 C tests were used to estimate the activation energy between the two test temperatures. The duration of the 125 C test was not sufficient to bring the test devices into the wear-out region. It was estimated that, for the most complex of the three devices types, the activation energy between 200 C and 125 C should be at least as high as that between 250 C and 200 C. The practicality of the use of high temperature for the accelerated life tests from the point of view of durability of equipment is assessed. Guidlines for the development of accelerated life-test conditions are proposed. The use of the silicon nitride overcoat to improve the high temperature accelerated life-test characteristics of CMOS microcircuits is described.

  18. Criteria for robustness of heteroclinic cycles in neural microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a test for robustness of heteroclinic cycles that appear in neural microcircuits modeled as coupled dynamical cells. Robust heteroclinic cycles (RHCs) can appear as robust attractors in Lotka-Volterra-type winnerless competition (WLC) models as well as in more general coupled and/or symmetric systems. It has been previously suggested that RHCs may be relevant to a range of neural activities, from encoding and binding to spatio-temporal sequence generation. The robustness or otherwise of such cycles depends both on the coupling structure and the internal structure of the neurons. We verify that robust heteroclinic cycles can appear in systems of three identical cells, but only if we require perturbations to preserve some invariant subspaces for the individual cells. On the other hand, heteroclinic attractors can appear robustly in systems of four or more identical cells for some symmetric coupling patterns, without restriction on the internal dynamics of the cells. PMID:22656192

  19. Computational perspectives on forebrain microcircuits implicated in reinforcement learning, action selection, and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Daniel; Tan, Can Ozan; John, Yohan J

    2009-01-01

    Abundant new information about signaling pathways in forebrain microcircuits presents many challenges, and opportunities for discovery, to computational neuroscientists who strive to bridge from microcircuits to flexible cognition and action. Accurate treatment of microcircuit pathways is especially critical for creating models that correctly predict the outcomes of candidate neurological therapies. Recent models are trying to specify how cortical circuits that enable planning and voluntary actions interact with adaptive subcortical microcircuits in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are strongly implicated in reinforcement learning, and in all behavior and cognition over which the frontal lobes exert flexible control. The persisting role of the basal ganglia shows that ancient vertebrate designs for motivated action selection proved adaptable enough to support many "modern" behavioral innovations, including fluent generation of language and speech. This paper summarizes how recent models have incorporated realistic representations of microcircuit features, and have begun to trace their computational implications. Also summarized are recent empirical discoveries that provide guidance regarding how to formulate the rules for synaptic modification that govern learning in cortico-striatal pathways. Such efforts are contributing to an emerging synthesis based on an interlocking set of computational hypotheses regarding cortical interactions with basal ganglia and thalamic nuclei. These hypotheses specify how specialized microcircuits solve learning and control problems inherent to the brain's parallel design.

  20. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guozheng

    2016-07-06

    Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  1. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Liu

    Full Text Available Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1 examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2 explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3 investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs, but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  2. Utilization of aromatic rice in improving grain quality of hybrid rice(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Xiangxiang 2A has an evident drawback, i.e., instability in male sterility under higher temperature conditionsresulting from the existence of minor restoring genes in it, which greatly hampered the extension of its elite hybrid Xiangyou63 with both high yield and fine quality in commercial production.To improve Xiangxiang 2A, the hybridization of Xiangxiang 2B with V20 B was made again in 1990. A new aromaticCMS line Xinxiang A was successfully developed in 1994. It not only retains the favorable characteristics of Xiangxiang 2Ain grain quality and combining ability, but also expresses complete and stable male sterility and high seed production yieldpotential. Up to now, by using it as female parent, a series of quasi-aromatic hybrids have been developed. Some of themhave been released to farmers. Because such hybrids can not only yield higher or as high as but also possess a bettergrain quality than the current common high-yielding hybrid rice varieties, so that they are preferred and well welcome bythe farmers in China. The planting area under these hybrids is increasing rapidly in China.

  3. Seed quality and water use characteristics of maize landraces compared with selected commercial hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Mazvimbakupa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding seed quality and water use characteristics of maize (Zea mays L. landraces will improve food security among subsistence farmers who still cultivate them. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed quality and water use characteristics of two maize landraces (GQ1 and GQ2 compared with two commercial hybrids (SC701 and PAN53. Seed quality was determined by the standard germination, electrical conductivity, and tetrazolium tests. A controlled environment study was conducted in which the landraces were compared with hybrids across three water treatments (30% ETc; 50% ETc, and 80% ETc. Although landrace GQ2 performed at par with the hybrids, overall, seed quality tests showed that hybrids had superior seed quality than landraces. This was also confirmed by highly significant emergence results (P < 0.001 from pot trials where SC701 and PAN53 had higher emergence (100% and 94.44%, respectively compared with GQ2 (86.11% and GQ1 (61.11%. Subjecting landraces and hybrids to water stress (50% and 30% ETc resulted in shorter plants with fewer leaves and earlier tasselling compared with non-stressed plants (80% ETc. Plant height for the 30% ETc water treatment was 156.1 cm compared with 175.8 cm for the 80% ETc water treatment, while plants under the 30% ETc water treatment tasseled at 105.4 d compared with 129.5 d for the 80% ETc water treatment. The GQ2 landrace continued to perform similar to, and often better, than the hybrid varieties, especially under stress conditions. Yield was poor under controlled conditions. Performance of the GQ2 landrace for both seed quality tests and under controlled conditions shows that landraces remain an important germplasm resource.

  4. Power quality analysis of hybrid renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinchin W. Mosobi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid renewable energy sources consisting of solar photovoltaic, wind energy system, and a microhydro system is proposed in this paper. This system is suitable for supplying electricity to isolated locations or remote villages far from the grid supply. The solar photovoltaic system is modeled with two power converters, the first one being a DC-DC converter along with an maximum power point tracking to achieve a regulated DC output voltage and the second one being a DC-AC converter to obtain AC output. The wind energy system is modeled with a wind-turbine prime mover with varying wind speed and fixed pitch angle to drive an self excited induction generator (SEIG. Owing to inherent drooping characteristics of the SEIG, a closed loop turbine input system is incorporated. The microhydro system is modeled with a constant input power to drive an SEIG. The three different sources are integrated through an AC bus and the proposed hybrid system is supplied to R, R-L, and induction motor loads. A static compensator is proposed to improve the load voltage and current profiles; it also mitigates the harmonic contents of the voltage and current. The static synchronous compensator is realized by means of a three-phase IGBT-based current-controlled voltage source inverter with a self-supporting DC bus. The complete system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results obtained illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and are found to be satisfactory.

  5. Study of the Productivity and Surface Quality of Hybrid EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhade, Sandeepkumar Haribhau; Sharma, Sunil Bansilal

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, advanced engineering materials and the need for precise prototypes and low-volume production have made the electric discharge machining (EDM), an important manufacturing process to meet such demands. It is capable of machining geometrically complex and hard material components, that are precise and difficult-to-machine such as heat treated tool steels, composites, super alloys, ceramics, carbides etc. Conversely the low MRR limits its productivity. Abrasive water jet machine (AJM) tools are quick to setup and offer quick turn-around on the machine and could make parts out of virtually any material. They do not heat the material hence no heat affected zone and can make any intricate shape easily. The main advantages are flexibility, low heat production and ability to machine hard and brittle materials. Main disadvantages comprise the process produces a tapered cut and health hazards due to dry abrasives. To overcome the limitations and exploit the best of each of above processes; an attempt has been made to hybridize the processes of AJM and EDM. The appropriate abrasives routed with compressed air through the hollow electrode to construct the hybrid process i.e., abrasive jet electric discharge machining (AJEDM), the high speed abrasives could impinge on the machined surface to remove the recast layer caused by EDM process. The main process parameters were varied to explore their effects and experimental results show that AJEDM enhances the machining efficiency with better surface finish hence can fit the requirements of modern manufacturing applications.

  6. Dense neuron clustering explains connectivity statistics in cortical microcircuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V Klinshov

    Full Text Available Local cortical circuits appear highly non-random, but the underlying connectivity rule remains elusive. Here, we analyze experimental data observed in layer 5 of rat neocortex and suggest a model for connectivity from which emerge essential observed non-random features of both wiring and weighting. These features include lognormal distributions of synaptic connection strength, anatomical clustering, and strong correlations between clustering and connection strength. Our model predicts that cortical microcircuits contain large groups of densely connected neurons which we call clusters. We show that such a cluster contains about one fifth of all excitatory neurons of a circuit which are very densely connected with stronger than average synapses. We demonstrate that such clustering plays an important role in the network dynamics, namely, it creates bistable neural spiking in small cortical circuits. Furthermore, introducing local clustering in large-scale networks leads to the emergence of various patterns of persistent local activity in an ongoing network activity. Thus, our results may bridge a gap between anatomical structure and persistent activity observed during working memory and other cognitive processes.

  7. Role of cortical feedback in regulating inhibitory microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowbridge, Ben W

    2009-07-01

    The olfactory bulb contains an impressive array of specialized inhibitory local circuits. The most frequent inhibitory microcircuit in this brain region is the reciprocal dendrodendritic synapse formed between the lateral dendrites of mitral cells and distal dendritic spines of GABAergic granule cells. Recent work discussed in this review suggests that release of GABA from granule cell spines may reflect near-coincident activation of both mitral cell-to-granule cell synapses and proximal excitatory synapses on granule cells that originate from pyramidal cells in piriform cortex. Recent work using two-photon guided microstimulation demonstrated that proximal and distal excitatory synapses onto granule cells exhibit different forms of short-term plasticity, with feedback inputs from piriform cortex facilitating when tested with brief ( approximately 50 ms) interstimulus intervals. One consequence of this synaptic plasticity is that short duration, gamma-frequency, oscillatory discharges in piriform cortical cells evoke summating excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in granule cells that effectively trigger action potentials. Piriform cortex stimulation can gate dendrodendritic inhibition onto mitral cells, presumably through the ability of EPSP-driven action potentials in granule cells to temporarily relieve the tonic blockade of NMDA receptors by extracellular Mg(2+) ions. Feedback projections in other CNS systems also may target inhibitory neurons, such as the backprojection from CA3 pyramidal neurons to GABAergic hilar interneurons. The ability of downstream processing areas to rapidly and selectively activate inhibitory interneurons in other brain regions may provide an important mechanism to dynamically modulate biological information processing.

  8. Resistance blow-up effect in micro-circuit engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Michael L. P.; Saxena, Tanuj; Arora, Vijay K.

    2010-12-01

    The nonlinearity in the I- V characteristics of a scaled-down micro/nano-scale resistive channel is shown to elevate the DC and signal resistance as current approaches its saturation value. The deviation from traditional circuit engineering takes place when the applied voltage is increased beyond the critical voltage V c = ( V t/ ℓ) L, where V t is the thermal voltage, ℓ is the ohmic mean free path, and L is the length of the conducting channel. This resistance blow-up is more pronounced for a smaller-length resistor in a micro-circuit of two resistors with same ohmic value. The power consumed P = VI not only is lower but also is a linear function of voltage V as compared to the quadratic rise with V in the ohmic regime. The resistance blow-up effect also gives enhanced RC time constant for transients when a digital signal switches from low to high or vice versa. These results are of immense value to circuit designers and those doing device characterization to extract parasitic and transport parameters.

  9. Mobile 3D quality of experience evaluation: a hybrid data collection and analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utriainen, Timo; Häyrynen, Jyrki; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Boev, Atanas; Gotchev, Atanas; Hannuksela, Miska M.

    2011-02-01

    The paper presents a hybrid approach to study the user's experienced quality of 3D visual content on mobile autostereoscopic displays. It combines extensive subjective tests with collection and objective analysis of eye-tracked data. 3D cues which are significant for mobiles are simulated in the generated 3D test content. The methodology for conducting subjective quality evaluation includes hybrid data-collection of quantitative quality preferences, qualitative impressions, and binocular eye-tracking. We present early results of the subjective tests along with eye movement reaction times, areas of interest and heatmaps obtained from raw eye-tracked data after statistical analysis. The study contributes to the question what is important to be visualized on portable auto-stereoscopic displays and how to maintain and visually enhance the quality of 3D content for such displays.

  10. A hybrid fuzzy MCDM approach to maintenance Quality Function Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy George Valavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance Quality Function Deployment (MQFD is a model, which enhances the synergic power of Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. One of the crucial and important steps during the implementation of MQFD is the determination of the importance or weightages of the critical factors (CF and sub factors (SF. The CFs and SFs have to be compared precisely for the successful implementation of MQFD. The crisp pair-wise comparison in the conventional Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP may be insufficient to determine the degree of weightage of CFs and SFs where vagueness and uncetainties are associated. In this paper, a modification of AHP based MQFD by incorporating fuzzy operations is proposed, which can improve the accuracy of determination of the weightages. A case study showing the applicability of this method is illustrated in this paper.

  11. Utilization of Aromatic Rice in Improving Grain Quality of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周坤炉; 廖伏明

    2004-01-01

    To improve grain quality of the high-yielding hybrid rice in China, we introduced the aromatic rice MR365. an improve Indian cultivar with aroma and other desirable grain quality characters such as long grain and low chalkiness, from IRRI in 1984 and began to transfer its aroma and good quality characters into the existing maintainer lines with good combining ability but poor grain quality.In the meantime,we also conducted the research on the inheritance of aroma for incerasing the breeding efficiency. Through years of research and breeding practices, two cytoplasmic male sterile(CMS)lines Xiangxiang2 A and Xingxiang A and a series of quasi-aromatic hybrids mated from these aromatic CMS lines have been developed and released for commercial production in China. It was found that the inheritance of aroma in MR365 and its dervatives including Xiangxiang2 A,XinxiangA and Xiang2B S was controlled by one pair of recessive major genes based on the identification of aroma by the KOH-soaking method. We also found that there existed disparity in aroma degree among different grains of F2 generation,and different aromatic CMS lines derived from the same aromatic donor such as Xiangxing2 A and Xinxiang A had also a little difference in the degree of aroma,which implies that,besides the major genes,aroma may also be affected by the genetic backgrounds or minor genes.Xiangxiang 2 A,developed from the cross of V20A//V20B/MR365,is the first aromatic CMS line bred in China. It is not only aromatic but has good grain quality and combining ability. Using it as female parent,Xiangyou 63(Xiangxiang 2A/Minghui 63),the first quasi-aromatic hybrid rice combination in China,was developed and approved to release to farmers in 1995.Xiangyou63 is characteristic of quasi-aromatic or partially aromatic(because only a portion of or NOT ALL grains are aromatic),good grain quality,high-yielding ability, good blast resistance and wide adaptability.However,Xiangiang2 A has an evident drawback

  12. Neural Dynamics and Information Representation in Microcircuits of Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro eTsubo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain has to analyze and respond to external events that can change rapidly from time to time, suggesting that information processing by the brain may be essentially dynamic rather than static. The dynamical features of neural computation are of significant importance in motor cortex that governs the process of movement generation and learning. In this paper, we discuss these features based primarily on our recent findings on neural dynamics and information coding in the microcircuit of rat motor cortex. In fact, cortical neurons show a variety of dynamical behavior from rhythmic activity in various frequency bands to highly irregular spike firing. Of particular interest are the similarity and dissimilarity of the neuronal response properties in different layers of motor cortex. By conducting electrophysiological recordings in slice preparation, we report the phase response curves of neurons in different cortical layers to demonstrate their layer-dependent synchronization properties. We then study how motor cortex recruits task-related neurons in different layers for voluntary arm movements by simultaneous juxtacellular and multiunit recordings from behaving rats. The results suggest an interesting difference in the spectrum of functional activity between the superficial and deep layers. Furthermore, the task-related activities recorded from various layers exhibited power law distributions of inter-spike intervals (ISIs, in contrast to a general belief that ISIs obey Poisson or Gamma distributions in cortical neurons. We present a theoretical argument that this power law of in vivo neurons may represent the maximization of the entropy of firing rate with limited energy consumption of spike generation. Though further studies are required to fully clarify the functional implications of this coding principle, it may shed new light on information representations by neurons and circuits in motor cortex.

  13. Morphological evidence for local microcircuits in rat vestibular maculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that intramacular, unmyelinated segments of vestibular afferent nerve fibers and their large afferent endings (calyces) on type I hair cells branch. Many of the branches (processes) contain vesicles and are presynaptic to type II hair cells, other processes, intramacular nerve fibers, and calyces. This study used serial section transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction methods to document the origins and distributions of presynaptic processes of afferents in the medial part of the adult rat utricular macula. The ultrastructural research focused on presynaptic processes whose origin and termination could be observed in a single micrograph. Results showed that calyces had 1) vesiculated, spine-like processes that invaginated type I cells and 2) other, elongate processes that ended on type II cells pre- as well as postsynaptically. Intramacular, unmyelinated segments of afferent nerve fibers gave origin to branches that were presynaptic to type II cells, calyces, calyceal processes, and other nerve fibers in the macula. Synapses with type II cells occurred opposite subsynaptic cisternae (C synapses); all other synapses were asymmetric. Vesicles were pleomorphic but were differentially distributed according to process origin. Small, clear-centered vesicles, approximately 40-60 nm in diameter, predominated in processes originating from afferent nerve fibers and basal parts of calyces. Larger vesicles approximately 70-120 nm in diameter having approximately 40-80 nm electron-opaque cores were dominant in processes originating from the necks of calyces. Results are interpreted to indicate the existence of a complex system of intrinsic feedforward (postsynaptic)-feedback (presynaptic) connections in a network of direct and local microcircuits. The morphological findings support the concept that maculae dynamically preprocess linear acceleratory information before its transmission to the central nervous system.

  14. Improvement of Fiber Quality by Distant Hybridization in the Green Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ke-yun

    2008-01-01

    @@ In order to improve fiber quality of green cotton,a wide hybrid was used between a green fiber cotton and Sea Island cotton.The results show that the hybrid F1 plants were stable,but F2 plants had large variation.By self-pollinating for advancing generations,we found that the lint percent and fiber length of green fiber cotton were both improved,but micronaire value and fiber color were difficult to increase.The fiber pigment and micronaire value are controlled by linked genes.

  15. Ultracompact resonator with high quality-factor based on a hybrid grating structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-01-01

    We numerically investigate the properties of a hybrid grating structure acting as a resonator with ultrahigh quality factor. This reveals that the physical mechanism responsible for the resonance is quite different from the conventional guided mode resonance (GMR). The hybrid grating consists...... of a subwavelength grating layer and an un-patterned high-refractive-index cap layer, being surrounded by low index materials. Since the cap layer may include a gain region, an ultracompact laser can be realized based on the hybrid grating resonator, featuring many advantages over high-contrast-grating resonator...... lasers. The effect of fabrication errors and finite size of the structure is investigated to understand the feasibility of fabricating the proposed resonator....

  16. A high-quality factor hybrid plasmonic nanocavity based on distributed Bragg reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Linlin; Zhang, Chi; Huang, Zhong; Yau, Jason; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we propose a high-quality (Q) factor hybrid plasmonic nanocavity based on distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with low propagation loss and extremely strong mode confinement. This hybrid plasmonic nanocavity is composed of a high-index cylindrical nanowire separated from a metal surface possessing shallow DBRs gratings by a sufficiently thin low-index dielectric layer. The hybrid plasmonic nanocavity possesses advantages such as a high Purcell factor (Fp) of up to nearly 20000 and a gain threshold approaching 266 cm-1 at 1550 nm, promising a greater potential in deep sub-wavelength lasing applications. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Special Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB921501 and 2013CB632703) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274160, 91221206, and 51271092).

  17. Daily air quality index forecasting with hybrid models: A case in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Suling; Lian, Xiuyuan; Liu, Haixia; Hu, Jianming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Che, Jinxing

    2017-09-19

    Air quality is closely related to quality of life. Air pollution forecasting plays a vital role in air pollution warnings and controlling. However, it is difficult to attain accurate forecasts for air pollution indexes because the original data are non-stationary and chaotic. The existing forecasting methods, such as multiple linear models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and support vector regression (SVR), cannot fully capture the information from series of pollution indexes. Therefore, new effective techniques need to be proposed to forecast air pollution indexes. The main purpose of this research is to develop effective forecasting models for regional air quality indexes (AQI) to address the problems above and enhance forecasting accuracy. Therefore, two hybrid models (EMD-SVR-Hybrid and EMD-IMFs-Hybrid) are proposed to forecast AQI data. The main steps of the EMD-SVR-Hybrid model are as follows: the data preprocessing technique EMD (empirical mode decomposition) is utilized to sift the original AQI data to obtain one group of smoother IMFs (intrinsic mode functions) and a noise series, where the IMFs contain the important information (level, fluctuations and others) from the original AQI series. LS-SVR is applied to forecast the sum of the IMFs, and then, S-ARIMA (seasonal ARIMA) is employed to forecast the residual sequence of LS-SVR. In addition, EMD-IMFs-Hybrid first separately forecasts the IMFs via statistical models and sums the forecasting results of the IMFs as EMD-IMFs. Then, S-ARIMA is employed to forecast the residuals of EMD-IMFs. To certify the proposed hybrid model, AQI data from June 2014 to August 2015 collected from Xingtai in China are utilized as a test case to investigate the empirical research. In terms of some of the forecasting assessment measures, the AQI forecasting results of Xingtai show that the two proposed hybrid models are superior to ARIMA, SVR, GRNN, EMD-GRNN, Wavelet-GRNN and Wavelet-SVR. Therefore, the

  18. Magneto switch microcircuit and wind speed measurement’s sensor on its base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasimov F. D.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The magneto switch microcircuit on the base of Hall-effect is developed. The electric scheme of the magneto sensitive IC was designed and its basic technical characteristics are described. The gauge of wind speed on its base is fabricated.

  19. Hybrid video quality prediction: reviewing video quality measurement for widening application scope

    OpenAIRE

    Barkowsky, Marcus; Sedano, Inigo; Brunnstrom, Kjell; Leszczuk, Mikolaj; Staelens, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous number of objective video quality measurement algorithms have been developed during the last two decades. Most of them either measure a very limited aspect of the perceived video quality or they measure broad ranges of quality with limited prediction accuracy. This paper lists several perceptual artifacts that may be computationally measured in an isolated algorithm and some of the modeling approaches that have been proposed to predict the resulting quality from those algorithms....

  20. Preliminary studies on rice quality of japonica-indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhenyu; ZHANGYunkang; WUJianli

    1997-01-01

    It has been proved that high yield combinations can be obtained via hybridization between indica and japonica rice. However, people have worried about the quality of this kind of rice for a long time. Our researches were mainly based on the mating pattern of “japonica male sterile line/indica restorer line” to generate and select elite japonicalinous crosses. Ricequality is shown in table 1 and 2.

  1. Hybridization quality and bond strength of adhesive systems according to interaction with dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvio, Luciana Andrea; Hipólito, Vinicius Di; Martins, Adriano Luis; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hybridization quality and bond strength of adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods: Ten human molars were ground to expose the dentin and then sectioned in four tooth-quarters. They were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the adhesive used: Two single-step self-etch adhesives – Adper Prompt (ADP) and Xeno III (XE), two two-step self-etching primer systems – Clearfil SE Bond (SE) and Adhe SE (ADSE), and one one-step etch-and-rinse system – Adper Single Bond (SB). Resin composite (Filtek Z250) crown buildups were made on the bonded surfaces and incrementally light-cured for 20 s. The restored tooth-quarters were stored in water at 37°C for 24 h and then sectioned into beams (0.8 mm2 in cross-section). Maximal microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS) was recorded (0.5 mm/min in crosshead speed). The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Thirty additional teeth were used to investigate the hybridization quality by SEM using silver methenamine or ammoniacal silver nitrate dyes. Results: SE reached significantly higher μ-TBS (P 0.05), and between SB and ADP (P > 0.05); ADSE and XE were significantly higher than SB and ADP (P adhesives with dentin. The hybridization quality was essential to improve the immediate μ-TBS to dentin. PMID:24926212

  2. Analysis of seed and maternal genetic effects on cooking quality characters in indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIChunhai; ZHUJun

    1994-01-01

    We analysed seed and maternal genetic effects on characters of cooking quality in indica hybrid riceby using the model for quantitative characters of seeds of cereal crops. IncompLete dialiel crosses were made by using six male sterile lines (Zhenshan 97A, Erjiuqing A, Erjiunan 1A, V2OA, Zhe'nan |A and Zhe'nan 3A)as females and three restorer lines (Cezao 2-2, T49 and 26715) as males. Sampled seeds were used to measure the cooking quality characters ncluding amylose content (%), gelatinization temperature (alkali spreading score)and gelconsistency(ram).

  3. Effects of biomass type, blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on hybrid coal quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasongko, Dwiwahju; Wulandari, Winny; Rubani, Inga Shaffira; Rusydiansyah, Rifqi

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study on co-pyrolysis of coal with biomass wastes to produce hybrid coal was conducted to investigate the effects of important process variables, namely biomass type (rice husk and sawdust), blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on the quality of hybrid coal. The experiments were carried out using a vertical tubular furnace equipped with temperature controller to maintain the co-pyrolysis reactor at a given temperature. Nitrogen gas was introduced into the furnace to create an inert environment preventing the sample from burning. A known mass of solid sample consisting of manually granulated blend of coal and biomass with binder in spherical shape was contained in a basket made of stainless sieve. After a given residence time, the sample was taken from the furnace. The blend sample prior to experiment and the produced hybrid coal were then characterized for its proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and calorific value. Experimental findings suggested that by increasing co-pyrolysis temperature from 200 to 400 °C, the calorific value of hybrid coal will increase by 14.5-17.7% to be 5585-7060 kcal/kg. It was also showed that 30% increase in the biomass content in the fuel blend would produce a hybrid coal that emitting up to 25.9% less in CO2 when used for combustion, although its calorific value decreased down to 8% compared to the biomass blend. It is shown that hybrid coal obtained from this study is comparable in calorific value to bituminous coal, thus suitable for power plant while being more environmentally friendly.

  4. Study of improving the quality of bread and wheat-aegilops hybrids with the biotechnological ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbarzada, Aygun; Hasanova, Sudaba

    2016-08-01

    The great need of the people to bread demands to increase high qualitative grain plants. At present time for solving these problem different methods of biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology are widely used in the process of selection. To investigate biochemical peculiarities of wheat-aegilops hybrids and to define the correlative relation between these characteristics. To investigate the technological peculiarities of wheat- aegilops hybrids and to define the relation between their main biochemical and technological characteristics. The conclusion of this investigation showed the followings- the wheat-aegilops hybrids according to their morphological and biochemical characteristics have approached to wheats. The electrophoretic spectres of the wheat- aegilops hybrids which have stable for their morphological characteristics are homogeny and heterogenic. Hereditarily some group protein components have passed to their tribes from their parents. But spontaneous hybridisation results in taking part the components of other unknown wheats in these electrophoretic spectres. There is a relation between the electrophoretic spectres and the indications of the grain quality.

  5. Relationship of Parental Indica-Japonica Indexes with Yield and Grain Quality Traits of Japonica Hybrid Rice in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-rong; QIU Fu-lin; HUA Ze-tian; DAI Gui-jin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the main parents (10 male sterile lines and 10 restorer lines) and their 100 combinations of japonica hybrid rice in northern China as materials, the relationships of parental indica-japonica indexes determined by the methods of the Cheng's index as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with yield and grain quality traits of hybrid rice were studied. For the parents, the Cheng's index (Chi) ranged from 13.5 to 19.3 and the indica index in SSR markers (ADi) were from 0.12 to 0.38. The classification of parents by Chi was not completely consistent with that by ADi. The Chi of male parent was more closely related to hybrid traits than that of female parent, as contrasted to ADi. At the same time, the difference between parents (PD) in Chi was more closely related to hybrid traits than that in ADi. The indica-japonica indexes of parents and their difference between parents appeared quadratic relationship to hybrid traits with the critical extremum. The directions of the correlation of indica-japonica indexes of parents and their differences with hybrid yield traits were on the opposition to those with hybrid grain quality traits. Therefore, the female parent should match the male parent moderately in indica-japonica index to obtain the optimum of hybrid traits, high yield as well as good quality.

  6. Effects of aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae Hac; Ma, Zeyu; Jin, Xiao; Xu, Qiyong

    2016-12-01

    Research has been conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement in simulated hybrid landfill bioreactors. Four laboratory-scale reactors were constructed and operated for about 10 months to simulate different bioreactor operations, including one anaerobic bioreactor and three hybrid bioreactors with different aeration frequencies (one, two, and four times per day). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) reduced more than 96% of the initial concentrations in all aerated bioreactors. The differences of COD and BOD5 reductions among tested aeration frequencies were relatively small. For ammonia nitrogen, the higher aeration frequency (two or four times per day) resulted in the quicker reduction. Overall, the concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) decreased over time except Cd and Pb. The reduction of redox-sensitive metal concentrations (Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu) was greater in aerated bioreactors than in anaerobic bioreactor. Settlement of municipal solid waste (MSW) was enhanced with higher frequency of aeration events (four times per day). In recent years, hybird bioreactor landfill technology has gained a lot of attention. Appropriate aeration rate is crucial for hybrid bioreactor operation, but few studies have been done and different results were obtained. Research was conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement. Results indicated that aeration can effectively accelerate waste stabilization and remove organic carbon concentration and total nitrogen in the leachate.

  7. Utilization of Aromatic Rice in Improving Grain Quality of Hybrid Rice (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To improve grain quality of the high-yielding hybrid rice in China, we introduced the aromatic rice MR365, an improved Indian cultivar, from IRRI in 1984 and began to transfer its aroma and good quality characters into the existing maintainer lines. In the meantime, the research on the inheritance of aroma for increasing the breeding efficiency was also conducted.It was found that the inheritance of aroma in MR 365 and its derivatives was controlled by one pair of recessive major genes based on the KOH-soaking method. There existed disparity in aroma degree among different grains of F2 generation, and different aromatic CMS lines derived from the same aromatic donor had also a little difference in the degree of aroma, which implies that, besides the major genes, aroma may also be affected by the genetic backgrounds or minor genes.Xiangxiang 2A, developed from the cross of V20A//V20B/MR365, is the first aromatic CMS line bred in China. It is not only aromatic but also has good grain quality and combining ability. Using it as female parent, Xiangyou 63 (Xiangxiang 2A / Minghui 63), the first quasi-aromatic hybrid rice combination in China, was developed, and released to farmers in 1995. Xiangyou 63 is characteristic of quasi-aromatic or partially aromatic (because only a portion of or not all grains are aromatic), good grain quality, high-yielding ability, good blast resistance and wide adaptability.

  8. Improved cider fermentation performance and quality with newly generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Frederico; Krogerus, Kristoffer; Vidgren, Virve; Sandell, Mari; Gibson, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Yeast cryotolerance may be advantageous for cider making, where low temperatures are usually employed. Here, we crossed the cryotolerant S. eubayanus with a S. cerevisiae wine strain and assessed the suitability of the hybrids for low-temperature cider fermentation. All strains fermented the juice to 5% ABV, but at different rates; hybrid strains outperformed S. cerevisiae, which was sensitive to low temperatures. The best hybrid fermented similarly to S. eubayanus. S. eubayanus produced sulphurous off flavours which masked a high concentration of fruity ester notes. This phenotype was absent in the hybrid strains, resulting in distinctly fruitier ciders. Aroma was assessed by an independent consumer panel, which rated the hybrid ciders as identical to the wine strain cider. Both were significantly more pleasant than the S. eubayanus cider. Interspecific hybridization can apparently be used effectively to improve low-temperature fermentation performance without compromising product quality.

  9. Root yield and quality of investigated sugar beet hybrids in northwest Croatia in the period from 2010 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain reliable information on yield and root quality of new sugar beet hybrids, the micro varietal trials were set up on the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of Zagreb in the period from 2010 to 2013. The study included a total of 51 sugar beet hybrids owned by five breeding companies present in the Croatian market. There were significant differences among investigated hybrids in root and sugar yield and sugar content in the roots in all years of research, except in the dry 2011. However, a large number of hybrids achieved statistically equal values because the differences were within the statistical tolerance. In 2010, the highest root yield (107.5 t/ha and the highest technological sugar yield (13.5 t/ha were achieved by the hybrid Elvis. That year, the largest sugar content (15.68% was achieved by the hybrid Markus. In 2012, the highest root yield (86.4 t/ha, and the highest sugar yield (12.0 t/ha were achieved by the hybrid Serenada KWS. The largest root sugar content (17.37% was achieved by the hybrid Denisa KWS. In 2013, the highest root yield (90.2 t/ha and the highest sugar yield (10.8 t/ha were achieved by the hybrid Terranova KWS. That year, the largest sugar content in root (15.23% was achieved by the hybrid Pharaon.

  10. Comparison of CCD, CMOS and Hybrid Pixel x-ray detectors: detection principle and data quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allé, P.; Wenger, E.; Dahaoui, S.; Schaniel, D.; Lecomte, C.

    2016-06-01

    We compare, from a crystallographic point of view, the data quality obtained using laboratory x-ray diffractometers equipped with a Molybdenum micro-source using different detector types: CCD, CMOS and XPAD hybrid pixel. First we give an overview of the working principle of these different detector types with a focus on their principal differences and their impact on the data quality. Then, using the example of an organic crystal, a comparison between the detector systems concerning the raw data statistics, the refinement agreement factors, the deformation electron density maps, and the residual density after multipolar refinement is presented. It is found that the data quality obtained with the XPAD detector is the best, even though the detection efficiency at the Mo energy (17.5 keV) is only 37% due to the Si-sensor layer thickness of 300 μm. Finally, we discuss the latest x-ray detector developments with an emphasis on the sensor material, where replacing Si by another material such as GaAs would yield detection efficiencies close to 100%, up to energies of 40 keV for hybrid pixel detectors.

  11. Propagation of Homeostatic Sleep Signals by Segregated Synaptic Microcircuits of the Drosophila Mushroom Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Divya; Aso, Yoshinori; Jin, Xin; Chen, Nan; Felix, Mario; Rubin, Gerald M; Nitabach, Michael N

    2015-11-16

    The Drosophila mushroom body (MB) is a key associative memory center that has also been implicated in the control of sleep. However, the identity of MB neurons underlying homeostatic sleep regulation, as well as the types of sleep signals generated by specific classes of MB neurons, has remained poorly understood. We recently identified two MB output neuron (MBON) classes whose axons convey sleep control signals from the MB to converge in the same downstream target region: a cholinergic sleep-promoting MBON class and a glutamatergic wake-promoting MBON class. Here, we deploy a combination of neurogenetic, behavioral, and physiological approaches to identify and mechanistically dissect sleep-controlling circuits of the MB. Our studies reveal the existence of two segregated excitatory synaptic microcircuits that propagate homeostatic sleep information from different populations of intrinsic MB "Kenyon cells" (KCs) to specific sleep-regulating MBONs: sleep-promoting KCs increase sleep by preferentially activating the cholinergic MBONs, while wake-promoting KCs decrease sleep by preferentially activating the glutamatergic MBONs. Importantly, activity of the sleep-promoting MB microcircuit is increased by sleep deprivation and is necessary for homeostatic rebound sleep (i.e., the increased sleep that occurs after, and in compensation for, sleep lost during deprivation). These studies reveal for the first time specific functional connections between subsets of KCs and particular MBONs and establish the identity of synaptic microcircuits underlying transmission of homeostatic sleep signals in the MB.

  12. Non-adaptive and adaptive hybrid approaches for enhancing water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwij, Ineke M.; Peralta, Richard C.

    2008-09-01

    parameter values for a new optimization problem can be time consuming. For comparison, AGA, AGCT, and GC are applied to optimize pumping rates for assumed well locations of a complex large-scale contaminant transport and remediation optimization problem at Blaine Naval Ammunition Depot (NAD). Both hybrid approaches converged more closely to the optimal solution than the non-hybrid AGA. GC averaged 18.79% better convergence than AGCT, and 31.9% than AGA, within the same computation time (12.5 days). AGCT averaged 13.1% better convergence than AGA. The GC can significantly reduce the burden of employing computationally intensive hydrologic simulation models within a limited time period and for real-world optimization problems. Although demonstrated for a groundwater quality problem, it is also applicable to other arenas, such as managing salt water intrusion and surface water contaminant loading.

  13. Improving the Quality of Non-Holonomic Motion by Hybridizing C-PRM Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Itamar; Zohar, Gal; Raveh, Barak; Halperin, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Sampling-based motion planners are an effective means for generating collision-free motion paths. However, the quality of these motion paths, with respect to different quality measures such as path length, clearance, smoothness or energy, is often notoriously low. This problem is accentuated in the case of non-holonomic sampling-based motion planning, in which the space of feasible motion trajectories is restricted. In this study, we combine the C-PRM algorithm by Song and Amato with our recently introduced path-hybridization approach, for creating high quality non-holonomic motion paths, with combinations of several different quality measures such as path length, smoothness or clearance, as well as the number of reverse car motions. Our implementation includes a variety of code optimizations that result in nearly real-time performance, and which we believe can be extended with further optimizations to a real-time tool for the planning of high-quality car-like motion.

  14. Comparison of breast muscle traits and meat quality characteristics in 2 commercial chicken hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Mazzoni, M; Meluzzi, A

    2013-09-01

    A trial was conducted to compare muscle traits and meat quality characteristics of the pectoralis muscle in 2 chicken commercial hybrids having standard (SBY) and high breast yield (HBY), respectively. A total of 2,124 one-day-old male chicks, equally divided into 2 experimental groups represented by strains (SBY and HBY), were grown using homogenous conditions and fed the same standard diets until reaching live weight of 4.2 kg at 53 and 55 d for the SBY and HBY groups, respectively. Thirty-six birds per each genotype were randomly selected, and their pectoralis major muscles were used to assess meat quality properties (color attributes, pH, drip loss, cook loss, Allo-Kramer shear values after cooking, moisture, proteins, total lipids, and ashes) as well as histological traits (cross-sectional area, frequency of abnormal fibers, and intramuscular fat infiltration). As expected, HBY genotype had higher breast yield (31.0 vs. 30.0%; P ≤ 0.05). Histological evaluations showed that HBY pectoralis muscles had higher cross-sectional fiber area coupled with a dramatically higher (P ≤ 0.001) incidence of abnormal fibers and more abundant infiltration of intramuscular fat. Moreover, histopathological anomalous features such as central nuclei, proliferation of endomysial and perimysial collagen, inflammatory infiltrate, and necrosis of the fibers were also observed. As for meat quality, SBY hybrid showed lower ultimate pH values (5.97 vs. 6.07; P ≤ 0.01), whereas overall color parameters were not affected by genotype. Breast meat from the HBY genotype also exhibited significantly lower ability to retain liquid during refrigerated storage (drip loss, 2.46 vs. 2.06%; P ≤ 0.05) and cooking (26.2 vs. 21.1%; P ≤ 0.05) as well as higher shear-force values (2.59 vs. 2.11 kg/g; P ≤ 0.001). Finally, with regard to chemical composition, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were detected in protein (22.8 vs. 23.5%) and lipid (1.65 vs. 1.82%) contents, which were

  15. Quality of Service Routing in Manet Using a Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm Inspired by Cuckoo Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid computational intelligent algorithm is proposed by integrating the salient features of two different heuristic techniques to solve a multiconstrained Quality of Service Routing (QoSR problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs is presented. The QoSR is always a tricky problem to determine an optimum route that satisfies variety of necessary constraints in a MANET. The problem is also declared as NP-hard due to the nature of constant topology variation of the MANETs. Thus a solution technique that embarks upon the challenges of the QoSR problem is needed to be underpinned. This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm by modifying the Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA with the new position updating mechanism. This updating mechanism is derived from the differential evolution (DE algorithm, where the candidates learn from diversified search regions. Thus the CSA will act as the main search procedure guided by the updating mechanism derived from DE, called tuned CSA (TCSA. Numerical simulations on MANETs are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed TCSA method by determining an optimum route that satisfies various Quality of Service (QoS constraints. The results are compared with some of the existing techniques in the literature; therefore the superiority of the proposed method is established.

  16. Quality of Service Routing in Manet Using a Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm Inspired by Cuckoo Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, S; Maguteeswaran, R

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid computational intelligent algorithm is proposed by integrating the salient features of two different heuristic techniques to solve a multiconstrained Quality of Service Routing (QoSR) problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) is presented. The QoSR is always a tricky problem to determine an optimum route that satisfies variety of necessary constraints in a MANET. The problem is also declared as NP-hard due to the nature of constant topology variation of the MANETs. Thus a solution technique that embarks upon the challenges of the QoSR problem is needed to be underpinned. This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm by modifying the Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) with the new position updating mechanism. This updating mechanism is derived from the differential evolution (DE) algorithm, where the candidates learn from diversified search regions. Thus the CSA will act as the main search procedure guided by the updating mechanism derived from DE, called tuned CSA (TCSA). Numerical simulations on MANETs are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed TCSA method by determining an optimum route that satisfies various Quality of Service (QoS) constraints. The results are compared with some of the existing techniques in the literature; therefore the superiority of the proposed method is established.

  17. The contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the functional evaluation of microcircuits in human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Ziemann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) activates a number of different neuron types in the cortex, the final output elicited in corticospinal neurones is surprisingly stereotyped. A single TMS pulse evokes a series of descending corticospinal volleys that are separated from each other by about 1.5 ms (i.e., ~670 Hz). This evoked descending corticospinal activity can be directly recorded by an epidural electrode placed over the high cervical cord. The earliest wave is thought to originate from the direct activation of the axons of fast-conducting pyramidal tract neurones (PTN) and is therefore termed "D" wave. The later waves are thought to originate from indirect, trans-synaptic activation of PTNs and are termed "I" waves. The anatomical and computational characteristics of a canonical microcircuit model of cerebral cortex composed of layer II and III and layer V excitatory pyramidal cells, inhibitory interneurons, and cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical inputs can account for the main characteristics of the corticospinal activity evoked by TMS including its regular and rhythmic nature, the stimulus intensity-dependence and its pharmacological modulation. In this review we summarize present knowledge of the physiological basis of the effects of TMS of the human motor cortex describing possible interactions between TMS and simple canonical microcircuits of neocortex. According to the canonical model, a TMS pulse induces strong depolarization of the excitatory cells in the superficial layers of the circuit. This leads to highly synchronized recruitment of clusters of excitatory neurons, including layer V PTNs, and of inhibitory interneurons producing a high frequency (~670 Hz) repetitive discharge of the corticospinal axons. The role of the inhibitory circuits is crucial to entrain the firing of the excitatory networks to produce a high-frequency discharge and to control the number and magnitude of evoked excitatory discharge in layer V PTNs. In summary

  18. Reclaimed water quality during simulated ozone-managed aquifer recharge hybrid

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Min

    2014-06-17

    A synergistic hybrid of two treatment processes, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) combined with ozonation, was proposed for wastewater reclamation and water reuse applications. Batch reactor and soil-column experiments were performed to evaluate reclaimed water quality using various chemical and bacterial analyses. The ozone process was optimized at low ozone dose (0.5 mg O3/mg DOC) based on the control of N-nitrosodimethylamine (<5 ng L-1) and bromate (<10 μg L-1), and applied prior to (i.e., O3-MAR) and after MAR (i.e., MAR-O3). This work demonstrates that effluent organic matter (EfOM) and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) are effectively removed during the hybrid process of MAR combined ozonation, compared to MAR only. Based on fluorescence excitation-emission matrices analyses, both MAR and ozonation reduce soluble microbial (protein-like) products while only ozonation contributes in reducing humic and fulvic substances. Even at low ozone dose of 0.5 mg O3/mg DOC, the O3-MAR hybrid significantly reduced UV absorbance by ≥2 m-1, BDOC by ≥64 %, and total (Σ) TOrC concentrations by ≥70 % in the effluent water quality. However, no significant improvement (<10 %) in the removal of Σ16 TOrC concentrations was observed for the increased ozone dose at 1.0 mg O3/mg DOC during MAR combined ozonation processes. Overall, O3-MAR was effective by 10-30 % in treating effluent water than MAR based on DOC, UV254 nm EfOM, TOrC and bacterial analyses. In addition, MAR-O3 was better than O3-MAR for the reduction of fluorescence (close MQ), TOrCs (≥74 %) and total bacteria cell concentrations (>3 log reduction). Therefore, implementing MAR prior to ozonation appears to remove the bio-amenable compounds that react rapidly with ozone, thereby reducing oxidant demand and treatment efficiency. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach for use in the Hear-road Exposures to Urban air pollutant Study(NEXUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a hybrid air quality modeling approach and its application in NEXUS in order to provide spatial and temporally varying exposure estimates and identification of the mobile source contribution to the total pollutant exposure. Model-based exposure metrics, associa...

  20. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach for use in the Hear-road Exposures to Urban air pollutant Study(NEXUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a hybrid air quality modeling approach and its application in NEXUS in order to provide spatial and temporally varying exposure estimates and identification of the mobile source contribution to the total pollutant exposure. Model-based exposure metrics, associa...

  1. Uncertain Quality Function Deployment Using a Hybrid Group Decision Making Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Ling Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD is a widely used quality system tool for translating customer requirements (CRs into the engineering design requirements (DRs of products or services. The conventional QFD analysis, however, has been criticized as having some limitations such as in the assessment of relationships between CRs and DRs, the determination of CR weights and the prioritization of DRs. This paper aims to develop a new hybrid group decision-making model based on hesitant 2-tuple linguistic term sets and an extended QUALIFLEX (qualitative flexible multiple criteria method approach for handling QFD problems with incomplete weight information. First, hesitant linguistic term sets are combined with interval 2-tuple linguistic variables to express various uncertainties in the assessment information of QFD team members. Borrowing the idea of grey relational analysis (GRA, a multiple objective optimization model is constructed to determine the relative weights of CRs. Then, an extended QUALIFLEX approach with an inclusion comparison method is suggested to determine the ranking of the DRs identified in QFD. Finally, an analysis of a market segment selection problem is conducted to demonstrate and validate the proposed QFD approach.

  2. Combining ability analysis for yield and fibre quality parameters in intraspecific hybrids of G. hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.Saravanan, N.A., R. Ravikesavan and T.S. Raveendran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Four genetically diverse jassid resistant varieties viz., SRT 1, Khandwa 2, KC 2 and SVPR 3 (Females i.e lines were crossedwith three standard varieties viz., MCU 5, MCU 7 and MCU 12 (male parents i.e., testers in line x tester fashion for estimationin combining ability effects of twelve economic characters including fibre quality traits like 2.5% span length, bundle strength,fibre fineness, uniformity ratio and elongation percentage. Non-additive type of gene action was found relatively more importantfor all the characters. The jassid resistant parent KC 2 was a good combiner for boll weight, lint index, seed index and bundlestrength besides seed cotton yield. While the parents SRT 1 and MCU 5 were found to be good general combiner for 2.5 per centspan length. On the basis of sca effects the combinations KC 2 x MCU 5, KC 2 x MCU 12 and Khandwa 2 x MCU 5 were thebest hybrids for combining high yield, quality and jassid resistance.

  3. An Application of Spectral Kurtosis to Separate Hybrid Power Quality Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José González de la Rosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the development of the future smart grid, the detection of power quality events is a key issue for the power system monitoring. Voltage sags, swells, harmonics (variations and interruptions, which produce large losses for commercial and industrial consumers, are the main events to be considered due to the sensitivity of equipment to these electrical anomalies. The steady-state events are even more frequently accompanied by transients, the discrimination and localization being far more exigent and requiring advanced signal separating tools to be incorporated in the measurement equipment. This paper shows the event detection performance of the spectral kurtosis as a signal separating tool in the frequency domain. The disturbances under test are hybrid signals resulting from the coupling between amplitude defects and non-desired higher frequencies. Being a fourth-order spectrum, the kurtosis is confirmed as a noise-resistant tool that enhances impulsiveness, therefore characterizing the electrical anomalies. In the beginning of the analysis, the voltage sag is established as a reference; then, the disturbances (oscillatory transients and harmonics are coupled at the starting and ending instants of the sag, resulting in complex hybrid events. The results show that the spectral kurtosis enhances the detection Energies 2015, 8 9778 of both types of events (steady state and transients, which are outlined in a bump shape in the fourth-order frequency pattern and centered in the main carrier frequency. Indeed, while the oscillatory transients are associated with softer and lower-amplitude peaks, the harmonics correspond to crisper and higher ones. As these mixed electrical faults are very common in the actual power grid, the article postulates the higher-order spectra to be implemented in prospective online measurement instruments.

  4. Modeling the Cerebellar Microcircuit: New Strategies for a Long-Standing Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Angelo, Egidio; Antonietti, Alberto; Casali, Stefano; Casellato, Claudia; Garrido, Jesus A.; Luque, Niceto Rafael; Mapelli, Lisa; Masoli, Stefano; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Prestori, Francesca; Rizza, Martina Francesca; Ros, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar microcircuit has been the work bench for theoretical and computational modeling since the beginning of neuroscientific research. The regular neural architecture of the cerebellum inspired different solutions to the long-standing issue of how its circuitry could control motor learning and coordination. Originally, the cerebellar network was modeled using a statistical-topological approach that was later extended by considering the geometrical organization of local microcircuits. However, with the advancement in anatomical and physiological investigations, new discoveries have revealed an unexpected richness of connections, neuronal dynamics and plasticity, calling for a change in modeling strategies, so as to include the multitude of elementary aspects of the network into an integrated and easily updatable computational framework. Recently, biophysically accurate “realistic” models using a bottom-up strategy accounted for both detailed connectivity and neuronal non-linear membrane dynamics. In this perspective review, we will consider the state of the art and discuss how these initial efforts could be further improved. Moreover, we will consider how embodied neurorobotic models including spiking cerebellar networks could help explaining the role and interplay of distributed forms of plasticity. We envisage that realistic modeling, combined with closed-loop simulations, will help to capture the essence of cerebellar computations and could eventually be applied to neurological diseases and neurorobotic control systems. PMID:27458345

  5. Modeling the Formation Process of Grouping Stimuli Sets through Cortical Columns and Microcircuits to Feature Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Klefenz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational model of a self-structuring neuronal net is presented in which repetitively applied pattern sets induce the formation of cortical columns and microcircuits which decode distinct patterns after a learning phase. In a case study, it is demonstrated how specific neurons in a feature classifier layer become orientation selective if they receive bar patterns of different slopes from an input layer. The input layer is mapped and intertwined by self-evolving neuronal microcircuits to the feature classifier layer. In this topical overview, several models are discussed which indicate that the net formation converges in its functionality to a mathematical transform which maps the input pattern space to a feature representing output space. The self-learning of the mathematical transform is discussed and its implications are interpreted. Model assumptions are deduced which serve as a guide to apply model derived repetitive stimuli pattern sets to in vitro cultures of neuron ensembles to condition them to learn and execute a mathematical transform.

  6. Hybrid practices as a means to implement quality improvement: A comparative qualitative study in a Dutch and Swedish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartz-Topp, Julia; Sanne, Johan M; Pöstges, Heide

    2016-11-15

    Managers and scholars commonly perceive resistance from professionals as hampering the implementation of quality improvement (QI) and refer to the incompatibility of clinical and managerial approaches to QI as a reason. Yet a growing body of research indicates that, in practice, these two approaches rather blend into hybrid practices that embody different types of QI-related knowledge and values. This opens up a new perspective on implementation challenges that moves attention away from resistance against managerial QI toward difficulties for clinicians to draw together different types of knowledge and values within their clinical work. So far, little is known about how managers can support clinicians to generate hybrid QI practices. The aim of this study was to deepen our understanding of how managers can support the generation of hybrid practices that help clinicians to integrate QI into their everyday work. We draw on comparative qualitative research including 21 semistructured interviews, documentary analysis, and participant observation that we conducted in one Dutch and one Swedish hospital over a period of 8 months in 2011/2012. Hospital managers designed hybrid forums, tools, and professional roles in order to facilitate the integration of different QI practices, knowledge, and values. This integration generated new hybrid practices and an infrastructure for QI that has potential to support clinicians in their efforts to align different demands. New opportunities to implement QI emerge when we change the implementation problem from clinical resistance to the need of support for clinicians to develop hybrid QI practices. Hospital managers then have to intentionally organize for the generation of hybrid practices by designing, for example, hybrid forums, tools, and professional roles that integrate different knowledge and values in a nonhierarchical way.

  7. Dendritic nonlinearities reduce network size requirements and mediate ON and OFF states of persistent activity in a PFC microcircuit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Papoutsi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have unraveled the existence of small clusters of co-active neurons in the neocortex. The functional implications of these microcircuits are in large part unexplored. Using a heavily constrained biophysical model of a L5 PFC microcircuit, we recently showed that these structures act as tunable modules of persistent activity, the cellular correlate of working memory. Here, we investigate the mechanisms that underlie persistent activity emergence (ON and termination (OFF and search for the minimum network size required for expressing these states within physiological regimes. We show that (a NMDA-mediated dendritic spikes gate the induction of persistent firing in the microcircuit. (b The minimum network size required for persistent activity induction is inversely proportional to the synaptic drive of each excitatory neuron. (c Relaxation of connectivity and synaptic delay constraints eliminates the gating effect of NMDA spikes, albeit at a cost of much larger networks. (d Persistent activity termination by increased inhibition depends on the strength of the synaptic input and is negatively modulated by dADP. (e Slow synaptic mechanisms and network activity contain predictive information regarding the ability of a given stimulus to turn ON and/or OFF persistent firing in the microcircuit model. Overall, this study zooms out from dendrites to cell assemblies and suggests a tight interaction between dendritic non-linearities and network properties (size/connectivity that may facilitate the short-memory function of the PFC.

  8. Hybridization quality in cervical cementum and superficial dentin using current adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yang; Shimada, Yasushi; Ichinose, Shizuko; Tagami, Junji

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the hybridization quality of adhesives to gingival cementum and close superficial dentin using both total-etch and self-etch, one-step and two-step adhesives in vitro. Five adhesive systems were used and evaluated in this study; three kinds of two-step adhesives (total-etch--Single Bond and self-etch--Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil Protect Bond) and two one-step adhesives (Clearfil S3 Bond, G Bond). Fifteen extracted intact human third molars were used in this study. A diagonal cut which was approximately 45 degrees to the long axis of the roots, with the initiating point located 2 mm below the buccal enamel-cementum junction and ascending towards the pulp chamber was prepared on each tooth. Flat cervical cementum and dentin surfaces were ground with wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper, and bonded with one of the adhesives and finished by applying a flowable resin composite. After 24 h storage at 37 degrees C in water, the bonded assemblies were sectioned into approximately 1mm thick slabs. Two central slabs from each tooth were chosen. One slab was totally demineralized in 0.5 M EDTA and the other was not demineralized and immersed into 50% (w/v) solution of ammoniacal silver nitrate for 24 h, and successively exposed to photodeveloping solution for 8 h. The specimens were then processed for TEM observation. Both the stained demineralized silver unchallenged and unstained non-demineralized silver challenged resin-cervical cementum/proximal superficial dentin interface were observed and evaluated under a transmission electron microscope. The nanoleakage pathway and extent vary among the different adhesives used and also between the resin-cementum interface and resin-dentin interface. Two-step self-etch adhesives showed better hybridization quality both in cementum and proximal superficial dentin as compared to those of two-step total-etch adhesive and one-step self-etch adhesives. Two-step self-etch adhesives may provide a

  9. A hybridized membrane-botanical biofilter for improving air quality in occupied spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, David; Darlington, Alan; van Ras, Niels; Kraakman, Bart; Dixon, Mike

    Botanical biofilters have been shown to be effective in improving indoor air quality through the removal of complex mixtures of gaseous contaminants typically found in human-occupied environments. Traditional, botanical biofilters have been comprised of plants rooted into a thin and highly porous synthetic medium that is hung on vertical surfaces. Water flows from the top of the biofilter and air is drawn horizontally through the rooting medium. These botanical biofilters have been successfully marketed in office and institutional settings. They operate efficiently, with adequate contaminant removal and little maintenance for many years. Depending on climate and outdoor air quality, botanical biofiltration can substantially reduce costs associated with ventilation of stale indoor air. However, there are several limitations that continue to inhibit widespread acceptance: 1. Current designs are architecturally limiting and inefficient at capturing ambient light 2. These biofilters can add significant amounts of humidity to an indoor space. This water loss also leads to a rapid accumulation of dissolved salts; reducing biofilter health and performance 3. There is the perception of potentially actively introducing harmful bioaerosols into the air stream 4. Design and practical limitations inhibit the entrance of this technology into the lucrative residential marketplace This paper describes the hybridization of membrane and botanical biofiltration technologies by incorporating a membrane array into the rootzone of a conventional interior planting. This technology has the potential for addressing all of the above limitations, expanding the range of indoor settings where botanical biofiltration can be applied. This technology was developed as the CSA-funded Canadian component an ESA-MAP project entitled: "Biological airfilter for air quality control of life support systems in manned space craft and other closed environments", A0-99-LSS-019. While the project addressed a

  10. Preliminary Results for Biochemical Profile Before Slaughtering and Meat Quality of Three Beef Commercial Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA NARCISA POSTOLACHE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is subscribed of an extensive project that has as main objective the production of crossbred specialized beef hybrids from reformed Romanian Black Spotted cattle's with bulls from breeds specialized for meat production (Blue Blanch Belgique, Aberdeen-Angus and Limousin. Averaged biochemical indicators analyzed showed a normal state of animal's health. The obtained half-breeds products (bulls were raised under semi-intensively conditions and slaughtered at 12 months of age. Live weight, back-fat thickness and carcass traits were significantly influenced by breed, all fat parameters being lower at this age than at standard minimum age of slaughter for meat production (18 months. Drip loss and chemical composition were similar for the breeds. The meat was lighter and pH24 values of longissimus muscle were between 5.57 and 5.64. Sensory panel tenderness and Warner-Bratzler shear force values indicated tougher meat at RBSxAA than at RBSxL1 or RBSxBBB. Differences in meat quality were probably due to the combined effects of brute chemical composition and pH dynamic during ripening. It is concluded that slaughtering steers at younger ages may require supplementary feeding, being recommended a slaughter age between 18 and 25 months old.

  11. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI is introduced as a parameter to predict PV power. AQI, which is an indication of how polluted the air is, has been known to have a strong correlation with power generated by the PV panels. In this paper, a hybrid method based on the model of conventional back propagation (BP neural network for clear weather and BP AQI model for haze weather is used to forecast PV power with conventional parameters like temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and an extra parameter of AQI as input. The results show that the proposed method has less error under haze condition as compared to conventional model of neural network.

  12. Evaluating the Optoelectronic Quality of Hybrid Perovskites by Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy with Noise Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byungho; Lee, Sangheon; Cho, Duckhyung; Kim, Jinhyun; Hwang, Taehyun; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Hong, Seunghun; Moon, Taeho; Park, Byungwoo

    2016-11-16

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation solar cells. To attain high photovoltaic efficiency, reducing the defects in perovskites is crucial along with a uniform coating of the films. Also, evaluating the quality of synthesized perovskites via facile and adequate methods is important as well. Herein, CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites were synthesized by applying second solvent dripping to nonstoichiometric precursors containing excess CH3NH3I. The resulting perovskite films exhibited a larger average grain size with a better crystallinity compared to that from stoichiometric precursors. As a result, the performance of planar perovskite solar cells was significantly improved, achieving an efficiency of 14.3%. Furthermore, perovskite films were effectively analyzed using a conductive AFM and noise spectroscopy, which have been uncommon in the field of perovskite solar cells. Comparing the topography and photocurrent maps, the variation of photocurrents in nanoscale was systematically investigated, and a linear relationship between the grain size and photocurrent was revealed. Also, noise analyses with a conductive probe enabled examination of the defect density of perovskites at specific grain interiors by excluding the grain-boundary effect, and reduced defects were clearly observed for the perovskites using CH3NH3I-rich precursors.

  13. Number of Clusters and the Quality of Hybrid Predictive Models in Analytical CRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łapczyński Mariusz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Making more accurate marketing decisions by managers requires building effective predictive models. Typically, these models specify the probability of customer belonging to a particular category, group or segment. The analytical CRM categories refer to customers interested in starting cooperation with the company (acquisition models, customers who purchase additional products (cross- and up-sell models or customers intending to resign from the cooperation (churn models. During building predictive models researchers use analytical tools from various disciplines with an emphasis on their best performance. This article attempts to build a hybrid predictive model combining decision trees (C&RT algorithm and cluster analysis (k-means. During experiments five different cluster validity indices and eight datasets were used. The performance of models was evaluated by using popular measures such as: accuracy, precision, recall, G-mean, F-measure and lift in the first and in the second decile. The authors tried to find a connection between the number of clusters and models' quality.

  14. Custom Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization: the Importance of DNA Quality, an Expert Eye, and Variant Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Lantieri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of false positive and false negative results in the Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH design is poorly addressed in literature reports. We took advantage of a custom aCGH recently carried out to analyze its design performance, the use of several Agilent aberrations detection algorithms, and the presence of false results. Our study provides a confirmation that the high density design does not generate more noise than standard designs and, might reach a good resolution. We noticed a not negligible presence of false negative and false positive results in the imbalances call performed by the Agilent software. The Aberration Detection Method 2 (ADM-2 algorithm with a threshold of 6 performed quite well, and the array design proved to be reliable, provided that some additional filters are applied, such as considering only intervals with average absolute log2ratio above 0.3. We also propose an additional filter that takes into account the proportion of probes with log2ratio exceeding suggestive values for gain or loss. In addition, the quality of samples was confirmed to be a crucial parameter. Finally, this work raises the importance of evaluating the samples profiles by eye and the necessity of validating the imbalances detected.

  15. On the Hybrid F1 Characteristics of Physiology, Biochemistry, Product Quality and Resistance to Black Shank in Oriental Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted from 1996 to 1998 at the Hefei Institute of Economics and Technology and at the Oriental Experimental Station of the Zhejiang Province (China. Seven F1 hybrids and three parental varieties of Oriental tobaccos were evaluated for the characteristics of photosynthetic and transpiration rates, esterase isozymes, resistance to black shank, quality and product potential from the 1996-1998 growing seasons. Tobacco leaves had higher photosynthetic rates and many differences among genotypes in the early stage of plant vigorous growth compared with more mature leaves. However, transpiration rates were lower in the younger leaves and greater in the more mature leaves. All the entries had four common bands (B1, B3, B4 and B6 of the esterase isoenzymes. Differences between entries resulted from in having or not having the B2 and B5 bands and color intensity differences of all the bands. These differences could be used to identify individual entries. The F1hybrids Samsun X Toy and Samsun X Argjiro, compared with the CK Samsun control, had obvious heterotic vigor in the characteristics of product, for yield, quality and resistance to black shank. The F1 hybrid Samsun X Toy maintained higher photosynthetic and transpiration rates in the two growth stages compared to other entries. However, the F1hybrid Samsun X Argjiro had higher photosynthetic rates and lower transpiration rates in the early growth stage and the two rates were lower in the later stage, but it maintained higher photosynthetic rates for the whole growth stage. Net photosynthetic rates had a significant positive correlation with yield product, quality and resistance to black shank of the Oriental tobacco F1hybrids.

  16. Development of PM2.5 source impact spatial fields using a hybrid source apportionment air quality model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Ivey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integral part of air quality management is knowledge of the impact of pollutant sources on ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM. There is also a growing desire to directly use source impact estimates in health studies; however, source impacts cannot be directly measured. Several limitations are inherent in most source apportionment methods, which has led to the development of a novel hybrid approach that is used to estimate source impacts by combining the capabilities of receptor modeling (RM and chemical transport modeling (CTM. The hybrid CTM-RM method calculates adjustment factors to refine the CTM-estimated impact of sources at monitoring sites using pollutant species observations and the results of CTM sensitivity analyses, though it does not directly generate spatial source impact fields. The CTM used here is the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ model, and the RM approach is based on the Chemical Mass Balance model. This work presents a method that utilizes kriging to spatially interpolate source-specific impact adjustment factors to generate revised CTM source impact fields from the CTM-RM method results, and is applied to January 2004 over the continental United States. The kriging step is evaluated using data withholding and by comparing results to data from alternative networks. Directly applied and spatially interpolated hybrid adjustment factors at withheld monitors had a correlation coefficient of 0.89, a linear regression slope of 0.83 ± 0.02, and an intercept of 0.14 ± 0.02. Refined source contributions reflect current knowledge of PM emissions (e.g., significant differences in biomass burning impact fields. Concentrations of 19 species and total PM2.5 mass were reconstructed for withheld monitors using directly applied and spatially interpolated hybrid adjustment factors. The mean concentrations of total PM2.5 for withheld monitors were 11.7 (± 8.3, 16.3 (± 11, 8.59 (± 4.7, and 9.20 (± 5.7 μg m−3

  17. Strategic Part Prioritization for Quality Improvement Practice Using a Hybrid MCDM Framework: A Case Application in an Auto Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality improvement practice (QIP, as a competitive strategy, is increasingly vital for auto factories to improve the product quality and brand reputation. Quality activity on selected automotive parts among a variety of competing candidates is featured by prioritization calculation. It arouses our interest how to select the appropriate auto part to perform quality improvement action based on the collected data from the after-sale source. Managers usually select the QIP part by the rule of thumb that is based on the quantitative criterion or the subjective preference of individuals. The total quality management (TQM philosophy requires multiple stakeholders’ involvement, regarded as a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM issue. This paper proposes a novel hybrid MCDM framework to select the best quality improvement solution combining the subjective and objective information. The rough set-based attribute reduction (RSAR technique was employed to establish the hierarchy structure of influential criteria, and the decision information was collected with triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs for its vagueness and ambiguity. In addition, the novel hybrid MCDM framework integrating fuzzy DEMATEL (decision making trial and evaluation laboratory method, the anti-entropy weighting (AEW technique and fuzzy VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR was developed to rank the alternatives with the combined weight of criteria. The results argue that the optimal solution keeps a high conformance with Shemshadi’s and Chaghooshi’s methods, which is better than the existing determination. Besides, the result analysis shows the robustness and flexibility of the proposed hybrid MCDM framework.

  18. Dense, unspecific connectivity of neocortical parvalbumin-positive interneurons: a canonical microcircuit for inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Adam M; Yuste, Rafael

    2011-09-14

    GABAergic interneurons play a major role in the function of the mammalian neocortex, but their circuit connectivity is still poorly understood. We used two-photon RuBi-Glutamate uncaging to optically map how the largest population of cortical interneurons, the parvalbumin-positive cells (PV+), are connected to pyramidal cells (PCs) in mouse neocortex. We found locally dense connectivity from PV+ interneurons onto PCs across cortical areas and layers. In many experiments, all nearby PV+ cells were connected to every local PC sampled. In agreement with this, we found no evidence for connection specificity, as PV+ interneurons contacted PC pairs similarly regardless of whether they were synaptically connected or not. We conclude that the microcircuit architecture for PV+ interneurons, and probably neocortical inhibition in general, is an unspecific, densely homogenous matrix covering all nearby pyramidal cells.

  19. A Hybrid ICA-SVM Approach for Determining the Quality Variables at Fault in a Multivariate Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of a multivariate process with the use of multivariate statistical process control (MSPC charts has received considerable attention. However, in practice, the use of MSPC chart typically encounters a difficulty. This difficult involves which quality variable or which set of the quality variables is responsible for the generation of the signal. This study proposes a hybrid scheme which is composed of independent component analysis (ICA and support vector machine (SVM to determine the fault quality variables when a step-change disturbance existed in a multivariate process. The proposed hybrid ICA-SVM scheme initially applies ICA to the Hotelling T2 MSPC chart to generate independent components (ICs. The hidden information of the fault quality variables can be identified in these ICs. The ICs are then served as the input variables of the classifier SVM for performing the classification process. The performance of various process designs is investigated and compared with the typical classification method. Using the proposed approach, the fault quality variables for a multivariate process can be accurately and reliably determined.

  20. Acute stress enhances the glutamatergic transmission onto basoamygdala neurons embedded in distinct microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Wang, Xue-Hui; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Tian, Xiao-Li; Yin, Xiao-Ping; Pan, Bing-Xing

    2017-01-09

    Amygdala activation is known to be critical for the processing of stressful events in brain. Recent studies have shown that the projection neurons (PNs) in amygdala, although architecturally intermingled, are integrated into distinct microcircuits and thus play divergent roles in amygdala-related behaviors. It remains unknown how stress regulates the individual amygdala PNs embedded in distinct microcircuits. Here, by using retrograde tracing and electrophysiological recording in in vitro slices, we explored the modulation of acute immobilization stress (AIS) on the basoamygdala (BA) PNs projecting either to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or elsewhere, which we designated as BA-mPFC and non-BA-mPFC PNs respectively. The results showed that in the control mice, both the excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs/sIPSCs) were comparable between these two subsets of BA PNs. The influences of AIS on sEPSCs and sIPSCs were overall similar between the two neuronal populations. It markedly increased the sEPSCs amplitude but left unaltered their frequency as well as the sIPSCs amplitude and frequency. Despite this, several differences emerged between the effects of AIS on the distribution of sEPSCs/sIPSCs frequency in these two groups of BA PNs. Similar changes were also observed in the sEPSCs/sIPSCs of the two PN populations from mice experiencing forced swimming stress. Their intrinsic excitability, on the other hand, was nearly unaltered following AIS. Our results thus suggest that acute stress recruit both BA-mPFC and non-BA-mPFC PNs mainly through enhancing the glutamatergic transmission they receive.

  1. Lethal effects of water quality on threatened California salamanders but not on co-occurring hybrid salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Maureen E; Johnson, Jarrett R; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Lowenstine, Linda J; Picco, Angela M; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2013-02-01

    Biological invasions and habitat alteration are often detrimental to native species, but their interactions are difficult to predict. Interbreeding between native and introduced species generates novel genotypes and phenotypes, and human land use alters habitat structure and chemistry. Both invasions and habitat alteration create new biological challenges and opportunities. In the intensively farmed Salinas Valley, California (U.S.A.), threatened California tiger salamanders (Ambystoma californiense) have been replaced by hybrids between California tiger salamander and introduced barred tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium). We conducted an enclosure experiment to examine the effects habitat modification and relative frequency of hybrid and native California tiger salamanders have on recruitment of salamanders and their prey, Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla). We tested whether recruitment differed among genetic classes of tiger salamanders (hybrid or native) and pond hydroperiod (seasonal or perennial). Roughly 6 weeks into the experiment, 70% (of 378 total) of salamander larvae died in 4 out of 6 ponds. Native salamanders survived (n = 12) in these ponds only if they had metamorphosed prior to the die-offs. During die-offs, all larvae of native salamanders died, whereas 56% of hybrid larvae died. We necropsied native and hybrid salamanders, tested water quality, and queried the California Department of Pesticide Regulation database to investigate possible causes of the die-offs. Salamander die-offs, changes in the abundance of other community members (invertebrates, algae, and cyanobacteria), shifts in salamander sex ratio, and patterns of pesticide application in adjacent fields suggest that pesticide use may have contributed to die-offs. That all survivors were hybrids suggests that environmental stress may promote rapid displacement of native genotypes.

  2. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  3. Interplay of dendritic non-linearities and network size mediate persistent activity in a PFC microcircuit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Papoutsi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ways in which neurons are embedded in a network to support various computations determines the functional output of the cortex. Recently, a number of in vivo studies have shown that dendritic integration in pyramidal neurons shapes neuronal function (Smith et al., 2013; Longordo et al., 2013 and that clusters of few reciprocally connected neurons are co-activated during behavioral tasks (Ko et al., 2011, 2013; Morishima et al., 2011. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC, such microcircuits are linked to persistent activity (prolonged spiking activity that exceeds stimulus presentation, which is the cellular correlate of working memory (Papoutsi et al., 2013. However, the effect of dendritic integration on the functional output of such small microcircuits has remained unexplored. In this work, we investigate the contribution of nonlinear dendritic properties to the induction and coding of upcoming state transitions in PFC microcircuits. Towards this goal we used a heavily constrained biophysical model of a layer 5 PFC microcircuit consisting of 7 pyramidal neurons and 2 interneurons implemented in the NEURON simulation environment. All neuron models are biophysically detailed but morphologically simplified and validated regarding their intrinsic, synaptic and connectivity properties (Papoutsi et al., 2013. Our results show that the non-linear integration of synaptic inputs at the basal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, mediated by the induction of NMDA spikes, is imperative for the emergence of the persistent state in the microcircuit: if synaptic drive is sufficient to induce NMDA spikes, the minimum network size required for persistent activity induction can be reduced down to 2 cells. In addition, slow synaptic mechanisms, such as the NMDA and GABAB currents, determine the ability of a given stimulus to induce persistent firing in the microcircuit model. On the other hand, the necessity for NMDA spikes disappears when persistent activity depends on

  4. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinigardi, Stefano, E-mail: sinigardi@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Bolton, Paul R. [Kansai Photon Science Institute (JAEA), Umemidai 8-1-7, Kizugawa-shi, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2014-03-11

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15M€. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments.

  5. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo; Bolton, Paul R.

    2014-03-01

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15 M €. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments.

  6. A Hybrid-Streaming Method for Cloud Gaming: To Improve the Graphics Quality delivered on Highly Accessible Game Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Long Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging Cloud Gaming Service provides a highly accessible video gaming experience. With Cloud Gaming, potential players without enough local resource can access high-quality gaming using low-spec devices. With advancing technology, we consider that if the processing power at low-spec devices can be well harvested, the quality delivered on Cloud Gaming can be further improved. Therefore, we propose a Hybrid-Streaming System that aimed at improving the graphic quality delivered by Cloud Gaming. By utilizing the available rendering power from both the Cloud Server and client PC, the system distributes rendering operations to both sides to achieve the desired improvement. Quantitative results show the proposed method improves graphics quality, as well as reducing the server’s workload while attaining acceptable network bandwidth consumption levels.

  7. Engineering of a novel adjuvant based on lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles: A quality-by-design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Fabrice; Wern, Jeanette Erbo; Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; van de Weert, Marco; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank; Foged, Camilla

    2015-07-28

    The purpose of this study was to design a novel and versatile adjuvant intended for mucosal vaccination based on biodegradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) modified with the cationic surfactant dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and the immunopotentiator trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) (CAF01) to tailor humoral and cellular immunity characterized by antibodies and Th1/Th17 responses. Such responses are important for the protection against diseases caused by intracellular bacteria such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The hybrid NPs were engineered using an oil-in-water single emulsion method and a quality-by-design approach was adopted to define the optimal operating space (OOS). Four critical process parameters (CPPs) were identified, including the acetone concentration in the water phase, the stabilizer [polyvinylalcohol (PVA)] concentration, the lipid-to-total solid ratio, and the total concentration. The CPPs were linked to critical quality attributes consisting of the particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta-potential, thermotropic phase behavior, yield and stability. A central composite face-centered design was performed followed by multiple linear regression analysis. The size, PDI, enthalpy of the phase transition and yield were successfully modeled, whereas the models for the zeta-potential and the stability were poor. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy revealed that the main structural effect on the nanoparticle architecture is caused by the use of PVA, and two different morphologies were identified: i) A PLGA core coated with one or several concentric lipid bilayers, and ii) a PLGA nanoshell encapsulating lipid membrane structures. The optimal formulation, identified from the OOS, was evaluated in vivo. The hybrid NPs induced antibody and Th1/Th17 immune responses that were similar in quality and magnitude to the response induced by DDA/TDB liposomes, showing that the adjuvant

  8. Effects of Cold and Heat Stress on Egg Quality Traits of a Newly Developed Native Hybrid Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ATAK-S is a newly developed native hybrid layer. Although the laying performance of this hybrid has been studied and determined, the performance response of the hybrid to different environmental temperature conditions is not known. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the effect of cold and heat stress on egg quality traits. Hens were divided into three different groups; control (20°C, low (12°C and high (32°C. A total of 360 hens, with 120 in each of the groups, were used in the study. Hens were held in three tier battery cages in an environmentally controlled poultry house. The study lasted for 3 weeks. No differences were found among different groups in terms of shape index, albumen height and Haugh unit of the egg quality traits. It was found that the differences among the heat groups in terms of egg shell breaking strength, egg weight, shell thickness and yolk colour were significant and the value of these traits decreased under the heat stress conditions, whereas they were not affected from the cold stress.

  9. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac, E-mail: jaehacko@pkusz.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporary aeration shortened the initial acid inhibition phase for methanogens. • COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactor than that in the anaerobic control. • Methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. • MSW settlement increased with increasing the frequency of intermittent aeration. - Abstract: Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10 months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic–anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  10. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac

    2015-07-01

    Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic-anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75d and 60d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4L/kgvs and 113.2L/kgvs. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  11. Flexible Microgrid Power Quality Enhancement Using Adaptive Hybrid Voltage and Current Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    To accomplish superior harmonic compensation performance using distributed generation (DG) unit power electronics interfaces, an adaptive hybrid voltage and current controlled method (HCM) is proposed in this paper. It shows that the proposed adaptive HCM can reduce the numbers of low-pass/bandpa...

  12. Implications of Japanese Total Quality Control for Western Organizations: Dimensions of an Intercultural Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Investigates Total Quality Control (TQC) as a companywide, pivotal, and unifying philosophy for quality production and human interaction in Japanese organizations. Stresses the central role of communication processes. Challenges business communication scholars to incorporate TQC as a macro framework in dissections of the quality movement within…

  13. Nogo Receptor 1 Confines a Disinhibitory Microcircuit to the Critical Period in Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, Céleste-Élise; Ikrar, Taruna; Nguyen, Collins; Xu, Xiangmin; McGee, Aaron W

    2016-10-26

    A characteristic of the developing mammalian visual system is a brief interval of plasticity, termed the "critical period," when the circuitry of primary visual cortex is most sensitive to perturbation of visual experience. Depriving one eye of vision (monocular deprivation [MD]) during the critical period alters ocular dominance (OD) by shifting the responsiveness of neurons in visual cortex to favor the nondeprived eye. A disinhibitory microcircuit involving parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons initiates this OD plasticity. The gene encoding the neuronal nogo-66-receptor 1 (ngr1/rtn4r) is required to close the critical period. Here we combined mouse genetics, electrophysiology, and circuit mapping with laser-scanning photostimulation to investigate whether disinhibition is confined to the critical period by ngr1 We demonstrate that ngr1 mutant mice retain plasticity characteristic of the critical period as adults, and that ngr1 operates within PV interneurons to restrict the loss of intracortical excitatory synaptic input following MD in adult mice, and this disinhibition induces a "lower PV network configuration" in both critical-period wild-type mice and adult ngr1(-/-) mice. We propose that ngr1 limits disinhibition to close the critical period for OD plasticity and that a decrease in PV expression levels reports the diminished recent cumulative activity of these interneurons.

  14. Self-Organization of Microcircuits in Networks of Spiking Neurons with Plastic Synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Koch Ocker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The synaptic connectivity of cortical networks features an overrepresentation of certain wiring motifs compared to simple random-network models. This structure is shaped, in part, by synaptic plasticity that promotes or suppresses connections between neurons depending on their joint spiking activity. Frequently, theoretical studies focus on how feedforward inputs drive plasticity to create this network structure. We study the complementary scenario of self-organized structure in a recurrent network, with spike timing-dependent plasticity driven by spontaneous dynamics. We develop a self-consistent theory for the evolution of network structure by combining fast spiking covariance with a slow evolution of synaptic weights. Through a finite-size expansion of network dynamics we obtain a low-dimensional set of nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of two-synapse connectivity motifs. With this theory in hand, we explore how the form of the plasticity rule drives the evolution of microcircuits in cortical networks. When potentiation and depression are in approximate balance, synaptic dynamics depend on weighted divergent, convergent, and chain motifs. For additive, Hebbian STDP these motif interactions create instabilities in synaptic dynamics that either promote or suppress the initial network structure. Our work provides a consistent theoretical framework for studying how spiking activity in recurrent networks interacts with synaptic plasticity to determine network structure.

  15. Automatic microcircuit formation based on gold-coated SU-8 microrods via dielectrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Yu-Kun; Tao Ye; Hou Li-Kai; Jiang Hong-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    To explore the application of the characteristics of metallic microparticles,alternating current electric trapping of the SU-8 microrods coated with a thin gold layer by the chemical approach is investigated.Positive dielectrophoresis is used to absorb the gold-coated SU-8 microrods at the edge of the parallel electrodes,thereby forming chains to connect the electrodes.This is a fast automatic microcircuit formation process.Moreover,a non-charged molecule is modified on the surface of the gold-coated SU-8 microrod,and the modified microrods are controlled by the alternating electric field to form a number of chains.The different chains between the parallel electrodes consist of various parallel circuits.In order to compare these chains with different electric surfaces,the impedances of the metallic and modified microrods are measured and compared,and the results show that the gold-coated microrods act as pure resistors,while the microrods functionalized by a non-charged molecule behave as good capacitors.

  16. Self-Organization of Microcircuits in Networks of Spiking Neurons with Plastic Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocker, Gabriel Koch; Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Doiron, Brent

    2015-08-01

    The synaptic connectivity of cortical networks features an overrepresentation of certain wiring motifs compared to simple random-network models. This structure is shaped, in part, by synaptic plasticity that promotes or suppresses connections between neurons depending on their joint spiking activity. Frequently, theoretical studies focus on how feedforward inputs drive plasticity to create this network structure. We study the complementary scenario of self-organized structure in a recurrent network, with spike timing-dependent plasticity driven by spontaneous dynamics. We develop a self-consistent theory for the evolution of network structure by combining fast spiking covariance with a slow evolution of synaptic weights. Through a finite-size expansion of network dynamics we obtain a low-dimensional set of nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of two-synapse connectivity motifs. With this theory in hand, we explore how the form of the plasticity rule drives the evolution of microcircuits in cortical networks. When potentiation and depression are in approximate balance, synaptic dynamics depend on weighted divergent, convergent, and chain motifs. For additive, Hebbian STDP these motif interactions create instabilities in synaptic dynamics that either promote or suppress the initial network structure. Our work provides a consistent theoretical framework for studying how spiking activity in recurrent networks interacts with synaptic plasticity to determine network structure.

  17. The Power Quality Compensation Strategy for Power Distribution System Based on Hybrid Parallel Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid DEHINI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main aim is to confront the performance of shunt active power filter (SAPF and the shunt hybrid active power filter (SHAPF to achieve flexibility and reliability of the filter devices. Both of the two devices used the classical proportional-integral controller for pulse generation to trigger the inventers MOSFET’s. In the adopted hybrid active filter there is a passive power filter with high power rating to filter the low order harmonies and one active filter with low power rating to filter the other high order harmonies. In order to investigate the effectiveness of (SHAPF, the studies have been accomplished using simulation with the MATLAB-SIMULINK. The results show That (SHAPF is more effective than (SAPF, and has lower cost.

  18. Combining Quality of Service and Topology Control in Directional Hybrid Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    concept of a global information grid (GIG) that will provide the network-centric environment necessary to achieve the goal of integrating traditional...together form high bandwidth capabilities for hybrid communication networks, suggest the potential for global connectivity while avoiding some of...included in the network and which links each commodity should flow on. The MILP can be solved using any linear solver application. We use XPRESS -MP

  19. Estimation of the Probability of Radiation Failures and Single Particle Upsets of Integrated Microcircuits onboard the Fobos-Grunt Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. V.; Popov, V. D.; Khamidullina, N. M.

    2005-05-01

    When designing the radio-electronic equipment for long-term operation in a space environment, one of the most important problems is a correct estimation of radiation stability of its electric and radio components (ERC) against radiation-stimulated doze failures and one-particle effects (upsets). These problems are solved in this paper for the integrated microcircuits (IMC) of various types that are to be installed onboard the Fobos-Grunt spacecraft designed at the Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Lavochkin Research and Production Association.” The launching of this spacecraft is planned for 2009.

  20. Evaluation of new hybrid brachiaria lines in Thailand. 1. Forage production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three new hybrid bracharia lines were evaluated for forage accumulation and nutritive value in Northeast Thailand from 2006 to 2011 in experiments at 2 sites, using Mulato II hybrid brachiaria as a standard for comparison. The parameters evaluated were wet and dry season dry matter (DM accumulation, leaf:stem ratio, crude protein (CP concentration and fiber level [acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF]. No lines consistently displayed superior dry season forage accumulation and leaf:stem ratio over Mulato II. In the wet seasons, 14 lines produced more DM than Mulato II but in only one wet season each. Mulato II produced forage with high leaf:stem ratio in all seasons. Many lines did have significantly higher CP concentrations and lower levels of ADF and NDF than Mulato II, but their forage accumulation and leaf:stem ratio were inferior. Four lines (BR02/1718, BR02/1752, BR02/1794 and BR02/0465 were granted Plant Variety Rights in 2011.Keywords: Cayman, Cobra, crude protein, dry matter yields, forage regrowth,  Mulato II.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(383-93 

  1. Dopaminergic modulation of the striatal microcircuit: receptor-specific configuration of cell assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Hernández-López, Salvador; Tapia, Dagoberto; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2011-10-19

    Selection and inhibition of motor behaviors are related to the coordinated activity and compositional capabilities of striatal cell assemblies. Striatal network activity represents a main step in basal ganglia processing. The dopaminergic system differentially regulates distinct populations of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) through the activation of D(1)- or D(2)-type receptors. Although postsynaptic and presynaptic actions of these receptors are clearly different in MSNs during cell-focused studies, their activation during network activity has shown inconsistent responses. Therefore, using electrophysiological techniques, functional multicell calcium imaging, and neuronal population analysis in rat corticostriatal slices, we describe the effect of selective dopaminergic receptor activation in the striatal network by observing cell assembly configurations. At the microcircuit level, during striatal network activity, the selective activation of either D(1)- or D(2)-type receptors is reflected as overall increases in neuronal synchronization. However, graph theory techniques applied to the transitions between network states revealed receptor-specific configurations of striatal cell assemblies: D(1) receptor activation generated closed trajectories with high recurrence and few alternate routes favoring the selection of specific sequences, whereas D(2) receptor activation created trajectories with low recurrence and more alternate pathways while promoting diverse transitions among neuronal pools. At the single-cell level, the activation of dopaminergic receptors enhanced the negative-slope conductance region (NSCR) in D(1)-type-responsive cells, whereas in neurons expressing D(2)-type receptors, the NSCR was decreased. Consequently, receptor-specific network dynamics most probably result from the interplay of postsynaptic and presynaptic dopaminergic actions.

  2. Cortical microcircuit dynamics mediating Binocular Rivalry: The role of adaptation in inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota eTheodoni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual bistability arises when two conflicting interpretations of an ambiguous stimulus or images in binocular rivalry (BR compete for perceptual dominance. From a computational point of view competition models based on cross-inhibition and adaptation have shown that noise is a crucial force for rivalry and operates in balance with adaptation in order to explain the observed alternations in perception. In particular, noise-driven transitions and adaptation-driven oscillations define two dynamical regimes and the system operates near its boundary. In order to gain insights into the microcircuit dynamics mediating spontaneous perceptual alternations we used a reduced recurrent attractor-based biophysically realistic spiking network well known for working memory, attention and decision-making, where a spike-frequency adaptation mechanism is implemented to account for perceptual bistability. We, thus, derived a consistently reduced four-variable population rate model using mean-field techniques and tested it on BR data collected from human subjects. Our model accounts for experimental data parameters such as time dominance, coefficient of variation and gamma distribution. In addition, we show that our model also operates on the boundary between noise and adaptation and agrees with Levelt’s second revised and fourth propositions. These results show for the first time that a consistent reduction of a biophysically realistic spiking network of integrate and fire neurons with spike frequency adaptation could account for BR. Moreover, we demonstrate that BR can be explained only through the dynamics of the competing neuronal pools, without taking into account the adaptation of inhibitory interneurons..However, adaptation of interneurons affects the optimal parametric space of the system, by decreasing the overall adaptation necessary for the bifurcation to occur.

  3. Power Quality Improvement Using Hybrid Power Flow Controller in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manidhar Thula ,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the applicability of Hybrid Power Flow Controller (HPFC as an alternative to Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC for improvement of power system performance. UPFC is a flexible AC transmission system (FACTS device containing two switching converters, one in series and one in shunt. To configure the HPFC, one of the switching converters of the UPFC is replaced by thyristor controlled variable impedances, thus reducing the cost. In this paper, the HPFC has been configured by multilevel Voltage Source Converter (VSC used for the shunt compensation branches and a thyristor controlled variable impedance used for series compensation. It is shown that with suitable control the HPFC can inject a voltage of required magnitude in series with the line at any desired angle, just like UPFC. This helps in providing compensation equivalent to UPFC and improving the steady state stability limits of the power system.

  4. Dynamically Predicting the Quality of Service: Batch, Online, and Hybrid Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of dynamically modeling the quality of web service. The philosophy of designing practical web service recommender systems is delivered in this paper. A general system architecture for such systems continuously collects the user-service invocation records and includes both an online training module and an offline training module for quality prediction. In addition, we introduce matrix factorization-based online and offline training algorithms based on the gradient descent algorithms and demonstrate the fitness of this online/offline algorithm framework to the proposed architecture. The superiority of the proposed model is confirmed by empirical studies on a real-life quality of web service data set and comparisons with existing web service recommendation algorithms.

  5. Optimization of hybrid iterative reconstruction level and evaluation of image quality and radiation dose for pediatric cardiac computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin; Liang, Changhong [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Zhuang, Jian [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Cardiac Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Inst., Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Meiping [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Catheterization Lab, Guangdong Cardiovascular Inst., Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Hui [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-01-15

    Hybrid iterative reconstruction can reduce image noise and produce better image quality compared with filtered back-projection (FBP), but few reports describe optimization of the iteration level. We optimized the iteration level of iDose{sup 4} and evaluated image quality for pediatric cardiac CT angiography. Children (n = 160) with congenital heart disease were enrolled and divided into full-dose (n = 84) and half-dose (n = 76) groups. Four series were reconstructed using FBP, and iDose{sup 4} levels 2, 4 and 6; we evaluated subjective quality of the series using a 5-grade scale and compared the series using a Kruskal-Wallis H test. For FBP and iDose{sup 4}-optimal images, we compared contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) using a Student's t-test. We also compared diagnostic-accuracy of each group using a Kruskal-Wallis H test. Mean scores for iDose{sup 4} level 4 were the best in both dose groups (all P < 0.05). CNR was improved in both groups with iDose{sup 4} level 4 as compared with FBP. Mean decrease in SSDE was 53% in the half-dose group. Diagnostic accuracy for the four datasets were in the range 92.6-96.2% (no statistical difference). iDose{sup 4} level 4 was optimal for both the full- and half-dose groups. Protocols with iDose{sup 4} level 4 allowed 53% reduction in SSDE without significantly affecting image quality and diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  6. Listening to Brain Microcircuits for Interfacing With External World—Progress in Wireless Implantable Microelectronic Neuroengineering Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmikko, Arto V.; Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Patterson, William R.; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Bull, Christopher W.; Borton, David A.; Laiwalla, Farah; Park, Sunmee; Ming, Yin; Aceros, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring neural signals at high spatial and temporal resolution directly from brain microcircuits and decoding their activity to interpret commands and/or prior planning activity, such as motion of an arm or a leg, is a prime goal of modern neurotechnology. Its practical aims include assistive devices for subjects whose normal neural information pathways are not functioning due to physical damage or disease. On the fundamental side, researchers are striving to decipher the code of multiple neural microcircuits which collectively make up nature’s amazing computing machine, the brain. By implanting biocompatible neural sensor probes directly into the brain, in the form of microelectrode arrays, it is now possible to extract information from interacting populations of neural cells with spatial and temporal resolution at the single cell level. With parallel advances in application of statistical and mathematical techniques tools for deciphering the neural code, extracted populations or correlated neurons, significant understanding has been achieved of those brain commands that control, e.g., the motion of an arm in a primate (monkey or a human subject). These developments are accelerating the work on neural prosthetics where brain derived signals may be employed to bypass, e.g., an injured spinal cord. One key element in achieving the goals for practical and versatile neural prostheses is the development of fully implantable wireless microelectronic “brain-interfaces” within the body, a point of special emphasis of this paper. PMID:21654935

  7. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier, at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days, in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM yield and crude protein (CP concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR. CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number per plant, leaves per plant and LSR, while Pakchong-1 produced the lowest. Pakchong-1 plants were taller, had bigger tillers and basal circumference and higher stem DM production than CO-3 and Giant. Leaf CP for all cultivars was about 17%, while stem CP concentration was lower for Pakchong-1 than for the other cultivars (3.6 vs. 5.3%, P<0.05. While 40-day cutting intervals produced high quality forage, yields suffered marked-ly and the best compromise between yield and quality of forage seemed to occur with 60-day cutting intervals. Pakchong-1 seems to have no marked advantages over CO-3 and Giant for livestock feed, and feeding studies would verify this. Its higher stem DM yields may be advantageous for biogas production and this aspect should be investigated.Keywords: Bhutan, CO-3, crude protein , dry matter, Giant Napier, Pakchong-1.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3142-150

  8. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier, at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days, in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM yield and crude protein (CP concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR. CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number per plant, leaves per plant and LSR, while Pakchong-1 produced the lowest. Pakchong-1 plants were taller, had bigger tillers and basal circumference and higher stem DM production than CO-3 and Giant. Leaf CP for all cultivars was about 17%, while stem CP concentration was lower for Pakchong-1 than for the other cultivars (3.6 vs. 5.3%, P<0.05. While 40-day cutting intervals produced high quality forage, yields suffered marked-ly and the best compromise between yield and quality of forage seemed to occur with 60-day cutting intervals. Pakchong-1 seems to have no marked advantages over CO-3 and Giant for livestock feed, and feeding studies would verify this. Its higher stem DM yields may be advantageous for biogas production and this aspect should be investigated.Keywords: Bhutan, CO-3, crude protein , dry matter, Giant Napier, Pakchong-1.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3142-150

  9. Tomato second cycle hybrids as a source of genetic variability for fruit quality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira da Costa JH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and molecular variability in a F2 generation derived from a SCH (Second Cycle Hybrid in order to detect QTLs for some fruit traits of tomato. Genome coverage at different levels was achieved by three types of molecular markers (polypeptides, sequence-related amplified polymorphism-SRAP and amplified restriction fragment polymorphism - AFLP. Different degrees of polymorphism were detected by SRAP and AFLP at the DNA structure level and also by polypeptides at the DNA expression level. The first two markers, associated with phenotypic variation, detected QTLs involved in important agronomic traits such as fruit shelf life, soluble solids content, pH, and titratable acidity. New gene blocks originated by recombination during the first cycle of crossing were detected. This study confirmed that the observed phenotypic differences represent a new gene rearrangement and that these new gene blocks are responsible for the presence of the genetic variability detected for these traits.

  10. Skillrank: Towards a Hybrid Method to Assess Quality and Confidence of Professional Skills in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose María Álvarez-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a hybrid technique to measure the expertise of users by analyzing their profiles and activities in social networks. Currently, both job seekers and talent hunters are looking for new and innovative techniques to filter jobs and candidates where candidates are trying to improve and make their profiles more attractive. In this sense, the Skillrank approach is based on the conjunction of existing and well-known information and expertise retrieval techniques that perfectly fit the existing web and social media environment to deliver an intelligent component to integrate the user context in the analysis of skills confidence. A major outcome of this approach is that it actually takes advantage of existing data and information available on the web to perform both a ranked list of experts in a field and a confidence value for every professional skill. Thus, expertise and experts can be detected, verified, and ranked using a suited trust metric. An experiment to validate the Skillrank technique based on precision and recall metrics is also presented using two different datasets: (1 ad hoc created using real data from a professional social network and (2 real data extracted from the LinkedIn API.

  11. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2015-07-06

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  12. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-07-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br- or I-) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  13. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Idris Khan; Honglu Zhu; Jianxi Yao; Danish Khan; Tahir Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV) power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI) is introduced as a parameter to predi...

  14. 利用香稻改良杂交水稻稻米品质%Utilization of Aromatic Rice in Improving Grain Quality of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周坤炉; 廖伏明

    2004-01-01

    To improve grain quality of the high-yielding hybrid rice in China, we introduced the aromatic rice MR365, an improved Indian cultivar with aroma and other desirable grain quality characters such as long grain and low chalkiness, from IRRI in 1984 and began to transfer its aroma and good quality characters into the existing maintainer lines with good combining ability but poor grain quality. In the meantime, we also conducted the research on the inheritance of aroma for increasing the breeding efficiency. Through years of research and breeding practices, two cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines Xiangxiang 2 A and Xinxiang A and a series of quasi-aromatic hybrids mated from these aromatic CMS lines have been developed and released for commercial production in China. It was found that the inheritance of aroma in MR 365 and its derivatives including Xiangxiang 2 A, Xinxiang A and Xiang 2B S was controlled by one pair of recessive major genes based on the identification of aroma by the KOH-soaking method. We also found that there existed disparity in aroma degree among different grains of F2 generation, and different aromatic CMS lines derived from the same aromatic donor such as Xiangxiang 2 A and Xinxiang A had also a little difference in the degree of aroma, which implies that, besides the major genes, aroma may also be affected by the genetic backgrounds or minor genes. Xiangxiang 2 A, developed from the cross of V20A∥V20B/MR365, is the first aromatic CMS line bred in China. It is not only aromatic but has good grain quality and combining ability. Using it as female parent, Xiangyou 63 (Xiangxiang 2A/Minghui 63), the first quasi-aromatic hybrid rice combination in China, was developed and approved to release to farmers in 1995. Xiangyou 63 is characteristic of quasi-aromatic or partially aromatic (because only a portion of or NOT ALL grains are aromatic), good grain quality, high-yielding ability, good blast resistance and wide adaptability. However, Xiangxiang 2

  15. 美国高产优质青贮玉米杂交种的选育%Breeding Maize Hybrids for High Silage Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wen-wei; 徐国良; 李淑华; XUE Yin-gen; 才卓

    2011-01-01

    总结粮饲兼用型、多叶型和棕色中脉型3种类型青贮玉米杂交种的特点.介绍青贮玉米产量和饲料营养价值的评价指标和方法,比较不同类型的青贮玉米种质资源的饲料营养价值和目前美国市场上最新的青贮玉米杂交种的农艺性状和品质性状.2010年美国德克萨斯州青贮玉米区域参试杂交种生物产量和干物质产量分别达78 210 kg/hm2和27 370 kg/hm2,淀粉含量平均为40.9%,中性洗涤纤维平均36.4%,总可消耗营养平均为75%.%Maize silage is an important source of forage. Superior hybrids should yield well, have high silage quality, and be adapted to local environments. Dual-type hybrids can be used for grain and silage production. They are usually taller and later in maturity and have a higher percentage of tropical germplasm than the typical temperate grain hybrids. Leafy hybrids have 9-12 leaves above the top ear due to a dominant gene(Lfyl). They usually have tall flexible stalks, thinner stalk rinds, wider leaves, soft and white cobs, and softer kernels. Silage-specific brown midrib hybrids have higher silage digestibility. Breeding for brown midrib hybrids takes more efforts because brown midrib trait is recessive and the two parent lines must be homozygous for a particular recessive gene. In 2010, the Texas state silage maize performance tests involved 28 hybrids at Halfway and 33 hybrids at Etter. The top yielding hybrid produced 78 210 kg/ha of silage yield and 27 370 kg/ha of dry matter. Silage quality was assayed with the NIR method. The tested hybrids had, on average based on the dry matter, 40.9% starch, 36.4% NDF, and 75% TDN.

  16. A hybrid evolutionary data driven model for river water quality early warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard-Levine, Alejandra; Liu, Shuming; Vince, Francois; Li, Mingming; Ostfeld, Avi

    2014-10-01

    China's fast pace industrialization and growing population has led to several accidental surface water pollution events in the last decades. The government of China, after the 2005 Songhua River incident, has pushed for the development of early warning systems (EWS) for drinking water source protection. However, there are still many weaknesses in EWS in China such as the lack of pollution monitoring and advanced water quality prediction models. The application of Data Driven Models (DDM) such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has acquired recent attention as an alternative to physical models. For a case study in a south industrial city in China, a DDM based on genetic algorithm (GA) and ANN was tested to increase the response time of the city's EWS. The GA-ANN model was used to predict NH3-N, CODmn and TOC variables at station B 2 h ahead of time while showing the most sensitive input variables available at station A, 12 km upstream. For NH3-N, the most sensitive input variables were TOC, CODmn, TP, NH3-N and Turbidity with model performance giving a mean square error (MSE) of 0.0033, mean percent error (MPE) of 6% and regression (R) of 92%. For COD, the most sensitive input variables were Turbidity and CODmn with model performance giving a MSE of 0.201, MPE of 5% and R of 0.87. For TOC, the most sensitive input variables were Turbidity and CODmn with model performance giving a MSE of 0.101, MPE of 2% and R of 0.94. In addition, the GA-ANN model performed better for 8 h ahead of time. For future studies, the use of a GA-ANN modelling technique can be very useful for water quality prediction in Chinese monitoring stations which already measure and have immediately available water quality data.

  17. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3 +, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at e...

  18. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant.

  19. Qualitative: Python Tool for MT Quality Estimation Supporting Server Mode and Hybrid MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramidis Eleftherios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the development contributions of the last two years to our Python opensource Quality Estimation tool, a tool that can function in both experiment-mode and online web-service mode. The latest version provides a new MT interface, which communicates with SMT and rule-based translation engines and supports on-the-fly sentence selection. Additionally, we present an improved Machine Learning interface allowing more efficient communication with several state-of-the-art toolkits. Additions also include a more informative training process, a Python re-implementation of QuEst baseline features, a new LM toolkit integration, an additional PCFG parser and alignments of syntactic nodes.

  20. A Hybrid Multi-Tenant Database Schema for Multi-Level Quality of Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Saleh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Software as a Service (SaaS providers can serve hundreds of thousands of customers using sharable resources to reduce costs. Multi-tenancy architecture allows SaaS providers to run a single application and a database instance, which support multiple tenants with various business needs and priorities. Until now, the database management systems (DBMSs have not had the notion of multi-tenancy, and they have not been equipped to handle customization or scalability requirements, that are typical in multi-tenant applications. The multi-tenant database performance should adapt to tenants workloads and fit their special requirements. In this paper, we propose a new multi-tenant database schema design approach, that adapts to multi-tenant application requirements, in addition to tenants needs of data security, isolation, queries performance and response time speed. Our proposed methodology provides a trade-off between the performance and the storage space. This proposal caters for the diversity in tenants via defining multi-level quality of service for the different types of tenants, depending on tenant rate and system rate. The proposal presents a new technique to distribute data in a multi-tenant database horizontally to a set of allotment tables using an isolation point, and vertically to a set of extension tables using a merger point. Finally, we present a prototype implementation of our method using a real-world case study, showing that the proposed solution can achieve high scalability and increase performance for tenants who need speedy performance and economize storage space for tenants who do not have demanding quality of service.

  1. Ozonation and/or Coagulation - Ceramic Membrane Hybrid for Filtration of Impaired-Quality Source Waters

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Changwon

    2013-09-01

    When microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are applied for drinking water treatment/wastewater reuse, membrane fouling is an evitable problem, causing the loss of productivity over time. Polymeric membranes have been often reported to experience rapid and/or problematical fouling, restraining sustainable operation. Ceramic membranes can be effectively employed to treat impaired-quality source waters due to their inherent robustness in terms of physical and chemical stability. This research aimed to identify the effects of coagulation and/or ozonation on ceramic membrane filtration for seawater and wastewater (WW) effluent. Two different types of MF and UF ceramic membranes obtained by sintering (i.e., TAMI made of TiO2+ZrO2) and anodic oxidation process (i.e., AAO made of Al2O3) were employed for bench-scale tests. Precoagulation was shown to play an important role in both enhancing membrane filterability and natural organic matter (NOM) removal efficacy for treating a highorganic surface water. The most critical factors were found to be pH and coagulant dosage with the highest efficiency resulting under low pH and high coagulant dose. Due to the ozone-resistance nature of the ceramic membranes, preozonation allowed the ceramic membranes to be operated at higher flux, especially leading to significant flux improvement when treating seawater in the presence of calcium and magnesium. 4 Dissolved ozone in contact with the TAMI ceramic membrane surface accelerated the formation of hydroxyl (˙OH) radicals in WW effluent treatment. Flux restoration of both ceramic membranes, fouled with seawater and WW effluent, was efficiently achieved by high backwash (BW) pressure and ozone in chemically enhanced backwashing (CEB). Ceramic membranes exhibited a pH-dependent permeate flux while filtering WW effluent, showing reduced fouling with increased pH. On the other hand, for filtering seawater, differences in permeate flux between the two membranes was

  2. Biplot Analysis of Genotype by Environment for Cooking Quality in Hybrid Rice:A Tool for Line × Tester Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad H. FOTOKIAN; Kayvan AGAHI

    2014-01-01

    A study of combining ability for improving rice cooking quality was carried out via genotype plus genotype × environment (GGE) biplot. Four restorer lines and three male sterile lines were used to obtain F1 in a line × tester trial at the Rice Research Institute, Amol, Iran in 2009. GGE biplot analysis showed that Neda and IR56 were the best general combiners for amylose content (AC), whereas Nemat and IR28 had the highest general combining ability (GCA) effects for gelatinization temperature (GT), and IR58 and IR59 showed the highest GCA effects in terms of gel consistency (GC). Meanwhile, IR58 and IR59 showed large specific combining ability (SCA) effects for AC, while Neda and SA13 had high SCA effects for GT. Nemat and IR28 had large SCA effects for GC. Because intermediate levels of AC, GT and GC are ideal, Nemat × IR59 was considered as the best possible cross. Based on these results, the GGE biplot showed good potential for identifying suitable parents, heterotic crosses and the best hybrids in line × tester data.

  3. Development and application of a high resolution hybrid modelling system for the evaluation of urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, N.; Pirovano, G.; Lonati, G.; Balzarini, A.; Toppetti, A.; Riva, G. M.; Bedogni, M.

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid modelling system (HMS) was developed to provide hourly concentrations at the urban local scale. The system is based on the combination of a meteorological model (WRF), a chemical and transport eulerian model (CAMx), which computes concentration levels over the regional domains, and a lagrangian dispersion model (AUSTAL2000), accounting for dispersion phenomena within the urban area due to local emission sources; a source apportionment algorithm is also included in the HMS in order to avoid the double counting of local emissions. The HMS was applied over a set of nested domains, the innermost covering a 1.6 × 1.6 km2 area in Milan city center with 20 m grid resolution, for NOX simulation in 2010. For this paper the innermost domain was defined as "local", excluding usual definition of urban areas. WRF model captured the overall evolution of the main meteorological features, except for some very stagnant situations, thus influencing the subsequent performance of regional scale model CAMx. Indeed, CAMx was able to reproduce the spatial and temporal evolution of NOX concentration over the regional domain, except a few episodes, when observed concentrations were higher than 100 ppb. The local scale model AUSTAL2000 provided high-resolution concentration fields that sensibly mirrored the road and traffic pattern in the urban domain. Therefore, the first important outcome of the work is that the application of the hybrid modelling system allowed a thorough and consistent description of urban air quality. This result represents a relevant starting point for future evaluation of pollution exposure within an urban context. However, the overall performance of the HMS did not provide remarkable improvements with respect to stand-alone CAMx at the two only monitoring sites in Milan city center. HMS results were characterized by a smaller average bias, that improved about 6-8 ppb corresponding to 12-13% of the observed concentration, but by a lower correlation, that

  4. Breeding progress, variation, and correlation of grain and quality traits in winter rye hybrid and population varieties and national on-farm progress in Germany over 26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidig, Friedrich; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Rentel, Dirk; Drobek, Thomas; Meyer, Uwe; Huesken, Alexandra

    2017-05-01

    Grain yield of hybrid varieties and population varieties in official German variety trials increased by 23.3 and 18.1%, respectively, over the last 26 years. On-farm gain in grain yield (18.9%) was comparable to that of population varieties in variety trials, yet at a level considerably lower than in variety trials. Rye quality is subject to large year-to-year fluctuation. Increase in grain yield and decline of protein concentration did not negatively influence quality traits. Performance progress of grain and quality traits of 78 winter rye varieties tested in official German trials to assess the value for cultivation and use (VCU) were evaluated during 1989 and 2014. We dissected progress into a genetic and a non-genetic component for hybrid and population varieties by applying mixed models, including regression components to model trends. VCU trial results were compared with grain yield and quality data from a national harvest survey (on-farm data). Yield gain for hybrid varieties was 23.3% (18.9 dt ha(-1)) and for population varieties 18.1% (13.0 dt ha(-1)) relative to 1989. On-farm yield progress of 18.9% (8.7 dt ha(-1)) was considerably lagging behind VCU trials, and mean yield levels were substantially lower than in field trials. Most of the yield progress was generated by genetic improvement. For hybrid varieties, ear density was the determining yield component, whereas for population varieties, it was thousand grain mass. Results for VCU trials showed no statistically significant gains or losses in rye quality traits. For on-farm data, we found a positive but non-significant gain in falling number and amylogram viscosity and temperature. Variation of grain and quality traits was strongly influenced by environments, whereas genotypic variation was less than 19% of total variation. Grain yield was strongly negatively associated with protein concentration, yet was weakly to moderately positively associated with quality traits. In general, our results from VCU

  5. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, James T; Sass, Greg G; Boone, Jason Q; Arbieva, Zarema H; Green, Stefan J; Epifanio, John M

    2014-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of these species in the midst of morphological ambiguity. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of 45 barcoded bighead and silver carp from the United States and China produced reads that were aligned to the silver carp transcriptome yielded 261 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fixed allelic differences between the two species. We selected the highest quality 112 SNP loci for validation using 194 putative pure-species and F1 hybrids from the MRB and putative bighead carp and silver carp pure species from China (Amur, Pearl and Yangtze rivers). Fifty SNPs were omitted due to design/amplification failure or lack of diagnostic utility. A total of 57 species-diagnostic SNPs conserved between carp species in US and Chinese rivers were identified; 32 were annotated to functional gene loci. Twenty-seven of the 181 (15%) putative pure species were identified as hybrid backcrosses after validation, including three backcrosses from the Amur River, where hybridization has not been documented previously. The 57 SNPs identified through RAD sequencing provide a diagnostic tool to detect population admixture and to identify hybrid and pure-species Asian carps in the United States and China.

  6. A national Vascular Quality Initiative database comparison of hybrid and open repair for aortoiliac-femoral occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavatta, Marco; Mell, Matthew W

    2017-08-16

    We sought to analyze the outcomes of revascularization for aortoiliac-femoral occlusive disease by comparing hybrid repair by endovascular revascularization and open common femoral endarterectomy (ER-CFE) with open aortoiliac reconstruction and CFE (OR-CFE). Using the national Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative database from 2009 to 2015, we identified all patients receiving open or endovascular revascularization of the aortoiliac system and who additionally underwent CFE. Patients with concomitant infrainguinal procedures were excluded, as were procedures performed at centers with CFE group and 1472 in the ER-CFE group with follow-up of at least 9 months. Patients with ER-CFE were older (68 ± 9 years vs 63 ± 9 years; P CFE were more likely to have received a previous inflow procedure (27% vs 21%; P CFE (5.2 ± 1.6 vs 2.9 ± 1.0; P CFE was associated with lower 30-day mortality (1.8% vs 3.4%; P = .01), shorter length of stay (median 3 vs 7 days; P CFE had greater ABI improvement at long-term follow-up (0.39 ± 0.37 vs 0.26 ± 0.23; P CFE appeared to have improved short-term outcomes and equivalent freedom from major amputation compared with open surgical repair with CFE. Conversely, open repair with CFE was associated with better long-term improvement in ABI and ambulatory status. Open repair should therefore be considered for patients with aortoiliac-femoral occlusive disease and reasonable surgical risk. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim Sang-Young; Shim Chun Sik; Sturtevant Caleb; Kim Dave (Dae-Wook); Song Ha Cheol

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed...

  8. Extraction of high quality of RNA and construction of a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Tao, Nengguo; Hu, Zhiyong; Yue, Hailin; Deng, Xiuxin

    2006-04-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds, but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w/v), CTAB (2%, w/v) and beta-mercaptoethanol (4%, v/v) were used in the extraction buffer to improve RNA quality. The average yield was about 200 microg RNA g(-1) fresh leaves. The isolated RNA was of sufficient quality for construction of suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) library, which allowed the isolation of several pathogen-induced defense genes.

  9. Optimization of ion exchange sigmoidal gradients using hybrid models: Implementation of quality by design in analytical method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Varsha S; Kumar, Vijesh; Rathore, Anurag S

    2017-03-31

    Thorough product understanding is one of the basic tenets for successful implementation of Quality by Design (QbD). Complexity encountered in analytical characterization of biotech therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) requires novel, simpler, and generic approaches towards product characterization. This paper presents a methodology for implementation of QbD for analytical method development. Optimization of an analytical cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (CEX-HPLC) method utilizing a sigmoidal gradient has been performed using a hybrid mechanistic model that is based on Design of experiment (DOE) based studies. Since sigmodal gradients are much more complex than the traditional linear gradients and have a large number of input parameters (five) for optimization, the number of DOE experiments required for a full factorial design to estimate all the main effects as well as the interactions would be too large (243). To address this problem, a mechanistic model was used to simulate the analytical separation for the DOE and then the results were used to build an empirical model. The mechanistic model used in this work is a more versatile general rate model in combination of modified Langmuir binding kinetics. The modified Langmuir model is capable of modelling the impact of nonlinear changes in the concentration of the salt modifier. Further, to get the input and output profiles of mAb and salts/buffers, the HPLC system, consisting of the mixer, detectors, and tubing was modelled as a sequence of dispersed plug flow reactors and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The experimental work was limited to calibration of the HPLC system and finding the model parameters through three linear gradients. To simplify the optimization process, only three peaks in the centre of the profile (main product and the adjacent acidic and basic variants) were chosen to determine the final operating condition. The regression model made from the DoE data

  10. Hybrid modeling for quality by design and PAT-benefits and challenges of applications in biopharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stosch, Moritz; Davy, Steven; Francois, Kjell; Galvanauskas, Vytautas; Hamelink, Jan-Martijn; Luebbert, Andreas; Mayer, Martin; Oliveira, Rui; O'Kennedy, Ronan; Rice, Paul; Glassey, Jarka

    2014-06-01

    This report highlights the drivers, challenges, and enablers of the hybrid modeling applications in biopharmaceutical industry. It is a summary of an expert panel discussion of European academics and industrialists with relevant scientific and engineering backgrounds. Hybrid modeling is viewed in its broader sense, namely as the integration of different knowledge sources in form of parametric and nonparametric models into a hybrid semi-parametric model, for instance the integration of fundamental and data-driven models. A brief description of the current state-of-the-art and industrial uptake of the methodology is provided. The report concludes with a number of recommendations to facilitate further developments and a wider industrial application of this modeling approach. These recommendations are limited to further exploiting the benefits of this methodology within process analytical technology (PAT) applications in biopharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Young Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties.

  12. Solving a Closed-Loop Location-Inventory-Routing Problem with Mixed Quality Defects Returns in E-Commerce by Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a closed-loop location-inventory-routing problem model considering both quality defect returns and nondefect returns in e-commerce supply chain system. The objective is to minimize the total cost produced in both forward and reverse logistics networks. We propose a combined optimization algorithm named hybrid ant colony optimization algorithm (HACO to address this model that is an NP-hard problem. Our experimental results show that the proposed HACO is considerably efficient and effective in solving this model.

  13. Modeling oscillatory dynamics in brain microcircuits as a way to help uncover neurological disease mechanisms: A proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, F. K. [Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Krembil Discovery Tower, Toronto Western Hospital, 60 Leonard Street, 7th floor, 7KD411, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8 (Canada); Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Toronto, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Department of Physiology, University of Toronto Medical Sciences Building, 3rd Floor, 1 King' s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8 (Canada); Ferguson, K. A. [Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Krembil Discovery Tower, Toronto Western Hospital, 60 Leonard Street, 7th floor, 7KD411, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8 (Canada); Department of Physiology, University of Toronto Medical Sciences Building, 3rd Floor, 1 King' s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    There is an undisputed need and requirement for theoretical and computational studies in Neuroscience today. Furthermore, it is clear that oscillatory dynamical output from brain networks is representative of various behavioural states, and it is becoming clear that one could consider these outputs as measures of normal and pathological brain states. Although mathematical modeling of oscillatory dynamics in the context of neurological disease exists, it is a highly challenging endeavour because of the many levels of organization in the nervous system. This challenge is coupled with the increasing knowledge of cellular specificity and network dysfunction that is associated with disease. Recently, whole hippocampus in vitro preparations from control animals have been shown to spontaneously express oscillatory activities. In addition, when using preparations derived from animal models of disease, these activities show particular alterations. These preparations present an opportunity to address challenges involved with using models to gain insight because of easier access to simultaneous cellular and network measurements, and pharmacological modulations. We propose that by developing and using models with direct links to experiment at multiple levels, which at least include cellular and microcircuit, a cycling can be set up and used to help us determine critical mechanisms underlying neurological disease. We illustrate our proposal using our previously developed inhibitory network models in the context of these whole hippocampus preparations and show the importance of having direct links at multiple levels.

  14. Silage production and quality of pearl millet, sorghum, and corn hybrids grown from seed exposed to low doses of gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, G.W.; Monson, W.G.; Hanna, W.W.; Constantin, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Just before planting, seeds of pearl millet, Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum., (formerly P. typhoides) hybrid, ''Tift 23 x L/sub 1/,'' and corn, Zea mays L., hybrids ''Coker 71,'' ''DeKalb 1214,'' and ''Pioneer 3030'' were exposed to ..gamma.. ray dosages of 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, and 19.2 kR. ''FS26'' hybrid sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., seeds were exposed to ..gamma.. ray dosages of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 kR. In one 2-yr. experiment, pearl millet, sorghum, and Coker 71 corn gave respective dry matter yields of 12, 166, 6,993, and 6,306 kg/ha and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) percentages of 45.7, 52.8, and 59.9. The heaviest exposures of ..gamma.. rays generally reduced yields of all species, and lighter exposures failed to increase yield significantly. Seed irradiation did not affect the quality (IVDMD) of the forage. In a 2-yr. corn hybrid experiment, DeKalb 1214 yielded 24 percent more dry matter and tolerated the heavy exposures of ..gamma.. rays better than Pioneer 3030 and Coker 71. None of the lower exposures increased yield significantly. (auth)

  15. COSMOS--improving the quality of life in nursing home patients: protocol for an effectiveness-implementation cluster randomized clinical hybrid trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebo, Bettina S; Flo, Elisabeth; Aarsland, Dag; Selbaek, Geir; Testad, Ingelin; Gulla, Christine; Aasmul, Irene; Ballard, Clive

    2015-09-15

    Nursing home patients have complex mental and physical health problems, disabilities and social needs, combined with widespread prescription of psychotropic drugs. Preservation of their quality of life is an important goal. This can only be achieved within nursing homes that offer competent clinical conditions of treatment and care. COmmunication, Systematic assessment and treatment of pain, Medication review, Occupational therapy, Safety (COSMOS) is an effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial that combines and implements organization of activities evidence-based interventions to improve staff competence and thereby the patients' quality of life, mental health and safety. The aim of this paper is to describe the development, content and implementation process of the COSMOS trial. COSMOS includes a 2-month pilot study with 128 participants distributed among nine Norwegian nursing homes, and a 4-month multicenter, cluster randomized effectiveness-implementation clinical hybrid trial with follow-up at month 9, including 571 patients from 67 nursing home units (one unit defined as one cluster). Clusters are randomized to COSMOS intervention or current best practice (control group). The intervention group will receive a 2-day education program including written guidelines, repeated theoretical and practical training (credited education of caregivers, physicians and nursing home managers), case discussions and role play. The 1-day midway evaluation, information and interviews of nursing staff and a telephone hotline all support the implementation process. Outcome measures include quality of life in late-stage dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, activities of daily living, pain, depression, sleep, medication, cost-utility analysis, hospital admission and mortality. Despite complex medical and psychosocial challenges, nursing home patients are often treated by staff possessing low level skills, lacking education and in facilities with a high staff turnover

  16. Modeling,Analysis and Simulation ofThree Phase Hybrid Power Filter forPower Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanta Kumar Das

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase hybrid series power filter is constituted by a series active filter and a passive filter connected in parallel with the load. The control strategy is based on the “dual formulation of the electric power vectorial theory”. The proposed algorithm eliminates the current harmonics of supply. It also improves the power factor and harmonic compensation features of the associated passive filter even if there is a change in system parameters.A shunt hybrid power filter is constituted by a shunt active filter and a passive filter connected in parallel with the load, is proposed with same control strategy. Simulations have been carried out on the MATLAB-SIMULINK platform with different loads and with variation in the source impedance.

  17. Action potential modulation in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons facilitates OLM interneuron activation in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits of rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyun Kim

    Full Text Available Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM interneurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus play a key role in feedback inhibition and in the control of network activity. However, how these cells are efficiently activated in the network remains unclear. To address this question, I performed recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons, the presynaptic fibers that provide feedback innervation of these interneurons. Two forms of axonal action potential (AP modulation were identified. First, repetitive stimulation resulted in activity-dependent AP broadening. Broadening showed fast onset, with marked changes in AP shape following a single AP. Second, tonic depolarization in CA1 pyramidal neuron somata induced AP broadening in the axon, and depolarization-induced broadening summated with activity-dependent broadening. Outside-out patch recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons revealed a high density of α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX-sensitive, inactivating K+ channels, suggesting that K+ channel inactivation mechanistically contributes to AP broadening. To examine the functional consequences of axonal AP modulation for synaptic transmission, I performed paired recordings between synaptically connected CA1 pyramidal neurons and O-LM interneurons. CA1 pyramidal neuron-O-LM interneuron excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs showed facilitation during both repetitive stimulation and tonic depolarization of the presynaptic neuron. Both effects were mimicked and occluded by α-DTX, suggesting that they were mediated by K+ channel inactivation. Therefore, axonal AP modulation can greatly facilitate the activation of O-LM interneurons. In conclusion, modulation of AP shape in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons substantially enhances the efficacy of principal neuron-interneuron synapses, promoting the activation of O-LM interneurons in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits.

  18. Action potential modulation in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons facilitates OLM interneuron activation in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits of rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyun

    2014-01-01

    Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus play a key role in feedback inhibition and in the control of network activity. However, how these cells are efficiently activated in the network remains unclear. To address this question, I performed recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons, the presynaptic fibers that provide feedback innervation of these interneurons. Two forms of axonal action potential (AP) modulation were identified. First, repetitive stimulation resulted in activity-dependent AP broadening. Broadening showed fast onset, with marked changes in AP shape following a single AP. Second, tonic depolarization in CA1 pyramidal neuron somata induced AP broadening in the axon, and depolarization-induced broadening summated with activity-dependent broadening. Outside-out patch recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons revealed a high density of α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX)-sensitive, inactivating K+ channels, suggesting that K+ channel inactivation mechanistically contributes to AP broadening. To examine the functional consequences of axonal AP modulation for synaptic transmission, I performed paired recordings between synaptically connected CA1 pyramidal neurons and O-LM interneurons. CA1 pyramidal neuron-O-LM interneuron excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) showed facilitation during both repetitive stimulation and tonic depolarization of the presynaptic neuron. Both effects were mimicked and occluded by α-DTX, suggesting that they were mediated by K+ channel inactivation. Therefore, axonal AP modulation can greatly facilitate the activation of O-LM interneurons. In conclusion, modulation of AP shape in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons substantially enhances the efficacy of principal neuron-interneuron synapses, promoting the activation of O-LM interneurons in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits.

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor controls functional differentiation and microcircuit formation of selectively isolated fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Paul; Dobszay, Marton B; Sousa, Kyle M; Schulte, Gunnar; Mager, Peter P; Härtig, Wolfgang; Görcs, Tamás J; Zilberter, Yuri; Ernfors, Patrik; Harkany, Tibor

    2004-09-01

    GABAergic interneurons with high-frequency firing, fast-spiking (FS) cells, form synapses on perisomatic regions of principal cells in the neocortex and hippocampus to control the excitability of cortical networks. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for the differentiation of multiple interneuron subtypes and the formation of their synaptic contacts. Here, we examined whether BDNF, alone or in conjunction with sustained KCl-induced depolarization, drives functional FS cell differentiation and the formation of inhibitory microcircuits. Homogeneous FS cell cultures were established by target-specific isolation using the voltage-gated potassium channel 3.1b subunit as the selection marker. Isolated FS cells expressed parvalbumin, were surrounded by perineuronal nets, formed immature inhibitory connections and generated slow action potentials at 12 days in vitro. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoted FS cell differentiation by increasing the somatic diameter, dendritic branching and the frequency of action potential firing. In addition, BDNF treatment led to a significant up-regulation of synaptophysin and vesicular GABA transporter expression, components of the synaptic machinery critical for GABA release, which was paralleled by an increase in synaptic strength. Long-term membrane depolarization alone was detrimental to dendritic branching. However, we observed that BDNF and KCl exerted additive effects, as reflected by the significantly accelerated maturation of synaptic contacts and high discharge frequencies, and was required for the formation of reciprocal connections between FS cells. Our results show that BDNF, along with membrane depolarization, is critical for FS cells to establish inhibitory circuitries during corticogenesis.

  20. Modulation of neuronal microcircuit activities within the medial prefrontal cortex by mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Marie; Bartolome, Jose Manuel; Conn, P Jeffrey; Steckler, Thomas; Shaban, Hamdy

    2014-10-01

    Suppressing anxiety and fear memory relies on bidirectional projections between the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. Positive allosteric modulators of mGluR5 improve cognition in animal models of schizophrenia and retrieval of newly formed associations such as extinction of fear-conditioned behaviour. The increase in neuronal network activities of the medial prefrontal cortex is influenced by both mGluR1 and mGluR5; however, it is not well understood how they modulate network activities and downstream information processing. To map mGluR5-mediated network activity in relation to its emergence as a viable cognitive enhancer, we tested group I mGluR compounds on medial prefrontal cortex network activity via multi-electrode array neuronal spiking and whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Results indicate that mGluR5 activation promotes feed-forward inhibition that depends on recruitment of neuronal activity by carbachol-evoked up states. The rate of neuronal spiking activity under the influence of carbachol was reduced by the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator, N-(1,3-Diphenyl-1H-pyrazolo-5-yl)-4-nitrobenzamide (VU-29), and enhanced by the mGluR5 negative allosteric modulator, 3-((2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MTEP). Spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents were increased upon application of carbachol and in combination with VU-29. These results emphasize a bias towards tonic mGluR5-mediated inhibition that might serve as a signal-to-noise enhancer of sensory inputs projected from associated limbic areas onto the medial prefrontal cortex neuronal microcircuit.

  1. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier), at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days), in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM) yield and crude protein (CP) concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR). CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number p...

  2. A predictive factor of the quality of microarray comparative genomic hybridization analysis for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Kenjiro; Oikawa, Masahiro; Arai, Junichi; Mussazhanova, Zhanna; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Nakashima, Masahiro; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Hatachi, Toshiko; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2013-09-01

    Utilizing formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissue, the most common form of tissue preservation in routine practice, for cytogenetic analysis using microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) remains challenging. We searched for a predictive factor of the performance of FFPE DNA in aCGH analysis. DNA was extracted from 63 FFPE archival tissue samples of various tissue types (31 breast cancers, 24 lung cancers, and 8 thyroid tumors), followed by aCGH analysis using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Tumor DNA from matched frozen samples and from FFPE samples after whole-genome amplification were also analyzed in 2 and 4 case, respectively. The derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread) was used to assess the overall quality of each aCGH result. The DLRSpread correlated significantly with the double-stranded DNA ratio of tumor DNA, storage time, and the degree of labeling with Cy5 (Parchival tissue samples can be utilized for aCGH analysis.

  3. High quality-factor Si/SiO(2)-InP hybrid micropillar cavities with submicrometer diameter for 1.55-μm telecommunication band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-Zhi; Takemoto, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Motomu; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Ekawa, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-06-15

    We theoretically demonstrate high quality(Q)-factor micropillar cavities at 1.55-μm wavelength based on Si/SiO(2)-InP hybrid structure. An adiabatic design in distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) improves Q-factor for upto 3 orders of magnitude, while reducing the diameter to sub-micrometer. A moderate Q-factor of ~3000 and a Purcell factor of ~200 are realized by only 2 taper segments and fewer conventional DBR pairs, enabling single photon generation at GHz rate. As the taper segment number is increased, Q-factor can be boosted to ~10(5)-10(6), enabling coherent exchange between the emitter and the optical mode at 1.55 μm, which is applicable in quantum information networks.

  4. Effect of pulse irrigation scheduling with hybrid station controller on fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulate blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid station controller based automatic pulse irrigation scheduling field experiment was conducted on 10-12 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco at National Research Center for Citrus, Nagpur during 2008-2011. The objective was to study the automatic daily irrigation scheduling as well as alternate day based on time schedule and potential evapo-transpiration through the drip irrigation. The treatments were consisted of Automatic daily irrigation daily with 60 minute interval three times (I1; Automatic irrigation daily with 90 minute interval two times (I2; Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times (I3; and Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 180 minute two times (I4 with six replications in Randomized Block Design. The automatic hybrid station controller E-6 (Rain Bird, USA was used for micro-irrigation schedule setting the time for each treatment based on the water need of the plant and average open pan evaporation. The various scheduling treatment timings were programmed in A, B and C programs of the hybrid station controller. The sustainable production of Nagpur mandarin is possible with drip irrigation using automatic scheduling daily or on alternate days.  The water use in October varied from 65.0-72.4 liters/day/plant and during May-June it was 133.0 - 147.7 liters/day/plant. Drip irrigation was scheduled to maintain automatically the soil moisture status above 25% (wet basis during fruit growing period. The leaf nutrient status was high with automatic alternate day drip irrigation schedule. The canopy temperature was positively influenced with automatic drip irrigation schedules.  The Nagpur mandarin fruit yield was highest (30.91 tones/ha with irrigation on alternate day 120 minutes three times, followed by irrigation scheduled with 90 minutes interval two times daily (30.11 tones/ha. Fruit weight (154.7 g, TSS (10.22 0Brix and juice percent (40.77% was found with automatic

  5. Working Smarter Not Harder: Using a Pedagogical-Based Model in the Rapid Development of Quality Hybrid Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jodi E.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive case study explored how repurposing and a pedagogical-based instructional design model, the multimodal model (Picciano, 2009), were used to create quality courses in a rapid development setting at a Midwestern land grant university. Data triangulation was used to secure data from faculty member interviews, course syllabi, and…

  6. Engineering of budesonide-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles using a quality-by-design approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leng, Donglei; Thanki, Kaushik; Fattal, Elias

    2017-01-01

    with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for COPD management. Lipid-modified PLGA nanoparticles (LPNs) based on biodegradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and the cationic lipid dioleyltrimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) were prepared using a double emulsion solvent evaporation method. A quality...

  7. Simulation and performance evaluation of shunt hybrid power filter using fuzzy logic based non-linear control for power quality improvement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R BALASUBRAMANIAN; R SANKARAN; S PALANI

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with design and simulation of a three-phase shunt hybrid power filter consisting of a pair of 5th and 7th selective harmonic elimination passive power filters connected in series with a conventional active power filter with reduced kVA rating. The objective is to enhance the power quality in a distributionnetwork feeding variety of non-linear, time-varying and unbalanced loads. The theory and modelling of the entire power circuit in terms of synchronously rotating reference frame and leading to a non-linear control scheme is presented. This work involves introduction of individual fuzzy logic controllers for d and q axiscurrent control and for voltage regulation of the DC link capacitor. The simulation schematic covering the power and control circuits have been developed taking into account severe harmonic distortion caused by non-linear and unbalanced loads. The effectiveness of the fuzzy logic controller for the compensation of harmonics and reactive power has been verified by successive simulation runs and analysis of the results. The proposed controller is also able to compensate the distortion generated by the voltage- and current-fed non-linear loads, unbalanced and dynamically varying loads. Further, excellent regulation of the DC link voltage is accomplished, which significantly contributes to improvement of power quality.

  8. High quality MgB{sub 2} thick films and large-area films fabricated by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition with a pocket heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S F; Chen, Ke; Li, Qi; Xi, X X [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lee, C-H; Soukiassian, A; DeFrain, R; Redwing, J M; Schlom, D G [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lamborn, D R [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: suw16@psu.edu

    2008-08-15

    A hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition process using a pocket heater was developed for the growth of high quality epitaxial large-area MgB{sub 2} thin films and c-axis textured MgB{sub 2} thick films. This technique is able to independently control the substrate and Mg source temperatures and maintain sufficient Mg overpressure to ensure phase stability. The two-inch large-area MgB{sub 2} thin films showed uniform superconducting properties with the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} of about 40 K, residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of about 10, and critical current density J{sub c} of about 10{sup 7} A cm{sup -2} (0 T, 5 K). The thick films ({approx}10 {mu}m) on sapphire substrates showed a maximum T{sub c} of 40 K and RRR of 15, and a J{sub c} of 1.6 x 10{sup 6} A cm{sup -2} at low applied magnetic fields even at 20 K. High quality thick films also have been obtained on metal substrates.

  9. Combined Effect of Nutrient and Pest Management on Soil Ecological Quality in Hybrid Rice Double-Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO MIN; XIE XIAOMEI; A. SUBHANI

    2003-01-01

    The mineral fertilizers (NPK) and pesticide, including herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, were applied alone or in combination and the soil sampling was done at different growth stages during the crop cycle to study the changes in soil organic matter, microbial biomass and their activity parameters in a paddy soil with different nutrient and pest management practices in a hybrid rice double-cropping system. A consistent increase in the electron transport system (ETS) activity was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or with pesticides increased ETS activity, while a decline of ETS activity was noticed with pesticides alone as compared with the control. Nearly an increasing trend in soil phenol content was observed with the progression of crop growth stages, while the usage of pesticides alone caused maximum increments in the soil phenol content. The soil protein content was found nearly stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops taken. But notable changes were noticed at different growth stages probably because of fluctuations in moisture and temperature at particular stages, which might have their effects on N mineralization. Marked depletions in the phospholipid content were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also produced slight changes, in which a higher decline was noticed with pesticide application alone compared with the control.

  10. Ranking factors involved in product design using a hybrid model of Quality Function Deployment, Data Envelopment Analysis and TOPSIS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Feiz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD is one such extremely important quality management tool, which is useful in product design and development. Traditionally, QFD rates the design requirements (DRs with respect to customer requirements, and aggregates the rating to get relative importance score of DRs. An increasing number of studies emphasize on the need to incorporate additional factors, such as cost and environmental impact, while calculating the relative importance of DRs. However, there are different methodologies for driving the relative importance of DRs, when several additional factors are considered. TOPSIS (technique for order preferences by similarity to ideal solution is suggested for the purpose of the research. This research proposes new approach of TOPSIS for considering the rating of DRs with respect to CRs, and several additional factors, simultaneously. Proposed method is illustrated using by step-by-step procedure. The proposed methodology was applied for the Sanam Electronic Company in Iran.

  11. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  12. Drying Characteristics and Product Quality of Lemon Slices Dried with Hot Air Circulation Oven and Hybrid Heatpump Dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hong Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, drying characteristics and product quality of Coulomb-force-assisted heatpump and oven dried lemon slices were studied. Lemon slices with 3 mm thickness each, were dried using oven and Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump dryer with and without auxiliary heater at different drying conditions. It was found that the drying rate of the lemon slices dried by all drying methods showed only falling rate states, which indicates the drying kinetics were controlled by internal moisture diffusion. Oven drying of lemon slices at 60°C showed the highest drying rate among all, followed by oven dried slices at 50°C, Coulomb-force-heater-assisted-heatpump (CF-HT-HP dried slices at 31°C, Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump (CF-HP dried slices at 22°C, oven dried slices at 40°C and heatpump dried slices at 22°C. The average effective moisture diffusivity value for the slices dried with these drying methods was found in the range of 16.2 to 63.8´10-4 mm2min-1. In terms of quality assessment, CF-HP dried lemon slices retained the highest amount of Vitamin C as compared to the lemon slices dried by other drying methods. However, it retained relatively lower amount of total phenolic content (TPC as compared to oven dried products. Among of all, CF-HP drying method produced dried lemon slices with the highest Vitamin C (6.74 mg AA / g dry weight whereas oven dried lemon slices at 50°C preserved most of the TPC in the dried slices, which recorded as 13.76 mg GA / g dry weight.

  13. Microcircuit Cost Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    13333 ,0 .......... 10 0 .0 .781112 . . 5247 0 110.0 0 41130 0 .. 75000 . .0.0 0 0 0 10016 ...... 22246 1 0 0 1 0 .0 .59 .11 .. 30 0... 0508.0 0 0 .0 0 7...1A ...... 9933 0 1 1 0 .0 0 61 .1 65. 0 10833 0 o00 05 3ss4.850110.30 0 61 3 ... 5000 0 .0 .0 0 0 0 9614. 4 ’ . .0551 0 0 0𔄀 11 ඘ . . 0 13333 *0...9I B-6 ~~ ~~~ -------- >1 - _ _ -, - u + - I I U . .. .. -. .. . I ISO I 17 * . ........ - -... K .LI. 2.0 * • I h I +I I YGA - IMA

  14. Detailed optical spectroscopy of hybridization gap and hidden-order transition in high-quality URu2Si2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, N.; Stricker, D.; Muleady, S.; Wang, K.; Mydosh, J. A.; Huang, Y. K.; van der Marel, D.

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed temperature and frequency dependence of the optical conductivity measured on clean high-quality single crystals of URu2Si2 of a c - and a b -plane surfaces. Our data demonstrate the itinerant character of the narrow 5 f bands, becoming progressively coherent as the temperature is lowered below a crossover temperature T*˜75 K. T* is higher than in previous reports as a result of a different sample preparation, which minimizes residual strain. We furthermore present the density-response (energy-loss) function of this compound, and determine the energies of the heavy-fermion plasmons with a - and c -axis polarization. Our observation of a suppression of optical conductivity below 50 meV along both the a and c axes, along with a heavy-fermion plasmon at 18 meV, points toward the emergence of a band of coherent charge carriers crossing the Fermi energy and the emergence of a hybridization gap on part of the Fermi surface. The evolution towards coherent itinerant states is accelerated below the hidden order temperature THO=17.5 K. In the hidden order phase the low-frequency optical conductivity shows a single gap at ˜6.5 meV, which closes at THO.

  15. Comparison of pure and hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques with conventional filtered back projection: Image quality assessment in the cervicothoracic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Masaki, E-mail: mkatsura-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Sato, Jiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Matsuda, Izuru; Ishida, Masanori; Yasaka, Koichiro; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact on image quality of three different image reconstruction techniques in the cervicothoracic region: model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and filtered back projection (FBP). Methods: Forty-four patients underwent unenhanced standard-of-care clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations which included the cervicothoracic region with a 64-row multidetector CT scanner. Images were reconstructed with FBP, 50% ASIR-FBP blending (ASIR50), and MBIR. Two radiologists assessed the cervicothoracic region in a blinded manner for streak artifacts, pixilated blotchy appearances, critical reproduction of visually sharp anatomical structures (thyroid gland, common carotid artery, and esophagus), and overall diagnostic acceptability. Objective image noise was measured in the internal jugular vein. Data were analyzed using the sign test and pair-wise Student's t-test. Results: MBIR images had significant lower quantitative image noise (8.88 ± 1.32) compared to ASIR images (18.63 ± 4.19, P < 0.01) and FBP images (26.52 ± 5.8, P < 0.01). Significant improvements in streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region were observed with the use of MBIR (P < 0.001 each for MBIR vs. the other two image data sets for both readers), while no significant difference was observed between ASIR and FBP (P > 0.9 for ASIR vs. FBP for both readers). MBIR images were all diagnostically acceptable. Unique features of MBIR images included pixilated blotchy appearances, which did not adversely affect diagnostic acceptability. Conclusions: MBIR significantly improves image noise and streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region over ASIR and FBP. MBIR is expected to enhance the value of CT examinations for areas where image noise and streak artifacts are problematic.

  16. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  17. Highly Efficient High-Pressure Homogenization Approach for Scalable Production of High-Quality Graphene Sheets and Sandwich-Structured α-Fe2O3/Graphene Hybrids for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Zhang, Hao-Bin; Xu, Jiantie; Wu, Xinyu; Yang, Dongzhi; Qu, Jin; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2017-03-29

    A highly efficient and continuous high-pressure homogenization (HPH) approach is developed for scalable production of graphene sheets and sandwich-structured α-Fe2O3/graphene hybrids by liquid-phase exfoliation of stage-1 FeCl3-based graphite intercalation compounds (GICs). The enlarged interlayer spacing of FeCl3-GICs facilitates their efficient exfoliation to produce high-quality graphene sheets. Moreover, sandwich-structured α-Fe2O3/few-layer graphene (FLG) hybrids are readily fabricated by thermally annealing the FeCl3 intercalated FLG sheets. As an anode material of Li-ion battery, α-Fe2O3/FLG hybrid shows a satisfactory long-term cycling performance with an excellent specific capacity of 1100.5 mA h g(-1) after 350 cycles at 200 mA g(-1). A high reversible capacity of 658.5 mA h g(-1) is achieved after 200 cycles at 1 A g(-1) and maintained without notable decay. The satisfactory cycling stability and the outstanding capability of α-Fe2O3/FLG hybrid are attributed to its unique sandwiched structure consisting of highly conducting FLG sheets and covalently anchored α-Fe2O3 particles. Therefore, the highly efficient and scalable preparation of high-quality graphene sheets along with the excellent electrochemical properties of α-Fe2O3/FLG hybrids makes the HPH approach promising for producing high-performance graphene-based energy storage materials.

  18. The impact of hybrid energy storage on power quality, when high power pulsed DC loads are operated on a microgrid testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jay Paul

    As the Navy's demands for high power transient loads evolves, so too does the need for alternative energy sources to back-up the more traditional power generation. Such applications in need of support include electrical grid backup and directed energy weapon systems such as electromagnetic launchers, laser systems, and high power microwave generators, among others. Among the alternative generation sources receiving considerable attention are energy storage devices such as rechargeable electrochemical batteries and capacitors. In such applications as those mentioned above, these energy storage devices offer the ability to serve a dual role as both a power source to the various loads as well high power loads themselves to the continual generation when the high power transient loads are in periods of downtime. With the recent developments in electrochemical energy storage, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) seem like the obvious choice, but previous research has shown that the elevated rates of charging can be detrimental to both the cycle life and the operational life span of the device. In order to preserve the batteries, their charge rate must be limited. One proposed method to accomplish the dual role task mentioned above, while preserving the life of the batteries, is by combining high energy density LIBs with high power density electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) or lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) using controllable power electronics to adjust the flow of power to and from each device. Such a configuration is typically referred to as hybrid energy storage module (HESM). While shipboard generators start up, the combined high energy density and high power density of the HESM provides the capability to source critical loads for an extended period of time at the high rates they demand. Once the generator is operationally efficient, the HESM can act as a high energy reservoir to harvest the energy from the generator while the loads are in short periods of inactivity

  19. Aspectos produtivos e de qualidade de híbridos de melão cultivados no agropolo Mossoró-Assu Yield and quality aspects of melon hybrids grown in agropolo Mossoró-Assu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Henrique de S. Nunes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo e qualitativo de híbridos de melão no agropolo Mossoró-Assu. Em ambos os experimentos foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. O primeiro experimento foi constituído de seis híbridos de melão Gália e dois do tipo Cantaloupe, e o segundo foi composto de sete híbridos de melão Amarelo, um Pele de sapo e três Orange Flesh. Avaliaram-se a produtividade, peso médio do fruto, cavidade interna, espessura da polpa, aparências externa e interna, perda de peso, teor de sólidos solúveis e firmeza da polpa. Considerando as variáveis utilizadas na avaliação, constatou-se variação entre os híbridos nos dois experimentos. Entre os melões Gália, destacaram-se os híbridos DRG 1531 e DRG 1537. Os melões Red Flesh e AFX 700 foram os mais promissores entre os melões do tipo Orange Flesh. Por fim, entre os melões do tipo Valenciano, destacaram-se os híbridos Gold Mine, Gold Pride e Gold Star.Two experiments were carried out with the objective of evaluating the quality and yield performance of hybrids of melon in agropolo Mossoró-Assu, Brazil. In both experiments a randomized complete blocks design with four replications was used. In the first experiment six Galia and two Cantaloupe hybrids were used and in the second experiment seven Yellow hybrids, one Piel del Sapo and three Orange Flesh hybrids were evaluated. Evaluations of productivity, average fruit weight, internal cavity, pulp thickness, external and internal appearance, weight loss, total soluble solids and pulp firmness were made. Variation among the hybrids in both experiments for the assessed characteristics were observed. Among Gália melons, the hybrids DRG 1531 and DRG 1537 were the most promising while among Orange Flesh melons, the Red Flesh and AFX 700 hybrids were the best. Among Yellow melons, the hybrids Gold Mine, Gold Pride and Gold Star were the

  20. Environmentally compatible solder materials for thick film hybrid assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.; Hernandez, C.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials and Process Sciences Center

    1997-02-01

    New soldering materials and processes have been developed over the last several years to address a variety of environmental issues. One of the primary efforts by the electronics industry has involved the development of alternative solders to replace the traditional lead-containing alloys. Sandia National Laboratories is developing such alternative solder materials for printed circuit board and hybrid microcircuit (HMC) applications. This paper describes the work associated with low residue, lead-free soldering of thick film HMC`s. The response of the different materials to wetting, aging, and mechanical test conditions was investigated. Hybrid test vehicles were designed and fabricated with a variety of chip capacitors and leadless ceramic chip carriers to conduct thermal, electrical continuity, and mechanical evaluations of prototype joints. Microstructural development along the solder and thick film interface, after isothermal solid state aging over a range of elevated temperatures and times, was quantified using microanalytical techniques. Flux residues on soldered samples were stressed (temperature-humidity aged) to identify potential corrosion problems. Mechanical tests also supported the development of a solder joint lifetime prediction model. Progress of this effort is summarized.

  1. A technique for estimating the probability of radiation-stimulated failures of integrated microcircuits in low-intensity radiation fields: Application to the Spektr-R spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. D.; Khamidullina, N. M.

    2006-10-01

    In developing radio-electronic devices (RED) of spacecraft operating in the fields of ionizing radiation in space, one of the most important problems is the correct estimation of their radiation tolerance. The “weakest link” in the element base of onboard microelectronic devices under radiation effect is the integrated microcircuits (IMC), especially of large scale (LSI) and very large scale (VLSI) degree of integration. The main characteristic of IMC, which is taken into account when making decisions on using some particular type of IMC in the onboard RED, is the probability of non-failure operation (NFO) at the end of the spacecraft’s lifetime. It should be noted that, until now, the NFO has been calculated only from the reliability characteristics, disregarding the radiation effect. This paper presents the so-called “reliability” approach to determination of radiation tolerance of IMC, which allows one to estimate the probability of non-failure operation of various types of IMC with due account of radiation-stimulated dose failures. The described technique is applied to RED onboard the Spektr-R spacecraft to be launched in 2007.

  2. Effect of Mentha pulegium extract and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate to extend the quality and vase life of rose (Rosa hybrid) cut flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood; Torkashvand, Ali Mohammadi; Kaviani, Behzad; Bagherzadeh, Maryam; Rezaalipour, Mohaddeseh; Zarchini, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Rose is an ornamental plant which contains one of the world's top cut flowers. Vase life of cut rose flower is short. Extracts of Mentha pulegium and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate (8-HQS) were used as two preservative solutions, aiming to extend the vase life of cut rose (Rosa hybrid L.) flowers. Rose flowers were treated with a vase solution containing the extract of M. pulegium, at concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30%, in combination with 8-HQS at concentrations of 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg l(-1). Longevity of cut roses flowers was determined on the basis of wilting and chlorophyll retention. Cut roses flowers were kept at room temperature (20 ± 2 degrees C) under normal day light and natural ventilation. The vase life of cut flowers studied was prolonged by all 8-HQS and extract treatments. The best concentration of 8-HQS and extractwere 400 mg l(-1) and 10%, respectively. Our results indicated that the flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had longer vase life, higher rate of solution uptake and lower SPAD value (total chlorophyll) compared to the control. Also, cut flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had least bacterial colonies. The greatest longevity of vase life by 11.20 and 10.25 days was related to 400 mg I(-1) 8-HQS and 10% of extract, respectively. These treatments improved cut vase life more than the control treatment. The maximum solution uptake (1.85 ml g(-1) f.wt.) and minimum SPAD value (2.19) were calculated in 30% extract along with 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, and 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, respectively. The lowest number of bacterial colonies (55.75) was obtained in treatment of 600 mg l(-1) 8-HQS. Flower quality of specimens treated with extract and 8-HQS was better than those of the control. The experiments were repeated three times with three replicates and a completely randomized design had been used. The present study concludes that it would be possible to use preservative solutions containing extract of M. pulegium L. and 8-HQS to extend vase

  3. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight—had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated ($r = -0.69$) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was $y = 0.074x_{8} + 1.819x_{9} + 6.72x_{12} - 60.78 (R^{2} = 0.993)$, where $x_{8}$, $x_{9}$ and $x_{12}$ represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and

  4. High-quality reduced graphene oxide-nanocrystalline platinum hybrid materials prepared by simultaneous co-reduction of graphene oxide and chloroplatinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinjie; Liu, Jincheng; Liu, Lei; Sun, Darren Delai

    2011-03-21

    Reduced graphene oxide-nanocrystalline platinum (RGO-Pt) hybrid materials were synthesized by simultaneous co-reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and chloroplatinic acid with sodium citrate in water at 80°C, of pH 7 and 10. The resultant RGO-Pt hybrid materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles were anchored randomly onto the reduced GO (RGO) sheets with average mean diameters of 1.76 (pH 7) and 1.93 nm (pH 10). The significant Pt diffraction peaks and the decreased intensity of (002) peak in the XRD patterns of RGO-Pt hybrid materials confirmed that the Pt nanoparticles were anchored onto the RGO sheets and intercalated into the stacked RGO layers at these two pH values. The Pt loadings for the hybrid materials were determined as 36.83 (pH 7) and 49.18% (pH 10) by mass using XPS analysis. With the assistance of oleylamine, the resultant RGO-Pt hybrid materials were soluble in the nonpolar organic solvents, and the dispersion could remain stable for several months.

  5. High-quality reduced graphene oxide-nanocrystalline platinum hybrid materials prepared by simultaneous co-reduction of graphene oxide and chloroplatinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yinjie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reduced graphene oxide-nanocrystalline platinum (RGO-Pt hybrid materials were synthesized by simultaneous co-reduction of graphene oxide (GO and chloroplatinic acid with sodium citrate in water at 80°C, of pH 7 and 10. The resultant RGO-Pt hybrid materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Platinum (Pt nanoparticles were anchored randomly onto the reduced GO (RGO sheets with average mean diameters of 1.76 (pH 7 and 1.93 nm (pH 10. The significant Pt diffraction peaks and the decreased intensity of (002 peak in the XRD patterns of RGO-Pt hybrid materials confirmed that the Pt nanoparticles were anchored onto the RGO sheets and intercalated into the stacked RGO layers at these two pH values. The Pt loadings for the hybrid materials were determined as 36.83 (pH 7 and 49.18% (pH 10 by mass using XPS analysis. With the assistance of oleylamine, the resultant RGO-Pt hybrid materials were soluble in the nonpolar organic solvents, and the dispersion could remain stable for several months.

  6. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  7. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  8. Breeding and Application of New Tropical Hybrid Rice Combination SIRAJ with High Yield and Fine Quality%热带优质高产杂交水稻新组合SIRAJ的选育与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继银; 陈俊兴; 李柄华; 唐奕; 刘家龙

    2012-01-01

    SIRAJ, derived from SIRAJ-A(CMS line) and SIRAJ-R(restorer line) , both of which are developed by the RB Biotech Sdn. Bhd. , Malaysia, is a new hybrid rice variety for tropical areas. It is characteristic of fine grain quality, high yield, strong disease resistance and suitable maturity for the tropics. In March, 2010, it was certified and released to commercial production in Malaysia and became the first hybrid rice variety registered local-ly in Malaysia. In the paper, the breeding procedure, main characteristics and techniques for high-yielding cultiva-tion and hybrid seed production of SIRAJ were related in detail.%SIRAJ是马来西亚RB Biotech Sdn.Bhd.用自育的三系不育系SIRAJ -A与恢复系SIRAJ -R配组育成的热带杂交水稻新组合,具有米质优、产量高、抗性较强、熟期适宜、适合热带栽培等特点,2010年3月通过马来西亚国家审定,为马来西亚第1个通过审定的杂交水稻组合.介绍了其选育过程、主要特征特性及栽培、制种技术要点.

  9. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  10. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  11. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  12. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  13. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  14. Advances in the study of hybrid finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some new concepts and research progress in hybrid finite elements advanced in recent years are in troduced. On the basis of incompatible energy consistency analysis, the optimal condition of hybrid elements is derived and the formulation for fulfilling this condition is given. A post-processing penalty equilibrium optimization technique of hybrid element is presented to create high quality hybrid model. For incompressible problems, a method of deviatoric hybrid element is proposed and unification of computation between compressible and incompressible media is achieved.

  15. High-optical-quality blends of anionic polymethine salts and polycarbonate with enhanced third-order non-linearities for silicon-organic hybrid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong'an; Liu, Yang; Kim, Hyeongeu; Hales, Joel M; Jang, Sei-Hum; Luo, Jingdong; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Marder, Seth R; Perry, Joseph W; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2012-11-20

    A series of anionic polymethine dyes with different aromatic counterions are prepared to improve their compatibility as guests in an amorphous polycarbonate host. When they are used as the cladding material for silicon hybrid slot waveguides, four-wave mixing wavelength conversion and two-photon absorption-based optical-power modulation are observed. Such guest-host materials may be attractive candidates for all-optical signal-processing applications.

  16. Effect of Main Cultivation Factors on Quality Combination Parameters of High-quality Brassica napus Hybrids%主要栽培因素对甘蓝型优质杂交油菜品质性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继献; 王仙平; 高志宏

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the influence of five cultivation factors including sowing date,plant density,nitrogen fertilizer amount,phosphate fertilizer amount and potash fertilizer amount on the quality parameters of Brassica napus hybrids.[Method] Statistical analysis on the data from previous studies and our work was carried out [Result] The contents of erucic acid,thioglycoside,oil,oleic acid and linoleic acid were negatively correlated with the sowing date,while the contents of seed protein,palmitic acid,stearic acid and linolenic acid were positively correlated with the sowing date The total amount of fat and protein,the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) to saturated fatty acid (SFA),the fatty acid (FA) of erucic acid chain,the total amount of oleic acid and linoleic acid were negatively correlated with the sowing date; the UFA content,the unsaturation index,the SEA content,the 18-C FA content,and the ratio of UFA to FA in erucic acid chain were positively correlated with the sowing date.The contents of erucic acid,thioglycoside,seed protein,oleic acid,linolenic acid and eicosenoic acid were negatively correlated with the plant density,while the contents of oil,palmitic acid,stearic acid and linoleic acid were positively correlated with the plant density.The total amount of fat and protein (F & P),and the ratio of UFA to FA in erucic acid chain were negatively correlated with the plant density,while the UFA content,the unsaturation index,the SFA content,the ratio of UFA to SFA,the 18-C FA content,the FA in erucic acid chain,and the total amount of oleic acid and linoleic acid were positively correlated with the plant density.The contents of erucic acid,thioglycoside,oil,protein in milled rapeseed,palmitic acid and eicosenoic acid were negatively correlated with the nitrogen fertilizer amount,while the contents of seed protein,oleic acid,stearic acid,linoleic acid and linolenic acid were positively correlated with the nitrogen fertilizer

  17. 氮肥对甘蓝型优质杂交油菜品质性状的影响%Effect of Nitrogen Level on Quality Characters of High Quality Hybrid Brassica napus Variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继献; 任廷波; 程国平

    2011-01-01

    16 quality characters of two quality hybrid rape varieties (Sanbei 98 and Youyan 599) under the condition of different nitrogen application level were analyzed to discuss the relationship between nitrogen application level and quality characters. The results showed that nitrogen application level had very significant effect on oil content and seed protein. And very significant or. Significant effect on total oil + protein content and no obvious effect on the content of erucic acid, glucosinolates, palmitic acid? Stearic acid, eicosenoic acid, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid and index of unsaturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid-saturated fatty acid ratio. There were different significant effects on oleic acid, linoleic acid, linilenic acid and total oleic acid + linoleic acid in two tested varieties. There was very significant negative relation ship between oil content and nitrogen application level. Seed protein was very positively related to nitrogen application level. There was no significant negative relation between nitrogen application level and erueic acid, glucosinolates, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid. There were no significant or significant negative relation between nitrogen application level and oleic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid + linoleic acid. There was no significant or very significant positive relation between nitrogen application level and linolenic acid. There were differences in the relations between nitrogen application level and stearic acid, eicosenoic acid, index of unsaturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratio in two tested varieties. There was very significant negative relation between oil content and seed protein, linolenic acid, very significant positive relation between seed protein and linolenic acid, and significant or very significant positive relation between linolenic acid and palmitic acid.%为探索油菜施用氮肥与其品质性状间的关系,

  18. Listening to Brain Microcircuits for Interfacing With External World-Progress in Wireless Implantable Microelectronic Neuroengineering Devices: Experimental systems are described for electrical recording in the brain using multiple microelectrodes and short range implantable or wearable broadcasting units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmikko, Arto V; Donoghue, John P; Hochberg, Leigh R; Patterson, William R; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Bull, Christopher W; Borton, David A; Laiwalla, Farah; Park, Sunmee; Ming, Yin; Aceros, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Acquiring neural signals at high spatial and temporal resolution directly from brain microcircuits and decoding their activity to interpret commands and/or prior planning activity, such as motion of an arm or a leg, is a prime goal of modern neurotechnology. Its practical aims include assistive devices for subjects whose normal neural information pathways are not functioning due to physical damage or disease. On the fundamental side, researchers are striving to decipher the code of multiple neural microcircuits which collectively make up nature's amazing computing machine, the brain. By implanting biocompatible neural sensor probes directly into the brain, in the form of microelectrode arrays, it is now possible to extract information from interacting populations of neural cells with spatial and temporal resolution at the single cell level. With parallel advances in application of statistical and mathematical techniques tools for deciphering the neural code, extracted populations or correlated neurons, significant understanding has been achieved of those brain commands that control, e.g., the motion of an arm in a primate (monkey or a human subject). These developments are accelerating the work on neural prosthetics where brain derived signals may be employed to bypass, e.g., an injured spinal cord. One key element in achieving the goals for practical and versatile neural prostheses is the development of fully implantable wireless microelectronic "brain-interfaces" within the body, a point of special emphasis of this paper.

  19. A Study on Sound Quality Evaluation Method for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Focusing on Subjective Annoyance%着眼于主观烦扰度的混合动力汽车声品质评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫愁; 陈吉清; 兰凤崇

    2015-01-01

    A sound quality subjective evaluation is conducted on nine noise samples recorded from a hybrid electric vehicle under different driving conditions by using paired comparison method. Then both regression analysis method and neural fuzzy logic algorithm are adopted to create a subjective annoyance prediction model based on psy-choacoustic parameters. Finally an evaluation standard of sound quality grade is established. The evaluation method proposed can quickly evaluate the sound quality, shorten the development cycle and improve the comfort perform-ance of vehicles.%采用成对比较法对某混合动力汽车在不同行驶工况下录制的9段噪声,进行主观声品质评价。接着分别采用回归分析法和神经模糊逻辑算法建立了基于心理声学参数的主观烦扰度预测模型。最后建立了声品质等级评价标准。所提出的评价方法可实现汽车声品质快速评价,缩短产品开发周期,提高汽车舒适性能。

  20. 优质高产杂交双季晚籼A优338的选育及利用%Breeding and Application of Quality and High-yield Late-season Indica Hybrid Rice A-you 338

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周强; 刘松柏; 郭建新; 涂军明; 张金林; 王欢; 梅凯华; 高正刚; 吕锐玲; 陈蔚; 孙伟

    2009-01-01

    A优338是湖北省黄冈市农业科学院用自育不育系A4A与恢复系R338配组而成的杂交晚稻新组合,该组合具有米质优、产量高、抗倒伏和易制种等特点.阐述了A优338的选育经过、特征特性及栽培制种技术要点.%The new late indica hybrid rice A-you 338 is a combination of sterile line A4A with restoring line R338. This paper reviewed the breeding process,the main features of yield and quality,and the cultivation technologies.

  1. Effects of hybrid planting of emergent and submerged macrophytes on water quality of Beidagang Reservoir%挺水植物与沉水植物组配对北大港水库水质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常素云; 赵静静; 刘小川; 罗莎; 刘波

    2014-01-01

    As local dominant species in the Beidagang Reservoir , the emergent macrophytes , Typha, and the euryhaline submerged macrophytes , including Labyrinth potamogetonaceae, Ceratophyllum, and Myriophyllum were selected to study the effects of hybrid planting of Typha and various submerged plants on water purification .The results show that the best removal effect on NH 3-N and TP can be achieved by hybrid planting of Typha and Labyrinth potamogetonaceae, with the removal rates being 62.1% and 83.9%, respectively .The best removal effect on TN and COD can be achieved by hybrid planting of Typha and Ceratophyllum, with the removal rates being 93.3%and 30.4%, respectively .Matlab software was used to analyze the water quality after experiments . The results show that hybrid planting of Typha and Ceratophyllum can improve the water purification capability to the greatest extent .%选取北大港水库当地优势种挺水植物香蒲和广盐性沉水植物篦齿眼子菜、金鱼藻、狐尾藻为研究对象,研究香蒲与不同沉水植物的组配试验对水体净化效果的影响。结果表明:香蒲与篦齿眼子菜组配对水体NH3-N、TP的去除效果最好,去除率分别为62.1%、83.9%;香蒲与金鱼藻组配对TN、COD的去除效果最佳,去除率分别为93.3%、30.4%。利用Matlab软件平台对试验结束时的水质进行分析,发现香蒲与金鱼藻组配方式对水体的净化能力最强。

  2. Coincidence of flowering time and the productivity and quality of cauliflower hybrid seeds Coincidência de florescimento entre linhagens de couve-flor na produtividade e qualidade de sementes híbridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fontanetti Verdial

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The missing of flowering synchronization between the self-incompatible lines in a crop field of cauliflower hybrid seeds besides making the seed production smaller can compromise the genetic purity of them. The coincidence of the flowering time between two cauliflower lines was examined to study its effect on the productivity and quality of hybrid seeds. The treatments consisted of six different sowing dates, every fifteen days, using a self-incompatible tropical line pollinated by a winter line which does not present self-incompatibility. The following characteristics were evaluated: leaf average area and number of flowers per plant, number of siliques per plant, number and weight of seeds per plant, weight of thousand seeds and average number of seeds per silique. The germination standard test and genetic seed purity were determined for each treatment. The coincident flowering season between cauliflower lines affects directly the productivity and the genetic quality of the produced hybrid seeds. The closer the flowering time coincidence between the lines, the greater the number of seeds per silique and the smaller the percentage of non-hybrid seedlings. However, the coincidence of the flowering season between lines was found to influence physiological seed quality.A falta de sincronismo de florescimento entre as linhagens auto incompatíveis em um campo de produção de sementes híbridas de couve flor pode além de reduzir a produção de sementes comprometer a pureza genética das mesmas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da coincidência de florescimento entre linhagens de couve-flor na produtividade e qualidade de sementes híbridas, foi realizado o presente experimento. Os tratamentos consistiram em seis diferentes épocas de semeadura, espaçadas a cada quinze dias, de uma linhagem de verão auto-incompatível que foi polinizada por uma linhagem de inverno que não apresenta auto-incompatibilidade. Observou-se a coincidência do

  3. Quality indicators in the mobile industry rankings based on indicators of customer satisfaction with the hybrid approach DEMATEL and ANP appropriate strategy based on gray system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashouri Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of services as a vital element in the strategic competitiveness and commercial success are various methods have been developed to evaluate it. Prioritizing qualitative indicators based on the quality of mobile phone services enables the company gives top priority due to the higher percentage of satisfied customers provide. This study tries to customer satisfaction according to criteria to prioritize mobile operators pay qualitative characteristics. A sample consisted of 450 individuals (46% women, 54% men from IRANCELL operator (Iran in 2015 which selected randomly. Results shows between four considered strategies maximum priorities belong to S1 which is denote to more services beyond customer expectations.

  4. Hybrid Airy Plasmons with Dynamically Steerable Trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rujiang; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    With the intriguing properties of diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing, Airy plasmons are promising to be used in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, the high dissipative loss and the lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal the hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the terahertz (THz) domain as an example. Due to the coupling between an optical mode and a plasmonic mode, the hybrid Airy plasmons can have large propagation lengths and effective transverse deflections, where the transverse waveguide confinements are governed by the hybrid modes with moderate quality factors. Meanwhile, the propagation trajectories of hybrid Airy plasmons are dynamically steerable by changing the chemical potential of graphene. These hybrid Airy plasmons may promote the further discovery of non-diffracting be...

  5. Hybrid Airy plasmons with dynamically steerable trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rujiang; Imran, Muhammad; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2017-01-26

    With their intriguing diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing properties, Airy plasmons show promise for use in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, high dissipative loss and lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the terahertz (THz) domain as an example. Due to coupling between optical modes and plasmonic modes, the hybrid Airy plasmons can have large propagation lengths and effective transverse deflections, where the transverse waveguide confinements are governed by the hybrid modes with moderate quality factors. Meanwhile, the propagation trajectories of the hybrid Airy plasmons are dynamically steerable by changing the chemical potential of graphene. These hybrid Airy plasmons may promote the further discovery of non-diffracting beams along with the emerging developments of optical tweezers and tractor beams.

  6. 添加丙酸和乳酸菌对杂交狼尾草青贮发酵品质的影响%Effect of adding propionic acid and lactic acid bacteria on fermentation quality of hybrid Pennisetum silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁; 张新全; 杨富裕

    2012-01-01

    研究丙酸、乳酸茵和两者组合不同添加水平对杂交狼尾草(Pennisetum americanum×P.purpereurn)青贮发酵品质的影响。试验设对照(无添加)、乳酸菌(LAB)、0.2%丙酸、0.3%丙酸、0.4%丙酸、0.5%丙酸、0.2%丙酸+乳酸菌、0.3%丙酸+乳酸菌、0.4%丙酸+乳酸菌、0.5%丙酸+乳酸菌(占鲜质量比例)处理,青贮45d后开袋分析。结果表明,添加丙酸可以有效改善杂交狼尾草的青贮品质,最佳添加量为0.3%;添加乳酸茵有助于提高杂交狼尾草的有氧稳定性。%The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding propionic acid, lactic acid bacteria and mixture of the two additions on the fermentation quality of hybrid Pennisetum silage. There were treatments as following, the control (no addition), Lactic acid bacteria addition (LAB), Propionic acid addition at 0. 2% (PA0.2), Propionic acid addition at 0. 3% (PA0.3), Propionic acid addition at 0. 4% (PR0. 4), Propionic acid addition at 0.5% (PA0.5), PA0.2 +LAB, PA0.3 +LAB, PA0.4 +LAB and PA0.5 +LAB (FM,%). After 45 days of ensiling, the ensiled forages were sampled and analyzed. The results showed that addition propionic acid could improve the fermentation quality of hybird P. silages, and adding Propionic acid at a rate of 0. 3% is the optimum for fermentation quality of hybrid Pennisetum.

  7. Analysis of Hybrid Mode of Higher Education Quality Regulation in Germany%德国高等教育质量的混合管理模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭江

    2014-01-01

    20世纪60年代以来,德国高等教育系统逐渐构建起了自我管理、政府管理和市场管理相互融合与协作的混合式质量管理模式。这种“混合”既体现在高校、联邦与州政府、认证机构、专业机构、商业机构等管理主体之间的合作与协调,也体现在评估、认证、排名、审批、考试等管理工具的综合与平衡。政府管理在混合模式中发挥着主导、基础和保障作用。德国政府从高等教育的“审批政府”转变为“评估政府”与“认证政府”,是其主动选择的结果。%Since the 1960s,the higher education system of Germany has built up the hybrid model of quality regulation which integrated the self - regulation,government regulation and market regulation at the same time. Colleges and universities,federal and state government,accreditation agencies,specialized agencies and commer-cial organizations,which are the multi - principals of higher education quality regulation,cooperate and fuse each other. Assessment,accreditation,ranking,approval,examination,which are the multiform tools of higher educa-tion quality regulation,balance each other. Government plays a leading and fundamental role in the hybrid mode. To change from the“approving government”to“assessing government”and“accreditating government”,is the re-sult of government’s own choice.

  8. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  9. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  10. Design and implementation of PV-based three-phase four-wire series hybrid active power filter for power quality improvement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Vijayakumar; S Vijayan

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a Photovoltaic (PV)-based three-phase four-wire Series Hybrid Active Power Filter (SHAPF), it comprises of a Series Active Power Filter (SAPF) and an LC shunt passive filter. The proposed system eliminates both the current and voltage harmonics and compensates reactive power, neutral current and voltage interruption. A SAPF demands a source of energy for compensating the voltage sag/swell. This system found a new topology for SHAPF which utilizes the PV with DC–DC boost converter as a source of DC power for the series active filter. The compensation current reference evaluation is based on the twin formulation of the vectorial theory of electrical power theorem with Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The PV array/battery managed DC–DC boost converter is employed to step up the voltage to meet the DC bus voltage requirement of the three-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). The foremost benefit of the proposed system is that, it will provide uninterrupted compensation for the whole day. This system utilizes the renewable energy; accordingly saves the energy and provides the uninterruptable power supply to critical/sensitive load, through the PV array/battery bank during both day time and night time. An experimental model was established and results were obtained, which indicated the capability of the proposed control scheme.

  11. Mn oxide coated catalytic membranes for a hybrid ozonation-membrane filtration: comparison of Ti, Fe and Mn oxide coated membranes for water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, S; Davies, S H; Alpatova, A L; Corneal, L M; Baumann, M J; Tarabara, V V; Masten, S J

    2011-01-01

    In this study the performance of catalytic membranes in a hybrid ozonation-ceramic membrane filtration system was investigated. The catalytic membranes were produced by coating commercial ceramic ultrafiltration membranes with manganese or iron oxide nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. A commercial membrane with a titanium oxide filtration layer was also evaluated. The performance of the coated and uncoated membranes was evaluated using water from a borderline eutrophic lake. The permeate flux and removal of the organic matter was found to depend on the type of the metal oxide present on the membrane surface. The performance of the manganese oxide coated membrane was superior to that of the other membranes tested, showing the fastest recovery in permeate flux when ozone was applied and the greatest reduction in the total organic carbon (TOC) in the permeate. The removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) precursors using the membrane coated 20 times with manganese oxide nanoparticles was significantly better than that for the membranes coated with 30 or 40 times with manganese oxide nanoparticles or 40 times with iron oxide nanoparticles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  13. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  14. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  15. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  16. Thermomechanical Testing Techniques for Microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    Novolac. (B) Type 2 epoxy is an Anhydride Cured, Bisphenol-A, epoxy TABLE 1-1 Package Classification By Vendor 1-5 analysis on the dual-in-line...C to 125°C), Vendor 2. This nomenclature , derived from Table 1-2, is carried throughout: this and subsequent sections. 4.6.2 Plastic Results

  17. AMYGDALA MICROCIRCUITS CONTROLLING LEARNED FEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvarci, Sevil; Pare, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We review recent work on the role of intrinsic amygdala networks in the regulation of classically conditioned defensive behaviors, commonly known as conditioned fear. These new developments highlight how conditioned fear depends on far more complex networks than initially envisioned. Indeed, multiple parallel inhibitory and excitatory circuits are differentially recruited during the expression versus extinction of conditioned fear. Moreover, shifts between expression and extinction circuits involve coordinated interactions with different regions of the medial prefrontal cortex. However, key areas of uncertainty remain, particularly with respect to the connectivity of the different cell types. Filling these gaps in our knowledge is important because much evidence indicates that human anxiety disorders results from an abnormal regulation of the networks supporting fear learning. PMID:24908482

  18. Research and application of a hybrid model based on dynamic fuzzy synthetic evaluation for establishing air quality forecasting and early warning system: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunzhen; Du, Pei; Wang, Jianzhou

    2017-04-01

    As the atmospheric environment pollution has been becoming more and more serious in China, it is highly desirable to develop a scientific and effective early warning system that plays a great significant role in analyzing and monitoring air quality. However, establishing a robust early warning system for warning the public in advance and ameliorating air quality is not only an extremely challenging task but also a public concerned problem for human health. Most previous studies are focused on improving the prediction accuracy, which usually ignore the significance of uncertainty information and comprehensive evaluation concerning air pollutants. Therefore, in this paper a novel robust early warning system was successfully developed, which consists of three modules: evaluation module, forecasting module and characteristics estimating module. In this system, a new dynamic fuzzy synthetic evaluation is proposed and applied to determine air quality levels and primary pollutants, which can be regarded as the research objectives; Moreover, to further mine and analyze the characteristics of air pollutants, four different distribution functions and interval forecasting method are also employed that can not only provide predictive range, confidence level and the other uncertain information of the pollutants future values, but also assist decision-makers in reducing and controlling the emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Case studies utilizing hourly PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 data collected from Tianjin and Shanghai in China are applied as illustrative examples to estimate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system. Experimental results obviously indicated that the developed novel early warning system is much suitable for analyzing and monitoring air pollution, which can also add a novel viable option for decision-makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physiological quality in coated seeds of the hybrid brachiaria cv. Mulato II = Qualidade fisiológica de sementes revestidas de braquiária híbrida cv. Mulato II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria de Fátima Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for fodder has driven development of the seed industry in Brazil, which seeks to provide value-added quality seeds by means of technology. The Mulato II cultivar is the first hybrid species of brachiaria to be marketed in Brazil. It was developed from the crossing of three species of Urochloa (U. brizantha x U. decumbens x U. ruziziensis. Coating seeds is a pre-sowing technique, which is able to improve plant performance in the field. However, the coating can lead to problems of seed quality. Given the above, the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of seed coating on physiological quality in seeds of the hybrid brachiaria cv. Mulato II. The research was carried out at the Laboratory for Seed Analysis of the Federal University of Lavras, in the state of Minas Gerais, (MG, using a completely randomised design, in a 6 x 2 factorial, six seed batches, with and without incrustation. The physiological tests carried out were: germination, emergence, speed of emergence index, average time of emergence, tetrazolium, and α -amylase (enzyme analysis. Seed coating in the hybrid brachiaria cv. Mulato II reduces viability, speed of germination, germination, speed of seedling emergence and the percentage of emerged seedlings, demonstrated by a reduced expression of the α -amylase enzyme = A crescente demanda por forrageiras tem impulsionado o desenvolvimento da indústria sementeira no Brasil que busca oferecer sementes de qualidade com valor agregado por meio de tecnologias. O cultivar Mulato II é a primeira espécie híbrida de braquiária comercializada no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido a partir do cruzamento de três espécies de Urochloa (U. brizantha x U. decumbens x U. ruziziensis . O revestimento de sementes é uma técnica de tratamento na pré-semeadura capaz de melhorar o desempenho das plantas no campo. Porém, o revestimento pode acarretar problemas com relação à qualidade das sementes. Diante do exposto

  20. A hybrid model for the computationally-efficient simulation of the cerebellar granular layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eCattani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to efficiently describe the membrane potential dynamics of neural populations formed by species having a high density difference in specific brain areas. We propose a hybrid model whose main ingredients are a conductance-based model (ODE system and its continuous counterpart (PDE system obtained through a limit process in which the number of neurons confined in a bounded region of the brain tissue is sent to infinity. Specifically, in the discrete model, each cell is described by a set of time-dependent variables, whereas in the continuum model, cells are grouped into populations that are described by a set of continuous variables.Communications between populations, which translate into interactions among the discrete and the continuous models, are the essence of the hybrid model we present here. The cerebellum and cerebellum-like structures show in their granular layer a large difference in the relative density of neuronal species making them a natural testing ground for our hybrid model. By reconstructing the ensemble activity of the cerebellar granular layer network and by comparing our results to a more realistic computational network, we demonstrate that our description of the network activity, even though it is not biophysically detailed, is still capable of reproducing salient features of neural network dynamics. Our modeling approach yields a significant computational cost reduction by increasing the simulation speed at least $270$ times. The hybrid model reproduces interesting dynamics such as local microcircuit synchronization, traveling waves, center-surround and time-windowing.

  1. Qualidade e maturação de tangerinas e seus híbridos em São Paulo Quality and maturation of tangerines and their hybrids in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rodrigues da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A ampliação da oferta de tangerinas tanto no mercado interno como no externo é limitada pela grande quantidade de sementes nos frutos das principais cultivares, danos na casca resultante de doenças e pela pequena produção nas épocas mais quentes do ano. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a qualidade dos frutos e a época de maturação de 46 tangerinas e híbridos em condições de campo na Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro (EECB, Bebedouro-SP. As variedades de tangerinas e híbridos (tangores e tangelos foram introduzidas de bancos de germoplasma da Itália, Portugal, Espanha e França, e a pesquisa desenvolveu-se durante os anos agrícolas de 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. Foram avaliadas características externas de qualidade, como altura e diâmetro dos frutos, massa dos frutos, facilidade em descascar com a mão e características internas como: número de sementes, teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, rendimento em suco, "ratio" e rendimento em polpa. Duas cultivares apresentaram frutos de boa qualidade e época de maturação precoce, podendo ser disponibilizadas no mercado, num período de escassez deste tipo de citros, e serem alternativas à tangerina-'Cravo'. Quatro cultivares que apresentaram boa qualidade e maturação mediana poderão ser alternativas à 'Poncã'.The extension of tangerine offering both for internal and external markets is limited by the large amount of seeds present in the main cultivars, the occurrence of peel injures caused by diseases and the small fruit production during the hottest periods of the year. This work was aimed to characterize the fruit quality and maturation period of 46 tangerines and hybrids grown in the field at the Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro (EECB, located in Bebedouro county, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Tangerines and their hybrids (tangors and tangelos were introduced from germplasm banks of Italy, Portugal

  2. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  3. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  4. Effects of Ensilaged Apple Pomace on Milk Yield and Quality of Simmental Hybrid Dual-Purpose Cattles%青贮苹果渣对西门塔尔牛产奶量及乳品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严平

    2016-01-01

    选取年龄、体重相近和首次产犊且处于泌乳后期(200d)的西门塔尔牛60头,采用完全随机区组设计分为6组,对照组饲喂由青贮玉米、苜蓿草粉、小麦秸和精料组成的基础日粮,试验组日粮中分别以5kg、10kg、15kg、20kg、25kg的青贮苹果渣替代等量青贮玉米。结果表明,以青贮苹果渣替代青贮玉米对西门塔尔牛的产奶量和乳品质均有一定程度的提高,替代50%时可显著提高牛的产奶量、乳脂率和乳蛋白含量(P0.05)。试验表明,青贮苹果渣替代一定比例的青贮玉米对西门塔尔牛的产奶量、牛奶品质有改善作用。%Selected 60 simmental hybrid dual-purpose cows under the principle of similar age, body weight, body condition at ifrst time parturition, and at about 200 days in lactation period. The cows were divided into 6 experimental groups which have 10 cows each. The basal diet composed of corn silage, alfalfa meal, wheat straw and concentrates. The experimental groups were given diets with different percentage of ensilaged apple pomace instead of same weight of corn silage (5kg、10kg、15kg、20kg、25kg). The results showed that, the milk production and milk quality indices, such as milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage of the ensilaged apple pomace added groups improved at different degree. Moreover, the group with 50% ensilaged apple pomace added improved significantly(P0.05)markedly. Ensilaged apple pomace could improve milking performance and milk quality of simmental hybrid dual-purpose cows at certain degree which varies with the amount of ensilaged apple pomace.

  5. Produção e qualidade de frutos de tomateiros portadores de alelos mutantes de amadurecimento e coloração Yield and fruit quality of tomato hybrids heterozygous for ripening and color mutant alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Carvalho de Andrade Júnior

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sete híbridos de tomateiros quase-isogênicos, à exceção dos locos norª/nor, rin, og c e hp, com as linhagens parentais FloraDade e Mospomorist, e dois híbridos comerciais heterozigotos no loco rin (Carmen F1 e Chronos F1 foram avaliados quanto às características de produção e qualidade de frutos e quanto aos possíveis efeitos do background genotípico empregado nas mesmas características. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e dez plantas por parcela. Os genótipos nor+/nor e rin+/rin não afetaram as características de produção. O genótipo nor+/norª atuou diminuindo a massa média por fruto. Os genótipos nor+/norª, nor+/nor e rin+/rin, isoladamente, atrasaram a perda de firmeza e a chegada da coloração vermelha nos frutos. O tamanho relativo da cicatriz peduncular não foi afetado significativamente por esses genótipos. A combinação og c+/og c hp+/hp proporcionou maior produção total e maior massa média por fruto no híbrido nor+/norª. A firmeza e a coloração dos frutos nor+/norª não foram afetadas pela combinação og c+/og c hp+/hp. O genótipo nor+/norª reduziu a produção precoce de frutos og c+/og c hp+/hp e aumentou a meia-vida da firmeza desses frutos. O background genotípico e a interação background x mutante de amadurecimento devem ser considerados na produção de híbridos F1 de tomateiro.Seven nearly isogenic tomato hybrids, except for their genotypic constitutions in loci norª/nor, rin, og c and hp, were tested for fruit yield and quality traits along the parental background lines FloraDade and Mosporist and two commercial rin+/rin tomato hybrids (Carmen F1 and Chronos F1. The role of the different genotypic backgrounds on these fruit traits was also studied. The genotypes were tested using a randomized complete block design with four replicates and ten plants per plot. The genotypic constitutions nor+/nor or rin+/rin had no effect on yield related

  6. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  7. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  8. Effects of different irrigation methods and plant densities on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn cultivar (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Karasahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The yield and quality of corn silage is related to genotype as well as factors such as climate, soil conditions, altitude, planting time, plant density, irrigation, and harvesting time. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation methods (drip, subsoil drip, and subsoil capillary and different plant densities (102 040, 119 040, and 142 850 plant ha-1 on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey in 2011 and 2012 under ecological conditions in Eskipazar-Karabuk, Turkey. Plant densities were significantly different on fresh ear ratio and plant crude protein (CP yield in both years under study. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained with 102 040 and 119 040 plant ha-1 densities and the highest plant CP yield with 142 850 plant ha-1. While the irrigation method x plant density interactions were significant for silage CP ratio in the first year, they were significant on fresh ear ratio in the second year. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 119 040 plant ha-1 and drip x 119 040 plant ha-1 interactions; the highest plant and silage CP ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 142 850 plant ha-1 and subsoil drip x 102 040 plant ha-1 interactions. As a result of the research, high Flieg scores were obtained from each irrigation method and plant density. When plant CP yield is taken into consideration, the 142 850 plant ha-1 density is more important.

  9. Cryopreservation of Bituminaria bituminosa varieties and hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Dabauza, Mercedes; Correal, Enrique; Swennen, Rony; Panis, Bart

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirton is a drought tolerant, perennial legume pasture species and a source of pharmaceutical compounds. Bituminaria breeding programs aim to develop and conserve hybrids with desirable traits such as high forage quality, tolerance to biotic or abiotic stresses, and high contents of furanocoumarins. In this work we present a cryopreservation study of different B. bituminosa accessions: two varieties and eight intervarietal hybrids resulting f...

  10. 混合式高校图书馆阅览部工作人员素质浅谈%Discussion on the quality of the reading-room attendant in hybrid university library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂倩莲

    2001-01-01

    目前,高校图书馆处于纸基文献与数字文献共存的混合状态,传统的工作方式与自动化、网络化环境下的现代化工作方式交叉存在;而大部分高校图书馆开放性的布局扩大了阅览部门工作人员与各类读者的接触面,加强了阅览部的信息桥梁作用。阅览部工作人员需要具备哪些素质才能适应混合式、开放性高校图书馆的要求针对此问题,运用系统论和管理学的有关原理进行分析,提出阅览部工作人员应具备较高的政治思想水平和原则意识、现代化服务思想、全局观念以及自觉更新知识结构、提高服务技能的意识。并提出图书馆管理机制在提高阅览部工作人员素质的过程中应发挥的作用。%At present ,the paper-based literature resources and digital literature resources coexist in the university library With the combination of traditional, automatic and network-based ways ,open-shelved distribution of books on many university libraries expands the connection between the staff and the readers and stregthen the use of the reading-room as the information bridge Under this new condition, what kind of qualities should the reading-room attendant have in order to do his job well? based on the system theory and management prinerples , the qualities are considered to include: high-standard political and principle awareness ,good attitude towards the reader ,overall concept and conviction of enriching one's knowledge and mastering new technique .To improve the reading-room attendant's qualities ,the role of the management mechanism of the hybrid university library is pointed out to make a good external environment .

  11. 寒富×四倍体嘎拉苹果三倍体后代果实风味品质的研究%Fruit Flavor Quality of Apple Triploid Hybrids of Hanfu × Tetraploid Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 王玉霞; 李林光; 程来亮

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the differences of fruit flavor quality of new apple triploid genotypes, the volatile compounds, sugar and acid compounds in fruits of six triploid hybrids and parents of Hanfu and Tetraploid Gala were identified and analyzed by static headspace -gas chromatography -mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography.There were six, four, seven, four, four, eight, five and three characteristic compounds (CICs) in H4G1, H4G2, H4G4, H4G5, H4G8, H4G9, Hanfu and Tetraploid Ga-la, respectively.Hexyl acetate and hexyl-2-methylbutyrate were the common compounds of all tested varie-ties.Among which, hexyl acetate was the CIC for all hybrids and their parental cultivars, meanwhile hexyl-2-methylbutyrate contributed to odor of all tested varieties except for Hanfu.Fructose, glucose, sucrose and malic acid were the common taste compounds of all tested varieties, and their contributions to taste of H4G4 were larger than other varieties.The transgressive segregations of volatile characteristic compounds and taste compounds were all generated in six triploid hybrids.%为了解苹果三倍体新种质果实风味品质的差异,本研究采用静态顶空-气相色谱-质谱联用和高效液相色谱技术,测定了6份苹果三倍体杂交后代及2个亲本寒富、四倍体嘎拉果实挥发性成分、糖酸组分等风味物质的含量和组成。结果表明,H4G1、H4G2、H4G4、H4G5、H4G8、H4G9、寒富、四倍体嘎拉分别含有6、4、7、4、4、8、5、3种特征香气成分,其果实中均检测到乙酸己酯和2-甲基丁酸己酯,前者影响所有三倍体株系及2个亲本果实香味,后者仅对寒富果实香味没有贡献;果糖、葡萄糖、蔗糖和苹果酸是苹果果实的味感组分,且对H4 G4的味感贡献大于其他株系;6份子代特征香气成分和味感成分在遗传过程中均产生了超亲分离现象。

  12. Comparison of Carcass Performance and Meat Qualities of Duroc×Landrace×Dapulian and Yorkshire×Landrace×Dapulian Hybridized Pigs%杜长蒲和大长蒲猪胴体性能及肉品质比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建凤; 王彦平; 刘畅; 蔺海朝; 武英; 吕东山

    2015-01-01

    The carcass performance and meat qualities of Duroc×Landrace×Dapulian and Yorkshire×Landrace× Dapulian hybridized pigs were studied. The results showed that, the eye muscle area of Yorkshire ×Landrace × Dapulian hybridized pigs was larger than that of Duroc ×Landrace ×Dapulian hybridized pigs, with increase by 21.80%(P>0.05). Lean percentage of Yorkshire ×Landrace ×Dapulian hybridized pigs was higher than that of Duroc ×Landrace ×Dapulian hybridized pigs, with increase by 8.13%(P>0.05). The average backfat thickness of Yorkshire×Landrace×Dapulian hybridized pigs was lower than that of Duroc×Landrace×Dapulian hybridized pigs, with decrease by 10.89%(P>0.05). Meat color score, marbling score, a value and a24 value of Duroc×Landrace× Dapulian hybridized pigs were higher than that of Yorkshire ×Landrace ×Dapulian hybridized pigs, with increase by 10.34%(P>0.05),14.40%(P>0.05),12.08%(P>0.05)and 7.39%(P>0.05). Drop loss of Yorkshire ×Landrace × Dapulian hybridized pigs was lower than that of Duroc ×Landrace ×Dapulian hybridized pigs, with decrease by 15.87%(P>0.05). The IMF content of Duroc ×Landrace ×Dapulian pigs was higher than that of Yorkshire × Landrace ×Dapulian hybridized pigs, with increase by 10.08%(P>0.05). The Gly content of Duroc ×Landrace × Dapulian hybridized pigs was higher than that of Yorkshire×Landrace×Dapulian hybridized pigs, with increase by 8.11%(P0.05)、8.13%(P>0.05),平均背膘厚大长蒲比杜长蒲低10.89%(P>0.05);肉色、大理石纹评分、a值和a24值都以杜长蒲较高,分别比大长蒲猪高10.34%(P>0.05)、14.40%(P>0.05)、12.08%(P>0.05)和7.39%(P>0.05);滴水损失以大长蒲较低,比杜长蒲低15.87%(P>0.05);肌内脂肪含量杜长蒲比大长蒲高10.08%(P>0.05). 背最长肌甘氨酸含量以杜长蒲猪较高,比大长蒲猪高8.11%(P<0.01).背最长肌脂肪酸含量品种间差异不显著.

  13. Rendimiento y calidad de híbridos de sorgo con y sin nervadura café Yield and quality of sorghum hybrids with and without brown midrib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Daniel Bolaños Aguilar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue comparar el rendimiento de materia seca (RMS y la calidad de variedades de sorgo de grano y forrajero con o sin nervadura café (bmr, al emplear plantas con concentraciones promedio de 300 g kg-¹ de MS. Se estudiaron tres variedades de grano (Solarius, Aralba y Topsilo y tres forrajeras (Sweet Virginia, Big Kauna y Sucrosorgho. Sweet Virginia and Big Kahuna contienen el gen bmr. El RMS varió de 11.10 t, de Topsilo, a 17.12 t ha-1 de Sweet Virginia, relacionada con la altura de planta y con la proporción tallo/planta. Topsilo tuvo mayor número de rebrotes (1.5 m-¹. La relación panícula/planta no fue diferente entre variedades. El número de plantas m-¹ varió entre variedades pero no afectó el RMS. La concentración de proteína varió de 75.45 g kg-¹ MS en Big Kahuna, a 104.3 g kg-¹ MS en Solarius, y tuvo relación inversa con el RMS, con la altura de la planta y con la relación tallo/planta. Las variedades con mayor concentración de proteína (Solarius, Aralba y Topsilo, fueron las de menor RMS, menor altura y menor relación tallo/planta. El área foliar por planta fue la fuente de variación de la proteína entre las variedades de grano. La digestibilidad varió de 596 g kg-¹ MS en Aralba, a 720.4 g kg-¹ MS en Sweet Virginia, y estuvo relacionada con la concentración de lignina. Esta última variedad junto con Big Kahuna y Solarius fueron las de mayor digestibilidad. La alta digestibilidad de Solarius (no portador de bmr se debió a su baja proporción (0.35 tallo/planta. La variedad Sweet Virginia es una importante opción en la alimentación animal dado a su elevado RMS y digestibilidad. Solarius tuvo bajo RMS, pero es útil cuando se requieren altos consumos de materia seca digestible por animal (vacas lecheras, además de contar con la mayor concentración de proteína.The aim was to compare yield of dry matter (RMS and quality of grain and foliage sorghum varieties with and without brown midrib (bmr, by

  14. Impact of locomotion training with a neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL) exoskeleton on neuropathic pain and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic SCI: a case study (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciger, Oliver; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Meindl, Renate C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schwenkreis, Peter; Citak, Mustafa; Aach, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) is a common condition associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and has been reported to be severe, disabling and often treatment-resistant and therefore remains a clinical challenge for the attending physicians. The treatment usually includes pharmacological and/or nonpharmacological approaches. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and locomotion training with driven gait orthosis (DGO) have evolved over the last decades and are now considered to be an established part in the rehabilitation of SCI patients. Conventional locomotion training goes along with improvements of the patients' walking abilities in particular speed and gait pattern. The neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL®, Cyberdyne Inc., Ibraki, Japan) exoskeleton, however, is a new tailored approach to support motor functions synchronously to the patient's voluntary drive. This report presents two cases of severe chronic and therapy resistant neuropathic pain due to chronic SCI and demonstrates the beneficial effects of neurologic controlled exoskeletal intervention on pain severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Both of these patients were engaged in a 12 weeks period of daily HAL®-supported locomotion training. In addition to improvements in motor functions and walking abilities, both show significant reduction in pain severity and improvements in all HRQoL domains. Although various causal factors likely contribute to abatement of CNP, the reported results occurred due to a new approach in the rehabilitation of chronic spinal cord injury patients. These findings suggest not only the feasibility of this new approach but in conclusion, demonstrate the effectiveness of neurologic controlled locomotion training in the long-term management of refractory neuropathic pain. Implications for Rehabilitation CNP remains a challenge in the rehabilitation of chronic SCI patients. Locomotion training with the HAL exoskeleton seems to improve CNP

  15. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  16. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  17. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  18. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  19. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  20. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  1. Progress and future development of hybrid rapeseed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Tingdong; Zhou Yongming

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid growth of rapeseed now has reached to 4.7 × 106 hm2,accounting for 70%of total rapeseed growth area in China. Over the last 40 years,the researches and utilizations of hybrid rapeseed in China have sig-nificantly contributed to the development of rapeseed industry in China. The production of hybrid rapeseed mainly utilizes cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS),combined at the same time with nuclear male sterility and other pollinat-ing-control systems in China. The hybrid rapeseed studies in China are also characterized by the improvement of quality and oil content in hybrid breeding. Future studies to enhance the heterosis of rapeseed will be focused on several important issues,including the combination of heterosis and ideotype breeding,further increase of oil con-tent in hybrids,utilization of sub-genomic heterosis and resistance improvement. The paper will discuss the follow-ing perspectives in hybrid rapeseed studies:relationships among heterosis,quality and disease traits,solutions for excessive source and pool in hybrids compared with open-pollinated cultivars,and the importance of increasing harvest index of hybrids to achieve a better yield in hybrids.

  2. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  3. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  4. Hybrid armature projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  5. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  6. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  7. Produção e qualidade de silagens de híbridos de milho (Zea mays e de híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor Forage production and quality of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor hybrids silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Moraes Genro

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção e a qualidade de cinco híbridos de milho (Zea mays e três híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Zootecnia, UFSM. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram: híbridos de milho - Pioneer 3072 (P 3072, Agroceres 211 (AG 211, Cargill 525 (C 525, Pioneer 3232 (P 3232 e Agroceres 213 (AG 213; sorgo -todos os híbridos foram da Agroceres: AG 2004E, AG 2002 e AG 2005E. A população estabelecida foi de 50.000 e 160.000 plantas/ha para milho e o sorgo, respectivamente. As plantas foram cortadas a 15cm do solo, quando atingiram o estádio de grão farináceo. Posteriormente, os híbridos foram picados e ensilados em vidros vedados, colocados em tubos de concreto e tapados com o material verde restante. Com relação à produção de Matéria Seca, o híbrido P 3072 destacou-se em relação aos demais, sendo superior (PA trial was conducted to evaluate forage production and quality of fíve comercial com hybrids (Zea mays and three sorghum hybrids (Sorghum bicolor. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replicates. The five com hybrids were: Pioneer 3072 (P 3072, Agroceres 211 (AG 211, Cargill 525 (C 525, Pioneer 3232 (P 3232 and Agroceres 213 (AG 213 and the three sorghum hybrids were: Agroceres 2004 E, 2002 and 2005 E (AG 2004 E, AG 2002 and AG 2005 E, respectively. Plant population was about 50.000 and 160,000 plants/ha for com and sorghum, respectively. The crops were havested at a height of 15cm of soil surface, at grain powdering stage. After the harvested, the forage were ensiled in glass recipients, wich were conserved in a higher silum. The dry matter production of the P 3072 was higher than AG 213 and the three sorghum hybrids. Although all mean value results were adequate for silage conservation and quality, there was only significant difference for pH. The digestibility estimatives

  8. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  9. Online and Hybrid Water Industry Courses for Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    The Water Quality Management Technology department at Red Rocks Community College in Denver, CO received a National Science Foundation grant and converted 24 courses from a face-to-face format to online and hybrid formats. The courses were converted to meet a growing employment need within the water industry. The online and hybrid options gave…

  10. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  11. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  12. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  13. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  14. 大蒲莲猪、长蒲及杜长蒲猪胴体性能和肉品质比较%Comparison of Carcass Performance and Meat Qualities of Dapulian Pigs, Landrace × Dapulian and Duroc × Landrace × Dapulian Hybridized Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建凤; 王彦平; 王继英; 王诚; 林松; 武英; 吕东山

    2014-01-01

    研究测定了大蒲莲猪、长蒲二元猪及杜长蒲三元猪的胴体品质和肉质特性。结果表明,大蒲莲猪眼肌面积最小,分别比长蒲猪和杜长蒲猪低36.45%(P0.05)和16.19%(P0.05)。%The carcass performance and meat qualities of Dapulian pigs , Landrace × Dapulian and Duroc × Landrace ×Dapulian hybridized pigs were studied.The results showed that,the eye muscle area of Dapulian pigs was the smallest than that of Landrace ×Dapulian and Duroc ×Landrace ×Dapulian hybridized pigs,with decrease by 36.45%(P0.05)and 16.19%(P0.05).

  15. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  16. Demonstrative Study of Chinese Hybrid Rice in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thailand is the kingdom of quality rice in the world, and China is the “pilgrimage” place of hybrid rice. There is a very attractive joint in the yield pre dominance of Chinese hybrid rice and the good quality of Thai rice, which maybe start a new agro - eco nomic increasing phase. This kind of cooperation initiate between China National Hybrid Rice Research and Development Center (CNHRRDC) and Charoen Pokphand Seeds Co., Ltd. (C. P. Group) in Thailand 2001. The main results of the program are reported as follows.

  17. 湘西黄牛杂交组合育肥及肉质性能研究%Fattening Performance and Meat Quality of Hybridized Combinations of Xiangxi Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑波; 李志才; 徐明梁; 刘莹莹; 姚茂清; 易康乐

    2012-01-01

    选取18月龄湘西黄牛、西本(西门塔尔牛×湘西黄牛)、利本(利木赞牛×湘西黄牛)、西西本(西门塔尔牛×西本)、利西本(利木赞牛×西本)共24头,于舍饲条件下补饲精料,进行70d的育肥试验.结果表明:利西本三元杂交牛的增重水平和育肥效益明显优于其他组合和湘西黄牛,利西本三元杂交牛的日增重1.21 kg;屠宰率58.44%,净肉率47.68%;胴体质量与产量等级评定表明:利西本三元杂交牛牛肉指标达到了特级标准;产量达到了国内优质高档牛肉的重量标准.肉质特性测定表明:利本杂交牛肉品大理石纹较为丰富,利西本杂交牛肉品较细嫩、柔软;各组合间氨基酸含量差异不显著(P>0.05),而利西本和湘西黄牛臀肌总氨基酸含量、必需氨基酸含量显著高于背肌(P<0.05),其他组合间差异不显著(P>0.05).%A total of 24 Xiangxi yellow cattle and its different hybridized combinations at the age of 18-month-old were selected and divided into five groups (Xiangxi cattle,Simmental x Xiangxi cattle,Limousin x Xiangxi cattle,Simmental x Simmental x Xiangxi cattle,Limousin x Simmental X Xiangxi cattle),fattened forcefully under barn feeding condition for 70 ds,for studying their fattening performance, carcass characteristic and meat quality. The results showed that the body weight gain (BWG) level and fatten benefit of three-way cross of Limousin x Simmental X Xiangxi cattle were obviously superior to the other groups, with the average daily gain( ADG)1.21 kg, dressing percentage 58.44 %, pure meat percentage 47.68 %. The grade estimation of carcass quality and output indicated that, the index of Limousin x Simmental x Xiangxi cattle reached the special grade, and the beef yield reached the weight standard for domestic top-grade beef. The measurement of meat performance suggested that the marbling of Limousin x Xiangxi cattle were rich, and the meat of Limousin x Simmental x Xiangxi cattle

  18. Forty Years' Development of Hybrid Rice:China's Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang-xian; CHENG Shi-hua; DONG Hai-tao; CAO Li-yong; LI De-bao; YANG Shi-hua; ZHAI Hu-qu

    2004-01-01

    China is the first country where heterosis of hybrid rice was successfully exploited commercially on a large scale in the world. Hybrid rice has been developed for 40 years since Prof. Yuan initiated it in China. It had been planted about 330 million hectares with an increase of nearly 400 million tons of rice during 1976-2002. China's experience on hybrid rice could be attributed to utilization of various cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) resources, high outcrossing rate CMS lines and stable environmentally induced genetic male sterile (EGMS) lines, improvement of diseases resistance and grain quality, and combination of ideal plant type with heterosis in hybrid rice breeding program. Innovative breeding techniques, e.g. improvement in root system, molecular marker-assisted selection and wild hybridization should be considered in further development of hybrid rice in China.

  19. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc (eds.)

    2016-08-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?.

  20. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  1. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  2. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  3. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  4. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  6. Hybrid Unifying Variable Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare new phenomenon of topology change,evolution,hybrid ratio and network characteristics of unified hybrid network theoretical model with unified hybrid supernetwork model,this paper constructed unified hybrid variable supernetwork model(HUVSM).The first layer introduces a hybrid ratio dr,the

  7. Large Unifying Hybrid Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    For depicting multi-hybrid process,large unifying hybrid network model(so called LUHNM)has two sub-hybrid ratios except dr.They are deterministic hybrid ratio(so called fd)and random hybrid ratio(so called gr),respectively.

  8. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems...

  9. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  10. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  11. Study of hybrid orientation structure wafer*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Kaizhou; Zhang Jing; Xu Shiliu; Zhang Zhengfan; Yang Yonghui; Chen Jun; Liang Tao

    2011-01-01

    Two types of 5 μm thick hybrid orientation structure wafers, which were integrated by (110) or (100) orientation silicon wafers as the substrate, have been investigated for 15-40 V voltage ICs and MEMS sensor applications. They have been obtained mainly by SOI wafer bonding and a non-selective epitaxy technique, and have been presented in China for the first time. The thickness of BOX SiO2 buried in wafer is 220 nm. It has been found that the quality of hybrid orientation structure with (100) wafer substrate is better than that with (110) wafer substrate by “Sirtl defect etching of HOSW”.

  12. Comparative study on flesh quality of hybrid snakehead(Channa maculate ♀× Channa argus ♂)and Channa argus%杂交鳢(斑鳢♀×乌鳢♂)与乌鳢肌肉品质比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹礼根; 冯晓宇; 王宇希; 刘新轶; 郭水荣; 陈飞东

    2011-01-01

    为了评价杂交鳢(Channa maculate ♀×Channa argus ♂)与乌鳢(Channa argus)肌肉品质,实验选择规格基本相同的1+龄杂交鳢和乌鳢进行比较研究.研究从肌肉基本营养组成、游离氨基酸组成、物理特性指标、质构参数4个方面评价肌肉品质.在肌肉的基本营养组成方面,杂交鳢与乌鳢肌肉粗蛋白含量、灰分含量、粗脂肪含量基本相当,无显著性差异(P>0.05),杂交鳢肌肉水分含量比乌鳢显著性增加(P<0.05).在肌肉游离氨基酸含量方面,杂交鳢游离氨基酸总量、呈味氨基酸含量、必需氨基酸含量分别比乌鳢提高了 7.90%、9.19%、9.01%.在肌肉物理特性方面,与乌鳢相比,杂交鳢肌纤维直径和蒸煮过程肌肉失水率显著性变小(P<0.01),肌原纤维长度显著性增长(P<0.01).在质构参数方面,与乌鳢相比,杂交鳢肌肉弹性、硬度、咀嚼性显著降低(P<0.01),粘聚性显著性增加(P<0.01),恢复性无显著性差异(P>0.05).实验得出的结论是:杂交鳢蛋白质营养水平和质构参数所反映的肌肉品质与乌鳢接近;杂交鳢蛋白质氨基酸水平和物理特性所反映的肌肉品质优于乌鳢.%Hybrid snakehead (Channa maculate ♀ × Channa argus ♂ )and Channa argus with the nearly same standard were selected to study contrastively for evaluating their flesh quality.Then, muscle nutrients composition, free amino acid content, physical parameters and flesh texture parameters were determined to analyze the flesh quality.About muscle nutrients composition , there were no differences (P > 0.05 )in muscle crude protein , crude ash and crude fat between hybrid snakehead and Channa argus, but muscle moisture of hybrid snakehead was increased significantly ( P < 0.01 ).The contents of total free amino acids, flavor amino acids and essential amino acid of hybrid snakehead increased by 7.90%, 9.19% and 9.01%,respectively.About flesh physical index between hybrid

  13. 优质高产香型杂交稻新组合香优63%Xiangyou 63, a Quasi-aromatic Hybrid Rice with Good Quality and High Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周坤炉; 廖伏明

    2004-01-01

    Xiangyou 63 was developed at HHRRC using aromatic cytoplasmic male sterile line Xiangxiang 2A and non-aromatie restorer line Minghui 63. It was released to farmers in Jan 1995. Xiangyou 63 is the first quasi-aromatie hybrid riee in China, and Xiangxiang 2A, developed from the eross V20A//V20B/MR365 by HHRRC, is

  14. Produção e qualidade da moranga híbrida em resposta a doses de nitrogênio Yield and quality of hybrid squash (pumpkin in response to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinalva W Pedrosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de doses de N na produção e qualidade da moranga hibrida cv. Tetsukabuto (Takaima F1 em experimento na EPAMIG Centro Oeste, Prudente de Morais (MG, de 25/08 a 03/12/2008. Foram avaliadas cinco doses de nitrogênio (0; 37,5; 75; 150; 300 kg ha-1, na forma de uréia, divididas em quatro aplicações (30% no plantio, 20% aos 20 dias, 30% aos 40 dias e 20% aos 60 dias após a emergência, num delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. As doses de N influenciaram significativamente as características avaliadas. O número de frutos aumentou de 2.498 ao ponto de máximo de 6.794 frutos ha-1 com a aplicação de 219 kg ha-1 de N. O diâmetro e a espessura da polpa do fruto aumentaram de 14,97 e 2,33 cm, até atingirem os pontos máximos de 17,74 e 2,80 cm nas doses de 171 e 128 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente. O teor de sólidos solúveis na polpa de frutos de moranga híbrida aumentou com o aumento das doses de N observando-se com a aplicação de 300 kg ha-1 de N teor de 8ºBrix. A produtividade de frutos foi também influenciada pelas doses de N estimando-se como valor máximo 11,55 t ha-1 de frutos com a aplicação de 300 kg ha-1 de N. A dose estimada de N relativa à máxima eficiência econômica foi obtida com a aplicação de 262 kg ha-1, considerando os preços de R$ 2,41 kg-1 de N e de R$ 560,00 t-1 de moranga.An experiment was carried out at EPAMIG Centro Oeste, Prudente de Morais, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from August 25 to December 2, 2008, to evaluate the effects of N rates on production and quality of hybrid squash cv. Tetsukabuto (Takaima F1. The treatments were five N rates (0, 37.5, 75, 150, 300 kg ha-1, as urea, split in four applications (30% at planting date, 20% at 20 days, 30% at 40 days and 20% at 60 days after emergence in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The N rates significantly affected the characteristics evaluated. The number of fruits

  15. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  16. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  17. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial...

  18. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  19. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  20. Strategies for improving quality inspection of silkworm F1 hybrids egg products in Guangxi%广西桑蚕一代杂交种成品卵质量检验改进措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗梅兰; 黄旭华; 安春梅; 胡文娟; 甘丽红

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探索桑蚕一代杂交种成品卵质量检验新方法,提高成品卵质量检验的准确性、高效性及可操作性.[方法]分别采用直接计数蚁蚕法、称量计算蚁蚕法、直接计数良卵法,进行蚕种孵化率和良卵数调查,并比较3种方法的调查效率.[结果]采用称量法计算蚁蚕头数与直接计数蚁蚕头数的结果无显著性差异,采用直接计数良卵数与实际良卵孵化值误差达到极显著水平;在效率方面,直接计数良卵法耗时是直接计数蚁蚕法的56.75%,而称量计算蚁蚕法耗时仅是直接计数蚁蚕法的21.83%,节省约4/5的调查时间,工作效率极大提高.[结论]将称量计算蚁蚕法应用于良卵数和孵化率调查是可行的,且具有操作性好、省时、省工、效率高,准确性高等优点.%[Objective]The present study was conduced to develop a new, accurate and efficient method for inspecting quality of silkworm F1 hybrids egg products. [ Method ] Hatching rate and number of good eggs were determined by direct counting of newly-hatched larva, weighing newly-hatched larva and direct counting of good eggs. These three methods were compared with each other for their efficiency. [Result]There was no significant difference between weighing and direct counting on newly-hatched larva, while significant difference occurred between the number of good eggs using direct counting method and the actual number of newly-hatched larva. For efficiency of the method, the time-consuming for direct counting of good eggs was 56.75% of direct counting of newly-hatched larva, while that of weighing method was only 21.83% of direct counting of newly-hatched larva, indicating that approximately 4/5 investigation time was saved so to enhance the work efficiency enormously. [Conclusion]Weighing newly-hatched larva method was found time and labor-saving, highly effective and accurate, and easy to be operated, hence it is feasible to apply weighing method to

  1. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  2. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  3. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  4. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  5. Hybrid Bloch Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Losano, L

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  6. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  7. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  8. Poda da haste principal e densidade de cultivo na produção e qualidade de frutos em híbridos de melão Pruning of main stem and plant density on yield and fruit quality of melon hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hevilásio F. Pereira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os efeitos da poda da haste principal e da densidade de cultivo sobre a produção e a qualidade de dois híbridos de melão. Os trabalhos foram desenvolvidos na ESAM em Mossoró-RN, de 01/06 a 11/08/98. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, sendo um com e o outro sem poda da haste principal. Em cada um estudaram-se os híbridos Orange Flesh e Hy Mark e as densidades de cultivo de 20.000, 30.000, 40.000 e 50.000 plantas ha-1, arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 4. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Houve interação significativa entre a poda da haste principal e os híbridos para massa média dos frutos, relação de formato e sólidos solúveis totais e entre a poda da haste principal e a densidade de cultivo para o número de frutos totais e não-comercializáveis. Os híbridos Orange Flesh e Hy Mark, quando submetidos à poda, foram mais produtivos apresentando, em média, 25,96 Mg ha-1 de frutos comercializáveis. A produtividade e a massa média dos frutos diminuíram com o aumento da densidade de cultivo. O número de frutos totais e comercializáveis aumentaram em função da densidade de cultivo. O híbrido Orange Flesh, submetido à poda, apresentou a maior relação de formato, com índice de 1,09, enquanto o híbrido Hy Mark apresentou a menor, com índice de 1,04. O híbrido Hy Mark submetido à poda da haste principal apresentou o maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais (8,99%.Two field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of pruning and planting density on yield and fruit quality of two melon hybrids. The work was done in Mossoró, Brazil, in the period of 06/01 to 08/11/98. The hybrids Orange flesh and Hy Mark were studied and the planting densities of 20,000; 30,000; 40,000 and 50,000 plants ha-1, in factorial outline 2 x 4. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications. There was significant interaction among pruning and hybrid

  9. Radiation sterilization of enzyme hybrids with biodegradable polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu E-mail: mfuruta@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2002-03-01

    Ionizing radiations, which have already been utilized for the sterilization of medical supplies as well as gas fumigation, should be the final candidate to decontaminate 'hybrid' biomaterials containing bio-active materials including enzymes because irradiation induces neither heat nor substances affecting the quality of the materials and our health. In order to check the feasibility of {sup 60}Co-gamma rays on these materials, we selected commercial proteases including papain and bromelain hybridized with commercial activated chitosan beads and demonstrated that these enzyme-hybrids suspended in water showed the significant radiation durability of more than twice as much as free enzyme solution at 25-kGy irradiation. Enhanced thermal and storage stability of the enzyme hybrids were not affected by the same dose level of irradiation, either, indicating that commercial irradiation sterilization method is applicable to enzyme hybrids without modification.

  10. Carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber/hybrid filler composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of the OSW and NLS are measured with the dynamic contact-angle technique. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS of the OSW reveals that the OSW possesses various reactive functional groups namely hydroxyl groups (OH. Hybrid filler from NLS and OSW were incorporated into carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR to produce XNBR hybrid composites. The reaction of OH groups from the OSW with COOH of the XNBR is checked by attenuated total reflectance spectra (ATR-IR of the composites. The degree of curing ΔM (maximum torque-minimum torque as a function of hybrid filler as derived from moving die rheometer (MDR is reported. The stress-strain behavior of the hybrid composites as well as the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA is studied. Bonding quality and dispersion of the hybrid filler with and in XNBR are examined using scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM in SEM.

  11. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  12. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  15. Functional hybrid materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahmi, Amir; Pietsch, Torsten; Mendoza, Cesar; Cheval, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    .... This paper describes our group's achievements towards the development of multifunctional nanostructures via self-assembly of hybrid systems based on the block copolymer PS-b-P4VP and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs...

  16. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nontoxic, and not hazardous to store and transport. Solid fuel grains are not highly susceptible to cracks, imperfections, and environmental temperature and are therefore safer to manufacture, store, transport, and use for launch. The status of development based on the experience of the last few decades indicating the maturity of the hybrid rocket technology is given in brief.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.193-200, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.518

  17. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  18. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  19. Hybridity in Disgrace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2015-01-01

    John Maxwell Coetzee's masterpiece-Disgrace is the representative work about post colonialism.The novel describes a series of disgraceful events happened between the white and the black in the post apartheid South Africa.The famous literature theory-hybridity of Homi K.Bhabha is the very key theory to analyze the work.In post apartheid South Africa,hybridity is the only way for the white and the black to coexist.

  20. Hybrid Baryon Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2000-01-01

    We discuss whether a low-lying hybrid baryon should be defined as a three quark - gluon bound state or as three quarks moving on an excited adiabatic potential. We show that the latter definition becomes exact, not only for very heavy quarks, but also for specific dynamics. We review the literature on the signatures of hybrid baryons, with specific reference to strong hadronic decays, electromagnetic couplings, diffractive production and production in psi decay.

  1. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  2. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-16

    hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard. A cosimulation standard de nes interfaces that enable diverse simulation...cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard...V. Peetz, and S. Wolf. The functional mockup interface for tool independent exchange of simulation models. In Proc. of the 8-th International

  3. Solving the Quadratic Assignment Problem by a Hybrid Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldy Gunawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid algorithm to solve the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP. The proposed algorithm involves using the Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP to obtain an initial solution, and then using a combined Simulated Annealing (SA and Tabu Search (TS algorithm to improve the solution. Experimental results  indicate that the hybrid algorithm is able to obtain good quality solutions for QAPLIB test problems within reasonable computation time.

  4. Effect of seedling age on yield and population quality of mechanized transplanted hybrid rice%移栽秧龄对机插杂交稻产量及群体质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾现文; 朱起超; 杨志远; 孙永健; 郭翔; 石勇; 马均

    2014-01-01

    为探明中、迟熟型杂交稻品种在不同机插秧龄条件下的适应性及品种间生长发育及产量的差异,研究了不同移栽秧龄对机插中、迟熟杂交稻产量及群体质量的影响。结果表明,21 d适龄移栽杂交稻的产量、各生育时期的群体茎蘖数、分蘖成穗率、叶面积指数、抽穗后剑叶光合、群体透光、抽穗期的有效叶面积、高效叶面积、有效叶面积率以及高效叶面积率显著大于迟栽处理。品种选择上,迟熟杂交稻品种无论在产量还是在各群体指标方面均优于中熟品种,尤其是迟熟型中F优498分蘖力中等,株型好,这些特征改善了机插条件下杂交稻群体光合生产和通风透光状况,穗型大且穗粒数较多,茎蘖成穗率较高,秧龄弹性较大,可适当延长秧龄到28 d也能保持较高产量。中熟型中辐优838虽然穗数多,但其穗粒数限制了产量的增加,且其分蘖力过强,导致无效分蘖过多,对机插产量的发挥造成一定影响。研究结果为生产中选择机插适栽秧龄及高产杂交稻品种提供参考。%As a modern and high efficient rice production mode, rice mechanized transplanting has been a principle development trend in China. Subject to geographical conditions, the development of rice mechanized transplanting in Sichuan, the largest rice production region in southwest China, is very slow, only account for 6.2%of total rice planting area in 2012, while the average ratio was 26%across the country. So the development of rice mechanized transplanting in Sichuan is urgent and meaningful. The optimal seedling age and variety is an essential problem should be solved. In this experiment, the effects of different seedling ages on yield and population quality of middle and late maturing hybrid rice in mechanized transplanting were studied. The experiment was conducted in Wenjiang, a representative plain region in Sichuan, from April to October

  5. New Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Vertex Cover Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍红卫; 许进

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new hybrid genetic algorithm for the vertex cover problems in which scan-repair and local improvement techniques are used for local optimization. With the hybrid approach, genetic algorithms are used to perform global exploration in a population, while neighborhood search methods are used to perform local exploitation around the chromosomes. The experimental results indicate that hybrid genetic algorithms can obtain solutions of excellent quality to the problem instances with different sizes. The pure genetic algorithms are outperformed by the neighborhood search heuristics procedures combined with genetic algorithms.

  6. Theoretical and methodical support of calculating expenses for quality

    OpenAIRE

    Пархоменко, Валерій Миколайович

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid models of calculating expenses for quality on the full life cycle in combination with types of expenses on purpose and model of goods costing considering expenses for quality by standard-functional method have been developed.

  7. Qualidade das silagens de três híbridos de sorgo ensilados em cinco diferentes estádios de maturação Silage quality of three hybrids of sorghum ensiled at five different maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.L. Araújo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as silagens de três híbridos de sorgo de média altura (BR700, BR701 e MASSA 03. Os híbridos foram cortados em cinco diferentes estádios de maturação. Foram avaliados os teores de matéria seca total, pH, teores de nitrogênio amoniacal em porcentagem de nitrogênio total, porcentagem de proteína bruta, frações fibrosas, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e teores de ácidos orgânicos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 5x3 (estádio de maturação ´ híbrido. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste SNK (PThree hybrids of sorghum with medium height (BR700, BR701 e MASSA 03 for silage production were evaluated. Hybrids were harvest at five different maturation stages. Dry matter content, pH, ammonia nitrogen, crude protein, fibrous fractions, in vitro dry matter digestibility and organic acids were determined in silage. A completely randomized block design with three replicates was used. The treatments consisted in a factorial arrangement 5x3 (maturation stages x hybrids. The means were compared by SNK test (P<0.05. Dry matter content and pH values increased with the maturation stage; pH values were always lower than 4.09. No effects of maturation stage of the plant on ammonia nitrogen, fibrous fractions and in vitro dry matter digestibility were found. Organic acids contents suggested that the fermentation inside the silo was enough for preservation of the forage.

  8. Caracterização morfoanatômica do colmo de híbridos de milho para avaliar a qualidade de silagem = Morphoanatomical characterization of corn hybrids stems, in order to evaluate silage quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a caracterização morfoanatômica e suas possíveis correlações com a digestibilidade da parede celular e com a lignina de dez híbridos de milho (DK265bm3, DK265, HS5, HS6, HTV2, HTV27, Anjou285, Mexxal, Pistache e Buxxil, plantados no INRA (Unité de Génétique et d’Amélioration dês Plantes Fourragères, Lusignan-França, em parcelas de 150 m². O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Comexceção ao comprimento do córtex, verificou-se que os híbridos apresentaram diferenças significativas (p The objective was to evaluate morphoanatomical characteristics andpossible correlations with cell wall digestibility and with lignin of ten corn hybrids (DK265bm3, DK265, HS5, HS6, HTV2, HTV27, Anjou285, Mexxal, Pistachio and Buxxil planted at INRA (Unité of Génétique Amélioration des Plant Fourragères, Lusignan, France in 150 m² areas. A completely randomized experimental design with five replications was used. With exception for cortical length, significant differences were verified as for the evaluated morphoanatomical aspects, with hybrid DK265bm3 being characterized by lower counts of lignified cells in the medullar parenchyma and cortical areas, lower percentage of medullar parenchyma and higherpercentage of cortex in relation to other hybrids. However, DK265bm3 did not differ from other hybrids in regards to vascular bundle surface and cell wall thickness of the vascular bundle. Usingcorrelation analysis a positive correlation was observed between the levels of Klason lignin and lignin in acid detergent with the number of lignified cells in the parenchyma and cortex. IVCNDF showed a negative correlation with the proportion of lignified cells in medullar parenchyma and lignified cells in the cortex.

  9. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  10. PENGEMBANGAN PADI VARIETAS UNGGUL HIBRIDA: PENDEKATAN METODE QUALITY FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT DAN SENSITIVITY PRICE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrivinie Rainy Firohmatillah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the way to increase the rice production is the development of using hybrid paddy which is can increase 15-20 percent higher than inbrid rice production. This research was aimed at identifying customer wants and preferences of hybrid paddy attributes, applying Quality Function Deployment method in developing hybrid paddy, analyzing price sensitivity hybrid paddy seed at farm gate price. This research was conducted on April to May 2011. Primary data was collected from 30 costumers (rice field farmers that knows better to hybrid paddy and ciherang paddy the competitor and four hybrid paddy breeders in Balai Besar Penelitian Padi. Quality Function Deployment and Price Sensitivity were applied to analyze the evidence. The results show that the quality of hybrid paddy is need more attention on some attributes. However, the first priority on attribute that should be improved to increase the quality of hybrid paddy is the productivity level.

  11. Construction of subtracted cDNA libraries of gastrocarcinoma and normal tissue with suppression subtractive hybridization and their quality analysis%人胃癌抑制消减cDNA文库的构建及文库质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岚军; 毛秉智; 王升启

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To construct subtracted cDNA libraries of stomach tumors and normal stomach tissue using suppression subtractive hybridization(SSH).Methods: cDNA Library subtraction was performed using the protocol described in the Clontech PCR-Select cDNA Subtraction Kit. cDNA was synthesized from 2 μg of poly A+RNA from the tumor and normal tissues using AMV reverse transcriptase. The tester and driver cDNAs were digested with RsaⅠ, a four-base-cutting restriction enzyme that yields blunt ends. The tester cDNA was then subdivided into two portions, and each was ligated with different cDNA adaptor. Two hybridizations were performed. In the first, an excess of driver was added to each sample of tester. Hybridization kinetics led to equalization and enrichment of differentially expressed sequences. During the second hybridization, the two primary hybridization samples were mixed together without denaturing and thus the templates were generated from differentially expressed sequences for PCR amplification. Using suppression PCR, only differentially expressed sequences were amplified exponentially and after second PCR amplification the background was reduced and differentially expressed sequences were further enriched. The cDNAs were then directly inserted into a T/A cloning vector to generate a stomach tumor-specific subtracted cDNA library. Results: The amplified library contained 800 positive clones. Plasmid inserts were PCR amplified and showed 250-700 bp inserts. Conclusions: The successfully constructed subtracted cDNA library of gastrocarcinoma and normal tissue enables us to compare two populations of mRNA and obtain clones of genes that expressed in one population but not in the other.The characterization of these genes will allow them to be exploited for their diagnostic and therapeutic potentials.%目的:构建人胃癌抑制消减cDNA文库,为进一步大批量筛选、克隆胃癌特异性表达的基因奠定基础。方法:从胃癌和

  12. The Hybrids of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BĂDULESCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization is a fundamental characteristic of postmodernism, included by Ihab Hassan in his “catena” of features. This paper looks into the hybrids of postmodernism, which are the result of migration, displacement and uprooting, the re-visitation of myths, folklore and legends, or projections of their author’s imagination. The hybrids used as examples here are drawn from several novels written by Salman Rushdie, especially The Satanic Verses, two short stories, one by Márquez and the other by Donald Barthelme, Borges’s Book of Imaginary Beings, Cărtărescu’s Encyclopaedia of Dragons and Michelle Cliff’s No Telephone to Heaven. Diverse as they may be, these hybrids emphasize a defining characteristic of postmodernism, which is its pluralism. I conclude that the hybrids of postmodernism are aesthetically or politically subversive. Besides, what makes them difficult to grasp is their unfixed and protean nature. They ask for high leaps of the imagination, a total suspension of disbelief and a complete surrender to the powerful seduction of imagination on the reader’s part.

  13. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  14. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  15. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  16. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  17. Porosity in hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D.W.; Beaucage, G.; Loy, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Multicomponent, or hybrid composites are emerging as precursors to porous materials. Sacrifice of an ephemeral phase can be used to generate porosity, the nature of which depends on precursor structure. Retention of an organic constituent, on the other hand, can add desirable toughness to an otherwise brittle ceramic. We use small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering to examine porosity in both simple and hybrid materials. We find that microphase separation controls porosity in almost all systems studied. Pore distributions are controlled by the detailed bonding within and between phases as well as the flexibility of polymeric constituents. Thus hybridization opens new regions of pore distributions not available in simple systems. We look at several sacrificial concepts and show that it is possible to generate multimodal pore size distributions due to the complicated phase structure in the precursor.

  18. Photoproduction of Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, T

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution I discuss prospects for photoproducing hybrid mesons at CEBAF, based on recent model results and experimental indications of possible hybrids. One excellent opportunity appears to be a search for the I=1, JPC=2+-, neutral "(b2)o" hybrid in (a2 pi)o through diffractive photoproduction. Other notable possibilities accessible through pi+ or pio exchange photoproduction are I=1, JPC=1-+, charged "pi1+" in f1 pi+, (b1 pi)+ and (rho pi)+; piJ(1770)+ in f2 pi+ and (b1 pi)+; pi(1800)+ in f0 pi+, f2 pi+, omega rho+ and (rho pi)+; a1 in f1 pi+ and f2 pi+; and omega in (rho pi)o, omega eta and (K1 K)o.

  19. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  20. Breeding and High-Yield Cultivation Technology of Good Quality Cross Combination Waxy Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.ssp.japonic)%优质粳型杂交糯稻新组合选育及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新其; 邱美良; 郭萱昊; 殷丽青; 李茂柏; 卢有林; 沈革志

    2012-01-01

    为了快速培育高产、优质、抗性强的杂交粳型糯稻新种质,选用综合农艺性状优良的粳型寒丰糯(HFwx),将其与同型的寒丰不育系(HFA)进行育性转换,获得了粳型糯质新不育系寒丰糯(HFwxA),并与自主选育的粳型糯质恢复系配组育成了杂交粳型糯稻新组合(HFwxA/N2R).小区和示范试验结果表明,选育获得的杂交糯稻新组合具有高产、优质、抗性强等特点,具有生产应用前景.杂交糯稻新组合的生育特征特性和高产栽培技术的试验总结,对杂交糯稻的推广应用和产业化发展都具有十分重要的参考意义.%In order to quick breed a new high yield,high quality and strong resistance hybrid glutinous rice germplasm (Oryza sativa L. Ssp. Japonic) ,japonica rice (HFwxB) with good comprehensive agronomic was obtained and translated into HFwxA by using it's the same type of CMS (HFA), a new hybrid glutinous rice germplasm was gotten and named Nuoza 2 (HFwxA/N2R). The small field test and demonstration trials indicated that the new combination of Oryza sativa L. Ssp. Japonic was high-yield, good quality and strong resistance, which could be applied and extended. The high-yield cultivation techniques and breeding characters of the hybrid new combination are very useful for its application and industrialization development.

  1. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  2. Hybrid Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Luo, Xi; Dai, Xi; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2016-09-01

    We construct a tight-binding model realizing one pair of Weyl nodes and three distinct Weyl semimetals. In the type-I (type-II) Weyl semimetal, both nodes belong to type-I (type-II) Weyl nodes. In addition, there exists a third type, previously undiscovered and dubbed "hybrid Weyl semimetal", in which one Weyl node is of type I while the other is of type II. For the hybrid Weyl semimetal, we further demonstrate the bulk Fermi surfaces and the topologically protected surface states, analyze the unique Landau-level structure and quantum oscillation, and discuss the conditions for possible material realization.

  3. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  4. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  5. THERMALLY CLEAVABLE HYBRID MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gaina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermally cleavable hybrid materials were prepared by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of poly(vinyl furfural to N phenylmaleimido-N’-(triethoxysilylpropylurea followed by the sol-gel condensation reaction of trietoxysilyl groups with water and acetic acid. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis, dielectric and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The size of the inorganic silica particles in the hybrid material varied dependent on the silica content. The DSC study of the prepared materials revealed that the cleavage process of the formed cycloadducts takes place at temperatures varying between 143-165°C and is an endothermic process.

  6. The hybrid BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Pfurtscheller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has 2 engines, its main purpose being to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a typical hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI is also composed of 2 BCIs or at least one BCI and another system. Such a hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfil the following four criteria: (i the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii real time processing; and (iv the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces some hybrid BCIs which have already been published or are currently in development or validation, and some concepts for future work. The BCIs described classify 2 EEG patterns: One is the event-related (desynchronisation (ERD, ERS of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP. The hybrid BCI can either have more than one input whereby the inputs are typically processed simultaneously or operate 2 systems sequentially, whereby the first system can act as a “brain switch”. In the case of self-paced operation of a SSVEP-based hand orthosis control with an motor imagery-based switch it was possible to reduce the rate of false positives during resting periods by about 50% compared to the SSVEP BCI alone. It is shown that such a brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Another interesting approach is a hybrid BCI with simultaneous operations of ERD- and SSVEP-based BCIs. Here it is important to prove the existing promising offline simulation results with online experiments. Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and another input. Such an additional input can be a physiological signal like the heart rate but also a signal from an external device like, an eye gaze control system.

  7. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  8. Novel Hybrid Model: Integrating Scrum and XP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaigham Mushtaq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Scrum does not provide any direction about how to engineer a software product. The project team has to adopt suitable agile process model for the engineering of software. XP process model is mainly focused on engineering practices rather than management practices. The design of XP process makes it suitable for simple and small size projects and not appropriate for medium and large projects. A fine integration of management and engineering practices is desperately required to build quality product to make it valuable for customers. In this research a novel framework hybrid model is proposed to achieve this integration. The proposed hybrid model is actually an express version of Scrum model. It possesses features of engineering practices that are necessary to develop quality software as per customer requirements and company objectives. A case study is conducted to validate the proposal of hybrid model. The results of the case study reveal that proposed model is an improved version of XP and Scrum model.

  9. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  10. (Hybrid) Baryons Symmetries and Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1999-01-01

    We construct (hybrid) baryons in the flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. In the limit of adiabatic quark motion, we build proper eigenstates of orbital angular momentum and construct the flavour, spin and J^P of hybrid baryons from the symmetries of the system. The lowest mass hybrid baryon is estimated at approximately 2 GeV.

  11. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  12. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  13. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een s

  14. Organics go hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; Petrozza, Annamaria; Caironi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    From displays to solar cells, the field of organic optoelectronics has come a long way over the past 50 years, but the realization of an electrically pumped organic laser remains elusive. The answer may lie with hybrid organic-inorganic materials called perovskites.

  15. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    Most protocols for distributed, fault-tolerant computation, or multi-party computation (MPC), provide security guarantees in an all-or-nothing fashion. In contrast, a hybrid-secure protocol provides different security guarantees depending on the set of corrupted parties and the computational powe...

  16. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  17. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  18. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  19. Autonomous Self-Propelling Microcircuit Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    This research project established the foundation of a new approach for design and operation of actively controlled nanofluidic -electronic chips for...scattering were -72.7 mV and -131 mV correspondingly. The suspensions were injected into the channel through two syringe needles inserted in the short...Flow of particle suspension in a microfluidic channel generated by two diodes embedded in the top and bottom sides of the channel, as observed from

  20. Microcircuit Modeling and Simulation beyond Ohm's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, T.; Chek, D. C. Y.; Tan, M. L. P.; Arora, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    Circuit theory textbooks rely heavily on the applicability of Ohm's law, which collapses as electronic components reach micro- and nanoscale dimensions. Circuit analysis is examined in the regime where the applied voltage V is greater than the critical voltage V[subscript c], which triggers the nonlinear behavior. The critical voltage is infinity…

  1. Microcircuit Device Reliability. Digital Failure Rate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    U- OjO ^-*mog«tOf-< r-t^Of-Hf-Hi-’POOO a* a» o oo oo a* <M o co *r r^ u> m u> *ä m o^ -H c\\j •-» o * in csi oo o ^ ^ •-• * o ^t...a :HAMIPACTUBEB :OPEBATI( MAL TYPE RELIABILITY ANALYSIS CENTER t PAW 1 M. : DIVICI : PUNCTIOM : SOU. 1 CLASS : PACKAGE/ ■ 1 PINS

  2. Electrical Characterization of Special Purpose Linear Microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Forced voltage VHS "Hold" step voltage VIH Logic ŕ" input voltage VII, Logic Ŕ" input voltage VIN Input voltage V10 Input offset voltage VIO AW...This measurement is performed similar to (10), but with Vcc = + 15 VDC, VIH = + 10.4 , and K6 energized. 12. Gain Error Drift (F7SW AT) The unipolar

  3. Inhibitory microcircuit modules in hippocampal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, Pico

    2015-12-01

    It has recently become possible to investigate connectivities and roles of identified hippocampal GABAergic interneurons (INs) in behaving rodents. INs targeting distinct pyramidal neuron subcompartments are recruited dynamically at defined phases of behavior and learning. They include Parvalbumin Axo-axonic and perisomatic Basket cells, and Somatostatin radiatum-oriens and oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells. Each IN is in turn either activated or inhibited upon specific behavioral and network state requirements through specific inputs and neuromodulators. Subpopulations of these principal neurons and INs interconnect selectively, suggesting selective processing and routing of alternate information streams. First canonical functional modules have emerged, which will have to be further defined and linked to identified afferents and efferents towards a circuit understanding of how hippocampal networks support behavior.

  4. Conduction Mechanisms in Thick Film Microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    AREMCO 3100 Screen Printing Machine 53 3.11 Squeegee Design 55 3.12 Effect of Screen Printer Parameters on Filin Weight Deposited 59 3.13 Variation of...deviation of printing performance. This is discussed in greater detail sIfter the materials and machine are described. 3.5.2 Screening Material and...beyoni the range of monolithic technology can be satisfied by combining monolithic and thick film technologies. Design functions such as flexibility

  5. Microcircuit Device Reliability Memory/Digital LSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    co^O’-’cMn^mvp en C) ^ ^ ^- •»■*>» «» en K.«*rvr>oocnoooir’»©cs<ni/^cn^ «^ srm ^o-»w»c<^inrfr(octMO CM ^ •* c» o^ »n _ j i i...U5 7.USE 04 l.UUE 03 7.4UE 04 S.Ü2E U4 5.22E U4 1.10t 06 y. 57E 04 2.UUE 03 1.95E US 5.02E U4 6.UÜE 03 9.8ÜE U4 SOU 6 1U0 : 3 97

  6. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  7. Hybrid classifiers methods of data, knowledge, and classifier combination

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a definite and compact knowledge on how hybridization can help improving the quality of computer classification systems. In order to make readers clearly realize the knowledge of hybridization, this book primarily focuses on introducing the different levels of hybridization and illuminating what problems we will face with as dealing with such projects. In the first instance the data and knowledge incorporated in hybridization were the action points, and then a still growing up area of classifier systems known as combined classifiers was considered. This book comprises the aforementioned state-of-the-art topics and the latest research results of the author and his team from Department of Systems and Computer Networks, Wroclaw University of Technology, including as classifier based on feature space splitting, one-class classification, imbalance data, and data stream classification.

  8. New Variational Formulations of Hybrid Stress Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, T. H. H.; Sumihara, K.; Kang, D.

    1984-01-01

    In the variational formulations of finite elements by the Hu-Washizu and Hellinger-Reissner principles the stress equilibrium condition is maintained by the inclusion of internal displacements which function as the Lagrange multipliers for the constraints. These versions permit the use of natural coordinates and the relaxation of the equilibrium conditions and render considerable improvements in the assumed stress hybrid elements. These include the derivation of invariant hybrid elements which possess the ideal qualities such as minimum sensitivity to geometric distortions, minimum number of independent stress parameters, rank sufficient, and ability to represent constant strain states and bending moments. Another application is the formulation of semiLoof thin shell elements which can yield excellent results for many severe test cases because the rigid body nodes, the momentless membrane strains, and the inextensional bending modes are all represented.

  9. Qualidade de frutos de tomate da cv. Santa Clara, mutante de fruto amarelo e seus híbridos F1 Quality of tomato red fruit, cv. Santa Clara, its yellow mutant and respective F1 hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizanilda R. do Rêgo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização de alguns atributos físicos e químicos de frutos de tomate da cv. Santa Clara, um mutante de fruto amarelo, e o híbrido F1 obtido do cruzamento entre eles, foi feita com base nos teores de b-caroteno, licopeno, vitamina C, pH, matéria fresca, matéria seca, diâmetro do fruto, diâmetro do pericarpo, acidez e sólidos solúveis totais dos tecidos loculares e do pericarpo. Os frutos maduros amarelos apresentaram teores reduzidos de b-caroteno, licopeno e vitamina C, enquanto o híbrido apresentou teores semelhantes ao genótipo normal. Tanto o fruto mutante quanto o F1 apresentaram teor de pH menor que o do fruto normal. Não houve diferença significativa quanto a matéria fresca e seca totais, diâmetro do fruto e do pericarpo e acidez. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais do pericarpo foram inferiores nos frutos do mutante amarelo e F1, em relação ao genótipo normal, enquanto os teores de sólidos solúveis totais da massa locular não diferiram, estatisticamente, entre os genótipos.The determination of some physical and chemical attributes of red fruits from tomato cv. Santa Clara, a yellow mutant and the F1 hybrid, were based on b-carotene, lycopene, vitamin C, pH, fresh and dry weight matter, pericarp and fruit diameter, titrateable acidity and total soluble solids. Ripe fruits of the yellow mutant showed reduced levels of b-carotene, lycopene and vitamin C, while fruits of the F1 hybrid showed levels of carotenoid pigments and vitamin C similar to the red fruit. Both mutant and F1 ripe fruits showed lower pH levels than the red parentals. Total fresh fruit and dry weight matter, pericarp and fruit diameter, and acidity were similar in the three genotypes studied. The total soluble-solids content of the pericarp was lower in the mutant and F1 fruits, whereas their concentration in the locule tissues was similar in all genotypes.

  10. Characterization of Hybrid CNT Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Pressley, James; Sauti, Godfrey; Czabaj, Michael W.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied extensively since their discovery and demonstrated at the nanoscale superior mechanical, electrical and thermal properties in comparison to micro and macro scale properties of conventional engineering materials. This combination of properties suggests their potential to enhance multi-functionality of composites in regions of primary structures on aerospace vehicles where lightweight materials with improved thermal and electrical conductivity are desirable. In this study, hybrid multifunctional polymer matrix composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets into Hexcel® IM7/8552 prepreg, a well-characterized toughened epoxy carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The resin content of these interleaved CNT sheets, as well as ply stacking location were varied to determine the effects on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical performance of the composites. The direct-current electrical conductivity of the hybrid CNT composites was characterized by in-line and Montgomery four-probe methods. For [0](sub 20) laminates containing a single layer of CNT sheet between each ply of IM7/8552, in-plane electrical conductivity of the hybrid laminate increased significantly, while in-plane thermal conductivity increased only slightly in comparison to the control IM7/8552 laminates. Photo-microscopy and short beam shear (SBS) strength tests were used to characterize the consolidation quality of the fabricated laminates. Hybrid panels fabricated without any pretreatment of the CNT sheets resulted in a SBS strength reduction of 70 percent. Aligning the tubes and pre-infusing the CNT sheets with resin significantly improved the SBS strength of the hybrid composite To determine the cause of this performance reduction, Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness of the CNT sheet to CFRP interface was characterized by double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) testing, respectively. Results are compared to the

  11. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  12. High-yielding Seed Production Techniques for Two-line Good Quality Hybrid Rice Combination Y Liangyou 5866 Planted as Post-tobacco Rice%优质两系杂交稻Y两优5866烟后高产制种技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄邵荣

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we introduced the parent,s characteristics of two-line good quality hybrid rice Y Liangyou 5866. At the same time, this paper also summarized the rice high-yielding seed production technology planted as post-tobacco rice, which contained reasonable arrangements for the parents of the sowing gap stage, cultivating more tillers seedlings, scientific field management, integrated pest management, create the parents of high yield population, scientific spraying “920”, improve the outcrossing rate, strictly to miscellaneous go bad, ensure the seed quality and so on several aspects.%介绍了优质两系杂交水稻Y两优5866亲本的特征特性,结合3a制种实践,总结其烟后高产制种技术:合理安排父母本播种差期,培育多蘖壮秧、科学田管、综合防治病虫、创建父母本高产群体,科学喷施“九二○”、提高异交结实率,严格去杂去劣、确保种子质量等几个环节。

  13. MCM-C Multichip Module Manufacturing Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, R.J.; Kautz, D.R.; Galichia, J.V.

    2000-11-20

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) provides complete microcircuit capabilities from design layout through manufacturing and final electrical testing. Manufacturing and testing capabilities include design layout, electrical and mechanical computer simulation and modeling, circuit analysis, component analysis, network fabrication, microelectronic assembly, electrical tester design, electrical testing, materials analysis, and environmental evaluation. This document provides manufacturing guidelines for multichip module-ceramic (MCM-C) microcircuits. Figure 1 illustrates an example MCM-C configuration with the parts and processes that are available. The MCM-C technology is used to manufacture microcircuits for electronic systems that require increased performance, reduced volume, and higher density that cannot be achieved by the standard hybrid microcircuit or printed wiring board technologies. The guidelines focus on the manufacturability issues that must be considered for low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) network fabrication and MCM assembly and the impact that process capabilities have on the overall MCM design layout and product yield. Prerequisites that are necessary to initiate the MCM design layout include electrical, mechanical, and environmental requirements. Customer design data can be accepted in many standard electronic file formats. Other requirements include schedule, quantity, cost, classification, and quality level. Design considerations include electrical, network, packaging, and producibility; and deliverables include finished product, drawings, documentation, and electronic files.

  14. MCM-C Multichip Module Manufacturing Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, R.J.; Kautz, D.R.; Galichia, J.V.

    2000-11-20

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) provides complete microcircuit capabilities from design layout through manufacturing and final electrical testing. Manufacturing and testing capabilities include design layout, electrical and mechanical computer simulation and modeling, circuit analysis, component analysis, network fabrication, microelectronic assembly, electrical tester design, electrical testing, materials analysis, and environmental evaluation. This document provides manufacturing guidelines for multichip module-ceramic (MCM-C) microcircuits. Figure 1 illustrates an example MCM-C configuration with the parts and processes that are available. The MCM-C technology is used to manufacture microcircuits for electronic systems that require increased performance, reduced volume, and higher density that cannot be achieved by the standard hybrid microcircuit or printed wiring board technologies. The guidelines focus on the manufacturability issues that must be considered for low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) network fabrication and MCM assembly and the impact that process capabilities have on the overall MCM design layout and product yield. Prerequisites that are necessary to initiate the MCM design layout include electrical, mechanical, and environmental requirements. Customer design data can be accepted in many standard electronic file formats. Other requirements include schedule, quantity, cost, classification, and quality level. Design considerations include electrical, network, packaging, and producibility; and deliverables include finished product, drawings, documentation, and electronic files.

  15. evaluation of striga-resistant early maize hybrids and test locations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    to evaluate selected Striga-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids for grain yield and stability ... test locations possessed high discriminating ability. ... many inbred lines that combine earliness with ...... quality protein maize cultivars in stress and.

  16. Studies on CO2-laser Hybrid-Welding of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    CO2-laser welding of copper is known to be difficult due to the high heat conductivity of the material and the high reflectivity of copper at the wavelength of the CO2-laser light. THis paper presents a study of laser welding of copper, applying laser hybrid welding. Welding was performed...... as a hybrid CO2-laser and GTAW welding process in 2 mm pure copper sheets. The purpose was to identify maximum welding speeds for the three independent welding processes, i.e. GTAW alone, laser alone and combined processes. After welding, representative welds were quality assesed according to inernational...... norms. The paper describes the results obtained, showing significant productivity improvements and good weld qualities applying laser hybrid welding....

  17. Studies on CO2-laser Hybrid-Welding of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    CO2-laser welding of copper is known to be difficult due to the high heat conductivity of the material and the high reflectivity of copper at the wavelength of the CO2-laser light. THis paper presents a study of laser welding of copper, applying laser hybrid welding. Welding was performed...... as a hybrid CO2-laser and GTAW welding process in 2 mm pure copper sheets. The purpose was to identify maximum welding speeds for the three independent welding processes, i.e. GTAW alone, laser alone and combined processes. After welding, representative welds were quality assesed according to inernational...... norms. The paper describes the results obtained, showing significant productivity improvements and good weld qualities applying laser hybrid welding....

  18. Engineering of small interfering RNA-loaded lipidoid-poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) hybrid nanoparticles for highly efficient and safe gene silencing: A quality by design-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanki, Kaushik; Zeng, Xianghui; Justesen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    ), eventually resulting in the identification of a robust, highly efficacious and safe formulation. A 17-run design of experiment with an I-optimal approach was performed to systematically assess the effect of selected variables on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e. physicochemical properties...... formulation is highly challenging due to a strong interplay between several contributing factors. Hence, critical formulation variables, i.e. the lipidoid content and siRNA:lipidoid ratio, were initially identified, followed by a systematic quality-by-design approach to define the optimal operating space (OOS...... (hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, siRNA encapsulation/loading) and the biological performance (in vitro gene silencing and cell viability). Model fitting of the obtained data to construct predictive models revealed non-linear relationships for all CQAs, which can be readily overlooked in one...

  19. Commercial quality of different corn hybrids as a function of grain moisture content during the harvest Qualidade comercial de diferentes híbridos de milho em função do teor de água nos grãos durante a colheita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Pricinotto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was evaluate the commercial quality of grains of differents commercial corn hybrids as a function of grain moisture content during the harvest. The work was conducted in Astorga – PR, during the autumn/winter harvest of 2007 and the summer harvest of 2007/2008, evaluated three hybrids for harvest. The corn grain samples were collected in five distinguished periods and also in five replications, being underwent to moisture content determination at an oven heated to 103 ± 1 ºC for 72 h. The samples were passed through metal sieves of circular sieve of 4.76 mm in diameter and then the waste is manually separated portions of the impurities, broken grain and grain damaged by insects. The data were submitted to analyses of variance and regression under a arrangement completely randomized design, The percentages of impurities were higher in crop moisture content higher. While the percentage of broken grains were lower, regardless of the hybrid and the trial period. The percentage of grain damaged by insects raised linearly with the reduction of moisture in corn grains, in all hybrids and in two evaluation periods. The moisture content between 22.0% and 26.0% (w.b. proportionated the best quality of the corn grain, considered this humitidy band as the best moment to harvest grains. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade comercial dos grãos de diferentes híbridos comerciais de milho em função do teor de água nos mesmos durante a colheita. O trabalho foi conduzido em Astorga – PR, durante o período da safrinha de 2007 e da safra de verão de 2007/2008, sendo três híbridos avaliados em cada período. As amostras de grãos foram colhidas em cinco épocas distintas com cinco repetições e submetidas à determinação do teor de água pelo método da estufa a 103 ± 1 ºC por 72 h. Posteriormente, as amostras foram passadas por peneiras metálicas de crivo circular de 4,76 mm de diâmetro e, em seguida, os res

  20. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  1. 杂交对杜泊羊与蒙古羊杂交后代屠宰性能及肉品质影响%Effect of Cross-breeding on Slaughter Performance and Meat Quality of Hybrid Offspring of Dorper and Mongolian Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田瑛; 刘贵忠; 李靖; 杜文; 达来; 周旋; 杨燕燕; 乌达巴拉; 青格勒; 杨峻明; 武金栋

    2016-01-01

    为了研究蒙古羊与杜泊羊杂交优势,试验以蒙古羊、杜蒙羊F1和杜蒙羊F2为研究对象,测定其屠宰性能及肉品质。结果表明:同为6月龄,杜蒙羊F2活体重、胴体重、净肉率、屠宰率、胴体产肉率、眼肌面积、背肉厚均高于杜蒙羊F1和蒙古羊,且与蒙古羊活体重、胴体重、净肉率、屠宰率差异显著(P杜蒙羊F1>蒙古羊;杜蒙羊F2与杜蒙羊F1剪切力低于蒙古羊,二者肉品嫩度好于蒙古羊。以上结果显示,优良品种杂交提高了后代屠宰性能,改善后代羊肉品的色泽和嫩度,使后代肉呈现鲜艳亮红色,嫩度好于亲本蒙古羊。通过优良品种杂交,能够凸显出优良品种选育的优势。%In order to assess the heterosis of Dorper and Mongolian Sheep, the Mongolian goat and the first-filial generation (F1) and second-filial generation (F2) of hybrid offspring of Dorper and Mongolian Sheep were selected to statistically evaluate their slaughter performance and meat quality. The results showed that at the age of six months, the F2 offspring had higher live weight, carcass weight, pure meat percentage, slaughtering percentage, carcass products percentage, and eye muscle area than that of F 1 offspring and Mongolian Sheep, and significant differences in live weight, carcass weight, pure meat percentage and slaughtering percentage between F2 offspring and Mongolian Sheep were observed (PF1>Mongolian Sheep;F2 and F1 offspring had higher shear stress and better tenderness than that of Mongolian Sheep. The combined data showed that the slaughter performance was improved by hybrid. The meat of the hybrid offspring achieved better performance in color (bright red colored) and tenderness than that of parents. The heterosis is expressed by cross-breeding of fine sheep breeds.

  2. The vascular hybrid room--operating room of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Lovricević, Ivo; Zovak, Mario; Schmidt, Sasa

    2010-09-01

    The last two decades have seen a paradigm shift in the treatment of vascular related diseases from once traditional open surgical repairs to the entire vascular tree being amenable to percutaneous interventions. Neither the classic operating room nor the conventional angiography suite is optimal for both open surgery and endovascular procedures. Important issues for the vascular hybrid operating room include quality of the imaging equipment, radiation burden, ease of use of the equipment, need for specially trained personnel, ergonomics, ability to perform both open and percutaneous procedures, sterile environments, as well as quality and efficiency of patient care. The most important feature of working in a dedicated hybrid vascular suite should be the ability to attain best treatment of vascular patients. Whether the interventional radiologist or the vascular surgeon uses the facilities is of less importance. Establishment of an endovascular operating room suite has the benefit of a sterile environment, and the possibility of performing hybrid procedures and conversions when necessary. Moreover, angiography immediately before treatment gives contemporary anatomical information, and after treatment provides quality control. Consequently, better quality and service can be provided to the individual patient. These changes in the treatment of vascular disease require that a new type of vascular specialist, named 'vascular hybrid surgeon', trained to perform both endovascular and open surgical procedures in this highly complex patient group.

  3. ADОPTIVE CONTROL OF THE HYBRID VEHICLE POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive control of the hybrid vehicle power unit, which makes it possible to minimize the quality criterion under constraints on the state parameters and the control vector is considered. A formal statement of the optimization problem is given. The solution of this problem by the method of neural network control based on the adaptive criticism is considered.

  4. Hybrid ant colony algorithm for traveling salesman problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A hybrid approach based on ant colony algorithm for the traveling salesman problem is proposed, which is an improved algorithm characterized by adding a local search mechanism, a cross-removing strategy and candidate lists. Experimental results show that it is competitive in terms of solution quality and computation time.

  5. Confinement Effects in Low-Dimensional Lead Iodide Perovskite Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Honghua; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano; Baas, Jacobus; Blake, Graeme R.; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a layered solution crystal growth technique to synthesize high-quality single crystals of phenylalkylammonium lead iodide organic/inorganic hybrid compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals low-dimensional structures consisting of inorganic sheets separated by bilayers of the organic

  6. High-yield Cultivation of Tongza 411-hybrid Cotton with Fine Quality and Pest Resistance%优质抗虫杂交棉铜杂411高产栽培技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨祖荣; 周健; 刘军杰; 何讯

    2014-01-01

    New hybrid cotton variety-Tongza 411,released by the National Commission for Crops Varieties Evaluation, has su-perior features of high yield, good stress resistance coordinating big bolls well with being fruitful in the field demonstrations of recent years. Key points for high-yield cultivation of Tongza 411 were concluded based on its characteristics and practices to speed up its commercialization and to stimulate its potential for increasing cotton growers’ profit. The key points include in-creasing plant density, enhancing K rate, reducing N rate, controlling the plant height, and preventing pest and disease.%铜杂411是通过国家农作物品种审定委员会审定的抗虫杂交棉新品种,几年的大面积示范推广表明,该品种具有结铃性强、铃大、综合抗性和丰产性好等优势。为了充分发挥品种潜力,促进棉农增产增收,结合近年来市场反馈,归纳了铜杂411的品种特性以及高产栽培技术要点,重点针对“增加密度、增施钾肥、控制氮肥、控制株高、防治病虫”5个关键环节提出建议,旨在通过良种良法配套获得高产增收。

  7. Phoxonic Hybrid Superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Redondo, Elena; Huesmann, Hannah; El Boudouti, El-Houssaine; Tremel, Wolfgang; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Fytas, George

    2015-06-17

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the direction-dependent elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation in a supported film of hybrid PMMA (poly[methyl-methacrylate])-TiO2 superlattice (SL). In the direction normal to the layers, this one-dimensional periodic structure opens propagation band gaps for both hypersonic (GHz) phonons and near-UV photons. The high mismatch of elastic and optical impedance results in a large dual phoxonic band gap. The presence of defects inherent to the spin-coating fabrication technique is sensitively manifested in the band gap region. Utilizing Brillouin light scattering, phonon propagation along the layers was observed to be distinctly different from propagation normal to them and can, under certain conditions (SL thickness and substrate elasticity), reveal the nanomechanical properties of the constituent layers. Besides the first realization of unidirectional phoxonic behavior, hybrid (soft-hard) periodic materials are a promising simple platform for opto-acoustic interactions and applications such as filters and Bragg mirrors.

  8. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  9. A Pseudoscalar Hybrid Meson?

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    New experimental information on the non--exotic J^{PC} = 0^{-+} isovector seen at 1.8 GeV by VES yields convincing evidence of its excited gluonic (hybrid) nature when a critical study of alternative quarkonium assignments is made in the context of ^3 P_0 decay by flux--tube breaking. Production of this gluonic excitation via meson exchange is promising, although its two photon production vanishes.

  10. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  11. Fibonacci-Pell Hybridities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    We develop a recurrence satisfied by the Fibonacci and Pell families. We then use it to find explicit formulae and generating functions for the hybrids "F[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "F[subscript n]Q[subscript n]" and "L[subscript n]Q[subscript n]", where "F[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]", "P[subscript n]" and…

  12. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  13. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  14. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  15. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashish

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1) It takes into account the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2) For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, the hybrid auction can result in significantly higher revenue. 3) An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's es...

  16. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  17. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Hybrid plasmonic microcavity with an air-filled gap for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Binbin; Wu, Genzhu; Chen, Daru

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid plasmonic microcavity with air-filled regions in the low-permittivity dielectric gap is proposed for sensing applications. Compared with the conventional structure with homogeneous gap, the introduced air-filled regions could improve the key modal characteristics of the hybrid mode. Simulation results reveal that this kind of hybrid microcavity maintains low loss with high quality factor ∼3062, and high field confinement with small mode volume 0.891 μm3. Moreover, in the sensing applications, this hybrid microcavity features simultaneously large refractive index sensitivity of 100 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and relatively high quality factor of 3062. Hence, it shows that the hybrid plasmonic microcavity has potential applications in ultra-compact refractive index sensor.

  19. 不同杂交组合育肥羔羊生长、屠宰性能和肉品质的研究%Effects of Different Hybridized Combination Fattening Lambs on Growth and Slaughter Performance and Meat Quality Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫秋良; 金海国; 赵玉民; 曹阳; 孙仁; 赵云辉; 武斌; 马惠海

    2013-01-01

    To provide theoretical foundation for the breeding of excellent meat sheep variety growth and slaughter performance and meat quality traits of three different hybridized combination fattening lambs were investigated . The F, generations of DH ( n = 14) , NB ( n = 18 ) and HB sheep ( n = 12 ) were selected as experiment animals. After they were fed under the same raising condition for nine months, part of them were slaughtered to compare slaughter performance and meat quality. The results showed as follows; 1) The average daily gain (ADG) of DH F1 was 252. 81 g/d, which is greatly significantly higher than that of HB F1 (P 0. 05) ; 3) Marbling score of NB F1 sheep was greatly significantly higher than that of DH F1 and HB F1 (P <0. 01). Cooking meat percentage of NB F1 sheep was significantly higher than that of HB F1 ( P < 0. 05). Hybrid combination of Dorper sheep x Small-tail Han sheep in growth and slaughter performance was obvious.%通过饲养试验对3个不同杂交组合育肥羔羊生产性能、屠宰性能和肉品质进行了研究,为选育优质肉羊品种提供理论基础.选取杜寒14只,南本18只,寒本12只为研究对象,相同条件下,饲养到9月龄,选取部分试羊进行屠宰,比较其屠宰性能和肉品质.结果表明:杜寒F1羔羊全期平均日增重达252.81 g,极显著高于寒本(P<0.01),显著高于南本(P<0.05),南本显著高于寒本(P<0.05);杜寒的屠宰率和净肉率极显著高于寒本(P<0.01),显著高于南本(P<0.05),南本与寒本差异不显著(P>0.05);南本的大理石纹极显著高于杜寒与寒本(P<0.01).南本的熟肉率显著高于寒本(P<0.05).杜寒杂交组合生产性能和屠宰性能优势明显.

  20. Influência da quantidade de pólen na produção e qualidade de sementes híbridas de abóbora Influence of pollen amount on production and quality of squash hybrid seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A baixa produção de sementes híbridas de abóbora obtida em nossas condições deve-se provavelmente aos métodos de produção pouco eficientes. A quantidade de pólen transferido naturalmente ou artificialmente entre os parentais pode afetar não só a produção como também a qualidade das sementes híbridas. Neste estudo, utilizou-se a polinização manual, a qual constou de cinco tratamentos relacionados com a quantidade de pólen do progenitor masculino para polinizar uma única flor feminina: um quarto da quantidade de pólen de uma flor; metade da quantidade de pólen de uma flor; a quantidade de pólen de uma flor; a quantidade de pólen de duas flores, e a quantidade de pólen de quatro flores masculinas. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e dezoito plantas por parcela. O aumento da quantidade de pólen aplicada aumentou a produção de sementes por fruto e consequentemente a produção de sementes por área. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes praticamente não foi afetada entre os tratamentos, embora foi observada uma menor germinação das sementes obtidas em frutos provenientes de flores polinizadas com 1/4 de pólen.The low production of squash hybrid seeds obtained in our conditions is probably due to the inefficient production methods. The amount of pollen transferred naturally or artificially between the two parents may affect not only the hybrid seed production but also the seed quality of squash. In this study, flowers were manually pollinated using five amounts of pollen to pollinate one female flower: 1/4 of pollen from one flower; half of the amount of pollen from one flower; pollen of one flower; pollen of two flowers and pollen of four flowers. The randomized complete block design was adopted, with three replications and eighteen plants per plot. The increasing pollen amount affected significantly seed yield per fruit and seed yield per area, but did not influence

  1. Analysis of arc pressure and its weld quality in hybrid ultra-high frequency pulse VP-GTAW process%HPVP-GTAW电弧力及焊接质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    从保强; 齐铂金; 杨明轩; 李伟; 王乐笑; 杨舟; 李玉龙

    2013-01-01

    分别以3种不同材质铝合金平板材料为试验对象,研究分析了复合超高频脉冲方波变极性钨极氩弧焊接(HPVP-GTAW)过程中电弧力的变化及其对焊缝成形特征和接头力学性能的影响.结果表明,与常规变极性氩弧焊工艺相比,脉冲方波电流的加入使得HPVP-GTAW电弧力显著增加,同时焊缝熔透率大幅提高,接头力学性能得到明显改善和提高;保持脉冲电流幅值和占空比基本不变,在10~80 kHz范围内,脉冲电流频率对焊接过程产生了重要影响,频率为40 kHz时,HPVP-GTAW电弧力和焊缝熔透率均达到最大,分别约为常规变极性焊接电弧的1.9倍和1.7倍.%The variations of arc pressure and weld characteristics in the welding of 2219, 2A14 and 5A06 aluminum alloys were investigated based on the hybrid ultrahigh frequency pulse current variable polarity gas tungsten arc welding ( HPVP-GTAW) process. The experimental results show that compared with the conventional VP-GTAW ( variable polarity gas tungsten arc welding) process, arc pressure and weld penetration expressed by the ratio of weld depth to width are enhanced predominantly with the effect of high frequency pulse current. Mechanical properties of welded joints are improved obviously. At the given pulse current amplitude and pulse duty cycle, the welding process is influenced significantly by the pulse current frequency in the range of 10 kHz to 80 kHz. At the given pulse frequency of 40 kHz, arc pressure and weld penetration of welded joints increased by about 90% and 70% , respectively, compared with that of welded joints with no effect of pulse current.

  2. Meiotic behavior of Brachiaria decumbens hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, V F; Pagliarini, M S; Valle, C B; Bione, N C P; Menon, M U; Mendes-Bonato, A B

    2015-10-21

    Brachiaria decumbens is a forage grass of inestimable value for livestock in Brazil due to its production of good quality forage even when planted on acid and poor soils, although it is susceptible to pasture spittlebugs. Only one cultivar, cv. Basilisk, has been used as the pollen donor in crosses with Brachiaria ruziziensis since 1988 at Embrapa Gado de Corte Research Center. Breeding within the species only became possible from 2009 when sexual accessions were successfully tetraploidized using colchicine. Three sexual genotypes were obtained and hybridization within B. decumbens was finally achieved. Here, we evaluated microspore tetrads using conventional cytology and found meiotic indexes above 78% for all three female genitors (cD24-2, cD24-27, cD24-45), but a low meiotic index (abnormal tetrad frequency and non-viable pollen grains yielded a highly significant Pearson correlation coefficient. The t-test proved significant for the progeny of cD24-45 x D62, with lower abnormalities and pollen sterility when compared to the other two progenies resulting from cD24-2 and cD24-27 crossed to D62, but these two did not differ. Apomictic hybrids such as S036 and X030 with low pollen sterility have the potential for use in cultivar development, whereas the sexual hybrids T012, X072, and X078 might be of use as female genitors in polycross blocks if they display good agronomic traits.

  3. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  4. Borneo: The new NS sunflower confectionary type hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, beside the basic direction in sunflower breeding, the creation of standard hybrids with high oil content with high seed and oil yield, hybrids are being created for special confectionery purposes directed towards the final kernel products. In this program, apart from breeding in order to improve main seed yield components, special attention is given to the increase of protein content and the quality with the decrease of seed oil content, to the increase of the weight of 1000 seeds and to the decrease of content of the shell. Two-line SC hybrid was created by crossing the cytoplasmatic male sterile line of the mother with a father line with fertility restoration genes. Borneo is a high protein confectionary type hybrid that has been registered in Slovakia (EU in 2009. It contains successfully combined genes responsible for high genetic potential for yield and valuable technical and technological seed traits. The hybrid is adequate for nutrition, dehuling and kernel production. Borneo is a medium early hybrid with the genetic potential for yield of over 4,5t/ha and its seed oil content is under 43%. .

  5. Hybrid micro-/nanogels for optical sensing and intracellular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqin Zhou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid micro-/nanogels are playing an increasing important part in a diverse range of applications, due to their tunable dimensions, large surface area, stable interior network structure, and a very short response time. We review recent advances and challenges in the developments of hybrid micro-/nanogels toward applications for optical sensing of pH, temperature, glucose, ions, and other species as well as for intracellular imaging. Due to their unique advantages, hybrid micro-/nanogels as optical probes are attracting substantial interests for continuous monitoring of chemical parameters in complex samples such as blood and bioreactor fluids, in chemical research and industry, and in food quality control. In particular, their intracellular probing ability enables the monitoring of the biochemistry and biophysics of live cells over time and space, thus contributing to the explanation of intricate biological processes and the development of novel diagnoses. Unlike most other probes, hybrid micro-/nanogels could also combine other multiple functions into a single probe. The rational design of hybrid micro-/nanogels will not only improve the probing applications as desirable, but also implement their applications in new arenas. With ongoing rapid advances in bionanotechnology, the well-designed hybrid micro-/nanogel probes will be able to provide simultaneous sensing, imaging diagnosis, and therapy toward clinical applications.

  6. Vigor, produtividade e qualidade de frutos de quatro tangerineiras e híbridos sobre quatro porta-enxertos Vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of four mandarin and hybrid cultivars on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produção e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares-copa 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' [C. reticulata x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], 'Fortune' (C. clementina hort. ex Tanaka x C. tangerina hort. ex Tanaka e 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi Macfad. x C. reticulata] sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata (L. Raf., tangelereiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata x C. paradisi e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka, de 2000 a 2006. O experimento foi instalado em Bebedouro-SP, em outubro de 1997. As variáveis analisadas foram: produção anual e produção acumulada de todas as cultivares para todos os anos (2000 a 2006, qualidade de frutos em 2005 e 2006 (massa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total, ratio, volume da copa, diâmetro do tronco da copa, eficiência de produção (Kg frutos/m³ copa e índice de alternância de produção. A produção acumulada e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares testadas não foram influenciadas pelos porta-enxertos. O citrumelo 'Swingle' induziu menor porte às plantas das cultivares-copa. O tangelo 'Nova' apresentou características adequadas à comercialização in natura. A tangerineira 'Swatow' produziu frutos de qualidade semelhante aos de tangerineira 'Ponkan'. O tangor 'Ellendale' e a tangerineira 'Fortune' apresentaram produção de frutos baixa e irregular.Plant growth, yield, and fruit quality of 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' (C. reticulata x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Fortune' (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. x Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tan. e 'Nova' [(C. clementina x (Citrus paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata] mandarins budded on 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. were evaluated, from 2000

  7. Hybridization in geese: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Herbert H. T. Prins

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large knowledge gap in geese. In this review, we assemble the available information on hybrid geese by focusing on three main themes: (1) incidence and frequency, (2) behavioural mechanisms leading to hybridizatio...

  8. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  9. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  10. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  11. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  12. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  13. Hybrid power semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-10-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  14. Hybrid Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Freno, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an exciting new synthesis of directed and undirected, discrete and continuous graphical models. Combining elements of Bayesian networks and Markov random fields, the newly introduced hybrid random fields are an interesting approach to get the best of both these worlds, with an added promise of modularity and scalability. The authors have written an enjoyable book---rigorous in the treatment of the mathematical background, but also enlivened by interesting and original historical and philosophical perspectives. -- Manfred Jaeger, Aalborg Universitet The book not only marks an

  15. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  16. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the ...

  17. Hybrid optofluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joshua W.

    Optofluidics, born of the desire to create a system containing microfluidic environments with integrated optical elements, has seen dramatic increases in popularity over the last 10 years. In particular, the application of this technology towards chip based molecular sensors has undergone significant development. The most sensitive of these biosensors interface liquid- and solid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs). These sensor chips are created using conventional silicon microfabrication. As such, ARROW technology has previously been unable to utilize state-of-the-art microfluidic developments because the technology used--soft polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micromolded chips--is unamenable to the silicon microfabrication workflows implemented in the creation of ARROW detection chips. The original goal of this thesis was to employ hybrid integration, or the connection of independently designed and fabricated optofluidic and microfluidic chips, to create enhanced biosensors with the capability of processing and detecting biological samples on a single hybrid system. After successful demonstration of this paradigm, this work expanded into a new direction--direct integration of sensing and detection technologies on a new platform with dynamic, multi-dimensional photonic re-configurability. This thesis reports a number of firsts, including: • 1,000 fold optical transmission enhancement of ARROW optofluidic detection chips through thermal annealing, • Detection of single nucleic acids on a silicon-based ARROW chip, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and passive PDMS microfluidic chips, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and actively controllable PDMS microfluidic chips with integrated microvalves, • On-chip concentration and detection of clinical Ebola nucleic acids, • Multimode interference (MMI) waveguide based wavelength division multiplexing for detection of single influenza virions,

  18. A hybrid continuous-wave terahertz imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolganova, Irina N., E-mail: in.dolganova@gmail.com; Zaytsev, Kirill I., E-mail: kirzay@gmail.ru; Metelkina, Anna A.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O., E-mail: st.yurchenko@mail.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya str. 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    A hybrid (active-passive mode) terahertz (THz) imaging system and an algorithm for imaging synthesis are proposed to enhance the THz image quality. The concept of image contrast is used to compare active and passive THz imaging. Combining the measurement of the self-emitted radiation of the object with the back-scattered source radiation measurement, it becomes possible to use the THz image to retrieve maximum information about the object. The experimental results confirm the advantages of hybrid THz imaging systems, which can be generalized for a wide range of applications in the material sciences, chemical physics, bio-systems, etc.

  19. Quality Management of Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Methods for Clinical Laboratories%临床实验室荧光原位杂交技术的质量管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费阳; 王薇; 王治国

    2015-01-01

    FISH technology has become a routine technique in many clinical laboratories.It can be used for the examination of genetic aberrations that are too small to visualize by conventional cytogenetic assays,but too large to detect by standard DNA sequencing.Today,FISH applications are used not only in medical genetics,but also in many other disciplines including neuroscience,evolutionary biology,microbiology,pathology,toxicology,and reproductive genetics.As FISH technology keep developing,the requirement of the results of FISH is increasingly high.This paper described the quality management for FISH detailedly,aimed at improving the accuracy and reliability of the result of FISH,satisfying the requirements of clini-cians and patients and improving the healthcare quality and outcome of patients,hoping for providing some references for la-boratories who develop FISH technology.%荧光原位杂交(fluorescent in situ hybridization,FISH)技术在很多临床实验室已经成为一项常规技术了。它可以用于检测对传统细胞遗传学分析来说太小而不能识别,但是对于标准脱氧核糖核酸(deoxyribonucleic acid,DNA)测序来说太大而不能检查的遗传畸变。如今,FISH 不仅用于医学遗传学,也在很多其它领域包括神经科学、进化生物学、微生物学、病理学、毒理学和生殖遗传学内使用。FISH 技术的迅速发展使得开展 FISH 的临床实验室对 FISH 的质量要求越来越高。该文对 FISH 的质量管理进行了具体描述,旨在提高实验室检测结果的准确度和可靠性,从而提高临床满意度并且改善病人预后。希望能够给开展 FISH 的临床实验室提供参考。

  20. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  1. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  2. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  3. Development and implementation of a quality assurance program of physical aspects of a hybrid tomograph PET/CT Discovery ST GE in a nuclear medicine service;Desarollo e implementacion de un programa de garantia de calidad de los aspectos fisicos de un tomografo hibrido PET/CT Discovery ST GE en un servicio de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seijas, Jugleys; Reggio, Franklyn; Campa, Raudel [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Postgrado de Fisica Medica

    2009-07-01

    This research was carry out due to the low presence of PET/CT projects in Venezuela in this moment, which consisted of the implementation and evaluation of a protocol for the acceptance and implementation of a hybrid tomograph PET/CT Discovery ST located in the nuclear medicine service at the Hospital de Clinicas Caracas. For this work, two references were used to provide a basic set of tests established and accepted by almost all manufacturers, such references are: NEMA 1994 PET and Spanish Protocol for Quality Control for Radiology CT. In general, we found that the smallest lesion in a functional image that this tomograph can resolve is {approx} 6mm. The spatial resolution of an anatomical image was resolved through 8 pl/cm. Likewise, this tomograph is able to produce a uniform anatomical and functional image, with very little noise and radiation scattered once the correction was done, referring to the test of co-registration accuracy of PET and CT shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the image of PET (functional) and the image of CT (anatomic), a basic parameter in a study of PET/CT. (author)

  4. Breeding and Cultivation Technique of High-yield and High-quality Hybrid Maize Yundan 20 with Multiple Resistances%高产・多抗・优质玉米杂交种郧单20的选育及栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周刚; 李永学; 吴承国; 唐余成; 陈光勇; 王致云; 柯磊

    2016-01-01

    Yundan 20 is a high-yield and high-quality hybrid maize variety with multiple resistances , which is bred by Shiyan Academy of Agri-culture Sciences.Its female parent is WD01 bred by Shiyan Academy of Agriculture Sciences and male parent is T259 which is introduced.In 2016, Yundan 20 was approved by the Crop Variety Approval Committee of Hubei Province, with a variety approval number 2016005.The breed-ing process, integral characteristics, cultivation techniques and seed production techniques of Yundan 20 were summarized and analyzed , which aimed to promote the variety and meet market demand .%郧单20是湖北省十堰市农业科学院采用自选系WD01作母本、外引系T259作父本选育的高产、多抗、品种优良的玉米新品种,2016年通过湖北省农作物品种审定委员会审定,品种审定编号为2016005。通过对郧单20选育过程、综合特性、栽培技术、制种技术等方面进行总结和分析,以期推广该品种,满足市场需求。

  5. ZP maize hybrids as silage raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Dušanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its yields, biomass quality and biomass suitability for ensiling, diversity of use in feedstuff, maize is one of the most important forage plants. In comparison with other forage plants, the production of silage maize results in the greatest accumulation of solar energy per area unit. The positive correlation between a high density of net energy and the concentration of net energy as well as between digestibility of organic matter and the concentration of net energy is achieved in the produced biomass of maize plant. The yield of silage maize in dependence on the genetic potential of yield and agroecological conditions of the production ranges from 12 to 25 tonnes of the total dry matter per hectare at physiological maturity for ensiling with the dry matter content of 35-42%. This study presents results obtained in the long-term scientific and research programme on the improvement of ZP maize hybrids utilisation carried out in the Department of Technological Research at the Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje. The overall presentation of biomass quality parameters of six ZP maize hybrids (ZP 158, ZP 173/8, ZP 377, ZP 440, ZP 555 and ZP 679 of different genetic backgrounds intended for silage production is given in this study. Besides, interrelationships among these factors as well as their effects on maize biomass digestibility were established.

  6. Analysis of hybrid viscous damper by real time hybrid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Ou, Ge; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    Results from real time hybrid simulations are compared to full numerical simulations for a hybrid viscous damper, composed of a viscous dashpot in series with an active actuator and a load cell. By controlling the actuator displacement via filtered integral force feedback the damping performance...... of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift...... in the actuator displacement, and only a fraction of the measured damper force can therefore be used as input to the investigated integral force feedback in the real time hybrid simulations....

  7. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A

    2011-08-23

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation.

  8. Suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two RNA populations that differ from the effects of a single independent variable, such as a drug treatment or a specific genetic defect, can establish differences in the abundance of specific transcripts that vary in a population dependent manner. There are different methods for identifying differentially expressed genes. These methods include microarray, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Herein, the protocol describes an easy and cost-effective alternative that does not require prior knowledge of the transcriptomes under examination. It is specifically relevant when low levels of RNA starting material are available. This protocol describes the use of Switching Mechanism At RNA Termini Polymerase Chain Reaction (SMART-PCR) to amplify cDNA from small amounts of RNA. The amplified cDNA populations under comparison are then subjected to Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-PCR). SSH-PCR is a technique that couples subtractive hybridization with suppression PCR to selectively amplify fragments of differentially expressed genes. The resulting products are cDNA populations enriched for significantly overrepresented transcripts in either of the two input RNAs. These cDNA populations can then be cloned to generate subtracted cDNA library. Microarrays made with clones from the subtracted forward and reverse cDNA libraries are then screened for differentially expressed genes using targets generated from tester and driver total RNAs.

  9. Landmarks in Hybrid Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elkawkagy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although planning techniques achieved a significant progress during recent years, solving many planning problem still difficult even for modern planners. In this paper, we will adopt landmark concept to hybrid planning setting - a method that combines reasoning about procedural knowledge and causalities. Land-marks are a well-known concept in the realm of classical planning. Recently, they have been adapted to hierarchical approaches. Such landmarks can be extracted in a pre-processing step from a declarative hierarchical planning domain and problem description. It was shown how this technique allows for a considerable reduction of the search space by eliminating futile plan development options before the actual planning. Therefore, we will present a new approach to in¬tegrate landmark pre-processing technique in the context of hierarchical planning with landmark technique in the classical planning. This integration allows to incorporate the ability of using extracted landmark tasks from hierarchical domain knowledge in the form of HTN and using landmark literals from classical planning. To this end, we will construct a transformation technique to transform the hybrid planning domain into a classical domain model. The method¬ologies in this paper have been implemented successfully, and we will present some experimental results that give evidence for the consid-erable performance increase gained through planning system.

  10. Overview on hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, M.

    2011-10-01

    Aside of research works, this historical survey shows propulsion units used by students for small satellites and for gas generation, or those for the Space Ship One, even if LOx/HTPB was studied and tested in large motors for its potential very low cost; however, this combination highlights a series of technical problems without any performance advantage over the existing LOx/Kerosene family and never been operational for ETO applications. The particularity of hybrid propulsion is to use the state-of-the-art of both liquids and solids; the only show stopper is the propellant itself. The past work focused on LOx/HTPB (selected for its low cost) appears to be a dead-end (combustion problems and global low performances resulting from a high level of residuals). The solution that appears through the past experience is the addition of hydrides to a binder (HTPB or other) or to a binder and a homogeneous fuel or a mixture of both, with or without others additives; within these solutions some will not present any manufacturing problem and some may have a low cost. Nevertheless, the studies of the following phases have to demonstrate the compatibility of the potential regression rate range with a high-performance global design of a hybrid Motor and the manufacturing at a reasonable cost of a hydride giving a high level of performances.

  11. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  12. Hybrid internet access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vivek; Baras, John S.; Dillon, Douglas; Falk, Aaron; Suphasindhu, Narin

    1995-01-01

    Access to the Internet is either too slow (dial-up SLIP) or too expensive (switched 56 kbps, frame relay) for the home user or small enterprise. The Center for Satellite and Hybrid Communication Networks and Hughes Network Systems have collaborated using systems integration principles to develop a prototype of a low-cost hybrid (dial-up and satellite) newtork terminal which can deliver data from the Internet to the user at rates up to 160 kbps. An asymmetric TCP/IP connection is used breaking the network link into two physical channels: a terrestrial dial-up for carrying data from the terminal into the Internet and a receive-only satellite link carrying IP packets from the Internet to the user. With a goal of supporting bandwidth hungry Internet applications such as Mosaic, Gopher, and FTP, this system has been designed to support any Intel 80386/486 PC, any commercial TCP/IP package, any unmodified host on the Internet, and any of the routers, etc., within the Internet. The design exploits the following three observations: 1) satellites are able to offer high bandwidth connections to a large geographical area, 2) a receive-only VSAT is cheap to manufacture and easier to install than one which can also transmit, and 3) most computer users, especially those in a home environment, will want to consume much more information than they generate. IP encapsulation, or tunneling, issued to manipulate the TCP/IP protocols to route packets asymmetrically.

  13. Unified Hybrid Network Theoretical Model Trilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first of the unified hybrid network theoretical model trilogy (UHNTF) is the harmonious unification hybrid preferential model (HUHPM), seen in the inner loop of Fig. 1, the unified hybrid ratio is defined.

  14. 匙吻鲟、杂交鲟和鳙肌肉品质的比较研究%Comparative Study on Muscle Quality of Cultured Polyodon spahula, Hybrid Sturgeon and Aristichthys nobilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽宏; 吉红; 胡家; 李杰; 孙海涛; 王涛; 刘超

    2014-01-01

    分析养殖匙吻鲟(Pol,odon spathula)、杂交鲟(hybrid sturgeon)和鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)肌肉理化及营养特性,对3种鱼的肉质进行评价.结果表明:鳙的含肉率显著高于两种鲟鱼(P<0.05),两鲟鱼间差异不显著(P>0.05):匙吻鲟肌肉粗蛋白含量与杂交鲟、鳙之间均无显著差异(P>0.05),杂交鲟肌肉粗蛋白含量显著低于鳙(P<0.05);对于粗脂肪含量杂交鲟与匙吻鲟和鳙之间无显著差异(P>0.05),匙吻鲟显著高于鳙(P<0.05);粗灰分含量鳙显著高于两种鲟鱼(P<0.05).3种鱼的脂肪酸由3种饱和脂肪酸和6种不饱和脂肪酸组成,杂交鲟不饱和脂肪酸含量显著高于匙吻鲟、鳙(P<0.05);匙吻鲟单不饱和脂肪酸含量显著高于杂交鲟和鳙(P<o.05);多不饱和脂肪酸含量杂交鲟>匙吻鲟>鳙,3种鱼之间差异显著(P<0.05);高不饱和脂肪酸含量3种鱼之间差异显著(P<0.05),鳙>杂交鲟>匙吻鲟.动脉粥样化指数匙吻鲟显著低于鳙(P<0.05);血栓指数匙吻鲟与杂交鲟之间无显著差异(P>0.05),但均显著低于鳙(P<0.05).杂交鲟熟肉率显著低于鳙(P<0.05),胶原蛋白的含量显著高于鳙(P<0.05);液体流失率、水分流失率匙吻鲟显著低于杂交鲟、鳙(P<0.05);脂质流失率、肌纤维直径匙吻鲟与杂交鲟之间无显著性差异(P>0.05),但脂质流失率两种鲟鱼显著低于鳙(P<0.05),肌纤维直径两种鲟鱼显著高于鳙(P<0.05);生肉硬度匙吻鲟与鳙之间无显著差异(P>0.05),但均显著低于杂交鲟(P<0.05);黏附性、内聚性、回弹力、剪切力杂交鲟均显著高于鳙(P<0.05);弹性匙吻鲟显著高于鳙(P<0.05);黏性、咀嚼性三者之间差异显著(P<0.05),杂交鲟>匙吻鲟>鳙.熟肉硬度匙吻鲟与杂交鲟、鳙之间无显著差异(P>0.05),杂交鲟显著高于鳙(P<0.05);内聚性、回弹力匙吻鲟显著高于杂交鲟、鳙(P<0.05);弹性匙吻鲟显著高于鳙(P<0

  15. Data Collection, Testing, and Analysis of Hybrid Electric Trucks and Buses Operating in California Fleets. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duran, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cosgrove, Jon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sindler, Petr [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Russell, Robert [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Johnson, Kent [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The objective of this project was to evaluate and quantify the emission impacts of commercially available hybrid medium- and heavy-duty vehicles relative to their non-hybrid counterparts. This effort will allow the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and other agencies to more effectively encourage development and commercial deployment of the most efficient, lowest emitting hybrid technologies needed to meet air quality and climate goals.

  16. Chaotic Dynamics in Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  17. Chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  18. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  19. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  20. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  1. Hybridity in Embedded Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强

    1996-01-01

    An embedded system is a system that computer is used as a component in a larger device.In this paper,we study hybridity in embedded systems and present an interval based temporal logic to express and reason about hybrid properties of such kind of systems.

  2. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  3. Hybrid Charmonium from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, X Q

    2006-01-01

    We review our recent results on the JPC = 0¡¡ exotic hybrid charmonium mass and JPC = 0¡+, 1¡¡ and 1++ nonexotic hybrid charmonium spectrum from anisotropic improved lattice QCD and discuss the relevance to the recent discovery of the Y(4260) state and future experimental search for other states.

  4. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  5. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  6. Crop capacity and beet seeds quality in dependence on embossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Є. Тарабрін

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available МС component and Ukrainian hybrid МС 70 pericarps embossing have considerably increased crop capacity, seeds quality (germinating capacity, 1000 fruits mass, beet seed material balance.

  7. Quality Protein Maize Response to Nitrogen Rate and Plant Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Protein Maize Response to Nitrogen Rate and Plant Density in the Guinea Savanna Zone of Ghana. ... protein maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid to plant density and nitrogen (N) fertilizer. ... Optimal N rate was not affected by plant density.

  8. Photonic Integration on the Hybrid Silicon Evanescent Device Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyundai Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent progress of hybrid silicon evanescent devices. The hybrid silicon evanescent device structure consists of III-V epitaxial layers transferred to silicon waveguides through a low-temperature wafer bonding process to achieve optical gain, absorption, and modulation efficiently on a silicon photonics platform. The low-temperature wafer bonding process enables fusion of two different material systems without degradation of material quality and is scalable to wafer-level bonding. Lasers, amplifiers, photodetectors, and modulators have been demonstrated with this hybrid structure and integration of these individual components for improved optical functionality is also presented. This approach provides a unique way to build photonic active devices on silicon and should allow application of silicon photonic integrated circuits to optical telecommunication and optical interconnects.

  9. Hybrid QoS-aware semantic web service composition strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG FangChun; SU Sen; LI Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid QoS model which consists of certain and uncertain expressions has strong power of semantic QoS description. For solving the hybrid QoS-aware semantic web service composition problem, this paper presents an Uncertain Multi-attribute decision making based Composition algorithm (UMC). The UMC includes two parts. First, UMC-Core can be used to synthetically evaluate the hybrid service quality information. Second, UMC-DH (Distributed and Heuristic framework for UMC) aims at enhancing the run-time performance of UMC when the problem space increases. The simulation results show that the UMC has lower execution cost, higher ap proximation ratio and success ratio than other similar approaches.

  10. Hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction in batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Giovani L; Mecca, Jaqueline; Mesomo, Michele; Silva, Marceli F; Prá, Valéria Dal; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Castilhos, Fernanda; Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    This work is focused on hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction process by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of stirred speed and superficial gas velocity on the kinetics of cell growth, lactose consumption and xanthan gum production in a batch bioreactor using cheese whey as substrate. A hybrid model was employed to simulate the bio-process making use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a kinetic parameter estimator for the phenomenological model. The hybrid modeling of the process provided a satisfactory fitting quality of the experimental data, since this approach makes possible the incorporation of the effects of operational variables on model parameters. The applicability of the validated model was investigated, using the model as a process simulator to evaluate the effects of initial cell and lactose concentration in the xanthan gum production.

  11. One-dimensional photonic crystal fishbone hybrid nanocavity with nanoposts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lin, Pin-Tso; Lee, Po-Tsung, E-mail: potsung@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Rm. 413 CPT Building, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-12

    We propose and investigate a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) fishbone (FB) hybrid nanocavity lying on silver substrate with a horizontal air slot. With very few PhC periods, the confined transverse-magnetic, TM{sub 10} hybrid mode concentrated within the air slot shows high quality factor over effective mode volume ratio larger than 10{sup 5}λ{sup −3}. Most importantly, this FB hybrid nanocavity allows formation of low-index nanoposts within the air slot without significantly affecting the mode properties. These nanoposts guarantee the structural stabilities under different environmental perturbations. Furthermore, capabilities of our proposed design in serving as optical sensors and tweezers for bio-sized nanoparticles are also investigated.

  12. Brachiaria hybrids: potential, forage use and seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Pizarro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brachiaria breeding program initiated in 1988 at CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia combined desirable attributes found in accessions of Brachiaria brizantha and B. decumbens. Three apomictic hybrids have been released (cvv. Mulato, Mulato II and Cayman. Mulato showed agronomic potential but seed yields were low. Trials in Central America demonstrated the superiority of Mulato II, a vigorous grass with deep and branched roots, giving it excellent drought tolerance in the Brazilian Cerrado and Mexico, plus outstanding nutritional value. Following trials in Mexico and Thailand, evaluating 155 new hybrids for 7 years, cv. Cayman was released due to strong waterlogging tolerance. Research on production, quality and seed yields of brachiaria hybrids in Asia, the Americas and Africa from 2003 to 2013 is summarized in this paper.

  13. Molecular evidence for hybridization in Colias (Lepidoptera: Pieridae): are Colias hybrids really hybrids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Heather E; Jasieniuk, Marie; Okada, Miki; Shapiro, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow and hybridization among species dramatically affect our understanding of the species as a biological unit, species relationships, and species adaptations. In North American Colias eurytheme and Colias eriphyle, there has been historical debate over the extent of hybridization occurring and the identity of phenotypically intermediate individuals as genetic hybrids. This study assesses the population structure of these two species to measure the extent of hybridization and the genetic identity of phenotypic intermediates as hybrids. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker analysis was performed on 378 specimens collected from northern California and Nevada. Population structure was inferred using a Bayesian/Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which probabilistically assigns individuals to genetic clusters. Three genetic clusters provided the best fit for the data. C. eurytheme individuals were primarily assigned to two closely related clusters, and C. eriphyle individuals were mostly assigned to a third, more distantly related cluster. There appeared to be significant hybridization between the two species. Individuals of intermediate phenotype (putative hybrids) were found to be genetically indistinguishable from C. eriphyle, indicating that previous work based on the assumption that these intermediate forms are hybrids may warrant reconsideration. PMID:26306172

  14. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  15. Auditing Hybrid IT Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Mateescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a personal approach of auditing the hybrid IT environments consisting in both on premise and on demand services and systems. The analysis is performed from both safety and profitability perspectives and it aims to offer to strategy, technical and business teams a representation of the value added by the cloud programme within the company’s portfolio. Starting from the importance of the IT Governance in the actual business environments, we presented in the first section the main principles that drive the technology strategy in order to maximize the value added by IT assets in the business products. Section two summarizes the frameworks leveraged by our approach in order to implement the safety and profitability computation algorithms described in the third section. The paper concludes with benefits of our personal frameworks and presents the future developments.

  16. Hybrid Noncoherent Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Skachek, Vitaly; Nedic, Angelia

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel extension of subspace codes for noncoherent networks, suitable for use when the network is viewed as a communication system that introduces both dimension and symbol errors. We show that when symbol erasures occur in a significantly large number of different basis vectors transmitted through the network and when the min-cut of the networks is much smaller then the length of the transmitted codewords, the new family of codes outperforms their subspace code counterparts. For the proposed coding scheme, termed hybrid network coding, we derive two upper bounds on the size of the codes. These bounds represent a variation of the Singleton and of the sphere-packing bound. We show that a simple concatenated scheme that represents a combination of subspace codes and Reed-Solomon codes is asymptotically optimal with respect to the Singleton bound. Finally, we describe two efficient decoding algorithms for concatenated subspace codes that in certain cases have smaller complexity than subspace decoder...

  17. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  19. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  20. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  1. Photochromic mesoporous hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboin, L.; Matheron, M.; Gacoin, T.; Boilot, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Spirooxazine (SO) photochromic molecules were trapped in sol-gel matrices. In order to increase the colourability and improve mechanical properties of sol-gel photochromic films, we present an original strategy in which SO photochromic molecules were dispersed in mesoporous organized films using the impregnation technique. Well-ordered organosilicate mesoporous coatings with the 3D-hexagonal symmetry were prepared by the sol-gel technique. These robust mesoporous films, which contain high amounts of hydrophobic methyl groups at the pore surface, offer optimized environments for photochromic dyes dispersed by impregnation technique. After impregnation by a spirooxazine solution, the photochromic response is only slightly slower when compared with mesostructured or soft sol-gel matrices, showing that mesoporous organized hybrid matrix are good host for photochromic dyes. Moreover, the molecular loading in films is easily adjustable in a large range using multi-impregnation procedure and increasing the film thickness leading to coatings for optical switching devices.

  2. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  3. F1 hybrid of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) and European pear (Pyrus communis) with fertile F2 offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, T.C.; Malnoy, M.; Hofmann, T.; Schwab, W.; Palmieri, L.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Schuch, L.A.; Müller, M.; Schimmelpfeng, H.; Velasco, R.; Martens, S.

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of intergeneric hybrids for horticultural and agricultural crops is still a demanding task for breeding programmes. The aim of such approaches is to introduce new quality and resistance traits and to enlarge the gene pool. Recently, an F1 hybrid between Malus × domestica and Pyrus

  4. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly complex hybrid system of social- and traditional-news media surrounds Nordic election campaigns as politically experienced incumbents favour traditional news media, and younger, lesser-known candidates’ social media. Despite little evidence for hybrid-media politicians, politicians......’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  5. Influência da qualidade de luz e silício no crescimento in vitro de orquídeas nativas e híbridas Light quality and silicon on growth in vitro of native and hybrid orchid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Pasqual

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência do ambiente de cultivo e de concentrações de silicato de cálcio no crescimento in vitro de uma espécie nativa de orquídea (Brassavola perrine e de um híbrido [(Laelia cattleya Culminant "Tuilerie" x Laelia cattleya Sons Atout Rotunda x Brassolaelia cattleya Startifire Moon Beach]. Plântulas oriundas de sementes germinadas in vitro com aproximadamente 0,5 cm de comprimento foram inoculadas em frascos com capacidade para 250 mL contendo 60 mL de meio de cultura MS, acrescido de silicato de cálcio (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1 em ambientes de cultivo [natural (casa de vegetação e artificial (em sala de crescimento], em todas as combinações possíveis. O meio de cultura teve seu pH ajustado para 5,8±0,1 e geleificado com 5,5 g L-1 de ágar antes do processo de autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1 atm por 20 minutos. Ao final de 150 dias foram realizadas avaliações biométricas e análises micromorfológicas (miscroscopia de varredura nas plântulas. Maior crescimento foi obtido com a utilização de 2,0 mg L-1 e 1,0 mg L-1 de silicato de cálcio para o híbrido e espécie nativa, respectivamente, em sala de crescimento. As orquídeas em estudo são espécies anfiestomáticas, com estômatos do tipo tetracítico (híbrida e anomocítico (nativa. A presença do silício na estrutura foliar proporcionou o correto desenvolvimento (ausência de deformações estruturais de plântulas de orquídeas.The vegetative propagation techniques using tissue culture can be a valuable tool in the production of orchid seedlings. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of calcium silicate and light quality that provides better growth in seedlings of native orchid (Brassavola perrine and hybrid [(Laelia cattleya Climax "Tuilerie" x Laelia cattleya Sons Atout Rotunda x Brassolaelia cattleya Startifire Moon Beach]. Seedlings from seeds germinated in vitro with approximately 0.5 cm long were inoculated in 250 m

  6. Quality of service in optical packet switched networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rahbar, Akbar G

    2015-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive study on OPS networks, its architectures, and developed techniques for improving its quality of switching and managing quality of service.  The book includes: Introduction to OPS networks, OOFDM networks, GMPLS-enabled optical networks, QoS in OPS networks Hybrid contention avoidance/resolution schemes in both long-haul and metro optical networks Hybrid optical switching schemes

  7. European multi-centre study of the Nucleus Hybrid L24 cochlear implant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenarz, T.; James, C.; Cuda, D.; O'Connor, A.; Frachet, B.; Frijns, J.H.; Klenzner, T.; Laszig, R.; Manrique, M.; Marx, M.; Merkus, P.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Offeciers, E.; Pesch, J.; Ramos-Macias, A.; Robier, A.; Sterkers, O.; Uziel, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the preservation of residual hearing in subjects who received the Nucleus Hybrid L24 cochlear implant. To investigate the performance benefits up to one year post-implantation in terms of speech recognition, sound quality, and quality of life. DESIGN: Prospective, with seq

  8. European multi-centre study of the Nucleus Hybrid L24 cochlear implant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenarz, T.; James, C.; Cuda, D.; O'Connor, A.; Frachet, B.; Frijns, J.H.; Klenzner, T.; Laszig, R.; Manrique, M.; Marx, M.; Merkus, P.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Offeciers, E.; Pesch, J.; Ramos-Macias, A.; Robier, A.; Sterkers, O.; Uziel, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the preservation of residual hearing in subjects who received the Nucleus Hybrid L24 cochlear implant. To investigate the performance benefits up to one year post-implantation in terms of speech recognition, sound quality, and quality of life. DESIGN: Prospective, with

  9. A Hybrid Column Generation approach for an Industrial Waste Collection Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Kristian; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    2014-01-01

    , real-world problem instances. Results indicate that the hybrid column generation outperforms a purely heuristic approach in terms of both running time and solution quality. High quality solutions to problems containing up to 100 orders can be solved in approximately 15 minutes....

  10. Managing Quality

    CERN Document Server

    Kelemen, Mihaela L

    2002-01-01

    Managing Quality provides a comprehensive review and critical analysis of quality management discourses and techniques by drawing on a number of management disciplines such as operations management, HRM, organizational behaviour, strategy, marketing and organization theory. The book: - introduces readers to key concepts and issues in quality management - provides an overview of both managerial and critical perspectives on quality management - presents the 'wisdom' of quality management gurus - documents the way quality is pursued in manufacturing, service and public sector organizations - comp

  11. Wankel engine for hybrid powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butti, A. [Univ. of Florence (Italy); Site, V.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Wankel engine is suited to be used to drive hybrid propulsion systems. The main disadvantage of hybrid propulsion systems is the complexity that causes a high weight and large dimensions. For these reason hybrid systems are more suitable for large size vehicle (buses, vans) rather than for small passenger cars. A considerable reduction of hybrid systems weight and dimensions can be obtained using a Wankel rotary engine instead of a conventional engine. The Wankel engine is light, compact, simple, and produces low noise and low vibrations. Therefore a Wankel engine powered hybrid system is suited to be used on small cars. In this paper a 1,000 kg parallel hybrid car with continuously variable transmission and a 6,000 kg series hybrid minibus both equipped with Wankel engines are considered. The Wankel engine works at steady state to minimize fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The simulation of the behavior of these two vehicles during a ECE + EUDC test cycle is presented in order to evaluate the performances of the systems.

  12. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  13. Teacher education physical education: In search of a hybrid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Lynch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that a learning environment underpinned by a strengths-based collaborative approach between universities and schools offers extended pre-service teacher learning opportunities and subsequently enhanced preparation. The term “hybrid space” describes the ideal environment of shared partnership where knowledge is jointly created, and consequently, as too is collaborative egalitarianism between stakeholders. This study investigates a possible “hybrid space” course within Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE in the UK. While much literature discusses the advantages of the “hybrid space” ideal across education disciplines, high-quality research into PETE hybrid spaces is limited, if not non-existent. Hence, the particular course was chosen for data collection as it advocates intricate connections with schools in the local community. Furthermore, the course was awarded “Outstanding” by the national regulatory authority, England and Wales Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted, one of the major reasons explicitly stated was for its community connections. A qualitative, interpretive study using a case study methodology was adopted to examine the successful primary PETE course. The findings offer insights into the ideal of hybrid spaces in PETE, which appear to benefit various stakeholders within communities. The study is significant as it assists teacher educators from around the world, challenged to rethink their connections between university courses and school field experiences through illustrating a highly successful example.

  14. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W.; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K.

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  15. Rapid Global Calibration Technology for Hybrid Visual Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based methods for product quality inspection are playing an increasingly important role in modern industries for their good performance and high efficiency. A hybrid visual inspection system, which consists of an industrial robot with a flexible sensor and several stationary sensors, has been widely applied in mass production, especially in automobile manufacturing. In this paper, a rapid global calibration method for the hybrid visual inspection system is proposed. Global calibration of a flexible sensor is performed first based on the robot kinematic. Then, with the aid of the calibrated flexible sensor, stationary sensors are calibrated globally one by one based on homography. Only a standard sphere and an auxiliary target with a 2D planar pattern are applied during the system global calibration, and the calibration process can be easily re-performed during the system’s periodical maintenance. An error compensation method is proposed for the hybrid inspection system, and the final accuracy of the hybrid system is evaluated with the deviation and correlation coefficient between the measured results of the hybrid system and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM. An accuracy verification experiment shows that deviation of over 95% of featured points are less than ±0.3 mm, and the correlation coefficients of over 85% of points are larger than 0.7.

  16. Rapid Global Calibration Technology for Hybrid Visual Inspection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Yin, Shibin; Guo, Yin; Zhu, Jigui

    2017-06-19

    Vision-based methods for product quality inspection are playing an increasingly important role in modern industries for their good performance and high efficiency. A hybrid visual inspection system, which consists of an industrial robot with a flexible sensor and several stationary sensors, has been widely applied in mass production, especially in automobile manufacturing. In this paper, a rapid global calibration method for the hybrid visual inspection system is proposed. Global calibration of a flexible sensor is performed first based on the robot kinematic. Then, with the aid of the calibrated flexible sensor, stationary sensors are calibrated globally one by one based on homography. Only a standard sphere and an auxiliary target with a 2D planar pattern are applied during the system global calibration, and the calibration process can be easily re-performed during the system's periodical maintenance. An error compensation method is proposed for the hybrid inspection system, and the final accuracy of the hybrid system is evaluated with the deviation and correlation coefficient between the measured results of the hybrid system and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). An accuracy verification experiment shows that deviation of over 95% of featured points are less than ±0.3 mm, and the correlation coefficients of over 85% of points are larger than 0.7.

  17. H-564C, híbrido de maíz con alta calidad de proteína para el trópico húmedo de México H-564C, high quality protein maize hybrid for the humid tropic in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sierra Macías

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante 2005 a 2008 se evaluaron, validaron y caracterizaron híbridos de maíz con alta calidad proteínica, con los objetivos de conocer su rendimiento, características agronómicas y propiedades nutricionales e industriales. En 2005 se evaluaron híbridos en las localidades de Cotaxtla, Tlalixcoyan e Ignacio de la Llave, Veracruz; bajo un diseño alpha látice 9*2 con 18 tratamientos y tres repeticiones, en parcelas de dos surcos de 5 m con una densidad de 62 500 plantas ha-1. Se identificaron los híbridos HQ1, HQ2, HQ3 y HQ4, sobresalientes por su rendimiento, características agronómicas y por su tolerancia a la enfermedad del "achaparramiento". En el ciclo primavera verano 2006 se establecieron seis parcelas de validación en las localidades de Cotaxtla, Mata de Agua, Tlalixcoyan, Ignacio de la Llave, Martínez de la Torre y Rodríguez Clara, en el estado de Veracruz. Los lotes fueron establecidos bajo diseño bloques al azar con nueve tratamientos y dos repeticiones en parcelas de ocho surcos de 25 m, con una densidad de 62 500 plantas ha-1. De los análisis de varianza combinados, se encontró diferencia altamente significativa para genotipos (G, localidades (L y para la interacción G*L, en las variables rendimiento de grano, días a floración masculina y femenina, aspecto y sanidad de planta. Los genotipos sobresalientes por su rendimiento, aspecto y sanidad de planta y mazorca, fueron: HQ4, H-520, HQ3 y HQ1, con 5.42, 5.38, 5.13 y 5.06 t ha-1, respectivamente. Con el HQ1 se produjeron las mejores tortillas siguiendo el método tradicional de la masa y la tortilla. El híbrido HQ4, puede ser procesado exitosamente por la industria de la harina nixtamalizada. Este híbrido registró 72% más lisina y 56% más triptófano en el grano entero que el maíz normal. Durante 2007 y 2008 se hizo la caracterización del HQ4, para su registro oficial como H-564C con el número: 2257-MAZ-1133-300609/C.Between 2005 and 2008 high-quality protein

  18. Pseudovector mesons, hybrids and glueballs

    CERN Document Server

    Burakovsky, L; Burakovsky, Leonid; Page, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    We consider glueball- (hybrid) meson mixing for the low-lying four pseudovector states. The h_1'(1380) decays dominantly to K*K with some presence in rho pi and omega eta. The newly observed h_1(1600) has a D- to S-wave width ratio to omega eta which does not enable differentiation between a conventional and hybrid meson interpretation. We predict the decay pattern of the isopartner conventional or hybrid meson b_1(1650). A notably narrow s sbar partner h_1'(1810) is predicted.

  19. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...

  20. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  1. Embryo development and corresponding factors affecting in vitro germination of Cymbidium faberi × C. sinense hybrid seeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Fengtong; Bao, Jianzhong; Sun, Ye; Liu, Chungui; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Tian; Chen, Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of embryo development would provide insights into seed quality and subsequent germination events in the interspecific hybridization of Cymbidium faberi ‘Jiepeimei’ × C. sinense ‘Qijianheimo...

  2. Outage Performance of Hybrid FSO/RF System with Low-Complexity Power Adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2016-02-26

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO) / radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data- rate wireless communication systems. We consider truncated channel inversion based power adaptation strategy for coherent and non- coherent hybrid FSO/RF systems, employing an adaptive combining scheme. Specifically, we activate the RF link along with the FSO link when FSO link quality is unacceptable, and adaptively set RF transmission power to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio at receiver terminal. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are derived. Numerical examples show that, the hybrid FSO/RF systems with power adaptation achieve considerable outage performance improvement over conventional hybrid FSO/RF systems without power adaptation. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Abowd; Kramarz, Francis

    1995-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work-force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group, and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wag...

  4. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Abowd; Françis KRAMARZ; Moreau, Antoine

    1995-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wage...

  5. HYBRIDIZATION AND CHAMELEONIC JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Schryver Kurtz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda a crescente hibridização entre o Jornalismo e demais formatos midiáticos como resultado natural de um processo que já está na própria raiz da comunicação enquanto atividade histórica. A lógica interna e as potencialidades estéticas e discursivas do fenômeno são analisadas a partir das convergências entre jornalismo e cinema. Para tanto, utiliza o falso documentário Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido por natureza, postulado como um microcosmo rico em pistas e sugestões para refletir sobre a fusão entre conteúdos informativos e não informativos.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hibridização; Jornalismo; Cinema; Zelig.       ABSTRACT The text discusses the growing hybridization between journalism and other media formats as a natural result of a process that is already in the very root of communication while historical activity. The internal logic and the aesthetic and discursive potential of the phenomenon are analyzed through the convergences between journalism and cinema. Therefore, uses the mockumentary Zelig (1983, filmic text of Woody Allen, hybrid by nature, postulated as a microcosm rich in clues and suggestions to reflect about the merger between informative and uninformative content.      KEYWORDS: Hybridization; Journalism; Cinema; Zelig.     RESUMEN El texto aborda la creciente hibridación entre el periodismo y otros formatos de medios como um resultado natural de un proceso que ya está en la raíz misma de la comunicación mientras actividad histórica. Se analizan la lógica interna y el potencial estético y discursivo del fenómeno a través de las convergencias entre el periodismo y el cine. Para ello, utiliza el falso documental Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido en su naturaleza, postulado como un microcosmos rico en pistas y sugerencias para reflexionar sobre la fusión entre contenidos informativos y no informativos.      PALABRAS CLAVE: Hibridaci

  6. Advanced Hybrid Computer Systems. Software Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This software technology final report evaluates advances made in Advanced Hybrid Computer System software technology . The report describes what...automatic patching software is available as well as which analog/hybrid programming languages would be most feasible for the Advanced Hybrid Computer...compiler software . The problem of how software would interface with the hybrid system is also presented.

  7. ATSC 8-VSB and M/H hybrid 3DTV system development for terrestrial broadcasting services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jooyoung; Choi, Jin Soo; Kim, Jinwoong; Kang, Dong Wook; Jung, Kyeong Hoon

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents 8-VSB & M/H hybrid 3DTV system for ATSC terrestrial 3DTV broadcasting services. The system transmits MPEG-2 encoded left images through HD main channel (8-VSB) and H.264 encoded right images through mobile channel (M/H) simultaneously. Basically hybrid 3DTV support stereoscopic 3D HD services composed of mixed quality left/right images for 3D image rendering. For more comfortable 3D service and human factors under hybrid 3DTV service environment, we also propose new video quality enhancement technologies with small amount of disparity map information. In this paper, we propose 8-VSB & M/H hybrid 3DTV system which enables stereoscopic 3D HD, 2D HD fixed and 2D mobile broadcasting concurrently within 6MHz bandwidth, and the proposed system will provide maximum channel flexibility and extended service functionalities as well as fully backward compatibility with legacy 2D receivers.

  8. Design and control of hybrid active power filters

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Chi-Seng

    2014-01-01

    Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters presents an overview of the current quality problems and their compensators. To get a balance between the system cost and performance, hybrid active power filters (HAPFs) are valuable. The book presents the coverage of resonance phenomena prevention capability, filtering performance and system robustness analysis of HAPF; nonlinear inverter current slope characteristics and their linear operation region requirement analysis of the hysteresis PWM for the HAPF; minimum inverter capacity design procedure of HAPF, adaptive dc-link voltage controller for the HAPF and the real design example of a 220V 10kVA HAPF, in which the system performance analysis method, minimum dc voltage deduction concept and adaptive dc voltage idea can be further extended into the other active compensators, such as APF, static synchronous compensator STATCOM, etc. This book will benefit researchers, graduate students, and electrical power engineers in the field of power-quality compensati...

  9. Hybrid silicon evanescent approach to optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Fang, Alexander W.; Chen, Hui-Wen; Sysak, Matthew N.; Koch, Brian R.; Lively, Erica; Raday, Omri; Kuo, Ying-Hao; Jones, Richard; Bowers, John E.

    2009-06-01

    We discuss the recently developed hybrid silicon evanescent platform (HSEP), and its application as a promising candidate for optical interconnects in silicon. A number of key discrete components and a wafer-scale integration process are reviewed. The motivation behind this work is to realize silicon-based photonic integrated circuits possessing unique advantages of III-V materials and silicon-on-insulator waveguides simultaneously through a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabrication process. Electrically pumped hybrid silicon distributed feedback and distributed Bragg reflector lasers with integrated hybrid silicon photodetectors are demonstrated coupled to SOI waveguides, serving as the reliable on-chip single-frequency light sources. For the external signal processing, Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulators are demonstrated, showing a resistance-capacitance-limited, 3 dB electrical bandwidth up to 8 GHz and a modulation efficiency of 1.5 V mm. The successful implementation of quantum well intermixing technique opens up the possibility to realize multiple III-V bandgaps in this platform. Sampled grating DBR devices integrated with electroabsorption modulators (EAM) are fabricated, where the bandgaps in gain, mirror, and EAM regions are 1520, 1440 and 1480 nm, respectively. The high-temperature operation characteristics of the HSEP are studied experimentally and theoretically. An overall characteristic temperature ( T 0) of 51°C, an above threshold characteristic temperature ( T 1) of 100°C, and a thermal impedance ( Z T ) of 41.8°C/W, which agrees with the theoretical prediction of 43.5°C/W, are extracted from the Fabry-Perot devices. Scaling this platform to larger dimensions is demonstrated up to 150 mm wafer diameter. A vertical outgassing channel design is developed to accomplish high-quality III-V epitaxial transfer to silicon in a timely and dimension-independent fashion.

  10. Effect of Wilting and Adding PFJ on Fermentation Quality of Hybrid Pennisetum (Pennisetum americanum ×P. purpureum ) Silage%凋萎和添加绿汁发酵液对杂交狼尾草青贮发酵品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丹; 下条雅敬; 邵涛

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of wilted, pre-fermented juice (PFJ) of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria, and wilted+PFJ on the fermentation qualities and residual water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) of Hybrid Pennisetum (Pennisetumn americanum × P. purpureum ) silage. The treatments were as follows: control (C), wilted (W), PFJ addition, wilted+PFJ on fresh weight basis of Hybrid Pennisetum, respectively. Based on results, control had low pH (4.09) and high lactic acid content (79.80 g/kg DM), and fermentation was clearly dominated by lactic acid bacteria. W treatment showed significantly (P<0.05) higher pH and significantly (P<0.05) lower lactic acid than the control indicating that although lactic acid bacteria have a relatively high tolerance to low moisture conditions, and lactic acid fermentation was inhibited in W treatment silage. Ammonia-N/total nitrogen (AN/TN), butyric acid, propionic acid, total volatile fatty acid (VFAs) and pH decreased or decreased significantly, whereas lactic acid/acetic acid, lactic acid, WSC increased significantly in both PFJ and W+PFJ treatments compared with control (P<0.05). These indicated that PFJ and W+PFJ treatments not only inhibited the activity of clostridia and other undesired microorganisms, but decreased protein degradation. However, they also stimulated homofermentative lactic acid bacteria activity, which decreased the loss of WSC, greatly increased the efficiency of WSC utilization by lactic acid bacteria, and further improved the fermentation quality. Wilted+PFJ treatment is best for improving the fermentation quality of Hybrid Pennisetum silage in this experiment.%为探讨凋萎、添加绿汁发酵液、凋萎+绿汁发酵液处理对杂交狼尾草(Pennisetum americanum×P.purpureum)发酵品质与水溶性碳水化合物的影响.试验设对照组(Control)、凋萎组(W)、绿汁发酵液组(PFJ)及凋萎(W)+绿汁发酵液组(PFJ),青贮30天后开窖取样分析.结

  11. How common is homoploid hybrid speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization has long been considered a process that prevents divergence between species. In contrast to this historical view, an increasing number of empirical studies claim to show evidence for hybrid speciation without a ploidy change. However, the importance of hybridization as a route to speciation is poorly understood, and many claims have been made with insufficient evidence that hybridization played a role in the speciation process. We propose criteria to determine the strength of evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation. Based on an evaluation of the literature using this framework, we conclude that although hybridization appears to be common, evidence for an important role of hybridization in homoploid speciation is more circumscribed.

  12. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  13. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  14. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  15. Hybrid models for complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    This paper formulates a new approach to complex fluid dynamics, which accounts for microscopic statistical effects in the micromotion. While the ordinary fluid variables (mass density and momentum) undergo usual dynamics, the order parameter field is replaced by a statistical distribution on the order parameter space. This distribution depends also on the point in physical space and its dynamics retains the usual fluid transport features while containing the statistical information on the order parameter space. This approach is based on a hybrid moment closure for Yang-Mills Vlasov plasmas, which replaces the usual cold-plasma assumption. After presenting the basic properties of the hybrid closure, such as momentum map features, singular solutions and Casimir invariants, the effect of Yang-Mills fields is considered and a direct application to ferromagnetic fluids is presented. Hybrid models are also formulated for complex fluids with symmetry breaking. For the special case of liquid crystals, a hybrid formul...

  16. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has been...

  17. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  18. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  19. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  20. Hybrid Platforms, Tools, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.; Bruenjes, Linda S.; Smith, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses common tools and resources for building a hybrid course in a higher education setting and provides recommendations for best practices in Learning Management Systems and Open Educational Resources.