Sample records for hybrid mask-mould lithography

  1. Organic-inorganic hybrid resist materials in advanced lithography (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Sugino, Naoto; Hanabata, Makoto


    Advanced nano-imprint lithography appears as a simple, cost reduction in manufacturing, fast operation, develop-less patterning application compatible with conventional pattern transfer techniques such as ultraviolet and electron beam lithography. However, defects generated in nano-imprint lithography present challenges that must be resolved in order to mass-produce advanced devices. The nano-imprint lithography requires the clean separation of a quartz template from a resist material, and the force required to create this separation must be minimized to prevent the resist pattern collapse and defects. This procedure is proven to be suitable for material design and the process conditions of organic-inorganic hybrid resist materials on photo-reactive underlayer material for the defect reduction by mold contamination when the mold was removed from the organic-inorganic hybrid resist materials after ultraviolet irradiation. The developed organic-inorganic hybrid resist material with ultraviolet crosslinking groups produced high resolutions nano-patterning of 50 nm line and excellent etch properties for semiconductor memory, MEMS, NEMS, biosensors, and medical devices.

  2. Lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Landis, Stefan


    Lithography is now a complex tool at the heart of a technological process for manufacturing micro and nanocomponents. A multidisciplinary technology, lithography continues to push the limits of optics, chemistry, mechanics, micro and nano-fluids, etc. This book deals with essential technologies and processes, primarily used in industrial manufacturing of microprocessors and other electronic components.

  3. Hybrid UV Lithography for 3D High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sungmin; Nam, Gyungmok; Kim, Jonghun; Yoon, Sang-Hee [Inha Univ, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Three-dimensional (3D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microstructures for biomedical applications (e.g., microneedle, microadhesive, etc.) are microfabricated using the hybrid ultraviolet (UV) lithography in which inclined, rotational, and reverse-side UV exposure processes are combined together. The inclined and rotational UV exposure processes are intended to fabricate tapered axisymmetric HAR microstructures; the reverse-side UV exposure process is designed to sharpen the end tip of the microstructures by suppressing the UV reflection on a bottom substrate which is inevitable in conventional UV lithography. Hybrid UV lithography involves fabricating 3D HAR microstructures with an epoxy-based negative photoresist, SU-8, using our customized UV exposure system. The effects of hybrid UV lithography parameters on the geometry of the 3D HAR microstructures (aspect ratio, radius of curvature of the end tip, etc.) are measured. The dependence of the end-tip shape on SU-8 soft-baking condition is also discussed.

  4. Importance of Molds for Nanoimprint Lithography: Hard, Soft, and Hybrid Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kwon


    Full Text Available Nanoimprint lithography has attracted considerable attention in academic and industrial fields as one of the most prominent lithographic techniques for the fabrication of the nanoscale devices. Effectively controllable shapes of fabricated elements, extremely high resolution, and cost-effectiveness of this especial lithographic system have shown unlimited potential to be utilized for practical applications. In the past decade, many different lithographic techniques have been developed such as electron beam lithography, photolithography, and nanoimprint lithography. Among them, nanoimprint lithography has proven to have not only various advantages that other lithographic techniques have but also potential to minimize the limitations of current lithographic techniques. In this review, we summarize current lithography techniques and, furthermore, investigate the nanoimprint lithography in detail in particular focusing on the types of molds. Nanoimprint lithography can be categorized into three different techniques (hard-mold, soft-mold, and hybrid nanoimprint depending upon the molds for imprint with different advantages and disadvantages. With numerous studies and improvements, nanoimprint lithography has shown great potential which maximizes its effectiveness in patterning by minimizing its limitations. This technique will surely be the next generation lithographic technique which will open the new paradigm for the patterning and fabrication in nanoscale devices in industry.

  5. Efficient DSA-DP hybrid lithography conflict detection and guiding template assignment (United States)

    Ou, Jiaojiao; Cline, Brian; Yeric, Greg; Pan, David Z.


    In recent years, directed self-assembly (DSA) has demonstrated tremendous potential to reduce cost for multiple patterning with fewer masks, especially for via patterning. DSA is considered as one of the next generation lithography candidates or complementary lithography techniques to extend 193i lithography further for the sub- 7 nm nodes. In this work, we focus on the simultaneous DSA guiding template assignment and decomposition with DSA and double patterning (DSA-DP) hybrid lithography for 7nm technology node. We first analyze the placement error of DSA patterns with different shapes and sizes. We then propose a graph-based approach to reduce the problem size and solve the problem more efficiently without affecting the optimality of the results. The experimental results demonstrate that we can achieve a 50% reduction in both the number of variables and constraints compared to previous work, which leads to a 50X speed up in runtime.

  6. Sub-20nm hybrid lithography using optical, pitch-division, and e-beam (United States)

    Belledent, J.; Smayling, M.; Pradelles, J.; Pimenta-Barros, P.; Barnola, S.; Mage, L.; Icard, B.; Lapeyre, C.; Soulan, S.; Pain, L.


    A roadmap extending far beyond the current 22nm CMOS node has been presented several times. [1] This roadmap includes the use of a highly regular layout style which can be decomposed into "lines and cuts."[2] The "lines" can be done with existing optical immersion lithography and pitch division with self-aligned spacers.[3] The "cuts" can be done with either multiple exposures using immersion lithography, or a hybrid solution using either EUV or direct-write ebeam.[ 4] The choice for "cuts" will be driven by the availability of cost-effective, manufacturing-ready equipment and infrastructure. Optical lithography improvements have enabled scaling far beyond what was expected; for example, soft x-rays (aka EUV) were in the semiconductor roadmap as early as 1994 since optical resolution was not expected for sub-100nm features. However, steady improvements and innovations such as Excimer laser sources and immersion photolithography have allowed some manufacturers to build 22nm CMOS SOCs with single-exposure optical lithography. With the transition from random complex 2D shapes to regular 1D-patterns at 28nm, the "lines and cuts" approach can extend CMOS logic to at least the 7nm node. The spacer double patterning for lines and optical cuts patterning is expected to be used down to the 14nm node. In this study, we extend the scaling to 18nm half-pitch which is approximately the 10-11nm node using spacer pitch division and complementary e-beam lithography. For practical reasons, E-Beam lithography is used as well to expose the "mandrel" patterns that support the spacers. However, in a production mode, it might be cost effective to replace this step by a standard 193nm exposure and applying the spacer technique twice to divide the pitch by 3 or 4. The Metal-1 "cut" pattern is designed for a reasonably complex logic function with ~100k gates of combinatorial logic and flip-flops. Since the final conductor is defined by a Damascene process, the "cut" patterns become islands

  7. Position Analysis of a Hybrid Serial-Parallel Manipulator in Immersion Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-jie Shao


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel hybrid serial-parallel mechanism with 6 degrees of freedom. The new mechanism combines two different parallel modules in a serial form. 3-P̲(PH parallel module is architecture of 3 degrees of freedom based on higher joints and specializes in describing two planes’ relative pose. 3-P̲SP parallel module is typical architecture which has been widely investigated in recent researches. In this paper, the direct-inverse position problems of the 3-P̲SP parallel module in the couple mixed-type mode are analyzed in detail, and the solutions are obtained in an analytical form. Furthermore, the solutions for the direct and inverse position problems of the novel hybrid serial-parallel mechanism are also derived and obtained in the analytical form. The proposed hybrid serial-parallel mechanism is applied to regulate the immersion hood’s pose in an immersion lithography system. Through measuring and regulating the pose of the immersion hood with respect to the wafer surface simultaneously, the immersion hood can track the wafer surface’s pose in real-time and the gap status is stabilized. This is another exploration to hybrid serial-parallel mechanism’s application.

  8. Fabrication and test of nano crossbar switches/MOSFET hybrid circuits by imprinting lithography (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Li, Xuema; Ohlberg, Douglas A. A.; Straznicky, Joseph; Wu, Wei; Yu, Zhaoning; Borghetti, Julien; Tong, William; Stewart, Duncan; Williams, R. Stanley


    An integrated circuit combining imprinted, nanoscale crossbar switches with metal-oxide field effect transistors (MOSFET) was fabricated and tested. Construction of the circuits began with fabrication of n-channel MOSFET devices on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates using CMOS compatible process techniques. To protect the FET devices as well as provide a flat surface for subsequent nanoimprint lithography, passivation and planarization layers were deposited. Crossbar junctions were then fabricated next to the FETs using imprint lithography to first define arrays of parallel nanowires over which, a switchable material layer was deposited. This was followed by a second imprint proces to construct another set of parallel wires on top of, and orthogonal to the first, to complete the nano-crossbar array with a half pitch (hp) of 50 nm. The switchable crossbar devices were then connected to the gate of the FETs and the resulting integrated circuit was tested using the FET as the output signal follower. This successful fabrication process serves as a proof-of-principle demonstration and a platform for advanced CMOS/nanoscale crossbar hybrid logic circuits.

  9. Evaluation of hybrid polymers for high-precision manufacturing of 3D optical interconnects by two-photon absorption lithography (United States)

    Schleunitz, A.; Klein, J. J.; Krupp, A.; Stender, B.; Houbertz, R.; Gruetzner, G.


    The fabrication of optical interconnects has been widely investigated for the generation of optical circuit boards. Twophoton absorption (TPA) lithography (or high-precision 3D printing) as an innovative production method for direct manufacture of individual 3D photonic structures gains more and more attention when optical polymers are employed. In this regard, we have evaluated novel ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers tailored for the manufacture of optical waveguides by means of high-precision 3D printing. In order to facilitate future industrial implementation, the processability was evaluated and the optical performance of embedded waveguides was assessed. The results illustrate that hybrid polymers are not only viable consumables for industrial manufacture of polymeric micro-optics using generic processes such as UV molding. They also are potential candidates to fabricate optical waveguide systems down to the chip level where TPA-based emerging manufacturing techniques are engaged. Hence, it is shown that hybrid polymers continue to meet the increasing expectations of dynamically growing markets of micro-optics and optical interconnects due to the flexibility of the employed polymer material concept.

  10. Flexible, Transparent, Thickness-Controllable SWCNT/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Films Based on Coffee-Ring Lithography for Functional Noncontact Sensing Device

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong


    Flexible transparent conductive films (FTCFs) as the essential components of the next generation of functional circuits and devices are presently attracting more attention. Here, a new strategy has been demonstrated to fabricate thickness-controllable FTCFs through coffee ring lithography (CRL) of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid ink. The influence of ink concentration and volume on the thickness and size of hybrid film has been investigated systematically. Results show that the final FTCFs present a high performance, including a homogeneous thickness of 60-65 nm, a sheet resistance of 1.8 kohm/sq, a visible/infrared-range transmittance (79%, PET = 90%), and a dynamic mechanical property (>1000 cycle, much better than ITO film), respectively, when SWCNT concentration is 0.2 mg/mL, ink volume is 0.4 μL, drying at room temperature. Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of FTCFs have been verified through a full transparent, flexible noncontact sensing panel (3 × 4 sensing pixels) and a flexible battery-free wireless sensor based on a humidity sensing mechanism, showing excellent human/machine interaction with high sensitivity, good stability, and fast response/recovery ability. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  11. Nano lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Landis, Stefan


    Lithography is an extremely complex tool - based on the concept of "imprinting" an original template version onto mass output - originally using relatively simple optical exposure, masking, and etching techniques, and now extended to include exposure to X-rays, high energy UV light, and electron beams - in processes developed to manufacture everyday products including those in the realms of consumer electronics, telecommunications, entertainment, and transportation, to name but a few. In the last few years, researchers and engineers have pushed the envelope of fields including optics, physics,

  12. Lithography for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G


    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 16: Lithography for VLSI treats special topics from each branch of lithography, and also contains general discussion of some lithographic methods.This volume contains 8 chapters that discuss the various aspects of lithography. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to optical lithography. Chapter 3 covers electron lithography in general, and Chapter 4 discusses electron resist exposure modeling. Chapter 5 presents the fundamentals of ion-beam lithography. Mask/wafer alignment for x-ray proximity printing and for optical lithography is tackled in Chapter 6.

  13. Laser Interference Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Abelmann, Leon; Hennessy, Theodore C.

    In this chapter we explain how submicron gratings can be prepared by Laser Interference Lithography (LIL). In this maskless lithography technique, the standing wave pattern that exists at the intersection of two coherent laser beams is used to expose a photosensitive layer. We show how to build the

  14. Electron caustic lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kennedy


    Full Text Available A maskless method of electron beam lithography is described which uses the reflection of an electron beam from an electrostatic mirror to produce caustics in the demagnified image projected onto a resist–coated wafer. By varying the electron optics, e.g. via objective lens defocus, both the morphology and dimensions of the caustic features may be controlled, producing a range of bright and tightly focused projected features. The method is illustrated for line and fold caustics and is complementary to other methods of reflective electron beam lithography.

  15. Ice Lithography for Nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Anpan; Kuan, A.; Wang, J.

    Water vapor is condensed onto a cold sample, coating it with a thin-film of ice. The ice is sensitive to electron beam lithography exposure. 10 nm ice patterns are transferred into metals by “melt-off”. Non-planar samples are coated with ice, and we pattern on cantilevers, AFM tips, and suspended...

  16. Evanescent interferometric lithography. (United States)

    Blaikie, R J; McNab, S J


    Simulation results are presented to illustrate the main features of what we believe is a new photolithographic technique, evanescent interferometric lithography (EIL). The technique exploits interference between resonantly enhanced, evanescently decaying diffracted orders to create a frequency-doubled intensity pattern in the near field of a metallic diffraction grating. It is shown that the intensity in a grating's near field can be enhanced significantly compared with conventional interferometric lithography. Contrast in the interference pattern is also increased, owing to a reduction in the zeroth-order transmission near resonance. The pattern's depth of field reduces as the wavelength is increased beyond cutoff of the first-order diffracted components, and results are presented showing the trade-offs that can be made between depth of field and intensity enhancement. Examples are given for a 270-nm-period grating embedded in material with refractive index n = 1.6 and illuminated with wavelengths near 450 nm. Under these conditions it is predicted that high-intensity, high-contrast patterns with 135-nm period can be formed in photoresists more than 50 nm thick.

  17. Lithography, metrology and nanomanufacturing. (United States)

    Liddle, J Alexander; Gallatin, Gregg M


    Semiconductor chip manufacturing is by far the predominant nanomanufacturing technology in the world today. Top-down lithography techniques are used for fabrication of logic and memory chips since, in order to function, these chips must essentially be perfect. Assuring perfection requires expensive metrology. Top of the line logic sells for several hundred thousand dollars per square metre and, even though the required metrology is expensive, it is a small percentage of the overall manufacturing cost. The level of stability and control afforded by current lithography tools means that much of this metrology can be online and statistical. In contrast, many of the novel types of nanomanufacturing currently being developed will produce products worth only a few dollars per square metre. To be cost effective, the required metrology must cost proportionately less. Fortunately many of these nanofabrication techniques, such as block copolymer self-assembly, colloidal self-assembly, DNA origami, roll-2-roll nano-imprint, etc., will not require the same level of perfection to meet specification. Given the variability of these self-assembly processes, in order to maintain process control, these techniques will require some level of real time online metrology. Hence we are led to the conclusion that future nanomanufacturing may well necessitate "cheap" nanometre scale metrology which functions real time and on-line, e.g. at GHz rates, in the production stream. In this paper we review top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication techniques and compare and contrast the various metrology requirements.

  18. Surface enhanced thermo lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Coluccio, Maria Laura


    We used electroless deposition to fabricate clusters of silver nanoparticles (NPs) on a silicon substrate. These clusters are plasmonics devices that induce giant electromagnetic (EM) field increments. When those EM field are absorbed by the metal NPs clusters generate, in turn, severe temperature increases. Here, we used the laser radiation of a conventional Raman set-up to transfer geometrical patterns from a template of metal NPs clusters into a layer of thermo sensitive Polyphthalaldehyde (PPA) polymer. Temperature profile on the devices depends on specific arrangements of silver nanoparticles. In plane temperature variations may be controlled with (i) high nano-meter spatial precision and (ii) single Kelvin temperature resolution on varying the shape, size and spacing of metal nanostructures. This scheme can be used to generate strongly localized heat amplifications for applications in nanotechnology, surface enhanced thermo-lithography (SETL), biology and medicine (for space resolved cell ablation and treatment), nano-chemistry.

  19. Porphyrin-Based Photocatalytic Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J; Stone, G; Christian, A; Dugan, L; Hiddessen, A; Wu, K J; Wu, L; Hamilton, J; Stockton, C; Hubbell, J


    Photocatalytic lithography is an emerging technique that couples light with coated mask materials in order to pattern surface chemistry. We excite porphyrins to create radical species that photocatalytically oxidize, and thereby pattern, chemistries in the local vicinity. The technique advantageously does not necessitate mass transport or specified substrates, it is fast and robust and the wavelength of light does not limit the resolution of patterned features. We have patterned proteins and cells in order to demonstrate the utility of photocatalytic lithography in life science applications.

  20. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography (United States)

    Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo


    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  1. Biomolecular Patterning via Photocatalytic Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P; Hiddessen, A L; Wu, K J; Christian, A T; Dugan, L C; Stone, G; Camarero, J; Hinz, A K; Hubbell, J A


    We have developed a novel method for patterning surface chemistry: Photocatalytic Lithography. This technique relies on inexpensive stamp materials and light; it does not necessitate mass transport or specified substrates, and the wavelength of light should not limit feature resolution. We have demonstrated the utility of this technique through the patterning of proteins, single cells and bacteria.

  2. Soft Lithography using Nectar Droplets


    Biswas, Saheli; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chateauminois, Antoine; Wandersman, Elie; Prevost, Alexis M.; Chaudhury, Manoj K.


    In spite of significant advances in replication technologies, methods to produce well-defined three dimensional structures are still at its infancy. Such a limitation would be evident if we were to produce a large array of simple and, especially, compound convex lenses, also guaranteeing that their surfaces would be molecularly smooth. Here, we report a novel method to produce such structures by cloning the 3D shape of nectar drops, found widely in nature, using conventional soft lithography....

  3. A simple and residual-layer-free solute-solvent separation soft lithography method (United States)

    Dai, Xianglu; Xie, Huimin


    A solute-solvent separation soft lithography (3S soft lithography) is reported in this paper, which aims at offering a residual-layer-free micromachining technique that can be realized in an ordinary laboratory conveniently. In 3S soft lithography, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) block containing micro-structure relief serves as the stamp, and the resist (as the solute) is dissolved in a solvent to form a solution before being molded by the stamp. During the molding process, the stamp absorbs the solvent and filters the resist; as a result, the resist can solidify on the substrate and replicate the pattern on the stamp. To improve the global geometric uniformity of the duplicated pattern, a hybrid PDMS stamp whose effectiveness is verified by the finite element analysis is used. Moreover, the liquid bridge phenomenon is creatively applied to remove the bubble defects caused during the molding process. The pattern transfer fidelity of 3S soft lithography is analyzed, and some suggestions are summarized for performing a high quality 3S soft lithography based on the experimental results. Verified by our experiment, the micro-structure fabricated by 3S soft lithography can serve as a mask for the following etching, and a lattice with minimum line width of 200 nm has been successfully fabricated on the silicon wafer in our study.

  4. Latex particle template lift-up guided gold wire-networks via evaporation lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah


    We describe a hybrid methodology that combines a two dimensional (2D) monolayer of latex particles (with a pitch size down to 1 μm) prepared by horizontal dry deposition, lift-up of a 2D template onto flat surfaces and evaporation lithography to fabricate metal micro- and nano wire-networks. This journal is

  5. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2+, BF2+, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 • Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm-2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The

  6. Pixelated source and mask optimization for immersion lithography. (United States)

    Ma, Xu; Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong; Arce, Gonzalo R


    Immersion lithography systems with hyper-numerical aperture (hyper-NA) (NA>1) have become indispensable in nanolithography for technology nodes of 45 nm and beyond. Source and mask optimization (SMO) has emerged as a key technique used to further improve the imaging performance of immersion lithography. Recently, a set of pixelated gradient-based SMO approaches were proposed under the scalar imaging models, which are inaccurate for hyper-NA settings. This paper focuses on developing pixelated gradient-based SMO algorithms based on a vector imaging model that is accurate for current immersion lithography. To achieve this goal, an integrative and analytic vector imaging model is first used to formulate the simultaneous SMO (SISMO) and sequential SMO (SESMO) frameworks. A gradient-based algorithm is then exploited to jointly optimize the source and mask. Subsequently, this paper studies and compares the performance of individual source optimization (SO), individual mask optimization (MO), SISMO, and SESMO. Finally, a hybrid SMO (HSMO) approach is proposed to take full advantage of SO, SISMO, and MO, consequently achieving superior performance.

  7. 3D-Nanomachining using corner lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berenschot, Johan W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    We present a fabrication method to create 3D nano structures without the need for nano lithography. The method, named "corner lithography" is based on conformal deposition and subsequent isotropic thinning of a thin film. The material that remains in sharp concave corners is either used as a mask or

  8. Design for manufacturability with advanced lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Bei


    This book introduces readers to the most advanced research results on Design for Manufacturability (DFM) with multiple patterning lithography (MPL) and electron beam lithography (EBL).  The authors describe in detail a set of algorithms/methodologies to resolve issues in modern design for manufacturability problems with advanced lithography.  Unlike books that discuss DFM from the product level, or physical manufacturing level, this book describes DFM solutions from a circuit design level, such that most of the critical problems can be formulated and solved through combinatorial algorithms. Enables readers to tackle the challenge of layout decompositions for different patterning techniques; Presents a coherent framework, including standard cell compliance and detailed placement, to enable Triple Patterning Lithography (TPL) friendly design; Includes coverage of the design for manufacturability with E-Beam lithography.

  9. Stencil Lithography for Scalable Micro- and Nanomanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Du


    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the current development of stencil lithography for scalable micro- and nanomanufacturing as a resistless and reusable patterning technique. We first introduce the motivation and advantages of stencil lithography for large-area micro- and nanopatterning. Then we review the progress of using rigid membranes such as SiNx and Si as stencil masks as well as stacking layers. We also review the current use of flexible membranes including a compliant SiNx membrane with springs, polyimide film, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS layer, and photoresist-based membranes as stencil lithography masks to address problems such as blurring and non-planar surface patterning. Moreover, we discuss the dynamic stencil lithography technique, which significantly improves the patterning throughput and speed by moving the stencil over the target substrate during deposition. Lastly, we discuss the future advancement of stencil lithography for a resistless, reusable, scalable, and programmable nanolithography method.

  10. Particle Lithography Enables Fabrication of Multicomponent Nanostructures (United States)

    Lin, Wei-feng; Swartz, Logan A.; Li, Jie-Ren; Liu, Yang; Liu, Gang-yu


    Multicomponent nanostructures with individual geometries have attracted much attention because of their potential to carry out multiple functions synergistically. The current work reports a simple method using particle lithography to fabricate multicomponent nanostructures of metals, proteins, and organosiloxane molecules, each with its own geometry. Particle lithography is well-known for its capability to produce arrays of triangular-shaped nanostructures with novel optical properties. This paper extends the capability of particle lithography by combining a particle template in conjunction with surface chemistry to produce multicomponent nanostructures. The advantages and limitations of this approach will also be addressed. PMID:24707328

  11. Resistless Fabrication of Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL Stamps Using Nano-Stencil Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Brugger


    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the advances in nano-fabrication, alternative, cost-efficient lithography techniques need to be implemented. Two of the most promising are nanoimprint lithography (NIL and stencil lithography. We explore here the possibility of fabricating the stamp using stencil lithography, which has the potential for a cost reduction in some fabrication facilities. We show that the stamps reproduce the membrane aperture patterns within ±10 nm and we validate such stamps by using them to fabricate metallic nanowires down to 100 nm in size.

  12. Stencil Lithography for Scalable Micro- and Nanomanufacturing


    Ke Du; Junjun Ding; Yuyang Liu; Ishan Wathuthanthri; Chang-Hwan Choi


    In this paper, we review the current development of stencil lithography for scalable micro- and nanomanufacturing as a resistless and reusable patterning technique. We first introduce the motivation and advantages of stencil lithography for large-area micro- and nanopatterning. Then we review the progress of using rigid membranes such as SiNx and Si as stencil masks as well as stacking layers. We also review the current use of flexible membranes including a compliant SiNx membrane with spring...

  13. Nanometer x-ray lithography (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Khan Malek, Chantal G.


    New developments for x-ray nanomachining include pattern transfer onto non-planar surfaces coated with electrodeposited resists using synchrotron radiation x-rays through extremely high-resolution mask made by chemically assisted focused ion beam lithography. Standard UV photolithographic processes cannot maintain sub-micron definitions over large variation in feature topography. The ability of x-ray printing to pattern thin or thick layers of photoresist with high resolution on non-planar surfaces of large and complex topographies with limited diffraction and scattering effects and no substrate reflection is known and can be exploited for patterning microsystems with non-planar 3D geometries as well as multisided and multilayered substrates. Thin conformal coatings of electro-deposited positive and negative tone photoresist have been shown to be x-ray sensitive and accommodate sub-micro pattern transfer over surface of extreme topographical variations. Chemically assisted focused ion beam selective anisotropic erosion was used to fabricate x-ray masks directly. Masks with feature sizes less than 20 nm through 7 microns of gold were made on bulk silicon substrates and x-ray mask membranes. The technique is also applicable to other high density materials. Such masks enable the primary and secondary patterning and/or 3D machining of Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems over large depths or complex relief and the patterning of large surface areas with sub-optically dimensioned features.

  14. Secondary Electrons in EUV Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Justin; Re, Ryan Del; Herbol, Henry; Das, Sanjana; Bocharova, Irina; Paolucci, Angela; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Ventrice Jr., Carl; Lifshin, Eric; Denbeaux, Greg; Brainard, Robert L.


    Secondary electrons play critical roles in several imaging technologies, including extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. At longer wavelengths of light (e.g. 193 and 248 nm), the photons are directly involved in the photochemistry occurring during photolysis. EUV light (13.5 nm, 92 eV), however, first creates a photoelectron, and this electron, or its subsequent daughter electrons create most of the chemical changes that occur during exposure. Despite the importance of these electrons, the details surrounding the chemical events leading to acid production remain poorly understood. Previously reported experimental results using high PAG-loaded resists have demonstrated that up to five or six photoacids can be generated per incident photon. Until recently, only electron recombination events were thought to play a role in acid generation, requiring that at least as many secondary electrons are produced to yield a given number of acid molecules. However, the initial results we have obtained using a Monte Carlo-based modeling program, LESiS, demonstrate that only two to three secondary electrons are made per absorbed EUV photon. A more comprehensive understanding of EUV-induced acid generation is therefore needed for the development of higher performance resists

  15. Drawing lithography for microneedles: a review of fundamentals and biomedical applications. (United States)

    Lee, Kwang; Jung, Hyungil


    A microneedle is a three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical structure and has been in the spotlight recently as a drug delivery system (DDS). Because a microneedle delivers the target drug after penetrating the skin barrier, the therapeutic effects of microneedles proceed from its 3D structural geometry. Various types of microneedles have been fabricated using subtractive micromanufacturing methods which are based on the inherently planar two-dimensional (2D) geometries. However, traditional subtractive processes are limited for flexible structural microneedles and makes functional biomedical applications for efficient drug delivery difficult. The authors of the present study propose drawing lithography as a unique additive process for the fabrication of a microneedle directly from 2D planar substrates, thus overcoming a subtractive process shortcoming. The present article provides the first overview of the principal drawing lithography technology: fundamentals and biomedical applications. The continuous drawing technique for an ultrahigh-aspect ratio (UHAR) hollow microneedle, stepwise controlled drawing technique for a dissolving microneedle, and drawing technique with antidromic isolation for a hybrid electro-microneedle (HEM) are reviewed, and efficient biomedical applications by drawing lithography-mediated microneedles as an innovative drug and gene delivery system are described. Drawing lithography herein can provide a great breakthrough in the development of materials science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Edge Transfer Lithography Using Alkanethiol Inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, R.B.A.; Titulaer, Bram J.F.; Peeters, Emiel; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Reinhoudt, David; Poelsema, Bene


    Edge lithographic patterning techniques are based on the utilization of the edges of micrometer-sized template features for the reproduction of submicrometer structures. Edge transfer lithography (ETL) permits local surface modification in a single step by depositing self-assembled monolayers onto a

  17. Magnetic Resonance Lithography with Nanometer Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad AlGhannam


    Full Text Available We propose an approach for super-resolution optical lithography which is based on the inverse of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The technique uses atomic coherence in an ensemble of spin systems whose final state population can be optically detected. In principle, our method is capable of producing arbitrary one and two dimensional high-resolution patterns with high contrast.

  18. Thermoplastic microcantilevers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders; Keller, Stephan Urs; Vig, Asger Laurberg


    Nanoimprint lithography has been exploited to fabricate micrometre-sized cantilevers in thermoplastic. This technique allows for very well defined microcantilevers and gives the possibility of embedding structures into the cantilever surface. The microcantilevers are fabricated in TOPAS and are up...

  19. Photoresists in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) (United States)

    De Simone, Danilo; Vesters, Yannick; Vandenberghe, Geert


    The evolutionary advances in photosensitive material technology, together with the shortening of the exposure wavelength in the photolithography process, have enabled and driven the transistor scaling dictated by Moore's law for the last 50 years. Today, the shortening wavelength trend continues to improve the chips' performance over time by feature size miniaturization. The next-generation lithography technology for high-volume manufacturing (HVM) is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), using a light source with a wavelength of 13.5 nm. Here, we provide a brief introduction to EUVL and patterning requirements for sub-0-nm feature sizes from a photomaterial standpoint, discussing traditional and novel photoresists. Emphasis will be put on the novel class of metal-containing resists (MCRs) as well as their challenges from a manufacturing prospective.

  20. High resolution technology for FPD lithography tools (United States)

    Yabu, Nobuhiko; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Tomura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro


    As the resolution of LCD panels adapted for Smartphone and Tablet PC rapidly becomes higher, the performance needed for lithography tools to produce them also becomes higher than ever. To respond to such needs, we have developed new lithography tools for mass production of high resolution LCD panels. We have executed various exposure tests to evaluate their performance. In this paper, we present the results of these tests. By employing higher NA projection optics, high resolution (2.0μm and under) has been achieved. We also present the effect of special illumination and the difference in profile between kinds of photoresist. Furthermore, we also refer what will be needed for masks and blanks in the next generation. To achieve even higher resolution, it is necessary for masks and blanks to have high flatness, low level of defects and small linewidth error.

  1. Gallium beam lithography for superconductive structure formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael David; Lewis, Rupert M.


    The present invention relates to the use of gallium beam lithography to form superconductive structures. Generally, the method includes exposing a surface to gallium to form an implanted region and then removing material adjacent to and/or below that implanted region. In particular embodiments, the methods herein provide microstructures and nanostructures in any useful substrate, such as those including niobium, tantalum, tungsten, or titanium.

  2. Metal hierarchical patterning by direct nanoimprint lithography


    Boya Radha; Su Hui Lim; Saifullah, Mohammad S. M.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.


    Three-dimensional hierarchical patterning of metals is of paramount importance in diverse fields involving photonics, controlling surface wettability and wearable electronics. Conventionally, this type of structuring is tedious and usually involves layer-by-layer lithographic patterning. Here, we describe a simple process of direct nanoimprint lithography using palladium benzylthiolate, a versatile metal-organic ink, which not only leads to the formation of hierarchical patterns but also is a...

  3. Electron Beam Lithography for nano-patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Khomtchenko, Elena


    Electron beam lithography is a versatile tool for fabrication of nano-sized patterns. The patterns are generated by scanning a focused beam of high-energy electrons onto a substrate coated with a thin layer of electron-sensitive polymer (resist), i.e. by directly writing custom-made patterns...... in a polymer. Electron beam lithography is a suitable method for nano-sized production, research, or development of semiconductor components on a low-volume level. Here, we present electron beam lithography available at DTU Danchip. We expertize a JEOL 9500FZ with electrons accelerated to an energy of 100ke......V and focused to a beam spot size down to ~5nm. The electron beam can scan across the substrate with a speed of 100MHz and can write areas of 1mm x 1mm without stitching. In order to ensure high-precision patterning, the beam position on the substrate is controlled by a two-stage deflector system and substrates...

  4. Stencil mask technology for ion beam lithography (United States)

    Ehrmann, Albrecht; Huber, Sabine; Kaesmaier, Rainer; Oelmann, Andreas B.; Struck, Thomas; Springer, Reinhard; Butschke, Joerg; Letzkus, Florian; Kragler, Karl; Loeschner, Hans; Rangelow, Ivo W.


    Ion beam lithography is one of the most promising future lithography technologies. A helium or hydrogen ion beam illuminates a stencil membrane mask and projects the image with 4X reduction to the wafer. The development of stencil masks is considered to be critical for the success of the new technology. Since 1997, within the European Ion Projection Lithography MEDEA (Microelectronic Devices for European Applications) project silicon stencil masks based on a wafer- flow process are developed. They are produced in a conventional wafer line. Six inch SOI (silicon-on-insulator) wafers are patterned with an e-beam wafer writing tool, then trenches are etched by plasma etching. Afterwards, the membrane is etched by wet etch using the SOI-oxide layer as an etch stop. The last step is to add a coating layer, which is sputtered onto the membrane. It protects the mask against ion irradiation damage. For metrology and inspection, methods used for conventional chromium masks as well as new techniques are investigated. Results from placement measurements on the Leica LMS IPRO tool will be presented. Finally, methods for CD measurement, defect inspection, repair and in-situ-cleaning in the stepper will be discussed, including experimental information of first tests.

  5. Dynamic Properties of Individual Carbon Nanotube Emitters for Maskless Lithography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribaya, Bryan P; Niemann, Darrell L; Makarewicz, Joseph; Gunther, Norman G; Nguyen, Cattien V; Rahman, Mahmud


    .... The individual CNT's low electron beam energy spread and high brightness values make it particularly desirable for advanced applications such as electron microscopy and electron beam lithography...

  6. EUV lithography imaging using novel pellicle membranes (United States)

    Pollentier, Ivan; Vanpaemel, Johannes; Lee, Jae Uk; Adelmann, Christoph; Zahedmanesh, Houman; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Gallagher, Emily E.


    EUV mask protection against defects during use remains a challenge for EUV lithography. A stand-off protective membrane - a pellicle - is targeted to prevent yield losses in high volume manufacturing during handling and exposure, just as it is for 193nm lithography. The pellicle is thin enough to transmit EUV exposure light, yet strong enough to remain intact and hold any particles out of focus during exposure. The development of pellicles for EUV is much more challenging than for 193nm lithography for multiple reasons including: high absorption of most materials at EUV wavelength, pump-down sequences in the EUV vacuum system, and exposure to high intensity EUV light. To solve the problems of transmission and film durability, various options have been explored. In most cases a thin core film is considered, since the deposition process for this is well established and because it is the simplest option. The transmission specification typically dictates that membranes are very thin (~50nm or less), which makes both fabrication and film mechanical integrity difficult. As an alternative, low density films (e.g. including porosity) will allow thicker membranes for a given transmission specification, which is likely to improve film durability. The risk is that the porosity could influence the imaging. At imec, two cases of pellicle concepts based on reducing density have been assessed : (1) 3D-patterned SiN by directed self-assembly (DSA), and (2) carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanosheets (CNS). The first case is based on SiN membranes that are 3D-patterned by Directed Self Assembly (DSA). The materials are tested relative to the primary specifications: EUV transmission and film durability. A risk assessment of printing performance is provided based on simulations of scattered energy. General conclusions on the efficacy of various approaches will provided.

  7. Wave and particle in molecular interference lithography. (United States)

    Juffmann, Thomas; Truppe, Stefan; Geyer, Philipp; Major, András G; Deachapunya, Sarayut; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Arndt, Markus


    The wave-particle duality of massive objects is a cornerstone of quantum physics and a key property of many modern tools such as electron microscopy, neutron diffraction or atom interferometry. Here we report on the first experimental demonstration of quantum interference lithography with complex molecules. Molecular matter-wave interference patterns are deposited onto a reconstructed Si(111) 7x7 surface and imaged using scanning tunneling microscopy. Thereby both the particle and the quantum wave character of the molecules can be visualized in one and the same image. This new approach to nanolithography therefore also represents a sensitive new detection scheme for quantum interference experiments.

  8. Fabrication of biopolymer cantilevers using nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Fisker-Bødker, Nis


    The biodegradable polymer poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) was introduced for the fabrication of micromechanical devices. For this purpose, thin biopolymer films with thickness around 10 μm were spin-coated on silicon substrates. Patterning of microcantilevers is achieved by nanoimprint lithography. A major...... challenge was the high adhesion between PLLA and silicon stamp. Optimized stamp fabrication and the deposition of a 125 nm thick fluorocarbon anti-stiction coating on the PLLA allowed the fabrication of biopolymer cantilevers. Resonance frequency measurements were used to estimate the Young’s modulus...

  9. 3D Nanofabrication of fluidic components by corner lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burouni, N.


    A reproducible wafer-scale method to obtain 3D nanostructures using a low-budget lithography tool is investigated. This method, called corner lithography, explores the conformal deposition and the subsequent timed isotropic etching of a thin film in a 3D shaped silicon template. Moreover, it offers

  10. High-Resolution Stamp Fabrication by Edge Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping


    The aim of the project was to create high resolution stamps for thermal nanoimprint applications. The creation of nanoridges with sub-100 nm resolutions was explored by means of edge lithography via top-down routes, i.e. in combination with micromachining technology. Edge lithography is an add-on

  11. Bragg reflectors with IR suppression for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; Yakshin, Andrey; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Krivtsun, V.M.; Yakunin, A.M.; Koshelev, K.; Bijkerk, Frederik


    The most promi¬sing next generation lithography technology is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). To fulfill the demands of high productivity, EUVL requires high power EUV radiation sources, with a promising technology for such sources being based on the emission of dense plasmas produced by

  12. Plasmon–Phonon Coupling in Large-Area Graphene Dot and Antidot Arrays Fabricated by Nanosphere Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Wang, Weihua; Yan, Wei


    Nanostructured graphene on SiO2 substrates paves the way for enhanced light–matter interactions and explorations of strong plasmon–phonon hybridization in the mid-infrared regime. Unprecedented large-area graphene nanodot and antidot optical arrays are fabricated by nanosphere lithography......, with structural control down to the sub-100 nm regime. The interaction between graphene plasmon modes and the substrate phonons is experimentally demonstrated, and structural control is used to map out the hybridization of plasmons and phonons, showing coupling energies of the order 20 meV. Our findings...

  13. Economic consequences of high throughput maskless lithography (United States)

    Hartley, John G.; Govindaraju, Lakshmi


    Many people in the semiconductor industry bemoan the high costs of masks and view mask cost as one of the significant barriers to bringing new chip designs to market. All that is needed is a viable maskless technology and the problem will go away. Numerous sites around the world are working on maskless lithography but inevitably, the question asked is "Wouldn't a one wafer per hour maskless tool make a really good mask writer?" Of course, the answer is yes, the hesitation you hear in the answer isn't based on technology concerns, it's financial. The industry needs maskless lithography because mask costs are too high. Mask costs are too high because mask pattern generators (PG's) are slow and expensive. If mask PG's become much faster, mask costs go down, the maskless market goes away and the PG supplier is faced with an even smaller tool demand from the mask shops. Technical success becomes financial suicide - or does it? In this paper we will present the results of a model that examines some of the consequences of introducing high throughput maskless pattern generation. Specific features in the model include tool throughput for masks and wafers, market segmentation by node for masks and wafers and mask cost as an entry barrier to new chip designs. How does the availability of low cost masks and maskless tools affect the industries tool makeup and what is the ultimate potential market for high throughput maskless pattern generators?

  14. Mask and lithography techniques for FPD (United States)

    Sandstrom, T.; Wahlsten, M.; Sundelin, E.; Hansson, G.; Svensson, A.


    Large-field projection lithography for FPDs has developed gradually since the 90s. The LCD screen technology has remained largely unchanged and incremental development has given us better image quality, larger screen sizes, and above all lower cost per area. Recently new types of mobile devices with very high pixel density and/or OLED displays have given rise to dramatically higher requirem ents on photomask technology. Devices with 600 ppi or m ore need lithography with higher optical resolution and better linewidth control. OLED di splays pose new challenges with high sensitivity to transistor parameters and to capacitive cross-talk. New mask requirements leads to new maskwriter requirements and Mycronic has developed a new generation of large -area mask writers with significantly improved properties. This paper discusses and shows data for the improved writers. Mask production to high er quality stan dards also need metrology to verify the quality and Mycronic has introduced a 2D metrology tool with accuracy adequate for current and future masks. New printing or additive methods of producing disp lays on plastic or metal foil will make low-cost disp lays available. This inexpensive type of disp lays will exist side by side with the photographic quality displays of TVs and mobile devices, which will continue to be a challenge in terms of mask and production quality.

  15. Innovative SU-8 Lithography Techniques and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Bong Lee


    Full Text Available SU-8 has been widely used in a variety of applications for creating structures in micro-scale as well as sub-micron scales for more than 15 years. One of the most common structures made of SU-8 is tall (up to millimeters high-aspect-ratio (up to 100:1 3D microstructure, which is far better than that made of any other photoresists. There has been a great deal of efforts in developing innovative unconventional lithography techniques to fully utilize the thick high aspect ratio nature of the SU-8 photoresist. Those unconventional lithography techniques include inclined ultraviolet (UV exposure, back-side UV exposure, drawing lithography, and moving-mask UV lithography. In addition, since SU-8 is a negative-tone photoresist, it has been a popular choice of material for multiple-photon interference lithography for the periodic structure in scales down to deep sub-microns such as photonic crystals. These innovative lithography techniques for SU-8 have led to a lot of unprecedented capabilities for creating unique micro- and nano-structures. This paper reviews such innovative lithography techniques developed in the past 15 years or so.

  16. Workshop on compact storage ring technology: applications to lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Project planning in the area of x-ray lithography is discussed. Three technologies that are emphasized are the light source, the lithographic technology, and masking technology. The needs of the semiconductor industry in the lithography area during the next decade are discussed, particularly as regards large scale production of high density dynamic random access memory devices. Storage ring parameters and an overall exposure tool for x-ray lithography are addressed. Competition in this area of technology from Germany and Japan is discussed briefly. The design of a storage ring is considered, including lattice design, magnets, and beam injection systems. (LEW)

  17. Ferroelectric emission studies for electron emission lithography applications. (United States)

    Yoo, In K; Ryu, Sang O; Suchicital, Carlos T A; Lee, June K; Kim, Byong M; Chung, Chee W


    Ferroelectric switching emission, dielectric switching emission, and pyroelectric emission were studied by patterning images on electron resist for electron emission lithography applications. It was observed that the pyroelectric emission is most acceptable for a high throughput 1:1 electron projection lithography application. A 1:1 electron projection lithography was demonstrated by patterning images with line widths of 30 microm and using pyroelectric emission. A degradation of the pyroelectric emission property of the material was observed during repeated heating cycles below the phase-transition temperature of the ferroelectric material. Annealing excursions above the phase transition temperature prevented the degradation of the pyroelectric emitter.

  18. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing


    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  19. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter


    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit...... of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...... be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Novel electrostatic column for ion projection lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalupka, A.; Stengl, G.; Buschbeck, H.; Lammer, G.; Vonach, H.; Fischer, R.; Hammel, E.; Loeschner, H.; Nowak, R.; Wolf, P. (IMS - Ion Microfabrication Systems GmbH, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)); Finkelstein, W.; Hill, R.W. (Advanced Lithography Group, Columbia, Maryland 21045 (United States)); Berry, I.L. (Department of Defense, Microelectronics Research Laboratory, Columbia, Maryland 21045 (United States)); Harriott, L.R. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)); Melngailis, J. (University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)); Randall, J.N. (Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas 75243 (United States)); Wolfe, J.C. (University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)); Stroh, H.; Wollnik, H. (University of Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Mondelli, A.A.; Petillo, J.J. (Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States)); Leung, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of Californi


    Ion projection lithography (IPL) is being considered for high volume sub-0.25-[mu]m lithography. A novel ion-optical column has been designed for exposing 20[times]20 mm[sup 2] fields at 3[times] reduction from stencil mask to wafer substrates. A diverging lens is realized by using the stencil mask as the first electrode of the ion-optical column. The second and third electrode form an accelerating field lens. The aberrations of the first two lenses (diverging lens and field lens) are compensated by an asymmetric Einzel lens projecting an ion image of the stencil mask openings onto the wafer substrate with better than 2 mrad telecentricity. Less than 30 nm intrafield distortion was calculated within 20[times]20 mm[sup 2] exposure fields. The calculation uncertainty is estimated to be about 10 nm. The calculation holds for helium ions with [approx]10 keV ion energy at the stencil mask and 150 keV ion energy at the wafer plane. A virtual ion source size of 10 [mu]m has been assumed. The calculated chromatic aberrations are less than 60 nm, assuming 6 eV energy spread of the ions extracted from a duoplasmatron source. Recently a multicusp ion source has been developed for which preliminary results indicate an energy spread of less than 2 eV. Thus, with a multicusp source chromatic aberrations of less than 20 nm are to be expected. The ion energy at the crossover between the field lens and the asymmetric Einzel lens is 200 keV. Therefore, stochastic space charge induced degradations in resolution can be kept sufficiently low. The divergence of the ion image projected to the wafer plane is less than 2 mrad. Thus, the usable'' depth of focus for the novel ion optics is in the order of 10 [mu]m.

  1. EUV lithography at the 22nm technology node (United States)

    Wood, Obert; Koay, Chiew-Seng; Petrillo, Karen; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Raghunathan, Sudhar; Arnold, John; Horak, Dave; Burkhardt, Martin; McIntyre, Gregory; Deng, Yunfei; La Fontaine, Bruno; Okoroanyanwu, Uzo; Wallow, Tom; Landie, Guillaume; Standaert, Theodorus; Burns, Sean; Waskiewicz, Christopher; Kawasaki, Hirohisa; Chen, James H.-C.; Colburn, Matthew; Haran, Bala; Fan, Susan S.-C.; Yin, Yunpeng; Holfeld, Christian; Techel, Jens; Peters, Jan-Hendrik; Bouten, Sander; Lee, Brian; Pierson, Bill; Kessels, Bart; Routh, Robert; Cummings, Kevin


    We are evaluating the readiness of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for insertion into production at the 15 nm technology node by integrating it into standard semiconductor process flows because we believe that device integration exercises provide the truest test of technology readiness and, at the same time, highlight the remaining critical issues. In this paper, we describe the use of EUV lithography with the 0.25 NA Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) to pattern the contact and first interconnect levels of a large (~24 mm x 32 mm) 22 nm node test chip using EUV masks with state-of-the-art defectivity (~0.3 defects/cm2). We have found that: 1) the quality of EUVL printing at the 22 nm node is considerably higher than the printing produced with 193 nm immersion lithography; 2) printing at the 22 nm node with EUV lithography results in higher yield than double exposure double-etch 193i lithography; and 3) EUV lithography with the 0.25 NA ADT is capable of supporting some early device development work at the 15 nm technology node.

  2. Focused ion beam lithography for rapid prototyping of metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osswald, Patrick; Kiermaier, Josef; Becherer, Markus; Schmitt-Landsiedel, Doris [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Elektronik, TU Muenchen, Munich (Germany)


    We present FIB-lithography methods for rapid and cost-effective prototyping of metal structures covering the deep-submicron- to the millimeter-range in a single lithography cycle. Focused ion beam (FIB) systems are widely used in semiconductor industry and research facilities for both analytical testing and prototyping. A typical application is to apply electrical contact to micron-sized sensors/particles by FIB induced metal deposition. However, as for E-beam lithography, patterning times for large area bonding pads are unacceptably long, resulting in cost-intensive prototyping. In this work, we optimized FIB lithography processing for negative and positive imaging mode to form metallic structures for large-areas down do the sub-100 nm range. For negative lithography features are defined by implanting Ga{sup +}-ions into a commercial photo resist, without affecting the underlying structures by impinging ions. The structures are highly suitable for following lift-off processing due to the undercut of the resist.Metallic feature size of down to 150 nm are achievable. For positive lithography a PMMA resist is exposed in FIB irradiation. Due to the very low dose (3.10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) the writing time for an e.g. 100 {mu}m x 100 {mu}m square is approx. 15 seconds. The developed resist is used for subsequent wet chemical etching, obtaining a 100 nm resolution in metal layers.

  3. Methacrylamide Copolymer Resists For Electron Beam Lithography (United States)

    Namaste, Y. M. N.; Obendorf, S. K.; Rodriguez, F.


    Polymethacrylamide (PMAAm) and copolymers of MAAm with methyl methacrylate were synthesized and evaluated for their applicability to electron beam lithography. The sensitivity of PMAAm has previously been reported as less than 1 μC/cm2, with thermal stability at temperatures up to 330°C.' Despite these claims, further lithographic evaluation of this resist system is apparently absent from the literature. This research was conducted to further investigate the lithographic performance of these resists and to determine their sensitivity using current definitions. Using PMAAm homopolymer (Mw = 8.1 x 105), with a 15 minute prebake at 200°C, the lithographic results were much poorer than expected. Patterns exposed to doses of 10 μC/cm2 or lower could not be developed using water as the developing solvent. Forced developing with Na2SiO3 solution (pH=10) developed lower doses than water, but much greater thinning was observed. An unexposed thinning of 10% occurred when developing exposures of 15 μC/cm2 with water, and 40 μC/cm2 with Na2SiO3 solution (20 KV). Swelling of the unexposed polymer and some adhesion problems were observed. The high sensitivity previously reported for PMAAm' can not be attributed solely to chain scission efficiency (Gs), which has been reported to be only 1.5 times that of PMMA (Gs determined by Y-irradiation). An induction period in the dissolution of unexposed polymer has also been sugggested as contributing to the sensitivity of this resist. In the present work, dissolution induction periods were observed with laser interferometry for the unexposed films, but the magnitude of these induction periods could not account for a large enhancement of sensitivity. Imide crosslink formation may have been responsible for the previously reported sensitivity of PMAAm.' In the present work, imid formation was not observed, either after prebaking coated wafers at 180 to 240°C or heating of polymer solutions for 7 hours at 80°C. Apparently, the

  4. Combination of direct laser writing and soft lithography molds for combined nano- and microfabrication (United States)

    Rumler, M.; Kollmuss, M.; Baier, L.; Michel, F.; Förthner, M.; Becker, M.; Rommel, M.; Frey, L.


    This work presents a novel approach for combined micro- and nanofabrication based on the local laser exposure of an UV-curing material through a structured mold. The proposed process makes use of the high freedom of design of direct laser writing (DLW) and the high resolution of soft lithography molds (made e.g. from PDMS). By optimizing the exposure process it was possible to fabricate locally defined hierarchical structures with a height of around 16 μm, that are fully covered with nanometer-sized holes using OrmoComp®. Manual test imprints showed that the fabricated structures can be used for "step and repeat" nanoimprint processes. Furthermore, the local transfer of nanostructures into two different soft lithography resists (Katiobond 110707, mr-NIL210) was investigated. Diffusion of resist components into the PDMS mold was observed and could be prohibited by the use of hybrid molds, which employ OrmoComp® as structure containing layer. First experiments revealed successful transfer of the mold's nanostructures into mr-NIL210 but still leave room for improvement concerning the process parameters.

  5. Effects of plasma spatial profile on conversion efficiency of laser produced plasma sources for EUV lithography (United States)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Harilal, S.


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography devices that use laser produced plasma (LPP), discharge produced plasma (DPP), and hybrid devices need to be optimized to achieve sufficient brightness with minimum debris generation to support the throughput requirements of High-Volume Manufacturing (HVM) lithography exposure tools with long lifetime. Source performance, debris mitigation, and reflector system are all critical to efficient EUV collection and component lifetime. Enhanced integrated models are continued to be developed using HEIGHTS computer package to simulate EUV emission at high power and debris generation and transport in multiple and colliding LPP. A new center for materials under extreme environments (CMUXE) is established to benchmark HEIGHTS models for various EUV related issues. The models being developed and enhanced include, for example, new ideas and parameters of multiple laser beams in different geometrical configurations and with different pre-pulses to maximize EUV production. Recent experimental and theoretical work show large influence of the hydrodynamic processes on EUV generation. The effect of plasma hydrodynamics evolution on the EUV radiation generation was analyzed for planar and spherical geometry of a tin target in LPP devices. The higher efficiency of planar target in comparison to the spherical geometry was explained with better hydrodynamic containment of the heated plasma. This is not the case if the plasma is slightly overheated. Recent experimental results of the conversion efficiency (CE) of LPP are in good agreement with HEIGHTS simulation.

  6. Materials challenges for sub-20nm lithography (United States)

    Thackeray, James W.


    This paper discusses the future of resist materials for sub-20nm lithography. It is my contention that polymer-bound PAG based resists will be used to 16nm node. There has been enough progress in resolution and sensitivity to justify the use of these materials. PBP resists have shown that the principal demerit of acid diffusion can be overcome through attachment of the PAG anion to the lithographic polymer. Since the introduction of this chemically amplified resist approach, we have seen steady improvement in resolution, sensitivity, and LWR. We have also seen improvement in OOB response, outgassing, and pattern collapse. There is no doubt that continuous improvement is still required for these resist systems. We believe that increasing the overall resist quantum yield for acid generation substantially improves the shot noise problem thereby leading to faster high resolution resist materials. Using a 0.30NA EUV tool with dipole, we can achieve 22nm hp resolution, with 12mJ dose, and 4.2nm LWR.

  7. Evaporative Lithography in Open Microfluidic Channel Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah


    We demonstrate a direct capillary-driven method based on wetting and evaporation of various suspensions to fabricate regular two-dimensional wires in an open microfluidic channel through continuous deposition of micro- or nanoparticles under evaporative lithography, akin to the coffee-ring effect. The suspension is gently placed in a loading reservoir connected to the main open microchannel groove on a PDMS substrate. Hydrophilic conditions ensure rapid spreading of the suspension from the loading reservoir to fill the entire channel length. Evaporation during the spreading and after the channel is full increases the particle concentration toward the end of the channel. This evaporation-induced convective transport brings particles from the loading reservoir toward the channel end where this flow deposits a continuous multilayered particle structure. The particle deposition front propagates backward over the entire channel length. The final dry deposit of the particles is thereby much thicker than the initial volume fraction of the suspension. The deposition depth is characterized using a 3D imaging profiler, whereas the deposition topography is revealed using a scanning electron microscope. The patterning technology described here is robust and passive and hence operates without an external field. This work may well become a launching pad to construct low-cost and large-scale thin optoelectronic films with variable thicknesses and interspacing distances.

  8. Inverse pupil wavefront optimization for immersion lithography. (United States)

    Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong; Ma, Xu; Guo, Xuejia


    As the critical dimension of integrated circuits is continuously shrunk, thick mask induced aberration (TMIA) cannot be ignored in the lithography image process. Recently, a set of pupil wavefront optimization (PWO) approaches has been proposed to compensate for TMIA, based on a wavefront manipulator in modern scanners. However, these prior PWO methods have two intrinsic drawbacks. First, the traditional methods fell short in building up the analytical relationship between the pupil wavefront and the cost function, and used time-consuming algorithms to solve for the PWO problem. Second, in traditional methods, only the spherical aberrations were optimized to compensate for the focus exposure matrix tilt and best focus shift induced by TMIA. Thus, the degrees of freedom were limited during the optimization procedure. To overcome these restrictions, we build the analytical relationship between the pupil wavefront and the cost function based on Abbe vector imaging theory. With this analytical model and the Fletcher-Reeves conjugate-gradient algorithm, an inverse PWO method is innovated to balance the TMIA including 37 Zernike terms. Simulation results illustrate that our approach significantly improves image fidelity within a larger process window. This demonstrates that TMIA is effectively compensated by our inverse PWO approach.

  9. Metal hierarchical patterning by direct nanoimprint lithography. (United States)

    Radha, Boya; Lim, Su Hui; Saifullah, Mohammad S M; Kulkarni, Giridhar U


    Three-dimensional hierarchical patterning of metals is of paramount importance in diverse fields involving photonics, controlling surface wettability and wearable electronics. Conventionally, this type of structuring is tedious and usually involves layer-by-layer lithographic patterning. Here, we describe a simple process of direct nanoimprint lithography using palladium benzylthiolate, a versatile metal-organic ink, which not only leads to the formation of hierarchical patterns but also is amenable to layer-by-layer stacking of the metal over large areas. The key to achieving such multi-faceted patterning is hysteretic melting of ink, enabling its shaping. It undergoes transformation to metallic palladium under gentle thermal conditions without affecting the integrity of the hierarchical patterns on micro- as well as nanoscale. A metallic rice leaf structure showing anisotropic wetting behavior and woodpile-like structures were thus fabricated. Furthermore, this method is extendable for transferring imprinted structures to a flexible substrate to make them robust enough to sustain numerous bending cycles.

  10. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  11. Evaporative Lithography in Open Microfluidic Channel Networks. (United States)

    Lone, Saifullah; Zhang, Jia Ming; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Li, Er Qiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T


    We demonstrate a direct capillary-driven method based on wetting and evaporation of various suspensions to fabricate regular two-dimensional wires in an open microfluidic channel through continuous deposition of micro- or nanoparticles under evaporative lithography, akin to the coffee-ring effect. The suspension is gently placed in a loading reservoir connected to the main open microchannel groove on a PDMS substrate. Hydrophilic conditions ensure rapid spreading of the suspension from the loading reservoir to fill the entire channel length. Evaporation during the spreading and after the channel is full increases the particle concentration toward the end of the channel. This evaporation-induced convective transport brings particles from the loading reservoir toward the channel end where this flow deposits a continuous multilayered particle structure. The particle deposition front propagates backward over the entire channel length. The final dry deposit of the particles is thereby much thicker than the initial volume fraction of the suspension. The deposition depth is characterized using a 3D imaging profiler, whereas the deposition topography is revealed using a scanning electron microscope. The patterning technology described here is robust and passive and hence operates without an external field. This work may well become a launching pad to construct low-cost and large-scale thin optoelectronic films with variable thicknesses and interspacing distances.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Domonkos


    Full Text Available In this study, the structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond thin films is demonstrated. The structuring of the diamond films is performed using the technique of microsphere lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Specifically, this paper presents a four-step fabrication process: diamond deposition (microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition, mask preparation (by the standard Langmuir-Blodgett method, mask modification and diamond etching. A self-assembled monolayer of monodisperse polystyrene (PS microspheres with close-packed ordering is used as the primary template. Then the PS microspheres and the diamond films are processed in capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma  using different plasma chemistries. This fabrication method illustrates the preparation of large arrays of periodic and homogeneous hillock-like structures. The surface morphology of processed diamond films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The potential applications of such diamond structures in various fields of nanotechnology are also briefly discussed.

  13. Plasmonic nanostructures fabricated using nanosphere-lithography, soft-lithography and plasma etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available We present two routes for the fabrication of plasmonic structures based on nanosphere lithography templates. One route makes use of soft-lithography to obtain arrays of epoxy resin hemispheres, which, in a second step, can be coated by metal films. The second uses the hexagonal array of triangular structures, obtained by evaporation of a metal film on top of colloidal crystals, as a mask for reactive ion etching (RIE of the substrate. In this way, the triangular patterns of the mask are transferred to the substrate through etched triangular pillars. Making an epoxy resin cast of the pillars, coated with metal films, allows us to invert the structure and obtain arrays of triangular holes within the metal. Both fabrication methods illustrate the preparation of large arrays of nanocavities within metal films at low cost.Gold films of different thicknesses were evaporated on top of hemispherical structures of epoxy resin with different radii, and the reflectance and transmittance were measured for optical wavelengths. Experimental results show that the reflectivity of coated hemispheres is lower than that of coated polystyrene spheres of the same size, for certain wavelength bands. The spectral position of these bands correlates with the size of the hemispheres. In contrast, etched structures on quartz coated with gold films exhibit low reflectance and transmittance values for all wavelengths measured. Low transmittance and reflectance indicate high absorbance, which can be utilized in experiments requiring light confinement.

  14. Vertical adiabatic transition between a silica planar waveguide and an electro-optic polymer fabricated with gray-scale lithography. (United States)

    Chang, Daniel H; Azfar, Talal; Kim, Seong-Ku; Fetterman, Harold R; Zhang, Cheng; Steier, William H


    We report on a vertical adiabatic transition between silica planar waveguides and electro-optic (EO) polymer. Gray-scale lithography was used to pattern a polymer transition with an exponential profile. Excess losses of the order of 1 dB were measured, and good mode matching to simulation was observed. This configuration, which married the advantages of both silica and EO-polymer planar-optic technologies, demonstrates a new technique for fabricating hybrid active devices with high modulation speed, low insertion loss, and complex geometries.

  15. Intelligent control system based on ARM for lithography tool (United States)

    Chen, Changlong; Tang, Xiaoping; Hu, Song; Wang, Nan


    The control system of traditional lithography tool is based on PC and MCU. The PC handles the complex algorithm, human-computer interaction, and communicates with MCU via serial port; The MCU controls motors and electromagnetic valves, etc. This mode has shortcomings like big volume, high power consumption, and wasting of PC resource. In this paper, an embedded intelligent control system of lithography tool, based on ARM, is provided. The control system used S5PV210 as processor, completing the functions of PC in traditional lithography tool, and provided a good human-computer interaction by using LCD and capacitive touch screen. Using Android4.0.3 as operating system, the equipment provided a cool and easy UI which made the control more user-friendly, and implemented remote control and debug, pushing video information of product by network programming. As a result, it's convenient for equipment vendor to provide technical support for users. Finally, compared with traditional lithography tool, this design reduced the PC part, making the hardware resources efficiently used and reducing the cost and volume. Introducing embedded OS and the concepts in "The Internet of things" into the design of lithography tool can be a development trend.

  16. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Material Engineering and Emerging Applications in Lithography and Biomedicine (United States)

    Bao, Yuping; Wen, Tianlong; Samia, Anna Cristina S.; Khandhar, Amit; Krishnan, Kannan M.


    We present an interdisciplinary overview of material engineering and emerging applications of iron oxide nanoparticles. We discuss material engineering of nanoparticles in the broadest sense, emphasizing size and shape control, large-area self-assembly, composite/hybrid structures, and surface engineering. This is followed by a discussion of several non-traditional, emerging applications of iron oxide nanoparticles, including nanoparticle lithography, magnetic particle imaging, magnetic guided drug delivery, and positive contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude with a succinct discussion of the pharmacokinetics pathways of iron oxide nanoparticles in the human body –– an important and required practical consideration for any in vivo biomedical application, followed by a brief outlook of the field. PMID:26586919

  17. Optical characterisation of photonic wire and photonic crystal waveguides fabricated using nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    We have characterised photonic-crystal and photonic-wire waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The structures, with feature sizes down below 20 nm, are benchmarked against similar structures defined by direct electron beam lithography.......We have characterised photonic-crystal and photonic-wire waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The structures, with feature sizes down below 20 nm, are benchmarked against similar structures defined by direct electron beam lithography....

  18. Ion projection lithography: progress in mask and tool technology (United States)

    Ehrmann, Albrecht; Kaesmaier, Rainer; Struck, Thomas


    Ion Projection Lithography is one of the major competitors for sub 100 nm-lithography. Within the MEDEA ion projection lithography project and other activities related to it, new results in mask and tool technology have been obtained. The exposure tool is in process of being assembled, so that information of the components as the multi-cusp ion source can be given. Results from the field-composable lens electrode manufacturing and of the off-axis alignment system are to be presented. Mask process technology has been improved by introduction of a multi-step trench etch technique. A stencil mask based on a 200 mm wafer has been produced. In addition, the repeatability values of placement and CD measurements have been decreased. Defect inspection with optical KLA tool results give information on the current limits for stencil mask applications.

  19. Lithography for enabling advances in integrated circuits and devices. (United States)

    Garner, C Michael


    Because the transistor was fabricated in volume, lithography has enabled the increase in density of devices and integrated circuits. With the invention of the integrated circuit, lithography enabled the integration of higher densities of field-effect transistors through evolutionary applications of optical lithography. In 1994, the semiconductor industry determined that continuing the increase in density transistors was increasingly difficult and required coordinated development of lithography and process capabilities. It established the US National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors and this was expanded in 1999 to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors to align multiple industries to provide the complex capabilities to continue increasing the density of integrated circuits to nanometre scales. Since the 1960s, lithography has become increasingly complex with the evolution from contact printers, to steppers, pattern reduction technology at i-line, 248 nm and 193 nm wavelengths, which required dramatic improvements of mask-making technology, photolithography printing and alignment capabilities and photoresist capabilities. At the same time, pattern transfer has evolved from wet etching of features, to plasma etch and more complex etching capabilities to fabricate features that are currently 32 nm in high-volume production. To continue increasing the density of devices and interconnects, new pattern transfer technologies will be needed with options for the future including extreme ultraviolet lithography, imprint technology and directed self-assembly. While complementary metal oxide semiconductors will continue to be extended for many years, these advanced pattern transfer technologies may enable development of novel memory and logic technologies based on different physical phenomena in the future to enhance and extend information processing.

  20. Patterning of supported gold monolayers via chemical lift-off lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane S. Slaughter


    Full Text Available The supported monolayer of Au that accompanies alkanethiolate molecules removed by polymer stamps during chemical lift-off lithography is a scarcely studied hybrid material. We show that these Au–alkanethiolate layers on poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS are transparent, functional, hybrid interfaces that can be patterned over nanometer, micrometer, and millimeter length scales. Unlike other ultrathin Au films and nanoparticles, lifted-off Au–alkanethiolate thin films lack a measurable optical signature. We therefore devised fabrication, characterization, and simulation strategies by which to interrogate the nanoscale structure, chemical functionality, stoichiometry, and spectral signature of the supported Au–thiolate layers. The patterning of these layers laterally encodes their functionality, as demonstrated by a fluorescence-based approach that relies on dye-labeled complementary DNA hybridization. Supported thin Au films can be patterned via features on PDMS stamps (controlled contact, using patterned Au substrates prior to lift-off (e.g., selective wet etching, or by patterning alkanethiols on Au substrates to be reactive in selected regions but not others (controlled reactivity. In all cases, the regions containing Au–alkanethiolate layers have a sub-nanometer apparent height, which was found to be consistent with molecular dynamics simulations that predicted the removal of no more than 1.5 Au atoms per thiol, thus presenting a monolayer-like structure.

  1. Directed self-assembly graphoepitaxy template generation with immersion lithography (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Andres Torres, J.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert


    We present an optimization methodology for the template designs of subresolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with graphoepitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60-nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of template error enhancement factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data show that source mask optimization and inverse lithography technology are critical to achieve sub-80 nm non-L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  2. Towards Using DNAzyme in Sub-20 nm Lithography (United States)

    Dirar, Qassim

    DNAzyme is a unique molecule with applications ranging from gene regulation to molecular machines. Another attractive venue for the use of DNAzyme is next generation lithography, sub-20 nm lithography, harnessing the unique features of specific recognition and self-assembly. Tools to achieve that goal are discussed and experimental procedures were presented. Loading DNAzyme on gold nanoparticles, depositing self-assembled monolayers and DNA patterning using soft lithographic techniques are tools that are explored. To support the findings, different characterization techniques are employed.

  3. Electrochemical nanoimprint lithography: when nanoimprint lithography meets metal assisted chemical etching. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Han, Lianhuan; Tian, Zhao-Wu; Tian, Zhong-Qun; Zhan, Dongping


    The functional three dimensional micro-nanostructures (3D-MNS) play crucial roles in integrated and miniaturized systems because of the excellent physical, mechanical, electric and optical properties. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has been versatile in the fabrication of 3D-MNS by pressing thermoplastic and photocuring resists into the imprint mold. However, direct nanoimprint on the semiconductor wafer still remains a great challenge. On the other hand, considered as a competitive fabrication method for erect high-aspect 3D-MNS, metal assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) can remove the semiconductor by spontaneous corrosion reaction at the metal/semiconductor/electrolyte 3-phase interface. Moreover, it was difficult for MacEtch to fabricate multilevel or continuously curved 3D-MNS. The question of the consequences of NIL meeting the MacEtch is yet to be answered. By employing a platinum (Pt) metalized imprint mode, we demonstrated that using electrochemical nanoimprint lithography (ECNL) it was possible to fabricate not only erect 3D-MNS, but also complex 3D-MNS with multilevel stages with continuously curved surface profiles on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer. A concave microlens array with an average diameter of 58.4 μm and height of 1.5 μm was obtained on a ∼1 cm(2)-area GaAs wafer. An 8-phase microlens array was fabricated with a minimum stage of 57 nm and machining accuracy of 2 nm, presenting an excellent optical diffraction property. Inheriting all the advantages of both NIL and MacEtch, ECNL has prospective applications in the micro/nano-fabrications of semiconductors.

  4. Nanoimprint lithography for functional polymer patterning (United States)

    Cui, Dehu


    Organic semiconductors have generated huge interested in recent years for low-cost and flexible electronics. Current and future device applications for semiconducting polymers include light-emitting diodes, thin-film transistors, photovoltaic cells, photodetectors, lasers, and memories. The performance of conjugated polymer devices depends on two major factors: the chain conformation in polymer film and the device architecture. Highly ordered chain structure usually leads to much improved performance by enhancing interchain interaction to facilitate carrier transport. The goal of this research is to improve the performance of organic devices with the nanoimprint lithography. The work begins with the controlling of polymer chain orientation in patterned nanostructures through nanoimprint mold design and process parameter manipulation, and studying the effect of chain ordering on material properties. Then, step-and-repeat thermal nanoimprint technique for large-scale continuous manufacturing of conjugated polymer nanostructures is developed. After that, Systematic investigation of polymer chain configuration by Raman spectroscopy is carried out to understand how nanoimprint process parameters, such as mold pattern size, temperature, and polymer molecular weight, affects polymer chain configuration. The results indicate that chain orientation in nanoimprinted polymer micro- and nanostructures is highly related to the nanoimprint temperature and the dimensions of the mold structures. The ability to create nanoscale polymer micro- and nanostructures and manipulate their internal chain conformation establishes an original experimental platform that enables studying the properties of functional polymers at the micro- and nanoscale and understanding their fundamental structure-property relationships. In addition to the impact on basic research, the techniques developed in this work are important in applied research and development. Large-area conjugated polymer micro- and

  5. Reverse-contact UV nanoimprint lithography for multilayered structure fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehagias, N.; Reboud, V.; Chansin, G.


    polymer areas are dissolved in a developer solution leaving behind the negative features of the original stamp. This method delivers resist pattern transfer without a residual layer, thereby rending unnecessary the etching steps typically needed in the imprint lithography techniques for three...

  6. New approaches to atomic force microscope lithography on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Karen; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Rasmussen, Jan Pihl


    We have investigated new approaches to the formation of conducting nanowires on crystalline silicon surfaces using atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography. To increase processing speed and reduce wear of the AFM tip, large-scale structures are formed with a direct laser write setup, while the AFM...

  7. Structure formation in atom lithography using geometric collimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, T.; Beardmore, J.P.; Fabrie, C.G.C.H.M.; van Lieshout, J.P.; Notermans, R.P.M.J.W.; Sang, R.T.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Van Leeuwen, K.A.H.


    Atom lithography uses standing wave light fields as arrays of lenses to focus neutral atom beams into line patterns on a substrate. Laser cooled atom beams are commonly used, but an atom beam source with a small opening placed at a large distance from a substrate creates atom beams which are locally

  8. Flexible thin-film transistors using multistep UV nanoimprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Vratzov, B.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Kjellander, B.K.C.; Gelinck, G.H.; Meinders, E.R.; Huskens, Jurriaan


    A multistep imprinting process is presented for the fabrication of a bottom-contact, bottom-gate thin-film transistor (TFT) on poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) foil by patterning all layers of the metal–insulator–metal stack by UV nanoimprint lithography (UV NIL). The flexible TFTs were fabricated

  9. Patterning strategy for low-K1 lithography (United States)

    Hwang, David H.; Cheng, Wen-Hao


    Moore's law has been guiding the semiconductor industry for four decades. Lithography is the key enabler to keep the industry on the technology treadmill. Lithographers have been facing unprecedented challenges during last five years to keep the technology on the technology treadmill by developing various kinds of resolution enhancement techniques (RETs). In low K1 regime, co-optimization of design, layout mask, OPC, lithography and etching is the primary strategy to deliver a production-worthy patterning solution. Optical shrink is not a trivial task anymore. Intel always pursues parallel patterning techniques based on the dual exposure wavelength patterning strategy. While EUVL is the preferred patterning solution for 32nm node, 193nm immersion lithography with super high NA illumination is one of the parallel patterning strategies. The effects of polarization at super high NA illumination on mask technology, such as lens reduction ratio, blank absorber thickness and image imbalance correction, and restriction on design layout are addressed in this paper. Contact patterning is extremely challenging at low K1. Contact shape factor (circularity) which impacts the design rule will be discussed in this paper. Explosion of data file size and mask write time, stringent mask CD control and mask defect disposition are direct consequences of low-K1/high-MEEF (Mask Error Enhancement Factor) lithography. Mask makers alone cannot resolve the challenges in a cost effective manner. A seamless integration solution is a must.

  10. Adaptive Optics for EUV Lithography : Phase Retrieval for Wavefront Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polo, A.


    In the semiconductor industry, optical lithography is presently the most widespread technology used to print a geometrical pattern on a semiconductor wafer. Because of the plans imposed by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) for more powerful and smaller chips, new

  11. Polystyrene as a zwitter resist in electron beam lithography based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The resist action of polystyrene (w, 2,600,000) towards electroless deposition of gold on Si(100) surface following cross-linking by exposing to a 10 kV electron beam, has been investigated employing a scanning electron microscope equipped with electron beam lithography tool. With a low dose of electrons (21 C/cm2), ...

  12. Fast thermal nanoimprint lithography by a stamp with integrated heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tormen, Massimo; Malureanu, Radu; Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup


    We propose fast nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) process based on the use of stamps with integrated heater. The latter consists of heavily ion implantation n-type doped silicon layer buried below the microstructured surface of the stamp. The stamp is heated by Joule effect, by 50 μs 25 Hz...

  13. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monly used technique in this field, and many researchers have been investigating its application to make nanopatterns. In electron beam lithography, the well-known proximity effect refers to .... electrodes are grounded. The charging effect, which blocks the injection/ejection of a single charge into/from a quantum dot, ...

  14. Wafer scale coating of polymer cantilever fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders; Dohn, Søren; Keller, Stephan Urs


    Microcantilevers can be fabricated in TOPAS by nanoimprint lithography, with the dimensions of 500 ¿m length 4.5 ¿m thickness and 100 ¿m width. By using a plasma polymerization technique it is possible to selectively functionalize individually cantilevers with a polymer coating, on wafer scale...

  15. 3D Simulation of Nano-Imprint Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole


    A proof of concept study of the feasibility of fully three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent simulation of nano-imprint lithography of polymer melt, where the polymer is treated as a structured liquid, has been presented. Considering the flow physics of the polymer as a structured liquid, we have...

  16. Pattern Definition with DUV-Lithography at DTU Danchip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Matthias; Khomtchenko, Elena; Nyholt, Henrik


    Deep ultra violet (DUV) illumination generated with the help of a KrF laser can be utilized to produce components having sizes of some hundreds of nanometers. This light source with its 248nm wavelength is exploited in the DUV-lithography equipment at DTU Danchip in order to fill the resolution g...

  17. Silicon Nanowire Fabrication Using Edge and Corner Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagubizade, H.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof


    This paper presents a wafer scale fabrication method of single-crystalline silicon nanowires (SiNWs) bound by <111> planes using a combination of edge and corner lithography. These are methods of unconventional nanolithography for wafer scale nano-patterning which determine the size of nano-features

  18. 3D-AFM enhancement for CD metrology dedicated to lithography sub-28-nm node requirements (United States)

    Foucher, J.; Rana, N.; Dezauzier, C.


    With the continuous shrinkage of feature dimensions on IC in the semiconductor industry, the measurement uncertainty is becoming one of the major components that have to be controlled in order to guarantee sufficient production yield. Already at the R&D level, we have to cope up with the accurate measurements of sub-40nm dense trenches and contact holes coming from 193 immersion lithography or E-Beam lithography. By using top-down CD-SEM it is currently impossible to extract profile information. Moreover, electron proximity effect leads to non-negligible CD bias in the final measurements. To enable measurement of challenging dimensions with better measurement and reduced measurement uncertainty we have explored and fine tuned an alternative 3D-AFM mode (so-called DT mode) for CD measurements purpose. Theoretically, this mode is supposed to be dedicated only for height measurement but for certain applications it could be extended to reach the nanometer scale accuracy of CD-measurements employing certain optimized scan parameters. In this paper, we will present and discuss results obtained related to the use of this particular mode for CD measurement purpose versus conventional 3D-AFM CD Mode that shows important limitations for aggressive trenches dimensions measurements. We will also present some results related to the use of advanced 3D-AFM tips (typically of 28nm diameter) that have been used with the enhanced DT mode parameters. Example of applications will be shown with typical sub-45nm trenches measurements dedicated to advanced lithography process development that will demonstrate that we have succeed to push ahead the limit of the 3D-AFM technology in measuring the tight dimensions that would allow to continue its use for current and upcoming technology nodes. Finally, we introduce the concept of hybrid metrology in order to smartly use the benefit of reference metrology (i.e 3D-AFM) through the optimization of CD-SEM algorithm that could be used for example

  19. V-groove plasmonic waveguides fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cuesta, I.; Nielsen, R.B.; Boltasseva, Alexandra


    Propagation of channel plasmon-polariton modes in the bottom of a metal V groove has been recently demonstrated. It provides a unique way of manipulating light at nanometer length scale. In this work, we present a method based on nanoimprint lithography that allows parallel fabrication of integra......Propagation of channel plasmon-polariton modes in the bottom of a metal V groove has been recently demonstrated. It provides a unique way of manipulating light at nanometer length scale. In this work, we present a method based on nanoimprint lithography that allows parallel fabrication...... of integrated optical devices composed of metal V grooves. This method represents an improvement with respect to previous works, where the V grooves were fabricated by direct milling of the metal, in terms of robustness and throughput. © 2007 American Vacuum Society...

  20. Conductive Polymer Nanowire Gas Sensor Fabricated by Nanoscale Soft Lithography. (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Jiang, Yang; Qu, Hemi; Duan, Xuexin


    Resistive devices composed of one dimensional nanostructures are promising candidate for next generation gas sensors. However, the large-scale fabrication of nanowires is still a challenge, restricting the commercialization of such type of devices. Here, we reported a highly efficient and facile approach to fabricate poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanowire chemiresistive type of gas sensor by nanoscale soft lithography. Well-defined sub-100 nm nanowires are fabricated on silicon substrate which facilitates the device integration. The nanowire chemiresistive gas sensor is demonstrated for NH3 and NO2 detection at room-temperature and shows a limit of detection at ppb level which is compatible with nanoscale PEDOT:PSS gas sensors fabricated with conventional lithography technique. In comparison with PEDOT:PSS thin film gas sensor, the nanowire gas sensor exhibits a higher sensitivity and much faster response to gas molecules. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. DNA Origami Mask for Sub-Ten-Nanometer Lithography. (United States)

    Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Brun, Christophe; Gasparutto, Didier; Baillin, Xavier; Tiron, Raluca


    DNA nanotechnology is currently widely explored and especially shows promises for advanced lithography due to its ability to define nanometer scale features. We demonstrate a 9 × 14 nm(2) hole pattern transfer from DNA origami into an SiO2 layer with a sub-10-nm resolution using anhydrous HF vapor in a semiconductor etching machine. We show that the resulting SiO2 pattern inherits its shape from the DNA structure within a process time ranging from 30 to 60 s at an etching rate of 0.2 nm/s. At 600 s of etching, the SiO2 pattern meets corrosion and the overall etching reaction is blocked. These results, in addition to the entire surface coverage by magnesium occurring on the substrate at a density of 1.1 × 10(15) atom/cm(2), define a process window, fabrication rules, and limits for DNA-based lithography.

  2. Conductive polymer nanowire gas sensor fabricated by nanoscale soft lithography (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Jiang, Yang; Qu, Hemi; Duan, Xuexin


    Resistive devices composed of one-dimensional nanostructures are promising candidates for the next generation of gas sensors. However, the large-scale fabrication of nanowires is still challenging, which restricts the commercialization of such devices. Here, we report a highly efficient and facile approach to fabricating poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanowire chemiresistive gas sensors by nanoscale soft lithography. Well-defined sub-100 nm nanowires are fabricated on silicon substrate, which facilitates device integration. The nanowire chemiresistive gas sensor is demonstrated for NH3 and NO2 detection at room temperature and shows a limit of detection at ppb level, which is compatible with nanoscale PEDOT:PSS gas sensors fabricated with the conventional lithography technique. In comparison with PEDOT:PSS thin-film gas sensors, the nanowire gas sensor exhibits higher sensitivity and a much faster response to gas molecules.

  3. Challenges of anamorphic high-NA lithography and mask making (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen D.; Liu, Jingjing


    Chip makers are actively working on the adoption of 0.33 numerical aperture (NA) EUV scanners for the 7-nm and 5-nm nodes (B. Turko, S. L. Carson, A. Lio, T. Liang, M. Phillips, et al., in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 977602 (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225014; A. Lio, in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97760V (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225017). In the meantime, leading foundries and integrated device manufacturers are starting to investigate patterning options beyond the 5-nm node (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022). To minimize the cost and process complexity of multiple patterning beyond the 5-nm node, EUV high-NA single-exposure patterning is a preferred method over EUV double patterning (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022; J. van Schoot, K. van Ingen Schenau, G. Bottiglieri, K. Troost, J. Zimmerman, et al., `Proc. SPIE. 9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97761I (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2220150). The EUV high-NA scanner equipped with a projection lens of 0.55 NA is designed to support resolutions below 10 nm. The high-NA system is beneficial for enhancing resolution, minimizing mask proximity correction bias, improving normalized image log slope (NILS), and controlling CD uniformity (CDU). However, increasing NA from 0.33 to 0.55 reduces the depth of focus (DOF) significantly. Therefore, the source mask optimization (SMO) with sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) are needed to increase DOF to meet the demanding full chip process control requirements (S. Hsu, R. Howell, J. Jia, H.-Y. Liu, K. Gronlund, et al., EUV `Proc. SPIE9048, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', (2015) doi: 10

  4. A temperature control algorithm of immersion liquid for immersion lithography (United States)

    He, Junwei; Li, Xiaoping; Lei, Min; Chen, Bing; Wang, Jinchun


    Immersion lithography is one of the main technologies used to manufacture integrated circuits with the shortest feature size. In immersion lithography, temperature of immersion liquid is strictly constrained and its allowable range is less than +/-0.01°C at 22°C. To meet this requirement, a temperature control algorithm adopted by the test rig which controls the temperature of the immersion liquid with process cooling water (PCW) via heat exchangers is proposed. By adjusting the flow rate of PCW through the heat exchangers, the control system varies the amount of heat exchanged, and the temperature of the immersion liquid can be properly controlled. The temperature control rig is a multi-disturbed, timevariant, non-linear and time-delayed system and its transfer function varies with the inlet temperature and flow rates of the streams through the heat exchangers. Considering the characteristics of the system, a cascade-connected fuzzy PID feedback algorithm is designed.

  5. Lithography process calibration with applications in defect printability analysis (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Po; Liu, Hua-Yu; Chang, Fang C.; Karklin, Linard


    Lithography process simulation has proven to be a useful and effective tool for process characterization, namely, properly characterize critical dimension (CD) variations from the design that are caused by proximity effects and distortions introduced by the patterning tool, reticle, resist processing and etching. Accurate lithography process simulator further enables process engineers to automate the tasks of advanced mask design, verification and inspection that are used in deep-sub-micron semiconductor manufacturing. However, to get the most benefit from process simulations, we should properly calibrate the simulation model according to the process to be characterized. That is, given a representative set of CD measurements obtained from the process, we fine-tune the process model parameters so that the simulated/predicted CDs well match the measured CDs. By doing so, we can ensure to some extent that process simulations give sensible results to be used in the design analysis, verification and inspection applications. In this paper, we would like to demonstrate the possibility of obtaining an accurate process model for lithography process simulations via model calibration. We will also demonstrate the accuracy of calibrated process simulations by applying the calibrated model in mask defect printability analysis. For simplicity, the process model and the algorithms used in model calibration will not be discussed in this article but in our future publications. In Section 2, we present the characterization and calibration of a 0.18 micrometer DUV lithography process using positive chemically amplified resist (APEX-E) as an example. We describe the test pattern selections, the calibration process, and the performance of the calibrated model in terms of predicting the CD measurements given test patterns. In Section 3, we briefly describe the technology of defect printability analysis based on process simulations. We will demonstrate that with the help of calibrated

  6. Analysis of Lithography Based Approaches In development of Semi Conductors


    Chopra, Jatin


    The end of the 19th century brought about a change in the dynamics of computing by the development of the microprocessor. Huge bedroom size computers began being replaced by portable, smaller sized desktops. Today the world is dominated by silicon, which has circumscribed chip development for computers through microprocessors. Majority of the integrated circuits that are manufactured at present are developed using the concept of Lithography. This paper presents a detailed analysis of multiple...

  7. Combined e-beam lithography using different energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krátký, Stanislav; Kolařík, Vladimír; Horáček, Miroslav; Meluzín, Petr; Král, Stanislav


    Roč. 177, JUN (2017), s. 30-34 ISSN 0167-9317 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020233; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : grayscale e-beam lithography * mix and match process * absorbed energy density * resist sensitivity * micro-optical elements Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2016

  8. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True


    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  9. Lithography and CD performance of advanced MEBES mask pattern generators (United States)

    Chabala, Jan M.; Cole, Damon M.; Pearce-Percy, Henry T.; Phillips, Wayne; Lu, Maiying; Weaver, Suzanne; Alexander, David W.; Coleman, T.; Sauer, Charles A.; Abboud, Frank E.


    As optical lithography is extended to the 130 nm generation and beyond, demanding requirements are placed on mask pattern generators to produce quartz substrate masks. This paper reports on the lithography and critical dimension (CD) performance of the MEBES 5500 mask pattern generator. Compared to previous MEBES tools, this system employs a new high-dose electron gun and column design. We summarize experiments relating lithographic quality to increased dose and the effects of spot size on lithography. Methods to reduce beam-induced pattern placement errors are reviewed. A new graybeam writing strategy, Multipass Gray-II, is described in detail. This strategy creates eight dosed gray levels and provides increased writing throughput (up to 8X compared to single-pass printing) without loss of lithographic quality. These experiments are performed with ZEP 7000 resist and dry etch process; improvements in CD control have been achieved by optimizing the process. A consequence of the improvement in CD control and throughput is improved productivity in generating 180 nm devices.

  10. Nanoimprint, DSA, and multi-beam lithography: patterning technologies with new integration challenges (United States)

    Landis, S.; Teyssedre, H.; Claveau, G.; Servin, I.; Delachat, F.; Pourteau, M. L.; Gharbi, A.; Pimenta Barros, P.; Tiron, R.; Nouri, L.; Possemé, N.; May, M.; Brianceau, P.; Barnola, S.; Blancquaert, Y.; Pradelles, J.; Essomba, P.; Bernadac, A.; Dal'zotto, B.; Bos, S.; Argoud, M.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Sarrazin, A.; Tallaron, C.; Lapeyre, C.; Pain, L.


    In the lithography landscape, EUV technology recovered some credibility recently. However, its large adoption remains uncertain. Meanwhile, 193nm immersion lithography, with multiple-patterning strategies, supports the industry preference for advanced-node developments. In this landscape, lithography alternatives maintain promise for continued R&D. Massively parallel electron-beam and nano-imprint lithography techniques remain highly attractive, as they can provide noteworthy cost-of-ownership benefits. Directed self-assembly lithography shows promising resolution capabilities and appears to be an option to reduce multi-patterning strategies. Even if large amount of efforts are dedicated to overcome the lithography side issues, these solutions introduce also new challenges and opportunities for the integration schemes.

  11. Submicron three-dimensional structures fabricated by reverse contact UV nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehagias, N.; Reboud, Vincent; Chansin, G.


    The fabrication of a three-dimensional multilayered nanostructure is demonstrated with a newly developed nanofabrication technique, namely, reverse contact ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography. This technique is a combination of reverse nanoimprint lithography and contact ultraviolet lithography. ....... After separation of the stamp and the substrate, the unexposed polymer areas are rinsed away with acetone leaving behind the negative features of the original stamp with no residual layer....

  12. RIE challenges for sub-15 nm line-and-space patterning using directed self-assembly lithography with coordinated line epitaxy (COOL) process (United States)

    Kasahara, Y.; Seino, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kanai, H.; Sato, H.; Kubota, H.; Tobana, T.; Minegishi, S.; Miyagi, K.; Kihara, N.; Kodera, K.; Shiraishi, M.; Kawamonzen, Y.; Nomura, S.; Azuma, T.


    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is one of the promising candidates for next-generation lithography. We developed a novel simple sub-15 nm line-and-space (L/S) patterning process, the "coordinated line epitaxy (COOL) process," using grapho- and chemo-hybrid epitaxy. In this study we evaluate the DSA L/S pattern transfer margin. Since defect reduction is difficult in the case of the DSA pattern transfer process, there is a need to increase the pattern transfer margin. We also describe process integration for electrical yield verification.

  13. Compensation for Lithography Induced Process Variations during Physical Design (United States)

    Chin, Eric Yiow-Bing

    This dissertation addresses the challenge of designing robust integrated circuits in the deep sub micron regime in the presence of lithography process variability. By extending and combining existing process and circuit analysis techniques, flexible software frameworks are developed to provide detailed studies of circuit performance in the presence of lithography variations such as focus and exposure. Applications of these software frameworks to select circuits demonstrate the electrical impact of these variations and provide insight into variability aware compact models that capture the process dependent circuit behavior. These variability aware timing models abstract lithography variability from the process level to the circuit level and are used to estimate path level circuit performance with high accuracy with very little overhead in runtime. The Interconnect Variability Characterization (IVC) framework maps lithography induced geometrical variations at the interconnect level to electrical delay variations. This framework is applied to one dimensional repeater circuits patterned with both 90nm single patterning and 32nm double patterning technologies, under the presence of focus, exposure, and overlay variability. Studies indicate that single and double patterning layouts generally exhibit small variations in delay (between 1--3%) due to self compensating RC effects associated with dense layouts and overlay errors for layouts without self-compensating RC effects. The delay response of each double patterned interconnect structure is fit with a second order polynomial model with focus, exposure, and misalignment parameters with 12 coefficients and residuals of less than 0.1ps. The IVC framework is also applied to a repeater circuit with cascaded interconnect structures to emulate more complex layout scenarios, and it is observed that the variations on each segment average out to reduce the overall delay variation. The Standard Cell Variability Characterization

  14. Application of SMIF isolation to lithography processes for contamination control (United States)

    Zhu, Sheng-Bai


    Contamination control is particularly important in lithography processes because pattern defects are converted to wafers after each exposure. Contamination, by definition, is undesired matter or energy, which causes product defects or process instabilities, and, consequently, reduces yield and reliability. In lithography processes, particles, condensable hydrocarbosn, base molecules, moisture, and static electricity are examples of contaminants. Particles are inert minute objects, which interfere with the proper formation of circuit features. Condensable hydrocarbosn may cause optics hazing which reduces image homogeneity and energy transmission. Some Chemically Amplified Resists (CAR) are susceptible to molecular base contamination, resulting in image degradation such as T-topping. Moisture can affect the characteristics of photoresist, destabilizing photo-exposure and development processes. In combination with water, amine containing photoresist strippers can form hydroxyl ions that can attack aluminum and aluminum-copper alloys. Charged surfaces can tract and hold contaminants of opposite polarity. In case the electrical field exceeds the dielectric strength, ESD event occurs, often accompanied with damage of reticles, masks, or wafer circuits. With SMIF isolation technologies, yield loss due to defects and/or instabilities is minimized. Reticles, masks, and wafers are isolated form contamination sources through hermetic seal, in conjunction with particle/chemical filtration, and static shielding. Pressurization, inert gas purge, chemical absorbents, and electric grounding or air ionization are techniques of removing contaminants from the critical areas. For best performance, adequate selection of construction materials is critical. This paper discusses impacts of contamination on lithography processes and the possibility of solving such problems using SMIF isolation techniques. Theoretical models are developed and experimental data are presented.

  15. Free-electron laser emission architecture impact on EUV lithography (United States)

    Hosler, Erik R.; Wood, Obert R.; Barletta, William A.


    Laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV sources have demonstrated approximately 125 W at customer sites, establishing confidence in EUV lithography as a viable manufacturing technology. However, beyond the 7 nm technology node existing scanner/source technology must enable higher-NA imaging systems (requiring increased resist dose and providing half-field exposures) and/or EUV multi-patterning (requiring increased wafer throughput proportional to the number of exposure passes. Both development paths will require a substantial increase in EUV source power to maintain the economic viability of the technology, creating an opportunity for free-electron laser (FEL) EUV sources. FEL-based EUV sources offer an economic, high-power/single-source alternative to LPP EUV sources. Should free-electron lasers become the preferred next generation EUV source, the choice of FEL emission architecture will greatly affect its operational stability and overall capability. A near-term industrialized FEL is expected to utilize one of the following three existing emission architectures: (1) selfamplified spontaneous emission (SASE), (2) regenerative amplification (RAFEL), or (3) self-seeding (SS-FEL). Model accelerator parameters are put forward to evaluate the impact of emission architecture on FEL output. Then, variations in the parameter space are applied to assess the potential impact to lithography operations, thereby establishing component sensitivity. The operating range of various accelerator components is discussed based on current accelerator performance demonstrated at various scientific user facilities. Finally, comparison of the performance between the model accelerator parameters and the variation in parameter space provides a means to evaluate the potential emission architectures. A scorecard is presented to facilitate this evaluation and provide a framework for future FEL design and enablement for EUV lithography applications.

  16. Imbalance aware lithography hotspot detection: a deep learning approach (United States)

    Yang, Haoyu; Luo, Luyang; Su, Jing; Lin, Chenxi; Yu, Bei


    With the advancement of very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI) technology nodes, lithographic hotspots become a serious problem that affects manufacture yield. Lithography hotspot detection at the post-OPC stage is imperative to check potential circuit failures when transferring designed patterns onto silicon wafers. Although conventional lithography hotspot detection methods, such as machine learning, have gained satisfactory performance, with the extreme scaling of transistor feature size and layout patterns growing in complexity, conventional methodologies may suffer from performance degradation. For example, manual or ad hoc feature extraction in a machine learning framework may lose important information when predicting potential errors in ultra-large-scale integrated circuit masks. We present a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) that targets representative feature learning in lithography hotspot detection. We carefully analyze the impact and effectiveness of different CNN hyperparameters, through which a hotspot-detection-oriented neural network model is established. Because hotspot patterns are always in the minority in VLSI mask design, the training dataset is highly imbalanced. In this situation, a neural network is no longer reliable, because a trained model with high classification accuracy may still suffer from a high number of false negative results (missing hotspots), which is fatal in hotspot detection problems. To address the imbalance problem, we further apply hotspot upsampling and random-mirror flipping before training the network. Experimental results show that our proposed neural network model achieves comparable or better performance on the ICCAD 2012 contest benchmark compared to state-of-the-art hotspot detectors based on deep or representative machine leaning.

  17. Creating Active Device Materials for Nanoelectronics Using Block Copolymer Lithography. (United States)

    Cummins, Cian; Bell, Alan P; Morris, Michael A


    The prolonged and aggressive nature of scaling to augment the performance of silicon integrated circuits (ICs) and the technical challenges and costs associated with this has led to the study of alternative materials that can use processing schemes analogous to semiconductor manufacturing. We examine the status of recent efforts to develop active device elements using nontraditional lithography in this article, with a specific focus on block copolymer (BCP) feature patterning. An elegant route is demonstrated using directed self-assembly (DSA) of BCPs for the fabrication of aligned tungsten trioxide (WO₃) nanowires towards nanoelectronic device application. The strategy described avoids conventional lithography practices such as optical patterning as well as repeated etching and deposition protocols and opens up a new approach for device development. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) silsesquioxane (SSQ)-based trenches were utilized in order to align a cylinder forming poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) BCP soft template. We outline WO₃ nanowire fabrication using a spin-on process and the symmetric current-voltage characteristics of the resulting Ti/Au (5 nm/45 nm) contacted WO₃ nanowires. The results highlight the simplicity of a solution-based approach that allows creating active device elements and controlling the chemistry of specific self-assembling building blocks. The process enables one to dictate nanoscale chemistry with an unprecedented level of sophistication, forging the way for next-generation nanoelectronic devices. We lastly outline views and future research studies towards improving the current platform to achieve the desired device performance.

  18. Creating Active Device Materials for Nanoelectronics Using Block Copolymer Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cian Cummins


    Full Text Available The prolonged and aggressive nature of scaling to augment the performance of silicon integrated circuits (ICs and the technical challenges and costs associated with this has led to the study of alternative materials that can use processing schemes analogous to semiconductor manufacturing. We examine the status of recent efforts to develop active device elements using nontraditional lithography in this article, with a specific focus on block copolymer (BCP feature patterning. An elegant route is demonstrated using directed self-assembly (DSA of BCPs for the fabrication of aligned tungsten trioxide (WO3 nanowires towards nanoelectronic device application. The strategy described avoids conventional lithography practices such as optical patterning as well as repeated etching and deposition protocols and opens up a new approach for device development. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL silsesquioxane (SSQ-based trenches were utilized in order to align a cylinder forming poly(styrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine (PS-b-P4VP BCP soft template. We outline WO3 nanowire fabrication using a spin-on process and the symmetric current-voltage characteristics of the resulting Ti/Au (5 nm/45 nm contacted WO3 nanowires. The results highlight the simplicity of a solution-based approach that allows creating active device elements and controlling the chemistry of specific self-assembling building blocks. The process enables one to dictate nanoscale chemistry with an unprecedented level of sophistication, forging the way for next-generation nanoelectronic devices. We lastly outline views and future research studies towards improving the current platform to achieve the desired device performance.

  19. Imbalance aware lithography hotspot detection: a deep learning approach (United States)

    Yang, Haoyu; Luo, Luyang; Su, Jing; Lin, Chenxi; Yu, Bei


    With the advancement of VLSI technology nodes, light diffraction caused lithographic hotspots have become a serious problem affecting manufacture yield. Lithography hotspot detection at the post-OPC stage is imperative to check potential circuit failures when transferring designed patterns onto silicon wafers. Although conventional lithography hotspot detection methods, such as machine learning, have gained satisfactory performance, with extreme scaling of transistor feature size and more and more complicated layout patterns, conventional methodologies may suffer from performance degradation. For example, manual or ad hoc feature extraction in a machine learning framework may lose important information when predicting potential errors in ultra-large-scale integrated circuit masks. In this paper, we present a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) targeting representative feature learning in lithography hotspot detection. We carefully analyze impact and effectiveness of different CNN hyper-parameters, through which a hotspot-detection-oriented neural network model is established. Because hotspot patterns are always minorities in VLSI mask design, the training data set is highly imbalanced. In this situation, a neural network is no longer reliable, because a trained model with high classification accuracy may still suffer from high false negative results (missing hotspots), which is fatal in hotspot detection problems. To address the imbalance problem, we further apply minority upsampling and random-mirror flipping before training the network. Experimental results show that our proposed neural network model achieves highly comparable or better performance on the ICCAD 2012 contest benchmark compared to state-of-the-art hotspot detectors based on deep or representative machine leaning.

  20. Resin Elongation Phenomenon of Polystyrene Nanopillars in Nanoimprint Lithography (United States)

    Kuwabara, Kosuke; Miyauchi, Akihiro; Sugimura, Hiroyuki


    We investigated the elongation of polystyrene nanopillars formed by thermal nanoimprint lithography. Silicone and perfluoropolyether were used as mold release agents to obtain molds with different adhesion forces against polystyrene to be imprinted. The adhesion force between the resin and release layers was evaluated as a force curve by atomic force microscope with a polystyrene colloid probe. Elongation depended on the aspect ratio of the corresponding microholes on the mold and the adhesion force against the release layer. The conditions under which the elongation occurred exhibited a clear threshold on the stress loaded on the foot area of the nanopillars.

  1. Reproducible SERS substrates on optical fiber tips by nanosphere lithography (United States)

    Pisco, M.; Galeotti, F.; Quero, G.; Grisci, G.; Micco, A.; Mercaldo, L. V.; Delli Veneri, P.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.


    This paper reports on the assessment of a simple and economical self-assembly methodology to obtain reproducible substrates onto the optical fiber tip for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. The method relies on the use of the nanosphere lithography of the optical fiber end facet. A careful analysis has been carried out to investigate the capability of the proposed procedure to realize repeatable pattern on the optical fiber tip. Finally, we demonstrate the effective application of the patterned OFTs as SERS nanoprobes.

  2. Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Nielsen, Theodor; Kristensen, Anders


    We present a solid state polymer microcavity dye laser, fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in a dye-doped thermoplast. The thermoplast poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used due to its high transparency in the visible range and its robustness to laser radiation. The laser dye...... propagating TE–TM modes. The laser cavity has the lateral shape of a trapezoid, supporting lasing modes by reflection on the vertical cavity walls. The solid polymer dye lasers emit laterally through one of the vertical cavity walls, when pumped optically through the top surface by means of a frequency...

  3. Energy effective dual-pulse bispectral laser for EUV lithography (United States)

    Zhevlakov, A. P.; Seisyan, R. P.; Bespalov, V. G.; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, A. S.; Kascheev, S. V.; Sidorov, I. S.


    The power consumption in the two-pulse bispectral primary source could be substantially decreased by replacing the SRS converters from 1.06 μm into 10.6 μm wavelength as the preamplifier cascades in CO2 laser channel at the same efficiency radiation of EUV source. The creation of high volume manufacturing lithography facilities with the technological standard of 10-20 nm is related to the implementation of resist exposure modes with pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz. Low power consumption of the proposed scheme makes it promising for the creation of LPP EUV sources.

  4. Combined electron beam and UV lithography in SU-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Mironov, Andrej


    We present combined electron beam and UV lithography (CEUL) in SU-8 as a fast and flexible lithographic technique for prototyping of functional polymer devices and pattern transfer applications. CEUL is a lithographic technique suitable for defining both micrometer and nanometer scale features...... in a single polymer film on the wafer scale. The height of the micrometer and nanometer scale features is matched within 30 nm. As a pattern transfer application, we demonstrate stamp fabrication and thermal nanoimprint of a 2-dimensional array of 100 nm wide lines with a pitch of 380 nm in connection...

  5. Wavelength selection for multilayer coatings for the lithography generation beyond extreme ultraviolet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makhotkin, Igor Alexandrovich; Zoethout, E.; Zoethout, E.; Louis, Eric; Yakunin, A.M.; Muellender, S.; Bijkerk, Frederik


    Reducing the operating wavelength in advanced photolitho- graphy while maintaining the lithography machine’s produc- tivity has been a traditional way to enable improved imaging for the last 20 years. The transition from 13.5 nm to 6.5 to 6.9 nm optical lithography offers a possibility to combine

  6. Monolithics silicon nano-ridge fabrication by edge lithography and wet anisotropic etching of silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    A new nanofabrication scheme is presented to form stamps useful in thermal nanoimprint lithography (T-NIL). The stamp is created in <110> single crystalline silicon using a full wet etching procedure including local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS)and employing an adapted edge lithography technique on

  7. Sub-10 nm silicon ridge nanofabrication by advanced edge lithography for NIL applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A new nanofabrication scheme is presented to form stamps useful in thermal nanoimprint lithography (T-NIL). The stamp is created in <110> single crystalline silicon using a full-wet etching procedure including local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) and employing an adapted edge lithography technique on

  8. Capillary force lithography: fabrication of functional polymer templates as versatile tools for nanolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinink, C.M.; Péter, M.; Maury, P.A.; de Boer, Meint J.; Kuipers, L.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David


    The implementation of high-resolution polymer templates fabricated by capillary force lithography (CFL) is explored both in nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and in the wet-etching of metals. Several different thermoplastic and UV-curable polymers and types of substrates are incorporated into the

  9. 75 FR 81643 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and... products made by advanced lithography techniques and products containing same, by reason of infringement of...

  10. 3D Printing of Regenerated Silk Fibroin and Antibody Containing Microstructures via Multiphoton Lithography (Postprint) (United States)


    Utilizing multiphoton lithography in conjunction with specific photoinitiator chemistry and postprint cross-linking, a number of microarchitectures...multiphoton lithography in conjunction with specific photoinitiator chemistry and postprint cross-linking, a number of microarchitectures were...several recent review papers, the “cocooning” of sensitive biological components (e.g., vaccines, enzymes, antibodies, or antibiotics) in RSF has important

  11. Computer numerical control (CNC) lithography: light-motion synchronized UV-LED lithography for 3D microfabrication (United States)

    Kim, Jungkwun; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Allen, Mark G.


    This paper presents a computer-numerical-controlled ultraviolet light-emitting diode (CNC UV-LED) lithography scheme for three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication. The CNC lithography scheme utilizes sequential multi-angled UV light exposures along with a synchronized switchable UV light source to create arbitrary 3D light traces, which are transferred into the photosensitive resist. The system comprises a switchable, movable UV-LED array as a light source, a motorized tilt-rotational sample holder, and a computer-control unit. System operation is such that the tilt-rotational sample holder moves in a pre-programmed routine, and the UV-LED is illuminated only at desired positions of the sample holder during the desired time period, enabling the formation of complex 3D microstructures. This facilitates easy fabrication of complex 3D structures, which otherwise would have required multiple manual exposure steps as in the previous multidirectional 3D UV lithography approach. Since it is batch processed, processing time is far less than that of the 3D printing approach at the expense of some reduction in the degree of achievable 3D structure complexity. In order to produce uniform light intensity from the arrayed LED light source, the UV-LED array stage has been kept rotating during exposure. UV-LED 3D fabrication capability was demonstrated through a plurality of complex structures such as V-shaped micropillars, micropanels, a micro-‘hi’ structure, a micro-‘cat’s claw,’ a micro-‘horn,’ a micro-‘calla lily,’ a micro-‘cowboy’s hat,’ and a micro-‘table napkin’ array.

  12. Economic assessment of lithography strategies for the 22nm technology node (United States)

    Jhaveri, Tejas; Strojwas, Andrzej; Pileggi, Larry; Rovner, Vyacheslav


    The unavailability of extreme ultra violet lithography (EUVL) for mass production of the 22nm technology node has created a significant void for mainstream lithography solutions. To fill this void, alternate lithography solutions that were earlier deemed to be technically and economically infeasible, such as double patterning technologies (DPT), source mask optimization (SMO), massively parallel direct write ebeam (MEBM) and Interference assisted lithography (Intf), are being proposed, developed and adopted to ensure the timely deployment of the 22nm technology node. While several studies have been undertaken to estimate the lithography process costs for volume production with the aforementioned technologies, these studies have provided only a partial analysis since they have not taken into account the impact on design density and product yield. In this paper we use the cost-per-good-die metric in order to capture process costs as well as yield and design density. We have developed a framework that estimates the lithography cost-per-good-die for SRAM arrays and have applied it to evaluate the economical feasibility of the various lithography strategies under consideration for the 22nm technology node. Specifically, we compare the cost-per-good-die for different 32MB SRAM arrays, each optimized for a different lithography solution. Our analysis shows that the selection of the best lithography strategy is both layer and volume specific. The use of DPT solutions is recommended for Active and Contact layers. The use of Intf is recommended for layers such as Poly, Metals and Vias in the case of low volume products. For medium to high volume products the use of SMO is recommended for Poly, Metals and Vias. This paper provides quantifies of economic benefit of the proposed lithography strategy.

  13. Achieving pattern uniformity in plasmonic lithography by spatial frequency selection (United States)

    Liang, Gaofeng; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Qing; Guo, L. Jay


    The effects of the surface roughness of thin films and defects on photomasks are investigated in two representative plasmonic lithography systems: thin silver film-based superlens and multilayer-based hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM). Superlens can replicate arbitrary patterns because of its broad evanescent wave passband, which also makes it inherently vulnerable to the roughness of the thin film and imperfections of the mask. On the other hand, the HMM system has spatial frequency filtering characteristics and its pattern formation is based on interference, producing uniform and stable periodic patterns. In this work, we show that the HMM system is more immune to such imperfections due to its function of spatial frequency selection. The analyses are further verified by an interference lithography system incorporating the photoresist layer as an optical waveguide to improve the aspect ratio of the pattern. It is concluded that a system capable of spatial frequency selection is a powerful method to produce deep-subwavelength periodic patterns with high degree of uniformity and fidelity.

  14. Negative-tone cycloolefin photoresist for 193-nm lithography (United States)

    Fu, ShihChi; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang; Wang, Lon A.


    The chemistry of acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction and followed by crosslinking of the tert-alcohol group in the cycloolefin photoresists was used to tailor the performance of the photoresists for 193nm lithography. A radiation- sensitive photoacid generator (PAG) in this chemically amplified photoresist (CAMP) can change the polarity of the exposed area of the resist and exhibit a negative-tone behavior. The cycloolefin resists are synthesized by the free radical copolymerization of alicyclic monomer and maleic anhydride, and/or by the cationic polymerization of alicyclic monomer via Pd catalyst followed by the attaching of tert-alcohol group in to the resist. The side reaction of cycloolefin copolymer was observed at the temperature below the post exposure baking (PEB) temperature, but this problem can be eliminated by the introduction of isobornyl methacrylate into the polymer. The lithographic performance of the resists was investigated by using isopropyl alcohol as a developer under various processing conditions. The results demonstrate that these resists are the promising candidates for being used in 193nm lithography.

  15. Repeatable mask metrology for next-generation lithography tools (United States)

    Hentschel, Steve L.; Kamberian, Henry H.; Kovatch, Julius


    Recent advances in pattern placement accuracy by photomask lithography tools are requiring much tighter repeatability specifications from the metrology equipment used in the characterization and monitoring process of these reticle writing systems. As pattern positioning accuracy specifications for the next generation tools (i.e., MEBES 4500 and ALTA 3000) dip below the 40 nanometer mark, the metrology tool must maintain a pattern placement measurement precision four times smaller than the writing tool, or less than 10 nanometers to satisfy current industry standards. The newest line width and coordinate registration metrology tool from Nikon, the Laser XY-5i, can measure photomasks and reticles with sub-10 nanometer precision. Recent acceptance test results as well as long term stability data (2-4 months) from a tool in a production environment prove the XY-5i worthy to characterize and monitor the newest mask and reticle lithography tools. A road map for future improvements and specification reduction will show the XY-5i capable of meeting the industry's metrology needs well into the 0.25 micron device generation and beyond.

  16. Plasmonic Lithography Utilizing Epsilon Near Zero Hyperbolic Metamaterial. (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Fan; Liang, Gaofeng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L Jay


    In this work, a special hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) metamaterial is investigated for plasmonic lithography of period reduction patterns. It is a type II HMM (ϵ∥ 0) whose tangential component of the permittivity ϵ∥ is close to zero. Due to the high anisotropy of the type II epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) HMM, only one plasmonic mode can propagate horizontally with low loss in a waveguide system with ENZ HMM as its core. This work takes the advantage of a type II ENZ HMM composed of aluminum/aluminum oxide films and the associated unusual mode to expose a photoresist layer in a specially designed lithography system. Periodic patterns with a half pitch of 58.3 nm were achieved due to the interference of third-order diffracted light of the grating. The lines were 1/6 of the mask with a period of 700 nm and ∼1/7 of the wavelength of the incident light. Moreover, the theoretical analyses performed are widely applicable to structures made of different materials such as silver as well as systems working at deep ultraviolet wavelengths including 193, 248, and 365 nm.

  17. Achieving pattern uniformity in plasmonic lithography by spatial frequency selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Gaofeng


    Full Text Available The effects of the surface roughness of thin films and defects on photomasks are investigated in two representative plasmonic lithography systems: thin silver film-based superlens and multilayer-based hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM. Superlens can replicate arbitrary patterns because of its broad evanescent wave passband, which also makes it inherently vulnerable to the roughness of the thin film and imperfections of the mask. On the other hand, the HMM system has spatial frequency filtering characteristics and its pattern formation is based on interference, producing uniform and stable periodic patterns. In this work, we show that the HMM system is more immune to such imperfections due to its function of spatial frequency selection. The analyses are further verified by an interference lithography system incorporating the photoresist layer as an optical waveguide to improve the aspect ratio of the pattern. It is concluded that a system capable of spatial frequency selection is a powerful method to produce deep-subwavelength periodic patterns with high degree of uniformity and fidelity.

  18. Fabrication of nanochannels on polyimide films using dynamic plowing lithography (United States)

    Stoica, Iuliana; Barzic, Andreea Irina; Hulubei, Camelia


    Three distinct polyimide films were analyzed from the point of view of their morphology in order to determine if their surface features can be adapted for applications where surface anisotropy is mandatory. Channels of nanometric dimensions were created on surface of the specimens by using a less common atomic force microscopy (AFM) method, namely Dynamic Plowing Lithography (DPL). The changes generated by DPL procedure were monitored through the surface texture and other functional parameters, denoting the surface orientation degree and also bearing and fluid retention properties. The results revealed that in the same nanolithography conditions, the diamine and dianhydride moieties have affected the characteristics of the nanochannels. This was explained based on the aliphatic/aromatic nature of the monomers and the backbone flexibility. The reported data are of great importance in designing custom nanostructures with enhanced anisotropy on surface of polyimide films for liquid crystal orientation or guided cell growth purposes. At the end, to track the effect of the nanolithography process on the tip sharpness, degradation and contamination, the blind tip reconstruction was performed on AFM probe, before and after lithography experiments, using TGT1 test grating AFM image.

  19. Surface plasmon interference lithography using Al grating structure on glass (United States)

    Kim, Yong Min; Choi, Kyung Cheol


    Photolithography is used in the important technologies of the device fabrication process in the semiconductor industry. However, photolithography has a pattern resolution limit because of the diffraction of light. Using surface plasmon (SP) is one of the ways to overcome this limit, which is a recently proposed nanolithography technology. Using SP, we developed a fabrication process using an Al grating structure on glass (glass/Al grating/PR structure). A perfect contact between the photoresist and the Al grating increased the effects of the SP because the contact gap was reduced in the photolithography process. The pattern pitch of lithography result was 120 nm (simulation results) and 115 nm (fabrication results). In surface plasmon interference lithography (SPIL) it is possible to use SP in the photolithography area. And we analyzed irregular pattern trends in the shape of random horizontal patterns and found that the patterns result from Al line edge roughness. Therefore, techniques that reduce the Al line edge roughness could enable clearer Al line patterns in SPIL.

  20. Large area nanoimprint by substrate conformal imprint lithography (SCIL) (United States)

    Verschuuren, Marc A.; Megens, Mischa; Ni, Yongfeng; van Sprang, Hans; Polman, Albert


    Releasing the potential of advanced material properties by controlled structuring materials on sub-100-nm length scales for applications such as integrated circuits, nano-photonics, (bio-)sensors, lasers, optical security, etc. requires new technology to fabricate nano-patterns on large areas (from cm2 to 200 mm up to display sizes) in a cost-effective manner. Conventional high-end optical lithography such as stepper/scanners is highly capital intensive and not flexible towards substrate types. Nanoimprint has had the potential for over 20 years to bring a cost-effective, flexible method for large area nano-patterning. Over the last 3-4 years, nanoimprint has made great progress towards volume production. The main accelerator has been the switch from rigid- to wafer-scale soft stamps and tool improvements for step and repeat patterning. In this paper, we discuss substrate conformal imprint lithography (SCIL), which combines nanometer resolution, low patterns distortion, and overlay alignment, traditionally reserved for rigid stamps, with the flexibility and robustness of soft stamps. This was made possible by a combination of a new soft stamp material, an inorganic resist, combined with an innovative imprint method. Finally, a volume production solution will be presented, which can pattern up to 60 wafers per hour.

  1. Energy deposition and charging in EUV lithography: Monte Carlo studies (United States)

    Wiseheart, Liam; Narasimhan, Amrit; Grzeskowiak, Steven; Neisser, Mark; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Denbeaux, Greg; Brainard, Robert L.


    EUV photons expose photoresists by complex interactions including photoionization to create primary electrons (~80 eV), and subsequent ionization steps that create secondary electrons (10-60 eV). The mechanisms by which these electrons interact with resist components are key to optimizing the performance of EUV resists and EUV lithography as a whole. As these photoelectrons and secondary electrons are created, they deposit their energy within the resist, creating ionized atoms along the way. Because many photo- and secondary electrons can escape the resist through the surface, resists can become charged. Charging and energy deposition profiles within the resist may play a role in the sensitivity and line-edge roughness of EUV resists. In this paper, we present computational analysis of charging-influenced electron behavior in photoresists using LESiS (Low energy Electron Scattering in Solids), a software developed to understand and model electron-matter interactions. We discuss the implementation of charge and tracking and the model used to influence electron behavior. We also present the potential effects of charging on EUV and electron beam lithography by investigating secondary electron blur in charging and non-charging models.

  2. Tilted pillar array fabrication by the combination of proton beam writing and soft lithography for microfluidic cell capture Part 2: Image sequence analysis based evaluation and biological application. (United States)

    Járvás, Gábor; Varga, Tamás; Szigeti, Márton; Hajba, László; Fürjes, Péter; Rajta, István; Guttman, András


    As a continuation of our previously published work, this paper presents a detailed evaluation of a microfabricated cell capture device utilizing a doubly tilted micropillar array. The device was fabricated using a novel hybrid technology based on the combination of proton beam writing and conventional lithography techniques. Tilted pillars offer unique flow characteristics and support enhanced fluidic interaction for improved immunoaffinity based cell capture. The performance of the microdevice was evaluated by an image sequence analysis based in-house developed single-cell tracking system. Individual cell tracking allowed in-depth analysis of the cell-chip surface interaction mechanism from hydrodynamic point of view. Simulation results were validated by using the hybrid device and the optimized surface functionalization procedure. Finally, the cell capture capability of this new generation microdevice was demonstrated by efficiently arresting cells from a HT29 cell-line suspension. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Demonstration of lithography patterns using reflective e-beam direct write (United States)

    Freed, Regina; Sun, Jeff; Brodie, Alan; Petric, Paul; McCord, Mark; Ronse, Kurt; Haspeslagh, Luc; Vereecke, Bart


    Traditionally, e-beam direct write lithography has been too slow for most lithography applications. E-beam direct write lithography has been used for mask writing rather than wafer processing since the maximum blur requirements limit column beam current - which drives e-beam throughput. To print small features and a fine pitch with an e-beam tool requires a sacrifice in processing time unless one significantly increases the total number of beams on a single writing tool. Because of the uncertainty with regards to the optical lithography roadmap beyond the 22 nm technology node, the semiconductor equipment industry is in the process of designing and testing e-beam lithography tools with the potential for high volume wafer processing. For this work, we report on the development and current status of a new maskless, direct write e-beam lithography tool which has the potential for high volume lithography at and below the 22 nm technology node. A Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) tool is being developed for high throughput electron beam direct write maskless lithography. The system is targeting critical patterning steps at the 22 nm node and beyond at a capital cost equivalent to conventional lithography. Reflective Electron Beam Lithography incorporates a number of novel technologies to generate and expose lithographic patterns with a throughput and footprint comparable to current 193 nm immersion lithography systems. A patented, reflective electron optic or Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) enables the unique approach. The Digital Pattern Generator is a CMOS ASIC chip with an array of small, independently controllable lens elements (lenslets), which act as an array of electron mirrors. In this way, the REBL system is capable of generating the pattern to be written using massively parallel exposure by ~1 million beams at extremely high data rates (~ 1Tbps). A rotary stage concept using a rotating platen carrying multiple wafers optimizes the writing strategy of

  4. Two new types of microneedle array fabricated by x-ray lithography (United States)

    Li, Yigui; Sugiyama, Susumu


    The microneedle for blood extraction and painless injection is a rapidly growing area of interest in bio-applications. Two new types of microneedle array are designed and developed for biomedical application. The one is hollow PMMA microneedle array with very shape tip fabricated by two times X-ray lithography (one time is with X-ray mask and one time is without X-ray mask). The other is PMMA microneedle array with tips and fluid channels fabricated by an X-ray lithography technique. The resist stage of the X-ray system driven by actuators is to realize movement lithography.

  5. Simulation of the effect of incline incident angle in DMD Maskless Lithography (United States)

    Liang, L. W.; Zhou, J. Y.; Xiang, L. L.; Wang, B.; Wen, K. H.; Lei, L.


    The aim of this study is to provide a simulation method for investigation of the intensity fluctuation caused by the inclined incident angle in DMD (digital micromirror device) maskless lithography. The simulation consists of eight main processes involving the simplification of the DMD aperture function and light propagation utilizing the non-parallel angular spectrum method. These processes provide a possibility of co-simulation in the spatial frequency domain, which combines the microlens array and DMD in the maskless lithography system. The simulation provided the spot shape and illumination distribution. These two parameters are crucial in determining the exposure dose in the existing maskless lithography system.

  6. Solvent immersion nanoimprint lithography of fluorescent conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, G. L.; Zhang, S.; Stevenson, J. R. Y.; Ebenhoch, B.; Samuel, I. D. W.; Turnbull, G. A. [Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)


    Solvent immersion imprint lithography (SIIL) was used to directly nanostructure conjugated polymer films. The technique was used to create light-emitting diffractive optical elements and organic semiconductor lasers. Gratings with lateral features as small as 70 nm and depths of ∼25 nm were achieved in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The angular emission from the patterned films was studied, comparing measurement to theoretical predictions. Organic distributed feedback lasers fabricated with SIIL exhibited thresholds for lasing of ∼40 kW/cm{sup 2}, similar to those made with established nanoimprint processes. The results show that SIIL is a quick, convenient and practical technique for nanopatterning of polymer photonic devices.

  7. Large-scale organic nanowire lithography and electronics. (United States)

    Min, Sung-Yong; Kim, Tae-Sik; Kim, Beom Joon; Cho, Himchan; Noh, Yong-Young; Yang, Hoichang; Cho, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae-Woo


    Controlled alignment and patterning of individual semiconducting nanowires at a desired position in a large area is a key requirement for electronic device applications. High-speed, large-area printing of highly aligned individual nanowires that allows control of the exact numbers of wires, and their orientations and dimensions is a significant challenge for practical electronics applications. Here we use a high-speed electrohydrodynamic organic nanowire printer to print large-area organic semiconducting nanowire arrays directly on device substrates in a precisely, individually controlled manner; this method also enables sophisticated large-area nanowire lithography for nano-electronics. We achieve a maximum field-effect mobility up to 9.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with extremely low contact resistance (organic semiconducting nanowires. Extremely fast nanolithography using printed semiconducting nanowire arrays provide a simple, reliable method of fabricating large-area and flexible nano-electronics.

  8. Method for the protection of extreme ultraviolet lithography optics (United States)

    Grunow, Philip A.; Clift, Wayne M.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.


    A coating for the protection of optical surfaces exposed to a high energy erosive plasma. A gas that can be decomposed by the high energy plasma, such as the xenon plasma used for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), is injected into the EUVL machine. The decomposition products coat the optical surfaces with a protective coating maintained at less than about 100 .ANG. thick by periodic injections of the gas. Gases that can be used include hydrocarbon gases, particularly methane, PH.sub.3 and H.sub.2S. The use of PH.sub.3 and H.sub.2S is particularly advantageous since films of the plasma-induced decomposition products S and P cannot grow to greater than 10 .ANG. thick in a vacuum atmosphere such as found in an EUVL machine.

  9. Topology optimization for optical projection lithography with manufacturing uncertainties. (United States)

    Zhou, Mingdong; Lazarov, Boyan S; Sigmund, Ole


    This article presents a topology optimization approach for micro- and nano-devices fabricated by optical projection lithography. Incorporating the photolithography process and the manufacturing uncertainties into the topology optimization process results in a binary mask that can be sent directly to manufacturing without additional optical proximity correction (OPC). The performance of the optimized device is robust toward the considered process variations. With the proposed unified approach, the design for photolithography is achieved by considering the optimal device performance and manufacturability at the same time. Only one optimization problem is solved instead of two as in the conventional separate procedures by (1) blueprint design and (2) OPC. A micro-gripper design example is presented to demonstrate the potential of this approach.

  10. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography-based 3D nanofabrication (United States)

    Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; Allen, Mark G.


    We report a 'top-down' 3D nanofabrication approach combining non-conventional inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL) with reactive ion etching (RIE), contact molding and 3D metal nanotransfer printing (nTP). This integration of processes enables the production and conformal transfer of 3D polymer nanostructures of varying heights to a variety of other materials including a silicon-based substrate, a silicone stamp and a metal gold (Au) thin film. The process demonstrates the potential of reduced fabrication cost and complexity compared to existing methods. Various 3D nanostructures in technologically useful materials have been fabricated, including symmetric and asymmetric nanolines, nanocircles and nanosquares. Such 3D nanostructures have potential applications such as angle-resolved photonic crystals, plasmonic crystals and biomimicking anisotropic surfaces. This integrated INIL-based strategy shows great promise for 3D nanofabrication in the fields of photonics, plasmonics and surface tribology.

  11. Designed tools for analysis of lithography patterns and nanostructures (United States)

    Dervillé, Alexandre; Baderot, Julien; Bernard, Guilhem; Foucher, Johann; Grönqvist, Hanna; Labrosse, Aurélien; Martinez, Sergio; Zimmermann, Yann


    We introduce a set of designed tools for the analysis of lithography patterns and nano structures. The classical metrological analysis of these objects has the drawbacks of being time consuming, requiring manual tuning and lacking robustness and user friendliness. With the goal of improving the current situation, we propose new image processing tools at different levels: semi automatic, automatic and machine-learning enhanced tools. The complete set of tools has been integrated into a software platform designed to transform the lab into a virtual fab. The underlying idea is to master nano processes at the research and development level by accelerating the access to knowledge and hence speed up the implementation in product lines.

  12. Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography (United States)

    Aigeldinger, Georg [Livermore, CA; Skala, Dawn M [Fremont, CA; Griffiths, Stewart K [Livermore, CA; Talin, Albert Alec [Livermore, CA; Losey, Matthew W [Livermore, CA; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter [Dublin, CA


    The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

  13. Batch fabrication of nanopatterned graphene devices via nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, David; Smistrup, Kristian; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf


    Previous attempts to tune the electrical properties of large-scale graphene via nanopatterning have led to serious degradation of the key electrical parameters that make graphene a desirable material for electronic devices. We use thermal nanoimprint lithography to pattern wafer-scale graphene...... on a 4-in. wafer with prefabricated 25mm2 devices. The nanopatterning process introduces a modest decrease in carrier mobility and only a minor change in residual doping. Due to the rapid fabrication time of approximately 90 min per wafer, this method has potential for large-scale industrial production....... The chemiresistive gas sensing response towards NO2 was assessed in humid synthetic air and dry air, with devices showing a response to 50 ppb of NO2 only when nanopatterned....

  14. Topology optimization for optical projection lithography with manufacturing uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Mingdong; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole


    This article presents a topology optimization approach for micro-and nano-devices fabricated by optical projection lithography. Incorporating the photolithography process and the manufacturing uncertainties into the topology optimization process results in a binary mask that can be sent directly...... to manufacturing without additional optical proximity correction (OPC). The performance of the optimized device is robust toward the considered process variations. With the proposed unified approach, the design for photolithography is achieved by considering the optimal device performance and manufacturability...... at the same time. Only one optimization problem is solved instead of two as in the conventional separate procedures by (1) blueprint design and (2) OPC. A micro-gripper design example is presented to demonstrate the potential of this approach. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...

  15. "Sketch and Peel" Lithography for High-Resolution Multiscale Patterning. (United States)

    Chen, Yiqin; Xiang, Quan; Li, Zhiqin; Wang, Yasi; Meng, Yuhan; Duan, Huigao


    We report a unique lithographic process, termed "Sketch and Peel" lithography (SPL), for fast, clean, and reliable patterning of metallic structures from tens of nanometers to submillimeter scale using direct writing technology. The key idea of SPL process is to define structures using their presketched outlines as the templates for subsequent selective peeling of evaporated metallic layer. With reduced exposure area, SPL process enables significantly improved patterning efficiency up to hundreds of times higher and greatly mitigated proximity effect compared to current direct writing strategy. We demonstrate that multiscale hierarchical metallic structures with arbitrary shapes and minimal feature size of ∼15 nm could be defined with high fidelity using SPL process for potential nanoelectronic and nano-optical applications.

  16. Modular Polymer Biosensors by Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jayven S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Grate, Jay W.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Gratton, Enrico; Vasdekis, Andreas


    We recently demonstrated Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography (SIIL), a rapid benchtop microsystem prototyping technique, including polymer functionalization, imprinting and bonding. Here, we focus on the realization of planar polymer sensors using SIIL through simple solvent immersion without imprinting. We describe SIIL’s impregnation characteristics, including an inherent mechanism that not only achieves practical doping concentrations, but their unexpected 4-fold enhancement compared to the immersion solution. Subsequently, we developed and characterized optical sensors for detecting molecular O2. To this end, a high dynamic range is reported, including its control through the immersion duration, a manifestation of SIIL’s modularity. Overall, SIIL exhibits the potential of improving the operating characteristics of polymer sensors, while significantly accelerating their prototyping, as it requires a few seconds of processing and no need for substrates or dedicated instrumentation. These are critical for O2 sensing as probed by way of example here, as well as any polymer permeable reactant.

  17. Characteristics of Ge-based ARL for DUV lithography (United States)

    Kim, Yongbeom; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kang, Hoyoung; Moon, Joo-Tae; Lee, Moon-Yong


    Germanium based ARL (Anti Reflective Layer) having high conformality over topography and removable during resist strip process was developed. Its various characteristics were investigated. The ARLs were composed with GeN, and (Ge,Si)Nx and fabricated by reactive RF sputtering. The optical constants of Ge based materials were measured and the ARL performance for DUV lithography was obtained. Since the GENx is dissolved in water during resist develop process, it can not be used. Therefore, silicon was added to solve this problem. Thin film characteristics of (Ge,Si)Nx compound were analyzed using XRD, XPS, AES, SEM. The ARL performance was confirmed by resist patterning. Because the (Ge,Si)Nx material is removable by H2SO4 strip, yet most of current inorganic ARL is not, it has advantages for process simplicity.

  18. Extreme ultraviolet mask substrate surface roughness effects on lithography patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Salmassi, Farhad; Mochi, Iacopo; Gullikson, Eric; Goldberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Erik


    In extreme ultraviolet lithography exposure systems, mask substrate roughness induced scatter contributes to LER at the image plane. In this paper, the impact of mask substrate roughness on image plane speckle is explicitly evaluated. A programmed roughness mask was used to study the correlation between mask roughness metrics and wafer plane aerial image inspection. We find that the roughness measurements by top surface topography profile do not provide complete information on the scatter related speckle that leads to LER at the image plane. We suggest at wavelength characterization by imaging and/or scatter measurements into different frequencies as an alternative for a more comprehensive metrology of the mask substrate/multilayer roughness effects.

  19. The opportunity and challenge of spin coat based nanoimprint lithography (United States)

    Jung, Wooyung; Cho, Jungbin; Choi, Eunhyuk; Lim, Yonghyun; Bok, Cheolkyu; Tsuji, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Kei; Kono, Takuya; Nakasugi, Tetsuro


    Since multi patterning with spacer was introduced in NAND flash memory1, multi patterning with spacer has been a promising solution to overcome the resolution limit. However, the increase in process cost of multi patterning with spacer must be a serious burden to device manufacturers as half pitch of patterns gets smaller.2, 3 Even though Nano Imprint Lithography (NIL) has been considered as one of strong candidates to avoid cost issue of multi patterning with spacer, there are still negative viewpoints; template damage induced from particles between template and wafer, overlay degradation induced from shear force between template and wafer, and throughput loss induced from dispensing and spreading resist droplet. Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FIL4, 5, 6) has contributed to throughput improvement, but still has these above problems. J-FIL consists of 5 steps; dispense of resist droplets on wafer, imprinting template on wafer, filling the gap between template and wafer with resist, UV curing, and separation of template from wafer. If dispensing resist droplets by inkjet is replaced with coating resist at spin coater, additional progress in NIL can be achieved. Template damage from particle can be suppressed by thick resist which is spin-coated at spin coater and covers most of particles on wafer, shear force between template and wafer can be minimized with thick resist, and finally additional throughput enhancement can be achieved by skipping dispense of resist droplets on wafer. On the other hand, spin-coat-based NIL has side effect such as pattern collapse which comes from high separation energy of resist. It is expected that pattern collapse can be improved by the development of resist with low separation energy.

  20. Inorganic antireflective coating process for deep-UV lithography (United States)

    He, Qizhi; Lee, Wei W.; Hanratty, Maureen A.; Rogers, Daty; Xing, Guoqiang; Singh, Abha; Zielinski, Eden


    Antireflective coatings (ARCs) have been used to enhance IC lithography for years, however, many conventional bottom ARCs can no longer maintain acceptable linewidth control, cannot meet stringent deep-UV (DUV) photoresist processing requirements, and increase the etch complexity. In this paper, we report the development of an inorganic ARC for DUV lithography in sub-0.25 micrometer advanced device applications. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is employed to deposit a dielectric film silicon oxynitride (SixOyNz) with specific optical properties. The three optical parameters of the SixOyNz film: refractive index n, extinction coefficient k, and thickness d are specifically designed to ensure that the reflection light that passes through the ARC/substrate is equal in amplitude and opposite in phase to the reflected light from the resist/ARC interface. The reflection light is canceled by destructive interference and therefore photoresist receives the minimum substrate reflection wave. Using this technique, we have successfully patterned features at 0.25 micrometer and below. The dielectric film can not only function as an ARC layer, but also serve as a hardmask for the pattern transfer etch process. With an aggressive etch bias process, linewidths down to 0.60 micrometer poly-Si gate are achieved with good linewidth control (3(sigma) less than 12 nm) and a near perfect linearity. For the marginal metal etch resistance of DUV photoresist, the designed SixOyNz is effective in imparting more etch resistance and suppressing metal substrate reflection. Excellent optical uniformity of the n, k and thickness d of the SixOyNz ARC is obtained with a manufacturable PECVD deposition process.

  1. Rapid fabrication of microneedles using magnetorheological drawing lithography. (United States)

    Chen, Zhipeng; Ren, Lei; Li, Jiyu; Yao, Lebin; Chen, Yan; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Lelun


    Microneedles are micron-sized needles that are widely applied in biomedical fields owing to their painless, minimally invasive, and convenient operation. However, most microneedle fabrication approaches are costly, time consuming, involve multiple steps, and require expensive equipment. In this study, we present a novel magnetorheological drawing lithography (MRDL) method to efficiently fabricate microneedle, bio-inspired microneedle, and molding-free microneedle array. With the assistance of an external magnetic field, the 3D structure of a microneedle can be directly drawn from a droplet of curable magnetorheological fluid. The formation process of a microneedle consists of two key stages, elasto-capillary self-thinning and magneto-capillary self-shrinking, which greatly affect the microneedle height and tip radius. Penetration and fracture tests demonstrated that the microneedle had sufficient strength and toughness for skin penetration. Microneedle arrays and a bio-inspired microneedle were also fabricated, which further demonstrated the versatility and flexibility of the MRDL method. Microneedles have been widely applied in biomedical fields owing to their painless, minimally invasive, and convenient operation. However, most microneedle fabrication approaches are costly, time consuming, involve multiple steps, and require expensive equipment. Furthermore, most researchers have focused on the biomedical applications of microneedles but have given little attention to the optimization of the fabrication process. This research presents a novel magnetorheological drawing lithography (MRDL) method to fabricate microneedle, bio-inspired microneedle, and molding-free microneedle array. In this proposed technique, a droplet of curable magnetorheological fluid (CMRF) is drawn directly from almost any substrate to produce a 3D microneedle under an external magnetic field. This method not only inherits the advantages of thermal drawing approach without the need for a mask

  2. Novel organosilicone materials and patterning techniques for nanoimprint lithography (United States)

    Pina, Carlos Alberto

    Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) is a high-throughput patterning technique that allows the fabrication of nanostructures with great precision. It has been listed on the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) as a candidate technology for future generation Si chip manufacturing. In nanoimprint Lithography a resist material, e.g. a thermoplastic polymer, is placed in contact with a mold and then mechanically deformed under an applied load to transfer the nano-features on the mold surface into the resist. The success of NIL relies heavily in the capability of fabricating nanostructures on different types of materials. Thus, a key factor for NIL implementation in industrial settings is the development of advanced materials suitable as the nanoimprint resist. This dissertation focuses on the engineering of new polymer materials suitable as NIL resist. A variety of silicone-based polymer precursors were synthesized and formulated for NIL applications. High throughput and high yield nanopatterning was successfully achieved. Furthermore, additional capabilities of the developed materials were explored for a range of NIL applications such as their use as flexible, UV-transparent stamps and silicon compatible etching layers. Finally, new strategies were investigated to expand the NIL potentiality. High throughput, non-residual layer imprinting was achieved with the newly developed resist materials. In addition, several strategies were designed for the precise control of nanoscale size patterned structures with multifunctional resist systems by post-imprinting modification of the pattern size. These developments provide NIL with a new set of tools for a variety of additional important applications.

  3. Atomic Lithography: Forcing Epitaxial Growth Using X-Ray Standing Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falco, Charles


    In a remarkably short time we have made tremendous progress in both the design and construction of a unique "atomic lithography" deposition facility, and in observing effects of an intense x-ray beam...

  4. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled(PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  5. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled (PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  6. Photoelectron scattering and acid release in EUV lithography: a simulation study (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Biafore, John J.


    Abstract BACKGROUND: The ionizing wavelength in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resist exposure leads to photoelectron scattering and uncertainty in the resulting acid image, producing line-edge roughness (LER) and poor CD uniformity of the printed features. GOALS: Try to determine how photoelectron and acid exposure blur effects affect EUV lithography and how they might be better controlled. Try to determine whether or not, and if so under what conditions, high resist quantum yields are beneficial to EUV lithography. METHODS: Using a stochastic resist simulator, we study the effects of resist properties upon photoelectric scattering, the uncertainty in the acid release and the properties of the after-development photoresist image in high NA EUV lithography. Uncertainty in the release of acids is the fundamental cause of LER and the ultimate limiter of optical lithography technology.

  7. M&A For Lithography Of Sparse Arrays Of Sub-Micrometer Features (United States)

    Brueck, Steven R.J.; Chen, Xiaolan; Zaidi, Saleem; Devine, Daniel J.


    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for the exposure of sparse hole and/or mesa arrays with line:space ratios of 1:3 or greater and sub-micrometer hole and/or mesa diameters in a layer of photosensitive material atop a layered material. Methods disclosed include: double exposure interferometric lithography pairs in which only those areas near the overlapping maxima of each single-period exposure pair receive a clearing exposure dose; double interferometric lithography exposure pairs with additional processing steps to transfer the array from a first single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair into an intermediate mask layer and a second single-period interferometric lithography exposure to further select a subset of the first array of holes; a double exposure of a single period interferometric lithography exposure pair to define a dense array of sub-micrometer holes and an optical lithography exposure in which only those holes near maxima of both exposures receive a clearing exposure dose; combination of a single-period interferometric exposure pair, processing to transfer resulting dense array of sub-micrometer holes into an intermediate etch mask, and an optical lithography exposure to select a subset of initial array to form a sparse array; combination of an optical exposure, transfer of exposure pattern into an intermediate mask layer, and a single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair; three-beam interferometric exposure pairs to form sparse arrays of sub-micrometer holes; five- and four-beam interferometric exposures to form a sparse array of sub-micrometer holes in a single exposure. Apparatuses disclosed include arrangements for the three-beam, five-beam and four-beam interferometric exposures.

  8. High resolution patterning for flexible electronics via roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography (United States)

    Sabik, Sami; de Riet, Joris; Yakimets, Iryna; Smits, Edsger


    Flexible electronics is a growing field and is currently maturing in applications such as displays, smart packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. In order to process on flexible substrates at high throughput and large areas, novel patterning techniques will be essential. Conventional optical lithography is limited in throughput as well as resolution, and requires several alignment steps to generate multi-layered patterns, required for applications such as thin-film transistors. It therefore remains a complex and expensive process. Nanoimprint lithography is an emerging alternative to optical lithography, demonstrating patterning capabilities over a wide range of resolutions, from several microns down to a few nanometres. For display applications, nanoimprint lithography can be used to pattern various layers. Micron sized thin-film transistors for backplane can be fabricated where a self-aligned geometry is used to decrease the number of alignment steps, and increase the overlay accuracy. In addition, nano-structures can be used for optical applications such as anti-reflective surfaces and nano patterned transparent electrodes. Imprint lithography is a fully roll-to-roll compatible process and enables large area and high throughput fabrication for flexible electronics. In this paper we discuss the possibilities and the challenges of large area patterning by roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography, reviewing micron and nano sized structures realized on our roll-to-roll equipment. Nano patterned transparent electrodes, moth-eye antireflective coatings, and multilevel structures will be covered.

  9. Large area direct-write focused ion-beam lithography with dual-beam microscope.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imre-Joshi, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Rich, L.; Klingfus, J. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)


    The authors have investigated the performance of focused ion-beam (FIB) direct-write lithography for large area (multiple write-field) patterning in an FEI Nova Nanolab 600 dual-beam microscope. Their system is configured with a 100 nm resolution X-Y stage and a RAITH ELPHY LITHOGRAPHY control interface, with its own integrated 16 bit DAC pattern generator and software. Key issues with regard to configuration, process parameters, and procedures have been addressed. Characterization of stitching errors, pattern repeatability, and drift were performed. Offset lithography (multiple exposures with offset write fields) and in-field registration marks were evaluated for correcting stitching errors, and a test microfluidic device covering an area of 1 x 1.4 mm{sup 2} was successfully fabricated. The authors found that by using a combination of offset lithography and in-field registration mark correction methods, the stitching errors can be kept well below 100 nm. They also found that due to higher beam deflection speed provided by the electrostatic scanning in FIB systems versus the wide-spread electron-beam systems with electromagnetic scanning, FIB lithography can be just as fast as electron-beam lithography for typical mill depths down to about 200-500 nm (material dependent). This opens the door for a large suite of applications for materials where pattern transfer is difficult or impossible by reactive methods.

  10. High performance Si immersion gratings patterned with electron beam lithography (United States)

    Gully-Santiago, Michael A.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Brooks, Cynthia B.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Muller, Richard E.


    Infrared spectrographs employing silicon immersion gratings can be significantly more compact than spectro- graphs using front-surface gratings. The Si gratings can also offer continuous wavelength coverage at high spectral resolution. The grooves in Si gratings are made with semiconductor lithography techniques, to date almost entirely using contact mask photolithography. Planned near-infrared astronomical spectrographs require either finer groove pitches or higher positional accuracy than standard UV contact mask photolithography can reach. A collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin Silicon Diffractive Optics Group and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Microdevices Laboratory has experimented with direct writing silicon immersion grating grooves with electron beam lithography. The patterning process involves depositing positive e-beam resist on 1 to 30 mm thick, 100 mm diameter monolithic crystalline silicon substrates. We then use the facility JEOL 9300FS e-beam writer at JPL to produce the linear pattern that defines the gratings. There are three key challenges to produce high-performance e-beam written silicon immersion gratings. (1) E- beam field and subfield stitching boundaries cause periodic cross-hatch structures along the grating grooves. The structures manifest themselves as spectral and spatial dimension ghosts in the diffraction limited point spread function (PSF) of the diffraction grating. In this paper, we show that the effects of e-beam field boundaries must be mitigated. We have significantly reduced ghost power with only minor increases in write time by using four or more field sizes of less than 500 μm. (2) The finite e-beam stage drift and run-out error cause large-scale structure in the wavefront error. We deal with this problem by applying a mark detection loop to check for and correct out minuscule stage drifts. We measure the level and direction of stage drift and show that mark detection reduces peak-to-valley wavefront error

  11. Polymeric lithography editor: Editing lithographic errors with nanoporous polymeric probes (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Pradeep Ramiah; Zhou, Chuanhong; Dasari, Mallika; Voss, Kay-Obbe; Trautmann, Christina; Kohli, Punit


    A new lithographic editing system with an ability to erase and rectify errors in microscale with real-time optical feedback is demonstrated. The erasing probe is a conically shaped hydrogel (tip size, ca. 500 nm) template-synthesized from track-etched conical glass wafers. The “nanosponge” hydrogel probe “erases” patterns by hydrating and absorbing molecules into a porous hydrogel matrix via diffusion analogous to a wet sponge. The presence of an interfacial liquid water layer between the hydrogel tip and the substrate during erasing enables frictionless, uninterrupted translation of the eraser on the substrate. The erasing capacity of the hydrogel is extremely high because of the large free volume of the hydrogel matrix. The fast frictionless translocation and interfacial hydration resulted in an extremely high erasing rate (~785 μm2/s), which is two to three orders of magnitude higher in comparison with the atomic force microscopy–based erasing (~0.1 μm2/s) experiments. The high precision and accuracy of the polymeric lithography editor (PLE) system stemmed from coupling piezoelectric actuators to an inverted optical microscope. Subsequently after erasing the patterns using agarose erasers, a polydimethylsiloxane probe fabricated from the same conical track-etched template was used to precisely redeposit molecules of interest at the erased spots. PLE also provides a continuous optical feedback throughout the entire molecular editing process—writing, erasing, and rewriting. To demonstrate its potential in device fabrication, we used PLE to electrochemically erase metallic copper thin film, forming an interdigitated array of microelectrodes for the fabrication of a functional microphotodetector device. High-throughput dot and line erasing, writing with the conical “wet nanosponge,” and continuous optical feedback make PLE complementary to the existing catalog of nanolithographic/microlithographic and three-dimensional printing techniques. This new

  12. Amine control for DUV lithography: identifying hidden sources (United States)

    Kishkovich, Oleg P.; Larson, Carl E.


    The impact of airborne basic molecular contamination (MB) on the performance of chemically amplified (CA) resist systems has been a long standing problem. Low ppb levels of MB may be sufficient for robust 0.25 micrometer lithography with today's advanced CA resist systems combined with adequate chemical air filtration. However, with minimum CD targets heading below 150 nm, the introduction of new resist chemistries for Next Generation Lithography, and the trend towards thinner resists, the impact of MB at low and sub-ppb levels again becomes a critical manufacturing issue. Maximizing process control at aggressive feature sizes requires that the level of MB be maintained below a certain limit, which depends on such parameters as the sensitivity of the CA resist, the type of production tools, product mix, and process characteristics. Three approaches have been identified to reduce the susceptibility of CA resists to MB: effective chemical air filtration, modifications to resist chemistry/processing and cleanroom protocols involving MB monitoring and removal of MB sources from the fab. The final MB concentration depends on the effectiveness of filtration resources and on the total pollution originating from different sources in and out of the cleanroom. There are many well-documented sources of MB. Among these are: ambient air; polluted exhaust from other manufacturing areas re-entering the cleanroom through make-up air handlers; manufacturing process chemicals containing volatile molecular bases; certain cleanroom construction materials, such as paint and ceiling tiles; and volatile, humidifier system boiler additives (corrosion inhibitors), such as morpholine, cyclohexylamine, and dimethylaminoethanol. However, there is also an indeterminate number of other 'hidden' pollution sources, which are neither obvious nor well-documented. None of these sources are new, but they had little impact on earlier semiconductor manufacturing processes because the contamination

  13. Zero-Energy Modes from Coalescing Andreev States in a Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrid Platform. (United States)

    Suominen, H J; Kjaergaard, M; Hamilton, A R; Shabani, J; Palmstrøm, C J; Marcus, C M; Nichele, F


    We investigate zero-bias conductance peaks that arise from coalescing subgap Andreev states, consistent with emerging Majorana zero modes, in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor wires defined in a two-dimensional InAs/Al heterostructure using top-down lithography and gating. The measurements indicate a hard superconducting gap, ballistic tunneling contact, and in-plane critical fields up to 3 T. Top-down lithography allows complex geometries, branched structures, and straightforward scaling to multicomponent devices compared to structures made from assembled nanowires.

  14. Efficient source polarization optimization for robust optical lithography (United States)

    Ma, Xu; Gao, Jie; Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong; Liu, Lihui


    Source optimization (SO) has become increasing important to improve the process window (PW) of optical lithography systems. Most of current SO approaches modify the source intensity distribution, but fix the polarization state thus limiting the degrees of optimization freedom. In addition, these SO methods simultaneously optimize the imaging performance on focal and defocal planes to extend the depth of focus (DOF) at the cost of increasing the computational complexity. To overcome these above limitations, this paper develops a pixelated gradient-based polarization optimization (PO) method to effectively extend the PW by seeking for the optimal polarization angle for each point source. In order to accelerate the optimization process, the proposed method tries to optimize a compact cost function incorporating the integral imaging performance over a certain defocus range, rather than taking into account the separate performance metrics on different imaging planes. A gradientbased algorithm is exploited to iteratively modulate the polarization angles to keep reducing the cost function. Finally, a post-processing method is applied to reduce the complexity of the optimized polarization angle pattern for improving its manufacturability. Simulations show that the proposed PO algorithm will achieve approximate two-fold speedup compared to the method using a traditional cost function. The proposed PO algorithm is potential to be applied independently or associated with source and mask optimizations to further improve the lithographic performance.

  15. Fabrication of Pneumatic Microvalve for Tall Microchannel Using Inclined Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho Kaminaga


    Full Text Available We used inclined lithography to fabricate a pneumatic microvalve for tall microchannels such as those used to convey large cells. The pneumatic microvalve consists of three layers. The upper layer is the actual liquid microchannel, which has a parallelogram-shaped cross section of width 500 μm, height 100 μm, and an acute angle of 53.6°. The lower layer is a pneumatic microchannel that functions as an actuator, and the middle layer is a thin polydimethylsiloxane membrane between the upper and lower layers. The operation of the pneumatic microchannel actuator causes the thin membrane to bend, resulting in the bending of the liquid microchannel and its closure. It was confirmed that the closure of the liquid microchannel completely stopped the flow of the HeLa cell suspension that was used to demonstrate the operation of the microvalve. The HeLa cells that passed through the microchannel were also observed to retain their proliferation and morphological properties.

  16. 100-nm gate lithography for double-gate transistors (United States)

    Krasnoperova, Azalia A.; Zhang, Ying; Babich, Inna V.; Treichler, John; Yoon, Jung H.; Guarini, Kathryn; Solomon, Paul M.


    The double gate field effect transistor (FET) is an exploratory device that promises certain performance advantages compared to traditional CMOS FETs. It can be scaled down further than the traditional devices because of the greater electrostatic control by the gates on the channel (about twice as short a channel length for the same gate oxide thickness), has steeper sub-threshold slope and about double the current for the same width. This paper presents lithographic results for double gate FET's developed at IBM's T. J. Watson Research Center. The device is built on bonded wafers with top and bottom gates self-aligned to each other. The channel is sandwiched between the top and bottom polysilicon gates and the gate length is defined using DUV lithography. An alternating phase shift mask was used to pattern gates with critical dimensions of 75 nm, 100 nm and 125 nm in photoresist. 50 nm gates in photoresist have also been patterned by 20% over-exposure of nominal 100 nm lines. No trim mask was needed because of a specific way the device was laid out. UV110 photoresist from Shipley on AR-3 antireflective layer were used. Process windows, developed and etched patterns are presented.

  17. Development of procedures for programmable proximity aperture lithography (United States)

    Whitlow, H. J.; Gorelick, S.; Puttaraksa, N.; Napari, M.; Hokkanen, M. J.; Norarat, R.


    Programmable proximity aperture lithography (PPAL) with MeV ions has been used in Jyväskylä and Chiang Mai universities for a number of years. Here we describe a number of innovations and procedures that have been incorporated into the LabView-based software. The basic operation involves the coordination of the beam blanker and five motor-actuated translators with high accuracy, close to the minimum step size with proper anti-collision algorithms. By using special approaches, such writing calibration patterns, linearisation of position and careful backlash correction the absolute accuracy of the aperture size and position, can be improved beyond the standard afforded by the repeatability of the translator end-point switches. Another area of consideration has been the fluence control procedures. These involve control of the uniformity of the beam where different approaches for fluence measurement such as simultaneous aperture current and the ion current passing through the aperture using a Faraday cup are used. Microfluidic patterns may contain many elements that make-up mixing sections, reaction chambers, separation columns and fluid reservoirs. To facilitate conception and planning we have implemented a .svg file interpreter, that allows the use of scalable vector graphics files produced by standard drawing software for generation of patterns made up of rectangular elements.

  18. Fabrication of periodic gold nanocup arrays using colloidal lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Alvine, Kyle J.


    Within recent years, the field of plasmonics has exploded as researchers have demonstrated exciting applications related to chemical and optical sensing in combination with new nanofabrication techniques. A plasmon is a quantum of charge density oscillation that lends nanoscale metals such as gold and silver unique optical properties. In particular, gold and silver nanoparticles exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances—collective charge density oscillations on the surface of the nanoparticle—in the visible spectrum. Here, we focus on the fabrication of periodic arrays of anisotropic plasmonic nanostructures. These half-shell (or nanocup) structures can exhibit additional unique light-bending and polarization dependent optical properties that simple isotropic nanostructures cannot. Researchers are interested in the fabrication of periodic arrays of nanocups for a wide variety of applications such as low-cost optical devices, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and tamper indication. We present a scalable technique based on colloidal lithography in which it is possible to easily fabricate large periodic arrays of nanocups using spin-coating and self-assembled commercially available polymeric nanospheres. Electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy from the visible to near-IR was performed to confirm successful nanocup fabrication. We conclude with a demonstration of the transfer of nanocups to a flexible, conformal adhesive film.

  19. Alternative stitching method for massively parallel e-beam lithography (United States)

    Brandt, Pieter; Tranquillin, Céline; Wieland, Marco; Bayle, Sébastien; Milléquant, Matthieu; Renault, Guillaume


    In this study, a stitching method other than soft edge (SE) and smart boundary (SB) is introduced and benchmarked against SE. The method is based on locally enhanced exposure latitude without throughput cost, making use of the fact that the two beams that pass through the stitching region can deposit up to 2× the nominal dose. The method requires a complex proximity effect correction that takes a preset stitching dose profile into account. Although the principle of the presented stitching method can be multibeam (lithography) systems in general, in this study, the MAPPER FLX 1200 tool is specifically considered. For the latter tool at a metal clip at minimum half-pitch of 32 nm, the stitching method effectively mitigates beam-to-beam (B2B) position errors such that they do not induce an increase in critical dimension uniformity (CDU). In other words, the same CDU can be realized inside the stitching region as outside the stitching region. For the SE method, the CDU inside is 0.3 nm higher than outside the stitching region. A 5-nm direct overlay impact from the B2B position errors cannot be reduced by a stitching strategy.

  20. Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Using a High-Repetition-Rate Laser-Induced X-Ray Source for Sub-100 Nanometer Lithography Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Voorma, H. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Schlatmann, R.; Verhoeven, J.; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Nikolaus, B.


    In this paper we present the status of a joint development programme on soft x-ray projection lithography (SXPL) integrating work on high brightness laser plasma sources. fabrication of multilayer x-ray mirrors. and patterning of reflection masks. We are in the process of optimization of a

  1. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik G.


    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  2. Plasmonic Structures, Materials and Lenses for Optical Lithography beyond the Diffraction Limit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changtao Wang


    Full Text Available The rapid development of nanotechnologies and sciences has led to the great demand for novel lithography methods allowing large area, low cost and high resolution nano fabrications. Characterized by unique sub-diffraction optical features like propagation with an ultra-short wavelength and great field enhancement in subwavelength regions, surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs, including surface plasmon waves, bulk plasmon polaritons (BPPs and localized surface plasmons (LSPs, have become potentially promising candidates for nano lithography. In this paper, investigations into plasmonic lithography in the manner of point-to-point writing, interference and imaging were reviewed in detail. Theoretical simulations and experiments have demonstrated plasmonic lithography resolution far beyond the conventional diffraction limit, even with ultraviolet light sources and single exposure performances. Half-pitch resolution as high as 22 nm (~1/17 light wavelength was observed in plasmonic lens imaging lithography. Moreover, not only the overview of state-of-the-art results, but also the physics behind them and future research suggestions are discussed as well.

  3. Scanning near-field lithography with high precision flexure orientation stage control (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Haosen; Wang, Liang


    A new design of an orientation stage for scanning near-field lithography is presented based on flexure hinges. Employing flexure mechanisms in place of rigid-body mechanisms is one of the most promising techniques to efficiently implement high precision motion and avoid problems caused by friction. For near-field scanning lithography with evanescent wave, best resolution can be achieved in contact mode. However, if the mask is fixed on a rigid stage, contact friction will deteriorate the lithography surface. To reduce friction while maintaining good contact between the mask and the substrate, the mask should be held with high lateral stiffness and low torsion stiffness. This design can hold the mask in place during the scanning process and achieve passive alignment. Circular flexure hinges, whose parameters are determined by motion requirements based on Schotborgh's equation, are used as the basic unit of the stage to achieve passive alignment by compensating motions from elastic deformation. A finite-element analysis is performed to verify this property of the stage. With the aid of this stage, 21 nm resolution is achieved in static near-field lithography and 18 nm line-width in scanning near-field lithography.

  4. Preferential immobilization of biomolecules on silicon microstructure array by means of electron beam lithography on organosilane self-assembled monolayer resist (United States)

    Tanii, Takashi; Hosaka, Takumi; Miyake, Takeo; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zako, Tamotsu; Funatsu, Takashi; Ohdomari, Iwao


    A novel fabrication process of silicon microstructure array for preferential immobilization of biomolecules is proposed. We perform electron beam lithography on a self-assembled monolayer (SAM), and achieve high-density silicon patterns terminated with both 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS). The amino-terminated surface produces the site-directed covalent immobilization of DNA inside the pattern, while the hydrophobic surface of the ODS-SAM prevents the adsorption. As a result, we have succeeded in immobilizing the DNA within the amino-modified area. By using this methodology, we demonstrate the miniaturization of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) chip. After the covalent attachment of the amino-modified oligonucleotides to the microstructures, we hybridize the immobilized DNA with the target DNA labeled with a fluorescent dye. The signals from the DNA chip exhibit the specific binding due to the DNA-DNA interaction. These results show the feasibility of this technique for high-density information storage and biochip miniaturization.

  5. Stop Flow Lithography Synthesis and Characterization of Structured Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baah


    Full Text Available In this study, the synthesis of nonspherical composite particles of poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA/SiO2 and PEG-DA/Al2O3 with single or multiple vias and the corresponding inorganic particles of SiO2 and Al2O3 synthesized using the Stop Flow Lithography (SFL method is reported. Precursor suspensions of PEG-DA, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone, and SiO2 or Al2O3 nanoparticles were prepared. The precursor suspension flows through a microfluidic device mounted on an upright microscope and is polymerized in an automated process. A patterned photomask with transparent geometric features masks UV light to synthesize the particles. Composite particles with vias were synthesized and corresponding inorganic SiO2 and Al2O3 particles were obtained through polymer burn-off and sintering of the composites. The synthesis of porous inorganic particles of SiO2 and Al2O3 with vias and overall dimensions in the range of ~35–90 µm was achieved. BET specific surface area measurements for single via inorganic particles were 56–69 m2/g for SiO2 particles and 73–81 m2/g for Al2O3 particles. Surface areas as high as 114 m2/g were measured for multivia cubic SiO2 particles. The findings suggest that, with optimization, the particles should have applications in areas where high surface area is important such as catalysis and sieving.

  6. Applications of nanoimprint lithography/hot embossing: a review (United States)

    Chen, Yifang


    This review concentrates on the applications of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and hot embossing for the fabrications of nanolectronic devices, nanophotonic metamaterials and other nanostructures. Technical challenges and solutions in NIL such as nanofabrication of templates, removal of residual resist, pattern displacement in thermal NIL arising from thermal expansion are first discussed. In the nanofabrication of templates, dry etch in plasma for the formation of multi-step structures and ultra-sharp tip arrays in silicon, nanophotonic chiral structures with high aspect ratio in SiC are demonstrated. A bilayer technique for nondestructive removal of residual resist in thermal NIL is described. This process is successfully applied for the fabrication of T-shape gates and functional high electron mobility transistors. However, pattern displacement intrinsically existing in thermal NIL/hot embossing owing to different thermal expansions in the template and substrate, respectively, limits its further development and scale-up. Low temperature even room temperature NIL (RTNIL) was then proposed on HSQ, trying to eliminate the pattern distortion by avoiding a thermal loop in the imprint. But, considerable pressure needed in RTNIL turned the major attentions to the development of UV-curing NIL in UV-curable monomers at low temperature. A big variety of applications by low-temperature UV-curing NIL in SU-8 are described, including high-aspect-ratio phase gratings, tagging technology by nanobarcode for DNA sequencing, nanofluidic channels, nanophotonic metamaterials and biosensors. Hot embossing, as a parallel technique to NIL, was also developed, and its applications on ferroelectric polymers as well as metals are reviewed. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize that this review is mainly attempted to review the applications of NIL/embossing instead of NIL technique advances.

  7. Clickable Antifouling Polymer Brushes for Polymer Pen Lithography. (United States)

    Bog, Uwe; de Los Santos Pereira, Andres; Mueller, Summer L; Havenridge, Shana; Parrillo, Viviana; Bruns, Michael; Holmes, Andrea E; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Fuchs, Harald; Hirtz, Michael


    Protein-repellent reactive surfaces that promote localized specific binding are highly desirable for applications in the biomedical field. Nonspecific adhesion will compromise the function of bioactive surfaces, leading to ambiguous results of binding assays and negating the binding specificity of patterned cell-adhesive motives. Localized specific binding is often achieved by attaching a linker to the surface, and the other side of the linker is used to bind specifically to a desired functional agent, as e.g. proteins, antibodies, and fluorophores, depending on the function required by the application. We present a protein-repellent polymer brush enabling highly specific covalent surface immobilization of biorecognition elements by strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition click chemistry for selective protein adhesion. The protein-repellent polymer brush is functionalized by highly localized molecular binding sites in the low micrometer range using polymer pen lithography (PPL). Because of the massive parallelization of writing pens, the tunable PPL printed patterns can span over square centimeter areas. The selective binding of the protein streptavidin to these surface sites is demonstrated while the remaining polymer brush surface is resisting nonspecific adsorption without any prior blocking by bovine serum albumin (BSA). In contrast to the widely used BSA blocking, the reactive polymer brushes are able to significantly reduce nonspecific protein adsorption, which is the cause of biofouling. This was achieved for solutions of single proteins as well as complex biological fluids. The remarkable fouling resistance of the polymer brushes has the potential to improve the multiplexing capabilities of protein probes and therefore impact biomedical research and applications.

  8. Investigation of alternate mask absorbers in EUV lithography (United States)

    Burkhardt, Martin


    In order to succeed with such low-k1 lithography at EUV wavelength, we need to be able to print a grating at high contrast similar to ArF immersion tools, where a contrast exceeding 0.95 is achieved routinely. All 2d printing is composed of interference of x and y-directed diffraction orders and high contrast in 2d thus depends on such 1d grating contrast. Any low-k1 imaging will use either dipole or some other sort of extreme off-axis illumination such as cross-quad (cQuad). The two relevant magnitudes for any high contrast are the intrinsic contrast due to a monopole, and the spatial shift of the two images that are generated by the two monopoles making up the dipole exposure. In EUV with current absorbers, high contrast can currently only be achieved using monopole illumination, a technique that does not lend itself to process integration due to removal of wafer side telecentricity and resulting overlay problems at all but preferred pitch. For dipole illumination at low-k1 pitches, we collect only 0th order light and only one 1st diffracted order for each pole. This means that for a dipole at the resolution limit, the final image for horizontal l/s patterns consists of only four incident waves, one TE and one TM wave for each of the poles. In this paper, we screen absorber by n and k values. In the process, we introduce phasor notation in order to gain insight into the behavior of the absorber and try to understand the metrics. We investigate intrinsic contrast and image blur due to monopole image shift.

  9. Hybrid strategies for nanolithography and chemical patterning (United States)

    Srinivasan, Charan

    Remarkable technological advances in photolithography have extended patterning to the sub-50-nm regime. However, because photolithography is a top-down approach, it faces substantial technological and economic challenges in maintaining the downward scaling trends of feature sizes below 30 nm. Concurrently, fundamental research on chemical self-assembly has enabled the path to access molecular length scales. The key to the success of photolithography is its inherent economies of scale, which justify the large capital investment for its implementation. In this thesis research, top-down and bottom-up approaches have been combined synergistically, and these hybrid strategies have been employed in applications that do not have the economies of scale found in semiconductor chip manufacturing. The specific instances of techniques developed here include molecular-ruler lithography and a series of nanoscale chemical patterning methods. Molecular-ruler lithography utilizes self-assembled multilayered films as a sidewall spacer on initial photolithographically patterned gold features (parent) to place a second-generation feature (daughter) in precise proximity to the parent. The parent-daughter separation, which is on the nanometer length scale, is defined by the thickness of the molecular-ruler resist. Analogous to protocols followed in industry to evaluate lithographic performance, electrical test-pad structures were designed to interrogate the nanostructures patterned by molecular-ruler nanolithography, failure modes creating electrical shorts were mapped to each lithographic step, and subsequent lithographic optimization was performed to pattern nanoscale devices with excellent electrical performance. The optimized lithographic processes were applied to generate nanoscale devices such as nanowires and thin-film transistors (TFTs). Metallic nanowires were patterned by depositing a tertiary generation material in the nanogap and surrounding micron-scale regions, and then

  10. Colloidal lithography with electrochemical nickel deposition as a unique method for improved silver decorated nanocavities in SERS applications (United States)

    Petruš, Ondrej; Oriňak, Andrej; Oriňaková, Renáta; Orságová Králová, Zuzana; Múdra, Erika; Kupková, Miriam; Kovaľ, Karol


    Two types of metallised nanocavities (single and hybrid) were fabricated by colloid lithography followed by electrochemical deposition of Ni and subsequently Ag layers. Introductory Ni deposition step iniciates more homogenous decoration of nanocavities with Ag nanoparticles. Silver nanocavity decoration has been so performed with lower nucleation rate and with Ag nanoparticles homogeinity increase. By this, two step Ni and Ag deposition trough polystyrene nanospheres (100, 300, 500, 700, 900 nm), the various Ag surfaces were obtained. Ni layer formation in the first step of deposition enabled more precise controlling of Ag film deposition and thus final Ag surface morphology. Prepared substrates were tested as active surfaces in SERS application. The best SERS signal enhancement was observed at 500 nm Ag nanocavities with normalised thickness Ni layer ∼0.5. Enhancement factor has been established at value 1.078 × 1010; time stability was determined within 13 weeks; charge distribution at nanocavity Ag surfaces as well as reflection spectra were calculated by FDTD method. Newly prepared nanocavity surface can be applied in SERS analysis, predominantly.

  11. Planar self-aligned imprint lithography for coplanar plasmonic nanostructures fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Weiwei


    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a cost-efficient nanopatterning technology because of its promising advantages of high throughput and high resolution. However, accurate multilevel overlay capability of NIL required for integrated circuit manufacturing remains a challenge due to the high cost of achieving mechanical alignment precision. Although self-aligned imprint lithography was developed to avoid the need of alignment for the vertical layered structures, it has limited usage in the manufacture of the coplanar structures, such as integrated plasmonic devices. In this paper, we develop a new process of planar self-alignment imprint lithography (P-SAIL) to fabricate the metallic and dielectric structures on the same plane. P-SAIL transfers the multilevel imprint processes to a single-imprint process which offers higher efficiency and less cost than existing manufacturing methods. Such concept is demonstrated in an example of fabricating planar plasmonic structures consisting of different materials. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. Report of the second workshop on synchrotron radiation sources for x-ray lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, M.Q.; Craft, B.; Williams, G.P. (eds.)


    The reported workshop is part of an effort to implement a US-based x-ray lithography program. Presentations include designs for three storage rings (one superconducting and two conventional) and an overview of a complete lithography program. The background of the effort described, the need for synchrotron radiation, and the international competition in the area are discussed briefly. The technical feasibility of x-ray lithography is discussed, and synchrotron performance specifications and construction options are given, as well as a near-term plan. It is recommended that a prototype synchrotron source be built as soon as possible, and that a research and development plan on critical technologies which could improve cost effectiveness of the synchrotron source be established. It is further recommended that a small number of second generation prototype synchrotrons be distributed to IC manufacturing centers to expedite commercialization. (LEW)

  13. Tunable atomic force microscopy bias lithography on electron beam induced carbonaceous platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kurra


    Full Text Available Tunable local electrochemical and physical modifications on the carbonaceous platforms are achieved using Atomic force microscope (AFM bias lithography. These carbonaceous platforms are produced on Si substrate by the technique called electron beam induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD. EBICD is composed of functionalized carbon species, confirmed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis. AFM bias lithography in tapping mode with a positive tip bias resulted in the nucleation of attoliter water on the EBICD surface under moderate humidity conditions (45%. While the lithography in the contact mode with a negative tip bias caused the electrochemical modifications such as anodic oxidation and etching of the EBICD under moderate (45% and higher (60% humidity conditions respectively. Finally, reversible charge patterns are created on these EBICD surfaces under low (30% humidity conditions and investigated by means of electrostatic force microscopy (EFM.

  14. Integration of multiple theories for the simulation of laser interference lithography processes (United States)

    Lin, Te-Hsun; Yang, Yin-Kuang; Fu, Chien-Chung


    The periodic structure of laser interference lithography (LIL) fabrication is superior to other lithography technologies. In contrast to traditional lithography, LIL has the advantages of being a simple optical system with no mask requirements, low cost, high depth of focus, and large patterning area in a single exposure. Generally, a simulation pattern for the periodic structure is obtained through optical interference prior to its fabrication through LIL. However, the LIL process is complex and combines the fields of optical and polymer materials; thus, a single simulation theory cannot reflect the real situation. Therefore, this research integrates multiple theories, including those of optical interference, standing waves, and photoresist characteristics, to create a mathematical model for the LIL process. The mathematical model can accurately estimate the exposure time and reduce the LIL process duration through trial and error.

  15. CD (compact disc)-based DNA hybridization and detection (United States)

    Jia, Guangyao; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Kim, Jitae; Zoval, Jim V.; Madou, Marc J.; Deo, Sapna K.; Daunert, Sylvia; Peytavi, Regis; Bergeron, Michel G.


    A DNA hybridization and detection unit was developed for a compact disc (CD) platform. The compact disc was used as the fluidic platform for sample and reagent manipulation using centrifugal force. Chambers for reagent storage and conduits for fluidic functions were replicated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using an SU-8 master mold fabricated with a 2-level lithography process we developed specially for the microfluidic structures used in this work. For capture probes, we used self-assembled DNA oligonucleotide monolayers (SAMs) on gold pads patterned on glass slides. The PDMS flow cells were aligned with and sealed against glass slides to form the DNA hybridization detection units. Both an enzymatic-labeled fluorescence technique and a bioluminescent approach were used for hybridization detection. An analytical model was introduced to quantitatively predict the accumulation of hybridized targets. The flow-through hybridization units were tested using DNA samples (25-mers) of different concentrations down to 1 pM and passive assays (no flow), using samples of the same concentrations, were performed as controls. At low concentrations, with the same hybridization time, a significantly higher relative fluorescence intensity was observed in both enzymatic and bioluminescent flow-through assays compared to the corresponding passive hybridization assays. Besides the fast hybridization rate, the CD-based method has the potential for enabling highly automated, multiple and self-contained assays for DNA detection.

  16. Multi-shaped beam: development status and update on lithography results (United States)

    Slodowski, Matthias; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Dorl, Wolfgang; Stolberg, Ines A.


    According to the ITRS [1] photo mask is a significant challenge for the 22nm technology node requirements and beyond. Mask making capability and cost escalation continue to be critical for future lithography progress. On the technological side mask specifications and complexity have increased more quickly than the half-pitch requirements on the wafer designated by the roadmap due to advanced optical proximity correction and double patterning demands. From the economical perspective mask costs have significantly increased each generation, in which mask writing represents a major portion. The availability of a multi-electron-beam lithography system for mask write application is considered a potential solution to overcome these challenges [2, 3]. In this paper an update of the development status of a full-package high-throughput multi electron-beam writer, called Multi Shaped Beam (MSB), will be presented. Lithography performance results, which are most relevant for mask writing applications, will be disclosed. The MSB technology is an evolutionary development of the matured single Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) technology. An arrangement of Multi Deflection Arrays (MDA) allows operation with multiple shaped beams of variable size, which can be deflected and controlled individually [4]. This evolutionary MSB approach is associated with a lower level of risk and a relatively short time to implementation compared to the known revolutionary concepts [3, 5, 6]. Lithography performance is demonstrated through exposed pattern. Further details of the substrate positioning platform performance will be disclosed. It will become apparent that the MSB operational mode enables lithography on the same and higher performance level compared to single VSB and that there are no specific additional lithography challenges existing beside those which have already been addressed [1].

  17. Digital pattern generator: an electron-optical MEMS for massively parallel reflective electron beam lithography (United States)

    Grella, Luca; Carroll, Allen; Murray, Kirk; McCord, Mark A.; Tong, William M.; Brodie, Alan D.; Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Fuge; Kidwingira, Françoise; Kojima, Shinichi; Petric, Paul; Bevis, Christopher F.; Vereecke, Bart; Haspeslagh, Luc; Mane, Anil U.; Elam, Jeffrey W.


    The digital pattern generator (DPG) is a complex electron-optical MEMS that pixelates the electron beam in the reflective electron beam lithography (REBL) e-beam column. It potentially enables massively parallel printing, which could make REBL competitive with optical lithography. The development of the REBL DPG, from the CMOS architecture, through the lenslet modeling and design, to the fabrication of the MEMS device, is described in detail. The imaging and printing results are also shown, which validate the pentode lenslet concept and the fabrication process.

  18. Wavelength selection for multilayer coatings for the lithography generation beyond extreme ultraviolet


    Makhotkin, Igor Alexandrovich; Zoethout, E.; Louis, Eric; Yakunin, A. M.; Muellender, S.; Bijkerk, Frederik


    Reducing the operating wavelength in advanced photolitho- graphy while maintaining the lithography machine’s produc- tivity has been a traditional way to enable improved imaging for the last 20 years. The transition from 13.5 nm to 6.5 to 6.9 nm optical lithography offers a possibility to combine high imaging capabilities using a manageable process win- dow. It is shown that around 6.6 nm wavelength, the high- est reflectance is obtained with multilayer mirrors based on lanthanum as a reflect...

  19. Silicon solar cells textured by low damage RIE with natural lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshanden, P.; Burgers, A.R.; Weeber, A.W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Nositschka, W.A.; Voigt, O. [Institute of Semiconductor Electronics, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)


    RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) with natural lithography has two advantages over RIE with automasking: the process causes less surface damage and the process window is broader. We have systematically explored the parameter range of our process and identified a natural lithography RIE process which causes a minimum amount of surface damage. By using this RIE process and a wet chemical etch of a few nanometers, we reached a gain in short circuit current of 2.9% and no loss in open circuit voltage. This resulted in an absolute efficiency gain of 0.6% for the RIE textured wafers.

  20. High-resolution nanopatterning of biodegradable polylactide by thermal nanoimprint lithography using gas permeable mold (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto


    We report high-resolution (150 nm) nanopatterning of biodegradable polylactide by thermal nanoimprint lithography using dichloromethane as a volatile solvent for improving the liquidity and a porous cyclodextrin-based gas-permeable mold. This study demonstrates the high-resolution patterning of polylactic acid and other non-liquid functional materials with poor fluidity by thermal nanoimprinting. Such a patterning is expected to expand the utility of thermal nanoimprint lithography and fabricate non-liquid functional materials suitable for eco-friendly and biomedical applications.

  1. Fabrication of a Polymer Micro Needle Array by Mask-Dragging X-Ray Lithography and Alignment X-Ray Lithography (United States)

    Li, Yi-Gui; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Liu, Jing-Quan; Sugiyama, Susumu


    Polymer materials such as transparent thermoplastic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) have been of great interest in the research and development of integrated circuits and micro-electromechanical systems due to their relatively low cost and easy process. We fabricated PMMA-based polymer hollow microneedle arrays by mask-dragging and aligning x-ray lithography. Techniques for 3D micromachining by direct lithography using x-rays are developed. These techniques are based on using image projection in which the x-ray is used to illuminate an appropriate gold pattern on a polyimide film mask. The mask is imaged onto the PMMA sample. A pattern with an area of up to 100 × 100mm2 can be fabricated with sub-micron resolution and a highly accurate order of a few microns by using a dragging mask. The fabrication technology has several advantages, such as forming complex 3D micro structures, high throughput and low cost.

  2. Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A few more pieces of the puzzle (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher Neil

    The work described in this dissertation has improved three essential components of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography: exposure tools, photoresist, and metrology. Exposure tools. A field-averaging illumination stage is presented that enables non-uniform, high-coherence sources to be used in applications where highly uniform illumination is required. In an EUV implementation, it is shown that the illuminator achieves a 6.5% peak-to-valley intensity variation across the entire design field of view. In addition, a design for a stand-alone EUV printing tool capable of delivering 15 nm half-pitch sinusoidal fringes with available sources, gratings and nano-positioning stages is presented. It is shown that the proposed design delivers a near zero line-edge-rougness (LER) aerial image, something extremely attractive for the application of resist testing. Photoresist. Two new methods of quantifying the deprotection blur of EUV photoresists are described and experimentally demonstrated. The deprotection blur, LER, and sensitivity parameters of several EUV photoresists are quantified simultaneously as base weight percent, photoacid generator (PAG) weight percent, and post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature are varied. Two surprising results are found: (1) changing base weight percent does not significantly affect the deprotection blur of EUV photoresist, and (2) increasing PAG weight percent can simultaneously reduce LER and E-size in EUV photoresist. The latter result motivates the development of an EUV exposure statistics model that includes the effects of photon shot noise, the PAG spatial distribution, and the changing of the PAG distribution during the exposure. In addition, a shot noise + deprotection blur model is used to show that as deprotection blur becomes large relative to the size of the printed feature, LER reduction from improved counting statistics becomes dominated by an increase in LER due to reduced deprotection contrast. Metrology. Finally, this

  3. Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A few more pieces of the puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christopher N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The work described in this dissertation has improved three essential components of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography: exposure tools, photoresist, and metrology. Exposure tools. A field-averaging illumination stage is presented that enables nonuniform, high-coherence sources to be used in applications where highly uniform illumination is required. In an EUV implementation, it is shown that the illuminator achieves a 6.5% peak-to-valley intensity variation across the entire design field of view. In addition, a design for a stand-alone EUV printing tool capable of delivering 15 nm half-pitch sinusoidal fringes with available sources, gratings and nano-positioning stages is presented. It is shown that the proposed design delivers a near zero line-edge-rougness (LER) aerial image, something extremely attractive for the application of resist testing. Photoresist. Two new methods of quantifying the deprotection blur of EUV photoresists are described and experimentally demonstrated. The deprotection blur, LER, and sensitivity parameters of several EUV photoresists are quantified simultaneously as base weight percent, photoacid generator (PAG) weight percent, and post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature are varied. Two surprising results are found: (1) changing base weight percent does not significantly affect the deprotection blur of EUV photoresist, and (2) increasing PAG weight percent can simultaneously reduce LER and E-size in EUV photoresist. The latter result motivates the development of an EUV exposure statistics model that includes the effects of photon shot noise, the PAG spatial distribution, and the changing of the PAG distribution during the exposure. In addition, a shot noise + deprotection blur model is used to show that as deprotection blur becomes large relative to the size of the printed feature, LER reduction from improved counting statistics becomes dominated by an increase in LER due to reduced deprotection contrast. Metrology. Finally, this

  4. High gain hybrid graphene-organic semiconductor phototransistors. (United States)

    Huisman, Everardus H; Shulga, Artem G; Zomer, Paul J; Tombros, Nikolaos; Bartesaghi, Davide; Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Loi, Maria A; Koster, L Jan Anton; van Wees, Bart J


    Hybrid phototransistors of graphene and the organic semiconductor poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) are presented. Two types of phototransistors are demonstrated with a charge carrier transit time that differs by more than 6 orders of magnitude. High transit time devices are fabricated using a photoresist-free recipe to create large-area graphene transistors made out of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. Low transit time devices are fabricated out of mechanically exfoliated graphene on top of mechanically exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride using standard e-beam lithography. Responsivities exceeding 10(5) A/W are obtained for the low transit time devices.

  5. Imprint lithography provides topographical nanocues to guide cell growth in primary cortical cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Sijia; Lüttge, Regina


    In this paper, we describe a technology platform to study the effect of nanocues on the cell growth direction in primary cortical cell culture. Topographical cues to cells are provided using nanoscale features created by Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography, coated with polyethylenimine. We

  6. Advanced electric-field scanning probe lithography on molecular resist using active cantilever (United States)

    Kaestner, Marcus; Aydogan, Cemal; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Ahmad, Ahmad; Angelov, Tihomir; Reum, Alexander; Ishchuk, Valentyn; Krivoshapkina, Yana; Hofer, Manuel; Lenk, Steve; Atanasov, Ivaylo; Holz, Mathias; Rangelow, Ivo W.


    The routine "on demand" fabrication of features smaller than 10 nm opens up new possibilities for the realization of many devices. Driven by the thermally actuated piezoresistive cantilever technology, we have developed a prototype of a scanning probe lithography (SPL) platform which is able to image, inspect, align, and pattern features down to the single digit nanoregime. Here, we present examples of practical applications of the previously published electric-field based current-controlled scanning probe lithography. In particular, individual patterning tests are carried out on calixarene by using our developed table-top SPL system. We have demonstrated the application of a step-and-repeat SPL method including optical as well as atomic force microscopy-based navigation and alignment. The closed-loop lithography scheme was applied to sequentially write positive and negative tone features. Due to the integrated unique combination of read-write cycling, each single feature is aligned separately with the highest precision and inspected after patterning. This routine was applied to create a pattern step by step. Finally, we have demonstrated the patterning over larger areas, over existing topography, and the practical applicability of the SPL processes for lithography down to 13-nm pitch patterns. To enhance the throughput capability variable beam diameter electric field, current-controlled SPL is briefly discussed.

  7. Controlling bridging and pinching with pixel-based mask for inverse lithography (United States)

    Kobelkov, Sergey; Tritchkov, Alexander; Han, JiWan


    Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) has become a viable computational lithography candidate in recent years as it can produce mask output that results in process latitude and CD control in the fab that is hard to match with conventional OPC/SRAF insertion approaches. An approach to solving the inverse lithography problem as a nonlinear, constrained minimization problem over a domain mask pixels was suggested in the paper by Y. Granik "Fast pixel-based mask optimization for inverse lithography" in 2006. The present paper extends this method to satisfy bridging and pinching constraints imposed on print contours. Namely, there are suggested objective functions expressing penalty for constraints violations, and their minimization with gradient descent methods is considered. This approach has been tested with an ILT-based Local Printability Enhancement (LPTM) tool in an automated flow to eliminate hotspots that can be present on the full chip after conventional SRAF placement/OPC and has been applied in 14nm, 10nm node production, single and multiple-patterning flows.

  8. Lithography focus/exposure control and corrections to improve CDU at post etch step (United States)

    Kim, Young Ki; Yelverton, Mark; Tristan, John; Lee, Joungchel; Gutjahr, Karsten; Hsu, Ching-Hsiang; Wei, Hong; Wang, Lester; Li, Chen; Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, Woong Jae; Kim, Jeong Soo; Ramanathan, Vidya; Yap, LipKong; Gao, Jie; Karur-Shanmugam, Ram; Golotsvan, Anna; Herrera, Pedro; Huang, Kevin; Pierson, Bill


    As leading edge lithography moves to advanced nodes in high-mix, high-volume manufacturing environment, automated control of critical dimension (CD) within wafer has become a requirement. Current control methods to improve CD uniformity (CDU) generally rely upon the use of field by field exposure corrections via factory automation or through scanner sub-recipe. Such CDU control methods are limited to lithography step and cannot be extended to etch step. In this paper, a new method to improve CDU at post etch step by optimizing exposure at lithography step is introduced. This new solution utilizes GLOBALFOUNDRIES' factory automation system and KLA-Tencor's K-T Analyzer as the infrastructure to calculate and feed the necessary field by field level exposure corrections back to scanner, so as to achieve the optimal CDU at post etch step. CD at post lithography and post etch steps are measured by scatterometry metrology tools respectively and are used by K-T Analyzer as the input for correction calculations. This paper will explain in detail the philosophy as well as the methodology behind this novel CDU control solution. In addition, applications and use cases will be reviewed to demonstrate the capability and potential of this solution. The feasibility of adopting this solution in high-mix, high-volume manufacturing environment will be discussed as well.

  9. Wafer-Scale Nanopillars Derived from Block Copolymer Lithography for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wu, Kaiyu; Rindzevicius, Tomas


    We report a novel nanofabrication process via block copolymer lithography using solvent vapor annealing. The nanolithography process is facile and scalable, enabling fabrication of highly ordered periodic patterns over entire wafers as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Di...

  10. Large area two-dimensional silicon photonic crystals for infrared light fabricated with laser interference lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodan, L.G.; Euser, T.G.; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Bostan, C.G.; de Ridder, R.M.; Beigang, R.; Boller, Klaus J.; Kuipers, L.

    We report on the production of large-area 2D photonic crystals from high-index material with laser interference lithography (LIL). A new image reversal photoresist is used in combination with an anti-reflection coating to suppress undesired reflections. The photonic crystals possess a cubic pattern

  11. Resist and Exposure Processes for Sub-10-nm Electron and Ion Beam Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidorkin, V.A.


    The research work described in this thesis deals with studying the ultimate resolution capabilities of electron and ion beam lithography (EBL and IBL respectively) with a focus on resist and exposure processes. The aim of this research was to enlarge knowledge and improve methods on the formation of

  12. Silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp fabrication by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    The fabrication of silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp employing edge lithography in combination with silicon nitride deposition is presented. The fabrication process is based on conventional photolithography an weg etching methods. Nanoridges with width dimension of sub-20 nm were fabricated by edge

  13. Extreme UV lithography: A new laser plasma target concept and fabrication of multilayer reflection masks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L. A.; E. Louis,; Voorma, H. J.; Koster, N. B.; Bruineman, C.; Bastiaensen, Rkfj; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; de Groot, L. E. M.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Zijlstra, T.; Platonov, Y. Y.; Salashchenko, N. N.


    Results are reported on the development of a laser plasma source and the fabrication of multilayer reflection masks for extreme ultra-violet lithography (EUVL). A new concept of a target for a laser plasma source is presented including experimental evidence of elimination of macro debris particles

  14. Topas Based Lab-on-a-chip Microsystems Fabricated by Thermal Nanoimprint Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Hansen, Michael Søren; Özkapici, V.


    We, present a one-step technology for fabrication of Topas-based lab-on-a-chip (LOC) microsysterris by the use of thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The technology is demonstrated by the fabrication of two working devices: a particle separator and a LOC with integrated optics for absorbance...

  15. Mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography for low surface energy materials of teflon, graphene, and gold. (United States)

    Kim, Bong Hoon; Lee, Duck Hyun; Kim, Ju Young; Shin, Dong Ok; Jeong, Hu Young; Hong, Seonki; Yun, Je Moon; Koo, Chong Min; Lee, Haeshin; Kim, Sang Ouk


    Mussel-inspired interfacial engineering is synergistically integrated with block copolymer (BCP) lithography for the surface nanopatterning of low surface energy substrate materials, including, Teflon, graphene, and gold. The image shows the Teflon nanowires and their excellent superhydrophobicity. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Sub-10 nm structures written in ultra-thin HSQ resist layers, using Electron Beam Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, A.E.; Van der Krogt, M.; Hagen, C.W.


    Isolated dots and lines with 6 nm width were written in 20 nm thick Hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) layers on silicon substrates, using 100 keV electron beam lithography. The main factors that might limit the resolution, i.e. beam size, writing strategy, resist material, electron dose, development

  17. Nanolithography by scanning probes on calixarene molecular glass resist using mix-and-match lithography (United States)

    Kaestner, Marcus; Hofer, Manuel; Rangelow, Ivo W.


    Going "beyond the CMOS information-processing era," taking advantage of quantum effects occurring at sub-10-nm level, requires novel device concepts and associated fabrication technologies able to produce promising features at acceptable cost levels. Herein, the challenge affecting the lithographic technologies comprises the marriage of down-scaling the device-relevant feature size towards single-nanometer resolution with a simultaneous increase of the throughput capabilities. Mix-and-match lithographic strategies are one promising path to break through this trade-off. Proof-of-concept combining electron beam lithography (EBL) with the outstanding capabilities of closed-loop electric field current-controlled scanning probe nanolithography (SPL) is demonstrated. This combination, whereby also extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is possible instead of EBL, enables more: improved patterning resolution and reproducibility in combination with excellent overlay and placement accuracy. Furthermore, the symbiosis between EBL (EUVL) and SPL expands the process window of EBL (EUVL) beyond the state of the art, allowing SPL-based pre- and post-patterning of EBL (EUVL) written features at critical dimension levels with scanning probe microscopy-based pattern overlay alignment capability. Moreover, we are able to modify the EBL (EUVL) pattern even after the development step. The ultra-high resolution mix-and-match lithography experiments are performed on the molecular glass resist calixarene using a Gaussian e-beam lithography system operating at 10 keV and a home-developed SPL setup.

  18. Mask writing time explosion and its effect on CD control in e-beam lithography (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Choi, Jin; Min, Seong Jun; Kim, Hee Bom; Kim, Byung Gook; Woo, Sang-Gyun; Cho, Han-Ku


    As semiconductor features shrink in size and pitch, the extreme control of CD uniformity and MTT is needed for mask fabrication with e-beam lithography. And because of huge shot density of data, the writing time of e-beam lithography for mask fabrication will be increased rapidly in future design node. The beam drift caused by charging of optic system and current density drift can affect the beam size, position and exposure dose stability. From the empirical data, those are the function of writing time. Although e-beam lithography tool has the correction function which can be applied during writing, there are remained errors after correction which result in CD uniformity error. According to the writing time increasing, the residual error of correction will be more important and give the limit of CD uniformity and MTT. In this study, we study the beam size and exposure dose error as a function of time. Those are mainly caused by charging and current density drift. And we present the predicted writing time of e-beam lithography below 32nm node and estimate its effect on CD control error. From the relation between writing time and CD control error, we achieve the limit of CD uniformity with e-beam mask writer. And we suggest the method to achieve required CD uniformity at 22nm node and beyond.

  19. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server


    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  20. Hybrid virtues


    Prijić – Samaržija, Snježana


    The controversies about cases such us of epistemic injustice, epistemic paternalism and epistocracy indicate that knowledge needs to be considered as socially situated phenomena and, consequently, that epistemic attitudes, social practices and institutions require evaluation from both an epistemic and an ethical/political perspective. The project titled as ethics of knowing and, especially, promising concept of hybrid virtues or corresponding hybrid view provides a desirable framework for the...

  1. Hybrid intermediaries


    Cetorelli, Nicola


    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  2. Material Transport and Synthesis by Cantilever-free Scanning Probe Lithography (United States)

    Liao, Xing

    Reliably synthesizing and transporting materials in nanoscale is the key question in many fields of nanotechnology. Cantilever-free scanning probe lithography, by replacing fragile and costly cantilevers with a robust and low cost elastomeric structure, fundamentally solved the low-throughput nature of scanning probe lithography, which has great potential to be a powerful and point-of-use tool for high throughput synthesis of various kinds of nanomaterials. Two nanolithographic methods, polymer pen lithography (PPL) and beam pen lithography (BPL), have been developed based on the cantilever-free architecture to directly deliver materials and transfer energy to substrates, respectively. The first portion of my thesis, including chapter two and chapter three, addresses major challenges remaining in the cantilever-free scanning probe lithographic techniques. Chapter two details the role of contact force in polymer pen lithography. A geometric model was developed to quantitatively explain the relationship between the z-piezo extension, the contact force and the resulted feature size. With such a model, force can be used as the in-situ feedback during the patterning and a new method for leveling the pen arrays was developed, which utilizes the total force between the pen arrays and the surface to achieve leveling with a tilt of less than 0.004°. In chapter three, massively multiplexed near-field photolithography has been demonstrated by combining BPL with a batch method to fabricate nanometer scale apertures in parallel fashion and a strategy to individually actuation of each pen in the pen array are discussed. This transformative combination enables one to writing arbitrary patterns composed of diffraction-unlimited features over square centimeter areas that are in registry with existing patterns and nanostructures, creating a unified tool for constructing and studying nanomaterials. The second portion of this thesis focuses on applications of cantilever-free scanning

  3. Enhancement of superconductivity in NbN nanowires by negative electron-beam lithography with positive resist (United States)

    Charaev, I.; Silbernagel, T.; Bachowsky, B.; Kuzmin, A.; Doerner, S.; Ilin, K.; Semenov, A.; Roditchev, D.; Vodolazov, D. Yu.; Siegel, M.


    We performed comparative experimental investigation of superconducting NbN nanowires which were prepared by means of positive- and negative electron-beam lithography with the same positive tone Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) resist. We show that nanowires with a thickness 4.9 nm and widths less than 100 nm demonstrate at 4.2 K higher critical temperature and higher density of critical and retrapping currents when they are prepared by negative lithography. Also the ratio of the experimental critical current to the depairing critical current is larger for nanowires prepared by negative lithography. We associate the observed enhancement of superconducting properties with the difference in the degree of damage that nanowire edges sustain in the lithographic process. A whole range of advantages which is offered by the negative lithography with positive PMMA resist ensures high potential of this technology for improving the performance metrics of superconducting nanowire singe-photon detectors.

  4. Deep lithography with protons Modelling and predicting the performances of a novel fabrication technology for micro-optical components

    CERN Document Server

    Volckaerts, B; Veretennicoff, I; Thienpont, H


    We developed a simulation package that predicts 3D-dose distributions in proton irradiated poly(methylmetacrylate) samples considering primary energy transfer and scattering phenomena. In this paper, we apply this code to predict the surface flatness and maximum thickness of micro-optical and mechanical structures fabricated with deep lithography with protons (DLP). We compare these simulation results with experimental data and highlight the fundamental differences between DLP and deep X-ray lithography.

  5. Fast fabrication of curved microlens array using DMD-based lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Zhang


    Full Text Available Curved microlens array is the core element of the biologically inspired artificial compound eye. Many existing fabrication processes remain expensive and complicated, which limits a broad range of application of the artificial compound eye. In this paper, we report a fast fabrication method for curved microlens array by using DMD-based maskless lithography. When a three-dimensional (3D target curved profile is projected into a two-dimensional (2D mask, arbitrary curved microlens array can be flexibly and efficiently obtained by utilizing DMD-based lithography. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, a curved PDMS microlens array with 90 micro lenslets has been fabricated. The physical and optical characteristics of the fabricated microlens array suggest that this method is potentially suitable for applications in artificial compound eye.

  6. Surface energy-tunable iso decyl acrylate based molds for low pressure-nanoimprint lithography (United States)

    Tak, Hyowon; Tahk, Dongha; Jeong, Chanho; Lee, Sori; Kim, Tae-il


    We presented surface energy-tunable nanoscale molds for unconventional lithography. The mold is highly robust, transparent, has a minimized haze, does not contain additives, and is a non-fluorinated isodecyl acrylate and trimethylolpropane triacrylate based polymer. By changing the mixing ratio of the polymer components, the cross-linking density, mechanical modulus, and surface energy (crucial factors in low pressure ((1-2) × 105 N m-2) low pressure-nanoimprint lithography (LP-NIL)), can be controlled. To verify these properties of the molds, we also characterized the surface energy by measuring the contact angles and calculating the work of adhesion among the wafer, polymer film, and mold for successful demolding in nanoscale structures. Moreover, the molds showed high optical clarity and precisely tunable mechanical and surface properties, capable of replicating sub-100 nm patterns by thermal LP-NIL and UV-NIL.

  7. Custom-modified three-dimensional periodic microstructures by pattern-integrated interference lithography. (United States)

    Leibovici, Matthieu C R; Gaylord, Thomas K


    By combining interference lithography and projection photolithography concurrently, pattern-integrated interference lithography (PIIL) enables the wafer-scale, rapid, and single-exposure fabrication of multidimensional periodic microstructures that integrate arbitrary functional elements. To date, two-dimensional PIIL has been simulated and experimentally demonstrated. In this paper, we report new simulated results of PIIL exposures for various custom-modified three-dimensional (3D) periodic structures. These results were generated using custom PIIL comprehensive vector modeling. Simulations include mask-integrated and mask-shaped 3D periodic arrangements as well as microcavities on top of or fully embedded within 3D periodic structures. These results indicate PIIL is a viable method for making versatile 3D periodic microstructures.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Torres, A.; Torres, R.; Lam, P.


    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  9. Photomask fabrication of focusing diffractive optical elements using electron-beam lithography (United States)

    Babin, Sergey V.; Danilov, Victor A.


    The electron beam lithography application to diffractive optical elements topology generation is examined. The formula for the estimation of exposure data volume for variable shaped electron beam lithography is presented as a function of diffractive optical element parameters and approximation accuracy. Special software was developed to prepare exposure data for diffractive optical elements fabrication. Diffractive optical elements with an artificial refractive index were manufactured with a feature size much less than the wavelength. Design and experimental results on photomasks fabrication are presented for an optical element focusing irradiation into a ring with ordered parameters. The photomask set was manufactured for reflecting optical element focusing high power CO2 laser beam into two points with required parameters for laser welding.

  10. Data preparation and fabrication of DOE using electron-beam lithography (United States)

    Babin, S. V.; Danilov, V. A.


    The application of electron-beam lithography to the generation of diffractive optical elements topology is examined. The formula for the estimation of exposure data volume for variable-shaped electron-beam lithography is presented as a function of diffractive optical element parameters and approximation accuracy. A special software dedicated to preparing exposure data for fabrication of diffractive optical elements is developed. Diffractive optical elements with an artificial refractive index are manufactured with a feature size much less than the wavelength. Design and experimental results on photomasks fabrication for an optical element focusing radiation into a ring with pregiven parameters are presented. The photomask set is manufactured for a reflecting optical element focusing the high power CO 2 laser beam into two points with required parameters for laser welding.

  11. Improved image quality of digital lithography using modified particle swarm optimization algorithm (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Shi, ZhaoJun; Li, Qishen


    Image distortion problem is key issue in DMD digital lithography system, in this paper, quality optimization algorithm of digital lithography based on improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed. The fidelity is adopted as the fitness function. The pixels in the mask pattern are used as particles, and then optimization is implemented by updating the velocities and positions of these particles. Two different graphs are used to verify the method, image quality optimization of the standard particle swarm optimization algorithm and the steepest descent gradient descent algorithm, the pattern errors are reduced by 95.48%, 91.95% and 92.78%, 87.28%, respectively. The quality of image is improved, and the convergence speed is faster.

  12. Three-Dimensional Organic Microlasers with Low Lasing Thresholds Fabricated by Multiphoton Lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Vincent W; Lafargue, Clement; Mansfield, Eric S; Yom, Jeannie; Johnstone, Luke; Hales, Joel M; Bittner, Stefan; Charpignon, Severin; Ulbricht, David; Lautru, Joseph; Denisyuk, Igor; Zyss, Joseph; Perry, Joseph W; Lebental, Melanie


    Cuboid-shaped organic microcavities containing a pyrromethene laser dye and supported upon a photonic crystal have been investigated as an approach to reducing the lasing threshold of the cavities. Multiphoton lithography facilitated fabrication of the cuboid cavities directly on the substrate or on the decoupling structure, while similar structures were fabricated on the substrate by UV lithography for comparison. Significant reduction of the lasing threshold by up to a factor of 4 has been observed for cavities supported by the photonic crystal relative to those fabricated on the substrate. The lasing mode spectra of the cuboid microresonators provide strong evidence showing that the lasing modes are localized in the horizontal plane, with the shape of an inscribed diamond.

  13. Fabrication of Spin-Transfer Nano-Oscillator by Colloidal Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fang


    Full Text Available We fabricate nanoscale spin-transfer oscillators (STOs by utilizing colloidal nanoparticles as a lithographic mask. By this approach, high quality STO devices can be fabricated, and as an example the fabricated STO devices using MgO magnetic tunnel junction as the basic cell exhibit current-induced microwave emission with a large frequency tunability of 0.22 GHz/mA. Compared to the conventional approaches that involve a step of defining nanoscale elements by means of electron beam lithography, which is not readily available for many groups, our strategy for STO fabrication does not require the sophisticated equipment (~ million dollars per unit and expensive lithography resist, while being cost-effective and easy to use in laboratory level. This will accelerate efforts to implement STO into on-chip integrated high-radio frequency applications.

  14. Development of compact synchrotron light source LUNA for x-ray lithography (United States)

    Takahashi, M.; Mandai, S.; Hoshi, Y.; Kohno, Y.


    A compact synchrotron light source LUNA has been developed by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI), especially for x-ray lithography. It consists of a 45-MeV linac as an electron injector and an 800-MeV synchrotron. The peak wavelength of synchrotron radiation is around 10 Å. The installation of LUNA was completed in April 1989 at the Tsuchiura Facility of IHI. The synchrotron radiation was first observed in December 1989. A stored beam current of 50 mA at 800 MeV and a lifetime over 1 h have been achieved. At present, experiments are still continuing to increase the stored current and the lifetime. X-ray lithography testing is scheduled to begin in a clean room in this facility. This paper describes the outline of LUNA and the present status.

  15. Stencil nano lithography based on a nanoscale polymer shadow mask: towards organic nanoelectronics. (United States)

    Yun, Hoyeol; Kim, Sangwook; Kim, Hakseong; Lee, Junghyun; McAllister, Kirstie; Kim, Junhyung; Pyo, Sengmoon; Sung Kim, Jun; Campbell, Eleanor E B; Hyoung Lee, Wi; Wook Lee, Sang


    A stencil lithography technique has been developed to fabricate organic-material-based electronic devices with sub-micron resolution. Suspended polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) membranes were used as shadow masks for defining organic channels and top electrodes. Arrays of pentacene field effect transistors (FETs) with various channel lengths from 50 μm down to 500 nm were successfully produced from the same batch using this technique. Electrical transport measurements showed that the electrical contacts of all devices were stable and the normalized contact resistances were much lower than previously studied organic FETs. Scaling effects, originating from the bulk space charge current, were investigated by analyzing the channel-length-dependent mobility and hysteresis behaviors. This novel lithography method provides a reliable means for studying the fundamental transport properties of organic materials at the nanoscale as well as enabling potential applications requiring the fabrication of integrated organic nanoelectronic devices.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, R.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Lam, P.


    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  17. Gradient-based optimization for efficient exposure planning in maskless lithography (United States)

    Ghalehbeygi, Omid Tayefeh; Wills, Adrian G.; Routley, Ben S.; Fleming, Andrew J.


    Scanning laser lithography is a maskless method for exposing photoresist during semiconductor manufacturing. In this method, the energy of a focused beam is controlled while scanning the beam or substrate. With a positive photoresist material, areas that receive an exposure dosage over the threshold energy are dissolved during development. The surface dosage is related to the exposure profile by a convolution and nonlinear function, so the optimal exposure profile is nontrivial. A gradient-based optimization method for determining an optimal exposure profile, given the desired pattern and models of the beam profile and photochemistry, is described. This approach is more numerically efficient than optimal barrier-function-based methods but provides near-identical results. This is demonstrated through simulation and experimental lithography.

  18. Monolayer graphene-insulator-semiconductor emitter for large-area electron lithography (United States)

    Kirley, Matthew P.; Aloui, Tanouir; Glass, Jeffrey T.


    The rapid adoption of nanotechnology in fields as varied as semiconductors, energy, and medicine requires the continual improvement of nanopatterning tools. Lithography is central to this evolving nanotechnology landscape, but current production systems are subject to high costs, low throughput, or low resolution. Herein, we present a solution to these problems with the use of monolayer graphene in a graphene-insulator-semiconductor (GIS) electron emitter device for large-area electron lithography. Our GIS device displayed high emission efficiency (up to 13%) and transferred large patterns (500 × 500 μm) with high fidelity (<50% spread). The performance of our device demonstrates a feasible path to dramatic improvements in lithographic patterning systems, enabling continued progress in existing industries and opening opportunities in nanomanufacturing.

  19. Integration of organic based Schottly junctions into crossbar arrays by standard UV lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsia, E.; Tallarida, G.; Kutrzeba-Kotowska, B.


    organic based Schottky diodes in a crossbar architecture, by standard UV lithography. The proposed integration route features a limited number of process steps and prevents the exposure of the active materials to UV. This approach was developed using poly(3-hexylthiophene) as a model compound...... and was successfully applied to different organic semiconductors. The electrical characteristics of the as prepared junctions reveal the successful patterning and demonstrate the compatibility of the process sequence steps with the organic materials....

  20. On the similarities between micro/nano lithography and topology optimization projection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Miche; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Schevenels, Mattias


    The aim of this paper is to incorporate a model for micro/nano lithography production processes in topology optimization. The production process turns out to provide a physical analogy for projection filters in topology optimization. Blueprints supplied by the designers cannot be directly used...... projection filter can be used to account for uncertainties due to lithographic production processes which results in manufacturable blueprint designs and eliminates the need for subsequent corrections....

  1. Improvement of KrF contact layer by inverse lithography technology with assist feature (United States)

    Jun, Sungho; Shim, Yeon-Ah; Choi, Jaeyoung; Choi, Kwangsun; Han, Jae-won; Wang, Kechang; McCarthy, John; Xiao, Guangming; Dai, Grace; Son, DongHwan; Zhou, Xin; Cecil, Tom; Kim, David; Baik, KiHo


    Patterning of contact holes using KrF lithography system is one of the most challenging tasks for the sub-90nm technology node,. Contact hole patterns can be printed with a KrF lithography system using Off-Axis Illumination (OAI) such as Quasar or Quadrupole. However, such a source usually offers poor image contrast and poor depth of focus (DOF), especially for isolated contact holes. In addition to image contrast and DOF, circularity of hole shape is also an important parameter for device performance. Sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) can be used to improve the image contrast, DOF and circularity for isolated contact holes. Application of SRAFs, modifies the intensity profile of isolated features to be more like dense ones, improving the focal response of the isolated feature. The insertion of SRAFs in a contact design is most commonly done using rule-based scripting, where the initial rules for configuring the SRAFs are derived using a simulation tool to determining the distance of assist features to main feature, and the size and number of assist features to be used. However in the case of random contact holes, rule-based SRAF placement is a nearly impossible task. To address this problem, an inverse lithography technique was successfully used to treat random contact holes. The impact of SRAF configuration on pattern profile, especially circularity and process margin, is demonstrated. It is also shown that the experimental data are easily predicted by calibrating aerial image simulation results. Finally, a methodology for optimizing SRAF rules using inverse lithography technology is described.

  2. Plasmonic V-groove waveguides with Bragg grating filters via nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron L. C.; Desiatov, Boris; Goykmann, Ilya


    We demonstrate spectral filtering with state-of-the-art Bragg gratings in plasmonic V-groove waveguides fabricated by wafer scale processing based on nanoimprint lithography. Transmission spectra of the devices having 16 grating periods exhibit spectral rejection of the channel plasmon polaritons...... with effective refractive index values calculated by finite element simulations in COMSOL. The results represent advancement towards the implementation of plasmonic V-grooves with greater functional complexity and mass-production compatibility....

  3. In-situ Mueller matrix polarimetry of projection lenses for 193-nm lithography (United States)

    Nomura, Hiroshi; Higashikawa, Iwao


    For immersion lithography with aggressive polarization illumination settings, it is important to newly construct two systems for diagnosing lithography tools; Stokes polarimetry of illumination and Mueller matrix polarimetry of projection lenses. At the SPIE conference on Optical Microlithography XXI in 2008, the authors had already reported on the former Stokes polarimetry. True polarization states of several illumination settings emerged. On the other hand, the latter Mueller matrix polarimetry is thought more complicated than the Stokes polarimetry. Therefore, the Mueller matrix polarimetry is reported separating into two papers. A theoretical approach to realizing the polarimetry has reported at the SPIE conference on Lithography Asia 2009. The test mask for the Mueller matrix polarimetry also comprises thin-plate polarizers and wide-view-angle quarter-waveplates, both which are developed by collaboration with Kogakugiken Corporation in Japan. Mueller matrices of the sample projecting optics are reconstructed by sixteen measurements of Stokes parameters of a light ray that reaches the wafer plane though the test mask and the projecting optics. The Stokes parameters are measured with a polarization measurement system already equipped on a side stage lying at the wafer plane. It took about seven hours to capture all the images at five image heights within the static exposure field. Stokes parameters are automatically calculated from the images and outputted from the lithography tools as a text file, and Mueller matrices are calculated by homebuilt software in a short time. All the images were captured under the identical illumination condition that the tool manufacturer calls "un-polarization".

  4. Multiphoton lithography of nanocrystalline platinum and palladium for site-specific catalysis in 3D microenvironments. (United States)

    Zarzar, Lauren D; Swartzentruber, B S; Harper, Jason C; Dunphy, Darren R; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kaehr, Bryan


    Integration of catalytic nanostructured platinum and palladium within 3D microscale structures or fluidic environments is important for systems ranging from micropumps to microfluidic chemical reactors and energy converters. We report a straightforward procedure to fabricate microscale patterns of nanocrystalline platinum and palladium using multiphoton lithography. These materials display excellent catalytic, electrical, and electrochemical properties, and we demonstrate high-resolution integration of catalysts within 3D defined microenvironments to generate directed autonomous particle and fluid transport. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Guided immobilisation of single gold nanoparticles by chemical electron beam lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Schaal


    Full Text Available The fabrication of periodic arrays of single metal nanoparticles is of great current interest. In this paper we present a straight-forward three-step procedure based on chemical electron beam lithography, which is capable of producing such arrays with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Preformed 6 nm AuNPs are immobilised on thiol patterns with a pitch of 100 nm by guided self-assembly. Afterwards, these arrays are characterised by using atomic force microscopy.

  6. Plasmonic Nanostructures Prepared by Soft UV Nanoimprint Lithography and Their Application in Biological Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Barbillon


    Full Text Available We prepared high-density plasmonic nanostructures on a glass substrate. By using soft UV nanoimprint lithography, gold nanodisks with a diameter of 65 nm were obtained on an area of 1 mm2. We tested these gold nanosensors in the biotin/streptavidin system to study their selectivity and sensitivity of detection. The prepared gold nanodisks could detect streptavidin at 10 pM.

  7. Playing with small objects Nano lithography and manipulation A.K. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Playing with small objects Nano lithography and manipulation A.K.Raychaudhuri Department of Physics IISc · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Atomic Force Microscopy · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18.

  8. REBL: design progress toward 16 nm half-pitch maskless projection electron beam lithography (United States)

    McCord, Mark A.; Petric, Paul; Ummethala, Upendra; Carroll, Allen; Kojima, Shinichi; Grella, Luca; Shriyan, Sameet; Rettner, Charles T.; Bevis, Chris F.


    REBL (Reflective Electron Beam Lithography) is a novel concept for high speed maskless projection electron beam lithography. Originally targeting 45 nm HP (half pitch) under a DARPA funded contract, we are now working on optimizing the optics and architecture for the commercial silicon integrated circuit fabrication market at the equivalent of 16 nm HP. The shift to smaller features requires innovation in most major subsystems of the tool, including optics, stage, and metrology. We also require better simulation and understanding of the exposure process. In order to meet blur requirements for 16 nm lithography, we are both shrinking the pixel size and reducing the beam current. Throughput will be maintained by increasing the number of columns as well as other design optimizations. In consequence, the maximum stage speed required to meet wafer throughput targets at 16 nm will be much less than originally planned for at 45 nm. As a result, we are changing the stage architecture from a rotary design to a linear design that can still meet the throughput requirements but with more conventional technology that entails less technical risk. The linear concept also allows for simplifications in the datapath, primarily from being able to reuse pattern data across dies and columns. Finally, we are now able to demonstrate working dynamic pattern generator (DPG) chips, CMOS chips with microfabricated lenslets on top to prevent crosstalk between pixels.

  9. Optimizing a synchrotron based x-ray lithography system for IC manufacturing (United States)

    Kovacs, Stephen; Speiser, Kenneth; Thaw, Winston; Heese, Richard N.


    The electron storage ring is a realistic solution as a radiation source for production grade, industrial X-ray lithography system. Today several large scale plans are in motion to design and implement synchrotron storage rings of different types for this purpose in the USA and abroad. Most of the scientific and technological problems related to the physics, design and manufacturing engineering, and commissioning of these systems for microlithography have been resolved or are under extensive study. However, investigation on issues connected to application of Synchrotron Orbit Radiation (SOR ) in chip production environment has been somewhat neglected. In this paper we have filled this gap pointing out direct effects of some basic synchrotron design parameters and associated subsystems (injector, X-ray beam line) on the operation and cost of lithography in production. The following factors were considered: synchrotron configuration, injection energy, beam intensity variability, number of beam lines and wafer exposure concept. A cost model has been worked out and applied to three different X-ray Lithography Source (XLS) systems. The results of these applications are compared and conclusions drawn.

  10. Biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite scaffolds processed by lithography-based additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Tesavibul, Passakorn; Chantaweroad, Surapol; Laohaprapanon, Apinya; Channasanon, Somruethai; Uppanan, Paweena; Tanodekaew, Siriporn; Chalermkarnnon, Prasert; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai


    The fabrication of hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications by using lithography-based additive manufacturing techniques has been introduced due to the abilities to control porous structures with suitable resolutions. In this research, the use of hydroxyapatite cellular structures, which are processed by lithography-based additive manufacturing machine, as a bone tissue engineering scaffold was investigated. The utilization of digital light processing system for additive manufacturing machine in laboratory scale was performed in order to fabricate the hydroxyapatite scaffold, of which biocompatibilities were eventually evaluated by direct contact and cell-culturing tests. In addition, the density and compressive strength of the scaffolds were also characterized. The results show that the hydroxyapatite scaffold at 77% of porosity with 91% of theoretical density and 0.36 MPa of the compressive strength are able to be processed. In comparison with a conventionally sintered hydroxyapatite, the scaffold did not present any cytotoxic signs while the viability of cells at 95.1% was reported. After 14 days of cell-culturing tests, the scaffold was able to be attached by pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) leading to cell proliferation and differentiation. The hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone tissue engineering was able to be processed by the lithography-based additive manufacturing machine while the biocompatibilities were also confirmed.

  11. High-resolution and large-area nanoparticle arrays using EUV interference lithography. (United States)

    Karim, Waiz; Tschupp, Simon Andreas; Oezaslan, Mehtap; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gobrecht, Jens; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Ekinci, Yasin


    Well-defined model systems are needed for better understanding of the relationship between optical, electronic, magnetic, and catalytic properties of nanoparticles and their structure. Chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles results in large size and shape dispersion and lack of lateral order. In contrast, conventional top-down lithography techniques provide control over the lateral order and dimensions. However, they are either limited in resolution or have low throughput and therefore do not enable the large patterning area needed to obtain good signal-to-noise ratio in common analytical and characterization techniques. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has the throughput and simplicity advantages of photolithography as well as high resolution due to its wavelength. Using EUV achromatic Talbot lithography, we have obtained 15 nm particle arrays with a periodicity of about 100 nm over an area of several square centimeters with high-throughput enabling the use of nanotechnology for fabrication of model systems to study large ensembles of well-defined identical nanoparticles with a density of 10(10) particles cm(-2).

  12. High-resolution nanosphere lithography (NSL) to fabricate highly-ordered ZnO nanorod arrays. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Lihuan; Gao, Min; Zhou, Weiya; Xie, Sishen


    Here we report our successful development of a high-resolution, low-cost, simple and convenient technique based on nanosphere lithography (NSL) to fabricate large-scale periodic gold nanoparticle pattern, which is the most common catalyst material in the synthesis of nanostructure and also a feature material for surface plasmon resonation (SPR) research. In order to improve lithography resolution by PS nanosphere self-assembling monolayer (SAM), we adapted the following steps in our fabrication strategy. The original continuous etching by oxygen plasma was replaced by multiple short treatments to avoid heating effect. In addition, direct oxidation was utilized to remove the nanospheres instead of the supersonic process. Using the obtained Au nanoparticle pattern, ZnO nanorod arrays with an average diameter of 50 nm were easily obtained by 600 nm PS nanospheres SAM, which was even smaller than the minimum size by utilizing 400 nm nanospheres SAM in the previous work. Thus, we succeeded in the fabrication of highly-ordered ZnO nanorod arrays with largely tunable diameter by this higher-resolution nanosphere lithography. We also present X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman results of our as-grown samples, indicating great crystallization quality and optical property.

  13. Effects of synchrotron radiation spectrum energy on polymethyl methacrylate photosensitivity to deep x-ray lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Mekaru, H; Hattori, T


    Since X-ray lithography requires a high photon flux to achieve deep resist exposure, a synchrotron radiation beam, which is not monochromatized, is generally used as a light source. If the synchrotron radiation beam is monochromatized, photon flux will decrease rapidly. Because of this reason, the wavelength dependence of the resist sensitivity has not been investigated for deep X-ray lithography. Measuring the spectrum of a white beam with a Si solid-state detector (SSD) is difficult because a white beam has a high intensity and an SSD has a high sensitivity. We were able to measure the spectrum and the photocurrent of a white beam from a beam line used for deep X-ray lithography by keeping the ring current below 0.05 mA. We evaluated the characteristics of the output beam based on the measured spectrum and photocurrent, and used them to investigate the relationship between the total exposure energy and the dose-processing depth with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that it is possible to guess the p...

  14. Deep-etch x-ray lithography at the ALS: First results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, C.K.; Jackson, K.H. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Brennen, R.A. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others


    The fabrication of high-aspect-ratio and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures is of increasing interest in a multitude of applications in fields such as micromechanics, optics, and interconnect technology. Techniques and processes that enable lithography in thick materials differ from the planar technologies used in standard integrated circuit processing. Deep x-ray lithography permits extremely precise and deep proximity printing of a given pattern from a mask into a very thick resist. It requires a source of hard, intense, and well collimated x-ray radiation, as is provided by a synchrotron radiation source. The thick resist microstructures, so produced can be used as templates from which ultrahigh precision parts with high aspect ratios can be mass-produced out of a large variety of materials (metals, plastics, ceramics). This whole series of techniques and processes has been historically referred to as {open_quotes}LIGA,{close_quotes} from the German acronym for lithography, electroforming (Galvanoformung), and plastic molding (Abformung), the first development of the basic LIGA process having been performed at the Nuclear Research Center at Karlsruhe in Germany.

  15. Hybrid Warfare (United States)


    military vocabulary to describe these observed phenomena. After an intense focus on large-scale conventional conflicts during the Cold War, with episodic...requiring the mastery of both grammars.85 It follows that hybrid warfare requires the blending of both grammars. The Theoretical Lineage of

  16. Software-based data path for raster-scanned multi-beam mask lithography (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Agarwal, Ankita; Buck, Peter; Geller, Paul; Hamaker, H. Christopher; Rao, Nagswara


    According to the 2013 SEMATECH Mask Industry Survey,i roughly half of all photomasks are produced using laser mask pattern generator ("LMPG") lithography. LMPG lithography can be used for all layers at mature technology nodes, and for many non-critical and semi-critical masks at advanced nodes. The extensive use of multi-patterning at the 14-nm node significantly increases the number of critical mask layers, and the transition in wafer lithography from positive tone resist to negative tone resist at the 14-nm design node enables the switch from advanced binary masks back to attenuated phase shifting masks that require second level writes to remove unwanted chrome. LMPG lithography is typically used for second level writes due to its high productivity, absence of charging effects, and versatile non-actinic alignment capability. As multi-patterning use expands from double to triple patterning and beyond, the number of LMPG second level writes increases correspondingly. The desire to reserve the limited capacity of advanced electron beam writers for use when essential is another factor driving the demand for LMPG capacity. The increasing demand for cost-effective productivity has kept most of the laser mask writers ever manufactured running in production, sometimes long past their projected lifespan, and new writers continue to be built based on hardware developed some years ago.ii The data path is a case in point. While state-ofthe- art when first introduced, hardware-based data path systems are difficult to modify or add new features to meet the changing requirements of the market. As data volumes increase, design styles change, and new uses are found for laser writers, it is useful to consider a replacement for this critical subsystem. The availability of low-cost, high-performance, distributed computer systems combined with highly scalable EDA software lends itself well to creating an advanced data path system. EDA software, in routine production today, scales

  17. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya


    Full Text Available conventional glass reinforced plastics with biocomposites that exhibit structural and functional stability during storage and use and yet are susceptible to environmental degradation upon disposal. An interesting approach in fabricating biocomposites... natural fibre / biofibre in a matrix. Hybridization with glass fibre provides a method to improve the mechanical properties of natural fibre composites and its effect in different modes of stress depends on the design and construction of the composites...

  18. Arc-shaped slit effect of EUV lithography with anamorphic high-NA system in terms of critical dimension variation (United States)

    Kim, In-Seon; Kim, Guk-Jin; Yeung, Michael; Barouch, Eytan; Oh, Hye-Keun


    EUV lithography is one of the promising technologies for 1X nm patterning. EUV lithography has high resolution capability because of short wavelength of source but it has some particular patterning problems which are not appeared a t optical lithography. Owing to reflective optics, EUV light incidents obliquely in mask and oblique incidence of EUV lithography leads shadow effect and arc-shaped exposure slit. The study of these particular optical problems are required for optical proximity correction (OPC). Arc-shaped exposure slit leads azimuthal angle variation, incident angle variation , and variation of shadow width. With these variations along exposure slit, patterning result is varied along the exposure slit. With understanding of these particular optical problems, lots of EUV OPC studies have been presented with 0.33 conventional NA system. However, suggested anamorphic high NA system has not only elliptical shaped mask NA and also different angle distribution. The incident angle variation as a function of azimuthal angle is different between isomorphic and anamorphic NA systems. In case of anamorphic NA system, incident angle distribution is decreased on horizontal direction but it is larger on vertical direction compared with case of isomorphic NA system. These differences make different arc-shaped slit effect. CD variation as a function of azimuthal angle is different between isomorphic and a namorphic NA systems. The study of CD variation along the exposure slit is very helpful for OPC in EUV lithography.

  19. Advanced cleaning of nano-imprint lithography template in patterned media applications (United States)

    Singh, Sherjang; Chen, Ssuwei; Dress, Peter; Kurataka, Nobuo; Gauzner, Gene; Dietze, Uwe


    As the magnetic storage industry roadmap calls for aggressive terabit/in2 densities over the next few years, the shift from the current planar media to patterned media; grooved surfaces (discrete track media / DTM) and/or individually defined magnetic dots (bit patterned media / BPM), will be necessary. Both types of patterned media require lithography to produce the pattern on the disk and the most promising lithography candidate today is nano-imprint lithography (NIL). During the imprinting process a thin, round, transparent template made of quartz is functioned as a mold to inversely transfer the features from its surface to the patterning medium on the disks by direct contact. One issue with this technique is the high probability of defects due to repeated contact of the template with the resist before, during, and after UV radiation. Defect management through template cleaning, inspection and defect characterization is critical to preserve integrity of the process. In this paper, advanced acid-free cleaning combined with MegaSonic treatment for defect elimination is investigated for effectiveness on discrete track recording (DTR) and BPM patterned templates. For the experiments, templates containing 250KTPI (100nm track pitch) full surface DTR pattern, 450 KTPI (56nm track pitch) with narrow band DTR pattern, and 250Gdpsi (50nm track pitch) with narrow band BPM pattern are used. The effect of MegaSonic cleaning on the pattern integrity of fragile features is studied. General characterization of defect attributes is made feasible through a series of imprinting and template cleaning cycles focused on resist residues and contaminant removal. Imprinted disks are analyzed using Candela disk inspection and SEM imaging of the pattern. Template cleaning is performed using HamaTech MaskTrack TeraPure automated template cleaning system.

  20. Rapid manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore sensors by trans-chip illumination lithography. (United States)

    Janssen, Xander J A; Jonsson, Magnus P; Plesa, Calin; Soni, Gautam V; Dekker, Cees; Dekker, Nynke H


    In recent years, the concept of nanopore sensing has matured from a proof-of-principle method to a widespread, versatile technique for the study of biomolecular properties and interactions. While traditional nanopore devices based on a nanopore in a single layer membrane supported on a silicon chip can be rapidly fabricated using standard microfabrication methods, chips with additional insulating layers beyond the membrane region can provide significantly lower noise levels, but at the expense of requiring more costly and time-consuming fabrication steps. Here we present a novel fabrication protocol that overcomes this issue by enabling rapid and reproducible manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore experiments. The fabrication protocol, termed trans-chip illumination lithography, is based on illuminating a membrane-containing wafer from its backside such that a photoresist (applied on the wafer's top side) is exposed exclusively in the membrane regions. Trans-chip illumination lithography permits the local modification of membrane regions and hence the fabrication of nanopore chips containing locally patterned insulating layers. This is achieved while maintaining a well-defined area containing a single thin membrane for nanopore drilling. The trans-chip illumination lithography method achieves this without relying on separate masks, thereby eliminating time-consuming alignment steps as well as the need for a mask aligner. Using the presented approach, we demonstrate rapid and reproducible fabrication of nanopore chips that contain small (12 μm × 12 μm) free-standing silicon nitride membranes surrounded by insulating layers. The electrical noise characteristics of these nanopore chips are shown to be superior to those of simpler designs without insulating layers and comparable in quality to more complex designs that are more challenging to fabricate.

  1. A study of filling process for UV nanoimprint lithography using a fluid simulation (United States)

    Yoneda, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Yasutada; Mikami, Shinji; Tokue, Hiroshi; Ota, Takumi; Koshiba, Takeshi; Ito, Masamitsu; Hashimoto, Koji; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko


    Nanoimprint lithography has advantages such as good resolution, CD uniformity and LER. However, nanoimprint lithography involves risks. In particular, defectivity is the most critical issue for nanoimprint lithography. Above all, the "non-fill defects" dominate such defects for UV nanoimprint. At the filling process of imprint resist, the capillary force that occurs between an imprint-resist and surface of template plays an important role. Our experience, suggests there is a relationship between the filling characteristics and pattern size of template. We also think the resist properties and the environmental conditions such as atmosphere pressure play important roles in the filling process. This paper explains the filling process dependency on the properties mentioned above. We analyzed the filling process using fluid simulation. At first, we assumed several pattern sizes with the same pattern height. Then, the filling times were estimated for each pattern size with various resist properties and the environmental conditions. An important attribute of our simulation model is the consideration accorded to the dissolution of gas between the template and imprint resist. As a result, the filling time of smaller pattern was found to be shorter than that of larger pattern. The assumed patterns are space and via on template ranging in size from 22nm width to 1000nm-width. The pattern height is 60nm. In this paper, we studied characteristics of filling mechanism by using fluid simulation. The relations between CD and filling time were obtained. We found that the gas dissolution rate is the dominant parameter for filling time.

  2. Modeling the constitutive and frictional behavior of PTFE flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    In the present work, the deformation on micro-scale of PTFE flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography is modeled. This is achieved via a combination of proper models for the constitutive behavior as well as the frictional conditions between the deforming PTFE stamp and the steel tool. The model...... frictional behavior between PTFE and steel on micro-scale is shown to be of major importance in order to accurately simulate the strain field in the deformed PTFE stamp. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  3. Directed self-assembly (DSA) grapho-epitaxy template generation with immersion lithography (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Torres, J. A.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert


    In this paper, we present an optimization methodology for the template designs of sub-resolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with grapho-epitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of Template Error Enhancement Factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity, and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data shows that SMO is critical to achieve sub-80nm non- L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  4. Facile electron-beam lithography technique for irregular and fragile substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Zhou, Qin; Zettl, Alex, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute at the University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    A facile technique is presented which enables high-resolution electron beam lithography on irregularly-shaped, non-planar or fragile substrates such as the edges of a silicon chip, thin and narrow suspended beams and bridges, or small cylindrical wires. The method involves a spin-free dry-transfer of pre-formed uniform-thickness polymethyl methacrylate, followed by conventional electron beam writing, metal deposition, and lift-off. High-resolution patterning is demonstrated for challenging target substrates. The technique should find broad application in micro- and nano-technology research arenas.

  5. Design, synthesis, and characterization of fluorine-free PAGs for 193-nm lithography (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Glodde, Martin; Varanasi, Pushkara R.


    Photoacid generators (PAGs) are a key component in chemically amplified resists used in photolithography. Perfluorooctanesulfonates (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFAS) have been well adopted as PAGs in 193 nm photoresist. Recently, concerns have been raised about their environmental impact due to their chemical persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity. It is a general interest to find environmentally benign PAGs that are free of fluorine atoms. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of novel fluorine-free onium salts as PAGs for 193 nm photoresists. These PAGs demonstrated desirable physical and lithography properties when compared with PFAS-based PAGs for both dry and immersion exposures.

  6. Submicron E-Beam Lithography Utilizing A Positive Novolac-Based Resist (United States)

    Tang, Patrick P.


    A positive novolac-based resist, WX-214, developed by Olin Hunt Chemical, has been investigated for use with the commercial electron beam lithography systems, AEBLE 150 and MEBES III. The WX-214 yielded a sensitivity of 16 pC/cm2, a high resolution of 0.25μm lines and spaces, and an excellent dry etching resistance for pattern transfer. The results on the characterization of the resist and the development of a process for thin and thick films are presented.

  7. Rapidly-dissolvable microneedle patches via a highly scalable and reproducible soft lithography approach. (United States)

    Moga, Katherine A; Bickford, Lissett R; Geil, Robert D; Dunn, Stuart S; Pandya, Ashish A; Wang, Yapei; Fain, John H; Archuleta, Christine F; O'Neill, Adrian T; Desimone, Joseph M


    Microneedle devices for transdermal drug delivery have recently become an attractive method to overcome the diffusion-limiting epidermis and effectively transport therapeutics to the body. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of highly reproducible and completely dissolvable polymer microneedles on flexible water-soluble substrates. These biocompatible microneedles (made by using a soft lithography process known as PRINT) showed efficacy in piercing both murine and human skin samples and delivering a fluorescent drug surrogate to the tissue. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Development of vertical SU-8 microneedles for transdermal drug delivery by double drawing lithography technology. (United States)

    Xiang, Zhuolin; Wang, Hao; Pant, Aakanksha; Pastorin, Giorgia; Lee, Chengkuo


    Polymer-based microneedles have drawn much attention in transdermal drug delivery resulting from their flexibility and biocompatibility. Traditional fabrication approaches are usually time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we developed a new double drawing lithography technology to make biocompatible SU-8 microneedles for transdermal drug delivery applications. These microneedles are strong enough to stand force from both vertical direction and planar direction during penetration. They can be used to penetrate into the skin easily and deliver drugs to the tissues under it. By controlling the delivery speed lower than 2 μl/min per single microneedle, the delivery rate can be as high as 71%.

  9. Properites of ultrathin films appropriate for optics capping layers in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajt, S; Edwards, N V; Madey, T E


    The contamination of optical surfaces by irradiation shortens optics lifetime and is one of the main concerns for optics used in conjunction with intense light sources, such as high power lasers, 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron sources or plasma sources used in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tools. This paper focuses on properties and surface chemistry of different materials, which as thin layers, could be used as capping layers to protect and extend EUVL optics lifetime. The most promising candidates include single element materials such as ruthenium and rhodium, and oxides such as TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}.

  10. Random laser from engineered nanostructures obtained by surface tension driven lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Ghofraniha, N; Di Maria, F; Barbarella, G; Gigli, G; Conti, C


    The random laser emission from the functionalized thienyl-S,S-dioxide quinquethiophene (T5OCx) in confined patterns with different shapes is demonstrated. Functional patterning of the light emitter organic material in well defined features is obtained by spontaneous molecular self-assembly guided by surface tension driven (STD) lithography. Such controlled supramolecular nano-aggregates act as scattering centers allowing the fabrication of one-component organic lasers with no external resonator and with desired shape and efficiency. Atomic force microscopy shows that different geometric pattern with different supramolecular organization obtained by the lithographic process tailors the coherent emission properties by controlling the distribution and the size of the random scatterers.

  11. Optical near-field lithography on hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steen; Müllenborn, Matthias; Birkelund, Karen


    We report on a novel lithography technique for patterning of hydrogen-passivated amorphous silicon surfaces. A reflection mode scanning near-field optical microscope with uncoated fiber probes has been used to locally oxidize a thin amorphous silicon layer. Lines of 110 nm in width, induced...... by the optical near field, were observed after etching in potassium hydroxide. The uncoated fibers can also induce oxidation without light exposure, in a manner similar to an atomic force microscope, and linewidths of 50 nm have been achieved this way. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....

  12. Transformation Of Pattern Personality In E-Beam Lithography : A Conceptual Approach (United States)

    Coopmans, F.; Froyen, E.; Jonckheere, R.


    This paper discusses the concept of pattern personality and its application to the characterization of different software and technological aspects in E-Beam direct write lithography. In this approach the personality of a pattern is related to a spectrum of the characteristic dimensions of a design. We explain simple techniques to obtain these spectra and indicate how they can be implied to predict and decide on the best writing strategy. Pattern personality is intended to be used as a compressed format that still contains enough information to base decisions on and compute the impact of processing steps on the pattern fidelity.

  13. Elevating optical activity: Efficient on-edge lithography of three-dimensional starfish metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, K., E-mail:; Menzel, C.; Lehr, D.; Puffky, O.; Pertsch, T.; Tünnermann, A.; Kley, E.-B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Hübner, U. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Straße 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)


    We present an approach for extremely fast, wafer-scale fabrication of chiral starfish metamaterials based on electron beam- and on-edge lithography. A millimeter sized array of both the planar chiral and the true 3D chiral starfish is realized, and their chiroptical performances are compared by circular dichroism measurements. We find optical activity in the visible and near-infrared spectral range, where the 3D starfish clearly outperforms the planar design by almost 2 orders of magnitude, though fabrication efforts are only moderately increased. The presented approach is capable of bridging the gap between high performance optical chiral metamaterials and industrial production by nanoimprint technology.

  14. Fabrication of Si/SiO2 Superlattice Microwire Array Solar Cells Using Microsphere Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Yamada


    Full Text Available A fabrication process for silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2 superlattice microwire array solar cells was developed. The Si/SiO2 superlattice microwire array was fabricated using a microsphere lithography process with polystyrene particles. The solar cell shows a photovoltaic effect and an open-circuit voltage of 128 mV was obtained. The limiting factors of the solar cell performance were investigated from the careful observations of the solar cell structures. We also investigated the influence of the microwire array structure on light trapping in the solar cells.

  15. Fabrication of blazed gratings for X-ray spectroscopy using substrate conformal imprint lithography (United States)

    McCoy, Jake; Verschuuren, Marc; Lopez, Gerald; Zhang, Ningxiao; McEntaffer, Randall


    The majority of spectral lines relevant in high energy astrophysics exist at soft X-ray energies, where gratings dominate over microcalorimeters. Next-generation reflection gratings have been identified as a key technology to improve the spectroscopic capabilities of future X-ray observatories. Currently, the grating fabrication process centers on the production of a large-area (72 cm2) master template through techniques in electron-beam lithography, plasma etching and anisotropic wet etching in single-crystal Si. Then, many replicas are produced to populate a grating array, which intercepts and disperses the radiation coming to a focus in a Wolter-I telescope. Of importance is implenting a replication procedure that preserves the fidelity of the master grating template at a low cost. Traditionally, the Si master template has been used to stamp directly into a UV-curable resist coated on a fused silica substrate through the process of nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). Though the high stiffness of Si allows the desired inverse of the original pattern to be imprinted with high resolution, difficulties arise especially when imprinting over a large area. Substrate conformal imprint lithography (SCIL) is a relatively new commercial process intended to evade these problems. In contrast to UV-NIL, the SCIL process uses a flexible stamp formed from the master template for imprinting. The flexible stamp carries the inverse of the original pattern in a modified silicone rubber, which has increased stiffness compared to standard silicone used in soft lithography processes. This enables the positive of original pattern to be imprinted sequentially with high resolution while confroming to the bow of the substrate and reducing damage due to particulate contaminants. The desired inverse of the original pattern can be imprinted with SCIL by forming a second flexible stamp from the initial flexible stamp. Further, SCIL is compatible with an inorganic imprint resist that has been

  16. Studies of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser produced plasmas, as sources for next generation lithography (United States)

    Cummins, Thomas

    The work presented in this thesis is primarily concerned with the optimisation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoemission around 13.5 nm, from laser produced tin (Sn) plasmas. EUV lithography has been identified as the leading next generation technology to take over from the current optical lithography systems, due to its potential of printing smaller feature sizes on integrated circuits. Many of the problems hindering the implementation of EUV lithography for high volume manufacturing have been overcome during the past 20 years of development. However, the lack of source power is a major concern for realising EUV lithography and remains a major roadblock that must be overcome. Therefore in order to optimise and improve the EUV emission from Sn laser plasma sources, many parameters contributing to the make-up of an EUV source are investigated. Chapter 3 presents the results of varying several different experimental parameters on the EUV emission from Sn laser plasmas. Several of the laser parameters including the energy, gas mixture, focusing lens position and angle of incidence are changed, while their effect on the EUV emission is studied. Double laser pulse experiments are also carried out by creating plasma targets for the main laser pulse to interact with. The resulting emission is compared to that of a single laser pulse on solid Sn. Chapter 4 investigates tailoring the CO2 laser pulse duration to improve the efficiency of an EUV source set-up. In doing so a new technique for shortening the time duration of the pulse is described. The direct effects of shortening the CO2 laser pulse duration on the EUV emission from Sn are then studied and shown to improve the efficiency of the source. In Chapter 5 a new plasma target type is studied and compared to the previous dual laser experiments. Laser produced colliding plasma jet targets form a new plasma layer, with densities that can be optimised for re-heating with the main CO2 laser pulse. Chapter 6 will present

  17. Genetic algorithm optimization of grating coupled near-field interference lithography systems at extreme numerical apertures (United States)

    Bourke, Levi; Blaikie, Richard J.


    Grating coupled near-field interference lithography has the ability to produce deep-subwavelength interference patterns. Simulations of these systems is very computationally intensive. An inverse design procedure employing a genetic algorithm is utilized here to massively reduce the computational load and allow for the design of systems capable of interfering extremely high numerical apertures. This method is used to optimize systems with an interference patterns with a half pitch of λ /40 corresponding to a numerical aperture of 20. It is also used to demonstrate interference of higher | m| diffraction orders.

  18. The range and intensity of backscattered electrons for use in the creation of high fidelity electron beam lithography patterns. (United States)

    Czaplewski, David A; Holt, Martin V; Ocola, Leonidas E


    We present a set of universal curves that predict the range and intensity of backscattered electrons which can be used in conjunction with electron beam lithography to create high fidelity nanoscale patterns. The experimental method combines direct write dose, backscattered dose, and a self-reinforcing pattern geometry to measure the dose provided by backscattered electrons to a nanoscale volume on the substrate surface at various distances from the electron source. Electron beam lithography is used to precisely control the number and position of incident electrons on the surface of the material. Atomic force microscopy is used to measure the height of the negative electron beam lithography resist. Our data shows that the range and the intensity of backscattered electrons can be predicted using the density and the atomic number of any solid material, respectively. The data agrees with two independent Monte Carlo simulations without any fitting parameters. These measurements are the most accurate electron range measurements to date.

  19. The range and intensity of backscattered electrons for use in the creation of high fidelity electron beam lithography patterns (United States)

    Czaplewski, David A.; Holt, Martin V.; Ocola, Leonidas E.


    We present a set of universal curves that predict the range and intensity of backscattered electrons which can be used in conjunction with electron beam lithography to create high fidelity nanoscale patterns. The experimental method combines direct write dose, backscattered dose, and a self-reinforcing pattern geometry to measure the dose provided by backscattered electrons to a nanoscale volume on the substrate surface at various distances from the electron source. Electron beam lithography is used to precisely control the number and position of incident electrons on the surface of the material. Atomic force microscopy is used to measure the height of the negative electron beam lithography resist. Our data shows that the range and the intensity of backscattered electrons can be predicted using the density and the atomic number of any solid material, respectively. The data agrees with two independent Monte Carlo simulations without any fitting parameters. These measurements are the most accurate electron range measurements to date.

  20. Challenges and progress in low defectivity for advanced ArF and EUV lithography processes using surface localized material technology (United States)

    Shirakawa, Michihiro; Tsubaki, Hideaki; Furutani, Hajime; Nihashi, Wataru; Tango, Naohiro; Marumo, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Takahashi, Hidenori; Goto, Akiyoshi; Fujita, Mitsuhiro


    The main challenge in ArF lithography is to reduce cost of ownership (CoO) because increase in multi-patterning process is generally required to obtain a fine pattern. As a consequence, industry strongly requires ArF lithography process with a fast scan speed scanner and low defectivity material for CoO. The breakthrough technology to improve defectivity and resolution simultaneously was the polarity-change property of film surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic after alkaline development process because a property after development process should be only associated with defectivity, not fast scan speed. The materials with high polarity change function were explored to EUV process to achieve low defectivity with good lithography performances.

  1. High throughput optical lithography by scanning a massive array of bowtie aperture antennas at near-field. (United States)

    Wen, X; Datta, A; Traverso, L M; Pan, L; Xu, X; Moon, E E


    Optical lithography, the enabling process for defining features, has been widely used in semiconductor industry and many other nanotechnology applications. Advances of nanotechnology require developments of high-throughput optical lithography capabilities to overcome the optical diffraction limit and meet the ever-decreasing device dimensions. We report our recent experimental advancements to scale up diffraction unlimited optical lithography in a massive scale using the near field nanolithography capabilities of bowtie apertures. A record number of near-field optical elements, an array of 1,024 bowtie antenna apertures, are simultaneously employed to generate a large number of patterns by carefully controlling their working distances over the entire array using an optical gap metrology system. Our experimental results reiterated the ability of using massively-parallel near-field devices to achieve high-throughput optical nanolithography, which can be promising for many important nanotechnology applications such as computation, data storage, communication, and energy.

  2. Hybrid Gear (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)


    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  3. Single-mode solid-state polymer dye laser fabricated with standard I-line UV lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Mironov, Andrej; Nilsson, Daniel


    We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G.......We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G....

  4. Nanoimprint lithography in the cyclic olefin copolymer, Topas, a highly ultraviolet-transparent and chemically resistant thermoplast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Nilsson, D.; Bundgaard, F.


    Thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of the cyclic olefin copolymeric thermoplast Topas® isdemonstrated. Topas® is highly UV-transparent, has low water absorption, and is chemically resistant to hydrolysis, acids and organic polar solvents which makes it suitable for lab-on-a-chipapplications. I......Thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of the cyclic olefin copolymeric thermoplast Topas® isdemonstrated. Topas® is highly UV-transparent, has low water absorption, and is chemically resistant to hydrolysis, acids and organic polar solvents which makes it suitable for lab...

  5. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging (United States)

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.


    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  6. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben


    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  7. Cell patterning using a template of microstructured organosilane layer fabricated by vacuum ultraviolet light lithography. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Munehiro; Ikeda, Koji; Suzuki, Masaaki; Kiyohara, Ai; Kudoh, Suguru N; Shimizu, Kyoko; Taira, Toshio; Ito, Daisuke; Uchida, Tsutomu; Gohara, Kazutoshi


    Micropatterning techniques have become increasingly important in cellular biology. Cell patterning is achieved by various methods. Photolithography is one of the most popular methods, and several light sources (e.g., excimer lasers and mercury lamps) are used for that purpose. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light that can be produced by an excimer lamp is advantageous for fabricating material patterns, since it can decompose organic materials directly and efficiently without photoresist or photosensitive materials. Despite the advantages, applications of VUV light to pattern biological materials are few. We have investigated cell patterning by using a template of a microstructured organosilane layer fabricated by VUV lithography. We first made a template of a microstructured organosilane layer by VUV lithography. Cell adhesive materials (poly(d-lysine) and polyethyleneimine) were chemically immobilized on the organosilane template, producing a cell adhesive material pattern. Primary rat cardiac and neuronal cells were successfully patterned by culturing them on the pattern substrate. Long-term culturing was attained for up to two weeks for cardiac cells and two months for cortex cells. We have discussed the reproducibility of cell patterning and made suggestions to improve it. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Thiol-Ene Based Polymer Waveguides Fabricated By Uv-Assisted Soft Lithography For Optofluidic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Guisheng; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Kutter, Jörg Peter


    In this paper, a thiol-ene based polymer waveguide, defined by UV-assisted soft lithography, is designed, fabricated and characterized. Waveguides are formed by filling microfluidic channels with a high refractive index liquid mixture of ‘thiol’ and ‘ene’ monomers (e.g., trimethylolpropane tris(3...... thiol-ene based polymers as waveguide core materials for potential optofluidic applications.......In this paper, a thiol-ene based polymer waveguide, defined by UV-assisted soft lithography, is designed, fabricated and characterized. Waveguides are formed by filling microfluidic channels with a high refractive index liquid mixture of ‘thiol’ and ‘ene’ monomers (e.g., trimethylolpropane tris(3......-mercaptopropionate) = ‘thiol’, and 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione = ‘ene’), which can be cured by UV exposure into a solid polymer. The waveguides demonstrated good confinement of light, and a propagation loss of 0.5 dB/cm was obtained. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to employ...

  9. A net-shape fabrication process of alumina micro-components using a soft lithography technique (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Wei, Xueyong; Jiang, Kyle


    Microceramic components have outstanding properties, such as high temperature resistant, biocompatible, chemically stable and high hardness properties, and could be used in a wide range of applications. However, the fabrication of precision micro-components has long been a barrier and limited their applications. This paper presents a soft lithography technique to fabricate near net-shape alumina micro-components. The process uses elastomer polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) to replace traditional solid moulds and leaves the green patterns intact after demoulding. The whole soft lithography technique involves the following steps: (i) fabricating high aspect ratio SU-8 moulds using UV photolithography, (ii) producing PDMS soft moulds from SU-8 masters, (iii) making aqueous high solids loading alumina suspension, (iv) filling patterned PDMS mould with the aqueous alumina suspension and (v) demoulding and sintering. The rheological properties (zeta potential and viscosity) of aqueous alumina suspensions have been characterized in relation to the varying pH values and concentration of dispersant (D-3005). The optimal parameters of alumina suspension for mould filling have been achieved at a pH value = 11; concentration of dispersant = 0.05 g ml-1; amount of binder = 0.75%; highest solid loading = 70 wt%. After pressurized mould filling, complete, dense and free-standing micro-components have been achieved by using a 70 wt% alumina suspension and an optimum fabrication technique, while the overall linear shrinkage is found to be about 22%.

  10. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven, E-mail:; Reitzenstein, Stephan [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Strittmatter, André [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Otto-von-Guericke Universität Magdeburg, Universitätsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany)


    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  11. Negative e-beam resists using for nano-imprint lithography and silicone mold fabrication (United States)

    Shy, S. L.; T. V., Anil Kumar; Sheu, Gene; Yang, Shao-Ming; Chen, M. C.; Hong, C. S.


    Nano-imprinting technology, as one of the most promising fabrication technologies, has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for large-area replication up to wafer-level, with features down to nanometer scale. This study aims to develop capabilities in patterning nano structure using thermal nano-imprint lithography (NIL). 30nm Si molds are patterned by electron-beam lithography (EBL) using NEB22 A2 negative e-beam resist. The NEB22 A2 negative e-beam resist possess a variety of characteristics desirable for NIL, such as low viscosity, low bulk-volumetric shrinkage, high Young's modulus, high thermal stability, and excellent dry-etch resistance. The excellent oxygenetch resistance of the barrier material enables a final transfer pattern that is about three times higher than that of the original NIL mold. Based on these imprint on negative electron beam resist approach is used for pattern transfer into silicon substrates. The result is a high-resolution pattern with feature sizes in the range of nanometer to several microns.

  12. Optimization of the focus monitor mark in immersion lithography according to illumination type (United States)

    Dong, Lisong; Zhang, Libin; Su, Xiaojing; He, Jianfang; Wei, Yayi


    With the shrinking of critical dimension, the demand for a process window has reached a new level, which is denoted as the depth of focus at certain exposure latitudes. Therefore, high-quality monitoring and controlling of focus shift are becoming more and more critical. With the purpose of providing an optimal focus monitoring mark, which can be applied in freeform or off-axis illumination with a big sigma and hypernumerical aperture (NA) scheme, a global optimization method combined with the idea of a genetic algorithm is developed. For illustration, two optimal mask structures under quasar and freeform illumination conditions are given by the optimized method. The numerical simulations with the lithography simulator PROLITH are provided to demonstrate the performances of these two structures. In addition, the robustness of these optimized structures is analyzed by considering the phase-shift error in mask manufacturing. The above simulation results verify the effectiveness and validity of the proposed optimization methodology and also show that the mask structure provided by the optimized method has the potential to be an efficient candidate for measuring the defocus of scanners in the immersion lithography with hyper NA.

  13. Performance evaluation of nonchemically amplified negative tone photoresists for e-beam and EUV lithography (United States)

    Singh, Vikram; Satyanarayana, Vardhineedi Sri Venkata; Batina, Nikola; Reyes, Israel Morales; Sharma, Satinder K.; Kessler, Felipe; Scheffer, Francine R.; Weibel, Daniel E.; Ghosh, Subrata; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.


    Although extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is being considered as one of the most promising next-generation lithography techniques for patterning sub-20 nm features, the development of suitable EUV resists remains one of the main challenges confronting the semiconductor industry. The goal is to achieve sub-20 nm line patterns having low line edge roughness (LER) of <1.8 nm and a sensitivity of 5 to 20 mJ/cm2. The present work demonstrates the lithographic performance of two nonchemically amplified (n-CARs) negative photoresists, MAPDST homopolymer and MAPDST-MMA copolymer, prepared from suitable monomers containing the radiation sensitive sulfonium functionality. Investigations into the effect of several process parameters are reported. These include spinning conditions to obtain film thicknesses <50 nm, baking regimes, exposure conditions, and the resulting surface topographies. The effect of these protocols on sensitivity, contrast, and resolution has been assessed for the optimization of 20 nm features and the corresponding LER/line width roughness. These n-CARs have also been found to possess high etch resistance. The etch durability of MAPDST homopolymer and MAPDST-MMA copolymer (under SF6 plasma chemistry) with respect to the silicon substrate are 7.2∶1 and 8.3∶1, respectively. This methodical investigation will provide guidance in designing new resist materials with improved efficiency for EUVL through polymer microstructure engineering.

  14. Shrinking-hole colloidal lithography: self-aligned nanofabrication of complex plasmonic nanoantennas. (United States)

    Syrenova, Svetlana; Wadell, Carl; Langhammer, Christoph


    Plasmonic nanoantennas create locally strongly enhanced electric fields in so-called hot spots. To place a relevant nanoobject with high accuracy in such a hot spot is crucial to fully capitalize on the potential of nanoantennas to control, detect, and enhance processes at the nanoscale. With state-of-the-art nanofabrication, in particular when several materials are to be used, small gaps between antenna elements are sought, and large surface areas are to be patterned, this is a grand challenge. Here we introduce self-aligned, bottom-up and self-assembly based Shrinking-Hole Colloidal Lithography, which provides (i) unique control of the size and position of subsequently deposited particles forming the nanoantenna itself, and (ii) allows delivery of nanoobjects consisting of a material of choice to the antenna hot spot, all in a single lithography step and, if desired, uniformly covering several square centimeters of surface. We illustrate the functionality of SHCL nanoantenna arrangements by (i) an optical hydrogen sensor exploiting the polarization dependent sensitivity of an Au-Pd nanoantenna ensemble; and (ii) single particle hydrogen sensing with an Au dimer nanoantenna with a small Pd nanoparticle in the hot spot.

  15. Fabrication of Monolithic Bridge Structures by Vacuum-Assisted Capillary-Force Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Rhokyun


    Monolithic bridge structures were fabricated by using capillary-force lithography (CFL), which was developed for patterning polymers over a large area by combining essential features of nanoimprint lithography and capillarity. A patterned soft mold was placed on a spin-coated UV-curable resin on a substrate. The polymer then moved into the cavity of the mold by capillary action and then solidified after exposure to UV radiation. The uncured resin was forced to migrate into the cavity of a micropatterned PDMS mold by capillarity, and then exposed to UV radiation under a high-energy mercury lamp with intensity. A rotary pump was then turned on, decreasing the air pressure in the chamber. SEM images were taken with a high-resolution SEM at an acceleration voltage greater than 15 kV. It was observed that when the air pressure was rapidly reduced to a low vacuum, the top layer moved into the nanochannels with a meniscus at the interface between the nanoscale PUA and the base structure.

  16. Fast evaluation of photomask near-fields in subwavelength 193-nm lithography (United States)

    Tirapu-Azpiroz, Jaione; Yablonovitch, Eli


    Sub-wavelength lithography places a serious limitation on the conventional "thin mask" approximation of the field immediately behind the patterned mask. This approximation fails to account for the increasingly important topographical effects of the mask or "thick mask" effects. This approximation of the photomask near-fields results from the direct application of Kirchhoff Boundary Conditions, which multiply the incident field by a binary transmission function of the patterned mask. Polarization dependent edge diffraction effects, as well as phase and amplitude transmission errors that arise from the vector nature of light, and the finite thickness of the substrate and chrome layers, produce significant errors in the scalar simulations of the lithographic image. Based on the comparison of aerial images at the wafer plane produced by both rigorous electromagnetic solutions of the field on the mask and their "thin mask" counterparts, a more accurate model is proposed that consists of a fixed-width, locally-determined boundary layer of imaginary transmission coefficient added to every edge of the initial "thin mask" approximation. The accuracy of the resultant Boundary Layer model has been exhaustively tested against rigorously simulated aerial images of isolated as well as periodic features of very different profiles and dimensions. The conclusion being that this simple approach is capable of modeling "thick mask" effects at both 248nm and 193nm wavelength and high NA lithography. This greatly improves the accuracy of aerial image computation in photolithography simulations at a reasonable computational cost.

  17. Compact 13.5-nm free-electron laser for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Socol


    Full Text Available Optical lithography has been actively used over the past decades to produce more and more dense integrated circuits. To keep with the pace of the miniaturization, light of shorter and shorter wavelength was used with time. The capabilities of the present 193-nm UV photolithography were expanded time after time, but it is now believed that further progress will require deployment of extreme ultraviolet (EUV lithography based on the use of 13.5-nm radiation. However, presently no light source exists with sufficient average power to enable high-volume manufacturing. We report here the results of a study that shows the feasibility of a free-electron laser EUV source driven by a multiturn superconducting energy-recovery linac (ERL. The proposed 40×20  m^{2} facility, using MW-scale consumption from the power grid, is estimated to provide about 5 kW of average EUV power. We elaborate the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE option, which is presently technically feasible. A regenerative-amplifier option is also discussed. The proposed design is based on a short-period (2–3 cm undulator. The corresponding electron beam energy is about 0.5–1.0 GeV. The proposed accelerator consists of a photoinjector, a booster, and a multiturn ERL.

  18. Ion projection lithography: November 2000 status and sub-70-nm prospects (United States)

    Kaesmaier, Rainer; Wolter, Andreas; Loeschner, Hans; Schunck, Stefan


    Among all next generation lithography (NGL) options Ion Projection Lithography (IPL) offers the smallest (particle) wavelength of 5x10- 5nm (l00keV Helium ions). Thus, 4x reduction ion-optics has diffraction limits IOS) has been realized and assembled. In parallel to the PDT-IOS effort, at Leica Jena a test bench for a vertical vacuum 300mm-wafer stage has been realized. Operation of magnetic bearing supported stage movement has already been demonstrated. As ASML vacuum compatible optical wafer alignment system, with 3nm(3(sigma) ) precision demonstrated in air, has been integrated to this wafer test bench system recently. Parallel to the IPL tool development, Infineon Technologies Mask House and the Institute for Microelectronics Stuttgart are intensively working on the development of IPL stencil masks with success in producing 150mm and 200mm stencil masks as reported elsewhere. This paper is focused on information about the status of the PDT-IOS tool.

  19. Micro-optics: enabling technology for illumination shaping in optical lithography (United States)

    Voelkel, Reinhard


    Optical lithography has been the engine that has empowered semiconductor industry to continually reduce the half-pitch for over 50 years. In early mask aligners a simple movie lamp was enough to illuminate the photomask. Illumination started to play a more decisive role when proximity mask aligners appeared in the mid-1970s. Off-axis illumination was introduced to reduce diffraction effects. For early projection lithography systems (wafer steppers), the only challenge was to collect the light efficiently to ensure short exposure time. When projection optics reached highest level of perfection, further improvement was achieved by optimizing illumination. Shaping the illumination light, also referred as pupil shaping, allows the optical path from reticle to wafer to be optimized and thus has a major impact on aberrations and diffraction effects. Highly-efficient micro-optical components are perfectly suited for this task. Micro-optics for illumination evolved from simple flat-top (fly's-eye) to annular, dipole, quadrupole, multipole and freeform illumination. Today, programmable micro-mirror arrays allow illumination to be changed on the fly. The impact of refractive, diffractive and reflective microoptics for photolithography will be discussed.

  20. Development of compact synchrotron light source for x-ray lithography (abstract) (United States)

    Mandai, S.; Hoshi, Y.; Kohno, Y.


    Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., (IHI) has developed a prototype compact synchrotron light source for x-ray lithography of semiconductors. It consists of 45-MeV linear accelerator as an electron injector and an 800-MeV synchrotron. Peak wavelength of synchrotron radiation is around 10 Å. The basic parameter of the synchrotron is as follows: (1) Beam current: more than 50 mA; (2) Beam life: more than 1 hr; (3) Circumference: 23.5 m; (4) Bending magnet: 1.33 T, 90° sector laminated core; (5) rf system: 178.5 MHz tetrode power supply. Our synchrotron is a so-called low-energy injection accelerator and various difficult problems such as ion trapping, vacuum, Touscheck effect will occur. So, we provide ion cleaning electrodes inside the vacuum chamber to avoid ion trapping. Also, we have adopted a trapezoidal magnet excitation method as an injection scheme to stimulate gas desorption of the vacuum chamber. The beamline extracted from the bending magnet will be used for various research subjects which include x-ray lithography, photoelectron spectroscopy, EXAFS, fluorescence analysis, and so on. This machine will be completed by the end of 1988 and is scheduled to use synchrotron radiation in the spring of 1989.

  1. Contacting ZnO Individual Crystal Facets by Direct Write Lithography. (United States)

    Petkov, Nikolay; Volk, János; Erdélyi, Róbert; Lukács, István Endre; Nagata, Takahiro; Sturm, Chris; Grundmann, M


    Many advanced electronic devices take advantage of properties developed at the surface facets of grown crystals with submicrometer dimensions. Electrical contacts to individual crystal facets can make possible the investigations of facet-dependent properties such as piezoelectricity in ZnO or III-nitride crystals having noncentrosymmetric structure. However, a lithography-based method for developing contacts to individual crystal facets with submicrometer size has not yet been demonstrated. In this report we study the use of electron beam-induced deposition (EBID), a direct write lithography method, for contacting individual facets of ZnO pillars within an electron microscope. Correlating structural and in situ deposition and electrical data, we examine proximity effects during the EBID and evaluate the process against obtaining electrically insulated contact lines on neighboring and diametrically opposite ZnO facets. Parameters such as incident beam energy geometry and size of the facets were investigated with the view of minimizing unwanted proximity broadening effects. Additionally, we show that the EBID direct write method has the required flexibility, resolution, and minimized proximity deposition for creating prototype devices. The devices were used to observe facet-dependent effects induced by mechanical stress on single ZnO pillar structures.

  2. Exploiting the oxygen inhibitory effect on UV curing in microfabrication: a modified lithography technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Alvankarian

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping (RP of microfluidic channels in liquid photopolymers using standard lithography (SL involves multiple deposition steps and curing by ultraviolet (UV light for the construction of a microstructure layer. In this work, the conflicting effect of oxygen diffusion and UV curing of liquid polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA is investigated in microfabrication and utilized to reduce the deposition steps and to obtain a monolithic product. The conventional fabrication process is altered to control for the best use of the oxygen presence in polymerization. A novel and modified lithography technique is introduced in which a single step of PUMA coating and two steps of UV exposure are used to create a microchannel. The first exposure is maskless and incorporates oxygen diffusion into PUMA for inhibition of the polymerization of a thin layer from the top surface while the UV rays penetrate the photopolymer. The second exposure is for transferring the patterns of the microfluidic channels from the contact photomask onto the uncured material. The UV curing of PUMA as the main substrate in the presence of oxygen is characterized analytically and experimentally. A few typical elastomeric microstructures are manufactured. It is demonstrated that the obtained heights of the fabricated structures in PUMA are associated with the oxygen concentration and the UV dose. The proposed technique is promising for the RP of molds and microfluidic channels in terms of shorter processing time, fewer fabrication steps and creation of microstructure layers with higher integrity.

  3. Development characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate in alcohol/water mixtures: a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study. (United States)

    Ocola, Leonidas E; Costales, Maya; Gosztola, David J


    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely used resist in electron beam lithography. This paper reports on a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study of development characteristics of PMMA in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol mixtures with water as developers. We have found that ethanol/water mixtures at a 4:1 volume ratio are an excellent, high resolution, non-toxic developer for exposed PMMA. We have also found that the proper methodology to use so that contrast data can be compared to techniques used in polymer science is not to rinse the developed resist but to immediately dry with nitrogen. Our results show how powerful simple lithographic techniques can be used to study ternary polymer solvent solutions when compared to other techniques used in the literature. Raman data show that both tightly bonded -OH groups and non-hydrogen bonded -OH groups play a role in the development of PMMA. Tightly hydrogen bonded -OH groups show pure Lorentzian Raman absorption only in the concentration ranges where ethanol/water and IPA/water mixtures are effective developers of PMMA, pointing to possible ordering or reduced amorphization due to the liquid state. The impact of understanding these interactions may open doors to a new developers of other electron beam resists that can reduce the toxicity of the waste stream.

  4. Development characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate in alcohol/water mixtures. A lithography and Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Costales, Maya; Gosztola, David J.


    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely used resist in electron beam lithography. This paper reports on a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study of development characteristics of PMMA in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol mixtures with water as developers. We have found that ethanol/water mixtures at a 4:1 volume ratio are an excellent, high resolution, non-toxic, developer for exposed PMMA. We also have found that the proper methodology to use so that contrast data can be compared to techniques used in polymer science is not to rinse the developed resist but to immediately dry with nitrogen. Our results show how powerful simple lithographic techniques can be used to study ternary polymer solvent solutions when compared to other techniques used in the literature. Raman data shows that there both tightly bonded –OH groups and non-hydrogen bonded –OH groups play a role in the development of PMMA. Tightly hydrogen bonded –OH groups show pure Lorentzian Raman absorption only in the concentration ranges where ethanol/water and IPA/water mixtures are effective developers of PMMA. The impact of the understanding these interactions may open doors to a new developers of other electron beam resists that can reduce the toxicity of the waste stream.

  5. Development characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate in alcohol/water mixtures: a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Costales, Maya; Gosztola, David J.


    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely used resist in electron beam lithography. This paper reports on a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study of development characteristics of PMMA in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol mixtures with water as developers. We have found that ethanol/water mixtures at a 4:1 volume ratio are an excellent, high resolution, non-toxic, developer for exposed PMMA. We also have found that the proper methodology to use so that contrast data can be compared to techniques used in polymer science is not to rinse the developed resist but to immediately dry with nitrogen. Our results show how powerful simple lithographic techniques can be used to study ternary polymer solvent solutions when compared to other techniques used in the literature. Raman data shows that there both tightly bonded –OH groups and non-hydrogen bonded –OH groups play a role in the development of PMMA. Tightly hydrogen bonded –OH groups show pure Lorentzian Raman absorption only in the concentration ranges where ethanol/water and IPA/water mixtures are effective developers of PMMA. The impact of the understanding these interactions may open doors to a new developers of other electron beam resists that can reduce the toxicity of the waste stream.

  6. Development characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate in alcohol/water mixtures: a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study (United States)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Costales, Maya; Gosztola, David J.


    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely used resist in electron beam lithography. This paper reports on a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study of development characteristics of PMMA in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol mixtures with water as developers. We have found that ethanol/water mixtures at a 4:1 volume ratio are an excellent, high resolution, non-toxic developer for exposed PMMA. We have also found that the proper methodology to use so that contrast data can be compared to techniques used in polymer science is not to rinse the developed resist but to immediately dry with nitrogen. Our results show how powerful simple lithographic techniques can be used to study ternary polymer solvent solutions when compared to other techniques used in the literature. Raman data show that both tightly bonded -OH groups and non-hydrogen bonded -OH groups play a role in the development of PMMA. Tightly hydrogen bonded -OH groups show pure Lorentzian Raman absorption only in the concentration ranges where ethanol/water and IPA/water mixtures are effective developers of PMMA, pointing to possible ordering or reduced amorphization due to the liquid state. The impact of understanding these interactions may open doors to a new developers of other electron beam resists that can reduce the toxicity of the waste stream.

  7. Three-dimensional SiO{sub 2} surface structures fabricated using femtosecond laser lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Nishiyama, Hiroaki; Hirata, Yoshinori [Osaka University, Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Nishii, Junji [Hokkaido University, Research Institute for Electronic Science, Sapporo (Japan)


    We report the fabrication of three-dimensional (3-D) SiO{sub 2} surfaces using femtosecond-laser lithography-assisted micromachining, which is a combined process of nonlinear lithography and plasma etching. Using pattern transfer of photoresist structures written by femtosecond laser-induced nonlinear absorption, SiO{sub 2}-based Fresnel lens arrays with 3-D surfaces were obtained for this study. Using the open-aperture z-scan method, the femtosecond laser two-photon absorption coefficient of the KMPR resist was estimated as 17-23 cm/TW, assuming that single-photon absorption was negligible. By adding O{sub 2} to the etching gas (CHF{sub 3}) during pattern transfer, the surface roughness of the transferred structures was reduced to RMS 16.90 nm, which corresponds to one quarter of that without adding O{sub 2}. When 632.8-nm-wavelength light was coupled to the lenses with 3-D surfaces, the focal length was measured as 2790 {mu}m, which agreed well with the theoretical value. (orig.)

  8. New processes associated with electron-beam lithography for ultra-small resonators (United States)

    Tobing, Landobasa Y. M.; Zhang, Dao Hua


    High density ultrahigh resolution patterning with desired shape and size is a crucial requirement in nanotechnology and its applications. Electron beam lithography (EBL) is the most widely used lithography tool for these applications. However, achieving cost-effective patterning with sub-10-nm critical dimension has been challenging due to the inherent tradeoff between resolution and throughput. In this paper, we present cost-effective new processes associated with EBL technique, which include optimized resist selection and processing as well as sonicated cold development process. Using this process, we demonstrate sub-10-nm diameter metal dots at a pitch of 34 nm and sub-15 nm wide metal lines. Based on the same processes, we demonstrate the fabrication of u-shaped split ring resonator array of different metals with smallest fabricated resonator with 60 nm size and v-shape SRRs with the smallest gap spacing of 30 nm. By adjusting the SRR gap spacing through its arm length and opening angle, we have successfully demonstrated magnetic and electric resonances across the visible and ultraviolet range.

  9. Self-assembly of octadecyltrichlorosilane: Surface structures formed using different protocols of particle lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChaMarra K. Saner


    Full Text Available Particle lithography offers generic capabilities for the high-throughput fabrication of nanopatterns from organosilane self-assembled monolayers, which offers the opportunity to study surface-based chemical reactions at the molecular level. Nanopatterns of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS were prepared on surfaces of Si(111 using designed protocols of particle lithography combined with either vapor deposition, immersion, or contact printing. Changing the physical approaches for applying molecules to masked surfaces produced OTS nanostructures with different shapes and heights. Ring nanostructures, nanodots and uncovered pores of OTS were prepared using three protocols, with OTS surface coverage ranging from 10% to 85%. Thickness measurements from AFM cursor profiles were used to evaluate the orientation and density of the OTS nanostructures. Differences in the thickness and morphology of the OTS nanostructures are disclosed based on atomic force microscopy (AFM images. Images of OTS nanostructures prepared on Si(111 that were generated by the different approaches provide insight into the self-assembly mechanism of OTS, and particularly into the role of water and solvents in hydrolysis and silanation.

  10. Enhancements of extreme ultraviolet emission using prepulsed Sn laser-produced plasmas for advanced lithography applications (United States)

    Freeman, J. R.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.


    Laser-produced plasmas (LPP) from Sn targets are seriously considered to be the light source for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) next generation lithography, and optimization of such a source will lead to improved efficiency and reduced cost of ownership of the entire lithography system. We investigated the role of reheating a prepulsed plasma and its effect on EUV conversion efficiency (CE). A 6 ns, 1.06 μm Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser was used to generate the initial plasma that was then reheated by a 40 ns, 10.6 μm CO2 laser to generate enhanced EUV emission from a planar Sn target. The effects of prepulsed laser intensity and delay timings between the prepulsed and the pumping pulse were investigated to find the optimal pre-plasma conditions before the pumping pulse. The initial optimization of these parameters resulted in 25% increase in CE from the tin LPP. The cause of increased EUV emission was identified from EUV emission spectra and ion signal data.

  11. Enhancements of extreme ultraviolet emission using prepulsed Sn laser-produced plasmas for advanced lithography applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J. R.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)


    Laser-produced plasmas (LPP) from Sn targets are seriously considered to be the light source for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) next generation lithography, and optimization of such a source will lead to improved efficiency and reduced cost of ownership of the entire lithography system. We investigated the role of reheating a prepulsed plasma and its effect on EUV conversion efficiency (CE). A 6 ns, 1.06 {mu}m Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser was used to generate the initial plasma that was then reheated by a 40 ns, 10.6 {mu}m CO{sub 2} laser to generate enhanced EUV emission from a planar Sn target. The effects of prepulsed laser intensity and delay timings between the prepulsed and the pumping pulse were investigated to find the optimal pre-plasma conditions before the pumping pulse. The initial optimization of these parameters resulted in 25% increase in CE from the tin LPP. The cause of increased EUV emission was identified from EUV emission spectra and ion signal data.

  12. Via patterning in the 7-nm node using immersion lithography and graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Bekaert, Joost; Chan, Boon Teik; Hori, Masafumi; Gronheid, Roel


    Insertion of a graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly process as a via patterning technology into integrated circuit fabrication is seriously considered for the 7-nm node and beyond. At these dimensions, a graphoepitaxy process using a cylindrical block copolymer that enables hole multiplication can alleviate costs by extending 193-nm immersion-based lithography and significantly reducing the number of masks that would be required per layer. To be considered for implementation, it needs to be proved that this approach can achieve the required pattern quality in terms of defects and variability using a representative, aperiodic design. The patterning of a via layer from an actual 7-nm node logic layout is demonstrated using immersion lithography and graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly in a fab-like environment. The performance of the process is characterized in detail on a full 300-mm wafer scale. The local variability in an edge placement error of the obtained patterns (4.0 nm 3σ for singlets) is in line with the recent results in the field and significantly less than of the prepattern (4.9 nm 3σ for singlets). In addition, it is expected that pattern quality can be further improved through an improved mask design and optical proximity correction. No major complications for insertion of the graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly into device manufacturing were observed.

  13. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.


    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  14. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education......Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...

  15. Fabrication and characterization of one- and two-dimensional regular patterns produced employing multiple exposure holographic lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, S.; Jurkevičiute, A.; Armakavičius, N.


    In this paper we describe fabrication and characterization methods of two-dimensional periodic microstructures in photoresist with pitch of 1.2 urn and lattice constant 1.2-4.8 μm, formed using two-beam multiple exposure holographic lithography technique. The regular structures were recorded empl...

  16. Adaptive Optics to Counteract Thermal Aberrations : System Design for EUV-Lithography with Sub-nm Precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saathof, R.


    In highly precise systems the thermal expansion of system-parts is of increasing concern, since it can severely compromise its performance at sub-nanometre level. An example of such a system is an Extreme UltraViolet (EUV)-lithography machine that is used in the semi-conductor industry to project

  17. Creating nanopatterns of His-tagged proteins on surfaces by nanoimprint lithography using specific NiNTA-histidine interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maury, Pascale; Escalante, Maryana; Péter, Mária; Reinhoudt, David N; Subramaniam, Vinod; Huskens, Jurriaan

    Directed assembly of the DsRed FT protein is demonstrated on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silicon substrates patterned by nanoimprint lithography. Initially, the DsRed protein is attached using electrostatic interactions on both topographical (polymer) templates with an amino

  18. Scanning Thermal Lithography for Nanopatterning of Polymers. Transient Heat Transport and Thermal Chemical Functionalization Across the Length Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duvigneau, Joost


    The research described in this Thesis comprises the development of Scanning Thermal Lithography (SThL) as an alternative approach for the spatially controlled, highly localized thermal chemical surface modification of polymer films for the development of e.g. (bio)sensors. In the Thesis, the range

  19. Formation of isolated carbon nanofibers with hot-wire CVD using nanosphere lithography as catalyst patterning technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Z.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/251874486; Verlaan, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831727; ten Grotenhuis, G.T.; Schropp, R.E.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584


    Recently the site-density control of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has attracted much attention as this has become critical for its many applications. To obtain an ordered array of catalyst nanoparticles with good monodispersity nanosphere lithography (NSL) is used. These nanoparticles are tested as

  20. Structural and mechanical characterization of hybrid metallic-inorganic nanosprings (United States)

    Habtoun, Sabrina; Houmadi, Said; Reig, Benjamin; Pouget, Emilie; Dedovets, Dmytro; Delville, Marie-Hélène; Oda, Reiko; Cristiano, Fuccio; Bergaud, Christian


    Silica nanosprings (NS) are fabricated by a sol–gel deposition of silica precursors onto a template made of self-assembled organic chiral nanostructures. They are deposited and assembled on microstructured silicon substrates, and then metallized and clamped in a single lithography-free step using a focused ion beam (FIB). The resulting suspended hybrid metallic/inorganic NS are then characterized with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning TEM/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM/EDX), showing the atomic structure of the metallic layer. Three-point bending tests are also carried out using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and supported by finite element method (FEM) simulation with COMSOL Multiphysics allowing the characterization of the mechanical behavior and the estimation of the stiffness of the resulting NS. The information obtained on the structural and mechanical properties of the NS is discussed for future nano-electro-mechanical system (NEMS) applications.

  1. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.


    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  2. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  3. Selective area heteroepitaxy through nanoimprint lithography for large area InP on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Junesand, Carl; Kataria, Himanshu; Hu, Chen; Lourdudoss, Sebastian [Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials, KTH, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Tommila, Juha; Guina, Mircea; Niemi, Tapio [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, 33101 Tampere (Finland)


    The use of nanoimprint lithography, a low cost and time saving alternative to E-beam lithography, for growing heteroepitaxial indium phosphide layer on silicon is demonstrated. Two types of patterns on 500 nm and 200 nm thick silicon dioxide mask either on InP substrate or InP seed layer on silicon were generated by UV nanoimprint lithography: (i) circular openings of diameter 150 nm and 200 nm and (ii) line openings of width ranging from 200 nm to 500 nm. Selective area growth and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP were conducted on these patterns in a low pressure hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. The epitaxial layers obtained were characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and micro photoluminescence. The growth from the circular openings on InP substrate and InP (seed) on Si substrate is extremely selective with similar growth morphology. The final shape has an octahedral flat top pyramid type geometry. These can be used as templates for growing InP nanostructures on silicon. The grown InP layers from the line openings on InP substrates are {proportional_to} 2.5 {mu}m thick with root mean square surface roughness as low as 2 nm. Completely coalesced layer of InP over an area of 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm was obtained.The room temperature photoluminescence intensity from InP layers on InP substrate is 55% of that of homoepitaxial InP layer. The decrease in PL intensity with respect to that of the homoepitaxial layer is probably due to defects associated with stacking faults caused by surface roughness of the mask surface. Thus in this study, we have demonstrated that growth of heteroepitaxial InP both homogeneously and selectively on the large area of silicon can be achieved. This opens up the feasibility of growing InP on large area silicon for several photonic applications (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Optical sub-diffraction limited focusing for confined heating and lithography (United States)

    Traverso, Luis M.

    Electronics and nanotechnology is constantly demanding a decrease in size of fabricated nanoscale features. This decrease in size has become much more difficult recently due to the limited resolution of optical systems that are fundamental to many nanofabrication methods. A lot of effort has been made to fabricate devices smaller than the diffraction limit of light. Creating devices that are capable of confining fields by means of interference patterns of propagating wave modes and surface plasmon, has proven successful to confine light into smaller spot sizes. Zone plate diffraction lenses generate spots with dimensions very close to the diffraction limit. We report the fabrication of zone plates to be used in laser direct writing of silicon nanowires. We show experimentally and with numerical models that a silicon substrate subjected to a focused spot is capable of reaching the necessary temperature for the synthesis of silicon nanowires with widths of 60 nm, which is considerably smaller than the diffraction limit of the processing laser. Nanoscale ridge apertures are devices with a great potential to confine light energy. Such apertures have been experimentally proven to create very small lithography features. We believe that these apertures can be further modified in order to achieve a practical smaller confinement in the near field region. In this thesis we discuss several attempts to design and fabricate apertures with sharp edges and implement them in a previously reported parallel lithography setup. In an attempt to use apertures for parallel fabrication of patterns, we developed a system to control the position of the near-field region with respect to a lithography substrate. To do this we use a method of interferometric-spatial- phase-imaging (ISPI). With the implementation of this method we were able to produce an array of 32X32 lines with confined widths as small as 22 nm. Nanoscale ridge apertures were also studied to be used as near field transducers

  5. Nanoimprint lithography: the path toward high-tech, low-cost devices (Keynote Paper) (United States)

    Tong, William M.; Hector, Scott D.; Jung, Gun-Young; Wu, Wei; Ellenson, James; Kramer, Kenneth; Hostetler, Timothy; Richards, Susan K.; Williams, R. S.


    Nanoimprint lithography is a contact-lithography technology invented in 1996 as a low-cost alternative to photolithography for researchers who need high resolution patterning. Initially perceived as a trailing-edge technology for low-cost device fabrication, it has been recently demonstrated to achieve sub-10 nm resolution and alignment, which equal or surpass even the most advanced photolithography today. At Hewlett-Packard, we have successfully used it to fabricate switchable molecular memory arrays with a dimension of 65 nm half pitch. Nanoimprint has been placed on the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) as a candidate for next-generation lithography (NGL) for insertion in the 32 nm node in Y2013. The switch from using light to using contact to pattern will indeed bring new challenges, the most important of which are alignment and the 1x mask/template. For alignment, one imprint tool maker has achieved alignment of +/-7 nm 3 sigma using Moire patterns. For template fabrication, the lack of OPC and other sub-resolution features produced large savings in patterning, but it is nearly cancelled out by the need for more aggressive inspection because of the smaller tolerable defect size. The two combined to make the predicted cost of nanoimprint template to be similar to photomasks for 45-nm half pitch. At 32-nm half pitch, EUVL masks do not have complicated sub-resolution features and are predicted to be cheaper than comparable nanoimprint templates provided that the former"s defect levels can be reduced to what is required for economical manufacturing. In both cases, the challenges are not insurmountable and solutions are being actively pursued. However, if nanoimprint is indeed the disruptive technology to photolithography, it needs to take its initial aim at the low-end market rather than mount a frontal challenge at semiconductor manufacturing, which is the high-margin customers that photolithography will pursue and protect at all cost

  6. Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Ketzer, Bernhard


    The SU(3)_flavor constituent quark model has been quite successful to explain the properties as well as the observed spectrum of mesons with pseudoscalar and vector quantum numbers. Many radial and orbital excitations of quark-antiquark systems predicted by the model, however, have not yet been observed experimentally or assigned unambiguously. In addition, a much richer spectrum of mesons is expected from QCD, in which quarks interact which each other through the exchange of colored self-interacting gluons. Owing to this particular structure of QCD, configurations are allowed in which an excited gluonic field contributes to the quantum numbers J^{PC} of the meson. States with a valence color-octet qqbar' pair neutralized in color by an excited gluon field are termed hybrids. The observation of such states, however, is difficult because they will mix with ordinary qqbar' states with the same quantum numbers, merely augmenting the observed spectrum for a given J^{PC}. Since the gluonic field may carry quantum ...

  7. Aging effect of AlF3 coatings for 193 nm lithography (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Weili; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda


    As important part of components for 193 nm lithography, AlF3 coatings deposited by resistive heating method acquire advantages like lower optical loss and higher laser damage threshold, but they also possess some disadvantages like worse stability, which is what aging effect focuses on. AlF3 single-layer coatings were deposited; optical property, surface morphology and roughness, and composition were characterized in different periods. Owing to aging effect, refractive index and extinction coefficient increased; larger and larger roughness caused more and more scattering loss, which was in the same order with absorption at 193.4 nm and part of optical loss; from composition analysis, proportional substitution of AlF3 by alumina may account for changes in refractive index as well as absorption.

  8. Finite element method simulation of the molding process for thermal nano-imprint lithography. (United States)

    Cho, Bumgoo; Kim, Kwangsik; Won, Taeyoung


    We made a numerical study on the deformation of a viscoelastic polymethyl methacrylene (PMMA) resist when a rigid SiO2 stamp with a rectangular line pattern is imprinted into the PMMA resist for thermal nano-imprint lithography (NIL). The stress distribution in the polymer resist during the molding process is calculated by a finite element method (FEM). Our simulation results reveal that the asymmetric von Mises stress is distributed over the polymer around the external line, which seems to be due to the squeezing flow under the flat space. The stress seems to be concentrated at the sidewall close to the centerline of the whole structure. Our simulation also reveals that a micro gap is formed between the replicated structure and the outer wall of the mold.

  9. Room-temperature deposition of crystalline patterned ZnO films by confined dewetting lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Guzman, S., E-mail: [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia. UANL, PIIT Monterrey, CP 66629, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Reeja-Jayan, B. [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); De la Rosa, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115 Col. Lomas del Campestre C.P. 37150 Leon, Gto. Mexico (Mexico); Ortiz-Mendez, U. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia. UANL, PIIT Monterrey, CP 66629, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Reyes-Betanzo, C. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Santa Maria Tonanzintla, Puebla. Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Cruz-Silva, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM. Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Jose-Yacaman, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department University of Texas at San Antonio 1604 campus San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)


    In this work patterned ZnO films were prepared at room-temperature by deposition of {approx}5 nm size ZnO nanoparticles using confined dewetting lithography, a process which induces their assembly, by drying a drop of ZnO colloidal dispersion between a floating template and the substrate. Crystalline ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a strong visible (525 nm) light emission upon UV excitation ({lambda} = 350 nm). The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The method described herein presents a simple and low cost method to prepare crystalline ZnO films with geometric patterns without additional annealing. Such transparent conducting films are attractive for applications like light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the process is carried out at room temperature, the patterned crystalline ZnO films can even be deposited on flexible substrates.

  10. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement (United States)

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S.; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin


    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters. PMID:26936382

  11. EUV lithography for 30nm half pitch and beyond: exploring resolution, sensitivity, and LWR tradeoffs (United States)

    Putna, E. Steve; Younkin, Todd R.; Chandhok, Manish; Frasure, Kent


    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) denotes Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography as a leading technology option for realizing the 32nm half-pitch node and beyond. Readiness of EUV materials is currently one high risk area according to assessments made at the 2008 EUVL Symposium. The main development issue regarding EUV resist has been how to simultaneously achieve high sensitivity, high resolution, and low line width roughness (LWR). This paper describes the strategy and current status of EUV resist development at Intel Corporation. Data is presented utilizing Intel's Micro-Exposure Tool (MET) examining the feasibility of establishing a resist process that simultaneously exhibits <=30nm half-pitch (HP) L/S resolution at <=10mJ/cm2 with <=4nm LWR.

  12. EUV lithography for 22nm half pitch and beyond: exploring resolution, LWR, and sensitivity tradeoffs (United States)

    Putna, E. Steve; Younkin, Todd R.; Leeson, Michael; Caudillo, Roman; Bacuita, Terence; Shah, Uday; Chandhok, Manish


    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) denotes Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography as a leading technology option for realizing the 22nm half pitch node and beyond. According to recent assessments made at the 2010 EUVL Symposium, the readiness of EUV materials remains one of the top risk items for EUV adoption. The main development issue regarding EUV resists has been how to simultaneously achieve high resolution, high sensitivity, and low line width roughness (LWR). This paper describes our strategy, the current status of EUV materials, and the integrated post-development LWR reduction efforts made at Intel Corporation. Data collected utilizing Intel's Micro- Exposure Tool (MET) is presented in order to examine the feasibility of establishing a resist process that simultaneously exhibits <=22nm half-pitch (HP) L/S resolution at <=11.3mJ/cm2 with <=3nm LWR.

  13. Performance Characterization of an xy-Stage Applied to Micrometric Laser Direct Writing Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jaramillo


    Full Text Available This article concerns the characterization of the stability and performance of a motorized stage used in laser direct writing lithography. The system was built from commercial components and commanded by G-code. Measurements use a pseudo-periodic-pattern (PPP observed by a camera and image processing is based on Fourier transform and phase measurement methods. The results report that the built system has a stability against vibrations determined by peak-valley deviations of 65 nm and 26 nm in the x and y directions, respectively, with a standard deviation of 10 nm in both directions. When the xy-stage is in movement, it works with a resolution of 0.36 μm, which is an acceptable value for most of research and development (R and D microtechnology developments in which the typical feature size used is in the micrometer range.

  14. Deformations and stress in PMMA during hard x-ray exposure for deep lithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldovan, N.


    The availability of high-energy, high-flux, collimated synchrotrons radiation has extended the application of deep X-ray lithography (DXRL) to thickness values of the PMMA resist of several millimeters. Some of the most severe limitations come from plastic deformation, stress, and cracks induced in PMMA during exposure and development. We have observed and characterized these phenomena quantitatively. Profilometry measurements revealed that the PMMA is subjected either to local shrinkage or to expansion, while compression and expansion evolve over time. Due to material loss and crosslinking, the material undergoes a shrinkage, while the radiation-induced decomposition generates gases expanding the polymer matrix. The overall dynamics of the material microrelief and stress during and after the exposure depend on the balance between compaction and outgassing. These depend in turn on the exposure conditions (spectrum; dose, dose rate, seaming, temperature), post-exposure storage conditions, PMMA material properties and thickness, and also on the size and geometry of the exposed patterns.

  15. Electron-beam lithography of gold nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng


    The fabrication of nanostructured substrates with precisely controlled geometries and arrangements plays an important role in studies of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Here, we present two processes based on electron-beam lithography to fabricate gold nanostructures for SERS. One process involves making use of metal lift-off and the other involves the use of the plasma etching. These two processes allow the successful fabrication of gold nanostructures with various kinds of geometrical shapes and different periodic arrangements. 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules are used to probe SERS signals on the nanostructures. The SERS investigations on the nanostructured substrates demonstrate that the gold nanostructured substrates have resulted in large SERS enhancement, which is highly dependent on the geometrical shapes and arrangements of the gold nanostructures. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. MEBES IV: a new generation raster-scan electron-beam lithography system (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Poreda, John T.; Smith, Robert L.


    The MEBES IV Electron Beam Lithography System was developed to meet requirements for advanced maskmaking. This necessitates support of 16- and 64-Mbit DRAM production and early development of 256-Mbit DRAMs. Using the original MEBES concepts and Etec's many years of experience with MEBES manufacturing, several major subsystems were redesigned, including the electron beam column and electron source. New test methods and test patterns were also developed to characterize system performance. As a result of the combined efforts of Etec Manufacturing and Engineering, a number of MEBES IV systems have already been built and tested. This paper provides a brief description of the MEBES IV systems. The new test patterns and methods are discussed. System performance data collected during factory acceptance of MEBES IV-LaB6 and -TFE (thermal field emission) systems are also presented.

  17. Multipass gray printing for the new MEBES 4500S mask lithography system (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Dean, Robert L.; Doering, Janine J.; Eckes, W.; Gesley, Mark A.; Hofmann, Ulrich; Mulera, Terry; Naber, Robert J.; Pastor, M.; Phillips, Wayne; Raphael, John; Raymond, Frederick, III; Sauer, Charles A.


    Etec Systems, Inc. has developed a new e-beam mask lithography system, the MEBES 4500S, featuring a higher productivity writing strategy called multipass gray and a number of mechanical and electrical improvements. This new system, based on the proven technologies introduced in the MEBES 4500 system, provides improved throughput and accuracy. The MEBES 4500S system with multipass gray supports smaller mask design addresses needed for high resolution masks, while providing higher dose for high contrast processes with low sensitivity and improved CD linearity. Improved print performance is achieved by the introduction of several system design changes that work in conjunction with the multipass gray writing mode. These changes include improved column deflection system temperature control, enhanced TFE current control, improved work chamber thermal management, and improved stage drive vibration damping. Details of these features are presented along with first performance data for the new system.

  18. Computational method for the correction of proximity effect in electron-beam lithography (Poster Paper) (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Owen, Gerry; Pease, Roger Fabian W.; Kailath, Thomas


    Dose correction is commonly used to compensate for the proximity effect in electron lithography. The computation of the required dose modulation is usually carried out using 'self-consistent' algorithms that work by solving a large number of simultaneous linear equations. However, there are two major drawbacks: the resulting correction is not exact, and the computation time is excessively long. A computational scheme, as shown in Figure 1, has been devised to eliminate this problem by the deconvolution of the point spread function in the pattern domain. The method is iterative, based on a steepest descent algorithm. The scheme has been successfully tested on a simple pattern with a minimum feature size 0.5 micrometers , exposed on a MEBES tool at 10 KeV in 0.2 micrometers of PMMA resist on a silicon substrate.

  19. Nanometer-scale lithography of ultrathin films with atomic force microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J C; Shin, Y W; Park, S W


    Ultrathin resist films have been prepared by both Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembly (SA) techniques. Nanometer-scale patterning of these thin films has been performed by using the atomic force microscope (AFM) as the exposing tool. The poly (methylphenylmethacrylate) (PMPMA) LB films were prepared and fabricated by AFM lithography. When the exposure was carried out at the bias voltage of -25V, the protruding lines appeared in the exposed regions. The preoptimized LB films at various conditions exhibited 120 nm line resolution. An organosilane monolayer composed of octadecyldimethylsilyl groups was prepared on a Si substrate. It was then patterned through the localized degradation of the monolayer due to anodic reaction induced by an AFM tip. When the bias voltage was -30 V, the protruding lines appeared in the exposed regions.

  20. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Asari


    Full Text Available Nanoimprint lithography (NIL is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL. We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  1. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching (United States)

    Asari, Tsukasa; Shibata, Ryosuke; Awano, Hiroyuki


    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS) in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL). We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc) for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  2. Automatic detection of photoresist residual layer in lithography using a neural classification approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gereige, Issam


    Photolithography is a fundamental process in the semiconductor industry and it is considered as the key element towards extreme nanoscale integration. In this technique, a polymer photo sensitive mask with the desired patterns is created on the substrate to be etched. Roughly speaking, the areas to be etched are not covered with polymer. Thus, no residual layer should remain on these areas in order to insure an optimal transfer of the patterns on the substrate. In this paper, we propose a nondestructive method based on a classification approach achieved by artificial neural network for automatic residual layer detection from an ellipsometric signature. Only the case of regular defect, i.e. homogenous residual layer, will be considered. The limitation of the method will be discussed. Then, an experimental result on a 400 nm period grating manufactured with nanoimprint lithography is analyzed with our method. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvement of silicon nanowire solar cells made by metal catalyzed electroless etching and nano imprint lithography (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Subramani, Thiyagu; Jevasuwan, Wipakorn; Fukata, Naoki


    Silicon nanowires were fabricated by metal catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) and nano imprint lithography (NIL), then a shell p-type layer was grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. To reduce back surface recombination and also to activate the dopant, we used two techniques, back surface field (BSF) treatment and rapid thermal annealing (RTA), to improve device performance. In this study, we investigated BSF and RTA treatments in silicon nanowire solar cells, and improved the device performance and efficiency from 4.1 to 7.4% (MCEE device) and from 1.1 to 6.6% (NIL device) after introducing BSF and RTA treatments. Moreover, to achieve better metal contact without sacrificing the reflectance after the shell formation, the selective-area etching method was investigated. Finally, after combining all processes, silicon nanowire solar cells fabricated via the MCEE process exhibited 8.7% efficiency.

  4. Long Wavelength Plasmonic Absorption Enhancement in Silicon Using Optical Lithography Compatible Core-Shell-Type Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahriar Sabuktagin


    Full Text Available Plasmonic properties of rectangular core-shell type nanowires embedded in thin film silicon solar cell structure were characterized using FDTD simulations. Plasmon resonance of these nanowires showed tunability from  nm. However this absorption was significantly smaller than the Ohmic loss in the silver shell due to very low near-bandgap absorption properties of silicon. Prospect of improving enhanced absorption in silicon to Ohmic loss ratio by utilizing dual capability of these nanowires in boosting impurity photovoltaic effect and efficient extraction of the photogenerated carriers was discussed. Our results indicate that high volume fabrication capacity of optical lithography techniques can be utilized for plasmonic absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells over the entire long wavelength range of solar radiation.

  5. Stochastic effects in 11 nm imaging of extreme ultraviolet lithography with chemically amplified resists (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro


    The resolution of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography with chemically amplified resist processes has reached 16 nm (half-pitch). The development of chemically amplified resists is ongoing toward the 11 nm node. However, the stochastic effects are increasingly becoming a significant concern with the continuing shrinkage of features. In this study, the fluctuation of protected unit distribution caused by the stochastic effects during image formation was investigated assuming line-and-space patterns with 11 nm half-pitch. Contrary to expectations, the standard deviation of the number of protected units connected to a polymer after postexposure baking (PEB) did not differ from that for 16 nm half-pitch. The standard deviation after PEB increased with the effective reaction radius for deprotection and the initial standard deviation before PEB. Because of the severe requirements for resist processes, the stochastic effects in chemical reactions should be taken into account in the design of next-generation resists.

  6. Fabrication of SiC membrane HCG blue reflector using nanoimprint lithography (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Yu; Matsutani, Akihiro; Lu, Tien-Chang; Wang, Shing-Chung; Koyama, Fumio


    We designed and fabricated a suspended SiC-based membrane high contrast grating (HCG) reflectors. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) was employed to verify the structural parameters including grating periods, grating height, filling factors and air-gap height. From the optimized simulation results, the designed SiC-based membrane HCG has a wide reflection stopband (reflectivity (R) HCG reflectors were fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and two-step etching technique. The corresponding reflectivity was measured by using a micro-reflectivity spectrometer. The experimental results show a high reflectivity (R<90%), which is in good agreement with simulation results. This achievement should have an impact on numerous III-N based photonic devices operating in the blue wavelength or even ultraviolet region.

  7. High performance gratings for DFB lasers fabricated by direct-write e-beam lithography (United States)

    Steingrüber, R.; Zhang, Z.


    The fabrication of high performance gratings for distributed feedback (DFB) lasers by direct-write (DW) electron-beam lithography (EBL) is presented. This paper starts with a short introduction of the grating theory and various types of gratings commonly used in DFB lasers, laying out resolution requirements and other fabrication challenges. The development and optimization process of the adopted EBL technology is then disclosed to address these challenges. In the end, the state-of-the-art laser performance is demonstrated, validating the technology and also paving ways for more advanced applications in the modern optical networks. We concentrate on grating fabrication technology of DFB lasers for telecommunication applications as the technology has been continuously developed at Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute (HHI) for more than two decades.

  8. Foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography and wet granular matter

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev


    Evaporative lithography using latex particle templates is a novel approach for the self-assembly of suspension-dispersed nanoparticles into ordered microwire networks. The phenomenon that drives the self-assembly process is the propagation of a network of interconnected liquid bridges between the template particles and the underlying substrate. With the aid of video microscopy, we demonstrate that these liquid bridges are in fact the border zone between the underlying substrate and foam films vertical to the substrate, which are formed during the evaporation of the liquid from the suspension. The stability of the foam films and thus the liquid bridge network stability are due to the presence of a small amount of surfactant in the evaporating solution. We show that the same type of foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge network can also propagate in 3D clusters of spherical particles, which has important implications for the understanding of wet granular matter. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. A lithography aware design optimization using foundry-certified models and hotspot detection (United States)

    Karklin, L.; Arkhipov, A.; Blakely, D.; Dingenen, M.; Mehrotra, A.; Watson, B.; Zelnik, C.; Cote, M.; Hurat, P.


    An automated litho-aware design migration solution has been implemented to enable designers to port existing IP layouts (custom, library, and block) to nanometer technologies while optimizing layout printability and silicon yield. With rapidly shrinking technology nodes, the industry consolidation toward fabless or fab-lite manufacturing, demand for second-sourcing and dramatic increase in cost of IP development, the automation of "vertical" (between nodes) and 'horizontal" (between chip manufacturers) migration becomes a very important task. The challenge comes from the fact that even within the same technology node design and process-induced rules deviate substantially among different IDMs and foundries, which leads to costly, error-prone and time consuming design modifications. At the same time, fast and reliable adjustments to design and ability to switch between processes and chip manufacturers could represent significant improvement to TTM, and respectively improving ROI. Using conservative rules (or restricted design rules) is not always a viable option because of the area, performance and yield penalties. The difficulty of migration is augmented by the fact that design rules are not sufficient to guaranty good printability, maximum process window and high yield. Model-based detection of lithography-induced systematic yield-limiting defects (a.k.a. hotspots) is becoming a vital part of the design-for-manufacturing flow for advanced technology nodes at 65nm and below. Driven by customer demand, a collaborative effort between EDA vendors provides a complete design-for-manufacturing migration solution that allows sub-65 nanometer designers to comprehensively address the impact of manufacturing variations on design yield and performance during layout migration. First, the physical hard IP is migrated from its existing 90nm process to a more advanced 65 and 45 nm processes, resulting in an area-optimized DRC-clean 65nm design retaining the original hierarchy to

  10. A single-step lithography system based on an enhanced robotic adhesive dispenser (United States)

    Xing, Jiyao; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Ding; Wang, Lefeng; Sun, Lining


    In the paper, we present a single-step lithography system whereby the robotically controlled micro-extrusion of resist adhesive onto a substrate surface to directly create resist adhesive patterns of interest. This system is modified from a robotic adhesive dispenser by shrinking the aperture of the nozzle to a few micrometers aiming to realize patterns at microscale. From experimental investigation, it is found that working factors including writing speed, working time, and applied pressure can be adopted to conveniently regulate the feature size (the width of the line features and the diameter of the dot features). To test its functionality, the system was used to pattern line features on silicon dioxide (SiO2) and generate an array of square-like silicon microstructure by combining with wet etching. It provides a simple and flexible alternative tool to facilitate the development of microfabrication.

  11. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement. (United States)

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin


    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters.

  12. Beyond Conventional Patterns: New Electrochemical Lithography with High Precision for Patterned Film Materials and Wearable Sensors. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Guo, Shaojun; Han, Yanchao; Li, Jing; Wang, Erkang


    We report a simple, low-cost, and brand-new electrochemical lithography technique for replicating the template pattern with high resolution at ∼2 μm. The developed method is that the electroactive material is first deposited on the patterned conductive template by the electrochemical technique and then peeled by an adhesive tape/material. The resulting film with the precise pattern shows excellent mechanical and electronic properties and promises high prospect in designing flexible electronics. This interesting approach can be performed at ambient conditions and easily generalized to pattern various electroactive materials covering metal, alloy, nonmetal, salt, oxide, and composite on different types of substrates in several seconds to a few minutes, making the mass production of flexible/rigid/stretchable patterned thin films quite possible.

  13. Nanostructured 2D cellular materials in silicon by sidewall transfer lithography NEMS (United States)

    Syms, Richard R. A.; Liu, Dixi; Ahmad, Munir M.


    Sidewall transfer lithography (STL) is demonstrated as a method for parallel fabrication of 2D nanostructured cellular solids in single-crystal silicon. The linear mechanical properties of four lattices (perfect and defected diamond; singly and doubly periodic honeycomb) with low effective Young’s moduli and effective Poisson’s ratio ranging from positive to negative are modelled using analytic theory and the matrix stiffness method with an emphasis on boundary effects. The lattices are fabricated with a minimum feature size of 100 nm and an aspect ratio of 40:1 using single- and double-level STL and deep reactive ion etching of bonded silicon-on-insulator. Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) containing cellular materials are used to demonstrate stretching, bending and brittle fracture. Predicted edge effects are observed, theoretical values of Poisson’s ratio are verified and failure patterns are described.

  14. Through-membrane electron-beam lithography for ultrathin membrane applications (United States)

    Neklyudova, M.; Erdamar, A. K.; Vicarelli, L.; Heerema, S. J.; Rehfeldt, T.; Pandraud, G.; Kolahdouz, Z.; Dekker, C.; Zandbergen, H. W.


    We present a technique to fabricate ultrathin (down to 20 nm) uniform electron transparent windows at dedicated locations in a SiN membrane for in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments. An electron-beam (e-beam) resist is spray-coated on the backside of the membrane in a KOH-etched cavity in silicon which is patterned using through-membrane electron-beam lithography. This is a controlled way to make transparent windows in membranes, whilst the topside of the membrane remains undamaged and retains its flatness. Our approach was optimized for MEMS-based heating chips but can be applied to any chip design. We show two different applications of this technique for (1) fabrication of a nanogap electrode by means of electromigration in thin free-standing metal films and (2) making low-noise graphene nanopore devices.

  15. Shape change of cured 2D and 3D nanostructures from imprint lithography (United States)

    Chopra, Meghali J.; Bonnecaze, Roger T.


    Nanosculpting, the fabrication of two- and three-dimensional shapes at the nanoscale, enables applications in photonics, metamaterials, multi-bit magnetic memory, and bio-nanoparticles. A promising high resolution and high throughput method for nanosculpting is nanoimprint lithography (NIL). A key requirement to achieving manufacturing viability of nanosculptures in NIL is maintaining image fidelity through each step of the imprinting process. In particular, polymer densification during UV curing can distort the imprinted image. Here we study the shape changes introduced by polymer densification and develop a forward method for predicting changes in nanoscale geometries from UV curing. We show that shape changes by polymer densification are governed by the Poisson's ratio, the shrinkage coefficient of the polymer resist, and the geometric aspect ratios of the nanosculpted shape. We also show that the size of the residual layer does not impact the final profile of the imprinted shape.

  16. Optimal Design of Grid-Based Binary Holograms for Matter-Wave Lithography (United States)

    Nesse, Torstein; Banon, Jean-Philippe; Holst, Bodil; Simonsen, Ingve


    Grid-based binary holography (GBH) is an attractive method for patterning with light or matter waves. It is an approximate technique in which different holographic masks can be used to produce similar patterns. Here we present an optimal design method for GBH masks that allows for freely selecting the fraction of open holes in the mask from below 10% to above 90%. Open fraction is an important design parameter when making masks for use in lithography systems. The method also includes a rescaling feature that potentially enables a better contrast of the generated patterns. Through simulations, we investigate the contrast and robustness of the patterns formed by masks generated by the proposed optimal design method. It is demonstrated that high contrast patterns are achievable for a wide range of open fractions. We conclude that reaching a desired open fraction is a trade-off with the contrast of the pattern generated by the mask.

  17. Nanoimprint Lithography of 20-nm-Pitch Dot Array Pattern Using Tone Reversal Process (United States)

    Ootera, Yasuaki; Sugawara, Katsuya; Kanamaru, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Ryousuke; Kawamonzen, Yoshiaki; Kihara, Naoko; Kamata, Yoshiyuki; Kikitsu, Akira


    The nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of a hexagonal dot array pattern with 20 nm pitch was demonstrated using a tone reversal process. The dot array was formed by the self-assembled polystyrene-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-PDMS) diblock copolymer. The dot pattern was transferred to a hole pattern on the imprint resist layer by a UV-NIL process. The hole pattern was filled with spin-on-glass (SOG). By removing the imprint resist matrix, the SOG dot pattern was formed as a final mask layer. The surface tension of the imprint resist was adjusted to achieve high-quality pattern transfer and demolding. The standard deviation of the diameter and pitch of the dot pattern suffered about 1% drop through the UV-NIL and tone reversal process.

  18. Embedded top-coat for reducing the effect out of band radiation in EUV lithography (United States)

    Du, Ke; Siauw, Meiliana; Valade, David; Jasieniak, Marek; Voelcker, Nico; Trefonas, Peter; Thackeray, Jim; Blakey, Idriss; Whittaker, Andrew


    Out of band (OOB) radiation from the EUV source has significant implications for the performance of EUVL photoresists. Here we introduce a surface-active polymer additive, capable of partitioning to the top of the resist film during casting and annealing, to protect the underlying photoresist from OOB radiation. Copolymers were prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and rendered surface active by chain extension with a block of fluoro-monomer. Films were prepared from the EUV resist with added surface-active Embedded Barrier Layer (EBL), and characterized using measurements of contact angles and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Finally, the lithographic performance of the resist containing the EBL was evaluated using Electron Beam Lithography exposure

  19. Microfluidic devices fabricated using fast wafer-scale LED-lithography patterning. (United States)

    Challa, Pavan K; Kartanas, Tadas; Charmet, Jérôme; Knowles, Tuomas P J


    Current lithography approaches underpinning the fabrication of microfluidic devices rely on UV exposure of photoresists to define microstructures in these materials. Conventionally, this objective is achieved with gas discharge mercury lamps, which are capable of producing high intensity UV radiation. However, these sources are costly, have a comparatively short lifetime, necessitate regular calibration, and require significant time to warm up prior to exposure taking place. To address these limitations we exploit advances in solid state sources in the UV range and describe a fast and robust wafer-scale laboratory exposure system relying entirely on UV-Light emitting diode (UV-LED) illumination. As an illustration of the potential of this system for fast and low-cost microfluidic device production, we demonstrate the microfabrication of a 3D spray-drying microfluidic device and a 3D double junction microdroplet maker device.

  20. Fabrication and performance of nanoscale ultra-smooth programmeddefects for EUV Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olynick, D.L.; Salmassi, F.; Liddle, J.A.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Spiller, E.; Baker, S.L.; Robinson, J.


    We have developed processes for producing ultra-smooth nanoscale programmed substrate defects that have applications in areas such as thin film growth, EUV lithography, and defect inspection. Particle, line, pit, and scratch defects on the substrates between 40 and 140 nm wide 50 to 90 nm high have been successfully produced using e-beam lithograpy and plasma etching in both Silicon and Hydrosilsequioxane films. These programmed defect substrates have several advantages over those produced previously using gold nanoparticles or polystyrene latex spheres--most notably, the ability to precisely locate features and produce recessed as well as bump type features in ultra-smooth films. These programmed defects were used to develop techniques for film defect mitigation and results are discussed.

  1. High resolution 100 kV electron beam lithography in SU-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Jakobsen, S.; Schmidt, M.S.


    High resolution 100 kV electron beam lithography in thin layers of the negative resist SU-8 is demonstrated. Sub-30 nm lines with a pitch down to 300 nm are written in 100 nm thick SU-8. Two reactive ion etch processes are developed in order to transfer the SU-8 structures into a silicon substrate......, a Soft O-2-Plasma process to remove SU-8 residues on the silicon surface after development and a highly anisotropic SF6/O-2/CHF3 based process to transfer the pattern into a silicon substrate, with selectivity between silicon and SU-8 of approximately 2. 30 nm lines patterned in SU-8 are successfully...

  2. Color variation in periodic Ag line arrays patterned by using electron-beam lithography. (United States)

    Wei, D H; Cheng, K W; Yao, Y D; Hsu, S Y; Wei, P K; Huang, J H


    Periodic Ag line arrays with different line pitches from 500 nm to 950 nm on ITO coated glass substrates have been fabricated by using electron-beam lithography (EBL) technique for studying the color light guide in a display system. The patterned Ag line array is used as a light outcoupling and color-selection component due to the emission wavelength changed by the Ag line arrays with different periodic distances that could achieve color variation. We have demonstrated that the ITO coated glass substrates containing periodic Ag line arrays with varied line pitches can be used as a color filter in a display device. This means that with a proper metallic nanostructure layer, the red, green, and blue colors in a display system can be obtained without a traditional color filter for modern multi-applications of optoelectronic display devices.

  3. Mass-limited Sn target irradiated by dual laser pulses for an extreme ultraviolet lithography source (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Tillack, M. S.; Harilal, S. S.; Sequoia, K. L.; Burdt, R. A.; Najmabadi, F.


    A thin Sn film was investigated as a mass-limited target for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography source. It was found that those energetic ions that are intrinsic with the mass-limited Sn target could be efficiently mitigated by introducing a low-energy prepulse. High in-band conversion efficiency from a laser to 13.5 nm EUV light could be obtained using an Sn film with a thickness down to 30 nm when irradiated by dual laser pulses. It was shown that the combination of dual pulse and inert Ar gas could fully mitigate ions with a low ambient pressure nearly without the penalty of the absorption of the EUV light.

  4. Sub-15-nm patterning of asymmetric metal electrodes and devices by adhesion lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Beesley, David J.


    Coplanar electrodes formed from asymmetric metals separated on the nanometre length scale are essential elements of nanoscale photonic and electronic devices. Existing fabrication methods typically involve electron-beam lithography - a technique that enables high fidelity patterning but suffers from significant limitations in terms of low throughput, poor scalability to large areas and restrictive choice of substrate and electrode materials. Here, we describe a versatile method for the rapid fabrication of asymmetric nanogap electrodes that exploits the ability of selected self-assembled monolayers to attach conformally to a prepatterned metal layer and thereby weaken adhesion to a subsequently deposited metal film. The method may be carried out under ambient conditions using simple equipment and a minimum of processing steps, enabling the rapid fabrication of nanogap electrodes and optoelectronic devices with aspect ratios in excess of 100,000.2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Dimer-on-mirror SERS substrates with attogram sensitivity fabricated by colloidal lithography. (United States)

    Hakonen, Aron; Svedendahl, Mikael; Ogier, Robin; Yang, Zhong-Jian; Lodewijks, Kristof; Verre, Ruggero; Shegai, Timur; Andersson, Per Ola; Käll, Mikael


    Nanoplasmonic substrates with optimized field-enhancement properties are a key component in the continued development of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) molecular analysis but are challenging to produce inexpensively in large scale. We used a facile and cost-effective bottom-up technique, colloidal hole-mask lithography, to produce macroscopic dimer-on-mirror gold nanostructures. The optimized structures exhibit excellent SERS performance, as exemplified by detection of 2.5 and 50 attograms of BPE, a common SERS probe, using Raman microscopy and a simple handheld device, respectively. The corresponding Raman enhancement factor is of the order 10(11), which compares favourably to previously reported record performance values.

  6. Computer-controlled dynamic mode multidirectional UV lithography for 3D microfabrication (United States)

    Kim, Jungkwun; Allen, Mark G.; Yoon, Yong-Kyu


    Computer-controlled dynamic mode multidirectional ultraviolet (UV) lithography has been demonstrated using a collimated UV light source, a substrate-holding stage equipped with two stepper motors (one for tilting and the other for rotation), a controller with programming software and a laptop computer. The tilting and rotational angles of the stage in motion are accurately controlled during UV exposure as programmed by the user to produce complex three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. Process parameters include the initial and final tilting and rotational angles of the stage, and the relative angular velocities of the two motors in addition to the normal fabrication process parameters of UV lithography such as optical dose, baking time, and developing time and condition. Symmetric patterns can be generated by a simple synchronous mode dynamic operation, where both the angular velocities of the tilting motion and the rotating motion are set equal or harmonically related. More complex and non-symmetric patterns can be obtained using a piecewise synchronous mode, where the relationship between the angular velocities of the two motors is described not with a single coefficient but with a set of coefficients. 3D structures fabricated from the synchronous mode operation include the four-leaf clover horn and the cardiac horn while the ones from the piecewise synchronous mode are a vertical triangular slab, a screwed wind vane and arbitrary shape horns. Ray trace simulation has been performed using a mathematical tool in a spherical coordinate system and the simulated 3D patterns show good agreement with the fabricated ones.

  7. Multi-shaped-beam (MSB): an evolutionary approach for high throughput e-beam lithography (United States)

    Slodowski, Matthias; Döring, Hans-Joachim; Stolberg, Ines A.; Dorl, Wolfgang


    The development of next-generation lithography (NGL) such as EUV, NIL and maskless lithography (ML2) are driven by the half pitch reduction and increasing integration density of integrated circuits down to the 22nm node and beyond. For electron beam direct write (EBDW) several revolutionary pixel based concepts have been under development since several years. By contrast an evolutionary and full package high throughput multi electron-beam approach called Multi Shaped Beam (MSB), which is based on proven Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) technology, will be presented in this paper. In the recent decade VSB has already been applied in EBDW for device learning, early prototyping and low volume fabrication in production environments for both silicon and compound semiconductor applications. Above all the high resolution and the high flexibility due to the avoidance of expensive masks for critical layers made it an attractive solution for advanced technology nodes down to 32nm half pitch. The limitation in throughput of VSB has been mitigated in a major extension of VSB by the qualification of the cell projection (CP) technology concurrently used with VSB. With CP more pixels in complex shapes can be projected in one shot, enabling a remarkable shot count reduction for repetitive pattern. The most advanced step to extend the mature VSB technology for higher throughput is its parallelization in one column applying MEMS based multi deflection arrays. With this Vistec MSB technology, multiple shaped beamlets are generated simultaneously, each controllable individually in shape size and beam on time. Compared to pixel based ML2 approaches the MSB technology enables the maskless, variable and parallel projection of a large number of pixels per beamlet times the number of beamlets. Basic concepts, exposure examples and performance results of each of the described throughput enhancement steps will be presented.

  8. Investigation of electron beam lithography effects on metal–insulator transition behavior of vanadium dioxide (United States)

    Yuce, H.; Alaboz, H.; Demirhan, Y.; Ozdemir, M.; Ozyuzer, L.; Aygun, G.


    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) shows metal–insulator phase transition at nearly 68 °C. This metal–insulator transition (MIT) in VO2 leads to a significant change in near-infrared transmittance and an abrupt change in the resistivity of VO2. Due to these characteristics, VO2 plays an important role on optic and electronic devices, such as thermochromic windows, meta-materials with tunable frequency, uncooled bolometers and switching devices. In this work, VO2 thin films were fabricated by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering in O2/Ar atmosphere on sapphire substrates without any further post annealing processes. The effect of sputtering parameters on optical characteristics and structural properties of grown thin films was investigated by SEM, XRD, Raman and UV/VIS spectrophotometer measurements. Patterning process of VO2 thin films was realized by e-beam lithography technique to monitor the temperature dependent electrical characterization. Electrical properties of VO2 samples were characterized using microprobe station in a vacuum system. MIT with hysteresis behavior was observed for the unpatterned square samples at around 68 °C. By four orders of magnitude of resistivity change was measured for the deposited VO2 thin films at transition temperature. After e-beam lithography process, substantial results in patterned VO2 thin films were observed. In this stage, for patterned VO2 thin films as stripes, the change in resistivity of VO2 was reduced by a factor of 10. As a consequence of electrical resistivity measurements, MIT temperature was shifted from 68 °C to 50 °C. The influence of e-beam process on the properties of VO2 thin films and the mechanism of the effects are discussed. The presented results contribute to the achievement of VO2 based thermochromic windows and bolometer applications.

  9. Pixelgram: an application of electron-beam lithography for the security printing industry (United States)

    Lee, Robert A.


    Following the development of the Catpix I diffraction gratings structure first used on the 1988 Australian plastic DLR10 banknote and more recently on the Singapore plastic DLR50 banknote, the CSIRO Australia, Division of Materials Science & Technology has developed a new optical security and anti-counterfeiting technology known as Pixelgram (or Catpix 2). The Pixelgram, which is subject to patent, is an optically variable device based on a computerized procedure for producing an optically variable version of any given input picture, e.g., a photograph. When a Pixelgram is observed under a given source, such as a fluorescent tube, the image of the original input picture appears at particular angles of view. At other angles, the image varies in both contrast and brightness and can even appear as the photographic negative of the original input picture at some angles of view. As well as its ability to generate optically variable text and graphical images, Pixelgram has the unique capability of being able to display easily recognizable small scale optically variable images of the human face of near photographic clarity. Pixelgram optical security device master plates are produced by a technique borrowed from the microelectronics industry and known as electron beam lithography. In this technique, millions of microscopic grooves are written individually by a finely focused electron beam scanning across a glass plate coated with an electron sensitive material. On a typical Pixelgram there are approximately 2,000 million individual polygons etched into the plate by the electron beam. This corresponds to more than 10,000 megabytes of binary data. The only known electron beam lithography systems that have been able to write such large data files with the required precision are the Cambridge Instruments EBMF 10.5 and EBML 300 electron beam systems.

  10. ALF: a facility for x-ray lithography II--a progress report (United States)

    Lesoine, L. G.; Kukkonen, Kenneth W.; Leavey, Jeffrey A.


    In our previous paper which we presented here two years ago, we described the ALF (Advanced Lithography Facility), IBM's new facility for X-ray lithography which was built as an addition to the Advanced Semiconductor Technology Center at IBM's semiconductor plant in Hopewell Jct., NY. At that time, we described the structure, its utilities, facilities and special features such as the radiation shielding, control room, clean room and vibration resistant design. The building has been completed and occupied. By the time this paper is presented the storage ring will be commissioned, the clean room occupied, and two beamlines with one stepper operational. In this paper we will review the successful completion of the facility with its associated hardware. The installation of the synchrotron will be described elsewhere. We will also discuss the first measurements of vibration, clean room cleanliness and the effectiveness of the radiation shielding. The ALF was completed on schedule and cost objectives were met. This is attributed to careful planning, close cooperation among all the parties involved from the technical team in IBM Research, the system vendor (Oxford Instruments of Oxford England) to the many contractors and subcontractors and to strong support from IBM senior management. All the planned building specifications were met and the facility has come on-line with a minimum of problems. Most important, the initial measurements show that the radiation shielding plan is sound and that with a few modifications the dose limit of 10% of background will be met. Any concerns about an electron accelerator and synchrotron in an industrial setting have been eliminated.

  11. Performance of SU-8 Membrane Suitable for Deep X-Ray Grayscale Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutaka Mekaru


    Full Text Available In combination with tapered-trench-etching of Si and SU-8 photoresist, a grayscale mask for deep X-ray lithography was fabricated and passed a 10-times-exposure test. The performance of the X-ray grayscale mask was evaluated using the TERAS synchrotron radiation facility at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST. Although the SU-8 before photo-curing has been evaluated as a negative-tone photoresist for ultraviolet (UV and X-ray lithographies, the characteristic of the SU-8 after photo-curing has not been investigated. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA sheet was irradiated by a synchrotron radiation through an X-ray mask, and relationships between the dose energy and exposure depth, and between the dose energy and dimensional transition, were investigated. Using such a technique, the shape of a 26-μm-high Si absorber was transformed into the shape of a PMMA microneedle with a height of 76 μm, and done with a high contrast. Although during the fabrication process of the X-ray mask a 100-μm-pattern-pitch (by design was enlarged to 120 μm. However, with an increase in an integrated dose energy this number decreased to 99 μm. These results show that the X-ray grayscale mask has many practical applications. In this paper, the author reports on the evaluation results of SU-8 when used as a membrane material for an X-ray mask.

  12. High-throughput jet and flash imprint lithography for advanced semiconductor memory (United States)

    Khusnatdinov, Niyaz; Ye, Zhengmao; Luo, Kang; Stachowiak, Tim; Lu, Xiaoming; Irving, J. W.; Shafran, Matt; Longsine, Whitney; Traub, Matthew; Truskett, Van; Fletcher, Brian; Liu, Weijun; Xu, Frank; LaBrake, Dwayne; Sreenivasan, S. V.


    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FIL) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Non-fill defectivity must always be considered within the context of process throughput. Processing steps such as resist exposure time and mask/wafer separation are well understood, and typical times for the steps are on the order of 0.10 to 0.20 seconds. To achieve a total process throughput of 20 wafers per hour (wph), it is necessary to complete the fluid fill step in 1.0 seconds, making it the key limiting step in an imprint process. Recently, defect densities of less than 1.0/cm2 have been achieved at a fill time of 1.2 seconds by reducing resist drop size and optimizing the drop pattern. There are several parameters that can impact resist filling. Key parameters include resist drop volume (smaller is better), system controls (which address drop spreading after jetting), Design for Imprint or DFI (to accelerate drop spreading) and material engineering (to promote wetting between the resist and underlying adhesion layer). In addition, it is mandatory to maintain fast filling, even for edge field imprinting. This paper addresses the improvements made with reduced drop volume and enhanced surface wetting to demonstrate that fast filling can be achieved for both full fields and edge fields. By incorporating the changes to the process noted above, we are now attaining fill times of 1 second with non-fill defectivity of ~ 0.1 defects/cm2.

  13. Directed self-assembly lithography using coordinated line epitaxy (COOL) process (United States)

    Seino, Yuriko; Kasahara, Yusuke; Sato, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kubota, Hitoshi; Minegishi, Shinya; Miyagi, Ken; Kanai, Hideki; Kodera, Katsuyoshi; Kihara, Naoko; Kawamonzen, Yoshiaki; Tobana, Toshikatsu; Shiraishi, Masayuki; Nomura, Satoshi; Azuma, Tsukasa


    In this study, half-pitch (HP) 15 nm line-and-space (L/S) metal wires were successfully fabricated and fully integrated on a 300 mm wafer by applying directed self-assembly (DSA) lithography and pattern transfer for semiconductor device manufacturing. In order to evaluate process performances of DSA, we developed a simple sub-15 nm L/S patterning process using polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) lamellar block copolymer (BCP), which utilizes trimming resist and shallow etching spin-on-glass (SOG) as pinning guide[1]-[4]. From the results of defect inspection after SOG etch using Electron Beam (EB) inspection system, defects were classified as typical DSA defects or defects relating to DSA pattern transfer. From the evaluation of DSA L/S pattern Critical Dimension (CD), roughness and local placement error using CD-SEM, it is considered that isolated PS lines are placed at the centerline between guides and that placement of paired PS lines depends on the guide width. The control of the guide resist CD is the key to local placement error and the paired lines adjacent to the guide shifted toward the outside (0.5 nm) along the centerline of the isolated line after SOG etch. We demonstrated fabrication of HP 15 nm metal wires in trenches formed by the DSA process with reactive ion etching (RIE), followed by metal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). By SEM observation of alignment errors between the trenches and connect spaces, overlay shift patterns (-4 nm) in guide lithography mask were fabricated without intra-wafer alignment errors.

  14. Alternative nano-structured thin-film materials used as durable thermal nanoimprint lithography templates. (United States)

    Bossard, M; Boussey, J; Le Drogoff, B; Chaker, M


    Nanoimprint templates made of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) thin films and fluorine-doped associated materials, i.e. F-DLC and F-SiC were investigated in the context of thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) with respect to their release properties. Their performances in terms of durability and stability were evaluated and compared to those of conventional silicon or silica molds coated with antisticking molecules applied as a self-assembled monolayer. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition parameters were firstly tuned to optimize mechanical and structural properties of the DLC and SiC thin films. The impact of the amount of fluorine dopant on the deposited thin films properties was then analyzed. A comparative analysis of DLC, F-DLC as well as SiC and F-SiC molds was then carried out over multiple imprints, performed into poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thermo-plastic resist. The release properties of un-patterned films were evaluated by the measurement of demolding energies and surface energies, associated with a systematic analysis of the mold surface contamination. These analyses showed that the developed materials behave as intrinsically easy-demolding and contamination-free molds over series of up to 40 imprints. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a large number of imprints has been considered within an exhaustive comparative study of materials for NIL. Finally, the developed materials went through standard e-beam lithography and plasma etching processes to obtain nanoscale-patterned templates. The replicas of those patterned molds, imprinted into PMMA, were shown to be of high fidelity and good stability after several imprints.

  15. Physical properties of an oxide photoresist film for submicron pattern lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Donyau [Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chun-Ming [Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shi-Wei [Nano Science Group, Scientific Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan (China); Yang, Chin-Tien [Nanotechnology Research Center, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, 31040, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Wen-Jeng [Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)


    The minimum etched pits of 300 nm diameter and the trenches of 300 nm width with a 50 nm depth for both geometries are prepared in the GeSbSn oxide photoresist on the silicon substrates. The lithographic patterns are recorded by direct laser writing, using a 405 nm laser diode and 0.9 numerical aperture media disc mastering system. The developed pit diameters in an inorganic oxide photoresist are smaller than the exposed laser beam spot diameter due to thermal lithography. The crystal structures of the as-sputtered and the annealed powder samples scraped from the sputtered films are examined by X-ray diffractometer. The effect of the heating rate on the crystallization temperatures is evaluated by a differential scanning calorimeter and the crystallization activation energy is determined from Kissinger's plot. The optical and absorption characteristics of the oxides are strongly dependent on the oxygen flow rate during the reactive magnetron sputtering process. The transmittance of the deposited films increases and the absorption decreases with increasing oxygen flow rate, which implies that at high oxygen flow rate, the film resembles dielectric material. The oxygen flow rate during the deposition process is defined within a limited range to obtain the proper extinction coefficient. The working extinction coefficients of the films ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 are applied in this study to achieve the sharp and vertical edge of the etched pits and trenches of 50 nm depth. - Highlights: • A photoresist layer consisting GeSbSnO with submicron patterning for optical device applications. • The thermal, optical properties and crystallization behaviors are reported. • A better working extinction coefficient ranges are decided experimentally. • The ranges define minimum size of the etched marks with smooth boundary. • Thermal lithography concept is introduced to explain experimental results.

  16. Polymer blend lithography: A versatile method to fabricate nanopatterned self-assembled monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Huang


    Full Text Available A rapid and cost-effective lithographic method, polymer blend lithography (PBL, is reported to produce patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAM on solid substrates featuring two or three different chemical functionalities. For the pattern generation we use the phase separation of two immiscible polymers in a blend solution during a spin-coating process. By controlling the spin-coating parameters and conditions, including the ambient atmosphere (humidity, the molar mass of the polystyrene (PS and poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA, and the mass ratio between the two polymers in the blend solution, the formation of a purely lateral morphology (PS islands standing on the substrate while isolated in the PMMA matrix can be reproducibly induced. Either of the formed phases (PS or PMMA can be selectively dissolved afterwards, and the remaining phase can be used as a lift-off mask for the formation of a nanopatterned functional silane monolayer. This “monolayer copy” of the polymer phase morphology has a topographic contrast of about 1.3 nm. A demonstration of tuning of the PS island diameter is given by changing the molar mass of PS. Moreover, polymer blend lithography can provide the possibility of fabricating a surface with three different chemical components: This is demonstrated by inducing breath figures (evaporated condensed entity at higher humidity during the spin-coating process. Here we demonstrate the formation of a lateral pattern consisting of regions covered with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS and (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES, and at the same time featuring regions of bare SiOx. The patterning process could be applied even on meter-sized substrates with various functional SAM molecules, making this process suitable for the rapid preparation of quasi two-dimensional nanopatterned functional substrates, e.g., for the template-controlled growth of ZnO nanostructures.

  17. When lithography meets self-assembly: a review of recent advances in the directed assembly of complex metal nanostructures on planar and textured surfaces (United States)

    Hughes, Robert A.; Menumerov, Eredzhep; Neretina, Svetlana


    One of the foremost challenges in nanofabrication is the establishment of a processing science that integrates wafer-based materials, techniques, and devices with the extraordinary physicochemical properties accessible when materials are reduced to nanoscale dimensions. Such a merger would allow for exacting controls on nanostructure positioning, promote cooperative phenomenon between adjacent nanostructures and/or substrate materials, and allow for electrical contact to individual or groups of nanostructures. With neither self-assembly nor top-down lithographic processes being able to adequately meet this challenge, advancements have often relied on a hybrid strategy that utilizes lithographically-defined features to direct the assembly of nanostructures into organized patterns. While these so-called directed assembly techniques have proven viable, much of this effort has focused on the assembly of periodic arrays of spherical or near-spherical nanostructures comprised of a single element. Work directed toward the fabrication of more complex nanostructures, while still at a nascent stage, has nevertheless demonstrated the possibility of forming arrays of nanocubes, nanorods, nanoprisms, nanoshells, nanocages, nanoframes, core-shell structures, Janus structures, and various alloys on the substrate surface. In this topical review, we describe the progress made in the directed assembly of periodic arrays of these complex metal nanostructures on planar and textured substrates. The review is divided into three broad strategies reliant on: (i) the deterministic positioning of colloidal structures, (ii) the reorganization of deposited metal films at elevated temperatures, and (iii) liquid-phase chemistry practiced directly on the substrate surface. These strategies collectively utilize a broad range of techniques including capillary assembly, microcontact printing, chemical surface modulation, templated dewetting, nanoimprint lithography, and dip-pen nanolithography and

  18. Superhydrophobic, antiadhesive, and antireflective surfaces mediated by hybrid biomimetic salvinia leaf with moth-eye structures (United States)

    Yang, Cho-Yun; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Yang, Cho-Yu; Sung, Cheng-Kuo; Yu, Peichen; Kuo, Hao-Chung


    In this paper, we successfully demonstrate multifunctional surfaces based on scaffolding biomimetic structures, namely, hybrid salvinia leaves with moth-eye structures (HSMSs). The novel fabrication process employs scalable polystyrene nanosphere lithography and a lift-off process. Systematic characterizations show the biomimetic HSMS exhibiting superhydrophobic, self-cleaning, antiadhesive, and antireflective properties. Furthermore, the resulting surface tension gradient (known as the Marangoni effect) leads to a superior air retention characteristic in the HSMS under water droplet impact, compared with the traditional hybrid lotus leaf with a moth-eye structure (HLMS). Such results and learnings pave the way towards the attainment and mass deployment of dielectric surfaces with multiple functionalities for versatile biological and optoelectronic applications.

  19. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  20. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  1. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus


    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  2. Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for theMaskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ximan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography

  3. Continuous phase-shift lithography with a roll-type mask and application to transparent conductor fabrication. (United States)

    Kwak, Moon Kyu; Ok, Jong G; Lee, Jae Yong; Guo, L Jay


    We report the development of a near-field optical nanolithography method using a roll-type phase-shift mask. Sub-wavelength resolution is achieved using near-field exposure of photoresist through a cylindrical phase mask, allowing dynamic and high throughput continuous patterning. As an application, we present the fabrication of a transparent electrode in the form of a metallic wire grid by using the roller-based optical lithography method. To fabricate a mesh-type metal pattern, a specific phase-shift mask was designed and critical experimental parameters were also studied. As a result, a transparent conductor with suitable properties was achieved with a recently built cylindrical phase-shift lithography prototype designed to pattern on 100 mm(2) of substrate area.

  4. Approach of pullulan derivatives to resist polymers for green lithography in eco-friendly optical NEMS and MEMS (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Oshima, Akihiro; Ito, Kenta; Sugahara, Kigenn; Kashiwakura, Miki; Oyama, Tomoko G.; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi; Hanabata, Makoto


    This presentation reported an approach of glucose derivatives to resist polymers for eco-friendly optical NEMS and MEMS. The material design concept to use the water-soluble resist material with highly efficient crosslinking, water development, and lower film thickness shrinkage was proposed for green lithography. The lithographic properties due to the glucose derivatives, and the low film thickness shrinkage due to distinctive bulky chemical structure were proposed in the resist material, and then demonstrated to be effective for creating high resolution, excellent patterning dimensional accuracy, and low line edge roughness in EB lithography. Mixing or blending of glucose and cellulose derivatives was a valuable approach to the design of resist formulations for eco-friendly optical NEMS and MEMS.

  5. Selective binding of oligonucleotide on TiO{sub 2} surfaces modified by swift heavy ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente Pérez-Girón, J. [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Emerging Viruses Department Heinrich Pette Institute, Hamburg 20251 (Germany); Hirtz, M. [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); McAtamney, C.; Bell, A.P. [Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Antonio Mas, J. [Laboratorio de Genómica del Centro de Apoyo Tecnológico, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Campus de Alcorcón 28922, Madrid (Spain); Jaafar, M. [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Luis, O. de [Nanoate, S.L. C/Poeta Rafael Morales 2, San Sebastian de los Reyes, 28702 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica, Fisiología y Genética Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Campus de Alcorcón, 28922 Madrid (Spain); Fuchs, H. [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Physical Institute and Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech), Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, University of Münster (Germany); and others


    We have used swift heavy-ion beam based lithography to create patterned bio-functional surfaces on rutile TiO{sub 2} single crystals. The applied lithography method generates a permanent and well defined periodic structure of micrometre sized square holes having nanostructured TiO{sub 2} surfaces, presenting different physical and chemical properties compared to the surrounding rutile single crystal surface. On the patterned substrates selective binding of oligonucleotides molecules is possible at the surfaces of the holes. This immobilisation process is only being controlled by UV light exposure. The patterned transparent substrates are compatible with fluorescence detection techniques, are mechanically robust, have a high tolerance to extreme chemical and temperature environments, and apparently do not degrade after ten cycles of use. These qualities make the patterned TiO{sub 2} substrates useful for potential biosensor applications.

  6. Measurement of viscoelasticity of UV photoresist used for nanoimprint lithography under confinement in nanometer-sized gaps (United States)

    Itoh, Shintaro; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Zhang, Hedong


    In UV nanoimprint lithography, the viscoelasticity of a photoresist is a dominant factor that affects defect control, throughput, and alignment accuracy, all of which are important for high-volume manufacturing. During the nanoimprint process, the photoresist is confined in nanogaps and nanocavities, between the mold and the substrate. In this study, we measure the viscoelasticity of a UV photoresist, PAK-01, confined in nanometer-sized gap widths by the sensitive shear force measurement method developed in our previous study. Experimental results show that PAK-01, a viscous liquid in the bulk state, turns into a viscoelastic liquid in the nanogaps. Qualitatively, a similar transition is observed with the typical acrylate monomer, isobornyl acrylate. These findings are significant factors that should be considered in the improvement of the accuracy and efficiency of nanoimprint lithography.

  7. Plain-pattern to cross-section transfer (PCT) technique for deep x-ray lithography and applications (United States)

    Sugiyama, Susumu; Khumpuang, Sommawan; Kawaguchi, Gaku


    This paper presents a novel fabrication method for three-dimensional microstructures using deep x-ray lithography. The microstructures were fabricated including sloped sidewalls and curved surfaces by exposing a synchrotron radiation beam to a moving x-ray resist. The technique, the so-called plain-pattern to cross-section transfer (PCT) technique, has been developed as an extension to conventional 2.5-dimension lithography. The fabrication of PMMA microstructures has been demonstrated with surfaces as smooth as 10 nm of RMS roughness. Various applications, e.g., micro-optic, bio-medical and some components of MEMS devices have been realized. Two microstructures have been given as examples: microlens arrays and microneedle arrays. The resulting arrays can be employed to fabricate moulds by electro-deposition for further batch-processing using the LIGA process.

  8. MRT letter: Two-photon excitation-based 2pi light-sheet system for nano-lithography. (United States)

    Mohan, Kavya; Mondal, Partha Pratim


    We propose two-photon excitation-based light-sheet technique for nano-lithography. The system consists of 2π-configured cylindrical lens system with a common geometrical focus. Upon superposition, the phase-matched counter-propagating light-sheets result in the generation of identical and equi spaced nano-bump pattern. Study shows a feature size of as small as few tens of nanometers with a inter-bump distance of few hundred nanometers. This technique overcomes some of the limitations of existing nano-lithography techniques, thereby, may pave the way for mass-production of nano-structures. Potential applications can also be found in optical microscopy, plasmonics, and nano-electronics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A facile synthesis of C{sub 60}-organosilicon hybrid polymers: Considering their tunable optical properties for spin-on-silicon hardmask materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin-Kyu; Dao, Tung Duy; Kim, Ye-Seul; Jeong, Hyun-Dam, E-mail:


    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials with high refractive index have attracted considerable attention for many optoelectronic applications, including spin-on-type hardmask for ArF lithography (193 nm). In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of a C{sub 60}-embedded organosilicon hybrid polymer, C{sub 60}-embedded poly-xylene-hexamethyltrisiloxane hybrid (C{sub 60}-PXS), of tunable optical properties. C{sub 60} was covalently bonded to the PXS backbone through Pt-catalyzed hydrosilylation, in which the PXS was formed possibly by unexpected transition metal-catalyzed benzylic C−H silylation and oxygenation of the o-xylene. The C{sub 60}-PXS thin films fabricated using a spin-coating method showed much higher refractive index by 5–22% according to the curing temperatures, than the PXS thin films containing no C{sub 60}. In particular, the C{sub 60}-PXS thin film cured at 350 °C showed the refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) at 193 nm to be 1.61 and 0.29 that are very close to the optimum values for the Si-hardmask. This implies the high applicability of the C{sub 60}-embedded organosilicon hybrid polymer, C{sub 60}-PXS, for the spin-on Si-hardmask in ArF lithography. - Highlights: • A facile synthetic route for C{sub 60}-embedded organosilicon hybrid polymer was presented. • The hybrid polymer showed much higher refractive index than the polymer without C{sub 60}. • The hybrid polymer is highly applicable for Si-hardmask in terms of optical properties. • It is believed that the properties of the hybrid polymer can be further optimized.

  10. Hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, J.W.; Stiles, J.I.; Tye, B.K.; Sherman, F.; Wu, R.


    Procedures are described for the use of synthetic oligonucleotides for Southern blot experiments and gene bank screening, and the effect of various mismatches on the efficiency of hybridization is demonstrated. The following topics are discussed: sensitivity vs. specificity, hybridization of a 12-mer to the lambda endolysin gene; hybridization of oligonucleotide probes to the E. coli lac operator; hybridization of synthetic probes to the CYC1 gene of yeast; and cloning eucaryotic genes. (HLW)

  11. Metal-carbonyl organometallic polymers, PFpP, as resists for high-resolution positive and negative electron beam lithography. (United States)

    Zhang, J; Cao, K; Wang, X S; Cui, B


    Metal-containing resists for electron beam lithography (EBL) are attracting attention owing to their high dry etching resistance and possibility for directly patterning metal-containing nanostructures. The newly developed organometallic metal carbonyl polymers, PFpP, can function as EBL resists with strong etching resistance. One significant feature of the PFpP resist is its high resolution. Line arrays with line-widths as narrow as 17 nm have been created. The resist can also be used in positive tone.

  12. Demonstration of electronic design automation flow for massively parallel e-beam lithography (United States)

    Brandt, Pieter; Belledent, Jérôme; Tranquillin, Céline; Figueiro, Thiago; Meunier, Stéfanie; Bayle, Sébastien; Fay, Aurélien; Milléquant, Matthieu; Icard, Beatrice; Wieland, Marco


    For proximity effect correction in 5 keV e-beam lithography, three elementary building blocks exist: dose modulation, geometry (size) modulation, and background dose addition. Combinations of these three methods are quantitatively compared in terms of throughput impact and process window (PW). In addition, overexposure in combination with negative bias results in PW enhancement at the cost of throughput. In proximity effect correction by over exposure (PEC-OE), the entire layout is set to fixed dose and geometry sizes are adjusted. In PEC-dose to size (DTS) both dose and geometry sizes are locally optimized. In PEC-background (BG), a background is added to correct the long-range part of the point spread function. In single e-beam tools (Gaussian or Shaped-beam), throughput heavily depends on the number of shots. In raster scan tools such as MAPPER Lithography's FLX 1200 (MATRIX platform) this is not the case and instead of pattern density, the maximum local dose on the wafer is limiting throughput. The smallest considered half-pitch is 28 nm, which may be considered the 14-nm node for Metal-1 and the 10-nm node for the Via-1 layer, achieved in a single exposure with e-beam lithography. For typical 28-nm-hp Metal-1 layouts, it was shown that dose latitudes (size of process window) of around 10% are realizable with available PEC methods. For 28-nm-hp Via-1 layouts this is even higher at 14% and up. When the layouts do not reach the highest densities (up to 10∶1 in this study), PEC-BG and PEC-OE provide the capability to trade throughput for dose latitude. At the highest densities, PEC-DTS is required for proximity correction, as this method adjusts both geometry edges and doses and will reduce the dose at the densest areas. For 28-nm-hp lines critical dimension (CD), hole&dot (CD) and line ends (edge placement error), the data path errors are typically 0.9, 1.0 and 0.7 nm (3σ) and below, respectively. There is not a clear data path performance difference between

  13. Multilayer, Stacked Spiral Copper Inductors on Silicon with Micro-Henry Inductance Using Single-Level Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Reissman


    Full Text Available We present copper structures composed of multilayer, stacked inductors (MLSIs with tens of micro-Henry inductance for use in low frequency (sub 100 MHz, power converter technology. Unique to this work is the introduction of single-level lithography over the traditional two-level approach to create each inductor layer. The result is a simplified fabrication process which results in a reduction in the number of lithography steps per inductor (metal layer and a reduction in the necessary alignment precision. Additionally, we show that this fabrication process yields strong adhesion amongst the layers, since even after a postprocess abrasion technique at the inner diameter of the inductors, no shearing occurs and connectivity is preserved. In total, three separate structures were fabricated using the single-level lithography approach, each with a three-layered, stacked inductor design but with varied geometries. Measured values for each of the structures were extracted, and the following results were obtained: inductance values of 24.74, 17.25, and 24.74 μH, self-resonances of 9.87, 5.72, and 10.58 MHz, and peak quality factors of 2.26, 2.05, and 4.6, respectively. These values are in good agreement with the lumped parameter model presented.

  14. Noble-metal nanoparticles produced with colloidal lithography: fabrication, optical properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocchio, Noelia Laura


    In this work, metal nanoparticles produced by nanosphere lithography were studied in terms of their optical properties (in connection to their plasmon resonances), their potential application in sensing platforms - for thin layer sensing and bio-recognition events -, and for a particular case (the nanocrescents), for enhanced spectroscopy studies. The general preparation procedures introduced early in 2005 by Shumaker-Parry et al. to produce metallic nanocrescents were extended to give rise to more complex (isolated) structures, and also, by combining colloidal monolayer fabrication and plasma etching techniques, to arrays of them. The fabrication methods presented in this work were extended not only to new shapes or arrangements of particles, but included also a targeted surface tailoring of the substrates and the structures, using different thiol and silane compounds as linkers for further attachment of, i.e. polyelectrolyte layers, which allow for a controlled tailoring of their nanoenvironment. The optical properties of the nanocrescents were studied with conventional transmission spectroscopy; a simple multipole model was adapted to explain their behaviour qualitatively. In terms of applications, the results on thin film sensing using these particles show that the crescents present an interesting mode-dependent sensitivity and spatial extension. Parallel to this, the penetrations depths were modeled with two simplified schemes, obtaining good agreement with theory. The multiple modes of the particles with their characteristic decay lengths and sensitivities represent a major improvement for particle-sensing platforms compared to previous single resonance systems. The nanocrescents were also used to alter the emission properties of fluorophores placed close to them. In this work, green emitting dyes were placed at controlled distances from the structures and excited using a pulsed laser emitting in the near infrared. The fluorescence signal obtained in this

  15. The MEH-PPV/YAG:Ce Hybrid Nanocomposite Material for Solution Processing Fabrication of Optoelectronic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Dinh Van


    Full Text Available The fabrication and the property investigation of the hybrid nanocomposite material made of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV polymer and Y3Al5O12:Ce (YAG:Ce with the relative weight ratio of 1 : 1 in order to apply for optoelectronic devices are reported. Thermal analysis showed the hybrid material’s deterioration or decomposition when the temperature exceeded 200°C under inert gas atmosphere. Rheological measurement concluded that the material solution can be used for spinning or soft moulding lithography making large- or flexible substrate surface. Optical properties of the hybrid material are investigated. The effect of thermal treatment on the optical properties showed that, at 180°C under inert gas environment, the optical properties were enhanced. An MEH-PPV/YAG:Ce hybrid nanocomposite converted LED lamp was fabricated showing that the hybrid material is suitable as conversion material for white LED fabrication.

  16. Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver. (United States)

    Zheng, Xuezhe; Patil, Dinesh; Lexau, Jon; Liu, Frankie; Li, Guoliang; Thacker, Hiren; Luo, Ying; Shubin, Ivan; Li, Jieda; Yao, Jin; Dong, Po; Feng, Dazeng; Asghari, Mehdi; Pinguet, Thierry; Mekis, Attila; Amberg, Philip; Dayringer, Michael; Gainsley, Jon; Moghadam, Hesam Fathi; Alon, Elad; Raj, Kannan; Ho, Ron; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V


    Using low parasitic microsolder bumping, we hybrid integrated efficient photonic devices from different platforms with advanced 40 nm CMOS VLSI circuits to build ultra-low power silicon photonic transmitters and receivers for potential applications in high performance inter/intra-chip interconnects. We used a depletion racetrack ring modulator with improved electro-optic efficiency to allow stepper optical photo lithography for reduced fabrication complexity. Integrated with a low power cascode 2 V CMOS driver, the hybrid silicon photonic transmitter achieved better than 7 dB extinction ratio for 10 Gbps operation with a record low power consumption of 1.35 mW. A received power penalty of about 1 dB was measured for a BER of 10(-12) compared to an off-the-shelf lightwave LiNOb3 transmitter, which comes mostly from the non-perfect extinction ratio. Similarly, a Ge waveguide detector fabricated using 130 nm SOI CMOS process was integrated with low power VLSI circuits using hybrid bonding. The all CMOS hybrid silicon photonic receiver achieved sensitivity of -17 dBm for a BER of 10(-12) at 10 Gbps, consuming an ultra-low power of 3.95 mW (or 395 fJ/bit in energy efficiency). The scalable hybrid integration enables continued photonic device improvements by leveraging advanced CMOS technologies with maximum flexibility, which is critical for developing ultra-low power high performance photonic interconnects for future computing systems.

  17. Lithographically Defined, Room Temperature Low Threshold Subwavelength Red-Emitting Hybrid Plasmonic Lasers. (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Gocalinska, Agnieszka; Justice, John; Gity, Farzan; Povey, Ian; McCarthy, Brendan; Pemble, Martyn; Pelucchi, Emanuele; Wei, Hong; Silien, Christophe; Xu, Hongxing; Corbett, Brian


    Hybrid plasmonic lasers provide deep subwavelength optical confinement, strongly enhanced light-matter interaction and together with nanoscale footprint promise new applications in optical communication, biosensing, and photolithography. The subwavelength hybrid plasmonic lasers reported so far often use bottom-up grown nanowires, nanorods, and nanosquares, making it difficult to integrate these devices into industry-relevant high density plasmonic circuits. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of AlGaInP based, red-emitting hybrid plasmonic lasers at room temperature using lithography based fabrication processes. Resonant cavities with deep subwavelength 2D and 3D mode confinement of λ2/56 and λ3/199, respectively, are demonstrated. A range of cavity geometries (waveguides, rings, squares, and disks) show very low lasing thresholds of 0.6-1.8 mJ/cm2 with wide gain bandwidth (610 nm-685 nm), which are attributed to the heterogeneous geometry of the gain material, the optimized etching technique, and the strong overlap of the gain material with the plasmonic modes. Most importantly, we establish the connection between mode confinements and enhanced absorption and stimulated emission, which plays critical roles in maintaining low lasing thresholds at extremely small hybrid plasmonic cavities. Our results pave the way for the further integration of dense arrays of hybrid plasmonic lasers with optical and electronic technology platforms.

  18. Marker Pen Lithography for Flexible and Curvilinear On-Chip Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Qiu


    On-chip energy storage using microsupercapacitors can serve the dual role of supplementing batteries for pulse power delivery, and replacement of bulky electrolytic capacitors in ac-line filtering applications. Despite complexity and processing costs, microfabrication techniques are being employed in fabricating a great variety of microsupercapacitor devices. Here, a simple, cost-effective, and versatile strategy is proposed to fabricate flexible and curvilinear microsupercapacitors (MSCs). The protocol involves writing sacrificial ink patterns using commercial marker pens on rigid, flexible, and curvilinear substrates. It is shown that this process can be used in both lift-off and etching modes, and the possibility of multistack design of active materials using simple pen lithography is demonstrated. As a prototype, this method is used to produce conducting polymer MSCs involving both poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), polyaniline, and metal oxide (MnO2) electrode materials. Typical values of energy density in the range of 5-11 mWh cm-3 at power densities of 1-6 W cm-3 are achieved, which is comparable to thin film batteries and superior to the carbon and metal oxide based microsupercapacitors reported in the literature. The simplicity and broad scope of this innovative strategy can open up new avenues for easy and scalable fabrication of a wide variety of on-chip energy storage devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Table-top deterministic and collective colloidal assembly using videoprojector lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, J. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LTM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Zelsmann, M., E-mail: [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LTM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Honegger, T. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LTM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Picard, E.; Hadji, E. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Peyrade, D. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LTM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38000 Grenoble (France)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Micrometric resolution substrates are made at low cost using a videoprojector. • Fabricated patterns could be used as substrates for capillary force assembly. • Arrays of organized particles are made using a table-top capillary assembly tool. • This process offers a new bridge between the colloidal domain and the chip world. - Abstract: In the field of micro- and nanotechnology, most lithography and fabrication tools coming from the microelectronic industry are expensive, time-consuming and may need some masks that have to be subcontracted. Such approach is not suitable for other fields that require rapid prototyping such as chemistry, life science or energy and may hinder research creativity. In this work, we present two table-top equipments dedicated to the fabrication of deterministic colloidal particles assemblies onto micro-structured substrates. We show that, with a limited modification of the optics of a standard videoprojector, it is possible to quickly obtain substrates with thousands of micrometric features. Then, we combine these substrates with thermodynamic colloidal assembly and generate arrays of particles without defects. This work opens the way to a simple and table-top fabrication of devices based on colloidal particles.

  20. Deformation of a LCD glass-panel by alignment process in nanoimprint lithography. (United States)

    Park, I; Yim, H; Jang, S; Shin, D; Lim, S; Jeong, J I


    Deformation of a LCD glass-panel during the alignment is analyzed for a UV-nanoimprint lithography process. In UV-nanoimprint processes for manufacturing LCD panels, a glass-panel should be aligned with respect to the position of fiducial marks on imprint mold and the target glass. The alignment process will place the nano-patterns on the mold into the designated position in the glass-panel. Usually, viscoelastic resin is laminated between the mold and glass-panel. The resin is solidified by ultra-violet light and is designed to be nano-patterns. Thus, shear force would be induced on the panel during alignment process. The shear force can cause deformation of glass-panel, which ultimately causes misalignment of nano-patterns. Thus, deformation analysis for the glass-panel in the alignment process is essential to enhance the accuracy and to reduce alignment cost in nano-imprint. In this work, deformation of the glass panel from the viscous force is calculated by using 'ALGOR' package. The mechanism of misalignment of nano-patterns due to the deformation is analyzed. Finally, the effect of misalignment is discussed, and the experimental results are also presented.

  1. Lithography-Free Broadband Ultrathin-Film Absorbers with Gap-Plasmon Resonance for Organic Photovoltaics. (United States)

    Choi, Minjung; Kang, Gumin; Shin, Dongheok; Barange, Nilesh; Lee, Chang-Won; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Kim, Kyoungsik


    Strategies to confine electromagnetic field within ultrathin film emerge as essential technologies for applications from thin-film solar cells to imaging and sensing devices. We demonstrate a lithography-free, low-cost, large-scale method to realize broadband ultrathi-film metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) absorbers, by exploiting gap-plasmon resonances for strongly confined electromagnetic field. A two-steps method, first organizing Au nanoparticles via thermal dewetting and then transferring the nanoparticles to a spacer-reflector substrate, is used to achieve broader absorption bandwidth by manipulating geometric shapes of the top metallic layer into hemiellipsoids. A fast-deposited nominal Au film, instead of a conventional slow one, is employed in the Ostwald ripening process to attain hemiellipsoidal nanoparticles. A polymer supported transferring step allows a wider range of dewetting temperature to manipulate the nanoparticles' shape. By incorporating circularity with ImageJ software, the geometries of hemiellipsoidal nanoparticles are quantitatively characterized. Controlling the top geometry of MDM structure from hemisphere to hemiellipsoid increases the average absorption at 500-900 nm from 23.1% to 43.5% in the ultrathin film and full width at half-maximum of 132-324 nm, which is consistently explained by finite-difference time-domain simulation. The structural advantages of our scheme are easily applicable to thin-film photovoltaic devices because metal electrodes can act as metal reflectors and semiconductor layers as dielectric spacers.

  2. Control of zinc oxide nanowire array properties with electron-beam lithography templating for photovoltaic applications (United States)

    Nicaise, Samuel M.; Cheng, Jayce J.; Kiani, Amirreza; Gradečak, Silvija; Berggren, Karl K.


    Hydrothermally synthesized zinc oxide nanowire arrays have been used as nanostructured acceptors in emerging photovoltaic (PV) devices. The nanoscale dimensions of such arrays allow for enhanced charge extraction from PV active layers, but the device performance critically depends on the nanowire array pitch and alignment. In this study, we templated hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowire arrays via high-resolution electron-beam-lithography defined masks, achieving the dual requirements of high-resolution patterning at a pitch of several hundred nanometers, while maintaining hole sizes small enough to control nanowire array morphology. We investigated several process conditions, including the effect of annealing sputtered and spincoated ZnO seed layers on nanowire growth, to optimize array property metrics—branching from individual template holes and off-normal alignment. We found that decreasing template hole size decreased branching prevalence but also reduced alignment. Annealing seed layers typically improved alignment, and sputtered seed layers yielded nanowire arrays superior to spincoated seed layers. We show that these effects arose from variation in the size of the template holes relative to the ZnO grain size in the seed layer. The quantitative control of branching and alignment of the nanowire array that is achieved in this study will open new paths toward engineering more efficient electrodes to increase photocurrent in nanostructured PVs. This control is also applicable to inorganic nanowire growth in general, nanomechanical generators, nanowire transistors, and surface-energy engineering.

  3. Impact of MSD and mask manufacture errors on 45nm-node lithography (United States)

    Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Liu, Lihui; Guo, Xuejia; Wang, Xuxia; Yang, Jianhong


    Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) is quite sensitive in 45nm node lithography and beyond, thus, more attentions should be paid on the controlling of CDU. Moving Standard Deviation (MSD) and Mask Manufacture Errors (MMEs) including the Mask Critical Dimension Error (MCDE), Mask Transmittance Error (MTE) and Mask Phase Error (MPE) are the two important factors influencing CDU. The study on the impact of MSD and MMEs is a helpful way to improve the lithographic quality. Previous researches often emphasize on the single impact of MSD or MMEs, however the impact of both of them usually exists simultaneously. The studies on the co-impact of MSD and MMEs are more significant. In this paper, the impact and the cross-talk between MSD and MMEs on Critical Dimension (CD) and Exposure Latitude verse Depth of Focus (EL-DOF) for different pattern under various illumination conditions have been evaluated by simulation, which is carried on PROLITHTM X3 and in-house software IntLitho. And then, the MSD's tolerance with the existence of MMEs is discussed. The simulation results show that CD error caused by the co-existence of MSD and MMEs is not the simple algebraic sum of the individual CD error caused by MSD or MMEs. The CD error becomes more pronounced when the MSD and MMEs interact with each other. The studies on the tolerance reveal that the tolerance of MSD decreases due to MMEs' existence and mainly depends on the mask pattern's pitch.

  4. Ultra-dense silicon nanowire array solar cells by nanoimprint lithography (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Pei; Siontas, Stylianos; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Pacifici, Domenico; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Davydov, Albert

    Nanowire (NW) solar cells have been attracting increasing interest due to their potentially superior light absorption compared to thin bulk films. In order to improve light trapping, we have used nanoimprint lithography (NIL) to fabricate high-density NW arrays with deep sub-micron pitch (P) and diameter (D). We have grown dense vertical arrays of Si axial p - i - n junction NWs of D = 170 nm and P = 500 nm by vapor-liquid-solid epitaxy on seed arrays produced by NIL. The NWs were 9 µm length long with a 5 µm intrinsic section. The NW arrays were planarized using SU-8 photoresist, followed by reactive ion etching to expose the NW tips. Top n-contact was realized by sputter deposition of a transparent 200 nm IZO layer. The nanoimprinted NW array samples measured under AM 1.5 G illumination showed a peak external quantum efficiency of ~8% and internal quantum efficiency of ~90% in the visible spectral range. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations of Si NW periodic arrays with varying P confirm the importance of high NW density. Specifically, due to diffractive scattering and light trapping, absorption efficiency close to 100% in the 400-650 nm spectral range is predicted for a Si NW array with an even smaller P = 250 nm, significantly outperforming a blanket Si film of the same thickness. Such pitch values are accessible to NIL and work on such arrays is in progress. National Science Foundation.

  5. Superior light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells through nano imprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppe, W.J.; Dorenkamper, M.S.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Pex, P.P.A.C.


    ECN and partners have developed a fabrication process based on nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of textures for light trapping in thin film solar cells such as thin-film silicon, OPV, CIGS and CdTe. The process can be applied in roll-to-roll mode when using a foil substrate or in roll-to-plate mode when using a glass substrate. The lacquer also serves as an electrically insulating layer for cells if steel foil is used as substrate, to enable monolithic series interconnection. In this paper we will show the superior light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells made on steel foil with nanotextured back contacts. We have made single junction a-Si and {mu}c-Si and a-Si/{mu}c-Si tandem cells, where we applied several types of nano-imprints with random and periodic structures. We will show that the nano-imprinted back contact enables more than 30% increase of current in comparison with non-textured back contacts and that optimized periodic textures outperform state-of-the-art random textures. For a-Si cells we obtained Jsc of 18 mA/cm{sup 2} and for {mu}c-Si cells more than 24 mA/cm{sup 2}. Tandem cells with a total Si absorber layer thickness of only 1350 nm have an initial efficiency of 11%.

  6. Retrieve polarization aberration from image degradation: a new measurement method in DUV lithography (United States)

    Xiang, Zhongbo; Li, Yanqiu


    Detailed knowledge of polarization aberration (PA) of projection lens in higher-NA DUV lithographic imaging is necessary due to its impact to imaging degradations, and precise measurement of PA is conductive to computational lithography techniques such as RET and OPC. Current in situ measurement method of PA thorough the detection of degradations of aerial images need to do linear approximation and apply the assumption of 3-beam/2-beam interference condition. The former approximation neglects the coupling effect of the PA coefficients, which would significantly influence the accuracy of PA retrieving. The latter assumption restricts the feasible pitch of test masks in higher-NA system, conflicts with the Kirhhoff diffraction model of test mask used in retrieving model, and introduces 3D mask effect as a source of retrieving error. In this paper, a new in situ measurement method of PA is proposed. It establishes the analytical quadratic relation between the PA coefficients and the degradations of aerial images of one-dimensional dense lines in coherent illumination through vector aerial imaging, which does not rely on the assumption of 3-beam/2- beam interference and linear approximation. In this case, the retrieval of PA from image degradation can be convert from the nonlinear system of m-quadratic equations to a multi-objective quadratic optimization problem, and finally be solved by nonlinear least square method. Some preliminary simulation results are given to demonstrate the correctness and accuracy of the new PA retrieving model.

  7. Optical Transcutaneous pCO2 Sensor using Soft Lithography Method for Arterial Blood Gas Analysis (United States)

    Kang, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Do-Eok; Leem, Myoung-Kun; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Lee, Kwang-Man; Kang, Shin-Won


    In this study, we carried out development of non-invasive optical transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pCO2, monitoring system. The purpose of this system is to detect CO2 from outer skin, not from the arterial blood-gathering method. There are advantages about a reduction of analysis time and real-time monitoring that this system might be available. The measurement system is composed of the IR lamp, the pyroelectric sensor including a 4.26 μm optical filter, the optical gas reaction chamber and the signal processing circuit. The optical reaction length of chamber was reduced by 1 mm using the soft-lithography method which CO2 is exhausted in human body as we considered. The fabricated pCO2 monitoring system showed linear result of 6.50×10-6 absorbance/ppm sensitivity for CO2 concentration from 0 ˜5,000 ppm by MFC and about 2 seconds of fast response time. The proposed system can be used in the optical biosensor field for the medical diagnosis such as pCO2 monitoring system and environment monitoring systems.

  8. Stencil lithography of superconducting contacts on MBE-grown topological insulator thin films (United States)

    Schüffelgen, Peter; Rosenbach, Daniel; Neumann, Elmar; Stehno, Martin P.; Lanius, Martin; Zhao, Jialin; Wang, Meng; Sheehan, Brendan; Schmidt, Michael; Gao, Bo; Brinkman, Alexander; Mussler, Gregor; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev


    Topological insulator (Bi0.06Sb0.94)2Te3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been capped in-situ with a 2 nm Al film to conserve the pristine topological surface states. Subsequently, a shadow mask - structured by means of focus ion beam - was in-situ placed underneath the sample to deposit a thick layer of Al on well-defined microscopically small areas. The 2 nm thin Al layer fully oxidizes after exposure to air and in this way protects the TI surface from degradation. The thick Al layer remains metallic underneath a 3-4 nm thick native oxide layer and therefore serves as (super-) conducting contacts. Superconductor-Topological Insulator-Superconductor junctions with lateral dimensions in the nm range have then been fabricated via an alternative stencil lithography technique. Despite the in-situ deposition, transport measurements and transmission electron microscope analysis indicate a low transparency, due to an intermixed region at the interface between topological insulator thin film and metallic Al.

  9. Fabrication of bacteria and virus microarrays based on polymeric capillary force lithography. (United States)

    Yoo, Pil J


    There is a growing interest on the fabrication of bacteria and virus microarray owing to their great potential in many biological applications ranging from diagnostic devices to advanced platforms for fundamental studies on molecular biology. Over the past decade, a number of studies with regard to the biomolecular patterning have been presented. Capillary force lithography (CFL) for polymeric thin films can provide well-ordered microarray structures over a large area in a facile and cost-efficient way while maintaining its biocompatibility during a process. Patterned polymeric structures can be utilized either to physical barriers for the confinement of bacteria or to physicochemical template for the subsequent binding of viruses. In this chapter, we have shown that the patterned structures of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) containing polymer enables a selective binding of Escherichia coli, leading to a physically guided microarray of bacteria. Additionally, we demonstrate the fabrication of virus microarray of M13 viruses via electrostatic interactions with a prepatterned microstructure of polyelectrolyte multilayers.

  10. Using nanosphere lithography for fabrication of a multilayered system of ordered gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Styopkin


    Full Text Available New modification of nanosphere lithography has been realized to obtain multilayered systems of ordered gold nanopartciles (NP. NP have been formed using vacuum deposition of 5…60-nm layer of gold on ionic etched multilayered regular coating consisted of several layers of 200-nm polystyrene spheres. Optical study shows that spectra of NP depend on their thickness and may be changed by heat treatment. Increasing the NP thickness within the 5…20-nm range leads to a shortwave displacement of the plasmon resonance peak position, while the longwave shift is observed in 20…60-nm range. Heat treatment of NP brings narrowing and displacement of spectral bands, rising the extinction. It has been supposed that variation of the NP shape is the most substantial factor for changes of optical properties in the 5…20 nm thickness region, while electromagnetic coupling between NP in different layers becomes more important for thicknesses larger than 40 nm. Optical properties inherent to the obtained system of NP can be tuned by changing the polystyrene spheres diameter, extent of etching, thickness of gold layer and with the heat treatment. It may be used in design of nanophotonic devices.

  11. Primary processes in e-beam and laser lithographies for phase-shift mask manufacturing II (United States)

    Kurihara, Masa-aki; Arai, Masumi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Moro-oka, Hisashi; Takahashi, Yoichi; Sano, Hisatake


    Two lithographic processes for phase-shift mask (PSM) manufacturing have been investigated. In particular, processes in E-beam (electron beam) lithography by use of a charge-dissipating layer of a conductive polymer are studied. Two commercial conductive polymers, TQV and ESPACER100, are found to work well for charge-dissipation. Three new resists along with CMS and EBR9 are evaluated regarding their properties necessary for patterning a shifter layer. Among them two new resists are demonstrated to be excellent. The effect of the number of data-blocks on the alignment accuracy is examined in delineation with a Hitachi HL-600, where each data-block has four fine-alignment marks. The examination suggests that the use of one or two data-blocks is practical. As to combination of writers for the Cr level and the shifter level, HL-600 - HL-600 gave better alignment accuracy than the other combinations, WW6000 - HL-600 and MEBES III - HL-600, did. The comparison between the E-beam and the laser writers is summarized.

  12. Improvements In The JBX-6AIII Series Of Shaped Beam Lithography Tools (United States)

    Shearer, M. H.; Nakagawa, Y.; Thompson, W.; Goto, N.; Yuasa, T.


    Electron Beam Lithography has emerged as the predominant tool for high accuracy mask making. Two basic types of systems have been developed over the past twenty years for mask making operations: Raster scan-spot beam systems conceived by Bell Laboratories and commercialized by Perkin-Elmer as the MEBES Series and Vector Scan-Shaped beam systems such as the internally ysed EL Series by IBM or the commercially available JBX-6A Series developed by JEOL. The remainder of this paper will describe the current model of the JEOL Series, the JBX-6AIII that has evolved over the past 10 years to provide a high throughput, high accuracy mask making system. This system has been improved over previous models in the series with the addition of a high speed data transfer unit and real time shot partitioning function in order to match pattern generation to pattern writing speeds. At the same time the writing accuracies and shot placement size and accuracies have been improved to permit VLSI 1X reticles to be fabricated.

  13. In-situ monitoring of pattern filling in nano-imprint lithography using surface plasmon resonance. (United States)

    Hocheng, Hong; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Shy, Jow-Tsong


    Nano-imprint lithography possesses the advantages of high throughput, sub-10-nm feature and low cost. In NIL, the mold filling is subjected to the applied imprinting pressure, temperature and time. Incomplete mold filling causes a detrimental effect on the final imprinted pattern dimensions. The monitoring system of imprinting is essential to control the imprinting parameters properly. Up to now, no high-sensitivity monitoring of filling rate and end point has ever been proposed. In this study, the authors apply the surface plasmon resonance to monitor the filling rate and end point during imprint process. The mold contains a layer of glass of high refractive index, a metal thin film and the pattern of low refractive index. In addition, the imprinted polymer is selected considering its refractive index, which should be lower than the glass layer of mold. When the filling rate varies, it will affect the SPR behavior, including the measurable reflectivity change and resonance angle shift. The analysis results reveal that the resonance angle is truly proportional to the filling rate. When the filling rate varies from 50% to 100%, the SPR angle shifts more than 5 degree. The analysis demonstrates this innovative method for monitoring of filling rate is effective with high sensitivity.

  14. Diffraction efficiency of plasmonic gratings fabricated by electron beam lithography using a silver halide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudheer,, E-mail:, E-mail:; Tiwari, P.; Srivastava, Himanshu; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K.; Naik, P. A. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Porwal, S. [Solid State Lasers Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Bhartiya, S. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Laser Materials Development and Device Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Rao, B. T. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Sharma, T. K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Solid State Lasers Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)


    The silver nanoparticle surface relief gratings of ∼10 μm period are fabricated using electron beam lithography on the silver halide film substrate. Morphological characterization of the gratings shows that the period, the shape, and the relief depth in the gratings are mainly dependent on the number of lines per frame, the spot size, and the accelerating voltage of electron beam raster in the SEM. Optical absorption of the silver nanoparticle gratings provides a broad localized surface plasmon resonance peak in the visible region, whereas the intensity of the peaks depends on the number density of silver nanoparticles in the gratings. The maximum efficiency of ∼7.2% for first order diffraction is observed for the grating fabricated at 15 keV. The efficiency is peaking at 560 nm with ∼380 nm bandwidth. The measured profiles of the diffraction efficiency for the gratings are found in close agreement with the Raman-Nath diffraction theory. This technique provides a simple and efficient method for the fabrication of plasmonic nanoparticle grating structures with high diffraction efficiency having broad wavelength tuning.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of line-edge and line-width roughness for EUV lithography (United States)

    Bonam, Ravi; Liu, Chi-Chun; Breton, Mary; Sieg, Stuart; Seshadri, Indira; Saulnier, Nicole; Shearer, Jeffrey; Muthinti, Raja; Patlolla, Raghuveer; Huang, Huai


    Pattern transfer fidelity is always a major challenge for any lithography process and needs continuous improvement. Lithographic processes in semiconductor industry are primarily driven by optical imaging on photosensitive polymeric material (resists). Quality of pattern transfer can be assessed by quantifying multiple parameters such as, feature size uniformity (CD), placement, roughness, sidewall angles etc. Roughness in features primarily corresponds to variation of line edge or line width and has gained considerable significance, particularly due to shrinking feature sizes and variations of features in the same order. This has caused downstream processes (Etch (RIE), Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) etc.) to reconsider respective tolerance levels. A very important aspect of this work is relevance of roughness metrology from pattern formation at resist to subsequent processes, particularly electrical validity. A major drawback of current LER/LWR metric (sigma) is its lack of relevance across multiple downstream processes which effects material selection at various unit processes. In this work we present a comprehensive assessment of Line Edge and Line Width Roughness at multiple lithographic transfer processes. To simulate effect of roughness a pattern was designed with periodic jogs on the edges of lines with varying amplitudes and frequencies. There are numerous methodologies proposed to analyze roughness and in this work we apply them to programmed roughness structures to assess each technique's sensitivity. This work also aims to identify a relevant methodology to quantify roughness with relevance across downstream processes.

  16. Nanorings and nanocrescents formed via shaped nanosphere lithography: a route toward large areas of infrared metamaterials (United States)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.; Li, Yang; Bohloul, Arash; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.


    This paper presents a new approach to nanosphere lithography, which overcomes undesirable manufacturing issues such as complex tilted-rotary evaporation and ion beam milling. A key innovation in this process is the use of non-conductive edge strips placed on top of the samples prior to metal removal. Such elements help to direct the flow of reactive ions during plasma etching and produce well-ordered arrays of metallic nanorings and nanocrescents over large areas of ˜1 cm2. The obtained highly uniform nanocrescent array exhibits an electric resonance of 1.7 μm and a magnetic resonance of 3 μm. The absorption resonances of the fabricated nanorings depend on their diameters and shift toward shorter wavelengths (λ = 1.7 μm for do = 308 nm) as compared to larger rings (λ = 2.2 μm do = 351 nm). FDTD-based simulations match well with the experimental results. This ‘shaped nanosphere lithography’ approach creates opportunities to generate nanorings and nanocrescents that promise potential applications in chemical and biological sensing, for surface enhanced spectroscopy and in the field of infrared metamaterials.

  17. Characterization and mitigation of 3D mask effects in extreme ultraviolet lithography (United States)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Xu, Dongbo; Evanschitzky, Peter; Philipsen, Vicky; Luong, Vu; Hendrickx, Eric


    The reflection and diffraction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from lithographic masks and the projection imaging of these masks by all-reflective systems introduce several significant imaging artifacts. The off-axis illumination of the mask causes asymmetric shadowing, a size bias between features with different orientations and telecentricity errors. The image contrast varies with the feature orientation and can easily drop far below intuitively expected values. The deformation of the wavefront or phase of the incident light by thick absorbers generates aberration-like effects, especially variations of the best-focus (BF) position vs. the pitch and size of the imaged patterns. Partial reflection of light from the top of the absorber generates a weak secondary image, which superposes with the main image. Based on a discussion of the root causes of these phenomena, we employ mask diffraction and imaging analysis for a quantitative analysis of these effects for standard EUV masks. Simulations for various non-standard types of mask stacks (e.g. etched multilayers, buried shifters, etc.) and for various non-standard absorber materials are used to explore the imaging capabilities of alternative masks for EUV lithography. Finally, an outlook at anamorphic systems for larger numerical apertures is given.

  18. High speed e-beam lithography for gold nanoarray fabrication and use in nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Trasobares


    Full Text Available E-beam lithography has been used for reliable and versatile fabrication of sub-15 nm single-crystal gold nanoarrays and led to convincing applications in nanotechnology. However, so far this technique was either too slow for centimeter to wafer-scale writing or fast enough with the so-called dot on the fly (DOTF technique but not optimized for sub-15 nm dots dimension. This prevents use of this technology for some applications and characterization techniques. Here, we show that the DOTF technique can be used without degradation in dots dimension. In addition, we propose two other techniques. The first one is an advanced conventional technique that goes five times faster than the conventional one. The second one relies on sequences defined before writing which enable versatility in e-beam patterns compared to the DOTF technique with same writing speed. By comparing the four different techniques, we evidence the limiting parameters for the writing speed. Wafer-scale fabrication of such arrays with 50 nm pitch allowed XPS analysis of a ferrocenylalkyl thiol self-assembled monolayer coated gold nanoarray.

  19. Bending properties of two- and three-dimensional-shaped nanoparticles fabricated via substrate conformal imprint lithography (United States)

    Reuter, Sabrina; Smolarczyk, Marek A.; Istock, André; Ha, Uh-Myong; Schneider, Olga; Worapattrakul, Natalie; Nazemroaya, Safoura; Hoang, Hai; Gomer, Ludmilla; Pilger, Frank; Maniak, Markus; Hillmer, Hartmut


    Nanoimprinting enables the implementation of nanoparticle shapes with complex 2D shapes involving different materials. In addition to these objects, this article presents 3D-shaped nanoparticles fabricated by substrate conformal imprint technique. The imprint polymer AMONIL is used either in pure form or in combination with fluorescent dyes for the preparation of particles. The substrate conformal imprint lithography process, including etching and particle release, is conducted for both materials in a similar fashion. In this work, cuboidal particles with a high aspect ratio (1:120) are compared to particles with a T-shaped cross section with respect to their abilities to enhance or reduce their stiffness. Additionally, particles with a high aspect ratio are compared to particles with a lower aspect ratio (1:20). The local stiffness is found to depend strongly on the particle thickness and the geometry of their cross section. Thicker and 3D T-shaped particles present higher local stiffness than thinner and 2D cuboidal-shaped particles. The local bending angle was determined to be 77° for 2D-shaped particles and 83° for 3D-shaped particles, of the same total height of 176 nm. Very thin particles (<50 nm) of high aspect ratio prefer to curl finally forming loops.

  20. Near-field microscopy and lithography of light-emitting polymers. (United States)

    Richards, David; Cacialli, Franco


    We describe the application of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) to the study of the photophysical and self-organization properties of thin films of blends of conjugated polymers, and also to the lateral nanoscale patterning of conjugated-polymer structures. Such thin-film plastic semiconductor nanostructures offer significant potential for use in opto-electronic devices. The implementation of SNOM we employ is the most established form in which a probe with a sub-wavelength aperture is scanned in close proximity to the sample surface. We consider the nature of the near-field optical distribution, which decays within the first ca. 100 nm of these semiconductor materials, and address the identification of topographic artefacts in near-field optical images. While the topographic information obtained simultaneously with optical data in any SNOM experiment enables an easy comparison with the higher-resolution tapping-mode atomic force microscopy, the spectroscopic contrast provided by fluorescence SNOM gives an unambiguous chemical identification of the different phases in a conjugated-polymer blend. Both fluorescence and photoconductivity SNOM indicate that intermixing of constituent polymers in a blend, or nanoscale phase separation, is responsible for the high efficiency of devices employing these materials as their active layer. We also demonstrate a scheme for nano-optical lithography with SNOM of conjugated-polymer structures, which has been employed successfully for the fabrication of poly(-phenylene vinylene) nanostructures with 160 nm feature sizes.

  1. Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on AlN/Si(111) nanorods fabricated by nanosphere lithography (United States)

    Lee, Donghyun; Shin, In-Su; Jin, Lu; Kim, Donghyun; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon


    Nanoheteroepitaxy (NHE) of GaN on an AlN/Si(111) nanorod structure was investigated by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Silica nanosphere lithography was employed to fabricate a periodic hexagonal nanorod array with a narrow gap of 30 nm between the nanorods. We were successful in obtaining a fully coalesced GaN film on the AlN/Si(111) nanorod structure. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that threading dislocation (TD) bending and termination by stacking faults occurred near the interface between GaN and the AlN/Si(111) nanorods, resulting in the reduction of TD density for the NHE GaN layer. The full width at half-maximum of the X-ray rocking curve for (102) plane of the NHE GaN was found to decrease down to 728 arcsec from 1005 arcsec for the GaN layer on a planar AlN/Si(111) substrate, indicating that the crystalline quality of the NHE GaN was improved. Also, micro-Raman measurement showed that tensile stress in the NHE GaN layer was reduced significantly as much as 70% by introducing air voids between the nanorods.

  2. Ultrafast third-harmonic spectroscopy of single nanoantennas fabricated using helium-ion beam lithography (United States)

    Kollmann, H.; Esmann, M.; Becker, S. F.; Piao, X.; Huynh, C.; Kautschor, L.-O.; Bösker, G.; Vieker, H.; Beyer, A.; Gölzhäuser, A.; Park, N.; Silies, M.; Lienau, C.


    Metallic nanoantennas are able to spatially localize far-field electromagnetic waves on a few nanometer length scale in the form of surface plasmon excitations 1-3. Standard tools for fabricating bowtie and rod antennas with sub-20 nm feature sizes are Electron Beam Lithography or Ga-based Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Milling. These structures, however, often suffer from surface roughness and hence show only a limited optical polarization contrast and therefore a limited electric field localization. Here, we combine Ga- and He-ion based milling (HIM) for the fabrication of gold bowtie and rod antennas with gap sizes of less than 6 nm combined with a high aspect ratio. Using polarization-sensitive Third-Harmonic (TH) spectroscopy, we compare the nonlinear optical properties of single HIM-antennas with sub-6-nm gaps with those produced by standard Ga-based FIB. We find a pronounced enhancement of the total TH intensity of more than three in comparison to Ga-FIB antennas and a highly improved polarization contrast of the TH intensity of 250:1 for Heion produced antennas 4. These findings combined with Finite-Element Method calculations demonstrate a field enhancement of up to one hundred in the few-nanometer gap of the antenna. This makes He-ion beam milling a highly attractive and promising new tool for the fabrication of plasmonic nanoantennas with few-nanometer feature sizes.

  3. Masterless soft lithography: patterning UV/ozone-induced adhesion on poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces. (United States)

    Childs, William R; Motala, Michael J; Lee, Keon Jae; Nuzzo, Ralph G


    A novel microreactor-based photomask capable of effecting high resolution, large area patterning of UV/ozone (UVO) treatments of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces is described. This tool forms the basis of two new soft lithographic patterning techniques that significantly extend the design rules of decal transfer lithography (DTL). The first technique, photodefined cohesive mechanical failure, fuses the design rules of photolithography with the contact-based adhesive transfer of PDMS in DTL. In a second powerful variation, the UVO masks described in this work enable a masterless soft lithographic patterning process. This latter method, UVO-patterned adhesive transfer, allows the direct transfer of PDMS-based polymer microstructures from a slab of polymer to silicon and other material surfaces. Both methods exploit the improved process qualities that result from the use of a deuterium discharge lamp to affect the UVO treatment to pattern complex, large area PDMS patterns with limiting feature sizes extending well below 1 microm (> or = 0.3 microm). The use of these structures as resists is demonstrated for the patterning of metal thin films. A time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy study of the process provides new insights into the mechanisms that contribute to the chemistry responsible for the interfacial adhesion of DTL transfers.

  4. The effect of pattern dimensions on the thermal decay of polymer patterns created by nanoimprint lithography (United States)

    Kearns, Kenneth; Ro, H. W.; Patrick, Heather J.; Germer, Thomas A.; Soles, Christopher


    Spectroscopic ellipsometry, combined with rigorous coupled wave modeling, is used to characterize the thermal decay of polymeric patterns prepared by nanoimprint lithography. When the residual layer is on the order of 10 nm, the pattern decay kinetics of patterns with a 420 nm periodicity near their glass transition temperatures are nearly an order of magnitude slower than patterns sitting on a thick residual layer. Pattern decay is not observed when the periodicity increased to 800 nm for the 10 nm residual layers. Polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate), and poly(4-t-butyl styrene) all show this behavior suggesting that changes in entanglement density are not important. The difference in the radius of curvature for the two different pattern periodicities is the likely origin for the pattern decay. The sensitivity of the technique to thin residual layers and nanoscale patterns is enhanced with an optical cavity of Si O2 between the polymer and Si substrate. The Si O2 layer enhances the changes in the ellipsometric parameters alpha and beta, which are related to psi and delta. The model dependent scatterometry data is corroborated by atomic force microscopy.

  5. Fabrication of periodic nanostructures using dynamic plowing lithography with the tip of an atomic force microscope (United States)

    He, Yang; Yan, Yongda; Geng, Yanquan; Brousseau, Emmanuel


    The fabrication of periodic nanostructures with a fine control of their dimensions is performed on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films using an atomic force microscope technique called dynamic plowing lithography (DPL). Different scratching directions are investigated first when generating single grooves with DPL. In particular, the depth, the width and the periodicity of the machined grooves as well the height of the pile-up, formed on the side of the grooves, are assessed. It was found that these features are not significantly affected by the scratching direction, except when processing took place in a direction away from the cantilever probe and parallel to its main axis. For a given scratching direction, arrays of regular grooves are then obtained by controlling the feed, i.e. the distance between two machining lines. A scan-scratch tip trace is also used to reduce processing time and tip wear. However, irregular patterns are created when combining two layers oriented at different angles and where each layer defines an array of grooves. Thus, a ;combination writing; method was implemented to fabricate arrays of grooves with a well-defined wavelength of 30 nm, which was twice the feed value utilized. Checkerboard, diamond-shaped, and hexagonal nanodots were also fabricated. These were obtained by using the combination writing method and by varying the orientation and the number of layers. The density of the nanodots achieved could be as high as 1.9 × 109 nanodots per mm2.

  6. Design and fabrication of spectrally selective emitter for thermophotovoltaic system by using nano-imprint lithography (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Moo; Park, Keum-Hwan; Kim, Da-Som; Hwang, Bo-yeon; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Chae, Hee-Man; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Young-Seok


    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have attracted attention as promising power generation systems that can directly convert the radiant energy produced by the combustion of fuel into electrical energy. However, there is a fundamental limit of their conversion efficiency due to the broadband distribution of the radiant spectrum. To overcome this problem, several spectrally selective thermal emitter technologies have been investigated, including the fabrication of photonic crystal (PhC) structures. In this paper, we present some design rules based on finite-a difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results for tungsten (W) PhC emitter. The W 2D PhC was fabricated by a simple nano-imprint lithography (NIL) process, and inductive coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) with an isotropic etching process, the benefits and parameters of which are presented. The fabricated W PhC emitter showed spectrally selective emission near the infrared wavelength range, and the optical properties varied depending on the size of the nano-patterns. The measured results of the fabricated prototype structure correspond well to the simulated values. Finally, compared with the performance of a flat W emitter, the total thermal emitter efficiency was almost 3.25 times better with the 2D W PhC structure.

  7. Suppression of imaging crack caused by the gap between micromirrors in maskless lithography (United States)

    Liang, Liwen; Zhou, Jinyun; Lei, Liang; Wang, Bo; Wang, Qu; Wen, Kunhua


    The digital micromirror device (DMD) is the key device in maskless lithography. However, because of the machinery manufacturing limit of DMDs, the gap between the micromirrors may destroy the continuity of the graphic. This work presents a simple way to fill the imaging crack by controlling the partial coherence factor σ of the light source. A crack can be regarded as the image of a dark space. By considering the resolving power for such cracks under partially coherent illumination, the images of such dark spaces can be covered, preventing them from being imaged on the substrate. By using mathematical derivations of the light intensity distribution exposed to the substrate, and by utilizing the diffraction effect induced by the finite aperture of the optical projection system, an appropriate σ value can be determined for eliminating the image of the crack in an actual scene. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that this method can ensure the continuity of the graphic at the critical partial coherence factor σc regardless of the shape of the target graphic.

  8. MeV ion beam lithography of biocompatible halogenated Parylenes using aperture masks (United States)

    Whitlow, Harry J.; Norarat, Rattanaporn; Roccio, Marta; Jeanneret, Patrick; Guibert, Edouard; Bergamin, Maxime; Fiorucci, Gianni; Homsy, Alexandra; Laux, Edith; Keppner, Herbert; Senn, Pascal


    Parylenes are poly(p-xylylene) polymers that are widely used as moisture barriers and in biomedicine because of their good biocompatibility. We have investigated MeV ion beam lithography using 16O+ ions for writing defined patterns in Parylene-C, which is evaluated as a coating material for the Cochlear Implant (CI) electrode array, a neuroprosthesis to treat some forms of deafness. Parylene-C and -F on silicon and glass substrates as well as 50 μm thick PTFE were irradiated to different fluences (1 ×1013 - 1 ×1016 1 MeV 16O+ ions cm-2) through aperture masks under high vacuum and a low pressure (<10-3 mbar) oxygen atmosphere. Biocompatibility of the irradiated and unirradiated surfaces was tested by cell-counting to determine the proliferation of murine spiral ganglion cells. The results reveal that an oxygen ion beam can be used to pattern Parylene-C and -F without using a liquid solvent developer in a similar manner to PTFE but with a ∼25× smaller removal rate. Biocompatibility tests showed no difference in cell adhesion between irradiated and unirradiated areas or ion fluence dependence. Coating the Parylene surface with an adhesion-promoting protein mixture had a much greater effect on cell proliferation.

  9. Modeling and simulation of the deformation process of PTFE flexiblestamps for nanoimprint lithography on curved surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Smistrup, K.; Hannibal, Morten


    In the presented work, simulations of the deformation process of flexible stamps used for nanoimprint lithographron curved surfaces are presented. The material used for the flexible stamps was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) whose material behavior was found to be viscoelastic-viscoplastic. This b......In the presented work, simulations of the deformation process of flexible stamps used for nanoimprint lithographron curved surfaces are presented. The material used for the flexible stamps was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) whose material behavior was found to be viscoelastic...... through a user material subroutine. In order to take the large strains and deformations during the imprinting manufacturing process into account, non-linear geometry was applied in the simulations. The model was first verified through a series of experiments, where nanoimprint lithography on a curved tool...... with a maximum error of 0.5%, indicating that the model is able to capture the physics of this manufacturing process and can be used to give an insight into the nanoimprinting procedure on curved surfaces. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Masculinity and Material Culture in Technological Transitions: From Letterpress to Offset Lithography, 1960s-1980s. (United States)

    Stein, Jesse Adams


    Between the 1960s and the 1980s the printing industry in advanced capitalist economies underwent dramatic technological change. While the transition from "hot metal" compositing to computerized typesetting has been extensively analyzed, there was another transformation occurring simultaneously: in the pressroom, letterpress was gradually replaced by offset lithography. Many letterpress machinists retrained, moving from a heavy, manual technology (with an entrenched patriarchal culture) to a method that was faster and less physically taxing. However, unlike their compositor counterparts, the press-machinists' transition involved a continuity of traditional masculine craft identities rather than a rupture associated with "deskilling." Intrinsic to this experience of technological change was a masculine embodiment that was attuned to and shaped by the materiality and aesthetics of printing technologies. This article establishes how masculine craft identities do not rely exclusively on skill-based mastery of traditional technologies, but also relate to other dimensions of technology, such as aesthetics, embodied "know-how," and the physicality of industrial machinery.

  11. Fabrication of digital rainbow holograms and 3-D imaging using SEM based e-beam lithography. (United States)

    Firsov, An; Firsov, A; Loechel, B; Erko, A; Svintsov, A; Zaitsev, S


    Here we present an approach for creating full-color digital rainbow holograms based on mixing three basic colors. Much like in a color TV with three luminescent points per single screen pixel, each color pixel of initial image is presented by three (R, G, B) distinct diffractive gratings in a hologram structure. Change of either duty cycle or area of the gratings are used to provide proper R, G, B intensities. Special algorithms allow one to design rather complicated 3D images (that might even be replacing each other with hologram rotation). The software developed ("RainBow") provides stability of colorization of rotated image by means of equalizing of angular blur from gratings responsible for R, G, B basic colors. The approach based on R, G, B color synthesis allows one to fabricate gray-tone rainbow hologram containing white color what is hardly possible in traditional dot-matrix technology. Budgetary electron beam lithography based on SEM column was used to fabricate practical examples of digital rainbow hologram. The results of fabrication of large rainbow holograms from design to imprinting are presented. Advantages of the EBL in comparison to traditional optical (dot-matrix) technology is considered.

  12. Design and implementation of a cloud based lithography illumination pupil processing application (United States)

    Zhang, Youbao; Ma, Xinghua; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Fang; Huang, Huijie


    Pupil parameters are important parameters to evaluate the quality of lithography illumination system. In this paper, a cloud based full-featured pupil processing application is implemented. A web browser is used for the UI (User Interface), the websocket protocol and JSON format are used for the communication between the client and the server, and the computing part is implemented in the server side, where the application integrated a variety of high quality professional libraries, such as image processing libraries libvips and ImageMagic, automatic reporting system latex, etc., to support the program. The cloud based framework takes advantage of server's superior computing power and rich software collections, and the program could run anywhere there is a modern browser due to its web UI design. Compared to the traditional way of software operation model: purchased, licensed, shipped, downloaded, installed, maintained, and upgraded, the new cloud based approach, which is no installation, easy to use and maintenance, opens up a new way. Cloud based application probably is the future of the software development.

  13. Characterization study on machining PMMA thin-film using AFM tip-based dynamic plowing lithography. (United States)

    Yan, Yongda; He, Yang; Geng, Yanquan; Hu, Zhenjiang; Zhao, Xuesen


    This paper presents a reliable nanolithography technique, namely dynamic plowing lithography (DPL) based on a commercial atomic force microscope (AFM). The poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solution spinning on a silicon substrate is utilized to be scratched directly with an oscillating tip at its resonance frequency. The films with different thickness are obtained by adjusting the concentration of solution and post baked time. A new silicon tip is employed to conduct DPL on PMMA film surface. The geometry of nano-line structure scratched on the film with high adhesion force is shown with a transition process, including total protuberance, protuberance with groove and groove with pile-up. The scratching direction has less influence on the scratched depth of groove, while the shape of pile-up is varied with directions. The depth of groove on thin films is increasing with the drive amplitude until the value of the depth reaches to the threshold value. Moreover, owing to smaller elastic modulus, the film with relatively large thickness could be modified by the tip more easily using this DPL method. SCANNING 38:612-618, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tunable Nanoantennas for Surface Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy by Colloidal Lithography and Post-Fabrication Etching. (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Duy Dao, Thang; Nagao, Tadaaki


    We fabricated large-area metallic (Al and Au) nanoantenna arrays on Si substrates using cost-effective colloidal lithography with different micrometer-sized polystyrene spheres. Variation of the sphere size leads to tunable plasmon resonances in the middle infrared (MIR) range. The enhanced near-fields allow us to detect the surface phonon polaritons in the natural SiO2 thin layers. We demonstrated further tuning capability of the resonances by employing dry etching of the Si substrates with the nanoantennas acting as the etching masks. The effective refractive index of the nanoantenna surroundings is efficiently decreased giving rise to blueshifts of the resonances. In addition, partial removal of the Si substrates elevates the nanoantennas from the high-refractive-index substrates making more enhanced near-fields accessible for molecular sensing applications as demonstrated here with surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy for a thin polymer film. We also directly compared the plasmonic enhancement from the Al and Au nanoantenna arrays.

  15. High speed microfluidic prototyping by programmable proximity aperture MeV ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaraksa, Nitipon [Department of Biological and Environmental Science and NanoScience Center, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Napari, Mari [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Meriläinen, Leena [Department of Biological and Environmental Science and NanoScience Center, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Whitlow, Harry J.; Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Gilbert, Leona, E-mail: [Department of Biological and Environmental Science and NanoScience Center, University of Jyväskylä (Finland)


    Microfluidics refers to the science and technology for controlling and manipulating fluids that flow along microchannels. For the development of complex prototypes, many microfluidic test structures are required first. Normally, these devices are fabricated via photolithography. This technique requires a photomask for transferring a pattern to photoresists by exposing with UV light. However, this method can be slow when a new structure is required to change. This is because a series of photomasks are needed, which is time consuming and costly. Here, we present a programmable proximity aperture lithography (PPAL) technique for the development of microfluidic prototype in poly(methyl methacrylate) or PMMA. This method is based on using a mask made up of two movable L-shaped apertures in close proximity to the target. The PPAL allows microfluidic chips that are designed with complex components having large and small (∼1 μm – ∼500 μm) pattern elements to be fabricated rapidly. In this paper, the fabrication process with test examples of microfluidic circuit designs is presented. Experimental results show that new patterns can be changed and produced in a few hours demonstrating that the PPAL technique is a rapid method for development of microfluidic prototypes in PMMA.

  16. Thermal effect induced wafer deformation in high-energy e-beam lithography (United States)

    Chen, P. S.; Wang, W. C.; Lin, S. J.


    The incident surface power density in Massive Electron-beam Direct Write (MEBDW) during exposure is ~105 W/cm2, much higher than ~8 W/cm2 ArF scanners and 2.4 W/cm2 EUV. In addition, the wafer's exposure in vacuum environment makes energy dissipation even harder. This thermal effect can cause mechanical distortion of the wafer during exposure and have has a direct influence on pattern placement error and image blur. In this paper, the thermo mechanical distortions caused by wafer heating for MEB system of different electron acceleration voltages have been simulated with finite element method (FEM). The global thermal effect affected by the friction force between the wafer and the wafer chuck as well as different thermal conductivities of the chuck material are simulated. Furthermore, the thermal effects of different lithography systems such as EUV scanners and conventional optical scanners are compared. The thermal effects of MEBDW systems are shown to be acceptable.

  17. In-chip microstructures and photonic devices fabricated by nonlinear laser lithography deep inside silicon (United States)

    Tokel, Onur; Turnalı, Ahmet; Makey, Ghaith; Elahi, Parviz; ćolakoǧlu, Tahir; Ergeçen, Emre; Yavuz, Ã.-zgün; Hübner, René; Zolfaghari Borra, Mona; Pavlov, Ihor; Bek, Alpan; Turan, Raşit; Kesim, Denizhan Koray; Tozburun, Serhat; Ilday, Serim; Ilday, F. Ã.-mer


    Silicon is an excellent material for microelectronics and integrated photonics1-3, with untapped potential for mid-infrared optics4. Despite broad recognition of the importance of the third dimension5,6, current lithography methods do not allow the fabrication of photonic devices and functional microelements directly inside silicon chips. Even relatively simple curved geometries cannot be realized with techniques like reactive ion etching. Embedded optical elements7, electronic devices and better electronic-photonic integration are lacking8. Here, we demonstrate laser-based fabrication of complex 3D structures deep inside silicon using 1-µm-sized dots and rod-like structures of adjustable length as basic building blocks. The laser-modified Si has an optical index different to that in unmodified parts, enabling the creation of numerous photonic devices. Optionally, these parts can be chemically etched to produce desired 3D shapes. We exemplify a plethora of subsurface—that is, `in-chip'—microstructures for microfluidic cooling of chips, vias, micro-electro-mechanical systems, photovoltaic applications and photonic devices that match or surpass corresponding state-of-the-art device performances.

  18. Controlled Chemical Patterns with ThermoChemical NanoLithography (TCNL) (United States)

    Carroll, Keith; Giordano, Anthony; Wang, Debin; Kodali, Vamsi; King, W. P.; Marder, S. R.; Riedo, E.; Curtis, J. E.


    Many research areas, both fundamental and applied, rely upon the ability to organize non-trivial assemblies of molecules on surfaces. In this work, we introduce a significant extension of ThermoChemical NanoLithography (TCNL), a high throughput chemical patterning technique that uses temperature-driven chemical reactions localized near the tip of a thermal cantilever. By combining a chemical kinetics based model with experiments, we have developed a protocol for varying the concentration of surface bound molecules. The result is an unprecedented ability to fabricate extremely complex patterns comprised of varying chemical concentrations, as demonstrated by sinusoidal patterns of amine groups with varying pitches (˜5-15 μm) and the replication of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa with dimensions of ˜30 x 40 μm^2. Programmed control of the chemical reaction rate should have widespread applications for a technique which has already been shown to nanopattern various substrates including graphene nanowires, piezoelectric crystals, and optoelectronic materials.

  19. Step-and-Repeat Nanoimprint-, Photo- and Laser Lithography from One Customised CNC Machine. (United States)

    Greer, Andrew Im; Della-Rosa, Benoit; Khokhar, Ali Z; Gadegaard, Nikolaj


    The conversion of a computer numerical control machine into a nanoimprint step-and-repeat tool with additional laser- and photolithography capacity is documented here. All three processes, each demonstrated on a variety of photoresists, are performed successfully and analysed so as to enable the reader to relate their known lithography process(es) to the findings. Using the converted tool, 1 cm(2) of nanopattern may be exposed in 6 s, over 3300 times faster than the electron beam equivalent. Nanoimprint tools are commercially available, but these can cost around 1000 times more than this customised computer numerical control (CNC) machine. The converted equipment facilitates rapid production and large area micro- and nanoscale research on small grants, ultimately enabling faster and more diverse growth in this field of science. In comparison to commercial tools, this converted CNC also boasts capacity to handle larger substrates, temperature control and active force control, up to ten times more curing dose and compactness. Actual devices are fabricated using the machine including an expanded nanotopographic array and microfluidic PDMS Y-channel mixers.

  20. Thermal scanning probe lithography for the directed self-assembly of block copolymers (United States)

    Gottlieb, S.; Lorenzoni, M.; Evangelio, L.; Fernández-Regúlez, M.; Ryu, Y. K.; Rawlings, C.; Spieser, M.; Knoll, A. W.; Perez-Murano, F.


    Thermal scanning probe lithography (t-SPL) is applied to the fabrication of chemical guiding patterns for directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP). The two key steps of the overall process are the accurate patterning of a poly(phthalaldehyde) resist layer of only 3.5 nm thickness, and the subsequent oxygen-plasma functionalization of an underlying neutral poly(styrene-random-methyl methacrylate) brush layer. We demonstrate that this method allows one to obtain aligned line/space patterns of poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) BCP of 18.5 and 11.7 nm half-pitch. Defect-free alignment has been demonstrated over areas of tens of square micrometres. The main advantages of t-SPL are the absence of proximity effects, which enables the realization of patterns with 10 nm resolution, and its compatibility with standard DSA methods. In the brush activation step by oxygen-plasma exposure, we observe swelling of the brush. This effect is discussed in terms of the chemical reactions occurring in the exposed areas. Our results show that t-SPL can be a suitable method for research activities in the field of DSA, in particular for low-pitch, high-χ BCP to achieve sub-10 nm line/space patterns.

  1. Microthermoforming of microfluidic substrates by soft lithography (µTSL): optimization using design of experiments (United States)

    Focke, M.; Kosse, D.; Al-Bamerni, D.; Lutz, S.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.; Zengerle, R.; von Stetten, F.


    We present a detailed analysis of microthermoforming by soft lithography (µTSL) for replication of foil-based microfluidic substrates. The process was systematically optimized by design of experiments (DOE) enabling fabrication of defect-free lab-on-a-chip devices. After the assessment of typical error patterns we optimized the process toward the minimum deviation between mold and thermoformed foil substrates. The following process parameters have most significant impact on the dimensional responses (p pre-stretching and duration of pre-stretching as well as duration of molding pressure. The most relevant parameter is molding temperature with >40% relative impact. The DOE results in an empirical process model with a maximum deviation between the prediction and experimental proof of 2% for the optimum parameter set. Finally, process optimization is validated by the fabrication and testing of a microfluidic structure for blood plasma separation from human whole blood. The optimized process enabled metering of a nominal volume of 4.0 µl of blood plasma with an accuracy deviation of 3% and a metering precision of ±7.0%. The µTSL process takes about 30 min and easily enables the replication of 300 µm wide microchannels having vertical sidewalls without any draft angles in a well-controllable way. It proves to be suitable for multiple applications in the field of microfluidic devices.

  2. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song


    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  3. Hybrid Rocket Technology


    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V. Ramanujachari


    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nonto...

  4. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.


    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko


    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  6. Hybrid Sterility, Mouse


    Forejt, J


    The review summarizes hybrid sterility as the best studied example of reproductive isolation between closely related species. On the model of infertile hybrids of two domestic mouse subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus, we have demonstrated interaction of hybrid sterility genes with epigenetic control of transcriptional inactivation of the X and Y sex chromosomes. This leads to the activation of pachytene checkpoint and finally results in the arrest of spermatogenesis.

  7. Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems


    Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, GS


    Examples of hybrid fuel cell power generation cycles are the combine high-temperature fuel cells and gas turbines, reciprocating engines, or another fuel cell. These represent the hybrid power plants of the future. The conceptual systems have the potential to achieve efficiencies greater than 70 percent and be commercially ready by year 2010 or sooner. The hybrid fuel cell/turbine (FC/T) power plant will combine a high-temperature, conventional molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)...

  8. Managing hybrid marketing systems. (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U


    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  9. Hybrid Warfare and Lawfare


    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik; Mosquera, Andres B Munoz


    Hybrid Warfare as a method of war is not new. The change today appears to be that Hybrid Warfare “has the potential to transform the strategic calculations of potential belligerents [it has become] increasingly sophisticated and deadly”. This short paper presents Hybrid Warfare and one of its methods, lawfare. For this, we provide a current, comprehensive definition of hybrid warfare and examine different areas where law has been/is being used as a method of war. This paper focuses on the fol...

  10. Hybrid FOSS Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  11. Finger-powered microfluidic systems using multilayer soft lithography and injection molding processes. (United States)

    Iwai, Kosuke; Shih, Kuan Cheng; Lin, Xiao; Brubaker, Thomas A; Sochol, Ryan D; Lin, Liwei


    Point-of-care (POC) and disposable biomedical applications demand low-power microfluidic systems with pumping components that provide controlled pressure sources. Unfortunately, external pumps have hindered the implementation of such microfluidic systems due to limitations associated with portability and power requirements. Here, we propose and demonstrate a 'finger-powered' integrated pumping system as a modular element to provide pressure head for a variety of advanced microfluidic applications, including finger-powered on-chip microdroplet generation. By utilizing a human finger for the actuation force, electrical power sources that are typically needed to generate pressure head were obviated. Passive fluidic diodes were designed and implemented to enable distinct fluids from multiple inlet ports to be pumped using a single actuation source. Both multilayer soft lithography and injection molding processes were investigated for device fabrication and performance. Experimental results revealed that the pressure head generated from a human finger could be tuned based on the geometric characteristics of the pumping system, with a maximum observed pressure of 7.6 ± 0.1 kPa. In addition to the delivery of multiple, distinct fluids into microfluidic channels, we also employed the finger-powered pumping system to achieve the rapid formation of both water-in-oil droplets (106.9 ± 4.3 μm in diameter) and oil-in-water droplets (75.3 ± 12.6 μm in diameter) as well as the encapsulation of endothelial cells in droplets without using any external or electrical controllers.

  12. Dependence of mask topography effects on pattern variation under hyper-NA lithography (United States)

    Mimotogi, Akiko; Itoh, Masamitsu; Mimotogi, Shoji; Sato, Kazuya; Sato, Takashi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Inoue, Soichi


    The purpose of this work was to identify the specific effects of mask topography by analyzing in the Fourier domain. Our focus patterns extend from a simple contact hole (CH) with a fixed pitch and bias to ones that have a variety of different pitches and hole sizes. We also attempt to predict phases and amplitudes of diffraction on the pupil plane without a rigorous mask topography approximated model. Intensities of CH patterns are simulated using three mask models. We had determined that there are serious differences among the three mask models concerning the contrast of the intensity and the qualitative interpretation of the trend of contrast varies according to pitch and hole sizes. The mask topography effects can be classified into waveguide and shadowing effects simply by using the diffraction decomposition diagram. We clarify how much and when the mask topography influences imaging under hyper-NA lithography by the diagram. From 1D near-field phase distribution, it is clarified that phase distribution has also been decided by the MoSi width between holes so that waveguide effects are not only from hole but also from MoSi area. It has been determined that the influence of the real 3D structures of the mask under the hyper-NA condition cannot be disregarded. However, use of the rigorous EMF calculation costs much more and requires more time than using a non-EMF calculation. We have also clarified the mechanism of 3D mask effects based on the amplitude and the phase of the diffraction light in the Fourier-domain diagram and examined whether the 3D mask effects can be predicted by thin mask approximation (TMA) and found that once we have values of amplitude and phase of the 0th and the 1st diffraction in TMA, it will be possible to predict the values of the other pitch and the other hole size.

  13. Method for accurate shape prediction of 3D structure fabricated by x-ray lithography (United States)

    Horade, Mitsuhiro; Khumpuang, Sommawan; Sugiyama, Susumu


    The paper describes about a useful study on the deformed shapes of microstructures fabricated by PCT (Plane-pattern to Cross-section Transfer) Technique. Previously, we have introduced the PCT technique as an additional process to conventional X-ray lithography for an extension of 2.5-dimensional structure to 3-dimensional structure. The PMMA (poly-methylmethacrylate) has been used as the X-ray resist. So far, microneedle and microlens arrays have been successfully fabricated in various shapes and dimensions. The production cost of X-ray mask has been known as the most expensive process for LIGA step, therefore, to predict the resulting shapes of structure precisely before fabricating the mask is relatively important. Although, the 2-D pattern on the X-ray mask can form a similar shape resulting in 3-D structure, the distorted shapes of microstructures have been observed. A linear-edged pattern on the X-ray mask resulted as an exponential-edged structure and an exponential-edged pattern resulted as an exceeding curvature, for example. This problem causes a change in the functional property of the array. In the case of our microneedle array, the linear-edge is highly required since it increases the strength of microneedle. We have investigated and suggested a calculation method fir a shape-prediction of microstructure fabricated by PCT technique in this work. The compensation calculation by our theories for an X-ray mask design can solve the undesired shape resulting after X-ray exposure. Moreover, the dosage control and suitable developing time are given in order to see through the current condition of the currently used synchrotron radiation light-source.

  14. Radio frequency diodes and circuits fabricated via adhesion lithography (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Semple, James; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.


    The commercial interest in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags keeps growing, as new application sectors, spanning from healthcare to electronic article surveillance (EAS) and personal identification, are constantly emerging for these types of electronic devices. The increasing demand for the so-called "smart labels" necessitates their high throughput manufacturing, and indeed on thin flexible substrates, that will reduce the cost and render them competitive to the currently widely employed barcodes. Adhesion Lithography (a-Lith) is a novel patterning technique that allows the facile high yield fabrication of co-planar large aspect ratio (<100,000) metal electrodes separated by a sub-20 nm gap on large area substrates of any type. Deposition of high mobility semiconductors from their solution at low, compatible with plastic substrates, temperatures and application of specific processing protocols can dramatically improve the performance of the fabricated Schottky diodes. It will be shown that in this manner both organic and inorganic high speed diodes and rectifiers can be obtained, operating at frequencies much higher than the 13.56 MHz benchmark, currently employed in passive RFID tags and near filed communications (NFC). This showcases the universality of this method towards fabricating high speed p- and n-type diodes, irrespective of the substrate, simply based on the extreme downscaling of key device dimensions obtained in these nanoscale structures. The potential for scaling up this technique at low cost, combined with the significant performance optimisation and improved functionality that can be attained through intelligent material selection, render a-Lith unique within the field of plastic electronics.

  15. Expanding the printable design space for lithography processes utilizing a cut mask (United States)

    Wandell, Jerome; Salama, Mohamed; Wilkinson, William; Curtice, Mark; Feng, Jui-Hsuan; Gao, Shao Wen; Asthana, Abhishek


    The utilization of a cut-mask in semiconductor patterning processes has been in practice for logic devices since the inception of 32nm-node devices, notably with unidirectional gate level printing. However, the microprocessor applications where cut-mask patterning methods are used are expanding as Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) processes become mainstream for 22/14nm fin diffusion, and sub-14nm metal levels. One common weakness for these types of lithography processes is that the initial pattern requiring the follow-up cut-mask typically uses an extreme off-axis imaging source such as dipole to enhance the resolution and line-width roughness (LWR) for critical dense patterns. This source condition suffers from poor process margin in the semi-dense (forbidden pitch) realm and wrong-way directional design spaces. Common pattern failures in these limited design regions include bridging and extra-printing defects that are difficult to resolve with traditional mask improvement means. This forces the device maker to limit the allowable geometries that a designer may use on a device layer. This paper will demonstrate methods to expand the usable design space on dipole-like processes such as unidirectional gate and SADP processes by utilizing the follow-up cut mask to improve the process window. Traditional mask enhancement means for improving the process window in this design realm will be compared to this new cut-mask approach. The unique advantages and disadvantages of the cut-mask solution will be discussed in contrast to those customary methods.

  16. Design and realization of functional metamaterial basis structures through optical phase manipulation based interference lithography (United States)

    Behera, Saraswati; Joseph, Joby


    Functional metamaterials are of interest to research due to their exotic response to electromagnetic field, leading to interesting properties and wide applications that are unachievable in nature. Most of the study in this field is limited to theory and currently there are certain multi-step experimental studies reported. However, there is not much exploration of an interference lithography technique that is rapid and cost effective to realize such structures over a large area and in bulk (3D) for real world applications. We present the design of 2D and 3D periodic functional metamaterial basis structures arranged in a square and hexagonal lattice using the interference of multiple phase manipulated plane beams. The designed structures are realized in a single step using a phase only spatial light modulator (SLM) assisted Fourier filtering experimental setup in a few seconds. The phase and amplitude of the individual interfering beams are manipulated computationally using MATLAB to generate an irradiance profile for metamaterial structures of different basis features and orientations. The designed structures are: a linearly packed rectangular array, a hexagonally packed rectangular array, ta riangular lattice array, a star, U, V, C, dual-symmetric and dual-asymmetric shaped structures. Three dimensional stacks of such structures can also be realized involving an axial beam into the plane of interference. Templates of some of the microstructures are realized on a positive photoresist that have a spatial periodicity of 6.5 μm. The transfer of the realized patterns to a suitable metallodielectric medium may find interesting applications reported so far in the literature or may lead to some interesting applications.

  17. An optimal high contrast e-beam lithography process for the patterning of dense fin networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruleux-Cornu, F. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Penaud, J. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Dubois, E. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Francois, M. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Muller, M. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)


    There are many difficulties to overcome towards the integration of 10 nm CMOS technology. One such major challenge is to keep a tight control of the leakage current of devices while increasing the current drive at a reduced supply voltage. In this context, multi-gated structures, which are used to control the transport in ultra-thin channel (e.g. FinFET), are a promising solution. A critical step during the fabrication process of a FinFET is the patterning of dense, high aspect ratio fins. High demand is therefore placed on e-beam lithography techniques to obtain narrow, sharp, densely packed resist lines. This paper presents a detailed study on the optimum e-beam exposure process using a negative tone e-beam resist, namely Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ). The impact of the pre-exposure bake temperature, of the Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) concentration in development solution and of development time has been investigated. The standard process uses 2.38% TMAH as a developer, samples being pre-baked on a hotplate at a temperature between 150 and 220 deg. C for 2 min. By using a lower pre-bake temperature of 90 deg. C and a more concentrated TMAH solution dosed at 25%, a seven-fold improvement of contrast can be obtained in terms of contrast values. Cross sectional SEM views show fin networks with a pitch ranging from 40 nm to 200 nm. The line profiles are steep and an excellent uniformity is obtained across the whole network, even for lines located at the edge. Dense patterns are presented with lines as narrow as 15 nm and with a 25 nm space.

  18. DRCPlus in a router: automatic elimination of lithography hotspots using 2D pattern detection and correction (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Rodriguez, Norma; Omedes, Olivier; Gennari, Frank; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Mankad, Viral


    As technology processes continue to shrink, standard design rule checking (DRC) has become insufficient to guarantee design manufacturability. DRCPlus is a powerful technique for capturing yield detractors related to complex 2D situations1,2. DRCPlus is a pattern-based 2D design rule check beyond traditional width and space DRC that can identify problematic 2D configurations which are difficult to manufacture. This paper describes a new approach for applying DRCPlus in a router, enabling an automated approach to detecting and fixing known lithography hotspots using an integrated fast 2D pattern matching engine. A simple pass/no-pass criterion associated with each pattern offers designers guidance on how to fix these problematic patterns. Since it does not rely on compute intensive simulations, DRCPlus can be applied on fairly large design blocks and enforced in conjunction with standard DRC in the early stages of the design flow. By embedding this capability into the router, 2D yield detractors can be identified and fixed by designers in a push-button manner without losing design connectivity. More robust designs can be achieved and the impact on parasitics can be easily assessed. This paper will describe a flow using a fast 2D pattern matching engine integrated into the router in order to enforce DRCPlus rules. An integrated approach allows for rapid identification of hotspot patterns and, more importantly, allows for rapid fixing and verification of these hotspots by a tool that understands design intent and constraints. The overall flow is illustrated in Figure 1. An inexact search pattern is passed to the integrated pattern matcher. The match locations are filtered by the router through application of a DRC constraint (typically a recommended rule). Matches that fail this constraint are automatically fixed by the router, with the modified regions incrementally re-checked to ensure no additional DRCPlus violations are introduced.

  19. Lithography-free shell-substrate isolation for core-shell GaAs nanowires. (United States)

    Haggren, Tuomas; Perros, Alexander Pyymaki; Jiang, Hua; Huhtio, Teppo; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Dhaka, Veer; Kauppinen, Esko; Lipsanen, Harri


    A facile and scalable lithography-free technique(5) for the rapid construction of GaAs core-shell nanowires incorporating shell isolation from the substrate is reported. The process is based on interrupting NW growth and applying a thin spin-on-glass (SOG) layer to the base of the NWs and resuming core-shell NW growth. NW growth occurred in an atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with gold nanoparticles used as catalysts for the vapour-liquid-solid growth. It is shown that NW axial core growth and radial shell growth can be resumed after interruption and even exposure to air. The SOG residues and native oxide layer that forms on the NW surface are shown to prevent or perturb resumption of epitaxial NW growth if not removed. Both HF etching and in situ annealing of the air-exposed NWs in the MOVPE were shown to remove the SOG residues and native oxide layer. While both procedures are shown capable of removing the native oxide and enabling resumption of epitaxial NW growth, in situ annealing produced the best results and allowed construction of pristine core-shell NWs. No growth occurred on SOG and it was observed that axial NW growth was more rapid when a SOG layer covered the substrate. The fabricated p-core/n-shell NWs exhibited diode behaviour upon electrical testing. The isolation of the NW shells from the substrate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The crystal quality of the regrown core-shell NWs was verified with a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The reported technique potentially provides a pathway using MOVPE for scalable and high-throughput production of shell-substrate isolated core-shell NWs on an industrial scale.

  20. Cost effective solution using inverse lithography OPC for DRAM random contact layer (United States)

    Jun, Jinhyuck; Hwang, Jaehee; Choi, Jaeseung; Oh, Seyoung; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Dam, Thuc; Do, Munhoe; Lee, Dong Chan; Xiao, Guangming; Choi, Jung-Hoe; Lucas, Kevin


    Many different advanced devices and design layers currently employ double patterning technology (DPT) as a means to overcome lithographic and OPC limitations at low k1 values. Certainly device layers with k1 value below 0.25 require DPT or other pitch splitting methodologies. DPT has also been used to improve patterning of certain device layers with k1 values slightly above 0.25, due to the difficulty of achieving sufficient pattern fidelity with only a single exposure. Unfortunately, this broad adoption of DPT also came with a significant increase in patterning process cost. In this paper, we discuss the development of a single patterning technology process using an integrated Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) flow for mask synthesis. A single pattering technology flow will reduce the manufacturing cost for a k1 > 0.25 full chip random contact layer in a memory device by replacing the more expensive DPT process with ILT flow, while also maintaining good lithographic production quality and manufacturable OPC/RET production metrics. This new integrated flow consists of applying ILT to the difficult core region and traditional rule-based assist features (RBAFs) with OPC to the peripheral region of a DRAM contact layer. Comparisons of wafer results between the ILT process and the non-ILT process showed the lithographic benefits of ILT and its ability to enable a robust single patterning process for this low-k1 device layer. Advanced modeling with a negative tone develop (NTD) process achieved the accuracy levels needed for ILT to control feature shapes through dose and focus. Details of these afore mentioned results will be described in the paper.

  1. Modeling and optimization of mass-limited targets for EUV lithography (United States)

    Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.


    Current challenges in the development of efficient laser produced plasma (LPP) sources for EUV lithography are increasing EUV power at IF and maximizing lifetime and therefore, reducing cost of devices. Mass-limited targets such as small tin droplets are considered among the best choices for cleaner operation of the optical system because of lower mass of atomic debris produced by the laser beam. The small diameter of droplets, however, decreases the conversion efficiency (CE) of EUV photons emission, especially in the case of CO2 laser, where laser wavelength has high reflectivity from the tin surface. We investigated ways of improving CE in mass-limited targets. We considered in our modeling various possible target phases and lasers configurations: from solid/liquid droplets subjected to laser beam energy with different intensities and laser wavelength to dual-beam lasers, i.e., a pre-pulse followed by a main pulse with adjusted delay time in between. We studied the dependence of vapor expansion rate, which can be produced as a result of droplet heating by pre-pulse laser energy, on target configuration, size, and laser beam parameters. As consequence, we studied the influence of these conditions and parameters on the CE and debris mass accumulation. For better understanding and more accurate modeling of all physical processes occurred during various phases of laser beam/target interactions, plasma plume formation and evolution, EUV photons emission and collection, we have implemented in our HEIGHTS package state-of-the art models and methods, verified, and benchmarked against laboratory experiments in our CMUXE center as well as various worldwide experimental results.

  2. Enhancing extreme ultraviolet photons emission in laser produced plasmas for advanced lithography (United States)

    Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.


    Current challenges in the development of efficient laser produced plasma sources for the next generation extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) are increasing EUV power and maximizing lifetime and therefore, reducing cost of devices. Mass-limited targets such as small tin droplets are considered among the best choices for cleaner operation of the optical system because of lower mass of atomic debris produced by the laser beam. The small diameter of droplets, however, decreases the conversion efficiency (CE) of EUV photons emission, especially in the case of CO2 laser, where laser wavelength has high reflectivity from the tin surface. We investigated ways of improving CE in mass-limited targets. We considered in our modeling various possible target phases and lasers configurations: from solid/liquid droplets subjected to laser beam energy with different intensities and laser wavelength to dual-beam lasers, i.e., a pre-pulse followed by a main pulse with adjusted delay time in between. We studied the dependence of vapor expansion rate, which can be produced as a result of droplet heating by pre-pulse laser energy, on target configuration, size, and laser beam parameters. As a consequence, we studied the influence of these conditions and parameters on the CE and debris mass accumulation. For better understanding and more accurate modeling of all physical processes occurred during various phases of laser beam/target interactions, plasma plume formation and evolution, EUV photons emission and collection, we have implemented in our heights package state-of-the art models and methods, verified, and benchmarked against laboratory experiments in our CMUXE center as well as various worldwide experimental results.

  3. Lithography-free shell-substrate isolation for core-shell GaAs nanowires (United States)

    Haggren, Tuomas; Pyymaki Perros, Alexander; Jiang, Hua; Huhtio, Teppo; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Dhaka, Veer; Kauppinen, Esko; Lipsanen, Harri


    A facile and scalable lithography-free technique5 for the rapid construction of GaAs core-shell nanowires incorporating shell isolation from the substrate is reported. The process is based on interrupting NW growth and applying a thin spin-on-glass (SOG) layer to the base of the NWs and resuming core-shell NW growth. NW growth occurred in an atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with gold nanoparticles used as catalysts for the vapour-liquid-solid growth. It is shown that NW axial core growth and radial shell growth can be resumed after interruption and even exposure to air. The SOG residues and native oxide layer that forms on the NW surface are shown to prevent or perturb resumption of epitaxial NW growth if not removed. Both HF etching and in situ annealing of the air-exposed NWs in the MOVPE were shown to remove the SOG residues and native oxide layer. While both procedures are shown capable of removing the native oxide and enabling resumption of epitaxial NW growth, in situ annealing produced the best results and allowed construction of pristine core-shell NWs. No growth occurred on SOG and it was observed that axial NW growth was more rapid when a SOG layer covered the substrate. The fabricated p-core/n-shell NWs exhibited diode behaviour upon electrical testing. The isolation of the NW shells from the substrate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The crystal quality of the regrown core-shell NWs was verified with a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The reported technique potentially provides a pathway using MOVPE for scalable and high-throughput production of shell-substrate isolated core-shell NWs on an industrial scale.

  4. Heavy metal incorporated helium ion active hybrid non-chemically amplified resists: Nano-patterning with low line edge roughness (United States)

    Reddy, Pulikanti Guruprasad; Thakur, Neha; Lee, Chien-Lin; Chien, Sheng-Wei; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Ghosh, Subrata; Tsai, Kuen-Yu; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.


    Helium (He) ion lithography is being considered as one of the most promising and emerging technology for the manufacturing of next generation integrated circuits (ICs) at nanolevel. However, He-ion active resists are rarely reported. In this context, we are introducing a new non-chemically amplified hybrid resist (n-CAR), MAPDSA-MAPDST, for high resolution He-ion beam lithography (HBL) applications. In the resist architecture, 2.15 % antimony is incorporated as heavy metal in the form of antimonate. This newly developed resists has successfully used for patterning 20 nm negative tone features at a dose of 60 μC/cm2. The resist offered very low line edge roughness (1.27±0.31 nm) for 20 nm line features. To our knowledge, this is the first He-ion active hybrid resist for nanopatterning. The contrast (γ) and sensitivity (E0) of this resist were calculated from the contrast curve as 0.73 and 7.2 μC/cm2, respectively.

  5. HED-TIE: A wafer-scale approach for fabricating hybrid electronic devices with trench isolated electrodes (United States)

    Banerjee, Sreetama; Bülz, Daniel; Solonenko, Dmytro; Reuter, Danny; Deibel, Carsten; Hiller, Karla; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Salvan, Georgeta


    Organic-inorganic hybrid electronic devices (HEDs) offer opportunities for functionalities that are not easily obtainable with either organic or inorganic materials individually. In the strive for down-scaling the channel length in planar geometry HEDs, the best results were achieved with electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography. Their application on the wafer level is, however, cost intensive and time consuming. Here, we propose trench isolated electrode (TIE) technology as a fast, cost effective, wafer-level approach for the fabrication of planar HEDs with electrode gaps in the range of 100 nm. We demonstrate that the formation of the organic channel can be realized by deposition from solution as well as by the thermal evaporation of organic molecules. To underline one key feature of planar HED-TIEs, namely full accessibility of the active area of the devices by external stimuli such as light, 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS)-pentacene/Au HED-TIEs are successfully tested for possible application as hybrid photodetectors in the visible spectral range.

  6. Heavy metal incorporated helium ion active hybrid non-chemically amplified resists: Nano-patterning with low line edge roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulikanti Guruprasad Reddy


    Full Text Available Helium (He ion lithography is being considered as one of the most promising and emerging technology for the manufacturing of next generation integrated circuits (ICs at nanolevel. However, He-ion active resists are rarely reported. In this context, we are introducing a new non-chemically amplified hybrid resist (n-CAR, MAPDSA-MAPDST, for high resolution He-ion beam lithography (HBL applications. In the resist architecture, 2.15 % antimony is incorporated as heavy metal in the form of antimonate. This newly developed resists has successfully used for patterning 20 nm negative tone features at a dose of 60 μC/cm2. The resist offered very low line edge roughness (1.27±0.31 nm for 20 nm line features. To our knowledge, this is the first He-ion active hybrid resist for nanopatterning. The contrast (γ and sensitivity (E0 of this resist were calculated from the contrast curve as 0.73 and 7.2 μC/cm2, respectively.

  7. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber


    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  8. New non-chemically amplified molecular resist design with switchable sensitivity for multi-lithography applications and nanopatterning (United States)

    Thakur, Neha; Guruprasad Reddy, Pulikanti; Nandi, Santu; Yogesh, Midathala; Sharma, Satinder K.; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Ghosh, Subrata; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.


    The development of new photoresist materials for multi-lithography applications is crucial but a challenging task for semiconductor industries. During the last few decades, given the need for new resists to meet the requirements of semiconductor industries, several research groups have developed different resist materials for specific lithography applications. In this context, we have successfully synthesized a new molecular non-chemically amplified resist (n-CAR) (C3) based on the functionalization of aromatic hydroxyl core (4,4‧-(9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)diphenol) with radiation sensitive sulfonium triflates for various lithography applications. While, micron scale features have been developed using i-line (365 nm) and DUVL (254 nm) exposure tools, electron beam studies on C3 thin films enabled us to pattern 20 nm line features with L/3S (line/space) characteristics on the silicon substrate. The sensitivity and contrast were calculated from the contrast curve analysis as 280 µC cm‑2 and 0.025 respectively. Being an important parameter for any newly developed resists, the line edge roughness (LER) of 30 nm (L/5S) features were calculated, using SUMMIT metrology package, to be 3.66  ±  0.3 nm and found to be within the acceptable range. AFM analysis further confirmed 20 nm line width with smooth pattern wall. No deformation of patterned features was observed during AFM analysis which indicated good adhesion property between patterned resists and silicon substrates.

  9. The development of 8 inch roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography (8-R2P-NIL) system (United States)

    Lee, Lai Seng; Mohamed, Khairudin; Ooi, Su Guan


    Growth in semiconductor and integrated circuit industry was observed in the past decennium of years for industrial technology which followed Moore's law. The line width of nanostructure to be exposed was influenced by the essential technology of photolithography. Thus, it is crucial to have a low cost and high throughput manufacturing process for nanostructures. Nanoimprint Lithography technique invented by Stephen Y. Chou was considered as major nanolithography process to be used in future integrated circuit and integrated optics. The drawbacks of high imprint pressure, high imprint temperature, air bubbles formation, resist sticking to mold and low throughput of thermal nanoimprint lithography on silicon wafer have yet to be solved. Thus, the objectives of this work is to develop a high throughput, low imprint force, room temperature UV assisted 8 inch roll to plate nanoimprint lithography system capable of imprinting nanostructures on 200 mm silicon wafer using roller imprint with flexible mold. A piece of resist spin coated silicon wafer was placed onto vacuum chuck drives forward by a stepper motor. A quartz roller wrapped with a piece of transparent flexible mold was used as imprint roller. The imprinted nanostructures were cured by 10 W, 365 nm UV LED which situated inside the quartz roller. Heat generated by UV LED was dissipated by micro heat pipe. The flexible mold detaches from imprinted nanostructures in a 'line peeling' pattern and imprint pressure was measured by ultra-thin force sensors. This system has imprinting speed capability ranging from 0.19 mm/s to 5.65 mm/s, equivalent to imprinting capability of 3 to 20 pieces of 8 inch wafers per hour. Speed synchronization between imprint roller and vacuum chuck was achieved by controlling pulse rate supplied to stepper motor which drive the vacuum chuck. The speed different ranging from 2 nm/s to 98 nm/s is achievable. Vacuum chuck height was controlled by stepper motor with displacement of 5 nm/step.

  10. Fabrication of surface-patterned ZnO thin films using sol-gel methods and nanoimprint lithography


    Dai, Shuxi; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Dianbo; Han, Xiao; Shi, Qing; Wang, Shujie; Du, Zuliang


    Surface-patterned ZnO thin films were fabricated by direct imprinting on ZnO sol and subsequent annealing process. The polymer-based ZnO sols were deposited on various substrates for the nanoimprint lithography and converted to surface-patterned ZnO gel films during the thermal curing nanoimprint process. Finally, crystalline ZnO films were obtained by subsequent annealing of the patterned ZnO gel films. The optical characterization indicates that the surface patterning of ZnO thin films can ...

  11. Selective adsorption of protein on micropatterned flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces modified by vacuum ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shaoying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Rd, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wu Zhongkui, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Rd, Wuhan 430070 (China); Tang Hongxiao; Yang Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Rd, Wuhan 430070 (China)


    Protein micropattern was fabricated on the flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surfaces modified by vacuum ultraviolet lithography (VUV). Chemical composition and topographies changes of the modified PET surfaces were characterized and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and static water contact angle. As demonstrated in fluorescence microscope, the protein patterns were surrounded by a protein-repellant layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were faithful reproductions of the copper mesh. These results suggested that this technique can be extended to other polymeric materials and will be useful in fields where arrays of protein patterns are desired.

  12. Complete data preparation flow for Massively Parallel E-Beam lithography on 28nm node full-field design (United States)

    Fay, Aurélien; Browning, Clyde; Brandt, Pieter; Chartoire, Jacky; Bérard-Bergery, Sébastien; Hazart, Jérôme; Chagoya, Alexandre; Postnikov, Sergei; Saib, Mohamed; Lattard, Ludovic; Schavione, Patrick


    Massively parallel mask-less electron beam lithography (MP-EBL) offers a large intrinsic flexibility at a low cost of ownership in comparison to conventional optical lithography tools. This attractive direct-write technique needs a dedicated data preparation flow to correct both electronic and resist processes. Moreover, Data Prep has to be completed in a short enough time to preserve the flexibility advantage of MP-EBL. While the MP-EBL tools have currently entered an advanced stage of development, this paper will focus on the data preparation side of the work for specifically the MAPPER Lithography FLX-1200 tool [1]-[4], using the ASELTA Nanographics Inscale software. The complete flow as well as the methodology used to achieve a full-field layout data preparation, within an acceptable cycle time, will be presented. Layout used for Data Prep evaluation was one of a 28 nm technology node Metal1 chip with a field size of 26x33mm2, compatible with typical stepper/scanner field sizes and wafer stepping plans. Proximity Effect Correction (PEC) was applied to the entire field, which was then exported as a single file to MAPPER Lithography's machine format, containing fractured shapes and dose assignments. The Soft Edge beam to beam stitching method was employed in the specific overlap regions defined by the machine format as well. In addition to PEC, verification of the correction was included as part of the overall data preparation cycle time. This verification step was executed on the machine file format to ensure pattern fidelity and accuracy as late in the flow as possible. Verification over the full chip, involving billions of evaluation points, is performed both at nominal conditions and at Process Window corners in order to ensure proper exposure and process latitude. The complete MP-EBL data preparation flow was demonstrated for a 28 nm node Metal1 layout in 37 hours. The final verification step shows that the Edge Placement Error (EPE) is kept below 2.25 nm

  13. 5 GHz surface acoustic wave devices based on aluminum nitride/diamond layered structure realized using electron beam lithography (United States)

    Kirsch, P.; Assouar, M. B.; Elmazria, O.; Mortet, V.; Alnot, P.


    Very high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on AlN/diamond layered structures were fabricated by direct writing using e-beam lithography on the nucleation side of chemical vapor deposition diamond. The interdigital transducers made in aluminum with resolutions down to 500nm were patterned on AlN/diamond layered structure with an adapted technological process. Experimental results show that the Rayleigh wave and the higher modes are generated. The fundamental frequency around 5GHz was obtained for this layered structure SAW device and agrees well with calculated results from dispersion curves of propagation velocity and electromechanical coupling coefficient.

  14. Fabrication and improvement of nanopillar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes using nanosphere lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Zhan, Teng


    Surface-patterning technologies have enabled the improvement of currently existinglight-emitting diodes (LEDs) and can be used to overcome the issue of low quantum efficiency ofgreen GaN-based LEDs. We have applied nanosphere lithography to fabricate nanopillars onInGaN∕GaN quantum-well LEDs....... By etching through the active region, it is possible to improveboth the light extraction efficiency and, in addition, the internal quantum efficiency through theeffects of lattice strain relaxation. Nanopillars of different sizes are fabricated and analyzed usingRaman spectroscopy. We have shown...

  15. UV-assisted capillary force lithography for engineering biomimetic multiscale hierarchical structures: From lotus leaf to gecko foot hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Hoon Eui


    This feature article provides an overview of the recently developed two-step UV-assisted capillary force lithography and its application to fabricating well-defined micro/nanoscale hierarchical structures. This method utilizes an oxygen inhibition effect in the course of UV irradiation curing and a two-step moulding process, to form multiscale hierarchical or suspended nanobridge structures in a rapid and reproducible manner. After a brief description of the fabrication principles, several examples of the two-step UV-assisted moulding technique are presented. In addition, emerging applications of the multiscale hierarchical structures are briefly described. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009.

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Heat Exchanger: Opportunities and Limits of the Lithography-Based Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM) (United States)

    Scheithauer, Uwe; Schwarzer, Eric; Moritz, Tassilo; Michaelis, Alexander


    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques allow the preparation of tailor-made structures for specific applications with a high flexibility in regard to shape and design. The lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM) technology allows the AM of high-performance alumina and zirconia components. There are still some restrictions in regard to possible geometries. The opportunities and limits of the LCM technology are discussed in the following paper using the example of ceramic heat exchangers. Structures are presented which combine a large surface for heat exchange with a small component volume and low pressure drop. This paper concludes summarizing the essential remarks.

  17. Recent Advances in Cantilever-Free Scanning Probe Lithography: High-Throughput, Space-Confined Synthesis of Nanostructures and Beyond. (United States)

    He, Qiyuan; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua


    Scalability is the major challenge for scanning probe lithography (SPL). Recently developed cantilever-free scanning probe technologies provide a solution to the issue of scalability by incorporating massive arrays of polymer pens, which fundamentally overcome the low-throughput nature of SPL. The further development of cantilever-free SPL brings up a variety of applications in electronics, biology, and chemical synthesis. In this Perspective, we highlight the space-confined synthesis of complex nanostructures enabled by different types of cantilever-free SPL technologies.

  18. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.


    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  19. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of


    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  20. Hybrid Double Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherman, D.; Yodh, J. S.; Albrecht, S. M.


    Epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor hybrid materials are an excellent basis for studying mesoscopic and topological superconductivity, as the semiconductor inherits a hard superconducting gap while retaining tunable carrier density. Here, we investigate double-quantum-dot devices made from InA...... that the individual dots host weakly hybridized Majorana modes....

  1. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi


    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  2. The hybrid BCI. (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Allison, Brendan Z; Brunner, Clemens; Bauernfeind, Gunther; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Scherer, Reinhold; Zander, Thorsten O; Mueller-Putz, Gernot; Neuper, Christa; Birbaumer, Niels


    Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has two engines to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is composed of two BCIs, or at least one BCI and another system. A hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfill the following four criteria: (i) the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii) there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii) real time processing; and (iv) the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces hybrid BCIs that have already been published or are in development. We also introduce concepts for future work. We describe BCIs that classify two EEG patterns: one is the event-related (de)synchronisation (ERD, ERS) of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Hybrid BCIs can either process their inputs simultaneously, or operate two systems sequentially, where the first system can act as a "brain switch". For example, we describe a hybrid BCI that simultaneously combines ERD and SSVEP BCIs. We also describe a sequential hybrid BCI, in which subjects could use a brain switch to control an SSVEP-based hand orthosis. Subjects who used this hybrid BCI exhibited about half the false positives encountered while using the SSVEP BCI alone. A brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and a different type of input. This additional input can be an electrophysiological signal such as the heart rate, or a signal from an external device such as an eye tracking system.

  3. Quantifying imaging performance bounds of extreme dipole illumination in high NA optical lithography (United States)

    Lee, Myungjun; Smith, Mark D.; Biafore, John; Graves, Trey; Levy, Ady


    We present a framework to analyze the performance of optical imaging in a hyper numerical aperture (NA) immersion lithography scanner. We investigate the method to quantify imaging performance by computing upperand lower-bounds on the threshold normalized image log-slope (NILS) and the depth of focus (DOF) in conjunction with the traditional image quality metrics such as the mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) and the linearity for various different pitches and line to space (LS) duty cycles. The effects of the interaction between the light illumination and the feature size are extensively characterized based on the aerial image (AI) behavior in particular for the extreme dipole illumination that is one of the commonly used off-axis illuminations for sub-100nm logic and memory devices, providing resolution near the physical limit of an optical single patterning step. The proposed aerial imaging-based DOF bounds are compared to the results obtained from an experimentally calibrated resist model, and we observed good agreement. In general, the extreme dipole illumination is only optimal for a single particular pitch, therefore understanding the through-pitch imaging performance bound, which depends on the illumination shape, pattern size, and process conditions, is critically important. We find that overall imaging performance varies depending upon the number of diffracted beams passing through the scanner optics. An even number of beams provides very different trends compared to the results from an odd-number of beams. This significant non-linear behavior occurs in certain pitch regions corresponding to 3 beam interference imaging. In this region the imaging performance and the pattern printability become extremely sensitive to the LS duty cycle. In addition, there is a notable tradeoff between the DOF and the NILS that is observed in the problematic 3-beam region and this tradeoff eventually affects the achievable process window (PW). Given the practical real

  4. Exploration of complex metal 2D design rules using inverse lithography (United States)

    Chang, Simon; Blatchford, James; Prins, Steve; Jessen, Scott; Dam, Thuc; Xiao, Guangming; Pang, Linyong; Gleason, Bob


    As design rule (DR) scaling continues to push lithographic imaging to higher numerical aperture (NA) and smaller k1 factor, extensive use of resolution enhancement techniques becomes a general practice. Use of these techniques not only adds considerable complexity to the design rules themselves, but also can lead to undesired and/or unanticipated problematic imaging effects known as "hotspots." This is particularly common for metal layers in interconnect patterning due to the many complex random and bidirectional (2D) patterns present in typical layout. In such situations, the validation of DR becomes challenging, and the ability to analyze large numbers of 2D layouts is paramount in generating a DR set that encodes all lithographic constraints to avoid hotspot formation. Process window (PW) and mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) are the two most important lithographic constraints in defining design rules. Traditionally, characterization of PW and MEEF by simulation has been carried out using discrete cut planes. For a complex 2D pattern or a large 2D layout, this approach is intractable, as the most likely location of the PW or MEEF hotspots often cannot be predicted empirically, and the use of large numbers of cut planes to ensure all hotspots are detected leads to excessive simulation time. In this paper, we present a novel approach to analyzing fullfield PW and MEEF using the inverse lithography technology (ILT) technique, [1] in the context of restrictive design rule development for the 32nm node. Using this technique, PW and MEEF are evaluated on every pixel within a design, thereby addressing the limitations of cut-plane approach while providing a complete view of lithographic performance. In addition, we have developed an analysis technique using color bitmaps that greatly facilitates visualization of PW and MEEF hotspots anywhere in the design and at an arbitrary level of resolution. We have employed the ILT technique to explore metal patterning options

  5. High power and high repetition solid state laser for EUV lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H.; Mitra, A.; Wang, T. and the others [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)


    We have been developing a high repetition (5 kHz) and high power (5kW) Nd:YAG laser system for EUV lithography. Key subjects are (1) reliable front-end, (2) uniform and high density pumping of main amplifier rods, and (3) compensation of thermal effects. A stable and reliable front-end based on fiber lasers has been developed. As a cw oscillator using Yb-doped silica fiber operates single longitudinal mode at 1030 nm to 1080nm, various laser materials (Yb:YAG, Nd:YLF, Nd:YAG, Nd:YAP, etc) can be used as main laser medium. A fast LN EO modulator switches out arbitrary pulse shape with response time of 100 ps. Laser pulses from the modulator are amplified by 3 stage fiber amplifiers up to 1 J. We will focus our efforts to attain 1 mJ output from the fiber front-end. Output pulses from the front-end are amplified to 100 mJ level by two 4-mm rod amplifiers (Nd:YAG) and two 6-mm rod amplifiers. Main amplifier chain consists of eight 12-mm rod amplifiers pumped by cw laser diodes. Total output power of the laser diodes is 28.8 kW. Double pass geometry is required to get enough gain and to compensate thermal effects. Spatial filters are installed to adjust thermal lens in the amplifiers and to send an image into just the center of the amplifiers. Ninty degree rotators and faraday rotators are installed in order to compensate thermal birefringence. A test amplifier module was made for investigation on uniform pumping, thermal effects, gain properties, and so on. Six laser diode modules with 4.5 kW total output power are installed in symmetric configuration. Active medium is Nd:YAG rod with 0.6% doping. Diameter and length of the rod are 12 mm and 150 mm, respectively. Peak gain of 1.67 was obtained at 4.2 kW pumping power and 200s pumping duration. Pumping uniformity was measured by both gain distribution and spontaneous emission from the laser rod. Fairly good uniformity was achieved by adjusting pumping geometry. Detail system analysis suggests that 8 amplifier modules

  6. In situ synthesis of large-area single sub-10 nm nanoparticle arrays by polymer pen lithography (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Zan, Xiaoli; Li, Shaozhou; Liu, Yayuan; Cui, Chenlong; Zou, Binghua; Zhang, Weina; Xu, Hongbo; Duan, Hongwei; Tian, Danbi; Huang, Wei; Huo, Fengwei


    In order to take advantage of the unique properties of nanoparticles in integrated devices, it is desirable to position monodispersed nanoparticles on substrates with controlled placement. Herein, we utilize small molecules such as ethylene glycol (EG) or glycerol to facilitate the delivery of nanoparticle precursors to the substrates in the polymer pen lithography (PPL) process. Subsequently, large-area ordered single nanoparticle arrays, including sub-10 nm Ag nanoparticle, 30 nm Au nanoparticle and 80 nm Fe2O3 nanoparticle arrays have been synthesized in situ with controllable sizes and pitches.In order to take advantage of the unique properties of nanoparticles in integrated devices, it is desirable to position monodispersed nanoparticles on substrates with controlled placement. Herein, we utilize small molecules such as ethylene glycol (EG) or glycerol to facilitate the delivery of nanoparticle precursors to the substrates in the polymer pen lithography (PPL) process. Subsequently, large-area ordered single nanoparticle arrays, including sub-10 nm Ag nanoparticle, 30 nm Au nanoparticle and 80 nm Fe2O3 nanoparticle arrays have been synthesized in situ with controllable sizes and pitches. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The experiment details, XPS and EDX results of the synthesized nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05033e

  7. High-Speed Transmission and Mass Data Storage Solutions for Large-Area and Arbitrarily Structured Fabrication through Maskless Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation aspects and design of high-speed data transmission in laser direct-writing lithography. With a single field programmable gate array (FPGA chip, mass data storage management, transmission, and synchronization of each part in real-time were implemented. To store a massive amount of data and transmit data with high bandwidth, a serial advanced technology attachment (SATA intellectual property (IP was developed on Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA. In addition, control of laser beam power, collection of status read back data of the lithography laser through an analog-to-digital converter, and synchronization of the positioning signal were implemented on the same FPGA. A data structure for each unit with a unique exposure dose and other necessary information was established. Results showed that the maximum read bandwidth (240 MB/s and maximum write bandwidth (200 MB/s of a single solid-state drive conform to the data transmission requirement. The total amount of data meets the requirement of a large-area diffractive element approximately 102 cm2. The throughput has been greatly improved at meters per second or square centimeter per second. And test results showed that data transmission meets the requirement of the experiment.

  8. Fabrication of Micro-Optics Elements with Arbitrary Surface Profiles Based on One-Step Maskless Grayscale Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyuan Deng


    Full Text Available A maskless lithography method to realize the rapid and cost-effective fabrication of micro-optics elements with arbitrary surface profiles is reported. A digital micro-mirror device (DMD is applied to flexibly modulate that the exposure dose according to the surface profile of the structure to be fabricated. Due to the fact that not only the relationship between the grayscale levels of the DMD and the exposure dose on the surface of the photoresist, but also the dependence of the exposure depth on the exposure dose, deviate from a linear relationship arising from the DMD and photoresist, respectively, and cannot be systemically eliminated, complicated fabrication art and large fabrication error will results. A method of compensating the two nonlinear effects is proposed that can be used to accurately design the digital grayscale mask and ensure a precise control of the surface profile of the structure to be fabricated. To testify to the reliability of this approach, several typical array elements with a spherical surface, aspherical surface, and conic surface have been fabricated and tested. The root-mean-square (RMS between the test and design value of the surface height is about 0.1 μm. The proposed method of compensating the nonlinear effect in maskless lithography can be directly used to control the grayscale levels of the DMD for fabricating the structure with an arbitrary surface profile.

  9. Branched poly(ethyleneimine): a versatile scaffold for patterning polymer brushes by means of remote photocatalytic lithography (United States)

    Panzarasa, Guido; Dübner, Matthias; Soliveri, Guido; Edler, Matthias; Griesser, Thomas


    Patterning of functional surfaces is one of the cornerstones of nanotechnology as it allows the fabrication of sensors and lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, the patterning of self-assembled monolayers of branched poly(ethyleneimine) (bPEI) on silica was achieved by means of remote photocatalytic lithography. Moreover, when 2-bromoisobutyryl-modified bPEI was used, the resulting pattern could be amplified by grafting polymer brushes by means of surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. In contrast to previous reports for the patterning of bPEI, the present approach can be conducted in minutes instead of hours, reducing the exposure time to UV radiation and enhancing the overall efficiency. Furthermore, our approach is much more user-friendly, allowing a facile fabrication of patterned initiator-modified surfaces and the use of inexpensive instrumentation such as a low-power UV source and a simple photomask. Considering the versatility of bPEI as a scaffold for the development of biosensors, patterning by means of remote photocatalytic lithography will open new opportunities in a broad field of applications.

  10. Development of Laser-Produced Tin Plasma-Based EUV Light Source Technology for HVM EUV Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Fujimoto


    Full Text Available Since 2002, we have been developing a carbon dioxide (CO2 laser-produced tin (Sn plasma (LPP extreme ultraviolet (EUV light source, which is the most promising solution because of the 13.5 nm wavelength high power (>200 W light source for high volume manufacturing. EUV lithography is used for its high efficiency, power scalability, and spatial freedom around plasma. We believe that the LPP scheme is the most feasible candidate for the EUV light source for industrial use. We have several engineering data from our test tools, which include 93% Sn ionization rate, 98% Sn debris mitigation by a magnetic field, and 68% CO2 laser energy absorption rate. The way of dispersion of Sn by prepulse laser is key to improve conversion efficiency (CE. We focus on prepulsed laser pulsed duration. When we have optimized pulse duration from nanosecond to picosecond, we have obtained maximum 4.7% CE (CO2 laser to EUV; our previous data was 3.8% at 2 mJ EUV pulse energy. Based on these data we are developing our first light source as our product: “GL200E.” The latest data and the overview of EUV light source for the industrial EUV lithography are reviewed in this paper.

  11. Prototyping of masks, masters, and stamps/molds for soft lithography using an office printer and photographic reduction (United States)

    Deng; Wu; Brittain; Whitesides


    This paper describes a practical method for the fabrication of photomasks, masters, and stamps/molds used in soft lithography that minimizes the need for specialized equipment. In this method, CAD files are first printed onto paper using an office printer with resolution of 600 dots/in. Photographic reduction of these printed patterns transfers the images onto 35-mm film or microfiche. These photographic films can be used, after development, as photomasks in 1:1 contact photolithography. With the resulting photoresist masters, it is straightforward to fabricate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps/molds for soft lithography. This process can generate microstructures as small as 15 microm; the overall time to go from CAD file to PDMS stamp is 4-24 h. Although access to equipment-spin coater and ultraviolet exposure tool-normally found in the clean room is still required, the cost of the photomask itself is small, and the time required to go from concept to device is short. A comparison between this method and all other methods that generate film-type photomasks has been performed using test patterns of lines, squares, and circles. Three microstructures have also been fabricated to demonstrate the utility of this method in practical applications.

  12. Supercritical CO2 drying of poly(methyl methacrylate) photoresist for deep x-ray lithography: a brief note (United States)

    Shukla, Rahul; Abhinandan, Lala; Sharma, Shivdutt


    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is an extensively used positive photoresist for deep x-ray lithography. The post-development release of the microstructures of PMMA becomes very critical for high aspect ratio fragile and freestanding microstructures. Release of high aspect ratio comb-drive microstructure of PMMA made by one-step x-ray lithography (OXL) is studied. The effect of low-surface tension Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) over water is investigated for release of the high aspect ratio microstructures using conventional and supercritical (SC) CO2 drying. The results of conventional drying are also compared for the samples released or dried in both in-house developed and commercial SC CO2 dryer. It is found that in all cases the microstructures of PMMA are permanently deformed and damaged while using SC CO2 for drying. For free-standing high aspect ratio microstructures of PMMA made by OXL, it is advised to use low-surface tension IPA over DI water. However, this brings a limitation on the design of the microstructure.

  13. Hybrid electro-optic polymer modulator compatible to silicon photonic waveguide (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shiyoshi


    Electro-optic (EO) polymers are the promising material of choice for the waveguide modulation application due to their high EO coefficient, optical transparency, low dielectric loss, and compatibility with many materials and substrates. This widespread compatibility enables the construction of the unique hybrid polymer device to the silicon waveguide. One of the successful demonstrations in recent progress is the hybrid silicon modulator to the EO polymer. The hybrid silicon and polymer modulators have already demonstrated a very low half-wave voltage and multi-GHz bandwidth response. While, the fabrication is quite elaborate, involving the high-resolution lithography, controlled etching, and ion implantation process. In order to simplify the hybrid silicon and EO polymer modulator, we apply the conventional photolithography technique. The waveguide consists of silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm, and the cladding is the polymer. In such a thin silicon core, the side-wall scattering can be significantly reduced, thus the measured propagation loss of the waveguide is 1.5 dB/cm. The optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field extends into the polymer cladding. The hybrid phase modulator waveguide performed the half-wave voltage of the modulator to be 4.6 V at 1550 nm and excellent temperature stability at 85C for longer than 500 hours. We also investigate a mode converter which can couple the light from the hybrid polymer waveguide to the silicon strip waveguide. The coupling loss between two devices is measured to be 0.5 dB.

  14. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...

  15. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario


    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  16. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)


    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  17. Hybrid spiking models. (United States)

    Izhikevich, Eugene M


    I review a class of hybrid models of neurons that combine continuous spike-generation mechanisms and a discontinuous 'after-spike' reset of state variables. Unlike Hodgkin-Huxley-type conductance-based models, the hybrid spiking models have a few parameters derived from the bifurcation theory; instead of matching neuronal electrophysiology, they match neuronal dynamics. I present a method of after-spike resetting suitable for hardware implementation of such models, and a hybrid numerical method for simulations of large-scale biological spiking networks.

  18. Ultrafast laser based hybrid methodology of silicon microstructure fabrication for optoelectronic applications (United States)

    Kanaujia, Pawan K.; Bulbul, Angika; Parmar, Vinod; Prakash, G. Vijaya


    As an alternative approach to conventional lithography based fabrication, simple methodology of ultrafast laser writing followed by chemical processing for fabrication of silicon microstructures is studied and presented. Laser fluence and number of pulses dependent laser-matter interaction study reveals several concurrent extreme nonlinearities that influence the structural morphology in both longitudinal and transverse directions. High intensity femtosecond pulse propagation produces inevitable structural features, such as quasi aperiodic surface textures, V-shaped craters, re-casted melt and debris. To minimize such undesired effects, isotropic and anisotropic chemical etching processes have been systematically optimized. Such hybrid protocols resulted into definite microstructures, with surface quality comparable to those obtained from other lithographic fabrication methods. The proposed methodology is expected to provide control over desired feature sizes, for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of microstructures for many optoelectronics applications.

  19. Experimental interspecific hybridization in Daphnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenk, K.; Bijl, M.; Menken, S.B.J.


    Hybridization is a common phenomenon in Daphnia (Cladocera; Anomopoda); interspecific hybrids have been found between several species and hybrids are found in many European lakes. Although much information on the morphology, ecology and genetics of hybrids is available, little is known about the

  20. Electron Beam Lithography of HSQ and PMMA Resists and Importance of their Properties to Link the Nano World to the Micro World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaleli, B.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Smits, Sander M.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan


    In this work we investigated the properties of HSQ and PMMA resists focusing on contrast and line width for ebeam lithography (EBL) application. HSQ was found to be a good candidate to have desired line widths but the contrast we obtained was less than it was for PMMA. Since the fluorine based