WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid ethylene scrubber

  1. Separation of finest dusts in Venturi scrubber with hybrid nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, K. [Reither Venturiwaescher GmbH, Troisdorf (Germany); Boerger, G.G.; Listner, U.; Schweitzer, M. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    Venturi scrubbers are high-performance dust separators whose efficiency is closely connected with high pressure losses. The tube-slot Venturi scrubber with hybrid nozzles is a novel scrubber type of simple and compact design, by means of which high separation efficiency is reached with pressure losses practically tending to zero. This new wet scrubber is particularly suitable for refitting existing plants. (orig.)

  2. Influence of brick air scrubber by-product on growth and development of corn and hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carla N; Bauerle, William L; Owino, Tom O; Chastain, John P; Klaine, Stephen J

    2007-03-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of spent reagent from air pollution control scrubbers used at a brick manufacturing facility on emergence, growth, and physiological responses of corn and hybrid poplar plants. Scrubber by-product was obtained from General Shale Brick, Louisville, KY. Potting substrate was weighed and quantities of scrubber by-product were added to the substrate to obtain treatments of 0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% scrubber by-product (w:w) for the corn study. Each treatment mix was potted into nine replicate polyethylene pots and four corn seeds were sown per pot. The pots were randomized in a greenhouse at Clemson University and the number of seedlings emerging from each treatment, dark-adapted leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence, and shoot heights were measured at the end of a 21-day growth period. Then, dry shoot biomass was determined for plants from each treatment and plant tissues were analyzed for selected constituents. For the poplar study, nine-inch cuttings of hybrid poplar clone 15-29 (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) and clone OP367 (P. deltoides x P. nigra) were planted in treatments of scrubber by-product-potting soil mixes of 0% , 5% , 10% , and 25% w:w. Leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured over six weeks and cumulative leaf area, dry biomass, and nutrient content of tissues were determined upon harvest. Results of these studies indicate that percent seedling emergence for corn plants decreased with increasing scrubber by-product application rates. Application rates up to 12.5% scrubber by-product w:w had no adverse effect on corn seedling emergence. Shoot elongation, biomass production, and the status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the seedlings were also not severely impaired at applications below this level. A critical value of 58.2% w:w scrubber by-product was estimated to cause 25% inhibition of seedling emergence. Biomass production, cumulative leaf area, and chlorophyll a fluorescence of

  3. Aerosol scrubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Submerged Gravel Scrubber is an air cleaning system developed by the Department of Energy's Liquid Metal Reactor Program. The Scrubber System has been patented by the Department of Energy. This technology is being transferred to industry by the DOE. Its basic principles can be adapted for individual applications and the commercialized version can be used to perform a variety of tasks. The gas to be cleaned is percolated through a continuously washed gravel bed. The passage of the gas through the gravel breaks the stream into many small bubbles rising in a turbulent body of water. These conditions allow very highly efficient removal of aerosols from the gas

  4. Synthesis of poly(ethylene oxide)-silica hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak Manaf

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid material incorporating silica networks in poly (ethylene oxide) was produced using the sol-gel process from solution mixtures of poly (ethylene oxide) dissolved in water and partially polymerized tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) with and without compatibilisation agent. These mixtures were converted into films by solvent evaporation and drying them in an air-circulating oven at 60 degree C. Depending on the alkoxysilane solution composition and several mixing parameters, different morphologies were obtained, varying from semi-interpenetrating networks of PEO within highly cross linked silica chains, to finely dispersed heterogeneous system exhibiting either co-continuous or particulate microstructure. The influence of pH, type of solvents, mixing temperatures and time, as well as the nature of compatibiliser was found to be extremely important in controlling the morphology and properties of the fine hybrid films. It was found that compatibilisation of PEO-SiO 2 hybrid system is achieved exclusively with the use of γ-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOTMS) coupling agent. (Author)

  5. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)–poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hybrids as injectable biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrand, Johanna; López, Alejandro; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues with the currently available injectable biomaterials for hard tissue replacement is the mismatch between their mechanical properties and those of the surrounding bone. Hybrid bone cements that combine the benefits of tough polymeric and bioactive ceramic materials could become a good alternative. In this work, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was copolymerized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form injectable in situ cross-linkable hybrid cements. The hybrids were characterized in terms of their mechanical, rheological, handling and in vitro bioactive properties. The results indicated that hybridization improves the mechanical and bioactive properties of POSS and PEG. The Young moduli of the hybrids were lower than those of commercial cements and more similar to those of cancellous bone. Furthermore, the strength of the hybrids was similar to that of commercial cements. Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite grew on the surface of the hybrids after 28 days in PBS, indicating bioactivity. The study showed that PEG–POSS-based hybrid materials are a promising alternative to commercial bone cements. (paper)

  6. V2O5 xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid material: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Elidia M.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hybrid materials obtained by varying the average molecular weight of the organic component as well as the components' ratios. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet/visible and infrared spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and cyclic voltammetry. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved, with increase in the interplanar spacing, giving evidence of a low-crystalline structure. We found that the electrochemical behaviour of the hybrid materials is quite similar to that found for the V 2 O 5 xerogel alone, and we verified that PEO leads to stabilization and reproducibility of the Li + electrochemical insertion/de-insertion into the V 2 O 5 xerogel structure, which makes these materials potential components of lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid materials have been described. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved. The cyclic voltammetry technique demonstrated that PEO intercalation provides an improvement in the electrochemical properties, mainly with respect to the lithium electroinsertion process into the oxide matrix

  7. Passive self-cleaning aerosol scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    A hybrid gas scrubbing system is described, which includes features of both a pool type scrubber and a sand or ground filter, for use on nuclear reactor containment buildings to limit release of aerosol particles and absorbable gases, including radio-active materials, during postulated major accidents. The system requires no energy while in the passive state and no active energy other than pressurization of the stream of gas being scrubbed. (U.K.)

  8. Hybrids of ethylene vinyl acetate with Na-montmorillonite and titania: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrids of Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) with Na-montmorillonite and titania were formed. Montmorillonite was organically modified by two different modifiers: Pyridinium ions and 4. 4-oxydianilinium ions. X-ray diffraction results revealed that Pyridinium ions increased the .interlayer spacing by 0.33 nm and 4, 4-oxydianilinium by 0.55 nm approximately. These modified organo-clays were successfully exfoliated in EVA using melt blending. These hybrids showed improvement in mechanical and thermal properties. 4, 4-oxydianilinium ions were degraded at higher temperature due to which thermal degradation was enhanced in EVA. In addition to this, EVA/titania hybrids were also prepared using sot-gel technique and modified by triethoxy vinyl silane and (3-aminopropyI)- triethoxy silane to increase their compatibility with EVA. Some portion of unmodified titania was heat treated to 600 degree C to obtain particulate titania. The hybrid of particulate titania and modified titania improved the mechanical properties and thermal properties. Especially in case of modified titania toughness was almost doubled. (author)

  9. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Mahou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-VS. In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. The feasibility of cell microencapsulation was studied using primary human foreskin fibroblasts (EDX cells as a model. The use of cell culture media as polymer solvent, gelation bath, and storage medium did not negatively affect the alg-PEG-M properties. Microencapsulated EDX cells maintained their viability and proliferated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of primary cell microencapsulation within the novel microsphere type alg-PEG-M, serves as reference for future therapy development, and confirms the suitability of EDX cells as control model.

  10. Amino acids and peptides. XXXII: A bifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid of fibronectin-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M; Izuno, Y; Kawasaki, K; Kaneda, Y; Mu, Y; Tsutsumi, Y; Lem, K W; Mayumi, T

    1997-12-18

    An amino acid type poly(ethylene glycol) (aaPPEG) was prepared and its application to a drug carrier was examined. The peptides, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and Glu-Ile-Leu-Asp-Val (EILDV) which were reported as active fragments of Fibronectin (a cell adhesion protein), were conjugated with aaPEG (molecular weight, 10,000). The hybrid, RGD-aaPEG-EILDV, was prepared by a combination of the solid-phase method and the solution method. Antiadhesive activity of the peptides was not lost by its hybrid formation with the large aaPEG molecule. A mixture of RGD (0.43 mmol) and EILDV (0.43 mmol) did not demonstrate an antiadhesive effect, but the hybrid containing 0.43 mmol of each peptide did exhibit this effect.

  11. Venturi scrubber modelling and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, S [National Univ., La Jolla, CA (United States). School of Engineering and Technology; Ananthanarayanan, N.V. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Azzopardi, B.J. [Nottingham Univ., Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-04-01

    This study presented a method to maintain the efficiency of venturi scrubbers in removing fine particulates during gas clean operations while minimizing pressure drop. Venturi scrubbers meet stringent emission standards. In order to choose the optimal method for predicting pressure drop, 4 established models were compared for their accuracy of prediction and simplicity in application. The enhanced algorithm optimizes Pease-Anthony type venturi scrubber performance by predicting the minimum pressure drop required to achieve the desired collection efficiency. This was accomplished by optimizing the key operating and design parameters such as liquid-to-gas ratio, throat gas velocity, number of nozzles, nozzle diameter and throat aspect ratio. Two of the 4 established models were expanded by providing an empirical algorithm to better predict pressure drop in the venturi throat. Model results were validated with experimental data. The optimization algorithm considers the non-uniformity in liquid distribution. It can be applied to cylindrical and rectangular Pease-Anthony type scrubbers. It offers an effective, systematic and accurate method to optimize the performance of new and existing scrubbers. 54 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Highly Controlled Diffusion Drug Release from Ureasil-Poly(ethylene oxide)-Na+-Montmorillonite Hybrid Hydrogel Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Celso R N; Molina, Eduardo F; Pulcinelli, Sandra H; Santilli, Celso V

    2018-06-06

    In this work, we report the effects of incorporation of variable amounts (1-20 wt %) of sodium montmorillonite (MMT) into a siloxane-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid hydrogel prepared by the sol-gel route. The aim was to control the nanostructural features of the nanocomposite, improve the release profile of the sodium diclofenac (SDCF) drug, and optimize the swelling behavior of the hydrophilic matrix. The nanoscopic characteristics of the siloxane-cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide) network, the semicrystallinity of the hybrid, and the intercalated or exfoliated structure of the clay were investigated by X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry. The correlation between the nanoscopic features of nanocomposites containing different amounts of MMT and the swelling behavior revealed the key role of exfoliated silicate in controlling the water uptake by means of a flow barrier effect. The release of the drug from the nanocomposite displayed a stepped pattern kinetically controlled by the diffusion of SDCF molecules through the mass transport barrier created by the exfoliated silicate. The sustained SDCF release provided by the hybrid hydrogel nanocomposite could be useful for the prolonged treatment of painful conditions, such as arthritis, sprains and strains, gout, migraine, and pain after surgical procedures.

  13. Intracellular siRNA delivery dynamics of integrin-targeted, PEGylated chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Colombo, Stefano; Pourcelle, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles. The amount of intracellular siRNA delivered by αvβ3-targeted versus non-targeted nanoparticles was quantified in the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line H1299 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using a stem-loop reverse...... that these nanoparticles might end up in late endosomes or lysosomes without releasing their cargo to the cell cytoplasm. Thus, the silencing efficiency of the chitosan-based nanoparticles is strongly dependent on the uptake and the intracellular trafficking in H1299 EGFP cells, which is critical information towards...

  14. Mixed DNA/Oligo(ethylene glycol) Functionalized Gold Surface Improve DNA Hybridization in Complex Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Gamble, L.; Grainger, D.; Castner, D.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable, direct 'sample-to-answer' capture of nucleic acid targets from complex media would greatly improve existing capabilities of DNA microarrays and biosensors. This goal has proven elusive for many current nucleic acid detection technologies attempting to produce assay results directly from complex real-world samples, including food, tissue, and environmental materials. In this study, we have investigated mixed self-assembled thiolated single-strand DNA (ssDNA) monolayers containing a short thiolated oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) surface diluent on gold surfaces to improve the specific capture of DNA targets from complex media. Both surface composition and orientation of these mixed DNA monolayers were characterized with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). XPS results from sequentially adsorbed ssDNA/OEG monolayers on gold indicate that thiolated OEG diluent molecules first incorporate into the thiolated ssDNA monolayer and, upon longer OEG exposures, competitively displace adsorbed ssDNA molecules from the gold surface. NEXAFS polarization dependence results (followed by monitoring the N 1s→π* transition) indicate that adsorbed thiolated ssDNA nucleotide base-ring structures in the mixed ssDNA monolayers are oriented more parallel to the gold surface compared to DNA bases in pure ssDNA monolayers. This supports ssDNA oligomer reorientation towards a more upright position upon OEG mixed adlayer incorporation. DNA target hybridization on mixed ssDNA probe/OEG monolayers was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Improvements in specific target capture for these ssDNA probe surfaces due to incorporation of the OEG diluent were demonstrated using two model biosensing assays, DNA target capture from complete bovine serum and from salmon genomic DNA mixtures. SPR results demonstrate that OEG incorporation into the ssDNA adlayer improves surface resistance to both nonspecific DNA and protein

  15. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    variations in the chemistry. Rivers running through soil rich in carbonates will be high in alkalinity. For example, the southern rivers of the Baltic Sea... enviro /Scrubber Test_Report_onboard_Suula.pdf) Waterco. 2010. MultiCyclone for Cooling Towers (http://www.waterco.eu/installations/water- treatment

  16. Preparation of a Sepia Melanin and Poly(ethylene-alt-maleic Anhydride Hybrid Material as an Adsorbent for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Panzarasa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the increasing demand of clean water requires the development of novel efficient adsorbent materials for the removal of organic pollutants. In this context the use of natural, renewable sources is of special relevance and sepia melanin, thanks to its ability to bind a variety of organic and inorganic species, has already attracted interest for water purification. Here we describe the synthesis of a material obtained by the combination of sepia melanin and poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride (P(E-alt-MA. Compared to sepia melanin, the resulting hybrid displays a high and fast adsorption efficiency towards methylene blue (a common industrial dye for a wide pH range (from pH 2 to 12 and under high ionic strength conditions. It is easily recovered after use and can be reused up to three times. Given the wide availability of sepia melanin and P(E-alt-MA, the synthesis of our hybrid is simple and affordable, making it suitable for industrial water purification purposes.

  17. Improved thermal conductivity of TiO2-SiO2 hybrid nanofluid in ethylene glycol and water mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, K. A.; Azmi, W. H.; Nabil, M. F.; Mamat, R.

    2017-10-01

    The need to study hybrid nanofluid properties such as thermal conductivity has increased recently in order to provide better understanding on nanofluid thermal properties and behaviour. Due to its ability to improve heat transfer compared to conventional heat transfer fluids, nanofluids as a new coolant fluid are widely investigated. This paper presents the thermal conductivity of TiO2-SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol (EG)-water. The TiO2-SiO2 hybrid nanofluids is measured for its thermal conductivity using KD2 Pro Thermal Properties Analyzer for concentration ranging from 0.5% to 3.0% and temperature of 30, 50 and 70°C. The results show that the increasing in concentration and temperature lead to enhancement in thermal conductivity at range of concentration studied. The maximum enhancement is found to be 22.1% at concentration 3.0% and temperature 70°C. A new equation is proposed based on the experiment data and found to be in good agreement where the average deviation (AD), standard deviation (SD) and maximum deviation (MD) are 1.67%, 1.66% and 5.13%, respectively.

  18. Pore chemistry and size control in hybrid porous materials for acetylene capture from ethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, X.

    2016-05-20

    The trade-off between physical adsorption capacity and selectivity of porous materials is a major barrier for efficient gas separation and purification through physisorption. We report control over pore chemistry and size in metal coordination networks with hexafluorosilicate and organic linkers for the purpose of preferential binding and orderly assembly of acetylene molecules through cooperative host-guest and/or guest-guest interactions. The specific binding sites for acetylene are validated by modeling and neutron powder diffraction studies. The energies associated with these binding interactions afford high adsorption capacity (2.1 millimoles per gram at 0.025 bar) and selectivity (39.7 to 44.8) for acetylene at ambient conditions. Their efficiency for the separation of acetylene/ethylene mixtures is demonstrated by experimental breakthrough curves (0.73 millimoles per gram from a 1/99 mixture).

  19. Refractories for exhaust gas scrubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Primary metal smelters are recovering a greater percentage of their stack emissions because of increased global environmental pressures. Copper and nickel producers processing sulfide ore are under particular scrutiny for sulfur dioxide emissions. The use of various acid plant designs and associated scrubbers to capture the gas is commonplace. Failure of acid plant or sulfur dioxide control devices can be very expensive, both in terms of repair costs and lost production. Close attention should be paid to ensure smooth, long term and proper operation of these vessels. With INCO flash furnace shops smelter gases are treated immediately upon leaving the furnace in a particulate scrubber where the gases are cooled and de-dusted in a water spray chamber. The amount of chlorine and fluorine in the waste gas can vary widely, ranging from non-existent to being a major source of concern for refractory wear. Developed specifically for use in hazardous waste incinerators burning fluorine-containing materials, spall-resistant, high-purity alimina bricks were installed in various gas cleaning units in copper smelting plants. Because of the materials's combination of abrasion resistance, thermal cycling resistance, and chemical durability under conditions of variable SO(3) and fluorine attack, the material has proven to be more than adequate for the challenges of gas cleaning equipment. 2 refs.

  20. Nanofibrous nonwovens based on dendritic-linear-dendritic poly(ethylene glycol) hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kikionis, Stefanos; Ioannou, Efstathia; Andren, Oliver C.J.

    2017-01-01

    unsuccessful. Nevertheless, when these DLD hybrids were blended with an array of different biodegradable polymers as entanglement enhancers, nanofibrous nonwovens were successfully prepared by electrospinning. The pseudogeneration degree of the DLDs, the nature of the co-electrospun polymer and the solvent...... nanofibers. Such dendritic nanofibrous scaffolds can be promising materials for biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, multifunctionality, and advanced structural architecture....

  1. Modeling of venturi scrubber efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Jerry W.; Noll, Kenneth E.; Davis, Wayne T.

    The parameters affecting venturi scrubber performance have been rationally examined and modifications to the current modeling theory have been developed. The modified model has been validated with available experimental data for a range of throat gas velocities, liquid-to-gas ratios and particle diameters and is used to study the effect of some design parameters on collection efficiency. Most striking among the observations is the prediction of a new design parameter termed the minimum contactor length. Also noted is the prediction of little effect on collection efficiency with increasing liquid-to-gas ratio above about 2ℓ m-3. Indeed, for some cases a decrease in collection efficiency is predicted for liquid rates above this value.

  2. Effect of addition of Proline, ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] on CO2 separation properties of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer / poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, S. H.; Kai, T.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Taniguchi, I.; Kazama, S.

    2018-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDMA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, proline, choline and ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] compounds were selected as rate promoters that were used to prepare PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes. The effect of addition of proline, choline, IL [Choline][Pro] on separation performance of PAMAM/PEGDMA) hybrid membranes for CO2/H2 separation was investigated. Amino acid proline, choline, and IL [Choline][Pro] were used to promote CO2 and amine reaction. With the addition of [Choline][Pro] into PAMAM/PEG membrane, CO2 permeance of PAMAM/PEG hybrid membranes are increased up to 46% without any change of selectivity of membrane for CO2.

  3. Droplet size in a rectangular Venturi scrubber

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M. A. M.; Henrique, P. R.; Gonçalves, J. A. S.; Coury, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The Venturi scrubber is a device which uses liquid in the form of droplets to efficiently remove fine particulate matter from gaseous streams. Droplet size is of fundamental importance for the scrubber performance. In the present experimental study, a laser diffraction technique was used in order to measure droplet size in situ in a Venturi scrubber with a rectangular cross section. Droplet size distribution was measured as a function of gas velocity (58.3 to 74.9 m/s), liquid-to-gas ratio (0...

  4. The Dynamics of Aerosols in Condensational Scrubbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jens Tue; Christensen, Jan A.; Simonsen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model for the simulation of the dynamics of aerosol change in condensational scrubbers and scrubbing condensers is proposed. The model is applicable for packed column gas/liquid contact when plug flow can be assumed. The model is compared with experimental data for particle removal...... for their estimation is proposed. The behaviour of scrubbers and condensers for some important technical applications is demonstrated by model simulations. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  5. Design Aspects of Wet Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Bang, Young-suk; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Doo-Yong [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The water pool in the wet scrubber system has advantage to cope with decay heat based on the thermal hydraulic balance such as condensation and evaporation inside it. This study focuses on the design aspects of the wet scrubber system to estimate the required water pool mass during the mission time and size of the scrubbing tank including inner structures. The design of the wet scrubber system include the estimation of the required water mass during the mission time and sizing of the scrubber vessel to contain the water pool. The condensation due to the inlet steam and evaporation due to the steam and non-condensable gas superheat and decay heat from filtered fission products should be considered to estimate the water mass required to maintain its function during the mission time. On the other hand, the level swelling due to the noncondensable gas is another important design aspect on the sizing of the scrubber vessel and determination of the entry elevation of the filtration components such as the droplet separator or filter. The minimum water level based on the minimum collapsed water level should be higher than the exit of scrubber nozzle.

  6. Design Aspects of Wet Scrubber System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Bang, Young-suk; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Doo-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The water pool in the wet scrubber system has advantage to cope with decay heat based on the thermal hydraulic balance such as condensation and evaporation inside it. This study focuses on the design aspects of the wet scrubber system to estimate the required water pool mass during the mission time and size of the scrubbing tank including inner structures. The design of the wet scrubber system include the estimation of the required water mass during the mission time and sizing of the scrubber vessel to contain the water pool. The condensation due to the inlet steam and evaporation due to the steam and non-condensable gas superheat and decay heat from filtered fission products should be considered to estimate the water mass required to maintain its function during the mission time. On the other hand, the level swelling due to the noncondensable gas is another important design aspect on the sizing of the scrubber vessel and determination of the entry elevation of the filtration components such as the droplet separator or filter. The minimum water level based on the minimum collapsed water level should be higher than the exit of scrubber nozzle

  7. Synthesis of bioactive poly(ethylene glycol)/SiO2-CaO-P2O5 hybrids for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Wu Xiaohong; Zhan Hongbing; Yan Fuhua

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 hybrid xerogels were prepared using a room temperature sol-gel process. The advantage of this hybrid material over conventional composites is the molecular scale interactions between the bioactive inorganic components and the biodegradable organic components. Since PEG was added into the sol when the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane occurred, the molecular chain of PEG was penetrated into the SiO 2 networks to form a semi-IPN structure. Due to the excellent biocompatibility and aqueous solubility of PEG molecules, as well as the bioactivity of the inorganic components, the biological and mechanical properties of this hybrid xerogel exhibit great potential for bone regeneration applications. The formation of hydroxyapatite was observed when the xerogel was immersed into simulated body fluid, demonstrating good bioactivity of the hybrid. The cell toxicity test also demonstrated that the hybrid material is suitable for the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Thus, the PEG/SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 hybrid xerogel has great potential to meet the demands of bone regeneration materials. - Highlights: ► PEG was penetrated into the SiO 2 networks to form a semi-IPN structure. ► This hybrid xerogel exhibit great potential for bone regeneration applications. ► SEM micrographs confirm the bioactivity of the samples.

  8. Effects of temperature and particles concentration on the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluid: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Omid; Akbari, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the effects of temperature and particles concentration on the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluid is examined. The experiments carried out in the solid volume fraction range of 0 to 1.0% under the temperature ranging from 30 °C to 60 °C. The results showed that the hybrid nanofluid behaves as a Newtonian fluid for all solid volume fractions and temperatures considered. The measurements also indicated that the dynamic viscosity increases with increasing the solid volume fraction and decreases with the temperature rising. The relative viscosity revealed that when the solid volume fraction enhances from 0.1 to 1%, the dynamic viscosity increases up to 168%. Finally, using experimental data, in order to predict the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluids, a new correlation has been suggested. The comparisons between the correlation outputs and experimental results showed that the suggested correlation has an acceptable accuracy.

  9. Scrubbers: A popular Phase I compliance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.E.; Bissell, P.E.; Koch, B.J.; Rutledge, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    As utilities commit to compliance plans to meet the Phase I requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, there are indications that scrubbing may account for up to 50 percent of the total SO 2 reductions in Phase I. This paper presents and analyzes the critical reasons that explain how and why scrubber-based compliance strategies have developed into the least-cost option in Phase I for many utilities. A hypothetical utility system was simulated to study the impacts of various technological, legislative, and regulatory issues on compliance decisions and costs. Issues evaluated using the hypothetical system include the emissions cap, Clean Air Act and state incentives to scrub, improvements in scrubber technology and costs, and the integration of Phase I and II compliance strategies by the phased installation of scrubbers. In combination, these considerations increase the attractiveness of scrubbers during the 1995-1999 Phase I period. Other considerations that will ultimately influence the amount of Phase I scrubbing capacity include the additional power generation costs associated with fuel switching, the uncertainty of low-sulfur coal price projections, fuel supply flexibility, scrubber market aspects, and socioeconomic considerations

  10. Droplet size in a rectangular Venturi scrubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. M. Costa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Venturi scrubber is a device which uses liquid in the form of droplets to efficiently remove fine particulate matter from gaseous streams. Droplet size is of fundamental importance for the scrubber performance. In the present experimental study, a laser diffraction technique was used in order to measure droplet size in situ in a Venturi scrubber with a rectangular cross section. Droplet size distribution was measured as a function of gas velocity (58.3 to 74.9 m/s, liquid-to-gas ratio (0.07 to 0.27 l/m³, and distance from liquid injection point (64 to 173 mm. It was found that all these variables significantly affect droplet size. The results were compared with the predictions from correlations found in the literature.

  11. Cylinder supplied ammonia scrubber testing in IDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the off-line testing the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) ammonia scrubbers using ammonia supplied from cylinders. Three additional tests with ammonia are planned to verify the data collected during off-line testing. Operation of the ammonia scrubber during IDMS SRAT and SME processing will be completed during the next IDMS run. The Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) scrubbers were successful in removing ammonia from the vapor stream to achieve ammonia vapor concentrations far below the 10 ppM vapor exit design basis. In most of the tests, the ammonia concentration in the vapor exit was lower than the detection limit of the analyzers so results are generally reported as <0.05 parts per million (ppM). During SRAT scrubber testing, the ammonia concentration was no higher than 2 ppM and during SME testing the ammonia concentration was no higher than 0.05 m

  12. Nitrogen tetroxide vapor scrubber using a recirculating liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisert, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    Scrubbers required to reduce N2O4 contamination of nitrogen vent gas streams to a safe level to preclude health hazard to personnel and to preclude adverse environmental effects were developed. The scrubber principle involved is to absorb and neutralize the N2O4 component in a closed circuit circulating water/chemical solution in a vertical counter-flow, packed-tower configuration. The operational and performance test requirements for the scrubbers consist of demonstrating that the exit gas contamination level from the scrubbers does not exceed 150 ppm oxidizer under any flow conditions up to 400 scfm with inlet concentrations of up to 100,000 ppm oxidizer. Several problems were encountered during the performance testing that led to a series of investigations and supplementary testing. It was finally necessary to change the scrubber liquors in oxidizer scrubber to successfully achieve performance requirements. The scrubbers, the test configuration, and the various tests performed are described.

  13. Retention of nitrous gases in scrubber columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazone, A.K.; Costa, R.C.; Lobao, A.S.T.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de

    1988-01-01

    During the UO 2 dissolution in nitric acid, some different species of NO (sub)x are released. The off gas can either be refluxed to the dissolver or be released and retained on special colums. The final composition of the solution is the main parameter to take in account. A process for nitrous gases retention using scrubber colums containing H 2 O or diluted HNO 3 is presented. Chemiluminescence measurement was employed to NO x evaluation before and after scrubing. Gas flow, temperature, residence time are the main parameters considered in this paper. For the dissolution of 100g UO 2 in 8M nitric acid, a 6NL/h O 2 flow was the best condition for the NO/NO 2 oxidation with maximum absorption in the scrubber columns. (author) [pt

  14. Evaluation of a Zirconium Recycle Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A hot-cell demonstration of the zirconium recycle process is planned as part of the Materials Recovery and Waste Forms Development (MRWFD) campaign. The process treats Zircaloy® cladding recovered from used nuclear fuel with chlorine gas to recover the zirconium as volatile ZrCl4. This releases radioactive tritium trapped in the alloy, converting it to volatile tritium chloride (TCl). To meet regulatory requirements governing radioactive emissions from nuclear fuel treatment operations, the capture and retention of a portion of this TCl may be required prior to discharge of the off-gas stream to the environment. In addition to demonstrating tritium removal from a synthetic zirconium recycle off-gas stream, the recovery and quantification of tritium may refine estimates of the amount of tritium present in the Zircaloy cladding of used nuclear fuel. To support these objectives, a bubbler-type scrubber was fabricated to remove the TCl from the zirconium recycle off-gas stream. The scrubber was fabricated from glass and polymer components that are resistant to chlorine and hydrochloric acid solutions. Because of concerns that the scrubber efficiency is not quantitative, tests were performed using DCl as a stand-in to experimentally measure the scrubbing efficiency of this unit. Scrubbing efficiency was ~108% ± 3% with water as the scrubber solution. Variations were noted when 1 M NaOH scrub solution was used, values ranged from 64% to 130%. The reason for the variations is not known. It is recommended that the equipment be operated with water as the scrubbing solution. Scrubbing efficiency is estimated at 100%.

  15. Drop size measurements in Venturi scrubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Alonso, D.; Azzopardi, B.J. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Goncalves, J.A.S.; Coury, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica

    2001-07-01

    Venturi scrubbers are high efficiency gas cleaners in which suspended particles are removed from gas streams by drops formed by liquid atomisation, usually in the Venturi throat. The size of the drops formed are of fundamental importance to the performance of the equipment, both in terms of pressure drop and dust removal efficiency. In this study, drop sizes in a cylindrical laboratory-scale Venturi scrubber were measured using a laser diffraction technique. Gas velocity and liquid to gas ratios varied from 50 to 90 m/s and 0.5 to 2.0 1/m{sup 3}, respectively. Water was injected using two different arrangements: either as jets in the throat or as a film just upstream of the convergence. Drop size measurements were performed at three positions in the case of jet injection: two located along the throat, and the last one at the end of the diffuser. The present data shows that the Sauter mean diameter of the spray can be well correlated by the equation of Boll et al. (J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 24 (1974) 932). Drop size distributions are satisfactorily represented by a Rosin-Rammler function. This paper also provides a simple method for calculating the parameters of the Rosin-Rammler function. As a result of this work, drop sizes in Venturi scrubbers can be estimated with much higher accuracy. (Author)

  16. Theoretical study of liquid droplet dispersion in a venturi scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathikalajahi, J; Talaie, M R; Taheri, M

    1995-03-01

    The droplet concentration distribution in an atomizing scrubber was calculated based on droplet eddy diffusion by a three-dimensional dispersion model. This model is also capable of predicting the liquid flowing on the wall. The theoretical distribution of droplet concentration agrees well with experimental data given by Viswanathan et al. for droplet concentration distribution in a venturi-type scrubber. The results obtained by the model show a non-uniform distribution of drops over the cross section of the scrubber, as noted by the experimental data. While the maximum of droplet concentration distribution may depend on many operating parameters of the scrubber, the results of this study show that the highest uniformity of drop distribution will be reached when penetration length is approximately equal to one-fourth of the depth of the scrubber. The results of this study can be applied to evaluate the removal efficiency of a venturi scrubber.

  17. Predicting pressure drop in venturi scrubbers with artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseh, S; Mohebbi, A; Jeirani, Z; Sarrafi, A

    2007-05-08

    In this study a new approach based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) has been used to predict pressure drop in venturi scrubbers. The main parameters affecting the pressure drop are mainly the gas velocity in the throat of venturi scrubber (V(g)(th)), liquid to gas flow rate ratio (L/G), and axial distance of the venturi scrubber (z). Three sets of experimental data from five different venturi scrubbers have been applied to design three independent ANNs. Comparing the results of these ANNs and the calculated results from available models shows that the results of ANNs have a better agreement with experimental data.

  18. The Tomato Hybrid Proline-Rich Protein regulates the abcission zone competence to respond to ethylene signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tomato Hybrid Proline-Rich Protein (THyPRP) gene was specifically expressed in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) flower abscission zone (FAZ), and its stable antisense silencing under the control of an abscission zone (AZ)-specific promoter, Tomato Abscission Polygalacturonase4,significantly inh...

  19. Hydrodynamics of a Multistage Wet Scrubber Incineration Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, M. M.; Manyele, S. V.; Raphael, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the hydrodynamics of the two stage counter-current cascade wet scrubbers used during incineration of medical waste. The dependence of the hydrodynamics on two main variables was studied: Inlet air flow rate and inlet liquid flow rate. This study introduces a new wet scrubber operating features, which are…

  20. Removal of ethylene oxide from waste gases by absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide (EtO is an organic compound, which is used as starting material in the production of polymers and as sterilizing agent for thermolabile materials. Although ethylene oxide is not common as an organic pollutant, its removal from numerous emission sources (e.g. ethylene oxide production plants or food and pharmaceutical sterilizing units is of the crucial importance because of its mutagenic, teratogenic and cancerogenic effect on human health. The objective of this paper is the experimental investigation of ethylene oxide (EtO absorption in diluted aqueous solution of sulfuric acid in order to evaluate the applicability of this procedure as well as to obtain project parameters for industrial plant realization. It was found that absorption is suitable as the fist step in the purification treatment of high EtO concentrations in the emission gases. According to the literature data, the basic parameter that defines the scrubber efficiency is the contact time, i.e. the ratio of packing height in scrubber and velocity of gas mixture. To investigate the characteristics of wet treatment in a broad range of contact time, part of experimental studies were conducted in the system with two and with three scrubbers in series. The obtained experimental results show that the high degree of EtO removal can be achieved (>98% when the contact time is sufficiently long (about 25 s. The process is effective until the concentration of formed glycol in the solution reaches value of about 20%. The process is safe and there is no danger of ignition and explosion of air and EtO mixture, although at the entrance to the scrubber EtO concentrations are significantly above the lower explosive limit.

  1. Characterization of thermal destruction behavior of hybrid composites based on polyoxymethylene, ethylene-octene copolymer impact modifier and ZnO nanofiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meri, Remo Merijs; Zicans, Janis; Abele, Agnese; Ivanova, Tatjana; Kalnins, Martins [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, Institute of Polymer Materials, Paula Valdena street 3/7, Riga, LV-1048 (Latvia)

    2016-05-18

    Hybrid polymer nanocomposites, composed of polyoxymethylene (POM), ethylene octene copolymer (EOC) and plasma synthesized tetrapod shaped zinc oxide (ZnO), were prepared by using melt compounding. The content of EOC in the POM based composites was varied between 10 and 50 mass %, while the content of ZnO was constant (2 mass %). Thermal behaviour of POM based systems was studied by using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The influence of the elastomer content and/or ZnO addition on the thermal stability of POM based systems was evaluated. The influence of the α-octene content in the elastomer on the thermal decomposition behaviour of POM and its nanocomposites with ZnO was also evaluated. Results of thermogravimetric analysis showed that, by rising either the elastomer or ZnO content, thermal stability of the investigated POM composites was increased. The modifying effect of EOC17 in respect of thermal resistance was somewhat larger than that of EOC38 because of the smaller amount of tertiary carbon atoms in the macromolecular structure of the former elastomer. Improved thermal resistance of ZnO containing POM based composites was because of impermeable structure the inorganic nanofiller allowing decrease gas exchange rate and facilitating non-combustible gases, such as CO{sub 2}, stay in the zone of burning. Addition of ZnO have a potential to influence structure of the polymer blend matrix itself by improving its barrier characteristics.

  2. Water scrubbers as new mitigating devices in Swedish reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espefaelt, R.

    1988-01-01

    Controlling the containment pressure is an important part of the Swedish severe accident mitigation strategy. As a final measure, venting of the containment atmosphere to the environment is feasible via a filtered venting system using a water scrubber as the filtering device. The comprehensive theoretical and experimental verification of the Multi Venturi Scrubber System has resulted in the following predicted scrubber performance: Both during the scrubber heat-up phase and in long periods of operation, where the water of the scrubber is heated to saturation, a decontamination factor of the order of several thousand is predicted. During no conditions foreseen in the safety analysis are decontamination factors below DF = 500 in the BWR scrubber and DF = 1500 in the PWR scrubber envisaged. These values are equivalent to a retention of 99.8 % and 99.9 % respectively and correspond to a case with only about 10-20 cm of water above the venturi tube outlets and unfavorable gas dynamic conditions. They can be compared to the design values (DF = 100 and 500, respectively) required to limit ground contamination to the very low level specified by Swedish authorities. 1 fig

  3. Mathematical modelling of non-isothermal venturi scrubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, A. [Isfahan Univ., Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Taheri, M.; Fathikakajahi, J. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    Venturi scrubbers collect gaseous pollutants and particulate matter from industrial exhaust. This air pollution control device is highly efficient, easy to maintain and has a low initial cost. However, the high pressure drop through the device results in a high running cost. The main mechanism for collecting particulates is the inertial impaction of the particles on the droplets, which occurs due to high velocity between the gas stream and droplets. Droplet acceleration and irreversible drag-force which results from this high relative velocity are responsible for the high pressure drop in this type of scrubber. While several attempts have been made to mathematically model particulate removal in Venturi scrubbers, most models do not consider simultaneous heat and mass transfer. This factor is important because most Venturi scrubbers operate under non-isothermal conditions where the inlet gas is humidified in order to cool it before entering the scrubber. For that reason, the authors developed a more realistic model to determine the effects of heat and mass transfer on the particulate removal efficiency of a non-isothermal Venturi type scrubber. The model considers the effect of droplet size distribution and liquid film flow on the walls. It consists of differential equations for energy, momentum and material exchange. Model results were compared with data from experimental studies and industrial facilities. It was concluded that the removal efficiency of the scrubber is influenced by the inlet humidity temperature of the inlet gas. 26 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  4. Resilin-like polypeptide-poly(ethylene gylcol) hybrid hydrogels for mechanically-demanding tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Christopher Leland

    Technological progress in the life sciences and engineering has combined with important insights in the fields of biology and material science to make possible the development of biological substitutes which aim to restore function to damaged tissue. Numerous biomimetic hydrogels have been developed with the purpose of harnessing the regenerative capacity of cells and tissue through the rational deployment of biological signals. Aided by recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering methods, a new class of hydrogel precursor, the biosynthetic protein polymer, has demonstrated great promise towards the development of highly functional tissue engineering materials. In particular, protein polymers based upon resilin, a natural protein elastomer, have demonstrated outstanding mechanical properties that would have great value in soft tissue applications. This dissertation introduces hybrid hydrogels composed of recombinant resilin-like polypeptides (RLPs) cross-linked with multi-arm PEG macromers. Two different chemical strategies were employed to form RLP-PEG hydrogels: one utilized a Michael-type addition reaction between the thiols of cysteine residues present within the RLP and vinyl sulfone moieties functionalized on a multi-arm PEG macromer; the second system cross-links a norbornene-functionalized RLP with a thiol-functionalized multi-arm PEG macromer via a photoinitiated thiol-ene step polymerization. Oscillatory rheology and tensile testing confirmed the formation of elastic, resilient hydrogels in the RLP-PEG system cross-linked via Michael-type addition. These hydrogels supported the encapsulation and culture of both human aortic adventitial fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells. Additionally, these RLP-PEG hydrogels exhibited phase separation behavior during cross-linking that led to the formation of a heterogeneous microstructure. Degradation could be triggered through incubation with matrix metalloproteinase. Photocross-linking was conferred to

  5. Heat recovery using a venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    When an air pollution problem involves scrubbing at relatively elevated temperatures, the possibility exists for practical use of the heat contained with the gas. A venturi type scrubber has been shown to successfully handle such hot exhaust gases for removal of both gases and particulates, as well as heat recovery. The use of a relatively simple overall system, using the recirculated liquid loop for space heating, can be made practical and efficient. Whenever possible, this will allow the scrubbing equipment, normally considered a nuisance, to actually produce a pay-back for the customer. Careful consideration must be given to all aspects of the system's installation, operation, and maintenance. The feasibility of such a system depends on conditions at the particular location and the relative need for a low temperature heat source

  6. Catalytic dehydration of ethanol to ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ying; Jin, Zhaosheng; Shen, Wei [SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2011-07-01

    The different routes of ethylene production were briefly introduced and the advantage of ethanol to ethylene (ETE) route was explained. Followed by that, the upgraded catalyst applied in this route developed by SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology (SRIPT) was introduced together with the development of the ethanol to ethylene process. The core technologies involved in this process development were discussed, such as isothermal fixed-bed reactor, water scrubber and alkaline wash column, two columns of low-temperature separation as well as process heat integration. Furthermore, the performance of one of ethanol industrial plants licensed by SRIPT was reviewed. It is as follows, conversion of ethanol reaches 99% while selectivity of ethylene is over 96% at the reaction temperature of 350{approx}450 C, the liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV)of 0.5{approx}1.0 h{sup -1} and atmosphere pressure. Meanwhile, the catalyst shows its life time of one year. This route is considered not only as an economical and practical process but also as an environmentfriendly path to ethylene production. (orig.)

  7. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report. The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments

  8. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  9. The ways of mass transfer intensification in industrial jet scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilyaev Michael

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to parametrical analysis of model, and is aimed at understanding its possibilities to find the most profitable conditions for the technical processes. These processes should consider the maximal extraction of gas and mechanical admixtures from the flow on the droplets of irrigating liquid and reduce the dimensions of hollow direct-flow jet scrubbers (DFJS and Venturi scrubbers (VS.

  10. Dust particle removal efficiency of a venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Mehboob, Khurram

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental and theoretical study of dust removal efficiency in venturi scrubber. ► Dust removal efficiency 99.5% is achieved at throat gas velocity 220 m/s. ► Results obtained from mathematical model concur well with experimental results. - Abstract: The venturi scrubber is one of the most efficient gas cleaning devices to remove the contaminated particles from gaseous stream during severe accident in nuclear power plant. This study is focused on the dust particle removal efficiency of the venturi scrubber experimentally and theoretically. The venturi scrubber encapsulates the dust particles in petite water droplets flowing into it. The water injected into the scrubber is in the form of water film. The study investigates the removal efficiency of venturi scrubber for throat gas velocities of 130, 165 and 200 m/s and liquid flow rates 0.3–1 m 3 /h, whereas dust concentration ranges between 0.1 and 1 g/m 3 . The hydrophobic titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles having density 4.23 g/cm 3 and mean diameter of 1 μm are used as dust particles in this research. Filtration technique is used to measure the concentration of dust particles at inlet and outlet. Experimental results show that the removal efficiency is higher with the increase of throat gas velocity and liquid flow rate. A mathematical model is employed for the verification of experimental results. The model concurs well with the experimental results

  11. Particle collection by a pilot plant venturi scrubber downstream from a pilot plant electrostatic precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L. E.; Ramsey, G. H.; Daniel, B. E.

    The results of pilot plant experiments of particulate collection by a venturi scrubber downstream from an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are presented. The data, which cover a range of scrubber operating conditions and ESP efficiencies, show that particle collection by the venturi scrubber is not affected by the upstream ESP; i.e., for a given scrubber pressure drop, particle collection efficiency as a function of particle diameter is the same for both ESP on and ESP off. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Order of magnitude cost estimates indicate that particle collection by ESP scrubber systems may be economically attractive when scrubbers must be used for SO x control.

  12. A noble additive cum compatibilizer for dispersion of nanoclay into ethylene octene elastomer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mondal, S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a poly(ethylene-co-octene)-poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) double network hybrid as a noble additive cum compatibilizer for poly(ethylene-co-octene) (POE). The addition of only 0.5 mass% of the hybrid into POE has raised...

  13. Numerical Analysis on Behavior of Droplet in Venturi Scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W. Y.; Lee, D. Y.; Bang, Y. S. [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    At throat, the velocity of the gas would be at maximum and the pressure would be the lowest. Due to pressure difference between inside and outside of the throat, the liquid submerging the venture scrubber would be sucked and atomized. As the gas flow through the diffuser, the pressure would be recovered and the dust in the gas mixture would be captured by the atomized liquid droplets. In this process of dust removal in venture scrubber, atomization (i.e. breakup of liquid droplet in the venturi scrubber) is crucial for filtering efficiency. In order to maintain the high efficiency, the injected liquid should be atomized into fine droplets and well spread. Because of its importance, the experimental study has been conducted by many researchers. However, numerical study has not been conducted extensively. As a preliminary study for estimating filtration efficiency of venturi scrubber by numerical tools, the behavior of droplet inside the venturi scrubber is simulated. Due to the pressure difference inside and outside of the throat, the liquid would be sucked and injected through the holes. The behavior that the liquid is injected through the holes, accelerated by the gas flow and atomized into small sized particles has been observed.

  14. Numerical Analysis on Behavior of Droplet in Venturi Scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W. Y.; Lee, D. Y.; Bang, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    At throat, the velocity of the gas would be at maximum and the pressure would be the lowest. Due to pressure difference between inside and outside of the throat, the liquid submerging the venture scrubber would be sucked and atomized. As the gas flow through the diffuser, the pressure would be recovered and the dust in the gas mixture would be captured by the atomized liquid droplets. In this process of dust removal in venture scrubber, atomization (i.e. breakup of liquid droplet in the venturi scrubber) is crucial for filtering efficiency. In order to maintain the high efficiency, the injected liquid should be atomized into fine droplets and well spread. Because of its importance, the experimental study has been conducted by many researchers. However, numerical study has not been conducted extensively. As a preliminary study for estimating filtration efficiency of venturi scrubber by numerical tools, the behavior of droplet inside the venturi scrubber is simulated. Due to the pressure difference inside and outside of the throat, the liquid would be sucked and injected through the holes. The behavior that the liquid is injected through the holes, accelerated by the gas flow and atomized into small sized particles has been observed

  15. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  16. Investing in Marine Scrubber under Uncertainty with Real Option Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liping; Hansen, Carsten Ørts

    works that examine the economic feasibility of scrubber retrofitting through the net present value rule, this paper applies the Real Option Analysis to find the optimal investment strategies. The proposed decision-making framework addresses the uncertainty and the value of deferral option embedded...... in the scrubber investment. The multiple sources of investment uncertainties are explicitly analyzed and integrated in the modeling by using Rainbow option. The results demonstrate that the value of the scrubber investment has significantly increased for several cases by considering the deferral option....... It is thus important for ship owners to consider the available options before proceeding with abandoning or investing strategy. The proposed framework can be widely applied to other ship retrofitting investment evaluations, which include similar investment alternatives and uncertainties....

  17. Cooperative ethylene receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived by a family of five ethylene receptor members in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis. Genetic and biochemical studies suggest that the ethylene response is suppressed by ethylene receptor complexes, but the biochemical nature of the receptor signal is unknown. Without appropriate biochemical measures to trace the ethylene receptor signal and quantify the signal strength, the biological significance of the modulation of ethylene responses ...

  18. Analysis of Liquid Fraction in Venturi Scrubber by E-E Method Using CFX

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Ali; Yan Changqi; Sun Zhongning; Wang Jianjun; Gu HaiFeng

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the distribution of liquid fraction in cylindrical venturi scrubber is analyzed in ANSYS CFX by Eulerian-Eulerian regime. Liquid gaps allow the aerosols to escape from the venturi scrubber. Therefore, it is vital to investigate the liquid fraction in venturi scrubber at different operating condition. The mesh model is developed in ANSYS ICEM and simulation is conducted in ANSYS CFX. k- ε turbulence model is used for simulation of two phase flow in venturi scrubber. The analy...

  19. Efficient particulate scrubber for glass melter off-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Operation of joule-heated, continuous slurry-fed melters has demonstrated that off-gas aerosols are generated by entrainment of feed slurry and vaporization of volatile species from the melt. Effective off-gas stream decontamination for these aerosols can be obtained by utilizing a suitably designed and operated wet scrubber system. Results are presented for performance tests conducted with an air aspirating-type venturi scrubber processing a simulated melter off-gas aerosol. Mass overall removal efficiencies ranged from 99.5 to 99.8%. Details of the testing program and applications for melter off-gas system design are discussed

  20. Cost effective treatment for wet FGD scrubber bleedoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecek, K.F. [EIMCO Process Equipment Company, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kim, J.Y. [Samkook Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    The dewatering of scrubber bleedoff gypsum is a thoroughly proven technology, whether for production of wallboard grade gypsum or environmentally responsible land fill. Careful review of the technology options will show which one is the most effective for the specific plant site. Likewise, a recipe for wastewater treatment for heavy metals removal can be found that will meet local regulatory limits. EIMCO has worldwide experience in FGD gypsum sludge dewatering and wastewater treatment. Contacting EIMCO can be the most important step toward a practical cost effective system for handling FGD scrubber bleed slurries.

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Silica Nanoparticles Grafted with Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2012-01-01

    A molecular model of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers has been developed for predicting the transport properties of nanoparticle organic-hybrid materials (NOHMs). Ungrafted silica nanoparticles in a medium of poly(ethylene

  2. Hybrid nanospheres formed by intermixed double-hydrophilic block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(2-ethyloxazoline) with high content of metallacarboranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďorďovič, V.; Uchman, M.; Procházka, K.; Zhigunov, Alexander; Pleštil, Josef; Nykänen, A.; Ruokolainen, J.; Matějíček, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 17 (2013), s. 6881-6890 ISSN 0024-9297 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(2-ethyloxazoline) * metallacarboranes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.927, year: 2013

  3. Westinghouse containment filtered venting system wet scrubber technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensson, S.; Nilsson, P-O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the Fukushima event Westinghouse has further developed and enhanced its filtered containment venting system (FCVS) product line. The filtration efficiency of the proven FILTRA-MVSS system installed at all Swedish NPPs as well as at the Muhelberg plant in Switzerland has been enhanced and a new wet scrubber design, SVEN (Safety Venting), based on the FILTRA-MVSS tradition, developed. To meet increased filtration requirements for organic iodine these two wet scrubber products have been complemented with a zeolite module. The offering of a select choice of products allows for a better adjustment to the specific constraints and needs of each nuclear power station that is planning for the installation of such a system. The FILTRA-MVSS (MVSS=Multi Venturi Scrubber System) is a wet containment filtered vent system that uses multiple venturies to create an interaction between the vent gases and the scrubber media allowing for removal of aerosols and gaseous iodines in a very efficient manner. The FILTRA-MVSS was originally developed to meet stringent requirements on autonomy and maintained filtration efficiency over a wide range of venting conditions. The system was jointly developed in the late 80's by ABB Atom and ABB Flaekt, today Westinghouse and Alstom. Following installations in Sweden and Switzerland the system was further developed by replacement of the gravel-bed moisture separator with a standard demister and by addition of a set of sintered metal fibre filter cartridges placed after the moisture separator step. The system is today offered as a modular steel tank design to simplify installation at site. To reduce complexity and delivery time Westinghouse has developed an alternative design in which the venturi module is replaced by a submerged metal fibre filter cartridges module. This new wet scrubber design, SVEN (patent pending), provides a flexible, compact, and lower weight system, while still preserving and even enhancing the filtration

  4. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazara I. A. Barry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  5. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  6. Wet scrubber technology for tritium confinement at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevezentsev, A.N., E-mail: alexander.perevezentsev@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Andreev, B.M.; Rozenkevich, M.B.; Pak, Yu.S.; Ovcharov, A.V.; Marunich, S.A. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, 125047 Miusskaya Sq. 9, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    Operation of the ITER machine with tritium plasma requires tritium confinement systems to protect workers and the environment. Tritium confinement at ITER is based on multistage approach. The final stage provides tritium confinement in building sectors and consists of building's walls as physical barriers and control of sub-atmospheric pressure in those volumes as a dynamic barrier. The dynamic part of the confinement function shall be provided by safety important components that are available all the time when required. Detritiation of air prior to its release to the environment is based on catalytic conversion of tritium containing gaseous species to water vapour followed by their isotopic exchange with liquid water in scrubber column of packed bed type. Wet scrubber technology has been selected because of its advantages over conventional air detritiation technique based on gas drying by water adsorption. The most important design target of system availability was very difficult to meet with conventional water adsorption driers. This paper presents results of experimental trial for validation of wet scrubber technology application in the ITER tritium confinement system and process evaluation using developed simulation computer code.

  7. Effect of nozzle arrangement on Venturi scrubber performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayanan, N.V.; Viswanathan, S.

    1999-12-01

    The effect of nozzle arrangement on flux distribution is studied in a rectangular, pilot-scale, Pease-Anthony-type Venturi scrubber. The annular, two-phase, heterogeneous, three-dimensional gas-liquid flow inside the scrubber is modeled using a commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) package, FLUENT. The comparison of predicted liquid drop concentration shows good agreement with experimental data. The model predicts the fraction of liquid flowing as film on the walls reasonably well. Visualization of flux patterns studied using four typical nozzle configurations indicate that the nonuniformity in flux distribution increases when the nozzle-to-nozzle distance is greater than 10% of the width of the side on which the nozzles are placed. An analysis of the effect of multiple jet penetration lengths on liquid flux distribution yielded a comparable distribution at 10--45% less liquid than uniform penetration for a particular nozzle configuration. This would lead to significant improvements in scrubber performance by achieving comparable collection efficiency at a lower pressure drop.

  8. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO 3 · 1/2 H 2 O), calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 · 2H 2 O), unreacted limestone (CaCO 3 ), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column

  9. Prediction of hydrodynamic characteristics of a venturi scrubber by using CFD simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Bal; Bhim Charan Meikap

    2017-01-01

    The filtered containment venting system (FCVS) is a safety relevant system, which consists of venturi scrubber and a mesh filter. FCVS needs to be further assessed to improve the existing performance of the venturi scrubber. Therefore, hydrodynamics is an important counter-component needs to be investigated to improve the design of the venturi scrubber. In the present research, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) has been used to predict the hydrodynamic behaviour of a newly designed venturi sc...

  10. Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Using a New O-Element Design Which Replaces the Venturi Scrubber

    OpenAIRE

    P. Lestinsky; D. Jecha; V. Brummer; P. Stehlik

    2015-01-01

    Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The primary function of venturi scrubb...

  11. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage ...

  12. Numerical Study on Shape of Liquid Inlet for Venturi Scrubber in Self-Priming Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, W. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the simulation was developed for different design of liquid inlet to improve injection in submerged self-priming mode venturi scrubber. 1. A hole type is easy to discharged gas from liquid inlet for submerged self-priming mode. 2. A spit type, the liquid is injected into venturi scrubber for all gas volume rate in submerged self-priming mode. 3. A spit type is better than a hole type on improving injection of liquid inlet for submerged self-priming mode in venturi scrubber.The gas accelerate in convergent segment and reach maximum velocity at throat. The liquid is injected into venturi scrubber depends on static pressure difference between outside and inside of the venturi throat, then liquid is atomized into fine droplet when it contacts with high speed airflow. Aerosol removal occur in the diverging section as the inlet gas stream mixes with the fog of tiny liquid droplets. Many studies dealing with the non-submerged selfpriming venturi scrubber. In a non-submerged condition, outlet nozzle of venturi scrubber is not immersed in water pool of a tank whereas in a submerged condition, the outlet of a venturi scrubber is immersed in water pool. The scrubbing liquid is supplied by water reservoir surrounding the throat and is drawn in due to a pressure difference between the outside and the inside of the venturi throat that arises out of the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the flowing gas. The performance of a venturi scrubber is improved with high gas velocities and high liquid flow rate. Therefore, it is important to study the liquid fraction in venturi scrubber operated at different condition. The venturi scrubber is used to a submerged self-priming mode because the system operates in a passive mode in CFVS. The present study focuses on the liquid flow characteristics for various shapes of liquid inlet in submerged self-priming venturi scrubber.

  13. Numerical Study on Shape of Liquid Inlet for Venturi Scrubber in Self-Priming Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the simulation was developed for different design of liquid inlet to improve injection in submerged self-priming mode venturi scrubber. 1. A hole type is easy to discharged gas from liquid inlet for submerged self-priming mode. 2. A spit type, the liquid is injected into venturi scrubber for all gas volume rate in submerged self-priming mode. 3. A spit type is better than a hole type on improving injection of liquid inlet for submerged self-priming mode in venturi scrubber.The gas accelerate in convergent segment and reach maximum velocity at throat. The liquid is injected into venturi scrubber depends on static pressure difference between outside and inside of the venturi throat, then liquid is atomized into fine droplet when it contacts with high speed airflow. Aerosol removal occur in the diverging section as the inlet gas stream mixes with the fog of tiny liquid droplets. Many studies dealing with the non-submerged selfpriming venturi scrubber. In a non-submerged condition, outlet nozzle of venturi scrubber is not immersed in water pool of a tank whereas in a submerged condition, the outlet of a venturi scrubber is immersed in water pool. The scrubbing liquid is supplied by water reservoir surrounding the throat and is drawn in due to a pressure difference between the outside and the inside of the venturi throat that arises out of the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the flowing gas. The performance of a venturi scrubber is improved with high gas velocities and high liquid flow rate. Therefore, it is important to study the liquid fraction in venturi scrubber operated at different condition. The venturi scrubber is used to a submerged self-priming mode because the system operates in a passive mode in CFVS. The present study focuses on the liquid flow characteristics for various shapes of liquid inlet in submerged self-priming venturi scrubber.

  14. Continuous measurements of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from air scrubbers at pig housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heyden, C; Brusselman, E; Volcke, E I P; Demeyer, P

    2016-10-01

    Ammonia, largely emitted by agriculture, involves a great risk for eutrophication and acidification leading to biodiversity loss. Air scrubbers are widely applied to reduce ammonia emission from pig and poultry housing facilities, but it is not always clear whether their performance meets the requirements. Besides, there is a growing international concern for the livestock related greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide but hardly any data concerning their fate in air scrubbers are available. This contribution presents the results from measurement campaigns conducted at a chemical, a biological and a two-stage biological air scrubber installed at pig housing facilities in Flanders. Ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane at the inlet and outlet of the air scrubbers were monitored on-line during one week using a photoacoustic gas monitor, which allowed to investigate diurnal fluctuations in the removal performance of air scrubbers. Additionally, the homogeneity of the air scrubbers, normally checked by gas detection tubes, was investigated in more detail using the continuous data. The biological air scrubber with extra nitrification tank performed well in terms of ammonia removal (86 ± 6%), while the two-stage air scrubber suffered from nitrifying bacteria inhibition. In the chemical air scrubber the pH was not kept constant, lowering the ammonia removal efficiency. A lower ammonia removal efficiency was found during the day, when the ventilation rate was the highest. Nitrous oxide was produced inside the biological and two-stage scrubber, resulting in an increased outlet concentration of more than 200%. Methane could not be removed in the different air scrubbers because of its low water solubility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In-situ preparation of poly(ethylene oxide)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte with good nanofiller distribution for rechargeable solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Wang, Junye; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Linbin; Yao, Lili; Wei, Zhenyao; Deng, Yonghong; Xie, Dongjiu; Yao, Xiayin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2018-05-01

    Nano-sized fillers in a polymer matrix with good distribution can play a positive role in improving polymer electrolytes in the aspects of ionic conductivity, mechanical property and electrochemical performance of Li-ion cells. Herein, polyethylene oxide (PEO)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte is prepared via a new in-situ approach. The ionic conductivities of the novel hybrid electrolytes with variable proportions are measured, and the optimal electrolyte of PEO-2%vol Li3PS4 presents a considerable ionic conductivity of 8.01 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 60 °C and an electrochemical window up to 5.1 V. The tests of DSC and EDXS reveal that the Li3PS4 nanoparticles with better distribution, as active fillers scattering in the PEO, exhibit a positive effect on the transference of lithium ion and electrochemical interfacial stabilities. Finally, the assembled solid-state LiFePO4/Li battery presents a decent cycling performance (80.9% retention rate after 325 cycles at 60 °C) and excellent rate capacities with 153, 143, 139 and 127 mAh g-1 at the discharging rate of 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C at 60 °C. It is fully proved that it is an advanced strategy to preparing the new organic/inorganic hybrid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries applications.

  16. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in

  17. Ammonia scrubber testing during IDMS SRAT and SME processing. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the Integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) Melter System (IDMS) ammonia scrubber testing during the PX-7 run (the 7th IDMS run with a Purex type sludge). Operation of the ammonia scrubber during IDMS Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processing has been completed. The ammonia scrubber was successful in removing ammonia from the vapor stream to achieve NH3 concentrations far below the 10 ppM vapor exist design basis during SRAT processing. However, during SME processing, vapor NH3 concentrations as high as 450 ppM were measured exiting the scrubber. Problems during the SRAT and SME testing were vapor bypassing the scrubber and inefficient scrubbing of the ammonia at the end of the SME cycle (50% removal efficiency; 99.9% is design basis efficiency)

  18. Performance assessment of containment filtered venting system with Venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinarayna, K.N.V.; Ali, Seik Mansoor; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Venting through appropriate filtration systems is now being considered as a severe accident management strategy for maintaining the containment integrity and also as a means to reduce the radiological consequences to the public and environment. The option of filtered containment venting appears to have assumed significance in the post- Fukushima accident backdrop. Back-fitting of a suitable Venturi scrubber based CFVS for the Indian BWRs (TAPS- 1 and 2) at Tarapur is now being contemplated. Several key issues need to be carefully addressed for ensuring the desired functional capability of such a system. At the outset, this paper highlights a few thermal hydraulic issues that are of interest from regulatory perspective. This is followed by a detailed description of the mathematical models developed for assessing the depressurization characteristics of CFVS, energy absorption capacity of the Scrubber Tank (ST) water inventory, iodine removal and aerosol retention capability etc. Finally, application of these models to investigate the response of CFVS under twin unit SBO conditions in TAPS-1 and 2 is presented. The studies presented here give insight into the key variables affecting the CFVS performance and would be useful to both the system designer as well as the regulator. (author)

  19. Numerical Simulation of Flow Behavior within a Venturi Scrubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Toledo-Melchor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work details the three-dimensional numerical simulation of single-phase and two-phase flow (air-water in a venturi scrubber with an inlet and throat diameters of 250 and 122.5 mm, respectively. The dimensions and operating parameters correspond to industrial applications. The mass flow rate conditions were 0.483 kg/s, 0.736 kg/s, 0.861 kg/s, and 0.987 kg/s for the gas only simulation; the mass flow rate for the liquid was 0.013 kg/s and 0.038 kg/s. The gas flow was simulated in five geometries with different converging and diverging angles while the two-phase flow was only simulated for one geometry. The results obtained were validated with experimental data obtained by other researchers. The results show that the pressure drop depends significantly on the gas flow rate and that water flow rate does not have significant effects neither on the pressure drop nor on the fluid maximum velocity within the scrubber.

  20. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water While Capturing Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, W.

    2009-01-01

    Algal Turfs and Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. ATS was invented at the Smithsonian Institution, by scientist, Walter Adey in the 1980s as a tool for controlling water quality in highly diverse model ecosystems. The technology received extensive R and D for aqua cultural, municipal, and industrial water cleaning by Dr. Adey, using venture capital, through the 1990s. Later, Hydro Mentia, Inc., of Ocala, Florida, engineered ATS to landscape scale of 20-50 Mgpd (it is important to note that this is a modular system, capable of expanding to any size.) A 2005 independent study of ATS, by the South Florida Water Management District and the IFAS Institute of the University of Florida, certified ATS as 5-100 times more cost efficient at removing nutrients from Everglades canal waters than the next competitor, the STA, a managed marsh system. ATS and STA were the final contestants in a 15-year study of nine technologies, and ATS was the only technology that created a use able byproduct.

  1. Scrubber capabilities to remove airborne microorganisms and other aerial pollutants from the exhaust air of animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Zhao, Y.; Ploegaert, J.P.M.; Huynh, T.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess the efficiency of air scrubbers to reduce airborne microorganisms in the exhaust air from animal houses. First, in a field study, the effects of a bio-scrubber and an acid scrubber on total bacterial counts were assessed. Higher bacterial counts were found in the

  2. IODINE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN NON-SUBMERGED AND SUBMERGED SELF-PRIMING VENTURI SCRUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID ALI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3 in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I2 from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber.

  3. Investigation of dust particle removal efficiency of self-priming venturi scrubber using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarim Ahmed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A venturi scrubber is an important element of Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS for the removal of aerosols in contaminated air. The present work involves computational fluid dynamics (CFD study of dust particle removal efficiency of a venturi scrubber operating in self-priming mode using ANSYS CFX. Titanium oxide (TiO2 particles having sizes of 1 micron have been taken as dust particles. CFD methodology to simulate the venturi scrubber has been first developed. The cascade atomization and breakup (CAB model has been used to predict deformation of water droplets, whereas the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach has been used to handle multiphase flow involving air, dust, and water. The developed methodology has been applied to simulate venturi scrubber geometry taken from the literature. Dust particle removal efficiency has been calculated for forced feed operation of venturi scrubber and found to be in good agreement with the results available in the literature. In the second part, venturi scrubber along with a tank has been modeled in CFX, and transient simulations have been performed to study self-priming phenomenon. Self-priming has been observed by plotting the velocity vector fields of water. Suction of water in the venturi scrubber occurred due to the difference between static pressure in the venturi scrubber and the hydrostatic pressure of water inside the tank. Dust particle removal efficiency has been calculated for inlet air velocities of 1 m/s and 3 m/s. It has been observed that removal efficiency is higher in case of higher inlet air velocity. Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Dust Particles, Filtered Containment Venting System, Self-priming Venturi Scrubber, Venturi Scrubber

  4. Iodine Removal Efficiency in Non-Submerged and Submerged Self-Priming Venturi Scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Wang, Junlong; Mehboob; Khurram [Harbin Engineering Univ., Harbin (China)

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I{sub 2}) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber.

  5. Iodine Removal Efficiency in Non-Submerged and Submerged Self-Priming Venturi Scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Wang, Junlong; Mehboob; Khurram

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I 2 ) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber

  6. Prediction of hydrodynamic characteristics of a venturi scrubber by using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Bal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The filtered containment venting system (FCVS is a safety relevant system, which consists of venturi scrubber and a mesh filter. FCVS needs to be further assessed to improve the existing performance of the venturi scrubber. Therefore, hydrodynamics is an important counter-component needs to be investigated to improve the design of the venturi scrubber. In the present research, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD has been used to predict the hydrodynamic behaviour of a newly designed venturi scrubber. Mesh was developed by gambit 2.4.6 and ansys fluent 15 has been used to predict the pressure drop profile inside the venturi scrubber under various flow conditions. The Reynolds Renormalization Group (RNG k-ε turbulence model and the volume of the fluid (VOF were employed for this simulation. The effect of throat gas velocity, liquid mass flow rate, and liquid loading on pressure drop was studied. Maximum pressure drop 2064.34 pa was achieved at the throat gas velocity of 60 m/s and liquid flow rate of 0.033 kg/s and minimum pressure drop 373.51 pa was achieved at the throat gas velocity of 24 m/s and liquid flow rate of 0.016 kg/s. The results of the present study will assist for proper functioning of venturi scrubber. Keywords: Venturi scrubber, Hydrodynamics, Pressure drop, Computational fluid dynamics, Nuclear power plant safety, Flow prediction

  7. An efficient venturi scrubber system to remove submicron particles in exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wang, Yu-Min; Hunag, Cheng-Hsiung; Li, Shou-Nan; Wu, Zong-Xue; Wang, Feng-Cai

    2005-03-01

    An efficient venturi scrubber system making use of heterogeneous nucleation and condensational growth of particles was designed and tested to remove fine particles from the exhaust of a local scrubber where residual SiH4 gas was abated and lots of fine SiO2 particles were generated. In front of the venturi scrubber, normal-temperature fine-water mist mixes with high-temperature exhaust gas to cool it to the saturation temperature, allowing submicron particles to grow into micron sizes. The grown particles are then scrubbed efficiently in the venturi scrubber. Test results show that the present venturi scrubber system is effective for removing submicron particles. For SiO2 particles greater than 0.1microm, the removal efficiency is greater than 80-90%, depending on particle concentration. The corresponding pressure drop is relatively low. For example, the pressure drop of the venturi scrubber is approximately 15.4 +/- 2.4 cm H2O when the liquid-to-gas ratio is 1.50 L/m3. A theoretical calculation has been conducted to simulate particle growth process and the removal efficiency of the venturi scrubber. The theoretical results agree with the experimental data reasonably well when SiO2 particle diameter is greater than 0.1 microm.

  8. Liquid film thickness and interfacial wave propagate in venturi scrubber for filtered venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Naoki; Kanagawa, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Akiko; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    As one of filtered venting systems which should be installed in light water reactors from the viewpoint of protecting a containment vessel and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials, there is a system composed of venturi scrubbers. The radioactive materials in the contaminated gas are collected into liquid. By forming dispersed flow in the venturi scrubber, interfacial area between liquid and gas is enhanced, finally, large decontamination factor is realized. In evaluation for the decontamination performance of the venturi scrubber, interface characteristics of droplets and liquid film are important. In this study, as a part of evaluation method of the interfacial area, the liquid film thickness in the venturi scrubber was measured. And evaluate the results of investigation experimentally for each ruffling average thickness and liquid film in a fluidized condition. The cross section area of a venturi scrubber is a rectangular one manufactured a transparent acrylic for visualization. In the venturi scrubber, a pressure drop occurs in the throat part by the inflow of air from the compressor. Water flows from the tank by a pressure difference between a suctioned hole with head pressure and a throat part. An annular spray flow is then formed in the venturi scrubber. (author)

  9. Transport evaluation of a gas-liquid scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodner, A.J.; Bistline, J.E.; Weber, S.E.

    1982-10-01

    The hydraulics and the mass-transfer behavior of a five-tray, single-bubble-cap, single-downcomer, gas-liquid contactor were studied for use as a gas scrubber. Flooding was not observed at the maximum available liquid and gas flow rates of 0.32 and 464 L/min, respectively. The maximum liquid entrainment was 33% at a gross liquid flow rate of 0.05 L/min. The Murphree-tray efficiencies for absorption of CO 2 (5000 ppM in air) into demineralized water ranged from 0.14 to 0.74 for volumetric liquid-to-gas ratios of 4 x 10 -4 and 2 x 10 -4 , respectively, for k/sub L/a values ranging from 0.088 to 0.36 min -1 . 12 figures, 10 tables

  10. Numerical Simulation of Flow Behavior within a Venturi Scrubber

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Toledo-Melchor; C. del C. Gutiérrez-Torres; J. A. Jiménez-Bernal; J. G. Barbosa-Saldaña; S. A. Martínez-Delgadillo; H. R. Mollinedo-Ponce de León; A. Yoguéz-Seoane; A. Alonzo-García

    2014-01-01

    The present work details the three-dimensional numerical simulation of single-phase and two-phase flow (air-water) in a venturi scrubber with an inlet and throat diameters of 250 and 122.5 mm, respectively. The dimensions and operating parameters correspond to industrial applications. The mass flow rate conditions were 0.483 kg/s, 0.736 kg/s, 0.861 kg/s, and 0.987 kg/s for the gas only simulation; the mass flow rate for the liquid was 0.013 kg/s and 0.038 kg/s. The gas flow was simulated in f...

  11. Scrubber-Integrated Wet Electrostatic Precipitator; Skrubberintegrerat vaatt elektrofilter, WESP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Baefver, Linda; Davidsson, Kent; Pettersson, Jens; Schmidt, Hans; Strand, Michael; Yngvesson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Combustion processes for heat and power production are an important source of sub-micron particle emissions, which cause enhanced health risks and premature deaths. To meet future requirements of economical and robust dust cleaning equipment, the Wet Electrostatic Precipitation (WESP) technology has been further developed in this project. A pilot scale slip stream WESP unit, installed by Goetaverken Miljoe, has been successfully installed and tested at the Renova Waste-to-Energy plant in Goeteborg, Sweden. The particles in the gas are charged by an ionizing electrode and collected in a concentric cylinder geometry. The WESP pilot consists of a unique combination of several existing technologies: it is integrated with a packed bed scrubber which means an ideally uniformly distributed gas flow in the WESP inlet. Furthermore, the WESP unit has a water cooled condensing collector, which facilitates continuous formation of a water film. The downward flowing water film transports the collected dust counter current to the upward flowing flue gas in order to minimize particle re-entrainment. The WESP is equipped with a high frequency transformer for stable voltage output and is fabricated in electrically conductive corrosion resistant Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP). The concentration of dust upstream of the WESP unit varied between 6.2 and 28 mg/Nm{sup 3} dry gas. All measured outlet dust concentrations were below 0.3 mg/Nm{sup 3} (dry gas, 11% O{sub 2}), which equals 3% of the applicable emission limit. The dust removal efficiency has been higher than 97% in all the dust measurements. The mean value of all the dust measurements was 15.2 mg/Nm{sup 3} upstream and 0.14 mg/Nm{sup 3} in downstream (both as dry gas, 11% O{sub 2}), which gives an average removal efficiency of slightly more than 99%. The removal efficiency increased with increasing inlet dust concentration, SO{sub 2} concentration and {Delta}T of the collector cooling. Chlorine, potassium, sodium, silicon and

  12. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  13. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1-MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

  14. Comparing environmental impact of air scrubbers for ammonia abatement at pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Jerke W.; Melse, Roland W.

    2017-01-01

    Intensive livestock production involves environmental emissions and impacts, including emission of greenhouse gases and ammonia leading to climate change and terrestrial acidification. Ammonia emission from animal housing systems can be reduced by introducing air scrubbers for cleaning the

  15. Acid in perchloroethylene scrubber solutions used in HTGR fuel preparation processes. Analytical chemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.

    1979-02-01

    Acids and corrosion products in used perchloroethylene scrubber solutions collected from HTGR fuel preparation processes have been analyzed by several analytical methods to determine the source and possible remedy of the corrosion caused by these solutions. Hydrochloric acid was found to be concentrated on the carbon particles suspended in perchloroethylene. Filtration of carbon from the scrubber solutions removed the acid corrosion source in the process equipment. Corrosion products chemisorbed on the carbon particles were identified. Filtered perchloroethylene from used scrubber solutions contained practically no acid. It is recommended that carbon particles be separated from the scrubber solutions immediately after the scrubbing process to remove the source of acid and that an inhibitor be used to prevent the hydrolysis of perchloroethylene and the formation of acids

  16. Design procedure for sizing a submerged-bed scrubber for airborne particulate removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruecker, C.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1987-04-01

    Performance correlations to design and operate the submerged bed scrubber were developed for various applications. Structural design procedure outlined in this report focuses on off-gas scrubbing for HLW vitrification applications; however, the method is appropriate for other applications

  17. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology for Controlling/Recycling Chromium Electroplating Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hay, K

    1999-01-01

    ...) above the plating tank. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology (VVST) was designed to control chromium electroplating emissions by collecting the gas bubbles before they burst at the solution's surface...

  18. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  19. Droplet dispersion angle measurements on a Pease-Antony Venturi scrubber

    OpenAIRE

    Puentes,N. A. G.; Guerra,V. G.; Coury,J. R.; Gonçalves,J. A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber is a gas cleaning device that uses liquid, injected in the equipment as jets, to remove contaminants from the gas. The liquid jet is atomized into droplets, which are dispersed throughout the equipment due to the turbulence. The performance of the scrubber is affected by the spatial distribution of the droplets. Although CFD models have been used to predict the droplet dispersion, these models are expensive. Alternatively, the concept of "jet spreading angle" ...

  20. Experimental study of iodine removal efficiency in self-priming venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulhane, N.P.; Landge, A.D.; Shukla, D.S.; Kale, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication, erection of experimental set up and carrying out experimentation with self priming venturi scrubber. • Predicting solubility of iodine in water and its pH dependency. • Increasing pH of water increases iodine removal efficiency. • Maximum iodine removal efficiency is obtained at 10 pH of water using sodium thiosulphate. - Abstract: The objective of present experimental study is to examine the iodine removal efficiency of a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged operating condition. The venturi scrubber is used in Containment Filtered Venting System of nuclear power plants to remove the gaseous pollutants from contaminated gas during severe accidents. The experiment consists of mixing the iodine vapours with the air using suction venturi and pressure cooker system. The purpose of iodine mixing with air is to examine scrubbing performance of the designed venturi scrubber with water as scrubbing liquid. The performance parameters of venturi scrubber are expressed mainly in terms of pressure drop and iodine removal efficiency. The iodine removal efficiency of venturi scrubber is estimated for a series of two experiments by measuring the quantity of iodine in water from iodometric titration with four distinct pH of water. It has been experimentally observed that iodine removal efficiency is improved by using higher pH value of scrubbing liquid since solubility of iodine gets improved at higher pH

  1. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  2. Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, David; Deshusses, Marc A

    2003-05-27

    Biological treatment is a promising alternative to conventional air-pollution control methods, but thus far biotreatment processes for odor control have always required much larger reactor volumes than chemical scrubbers. We converted an existing full-scale chemical scrubber to a biological trickling filter and showed that effective treatment of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the converted scrubber was possible even at gas contact times as low as 1.6 s. That is 8-20 times shorter than previous biotrickling filtration reports and comparable to usual contact times in chemical scrubbers. Significant removal of reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds present in traces in the air was also observed. Continuous operation for >8 months showed stable performance and robust behavior for H2S treatment, with pollutant-removal performance comparable to that achieved by using a chemical scrubber. Our study demonstrates that biotrickling filters can replace chemical scrubbers and be a safer, more economical technique for odor control.

  3. Effects of Land-Applied Ammonia Scrubber Solutions on Yield, Nitrogen Uptake, Soil Test Phosphorus, and Phosphorus Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jerry W; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Ashworth, Amanda J; Miles, Dana M

    2018-03-01

    Ammonia (NH) scrubbers reduce amounts of NH and dust released from animal rearing facilities while generating nitrogen (N)-rich solutions, which may be used as fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various NH scrubber solutions on forage yields, N uptake, soil-test phosphorus (P), and P runoff. A small plot study was conducted using six treatments: (i) an unfertilized control, (ii) potassium bisulfate (KHSO) scrubber solution, (iii) aluminum sulfate [Al(SO) ⋅14HO, alum] scrubber solution, (iv) sodium bisulfate (NaHSO) scrubber solution, (v) sulfuric acid (HSO) scrubber solution, and (vi) ammonium nitrate (NHNO) fertilizer. The scrubber solutions were obtained from ARS Air Scrubbers attached to commercial broiler houses. All N sources were applied at a rate of 112 kg N ha. Plots were harvested approximately every 4 wk and soil-test P measurements were made, then a rainfall simulation study was conducted. Cumulative forage yields were greater ( scrubber solutions than for alum (6.7 Mg ha) or HSO (6.5 Mg ha) scrubber solutions or for NHNO (6.9 Mg ha). All N sources resulted in higher yields than the control (5.1 Mg ha). The additional potassium in the KHSO treatment likely resulted in higher yields. Although Mehlich-III-extractable P was not affected, water-extractable P in soil was lowered by the alum-based scrubber solution, which also resulted in lower P runoff. This study demonstrates that N captured using NH scrubbers is a viable N fertilizer. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Effects of ethylene on gene expression in carrot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate ethylene effects on expression of genetic information, cDNA clones corresponding to ethylene-induced carrot root mRNAs were constructed and isolated. RNA dot blot analysis showed that for the three clones studied peak cytosolic mRNA prevalence occurred at 21 hours of treatment followed thereafter by rapid messenger decay. DNA filter excess hybridization to in vitro synthesized nuclear RNA showed that the ethylene-induced mRNA increase is engendered by transcription of previously quiescent genes. The kinetics and magnitude of changes in mRNA prevalence parallel changes in transcriptional activity; therefore, the ethylene effect is primarily at the level of the transcription. In vivo pulse labelling with [ 35 S]-methionine showed that between 18 and 27 hours of ethylene treatment a 2.5 fold increase in translational efficiency occurred for one message studied. The resulting protein is the predominant protein synthesized in carrots treated with ethylene for 27 hours. Thus, ethylene exerts multiple regulatory controls on the expression of genetic information

  5. Recovery and purification of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyneke, Rian [Katy, TX; Foral, Michael J [Aurora, IL; Lee, Guang-Chung [Houston, TX; Eng, Wayne W. Y. [League City, TX; Sinclair, Iain [Warrington, GB; Lodgson, Jeffery S [Naperville, IL

    2008-10-21

    A process for the recovery and purification of ethylene and optionally propylene from a stream containing lighter and heavier components that employs an ethylene distributor column and a partially thermally coupled distributed distillation system.

  6. Maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS Proteins Interact with Ethylene Receptor Signaling Complex, Supporting a Regulatory Role for ARGOS in Ethylene Signal Transduction[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Wang, Hongyu; Habben, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to environmental cues. ARGOS genes reduce plant sensitivity to ethylene when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). A previous genetic study suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-localized maize ARGOS1 targets the ethylene signal transduction components at or upstream of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, but the mechanism of ARGOS modulating ethylene signaling is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis that ZmARGOS1, as well as the Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1, physically interacts with Arabidopsis REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1), an ethylene receptor interacting protein that regulates the activity of ETHYLENE RESPONSE1. The protein-protein interaction was also detected with the yeast split-ubiquitin two-hybrid system. Using the same yeast assay, we found that maize RTE1 homolog REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 LIKE4 (ZmRTL4) and ZmRTL2 also interact with maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS proteins. Like AtRTE1 in Arabidopsis, ZmRTL4 and ZmRTL2 reduce ethylene responses when overexpressed in maize, indicating a similar mechanism for ARGOS regulating ethylene signaling in maize. A polypeptide fragment derived from ZmARGOS8, consisting of a Pro-rich motif flanked by two transmembrane helices that are conserved among members of the ARGOS family, can interact with AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins in Arabidopsis. The conserved domain is necessary and sufficient to reduce ethylene sensitivity in Arabidopsis and maize. Overall, these results suggest a physical association between ARGOS and the ethylene receptor signaling complex via AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins, supporting a role for ARGOS in regulating ethylene perception and the early steps of signal transduction in Arabidopsis and maize. PMID:27268962

  7. Development of evaluation method for hydraulic behavior in Venturi scrubber for filtered venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Naoki; Nakao, Yasuhiro; Kaneko, Akiko; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Filtered venting systems have been installed to restart Nuclear Power Plants in Japan after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster. Venturi scrubber is main component of one of the systems. To evaluate decontamination performance of the Venturi scrubber for filtered venting, mechanistic evaluation method for hydrodynamic behavior is important. In this paper, our objective is to develop the method. As approaches, we conducted experimental observation under adiabatic (air-water) condition, developed a numerical simulation code with one-dimensional two-fluid model and made verification and validation by comparison between these results in terms of superficial gas, static pressure, superficial liquid velocity, droplet ratio and droplet diameter in Venturi scrubber. As results, we observed the hydrodynamic behavior, developed the code and confirmed that it has capability to evaluate the parameters with following accuracy, superficial gas velocity with +30%, static pressure in throat part with +-10%, superficial liquid velocity with +-80%, droplet diameter with +-30% and droplet ratio with -50%. (author)

  8. Study of elemental mercury re-emission through a lab-scale simulated scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Li Wu; Yan Cao; Cheng-Chun He; Zhong-Bing Dong; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2010-08-15

    This paper describes a lab-scale simulated scrubber that was designed and built in the laboratory at Western Kentucky University's Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology. A series of tests on slurries of CaO, CaSO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4}/CaSO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} were carried out to simulate recirculating slurries in different oxidation modes. Elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) re-emission was replicated through the simulated scrubber. The relationship between the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the slurries and the Hg0 re-emissions was evaluated. Elemental mercury re-emission occurred when Hg{sup 2+} that was absorbed in the simulated scrubber was converted to Hg{sup 0}; then, Hg{sup 0} was emitted from the slurry together with the carrier gas. The effects of both the reagents and the operational conditions (including the temperature, pH, and oxygen concentrations in the carrier gas) on the Hg{sup 0} re-emission rates in the simulated scrubber were investigated. The results indicated that as the operational temperature of the scrubber and the pH value of the slurry increased, the Hg{sup 0} concentrations that were emitted from the simulated scrubber increased. The Hg{sup 0} re-emission rates decreased as the O{sub 2} concentration in the carrier gas increased. In addition, the effects of additives to suppress Hg{sup 0} re-emission were evaluated in this paper. Sodium tetrasulfide, TMT 15, NaHS and HI were added to the slurry, while Hg{sup 2+}, which was absorbed in the slurry, was retained in the slurry as mercury precipitates. Therefore, there was a significant capacity for the additives to suppress Hg{sup 0} re-emission. 11 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Pilot-scale field study for ammonia removal from lagoon biogas using an acid wet scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun; Hadlocon, Lara Jane; Manuzon, Roderick; Zhao, Lingying

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic activities in swine slurry storage and treatment generate biogas containing gaseous ammonia component which is a chemical agent that can cause adverse environmental impacts when released to the atmosphere. The aim of this pilot plant study was to remove ammonia from biogas generated in a covered lagoon, using a sulfuric acid wet scrubber. The data showed that, on average, the biogas contained 43.7 ppm of ammonia and its concentration was found to be exponentially related to the air temperature inside the lagoon. When the air temperature rose to 35°C and the biogas ammonia concentration reached 90 ppm, the mass transfer of ammonia/ammonium from the deeper liquid body to the interface between the air and liquid became a limiting factor. The biogas velocity was critical in affecting ammonia removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. A biogas flow velocity of 8 to 12 mm s(-1) was recommended to achieve a removal efficiency of greater than 60%. Stepwise regression revealed that the biogas velocity and air temperature, not the inlet ammonia concentration in biogas, affected the ammonia removal efficiency. Overall, when 73 g L(-1) (or 0.75 M) sulfuric acid solution was used as the scrubber solution, removal efficiencies varied from 0% to 100% with an average of 55% over a 40-d measurement period. Mass balance calculation based on ammonium-nitrogen concentration in final scrubber liquid showed that about 21.3 g of ammonia was collected from a total volume of 1169 m(3) of biogas, while the scrubber solution should still maintain its ammonia absorbing ability until its concentration reaches up to 1 M. These results showed promising use of sulfuric acid wet scrubber for ammonia removal in the digester biogas.

  10. Size reduction of ammonia scrubbers for pig and poultry houses: Use of conditional bypass vent at high air loading rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Mosquera, J.

    2006-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both acid and biological air scrubbers are used for removal of ammonia from exhaust air at pig and poultry houses. Current regulations require that scrubbers are dimensioned for treating the maximum airflow rate that may occur, so on average these systems are overdimensioned and

  11. Removal of particulate matter (PM10) by air scrubbers at livestock facilities: results of an on-farm monitoring program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Hofschreuder, P.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Air scrubbers are commonly used for removal of ammonia and odor from exhaust air of animal houses in the Netherlands. In addition, air scrubbers remove a part of the particulate matter. In this article, the results of an on-farm monitoring are presented in which PM10 removal was monitored at 24

  12. Effects of land-applied ammonia scrubber solutions on yield, nitrogen uptake, soil test phosphorus and phosphorus runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) scrubbers reduce amounts of NH3 and dust released from animal rearing facilities, while generating nitrogen (N) rich solutions, which may be used as fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various NH3 scrubber solutions on yields, N uptake by forage, so...

  13. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  14. Multi-Pollutant and One-Stage Scrubbers for Removal of Ammonia, Odor, and Particulate Matter from Animal House Exhaust Air

    OpenAIRE

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Melse, R.W.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2008-01-01

    In several European countries, acid scrubbers and bio-scrubbers are off-the-shelf techniques for effective removal of ammonia from exhaust air from animal houses and, to a lesser extent, for odor. The number of operating air scrubbers at livestock operations in the Netherlands in 2008 is estimated to clean the air of approximately 10 percent of the pigs produced nationwide. Currently, a new generation of so-called multi-pollutant air scrubbers are developed for intensive livestock production ...

  15. Inconel alloy 625 clad steel for application in wet scrubber systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, S.L.; Shoemaker, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Test panels from INCONEL 625 clad plate were successfully installed in two wet flue gas scrubber systems. In one system INCONEL 625 clad plate was located in the roof section of the absorber just ahead of the outlet ducting. The test plates, including weld seams, showed no signs to corrosion after six months of exposure. In the other scrubber test plates located in the outlet duct of an I.D. fan house, in the stack lining, and in the absorber quench area were unattacked after nine months

  16. Atomization of liquids in a Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber. Part I. Jet dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, J A S; Costa, M A M; Henrique, P R; Coury, J R

    2003-02-28

    Jet dynamics, in particular jet penetration, is an important design parameter affecting the collection efficiency of Venturi scrubbers. A mathematical description of the trajectory, break-up and penetration of liquid jets initially transversal to a subsonic gas stream is presented. Experimental data obtained from a laboratory scale Venturi scrubber, operated with liquid injected into the throat through a single orifice, jet velocities between 6.07 and 15.9 m/s, and throat gas velocities between 58.3 and 74.9 m/s, is presented and used to validate the model.

  17. Applicability of numerical simulation code TPFIT to two-phase flow in Venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Naoki; Kanagawa, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Akiko; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    As one of the filtered venting devices for light water reactor, Venturi scrubber can operate with effective decontamination efficiency because dispersed flow is formed in the Venturi scrubber by pressure difference between inside and outside of holes for liquid suction. Droplet diameter and its distribution in cross-section area are important for the decontamination. However, they are changed by hydraulic behavior of suctioned liquid until atomized, and kinds of atomization phenomena. In this report, to understand the hydraulic behavior of the liquid in detail for the filtered venting, we performed visualized observation experimentally and numerical simulation by TPFIT. Then the numerical simulation result was validated by the experimental data. (author)

  18. Performance of a Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine powder from a confined gas stream

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Maria Angélica Martins; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Rodrigues Alves; Tognetti, Érica Rodrigues; Aguiar, Mônica Lopes; Gonçalves, José Antônio Silveira; Coury, José Renato

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on the performance of a laboratory scale rectangular Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine mineral particles from a confined air stream are presented, and a new correlation is proposed and evaluated. The scrubber was operated with air velocities in the throat varying from 58 m/s to 75 m/s and liquid flow rates varying from 280 ml/min to 900 ml/min. Liquid was injected as a jet emerging from a 1.0 mm orifice at the throat. Results for dust collection grade efficiency var...

  19. Experimental study of pressure drop characteristics of venturi scrubber working at self-priming mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meng; Sun Zhongning; Gu Haifeng; Guo Xueqing; Yu Yong

    2012-01-01

    The pressure drop characteristics of Venturi scrubber working at self-priming mode were studied experimentally. The test sections were smooth glass scrubbers, with air and water as the working medium. The results show that the trends of empirical formula are more consistent with that of the experimental results, but the relative error is large, up to ±50% or more. The experimental correlation is proposed based on the experimental research, and the calculated results of which can well predict the experimental data and the relative error is within ±15%. (authors)

  20. Performance of a Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine powder from a confined gas stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Martins Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the performance of a laboratory scale rectangular Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine mineral particles from a confined air stream are presented, and a new correlation is proposed and evaluated. The scrubber was operated with air velocities in the throat varying from 58 m/s to 75 m/s and liquid flow rates varying from 280 ml/min to 900 ml/min. Liquid was injected as a jet emerging from a 1.0 mm orifice at the throat. Results for dust collection grade efficiency varied from 87% to 98% for particles from 0.1 µm to 2.0 µm.

  1. Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieke, Kirsten Inga; Rosenørn, Thomas; Pedersen, Jannik

    2013-01-01

    microscopy (TEM) grids on two stages. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of sin-gle particles were studied by TEM. Image analysis was carried out on overview and high-resolution images, revealing influence of the exhaust gas treatment (scrubber) on the particle morphology and mixing state. Soot......This work provides insight into the morphology and mixing state of submicron particles in diesel exhaust from a ship engine with an exhaust gas recirculation scrubber. Particles from this low-speed ship engine on test bed were collected using a microiner-tial impactor with transmission electron...

  2. Multi-Pollutant and One-Stage Scrubbers for Removal of Ammonia, Odor, and Particulate Matter from Animal House Exhaust Air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Melse, R.W.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2008-01-01

    In several European countries, acid scrubbers and bio-scrubbers are off-the-shelf techniques for effective removal of ammonia from exhaust air from animal houses and, to a lesser extent, for odor. The number of operating air scrubbers at livestock operations in the Netherlands in 2008 is estimated

  3. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  4. Ethylene and protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, D J

    1973-01-01

    Ethylene reduces the rate of expansion growth of cells and it is suggestive that the rate of expansion is controlled at least in part by the synthesis of hydroxyproline rich glycopeptides that are secreted with other polysaccharide material through the plasmalemma into the cell wall, thereby enhancing the thickness of the cell wall and also rendering it poorly extensible. In combination, auxin would appear to counteract the effect of ethylene in this respect, for although auxin enhances the synthesis of protein and the content in the cell walls, as well as causing some increase in wall thickness, it reduces the amount of hydroxyproline reaching the wall. Such effects may be instrumental in enhancing wall plasticity, the rate of expansion and the final cell size. These results indicate that ethylene and auxin together afford a dual regulatory system exerted through a control of a specific part of the protein synthetic pathway, the products of which regulate the rate of expansion, and the potential for expansion, of the plant cell wall. 38 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

  5. Use of a heated graphite scrubber as a means of reducing interferences in UV-absorbance measurements of atmospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Turnipseed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new solid-phase scrubber for use in conventional ozone (O3 photometers was investigated as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species and water vapor. It was found that when heated to 100–130 °C, a tubular graphite scrubber efficiently removed up to 500 ppb ozone and ozone monitors using the heated graphite scrubber were found to be less susceptible to interferences from water vapor, mercury vapor, and aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs compared to conventional metal oxide scrubbers. Ambient measurements from a graphite scrubber-equipped photometer and a co-located Federal equivalent method (FEM ozone analyzer showed excellent agreement over 38 days of measurements and indicated no loss in the scrubber's ability to remove ozone when operated at 130 °C. The use of a heated graphite scrubber was found to reduce the interference from mercury vapor to ≤ 3 % of that obtained using a packed-bed Hopcalite scrubber. For a series of substituted aromatic compounds (ranging in volatility and absorption cross section at 253.7 nm, the graphite scrubber was observed to consistently exhibit reduced levels of interference, typically by factors of 2.5 to 20 less than with Hopcalite. Conventional solid-phase scrubbers also exhibited complex VOC adsorption and desorption characteristics that were dependent upon the relative humidity (RH, volatility of the VOC, and the available surface area of the scrubber. This complex behavior involving humidity is avoided by use of a heated graphite scrubber. These results suggest that heated graphite scrubbers could be substituted in most ozone photometers as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species found in the atmosphere. This could be particularly important in ozone monitoring for compliance with the United States (U.S. Clean Air Act or for use in VOC-rich environments such as in smog chambers and monitoring indoor air quality.

  6. Removal of nitrogen by Algal Turf Scrubber Technology in recirculating aquaculture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeta, J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing research in recirculation aquaculture focuses on evaluating and improving the purification potential of different types of filters. Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) are special as they combine sedimentation and biofiltration. An ATS was subjected to high nutrient loads of catfish effluent to

  7. Development of water scrubbers to reduce fine dust emission from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Harn, van J.; Melse, R.W.; Cambra-Lopez, M.

    2010-01-01

    Poultry housings with litter are a major contributor to fine dust emissions (PM10/PM2.5) in the Netherlands. Poultry producers are in need of dust mitigation options that are cost effective. Such an option could be provided by adequately designed water scrubbers. Catchment of dust particles by water

  8. Dust captures effectiveness of scrubber systems on mechanical miners operating in larger roadways.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hole, BJ

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The project was directed towards bord and pillar working by mechanised miners operating in larger section roadways, where the problem of scrubber capture tends to be greatest owing to the limited size of the zone of influence around exhaust...

  9. Maximizing the performance of a multiple-stage variable-throat venturi scrubber for particle collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D. M.; Akeredolu, F.

    The high collection efficiencies that are required nowadays to meet the stricter pollution control standards necessitate the use of high-energy scrubbers, such as the venturi scrubber, for the arrestment of fine particulate matter from exhaust gas streams. To achieve more energy-efficient particle collection, several venturi stages may be used in series. This paper is principally a theoretical investigation of the performance of a multiple-stage venturi scrubber, the main objective of the study being to establish the best venturi design configuration for any given set of operating conditions. A mathematical model is used to predict collection efficiency vs pressure drop relationships for particle sizes in the range 0.2-5.0 μm for one-, two-, three- and four-stage scrubbers. The theoretical predictions are borne out qualitatively by experimental work. The paper shows that the three-stage venturi produces the highest collection efficiencies over the normal operating range except for the collection of very fine particles at low pressure drops, when the single-stage venturi is best. The significant improvement in performance achieved by the three-stage venturi when compared with conventional single-stage operation increases as both the particle size and system pressure drop increase.

  10. Development of structure design program for venturi scrubber working at self-priming mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meng; Sun Zhongning; Gu Haifeng

    2012-01-01

    A structure design program was developed for Venturi scrubber working at the self-priming mode. This program proposed a complete logic for thermal parameters calculation and structure design of the throat. A revised calculation for resistance relationship was carried out based on experimental study. The relative error between revised results and experimental values is within 8.6%. (authors)

  11. Research on injection characteristics of venturi scrubber worked in self-priming mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yanmin; Sun Zhongning; Gu Haifeng; Miao Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    The injection characteristics of Venturi scrubber worked in self-priming mode in containment filter venting system was studied experimentally under different air flows, liquid levels and system pressures. The results indicate that with the increase of superficial gas velocity in throat, the static pressure drop of both sides of the suction grows approximately following a parabolic law, and the injection flow rate injecting into the Venturi scrubber increases linearly. The effect of liquid level on injection characteristics relates closely with the relative position to the outlet of the Venturi scrubber. When the liquid level is below the outlet, the injection flow rate improves significantly with increasing liquid level and presents a partition phenomenon, and in the low throat velocity, the increase of liquid level is more effective to improve the injection flow rate. However, when the liquid level is above the outlet, it almost has no impact on the injection flow rate. The pressure is another important factor affecting the injection characteristic of self-priming Venturi scrubber, which is mainly caused by the change on gas density. In the range of 0.150 kPa, with the increase of pressure, the injection flow rate improves greatly and the influence of pressure is more obvious in high throat velocity than in low throat velocity. (authors)

  12. Radiological engineering evaluation of the delay time line air scrubber located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huneycutt, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the addition of an air scrubber to an already existing delay line and whether it would scrub 11 CO 2 . There were three main objectives of this study. The first objective was to determine the scrubbing efficiency of the scrubber. The scrubbing efficiency was then used to predict the dose rates in the scrubber area and compare those values with measurements from radiological surveys. The third objective was to determine if the shield blocks were effective in reducing the dose rates in the scrubber area. The activities were measured before and during scrubber operation and this information was used to calculate the scrubbing efficiency and the efficiency of 11 CO 2 removal was determined to be around 50%. Microshield was then used to predict dose rates and compared those values with measurements from radiological surveys. This was also used to determine the that the shield blocks around the scrubber were effective in reducing the dose rates from the radiation field produced by the radionuclides in the scrubber

  13. Shipping and the environment: Smokestack emissions, scrubbers and unregulated oceanic consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Turner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available While shipping has long been recognised as a very carbon-efficient transport medium, there is an increasing focus on its broader environmental consequences. The International Maritime Organisation is responsible for the regulation of ship emissions arising from fuel combustion. Their current regulations are, however, much less strict than those applying to land-based transport within the European Union. Five different groups of pollutant emission from ship smokestacks are addressed in this paper: sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, organic matter and metals. The reduction of sulphur oxide emissions into the atmosphere using scrubber technology adds another dimension to the discussion, as this approach results in focused discharge of some pollutants to the surface water. A scoping calculation shows that an open-loop scrubber on a medium-sized ship could discharge more copper and zinc daily to the surface water than the ship’s antifouling paint. The use of antifouling paint in the European Union is subject to a prior risk assessment, but scrubber discharges are not subject to any such risk assessment. This situation presents a problem from the perspective of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, as environmental monitoring programmes in some coastal areas of the Baltic Sea have shown that levels of both copper and zinc exceed environmental quality standards. To fulfil the Marine Strategy Framework Directive requirements and achieve Good Environmental Status, having knowledge of the magnitude of different anthropogenic pressures is important. Metal inputs from open-loop scrubbers have been largely neglected until now: some metals have the potential to serve as tracers for monitoring scrubber discharges.

  14. Study of iodine removal efficiency in self-priming venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Wang, Junlong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber. ► Investigation of iodine removal efficiency at different gas and liquid flow rates. ► Investigation of different inlet concentrations of iodine. ► Mathematical model based on mass transfer. - Abstract: Venturi scrubber is used in filtered vented containment system of nuclear power plants to remove the gaseous pollutants from contaminated gas during severe accidents. In this research, an experimental and theoretical investigation has been carried out to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber. The aqueous solution is prepared by adding weight percentage of sodium hydroxide 0.5% and sodium thiosulphate 0.2% in scrubbing water to increase the absorbance of inorganic iodine (I 2 ) from the contaminated gas during emission. The iodine removal efficiency is investigated at various gas and liquid flow rates, and iodine inlet concentrations. The iodine removal efficiency is measured experimentally by measuring the inlet and outlet concentration of iodine at sampling ports. The petite droplets are formed in a venturi scrubber to absorb the iodine through the mass transfer phenomenon. A mathematical model for mass transfer based on a gas liquid interface is employed for the verification of experimental results. The contact time between iodine and scrubbing solution depends on the total volumetric flow of gas and liquid, and volume of throat and diffuser of the venturi scrubber. Sauter mean diameter is calculated from the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation. Steinberger and Treybal’s correlation is used to measure the mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase. The results calculated from the model under predict the experimental data

  15. MinimalSpild – Ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene is a gas and an important plant hormone, which can have an adverse effect on quality af potted plants......Ethylene is a gas and an important plant hormone, which can have an adverse effect on quality af potted plants...

  16. OLIGOMERIZATION AND LIQUEFACTION OF ETHYLENE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oligomerize ethylene gas in a packed bed reactor operated at 100-300°C under apressure of 500psi and ... The gas flow was then switched back to N, gas and temperature controller was simultaneously set to the desired reaction temperature. Once the desired .... be considered non-ideal for ethylene oligomerization.

  17. A New Perspective at the Ship-Air-Sea-Interface: The Environmental Impacts of Exhaust Gas Scrubber Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Endres

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shipping emissions are likely to increase significantly in the coming decades, alongside increasing emphasis on the sustainability and environmental impacts of the maritime transport sector. Exhaust gas cleaning systems (“scrubbers”, using seawater or fresh water as cleaning media for sulfur dioxide, are progressively used by shipping companies to comply with emissions regulations. Little is known about the chemical composition of the scrubber effluent and its ecological consequences for marine life and biogeochemical processes. If scrubbers become a central tool for atmospheric pollution reduction from shipping, modeling, and experimental studies will be necessary to determine the ecological and biogeochemical effects of scrubber wash water discharge on the marine environment. Furthermore, attention must be paid to the regulation and enforcement of environmental protection standards concerning scrubber use. Close collaboration between natural scientists and social scientists is crucial for progress toward sustainable shipping and protection of the marine environment.

  18. Study on the use of oxidant scrubbers for elimination of interferences due to nitrogen dioxide in analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Beatriz A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oxidant scrubbers were evaluated for their ability to prevent sampling losses of dimethylsulfide caused by reactions with nitrogen dioxide. Various compounds and mixtures were used in the preparation of the oxidant scrubbers. An automatic flow analysis device was used to compare scrubbing efficiency for nitrogen dioxide. Among the scrubbers tested, the best were shown to be the one made with filter paper or glass wool coated with iron (II sulfate, sulfuric acid and pyrogallic acid, and the one made from with paper coated with triethanolamine. The results obtained under laboratory conditions, using dimethylsulfide standard gas, and in field experiments confirmed that these scrubbers are suitable for the prevention of oxidation during sampling.

  19. Inactivation of airborne Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus using a pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation scrubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Xin, H.

    2014-01-01

    High microbial concentrations and emissions associated with livestock houses raise health and environmental concerns. A pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic (UV-PCO) scrubber was tested for its efficacy to inactivate aerosolized Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

  20. SCRUBBERS AS SHIPOWNERS’ RESPONSE TO THE SULPHUR DIRECTIVE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BALTIC PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investogates the recent developments in exhaust gas cleaning systems and the growing interests in scrubber installation among ferry and ro-ro shipowners operating on the Baltic Sea. This technology creates the need for reception of scrubber sludge, which is produced alongside with gas cleaning. The study states that the information about the disposal of scrubber waste is largely limited or vague and evaluates – on the basis of a questionnaire - the availability of port reception facilities for the disposal of waste from sulphur scrubbers at major Baltic Sea ports. The paper concludes that a review of current legislature on port reception facilities is absolutely necessary and expresses the hope that the situation will improve in the wake of recent environmental regulations.

  1. Development of an Automated Diffusion Scrubber-Conductometry System for Measuring Atmospheric Ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bok Young; Lee, Chong Keun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    A semi-continuous and automated method for quantifying atmospheric ammonia at the parts per billion level has been developed. The instrument consists of a high efficiency diffusion scrubber, an electrolytic on-line anion exchange device, and a conductivity detector. Water soluble gases in sampled air diffuse through the porous membrane and are absorbed in an absorbing solution. Interferences are eliminated by using an anion exchange devises. The electrical conductivity of the solution is measured without chromatographic separation. The collection efficiency was over 99%. Over the 0-200 ppbv concentration range, the calibration was linear with r"2 = 0.99. The lower limit of detection was 0.09 ppbv. A parallel analysis of Seoul air over several days using this method and a diffusion scrubber coupled to an ion chromatography system showed acceptable agreement, r"2 = 0.940 (n = 686). This method can be applied for ambient air monitoring of ammonia

  2. Numerical Simulations of Airflow and Droplet Dispersion in a Horizontal Ammonia Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia released in pig production industries can lead to eutrophication of surface waters, soil acidification, fertilization of vegetation and changes in ecosystems, etc. Air scrubbers with spray of aerosolized sulphur solution were used to remove the ammonia mixed in the airflow ventilated out...... plate or a flow straightener were tested. Impact of nozzle velocity and droplet residue size were analysed. It is found that additional input on the pump pressure to increase the injection velocity may not cause any more benefit in our cases, and the ammonia removal efficiency of the horizontal scrubber...... from a piggery. In this study, numerical method were used to investigate airflow pattern, droplet dispersion, ammonia absorption at droplet surface and overall removal efficiency in an air cleaner. Droplet trajectories and elapsed time in air were adopted to characterize the absorption efficiency...

  3. Development of an Automated Diffusion Scrubber-Conductometry System for Measuring Atmospheric Ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok Young; Lee, Chong Keun; Lee, Dong Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    A semi-continuous and automated method for quantifying atmospheric ammonia at the parts per billion level has been developed. The instrument consists of a high efficiency diffusion scrubber, an electrolytic on-line anion exchange device, and a conductivity detector. Water soluble gases in sampled air diffuse through the porous membrane and are absorbed in an absorbing solution. Interferences are eliminated by using an anion exchange devises. The electrical conductivity of the solution is measured without chromatographic separation. The collection efficiency was over 99%. Over the 0-200 ppbv concentration range, the calibration was linear with r{sup 2} = 0.99. The lower limit of detection was 0.09 ppbv. A parallel analysis of Seoul air over several days using this method and a diffusion scrubber coupled to an ion chromatography system showed acceptable agreement, r{sup 2} = 0.940 (n = 686). This method can be applied for ambient air monitoring of ammonia.

  4. SPREADING OF A FLUID JET ON THE CORRUGATED SURFACE OF THE STRUCTURED PACKING OF WET SCRUBBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorodilov A.A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new packing for wet scrubbers for cooling exhaust gases of furnaces is presented. Spreading features of the fluid jet on the corrugated surface of the proposed packing have been studied. Flow rate of the liquid flowing through slits to the opposite side of the packing element was determined. Several regimes of a fluid flow on the surface of the proposed structured packing were determined. An optimal range of rational flow rates for more intense cooling of exhaust gases is proposed. It was discovered that the range of optimum flow rates may be extended if the surface of the packing element is pre-wetted. The way of increasing the rate of effective interfacial surface area for gas-liquid contact per unit volume of the packing of the scrubber is presented.

  5. Solubility of flue gas components in NaOH based scrubber solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandelin, K; Backman, R

    1997-11-01

    The work reported here is a thermodynamic study on the solubility of flue gas components in aqueous solutions containing sodium salts. The result of the work is an equilibrium model. The model presented here includes sodium hydroxide and sodium salts that makes it possible to study simultaneous absorption of flue gas components in alkaline scrubber solutions. The model is applied on the absorption of a flue gas into a NaOH scrubber solution. The calculations show that it is possible to simultaneously absorb sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, and ammonia without carbon dioxide co-absorption. The calculations also show that gaseous NO and N{sub 2}O cannot be scrubbed unless they are oxidized to nitrate or reduced to ammonia. (author) SIHTI 2 Research Programme. 59 refs.

  6. Venturi scrubber with integrated separating column for aerosol precipitation and gas sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayinger, F.; Lehner, M.

    1992-01-01

    A concept for a novel, compact process combination in the form of a Venturi scrubber with integrated separating column was developed. The design of the system is such as to meet the boundary conditions encountered in practice. Comprehensive tests were carried through with this high-performance Venturi scrubber in a wide range of parameters, using the superfine dusts titanium dioxide and zinc oxide as test aerosols. Separating efficiency was found to be excellent, especially for multi-stage spray injection of the scrubbing fluid. Multi-stage spray injection achieves a more favourable pulse exchange between gas and fluid so that pressure losses are relatively low even though loading may be high. A provisional experimental set-up is used for further optimization of separating efficiency and pressure loss. (orig.) [de

  7. Design of artificial neural networks using a genetic algorithm to predict collection efficiency in venturi scrubbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mahboobeh; Mohebbi, Ali

    2008-08-30

    In this study, a new approach for the auto-design of neural networks, based on a genetic algorithm (GA), has been used to predict collection efficiency in venturi scrubbers. The experimental input data, including particle diameter, throat gas velocity, liquid to gas flow rate ratio, throat hydraulic diameter, pressure drop across the venturi scrubber and collection efficiency as an output, have been used to create a GA-artificial neural network (ANN) model. The testing results from the model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Comparison of the results of the GA optimized ANN model with the results from the trial-and-error calibrated ANN model indicates that the GA-ANN model is more efficient. Finally, the effects of operating parameters such as liquid to gas flow rate ratio, throat gas velocity, and particle diameter on collection efficiency were determined.

  8. Gas pollutants removal in a single- and two-stage ejector-venturi scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamisans, Xavier; Sarrà, Montserrrat; Lafuente, F Javier

    2002-03-29

    The absorption of SO(2) and NH(3) from the flue gas into NaOH and H(2)SO(4) solutions, respectively has been studied using an industrial scale ejector-venturi scrubber. A statistical methodology is presented to characterise the performance of the scrubber by varying several factors such as gas pollutant concentration, air flowrate and absorbing solution flowrate. Some types of venturi tube constructions were assessed, including the use of a two-stage venturi tube. The results showed a strong influence of the liquid scrubbing flowrate on pollutant removal efficiency. The initial pollutant concentration and the gas flowrate had a slight influence. The use of a two-stage venturi tube considerably improved the absorption efficiency, although it increased energy consumption. The results of this study will be applicable to the optimal design of venturi-based absorbers for gaseous pollution control or chemical reactors.

  9. Large-scale tests of aqueous scrubber systems for LMFBR vented containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Six large-scale air cleaning tests performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) are described. The test conditions simulated those postulated for hypothetical accidents in an LMFBR involving containment venting to control hydrogen concentration and containment overpressure. Sodium aerosols were generated by continously spraying sodium into air and adding steam and/or carbon dioxide to create the desired Na 2 O 2 , Na 2 CO 3 or NaOH aerosol. Two air cleaning systems were tested: (a) spray quench chamber, educator venturi scrubber and high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series; and (b) the same except with the spray quench chamber eliminated. The gas flow rates ranged up to 0.8 m 3 /s (1700 acfm) at temperatures to 313 0 C (600 0 F). Quantities of aerosol removed from the gas stream ranged up to 700 kg per test. The systems performed very satisfactorily with overall aerosol mass removal efficiencies exceeding 99.9% in each test

  10. Fabrication of remote steam atomized scrubbers for DWPF off-gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.G.; Lafferty, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The defense waste processing facility (DWPF) is being constructed for the purpose of processing high-level waste from sludge to a vitrified borosilicate glass. In the operation of continuous slurry-fed melters, off-gas aerosols are created by entrainment of feed slurries and the vaporization of volatile species from the molten glass mixture. It is necessary to decontaminate these aerosols in order to minimize discharge of airborne radionuclide particulates. A steam atomized scrubber (SAS) has been developed for DWPF which utilizes a patented hydro- sonic system gas scrubbing method. The Hydro-Sonic System utilizes a steam aspirating-type venturi scrubber that requires very precise fabrication tolerances in order to obtain acceptable decontamination factors. In addition to the process-related tolerances, precision mounting and nozzle tolerances are required for remote service at DWPF

  11. Development of the venturi scrubber model for the FILTRA-MVSS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangdilok, W.; Epstein, M.; Berger, W.E.; Augustsson, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic model of the venturi scrubber for the FILTRA-MVSS system was developed. The developed model was then incorporated into the MAAP4 code for performance analysis purposes. The results show that during severe accident conditions where the vent line control valve is used to regulate the flow to the vent line, the scrubbing performance of the venturi can peak at a value of about 5000 in the decontamination factor. For a fixed valve throttling there is a time window where scrubbing is effective. Outside this window the venturi scrubbing is ineffective due to either too high or too low pressure. To optimize the scrubbing performance, it would be necessary (1) to allow a substantial fraction of the high vent flow to bypass the venturi scrubber tubes so that a certain amount of vent flow is always scrubbed as well as (2) to adjust the flow control valve to its optimal position during the containment venting. (author)

  12. Parameters influencing the aerosol capture performance of the Submerged-Bed Scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruecker, C.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1987-04-01

    The Submerged-Bed Scrubber (SBS) is a novel air cleaning device that has been investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for scrubbing off gases from liquid-fed ceramic melters used to vitrify high-level waste (HLW). The concept for the SBS was originally conceived at Hanford for emergency venting of a reactor containment building. The SBS was adapted for use as a quenching scrubber at PNL because it can cool the hot melter off gas as well as remove over 90% of the airborne particles, thus meeting the minimum particulate decontamination factor (DF) of 10 required of a primary scrubber. The experiments in this study showed that the submicron aerosol DF for the SBS can exceed 100 under certain conditions. A conventional device, the ejector-venturi scrubber (EVS), has been previously used in this application. The EVS also adequately cools the hot gases from the melter while exhibiting aerosol removal DFs in the range of 5 to 30. In addition to achieving higher DFs than the EVS, however, the SBS has the advantage of being a passive system, better suited to the remote environment of an HLW processing system. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of the SBS and to improve the aerosol capture efficiency by modifying the operating procedure or the design. A partial factorial experimental matrix was completed to determine the main effects of aerosol solubility, inlet off-gas temperature, inlet off-gas flow rate, steam-to-air ratio, bed diameter and packing diameter on the particulate removal efficiency of the SBS. Several additional experiments were conducted to measure the influence of the inlet aerosol concentration and scrubbing-water concentration on aerosol-removal performance. 33 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs

  13. The CO{sub 2} capture performance of a high-intensity vortex spray scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, K.H.; Mahmud, T.; Purba, E. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    The present study focuses on the enhancement of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency using a high-intensity vortex spray scrubber by imparting swirl to the gas flow, which has the ability to augment the rates of heat and mass transfer. Experimental investigations into the reactive absorption of CO{sub 2} from a mixture of air-CO{sub 2} into an aqueous solution of NaOH in a laboratory-scale counter-current spray scrubber have been carried out. The mass transfer characteristics, in terms of the overall gas phase mass transfer coefficient (K{sub g}a) were investigated for both the swirling and the non-swirling (axial) gas flows through the scrubber in order to quantify the effect of swirl. The effects of the gas/liquid flow rates, flow arrangements, scrubber height and spray nozzle type on the CO{sub 2} capture performance were examined. For both the axial and the swirling flows, the K{sub g}a increases initially with increasing gas flow rate up to a certain limit, beyond which it becomes essentially constant, whereas the K{sub g}a increases continuously with the liquid flow rate within the measured range. The counter-current gas-droplets flow provides higher mass transfer rates compared with those in co-current flow. The K{sub g}a deceases with the increase in the tower height. The spray nozzle producing finer droplets provides enhanced mass transfer rates. It is found that imparting swirl in the gas flow enhances the K(g)a up to around 49% compared with that in axial flows.

  14. The importance of CFD methods to the design of huge scrubber systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the influence of the multiphase flow on the scrubber removal performance Austrian Energy and Environment started research end development in co-operation with universities on the simulation of wet scrubber systems using CFD methods (Computational removal performance). In November 2001 the spray banks were reconstructed with a minimum of requirements according to the concept of AE and E. The first experiences in operation already showed a significant improvement. In July 2002 measurements of the SO 2 -profile confirmed the experiences of the client. The high SO 2 peaks nearly disappeared at the absorber wall. Furthermore the changes resulted in a more homogenous SO 2 distribution in the clean gas which was also found out by measurements in the outlet duct. According to the client the LG-ratio could be reduced. Nearly every load case can now be handled with one active spray bank less. With respect to energy consumption of the plant this means a remarkable reduction of operational costs. Compared to that the scrubbers of the FGD system in Neurath will have a flue gas capacity nearly twice much as that of the FGD plant in Heyden. The start up will take place in 2008

  15. Experimental and theoretical investigation of droplet dispersion in venturi scrubbers with axial liquid injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarian, N.; Talaei, A.; Karimikhosroabadi, M. [Islamic Azad University, Shahreza Branch, Shahreza (Iran); Sadeghi, F. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran); Talaie, M.R.

    2009-05-15

    Droplet dispersion in a Venturi scrubber with axial liquid injection was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The main objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict droplet dispersion in a Venturi scrubber with axial liquid injection. The effects of the Peclet number and droplet size distribution on droplet dispersion were studied using the developed model. Sampling of the droplets was carried out, isokinetically, in 16 positions at the end of the throat section. The experimental data were used to find the parameters of the developed model, such as the Peclet number. From the results of this study, it was found that the Peclet number was not constant across the cross section of the scrubber channel. In order to achieve a better agreement between the results of the model and the experimental data, it was required to consider Peclet number variations across the Venturi channel. It was also revealed that the parameter representing the width of the Rosin-Rammler distribution of droplet size could not be considered constant and it was influenced significantly by the operating parameters such as liquid flow rate and gas velocity. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Droplet dispersion angle measurements on a Pease-Antony Venturi scrubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. G. Puentes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber is a gas cleaning device that uses liquid, injected in the equipment as jets, to remove contaminants from the gas. The liquid jet is atomized into droplets, which are dispersed throughout the equipment due to the turbulence. The performance of the scrubber is affected by the spatial distribution of the droplets. Although CFD models have been used to predict the droplet dispersion, these models are expensive. Alternatively, the concept of "jet spreading angle" could be used as a simple and quick way to estimate droplet dispersion. The purpose of this paper is to measure the spreading angle of jets transversally injected into the throat of a Venturi scrubber and correlate it with both gas and jet velocities. The throat gas velocities varied between 59 and 74 m/s and the jet velocity between 3.18 and 19.1 m/s. The angles were measured through image analysis, obtained with high velocity photography. The spreading angle was found to be strongly dependent on jet velocity.

  17. Evaluation of surface dose rate on C-14 scrubber and gas bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, D. W.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    In CANDU(Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors, purge and discharge of moderator cover gas has been performed via vapor recovery system. The methods employed in C-14 removal are mainly based on reactions of CO 2 with absorber of adsorbent. In order to choose an optimum process, we should consider the characteristics of the process, such as, temperature, pressure, humidity etc. and surface dose rate on C-14 scrubber and gas bag to estimate job-related personnel doses. Assuming that the whole C-14 scrubber was completely replaced after one-cycle operation, and that its C-14 activity for one-cycle operation was 40 mCi, we calculated the surface dose rate at the six points of the C-14 scrubber. This calculation showed that the dose rate on the surface of cartridge was only 1.25μSυ/hγ because of low energy of β ray. It is concluded, therefore, that the cartridge change-out is safe because the operation of C-14 removal system causes only a small increase in dose rate

  18. 46 CFR 154.1725 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 154.1725 Section 154.1725 Shipping COAST....1725 Ethylene oxide. (a) A vessel carrying ethylene oxide must: (1) Have cargo piping, vent piping, and... space of an ethylene oxide cargo tank for a period of 30 days under the condition of paragraph (e) of...

  19. Development and evaluation of a full-scale spray scrubber for ammonia recovery and production of nitrogen fertilizer at poultry facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlocon, Lara Jane S; Manuzon, Roderick B; Zhao, Lingying

    2015-01-01

    Significant ammonia emissions from animal facilities need to be controlled due to its negative impacts on human health and the environment. The use of acid spray scrubber is promising, as it simultaneously mitigates and recovers ammonia emission for fertilizer. Its low pressure drop contribution on axial fans makes it applicable on US farms. This study develops a full-scale acid spray scrubber to recover ammonia emissions from commercial poultry facilities and produce nitrogen fertilizer. The scrubber performance and economic feasibility were evaluated at a commercial poultry manure composting facility that released ammonia from exhaust fans with concentrations of 66-278 ppmv and total emission rate of 96,143 kg yr(-1). The scrubber consisted of 15 spray scrubber modules, each equipped with three full-cone nozzles that used dilute sulphuric acid as the medium. Each nozzle was operated at 0.59 MPa with a droplet size of 113 μm and liquid flow rate of 1.8 L min(-1). The scrubber was installed with a 1.3-m exhaust fan and field tested in four seasons. Results showed that the scrubber achieved high NH3 removal efficiencies (71-81%) and low pressure drop (scrubber effluents containing 22-36% (m/v) ammonium sulphate are comparable to the commercial-grade nitrogen fertilizer. Preliminary economic analysis indicated that the break-even time is one year. This study demonstrates that acid spray scrubbers can economically and effectively recover NH3 from animal facilities for fertilizer.

  20. Threshold photoelectron--photonion coincidence mass spectrometric study of ethylene and ethylene-d4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockbauer, R.; Inghram, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental curves have been obtained for the fragmentation of ethylene and ethylene-d 4 ions as a function of the internal energy of those ions using threshold photoelectron--photoion coincidence mass spectrometry. The results are compared with the previous results of photoionization mass spectrometry, He I photoelectron--photoion coicidence, charge exchange experiments, and with quasiequilibrium theory (QET) calculations. The discrepancies between results of these previous experiments and QET calculations do not appear in the present data. It is suggested that ion--molecule reactions competing with charge exchange has led to erroneous conclusions in the interpretation of the charge exchange data. It is concluded that QET does describe the fragmentation of ethylene and ethylene-d 4 within the limits of the data and calculations available. The secondary ion fragmentation C 2 H 4 + → C 2 H 3 + +H → C 2 H 2 + +2H is discussed in detail with regard to the C 2 H 3 + fragment ion internal energy distribution

  1. Apple MdACS6 Regulates Ethylene Biosynthesis During Fruit Development Involving Ethylene-Responsive Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Tan, Dongmei; Liu, Zhi; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Zhang, Lichao; Li, Xinyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Aide

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis in plants involves different 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) genes. The regulation of each ACS gene during fruit development is unclear. Here, we characterized another apple (Malus×domestica) ACS gene, MdACS6. The transcript of MdACS6 was observed not only in fruits but also in other tissues. During fruit development, MdACS6 was initiated at a much earlier stage, whereas MdACS3a and MdACS1 began to be expressed at 35 d before harvest and immediateley after harvest, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity of MdACS6 was significantly lower than that of MdACS3a and MdACS1, accounting for the low ethylene biosynthesis in young fruits. Overexpression of MdACS6 (MdACS6-OE) by transient assay in apple showed enhanced ethylene production, and MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits but not in control fruits. In MdACS6 apple fruits silenced by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system (MdACS6-AN), neither ethylene production nor MdACS3a transcript was detectable. In order to explore the mechanism through which MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits, we investigated the expression of apple ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes. The results showed that the expression of MdERF2 was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits and inhibited in MdACS6-AN fruits. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdERF2 protein could bind to the promoter of MdACS3a. Moreover, down-regulation of MdERF2 in apple flesh callus led to a decrease of MdACS3a expression, demonstrating the regulation of MdERF2 on MdACS3a. The mechanism through which MdACS6 regulates the action of MdACS3a was discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  3. Method to separate deuterium isotopes using ethylene and ethylene dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of deuterium by the dissociation of ethylene vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloro-ethanes or propylene with the help of intensive, matched infrared lasers enables a relatively good yield if operated on a large scale, e.g. in refineries with large through-put. The deuterium from the laser photolysis of ethylene and vinyl chloride is found in the acetylene formed, which has to be separated off and processed. When using dichloroehtane, the deuterium is found in the vinal chloride formed. The methods are briefly described. (UWI) [de

  4. Performance of iodide vapour absorption in the venturi scrubber working in self-priming mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yanmin; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Miao, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The absorption performance for iodide vapour was studied under different conditions. • A mathematical model was developed to describe the iodide absorption process. • The venturi scrubber can ensure absorption efficiiency and reduce pressure loss. - Abstract: The self-priming venturi scrubber is the key component of filtered containment venting systems for the removal of radioactive products during severe accidents in nuclear power plants. This paper is focused on the absorption performance of iodide vapour in the venturi scrubber, based on experiment and mathematical calculation. The results indicate that the absorption efficiency is closely related to solution flow rate, gas flow rate and temperature, but is not sensitive to iodide inlet concentration. When solution flow rate is low, the absorption efficiency increases rapidly with increasing the solution flow rate, and when the solution is excessive, the absorption efficiency remains around 99% stably; the influence of gas flow rate on absorption efficiency is mainly reflected in the variation of gas and liquid contacting time; when the solution flow rate is low, the increase of gas flow rate will led to an obvious decrease in absorption efficiency; temperature is not important when gas flow rate in constant but becomes effective for improving the absorption efficiency when gas velocity is constant. The proposed mathematical model can predict the iodide absorption process well in the range of experimental conditions. Especially, in the condition of lower gas flow rate and higher solution flow rate, the prediction accuracy is more satisfactory; however the accuracy of prediction will decrease at higher gas flow rates and lower solution flow rates because of neglecting the transverse exchange between gas and liquid phase.

  5. On-line measurements of liquid carry-over from scrubbers using radioactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugan, A; Hassfjell, S [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Finborud, A [Mator, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    A method to measure liquid carry-over from scrubbers using gamma-emitting tracers is described and results from field tests at two onshore installations are presented. One water/1,2-ethanediol (MEG) and two hydrocarbon liquid (condensate) tracers have been used in the tests. One of the condensate tracers deposited to some extent inside the process pipe, while the other had a too high vapor pressure. The water/MEG tracer showed no MEG carry-over while the carry-over of MEG was documented to be considerable. (author)

  6. On-line measurements of liquid carry-over from scrubbers using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, A.; Hassfjell, S.; Finborud, A.

    2004-01-01

    A method to measure liquid carry-over from scrubbers using gamma-emitting tracers is described and results from field tests at two onshore installations are presented. One water/1,2-ethanediol (MEG) and two hydrocarbon liquid (condensate) tracers have been used in the tests. One of the condensate tracers deposited to some extent inside the process pipe, while the other had a too high vapor pressure. The water/MEG tracer showed no MEG carry-over while the carry-over of MEG was documented to be considerable. (author)

  7. IODINE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN NON-SUBMERGED AND SUBMERGED SELF-PRIMING VENTURI SCRUBBER

    OpenAIRE

    MAJID ALI; YAN CHANGQI; SUN ZHONGNING; GU HAIFENG; WANG JUNLONG; KHURRAM MEHBOOB

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I2) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine...

  8. Poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)]: A hydrolytically-degradable poly(ethylene oxide) platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lee, Bongjae F.; van den Berg, Sebastiaan A.; Pressly, Eric D.; Lee, Annabelle; Hawker, Craig J.; Lynd, Nathaniel A.

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxi...

  9. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  10. Strategies for enhancing the co-removal of mercury in FGD-scrubbers of power plants. Operating parameters and additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetze, Jan; Koeser, Heinz [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Chair of Environmental Technology; Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Centre of Engineering Services

    2012-07-01

    Co-combustion of waste fuels, coals with variable mercury content and lower regulatory emission limits are drivers for the optimisation of the co-removal of mercury in flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) scrubbers. The paper explains some new features of the system performance of FGD scrubbers for the co-removal of mercury in coal-fired power plants. Results on their efficiency under standardised laboratory conditions are presented. The effect of these measures on the quality of the FGD by-product gypsum will be covered as well. (orig.)

  11. Numerical simulation of self-priming phenomena in venturi scrubber by two-phase flow simulation code TPFIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Naoki; Kanagawa, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Akiko; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, reviews of the safety of nuclear facilities have been conducted in the world beginning with Japan. Countermeasures against severe accidents in nuclear power plants are an urgent need. In particular, from the viewpoint of protecting containment and suppressing diffusion of the radioactive materials, it is important to install filtered venting devices to release high pressure pollutant gas to the atmosphere with elimination radioactive materials in the gas. One of the devices for the filtered venting is a Multi venturi scrubber system (MVSS), which is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply in European reactors. The MVSS is composed of a “venturi Scrubbers” part, in which there are hundreds of the venturi scrubbers, and a “bubble column” part. In the MVSS, all of the venturi scrubbers is branched off from a vent line which connect between the containment and the MVSS. In an operation mode of the MVSS, the radioactive materials are eliminated through the gas-liquid interface from the pollutant gas to the liquid phase of a dispersed flow in the venturi scrubber and a bubbly flow in the bubble column part. The dispersed flow is formed from the liquid, which is suctioned from around the venturi scrubber through the hole for suction (called self-priming). In previous studies, an evaluation method for the scrubbing performance of the venturi scrubber was developed. However, actual hydraulic behavior in it is too complicated, the previous evaluation was not validated the hydraulic behavior and studied the effect of differences between the simulated hydraulic behavior and an actual one on the performance of the venturi scrubber. To develop a validated evaluation method for the scrubbing performance, it is important to develop detailed evaluation method for the hydraulic behavior in the venturi scrubber. To simulate the complicated hydraulic behavior, we consider to use analysis code TPFIT. Then, the

  12. Concept for a cyclonic spray scrubber as a fission product removal system for filtered containment venting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, Luke S., E-mail: Luke.Lebel@cnl.ca; Piro, Markus H., E-mail: Markus.Piro@cnl.ca; MacCoy, Reilly, E-mail: Reilly.MacCoy@cnl.ca; Clouthier, Anthony, E-mail: Tony.Clouthier@cnl.ca; Chin, Yu-Shan, E-mail: Sammy.Chin@cnl.ca

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new cyclonic spray scrubber concept for filtered containment venting is presented. • Mechanistic particle removal model paired with discrete particle CFD simulations. • Calculations predict that very high decontamination factors can be achieved. - Abstract: The application of a cyclonic spray scrubber as a technology for filtered containment venting is proposed in this paper. This study has paired a mechanistic model for the kinetic particle coagulation of with Euler–Lagrange discrete particle simulations in order to predict particle decontamination factors. The continuous phase behavior has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics simulations together with phase Doppler anemometry measurements. Calculations show that spray scrubbing of radionuclide-bearing aerosols could be very effective, and predict that decontamination factors can be in excess of 10{sup 6} for micron sized particles and excess of 10{sup 3} for submicron particles. In the wake of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, filtered containment venting is being viewed as an increasingly important severe accident mitigation technology. Cyclonic spray scrubbing could be implemented as a passive technology for decontaminating containment gases in an emergency prior to their discharge to the atmosphere, and is a novel approach for this application.

  13. Concept for a cyclonic spray scrubber as a fission product removal system for filtered containment venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebel, Luke S.; Piro, Markus H.; MacCoy, Reilly; Clouthier, Anthony; Chin, Yu-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new cyclonic spray scrubber concept for filtered containment venting is presented. • Mechanistic particle removal model paired with discrete particle CFD simulations. • Calculations predict that very high decontamination factors can be achieved. - Abstract: The application of a cyclonic spray scrubber as a technology for filtered containment venting is proposed in this paper. This study has paired a mechanistic model for the kinetic particle coagulation of with Euler–Lagrange discrete particle simulations in order to predict particle decontamination factors. The continuous phase behavior has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics simulations together with phase Doppler anemometry measurements. Calculations show that spray scrubbing of radionuclide-bearing aerosols could be very effective, and predict that decontamination factors can be in excess of 10 6 for micron sized particles and excess of 10 3 for submicron particles. In the wake of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, filtered containment venting is being viewed as an increasingly important severe accident mitigation technology. Cyclonic spray scrubbing could be implemented as a passive technology for decontaminating containment gases in an emergency prior to their discharge to the atmosphere, and is a novel approach for this application.

  14. Oxidation of North Dakota scrubber sludge for soil amendment and production of gypsum. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, D.J.; Moe, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) the North Dakota Industrial Commission, and the US Department of Energy provided funds for a research project at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The goals of the project were (1) to determine conditions for the conversion of scrubber sludge to gypsum simulating an ex situ process on the laboratory scale; (2) to determine the feasibility of scaleup of the process; (3) if warranted, to demonstrate the ex situ process for conversion on the pilot scale; and (4) to evaluate the quality and handling characteristics of the gypsum produced on the pilot scale. The process development and demonstration phases of this project were successfully completed focusing on ex situ oxidation using air at low pH. The potential to produce a high-purity gypsum on a commercial scale is excellent. The results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of converting CCS scrubber sludge to gypsum exhibiting characteristics appropriate for agricultural application as soil amendment as well as for use in gypsum wallboard production. Gypsum of a purity of over 98% containing acceptable levels of potentially problematic constituents was produced in the laboratory and in a pilot-scale demonstration.

  15. Atomization of liquids in a Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber. Part II. Droplet dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, J A S; Costa, M A M; Aguiar, M L; Coury, J R

    2004-12-10

    Droplet distribution is of fundamental importance to the performance of a Venturi scrubber. Ensuring good liquid distribution can increase performance at minimal liquid usage. In this study, droplet dispersion in a rectangular Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber, operating horizontally, was examined both theoretically and experimentally. The Venturi throat cross-section was 24 mm x 35 mm, and the throat length varied from 63 to 140 mm. Liquid was injected through a single orifice (1.0 mm diameter) on the throat wall. This arrangement allowed the study of the influence of jet penetration on droplet distribution. Gas velocity at the throat was 58.3 and 74.6 m/s, and the liquid flow rate was 286, 559 and 853 ml/min. A probe with a 2.7 mm internal diameter was used to isokinetically remove liquid from several positions inside the equipment. It was possible to study liquid distribution close to the injection point. A new model for droplet dispersion, which incorporates the new description of the jet atomization process developed by the present authors in the first article of this series, is proposed and evaluated. The model predicted well the experimental data.

  16. Removal of iodomethane from air using a plot-scale corona discharge scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, L.W.; Toft-Hall, A.; Torgerson, D.F.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the removal of iodomethane from air using a pilot-scale corona discharge scrubber. The removal was measured in the following parameter ranges: bulk air flow, 30 to 350 m 3 /h; initial CH 3 I concentration, 6 to 230 μmol/m 3 ; and discharge current, 0 to 75 mA DC (negative polarity). Approximately five to ten moles of iodomethane are removed per mole of electrons added to the air stream at a discharge voltage of ∼ 10 kV. This removal efficiency suggests that both ion-molecule and radical-molecule reactions may be important in the removal of iodomethane from air in a corona discharge. The results of this pilot-scale demonstration indicate that a corona discharge scrubber would be suitable for removing iodine species from air as part of the emergency filtered-air discharge system of a nuclear reactor. The application of this technology to the control of nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide emissions is being investigated. 15 refs

  17. Development of a submerged gravel scrubber for containment venting applications: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Although hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDAs) are not design basis accidents for breeder reactor plants, extensive assessments of HCDA consequences have been made and design features for providing margins beyond the design base have been considered for future fast reactor plants. One feature proposed for increasing the safety margin is a containment vent and/or purge system which would mitigate the challenge to containment integrity resulting from excessive temperature and pressure or excessive hydrogen. A cleanup system would be required for removal of vented aerosols and condensible vapors to mitigate radiological consequences to the environment. A study is in progress at HEDL to select and develop a suitable air cleaning system for use in potential breeder reactor containment venting applications. A concept was conceived whereby the passiveness and high loading capacity of a water pool scrubber was combined with the high efficiency of a sand and gravel bed. It was termed a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS). A schematic drawing of the concept is shown. The SGS consists of a bed of gravel (or other packing) submerged in a pool of water

  18. Genetic introgression of ethylene-suppressed transgenic tomatoes with higher-polyamines trait overcomes many unintended effects due to reduced ethylene on the primary metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly P Sobolev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene regulates a myriad physiological and biochemical processes in ripening fruits and is accepted as the ripening hormone for the climacteric fruits. However, its effects on metabolome and resulting fruit quality are not yet fully understood, particularly when some of the ripening-associated biochemical changes are independent of ethylene action. We have generated a homozygous transgenic tomato genotype (2AS-AS that exhibits reduced ethylene production as a result of impaired expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 2 gene by its antisense RNA and had a longer shelf life. Double transgenic hybrid (2AS-AS x 579HO developed through a genetic cross between 2AS-AS and 579HO (Mehta et al., 2002 lines resulted in significantly higher ethylene production than either the WT or 2AS-AS fruit. To determine the effects of reduced ethylene and introgression of higher polyamines’ trait, the metabolic profiles of ripening fruits from WT (556AZ, 2AS-AS, and 2AS-AS x 579HO lines were determined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The levels of Glu, Asp, AMP, Adenosine, Nucl1 and Nucl2 increased during ripening of the WT fruit. The increases in Glu, Asp, and AMP levels were attenuated in 2AS-AS fruit but recovered in the double hybrid with higher ethylene and polyamine levels. The ripening-associated decreases in Ala, Tyr, Val, Ile, Phe, malate and myo-inositol levels in the 2AS-AS line were not reversed in the double hybrid line suggesting a developmental/ripening regulated accumulation of these metabolites independent of ethylene. Significant increases in the levels of fumarate, formate, choline, Nucl1 and Nucl2 at most stages of ripening fruit were found in the double transgenic line due to introgression with higher-polyamines trait. Taken together these results show that the ripening-associated metabolic changes are both ethylene dependent and independent, and that the fruit metabolome is under the control of multiple regulators, including

  19. Role of ethylene metabolism in Amaranthus retroflexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, I.; Beyer, E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    14 C-Ethylene was metabolized by etiolated pigweed seedlings (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in the manner similar to that observed in other plants. The hormone was oxidized to 14 CO 2 and incorporated into 14 -tissue components. Selected cyclic olefins with differing abilities to block ethylene action were used to determine if ethylene metabolism in pigweed is necessary for ethylene action. 2,5-Norbornadiene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene were effective inhibitors of ethylene action at 800 and 6400 μ1/1, respectively, in the gas phase, while 1,4-cyclohexadiene and cyclohexene were not. However, all four cyclic olefins inhibited the incorporation and conversion of 14 C-ethylene to 14 CO 2 by 95% with I 50 values below 100 μ1/1. The results indicate that total ethylene metabolism does not directly correlate with changes in ethylene action. Additionally, the fact that inhibition of ethylene metabolism by the cyclic olefins did not result in a corresponding increase in ethylene evolution, indicates that ethylene metabolism does not serve to significantly reduce endogenous ethylene levels

  20. 49 CFR 173.323 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 173.323 Section 173.323... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.323 Ethylene oxide. (a) For packaging ethylene oxide in non-bulk packagings, silver mercury or any of its alloys or copper may not be used in any...

  1. 21 CFR 573.440 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 573.440 Section 573.440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.440 Ethylene dichloride. The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used in...

  2. 21 CFR 173.230 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene dichloride. 173.230 Section 173.230 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.230 Ethylene dichloride. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for ethylene dichloride in spice oleoresins when present therein...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1047 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1910.1047 Section 1910.1047 Labor... Ethylene oxide. (a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies to all occupational exposures to ethylene oxide (EtO), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75-21-8, except as provided in paragraph (a...

  4. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  5. The radiation crosslinking of ethylene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, N.M.

    1979-01-01

    The enhanced radiation crosslinking tendency of ethylene-vinyl acetate and ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers over ethylene homopolymer is proportional to the comonomer content. This is caused by an increase in the amorphous polymer content and by structure-related factors. The copolymers crosslink by a random process that for ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer involves some crosslinking through the acetoxy group of the comonomer. While knowledge of the process for the crosslinking of ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer is less certain, it is currently believed to occur primarily at the branch point on the polymer backbone. Data relating comonomer content and the molecular weight of the copolymers to the radiation crosslinking levels realized were developed to aid in resin selection by the formulator. Triallyl cyanurate cure accelerator was found to be less effective in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer than in homopolymer and to have no effect on gel development in ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer. (author)

  6. Integration of chemical scrubber with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant for removal of hydrocarbons in cooking oil fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Han; Hsieh, Chu-Chin

    2010-01-01

    There are many types of technologies to control cooking oil fumes (COFs), but current typical technologies, such as electrostatic precipitator, conventional scrubber, catalyst, or condenser, are unable to efficiently remove the odorous materials present in COFs which are the primary cause of odor-complaint cases. There is also a lack of information about using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants to remove contaminants in COFs, and previous studies lack on-site investigations in restaurants. This study presents a chemical scrubber integrated with an automatic control system (ACS) to treat hydrocarbons (HCs) in COFs, and to monitor non-methane HCs (NMHC) and odor as indicators for its efficiency evaluation. The chemical scrubber effectively treats hydrophobic substances in COFs by combining surfactant and NaOCl under optimal operational conditions with NHMC removal efficiency as high as 85%. The mass transfer coefficient (K L a) of NMHC was enhanced by 50% under the NaOCl and surfactant conditions, as compared to typical wet scrubber. Further, this study establishes the fuzzy equations of the ACS, including the relationship between the removal efficiency and K L a, liquid/gas ratio, pH and C NaOCl .

  7. Monitoringsprogramma experimentele gecombineerde luchtwassers op veehouderijbedrijven = Measurement program on experimental multi-pollutant air scrubbers at animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Hol, J.M.G.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Nijeboer, G.M.; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H.; Hattum, van T.G.; Kwikkel, R.K.; Dousma, F.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    A measurement program was carried out in which the performance of 5 experimental scrubbers on animal farms was monitored for the removal of ammonia, odour and fine dust (PM10, PM2.5). This reports discusses and evaluates the realization of the program and its results.

  8. Elektronische monitoring van luchtwassers op veehouderijbedrijven = Automated process monitoring and data logging of air scrubbers at animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Franssen, J.C.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    At 6 animal houses air scrubbers equipped with an automated process monitoring and data logging system were tested. The measured values were successfully stored but the measured values, especially the pH and EC of the recirculation water, appeared not to be correct at all times.

  9. Integration of chemical scrubber with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant for removal of hydrocarbons in cooking oil fume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Han [Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu, Yunlin, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chu-Chin, E-mail: hsiehcc@yuntech.edu.tw [Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu, Yunlin, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    There are many types of technologies to control cooking oil fumes (COFs), but current typical technologies, such as electrostatic precipitator, conventional scrubber, catalyst, or condenser, are unable to efficiently remove the odorous materials present in COFs which are the primary cause of odor-complaint cases. There is also a lack of information about using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants to remove contaminants in COFs, and previous studies lack on-site investigations in restaurants. This study presents a chemical scrubber integrated with an automatic control system (ACS) to treat hydrocarbons (HCs) in COFs, and to monitor non-methane HCs (NMHC) and odor as indicators for its efficiency evaluation. The chemical scrubber effectively treats hydrophobic substances in COFs by combining surfactant and NaOCl under optimal operational conditions with NHMC removal efficiency as high as 85%. The mass transfer coefficient (K{sub L}a) of NMHC was enhanced by 50% under the NaOCl and surfactant conditions, as compared to typical wet scrubber. Further, this study establishes the fuzzy equations of the ACS, including the relationship between the removal efficiency and K{sub L}a, liquid/gas ratio, pH and C{sub NaOCl}.

  10. Performance estimation of a Venturi scrubber using a computational model for capturing dust particles with liquid spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, S.I. [National Fusion Research Center, 52 Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: paksunil@dreamwiz.com; Chang, K.S. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kschang@kaist.ac.kr

    2006-12-01

    A Venturi scrubber has dispersed three-phase flow of gas, dust, and liquid. Atomization of a liquid jet and interaction between the phases has a large effect on the performance of Venturi scrubbers. In this study, a computational model for the interactive three-phase flow in a Venturi scrubber has been developed to estimate pressure drop and collection efficiency. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method is used to solve the model numerically. Gas flow is solved using the Eulerian approach by using the Navier-Stokes equations, and the motion of dust and liquid droplets, described by the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (B-B-O) equation, is solved using the Lagrangian approach. This model includes interaction between gas and droplets, atomization of a liquid jet, droplet deformation, breakup and collision of droplets, and capture of dust by droplets. A circular Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber was simulated numerically with this new model. The numerical results were compared with earlier experimental data for pressure drop and collection efficiency, and gave good agreements.

  11. Experimental investigation on the effect of liquid injection by multiple orifices in the formation of droplets in a Venturi scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, V.G.; Goncalves, J.A.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km. 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Coury, J.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km. 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: jcoury@ufscar.br

    2009-01-15

    Venturi scrubbers are widely utilized in gas cleaning. The cleansing elements in these scrubbers are droplets formed from the atomization of a liquid into a dust-laden gas. In industrial scrubbers, this liquid is injected through several orifices so that the cloud of droplets can be evenly distributed throughout the duct. The interaction between droplets when injected through many orifices, where opposite clouds of atomized liquid can reach each other, is to be expected. This work presents experimental measurements of droplet size measured in situ and the evidence of cloud interaction within a Venturi scrubber operating with multi-orifice jet injection. The influence of gas velocity, liquid flow rate and droplet size variation in the axial position after the point of the injection of the liquid were also evaluated for the different injection configurations. The experimental results showed that an increase in the liquid flow rate generated greater interaction between jets. The number of orifices had a significant influence on droplet size. In general, the increase in the velocity of the liquid jet and in the gas velocity favored the atomization process by reducing the size of the droplets.

  12. Experimental investigation on the effect of liquid injection by multiple orifices in the formation of droplets in a Venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, V.G.; Goncalves, J.A.S.; Coury, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Venturi scrubbers are widely utilized in gas cleaning. The cleansing elements in these scrubbers are droplets formed from the atomization of a liquid into a dust-laden gas. In industrial scrubbers, this liquid is injected through several orifices so that the cloud of droplets can be evenly distributed throughout the duct. The interaction between droplets when injected through many orifices, where opposite clouds of atomized liquid can reach each other, is to be expected. This work presents experimental measurements of droplet size measured in situ and the evidence of cloud interaction within a Venturi scrubber operating with multi-orifice jet injection. The influence of gas velocity, liquid flow rate and droplet size variation in the axial position after the point of the injection of the liquid were also evaluated for the different injection configurations. The experimental results showed that an increase in the liquid flow rate generated greater interaction between jets. The number of orifices had a significant influence on droplet size. In general, the increase in the velocity of the liquid jet and in the gas velocity favored the atomization process by reducing the size of the droplets

  13. Introducing a new formula based on an artificial neural network for prediction of droplet size in venturi scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sharifi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Droplet size is a fundamental parameter for Venturi scrubber performance. For many years, the correlations proposed by Nukiyama and Tanasawa (1938 and Boll et al. (1974 were used for calculating mean droplet size in Venturi scrubbers with limited operating parameters. This study proposes an alternative approach on the basis of artificial neural networks (ANNs to determine the mean droplet size in Venturi scrubbers, in a wide range of operating parameters. Experimental data were used to design the ANNs. A neural network was trained based on the liquid to gas ratio (L/G and throat gas velocity (Vgth, as input parameters, and the Sauter mean diameter (D32 as the desired parameter. The back-propagation learning algorithms were used in the network and the best approach was found. A new formula for the prediction of D32 using the weights of the network was then generated. This formula predicts mean droplet size in Venturi scrubbers more accurately than the correlations of Boll et al. (1974 and Nukiyama and Tanasawa (1938. The Average Absolute Percent Deviation (AAPD of our formula and the Boll et al. and Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlations for the full ranges of experimental data are 26.04%, 40.19% and 32.99%, respectively.

  14. Performance estimation of a Venturi scrubber using a computational model for capturing dust particles with liquid spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, S.I.; Chang, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    A Venturi scrubber has dispersed three-phase flow of gas, dust, and liquid. Atomization of a liquid jet and interaction between the phases has a large effect on the performance of Venturi scrubbers. In this study, a computational model for the interactive three-phase flow in a Venturi scrubber has been developed to estimate pressure drop and collection efficiency. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method is used to solve the model numerically. Gas flow is solved using the Eulerian approach by using the Navier-Stokes equations, and the motion of dust and liquid droplets, described by the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (B-B-O) equation, is solved using the Lagrangian approach. This model includes interaction between gas and droplets, atomization of a liquid jet, droplet deformation, breakup and collision of droplets, and capture of dust by droplets. A circular Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber was simulated numerically with this new model. The numerical results were compared with earlier experimental data for pressure drop and collection efficiency, and gave good agreements

  15. Experimental investigation on the effect of liquid injection by multiple orifices in the formation of droplets in a Venturi scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, V G; Gonçalves, J A S; Coury, J R

    2009-01-15

    Venturi scrubbers are widely utilized in gas cleaning. The cleansing elements in these scrubbers are droplets formed from the atomization of a liquid into a dust-laden gas. In industrial scrubbers, this liquid is injected through several orifices so that the cloud of droplets can be evenly distributed throughout the duct. The interaction between droplets when injected through many orifices, where opposite clouds of atomized liquid can reach each other, is to be expected. This work presents experimental measurements of droplet size measured in situ and the evidence of cloud interaction within a Venturi scrubber operating with multi-orifice jet injection. The influence of gas velocity, liquid flow rate and droplet size variation in the axial position after the point of the injection of the liquid were also evaluated for the different injection configurations. The experimental results showed that an increase in the liquid flow rate generated greater interaction between jets. The number of orifices had a significant influence on droplet size. In general, the increase in the velocity of the liquid jet and in the gas velocity favored the atomization process by reducing the size of the droplets.

  16. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 5-week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, employing a synthetic waste feed, was performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a venturi scrubber/p...

  17. Performance estimation of a Venturi scrubber using a computational model for capturing dust particles with liquid spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, S I; Chang, K S

    2006-12-01

    A Venturi scrubber has dispersed three-phase flow of gas, dust, and liquid. Atomization of a liquid jet and interaction between the phases has a large effect on the performance of Venturi scrubbers. In this study, a computational model for the interactive three-phase flow in a Venturi scrubber has been developed to estimate pressure drop and collection efficiency. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method is used to solve the model numerically. Gas flow is solved using the Eulerian approach by using the Navier-Stokes equations, and the motion of dust and liquid droplets, described by the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (B-B-O) equation, is solved using the Lagrangian approach. This model includes interaction between gas and droplets, atomization of a liquid jet, droplet deformation, breakup and collision of droplets, and capture of dust by droplets. A circular Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber was simulated numerically with this new model. The numerical results were compared with earlier experimental data for pressure drop and collection efficiency, and gave good agreements.

  18. Expression analysis of five tobacco EIN3 family members in relation to tissue-specific ethylene responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, I; Mariani, C; Weterings, K

    2003-10-01

    Ethylene induces different sets of genes in different tissues and at different stages of development. To investigate whether these differential responses are caused by differential expression of members of the EIN3 family transcription factors, five tobacco family members were isolated. They can be divided into three subgroups, which is probably due to the amphidiploid nature of tobacco. In phylogenetic analysis, each of the subgroups clustered with one of the three tomato EIL proteins and all NtEILs proved to be most homologous to Arabidopsis EIN3 and EIL1. Although organ-specific ethylene responses have been observed before, northern blot analysis showed that all NtEILs were expressed in all organs. To study differential NtEIL expression at the cellular level, in situ hybridization was used on the tobacco ovary. It was found that different ovary tissues displayed variable ethylene-induced expression of two ethylene-responsive marker genes. By contrast, no differences were found in expression level or tissue-specificity for any of the NtEILs in the ovary, before or after ethylene treatment. This indicates that the organ and tissue-specific ethylene responses are not caused by differential expression of NtEIL family members. These results support a model in which the developmental signals that regulate the tissue-specific responses are integrated with the ethylene signal downstream of a common primary ethylene-signalling pathway.

  19. Plume rise from stacks with scrubbers: a state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatzmann, M.; Policastro, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of predicting plume rise from stacks with scrubbers is evaluated critically. The significant moisture content of the scrubbed plume upon exit leads to important thermodynamic effects during plume rise that are unaccounted for in the usual dry plume rise theories. For example, under conditionally unstable atmospheres, a wet scrubbed plume treated as completely dry acts as if the atmosphere were stable, whereas in reality the scrubbed plume behaves instead as if the atmosphere were unstable. Even the use of moist plume models developed for application to cooling tower plume rise is not valid since these models 1) employ the Boussinesq approximation, 2) use a number of additional simplifying approximations that require small exit temperature differences between tower exit and ambient temperatures, and 3) are not calibrated to stack data

  20. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF GAS TREATMENT PLANT BASED ON AN EJECTOR SCRUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iu. Panov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article executed the feasibility study of various options for gas treatment. Rapid development of industry and transport worldwide in recent times raises the problem in the protection of habitat environment from harmful waste. In solving problems of flue gas treatment great attention is given to the economic characteristics and recycling techniques for capturing emissions and disposal must also meet the sanitary health requirements: flue gas treatment plants should not cause air or water pollution. The set objective is solved by developing a two-stage wet treatment system for pyrolysis gas based on ejector scrubbers. Their advantage - a central nozzle supply that allows the scrubber to operate on the principle of an ejector pump. Projected plant can be used in enterprises for processing of solid domestic and industrial waste, where there are steam and hot water boilers, whose operations result in contaminated gases emissions obtained with high temperatures. In particular, this installation can be applied at a cement plant in which a large amount of waste gases containing sulfur oxides is emitted. Assessment of market potential for the plant designed to treat waste gases in the cement factory is performed through a SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis results indicate the possibility of the treatment of exhaust gases without a high cost and with high gas treatment efficiency. Plant competitive analysis was done using an expert method in comparison with market competitors. Technical and economic indicators of the plant are presented. Return on investments is 46% and payback period of capital investments - 2.7 years.

  1. Numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in Venturi scrubber by interface tracking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Naoki, E-mail: s1430215@u.tsukuba.ac.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan); Yoshida, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Abe, Yutaka [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Self-priming occur because of pressure balance between inside and outside of throat is confirmed. • VS has similar flow with a Venturi tube except of disturbance and burble flow is considered. • Some of atomization simulated are validated qualitatively by comparison with previous studies. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of protecting a containment vessel of light water reactor and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials from a light water reactor, it is important to develop the device which allows a filtered venting of contaminated high pressure gas. In the filtered venting system that used in European reactors, so called Multi Venturi scrubbers System is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply. This system is able to define to be composed of Venturi scrubbers (VS) and a bubble column. In the VS, scrubbing of contaminated gas is promoted by both gas releases through the submerged VS and gas-liquid contact with splay flow formed by liquid suctioned through a hole provided by the pressure difference between inner and outer regions of a throat part of the VS. However, the scrubbing mechanism of the self-priming VS including effects of gas mass flow rate and shape of the VS are understood insufficiently in the previous studies. Therefore, we started numerical and experimental study to understand the detailed two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In this paper, to understand the VS operation characteristics for the filtered venting, we performed numerical simulations of two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In the first step of this study, we perform numerical simulations of supersonic flow by the TPFIT to validate the applicability of the TPFIT for high velocity flow like flow in the VS. In the second step, numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in the VS including self-priming phenomena. As the results, dispersed flow in the VS was reproduced in the numerical simulation, as same as the visualization experiments.

  2. Relationship between self-priming and hydraulic behavior in Venturi Scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Naoki; Kaneko, Akiko; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    As revealed by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, countermeasures against severe accident in nuclear power plants are an urgent need. In particular, from the viewpoint of protecting a containment and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials, it is important to develop the device which allows a filtered venting of contaminated high pressure gas. In the filtered venting system that used in European reactors, so called Multi Venturi Scrubbers System is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply (Lindau, 1988) (Rust, et al., 1995). The system operates with any power supply and high pressure gas filled in the containment. This system is able to define to be composed of Venturi Scrubbers (VS) and a bubble column. In the VS, scrubbing of contaminated gas is promoted by both gas releases through a submerged VS and gas-liquid contact with splay flow formed by liquid suctioned through a hole provided by the pressure difference between inner and outer parts of a throat part of the VS. This type of the VS is called self-priming ones. However, the scrubbing mechanism of the self-priming VS including effects of gas mass flow rate and shape of the VS are understood insufficiently in the previous studies. In this study, to understand the VS operation characteristics for the filtered venting, we discussed the mechanisms of the self-priming phenomena and the hydraulic behavior in the VS. In this paper, we conducted a visualized observation of the hydraulic behavior in the VS and measured liquid flow rate of the self-priming. As a result, it is shown that there is the possibility that the VS decontamination performance falls low level with no self-priming. (author)

  3. Numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in Venturi scrubber by interface tracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-priming occur because of pressure balance between inside and outside of throat is confirmed. • VS has similar flow with a Venturi tube except of disturbance and burble flow is considered. • Some of atomization simulated are validated qualitatively by comparison with previous studies. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of protecting a containment vessel of light water reactor and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials from a light water reactor, it is important to develop the device which allows a filtered venting of contaminated high pressure gas. In the filtered venting system that used in European reactors, so called Multi Venturi scrubbers System is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply. This system is able to define to be composed of Venturi scrubbers (VS) and a bubble column. In the VS, scrubbing of contaminated gas is promoted by both gas releases through the submerged VS and gas-liquid contact with splay flow formed by liquid suctioned through a hole provided by the pressure difference between inner and outer regions of a throat part of the VS. However, the scrubbing mechanism of the self-priming VS including effects of gas mass flow rate and shape of the VS are understood insufficiently in the previous studies. Therefore, we started numerical and experimental study to understand the detailed two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In this paper, to understand the VS operation characteristics for the filtered venting, we performed numerical simulations of two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In the first step of this study, we perform numerical simulations of supersonic flow by the TPFIT to validate the applicability of the TPFIT for high velocity flow like flow in the VS. In the second step, numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in the VS including self-priming phenomena. As the results, dispersed flow in the VS was reproduced in the numerical simulation, as same as the visualization experiments.

  4. Two years of outstanding AFGD performance, pure air on the Lakes Bailly Scrubber Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J.; Vymazal, D.C. [Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States); Styf, D.A. [Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO), Chesterton, IN (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $151.3 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and a project company of Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The goal of the AFGD project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities, and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Briefly, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, located approximately 40 miles southeast of Chicago, Illinois. The facility is used to demonstrate a variety of advanced technical and business-related features, during a three-year period of operation which began in the summer of 1992. The aim of this demonstration is to accelerate near-term commercialization. Key features of the AFGD project are discussed. Construction of the scrubber is complete; operations began in June 1992, ahead of schedule and within budget. The Clean Coal demonstration project calls for three years of operations. After the three-year demonstration period, Pure Air on the Lake will continue to Own-and-Operate the scrubber for the next 17 years. This paper review the advanced wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) design features, and the environmental and business features of the project. Also included are data on the first two years of successful operation.

  5. Inhibition of ethylene production by cobaltous ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, O.L; Yang, S.F.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of Co 2+ on ethylene production by mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and by apple tissues was studied. Co 2+ , depending on concentrations applied, effectively inhibited ethylene production by both tissues. It also strongly inhibited the ethylene production induced by IAA, kinetin, IAA plus kinetin, Ca 2+ , kinetin plus Ca 2+ , or Cu 2+ treatments in mung bean hypocotyl segments. While Co 2+ greatly inhibited ethylene production, it had little effect on the respiration of apple tissue, indicating that Co 2+ does not exert its inhibitory effect as a general metabolic inhibitor. Ni 2+ , which belongs to the same group as Co 2+ in the periodic table, also markedly curtailed both the basal and the induced ethylene production by apple and mung bean hypocotyl tissues. In a system in which kinetin and Ca 2+ were applied together, kinetin greatly enhanced Ca 2+ uptake, thus enhancing ethylene production. Co 2+ , however, slightly inhibited the uptake of Ca 2+ but appreciably inhibited ethylene production, either in the presence or in the absence of kinetin. Tracer experiments using apple tissue indicated that Co 2+ strongly inhibited the in vivo conversion of L-[U-- 14 C]methionine to 14 C-ethylene. These data suggested that Co 2+ inhibited ethylene production by inhibiting the conversion of methionine to ethylene, a common step which is required for ethylene formation by higher plants. Co 2+ is known to promote elongation, leaf expansion, and hook opening in excised plant parts in response to applied auxins or cytokinins.Since ethylene is known to inhibit those growth phenomena, it is suggested that Co 2+ exerts its promotive effect, at least in part, by inhibiting ethylene formation

  6. Intensification of ethylene glycol production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisutwattanaa, Apiwit; Frauzem, Rebecca; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to generate an alternative design for ethylene glycol production process focusing on a reduction of operating cost and emissions. To achieve this, the phenomena-based method for process intensification was applied. 3 stages of process intensification were performed. First, the base......-case design was obtained, resulting in the production of ethylene glycol via two steps: ethylene oxidation synthesis followed by ethylene oxide hydration to produce ethylene glycol. Feasibility of the design was verified and the process was rigorously designed using a computer process simulation program...... solutions. As the result of intensification method, membrane separation was suggested and applied to the design. With the operation of the new equipment, the ethylene glycol production process was improved for 54.51 percent in terms of energy consumption....

  7. Method of deuterium isotope separation using ethylene and ethylene dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Compounds enriched in deuterium may be obtained from ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, or propylene by laser isotope separation. Normal molecules of these organic compounds are exposed to infrared laser radiation of a suitable wavelength. Substantially all of the deuterium-containing molecules exposed to the laser can be selectively dissociated and the deuterium-containing products separated from the starting material and other reaction products. The deuterium-containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content, or pyrolized to form hydrogen gas enriched in deuterium

  8. Efficient separation of ethylene from acetylene/ethylene mixtures by a flexible-robust metalorganic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; Lin, R.-B.; Krishna, R.; Wang, X.; Li, B.; Wu, H.; Li, J.; Zhou, W.; Chen, B.

    2017-01-01

    During the production of polymer-grade ethylene, trace amounts of acetylene (about 1%) in the ethylene feed need to be reduced to 40 parts per million (ppm). We herein report a metal–organic framework (MOF) of flexible-robust nature for the efficient removal of acetylene from acetylene/ethylene

  9. Ethylene Regulates Levels of Ethylene Receptor/CTR1 Signaling Complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Samina N.; Gao, Zhiyong; Amir, Madiha; Chen, Yi-Feng; Rai, Muneeza Iqbal; Haq, Noor Ul; Schaller, G. Eric

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is perceived by a five-member family of receptors in Arabidopsis thaliana. The receptors function in conjunction with the Raf-like kinase CTR1 to negatively regulate ethylene signal transduction. CTR1 interacts with multiple members of the receptor family based on co-purification analysis, interacting more strongly with receptors containing a receiver domain. Levels of membrane-associated CTR1 vary in response to ethylene, doing so in a post-transcriptional manner that correlates with ethylene-mediated changes in levels of the ethylene receptors ERS1, ERS2, EIN4, and ETR2. Interactions between CTR1 and the receptor ETR1 protect ETR1 from ethylene-induced turnover. Kinetic and dose-response analyses support a model in which two opposing factors control levels of the ethylene receptor/CTR1 complexes. Ethylene stimulates the production of new complexes largely through transcriptional induction of the receptors. However, ethylene also induces turnover of receptors, such that levels of ethylene receptor/CTR1 complexes decrease at higher ethylene concentrations. Implications of this model for ethylene signaling are discussed. PMID:25814663

  10. Biocatalytic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide using an engineered toluene monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, D A; Bertolani, S J; Siegel, J B

    2015-02-11

    Mutants of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase are demonstrated to oxidize ethylene to ethylene oxide in vivo at yields of >99%. The best mutant increases ethylene oxidation activity by >5500-fold relative to the native enzyme. This is the first report of a recombinant enzyme capable of carrying out this industrially significant chemical conversion.

  11. Ethylene and pollination decrease transcript abundance of an ethylene receptor gene in Dendrobium petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkum, Monthathip; Burns, Parichart; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-03-15

    We studied the expression of a gene encoding an ethylene receptor, called Ethylene Response Sensor 1 (Den-ERS1), in the petals of Dendrobium orchid flowers. Transcripts accumulated during the young floral bud stage and declined by the time the flowers had been open for several days. Pollination or exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in earlier flower senescence, an increase in ethylene production and a lower Den-ERS1 transcript abundance. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of the ethylene receptor, decreased ethylene production and resulted in high transcript abundance. The literature indicates two kinds of ethylene receptor genes with regard to the effects of ethylene. One group shows ethylene-induced down-regulated transcription, while the other has ethylene-induced up-regulation. The present gene is an example of the first group. The 5' flanking region showed binding sites for Myb and myb-like, homeodomain, MADS domain, NAC, TCP, bHLH and EIN3-like transcription factors. The binding site for the EIN3-like factor might explain the ethylene effect on transcription. A few other transcription factors (RAV1 and NAC) seem also related to ethylene effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  13. Growth Control by Ethylene: Adjusting Phenotypes to the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.; Sasidharan, R.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Plants phenotypically adjust to environmental challenges, and the gaseous plant hormone ethylene modulates many of these growth adjustments. Ethylene can be involved in environmentally induced growth inhibition as well as growth stimulation. Still, ethylene has long been considered a growth

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1147 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1926.1147 Section 1926.1147 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1047 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1915.1047 Section 1915.1047 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1047 Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  16. Health Assessment Document for Ethylene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The largest single use of ethylene oxide is as an intermediate in the synthesis of ethylene glycol. However, small amounts of this epoxide are used as a sterilant or pesticide in commodities, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, tobacco, and other items, representing a considerable ...

  17. Ethylene Glycol, Hazardous Substance in the Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Patočka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting but poisonous type of alcohol found in many household products. The major use of ethylene glycol is as an antifreeze in, for example, automobiles, in air conditioning systems, in de-icing fluid for windshields, and else. People sometimes drink ethylene glycol mistakenly or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its drinking should be considered a medical emergency. The major danger from ethylene glycol is following ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, peoples and occasionally animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. While ethylene glycol itself has a relatively low degree of toxicity, its metabolites are responsible for extensive cellular damage to various tissues, especially the kidneys. This injury is caused by the metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acid and their respective salts, through crystal formation and possibly other mechanisms. Toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning causes disturbances in the metabolism pathways, including metabolic acidosis. The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ failure, and death. Ethylene glycol is a common poisoning requiring antidotal treatment.

  18. High capacity Venturi scrubber to separate aerosol-borne radioactivity from an air-gas-steam mixture. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayinger, F.; Glueckert, U.

    1993-01-01

    All German LWR are equipped with devices which in the case of a hypothetic accident permit a filtered depressurization of the containment precluding failure of the latter and minimizing the release of radioactive materials into the environment. To filter the aerosol charged air-steam mixture from the containment also a venturi scrubber is used. It has the great advantage that it can remove safely and over a certain period of time, even without active cooling systems, the after-heat released from the separated radioactive materials. Those separated radioactive materials are trapped in a scrubbing liquid which, in the event of a temporary failure of all active cooling systems, may partly evaporate and thus remove the heat in a completely passive way. The venturi scrubbers conceived earlier by the reactor manufacturer are of a very simple design and not optimized to achieve highest separation degrees. Therefore development work was started to optimize the separation behaviour of the venturi scrubber precisely with regard to submicron aerosols which are to be expected after a core meltdown accident. To achieve this, a special concept of scrubbing liquid addition developed by the contractor, the so-called multistage concept, was applied adapting it to the specific requirements. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Targeting Plant Ethylene Responses by Controlling Essential Protein-Protein Interactions in the Ethylene Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Melanie M A; Groth, Georg

    2015-08-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many processes of high agronomic relevance throughout the life span of plants. A central element in ethylene signaling is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized membrane protein ethylene insensitive2 (EIN2). Recent studies indicate that in response to ethylene, the extra-membranous C-terminal end of EIN2 is proteolytically processed and translocated from the ER to the nucleus. Here, we report that the conserved nuclear localization signal (NLS) mediating nuclear import of the EIN2 C-terminus provides an important domain for complex formation with ethylene receptor ethylene response1 (ETR1). EIN2 lacking the NLS domain shows strongly reduced affinity for the receptor. Interaction of EIN2 and ETR1 is also blocked by a synthetic peptide of the NLS motif. The corresponding peptide substantially reduces ethylene responses in planta. Our results uncover a novel mechanism and type of inhibitor interfering with ethylene signal transduction and ethylene responses in plants. Disruption of essential protein-protein interactions in the ethylene signaling pathway as shown in our study for the EIN2-ETR1 complex has the potential to guide the development of innovative ethylene antagonists for modern agriculture and horticulture. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of Plants with Gaseous Ethylene and Gaseous Inhibitors of Ethylene Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark L; Kim, Joonyup; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2017-01-01

    The gaseous nature of ethylene affects not only its role in plant biology but also how you treat plants with the hormone. In many ways, it simplifies the treatment problem. Other hormones have to be made up in solution and applied to some part of the plant hoping the hormone will be taken up into the plant and translocated throughout the plant at the desired concentration. Because all plant cells are connected by an intercellular gas space the ethylene concentration you treat with is relatively quickly reached throughout the plant. In some instances, like mature fruit, treatment with ethylene initiates autocatalytic synthesis of ethylene. However, in most experiments, the exogenous ethylene concentration is saturating, usually >1 μL L -1 , and the synthesis of additional ethylene is inconsequential. Also facilitating ethylene research compared with other hormones is that there are inhibitors of ethylene action 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) and 2,5-NBD (2,5-norbornadiene) that are also gases wherein you can achieve nearly 100% inhibition of ethylene action quickly and with few side effects. Inhibitors for other plant hormones are applied as a solution and their transport and concentration at the desired site is not always known and difficult to measure. Here, our focus is on how to treat plants and plant parts with the ethylene gas and the gaseous inhibitors of ethylene action.

  1. [Quantitative analysis of urinary ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M; Hori, H; Tanaka, I; Akiyama, T; Inoue, N

    1985-03-01

    A gas chromatographic method was used for determining ethylene glycol in urine. The analytical procedure is based on an azeotropic distillation and on esterification with n-butyl boronic acid. The linear calibration curve was obtained up to 500 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. The detection limit was estimated to be 10 micrograms/ml and relative standard deviation was 3.5% for 100 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. This method was applied to determine the urinary excretion of ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide at various concentrations (from 50 to 500 ppm). The excretion amounts of ethylene glycol were observed to be dependent on the concentration of ethylene oxide exposed.

  2. Electronic structure of Ni-- and Ni2--ethylene cluster complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basch, H.; Newton, M.D.; Moskowitz, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic structure of metal cluster--ethylene complexes has been investigated by carrying out ab initio bonding pair-correlated, self-consistent field, and configuration interaction (CI) calculations on the NiC 2 H 4 and Ni 2 C 2 H 4 species. The π-NiC 2 H 4 and π-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 cluster complexes are found to be bound, the former only with CI, while disigma-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 has only a repulsive Ni 2 --C 2 H 4 ground state potential curve. The bonding in the π-type cluster complexes can be described as follows: The metal atom configuration is 3d 9 4s 1 with the 4s hybridized (by the metal 4p) away from the ethylene molecule, thereby allowing the π orbital to form a dative sigma bond with the metal atom. The bonding interaction is promoted by the presence of a second nickel atom behind the first one, leading to a 4s orbital electron deficiency of the bonded nickel atom and thus making this nickel atom a better electron acceptor. Back donation from the occupied metal 3d into the ethylene π* molecular orbital also takes place to some extent, and thus both features of the classical Dewar--Chatt--Duncanson model are observed. The π-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 species is analyzed in terms of the addition of a bare nickel atom to a π-NiC 2 H 4 cluster complex, with concomitant stabilization of the orbitals of the bonded nickel atom. A study of the excited electronic states of π-NiC 2 H 4 shows that low-lying 4s→π* and 3d→π* (M→L) charge transfer transitions are predicted. The former is not observed experimentally, probably due to the diffuse nature of the 4s orbital. The relationship between small cluster--ethylene complex systems and ethylene chemisorption on a nickel metal surface is discussed

  3. Expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes in rose floral tissues during ethylene-enhanced flower opening

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jingqi; Li, Yunhui; Tan, Hui; Yang, Feng; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene production, as well as the expression of ethylene biosynthetic (Rh-ACS1?4 and Rh-ACO1) and receptor (Rh-ETR1?5) genes, was determined in five different floral tissues (sepals, petals, stamens, gynoecia, and receptacles) of cut rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Samantha upon treatment with ethylene or the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Ethylene-enhanced ethylene production occurred only in gynoecia, petals, and receptacles, with gynoecia showing the greatest enhancement in the ...

  4. CO2 Capture and Crystallization of Ammonia Bicarbonate in a Lab-Scale Scrubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao Chi Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A lab-scale bubble-column scrubber is used to capture CO2 gas and produce ammonia bicarbonate (ABC using aqueous ammonia as an absorbent under a constant pH and temperature. The CO2 concentration is adjusted by mixing N2 and CO2 in the range of 15–60 vol % at 55 °C. The process variables are the pH of the solution, temperature, gas-flow rate and the concentration of gas. The effects of the process variables on the removal efficiency (E, absorption rate (RA and overall mass-transfer coefficient (KGa were explored. A multiple-tube mass balance model was used to determine RA and KGa, in which RA and KGa were in the range of 2.14 × 10−4–1.09 × 10−3 mol/(s·L and 0.0136–0.5669 1/s, respectively. Results found that, RA showed an obvious increase with the increase in pH, inlet gas concentration and gas temperature, while KGa decreased with an increase in inlet gas concentration. Using linear regression, an empirical expression for KGa/E was obtained. On the other hand, ammonia bicarbonate crystals could be produced at a pH of 9.5 when the gas concentration was higher than 30% and γ (=Fg/FA, the gas-liquid molar flow rate ratio ≥ 1.5.

  5. Evaluation of Decontamination Factor of Aerosol in Pool Scrubber according to Bubble Shape and Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyun Joung; Ha, Kwang Soon; Jang, Dong Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The scrubbing pool could play an important role in the wet type FCVS because a large amount of aerosol is captured in the water pool. The pool scrubbing phenomena have been modelled and embedded in several computer codes, such as SPARC (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code), BUSCA (BUbble Scrubbing Algorithm) and SUPRA (Suppression Pool Retention Analysis). These codes aim at simulating the pool scrubbing process and estimating the decontamination factors (DFs) of the radioactive aerosol and iodine gas in the water pool, which is defined as the ratio of initial mass of the specific radioactive material to final massy after passing through the water pool. The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the pool. The developed code has been verified using the experimental results and parametric studies the decontamination factor according to bubble shape and size. To evaluate the decontamination factor more accurate whole pool scrubber phenomena, the code was improved to consider the variety shape and size of bubbles. The decontamination factor were largely evaluated in ellipsoid bubble rather than in sphere bubble. The pool scrubbing models will be enhanced to apply more various model such as aerosol condensation of hygroscopic. And, it is need to experiment to measure to bubble shape and size distribution in pool to improve bubble model.

  6. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water while Capturing Solar Energy for Bio fuel Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey Bannon, J.; Adey, W.

    2010-01-01

    Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. Since they are controlled ecosystems, using local algae, ATS does not suffer the major disadvantages of agricultural crops, which for maximum efficiency require fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. ATS removes CO 2 from water and the atmosphere, and can be configured to remove CO 2 from power plant stack gases. As a normal part of operations, ATS removes heavy metals, break down toxic hydrocarbons, and oxygenates treated waters. ATS systems are capable of removing nitrogen and phosphorous from surface waters in the mid latitude US at $0.60/kg and $10.60/kg respectively (10% of the cost certified by the Chesapeake Bay Commission), and independently producing an energy product at $0.85/gallon. Given a nutrient credit system for rewarding nutrient removal from rivers and lakes, this price can be driven down to below $.40/gallon. Conservatively ATS can produce the equivalent of US imported oil on less than 30 M acres of land along major rivers

  7. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  8. Poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)]: A hydrolytically-degradable poly(ethylene oxide) platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lee, Bongjae F; van den Berg, Sebastiaan A; Pressly, Eric D; Lee, Annabelle; Hawker, Craig J; Lynd, Nathaniel A

    2012-11-20

    A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)] was pH-sensitive, with degradation at pH 5 being significantly faster than at pH 7.4 at 37 °C in PBS buffer while long-term stability could be obtained in either the solid-state or at pH 7.4 at 6 °C.

  9. Synthesis and properties of highly dispersed ionic silica-poly(ethylene oxide) nanohybrids.

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J

    2013-02-04

    We report an ionic hybrid based on silica nanoparticles as the anion and amine-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a cation. The charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the surface hydroxyls. SAXS and TEM reveal an exceptional degree of dispersion of the silica in the polymer and high degree of order in both thin film and bulk forms. In addition to better dispersion, the ionic hybrid shows improved flow characteristics compared to silica/PEO mixtures in which the ionic interactions are absent.

  10. Synthesis and properties of highly dispersed ionic silica-poly(ethylene oxide) nanohybrids.

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J; Akbarzadeh, Johanna; Peterlik, Herwig; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

    2013-01-01

    We report an ionic hybrid based on silica nanoparticles as the anion and amine-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a cation. The charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the surface hydroxyls. SAXS and TEM reveal an exceptional degree of dispersion of the silica in the polymer and high degree of order in both thin film and bulk forms. In addition to better dispersion, the ionic hybrid shows improved flow characteristics compared to silica/PEO mixtures in which the ionic interactions are absent.

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-12 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 151.50-12 Section 151.50-12 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-12 Ethylene oxide. (a)(1) Ethylene... otherwise provided for in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. (2) Ethylene oxide shall be loaded at a...

  12. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO) to...

  13. The role of ethylene perception in plant disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraats, Bart Peter Johan

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that is involved in responses of the plant to various stress situations, such as pathogen attack. The role of ethylene in plant-pathogen interactions seems to be diverse. Exposure of plants to ethylene can induce disease resistance, but treatment with ethylene during

  14. 21 CFR 172.770 - Ethylene oxide polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene oxide polymer. 172.770 Section 172.770... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.770 Ethylene oxide polymer. The polymer of ethylene oxide may... conditions. (a) It is the polymer of ethylene oxide having a minimum viscosity of 1,500 centipoises in a 1...

  15. Ethylene Regulates the Physiology of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 via an Ethylene Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Randy F; Binder, Brad M

    2016-08-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the growth and development of plants. The ethylene receptors in plants are well studied, and it is generally assumed that they are found only in plants. In a search of sequenced genomes, we found that many bacterial species contain putative ethylene receptors. Plants acquired many proteins from cyanobacteria as a result of the endosymbiotic event that led to chloroplasts. We provide data that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803) has a functional receptor for ethylene, Synechocystis Ethylene Response1 (SynEtr1). We first show that SynEtr1 directly binds ethylene. Second, we demonstrate that application of ethylene to Synechocystis cells or disruption of the SynEtr1 gene affects several processes, including phototaxis, type IV pilus biosynthesis, photosystem II levels, biofilm formation, and spontaneous cell sedimentation. Our data suggest a model where SynEtr1 inhibits downstream signaling and ethylene inhibits SynEtr1. This is similar to the inverse-agonist model of ethylene receptor signaling proposed for plants and suggests a conservation of structure and function that possibly originated over 1 billion years ago. Prior research showed that SynEtr1 also contains a light-responsive phytochrome-like domain. Thus, SynEtr1 is a bifunctional receptor that mediates responses to both light and ethylene. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a functional ethylene receptor in a nonplant species and suggests that that the perception of ethylene is more widespread than previously thought. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumporn Nikom

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC, is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the system. NaOCl, the strongest oxidative agent, presents an effective toluene removal. As the scrubbed toluene is reacted, recirculation of the scrubbing liquid could be operated with a constant removal efficiency throughout the operting time. The investigated variables affecting the removal efficiency were air flow rate, inlet toluene concentration, NaOCl concentration, scrubbing liquid flow rate and size of spray nozzle. Influence of the scrubbing parameters was experimentally studied to develop a mathematical model of the toluene removal efficiency. The removal model reveals that the increase of scrubbing liquid flow rate, toluene concentration, and NaOCl concentration together with the decrease of air flow rate and size of spray nozzle can increase the toluene removal efficiency. Optimization problem with an objective function and constraints was set to provide the maximum toluene removal efficiency and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The optimization constraints were formed from the mathematical model and process limitation. The solution of the optimization was an air flow rate of 100 m3/h, toluene concentration of 1500 ppm, NaOCl concentration of 0.02 mol/l, NaOCl solution feed rate of 0.8 m3/h, and spray nozzle size of 0.5 mm. Solution of the optimization gave the highest toluene removal efficiency of 91.7%.

  17. Design considerations for wet flue gas desulfurization systems - wet scrubber hardware issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurwitz, H.

    1994-12-31

    About 20 years ago the first wet flue gas desulfurization systems installed on coal fired utility boilers in the United States were experiencing extreme operating problems. In addition to their failure to achieve the necessary SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, these FGD systems required a major investment in maintenance, both material and labor, just to remain operational. These first generation systems demonstrated that a lack of understanding of the chemistry and operating conditions of wet flue gas desulfurization can lead to diastrous results. As the air pollution control industry developed, both in the United States and in Japan, a second generation of FGD systems was introduced. These designs incorporated major improvements in both system chemistry control and in the equipment utilized in the process. Indeed, the successful introduction of utility gas desulfurization systems in Germany was possible only through the transfer of the technology improvements developed in the US and in Japan. Today, technology has evolved to a third generation of wet flue gas desulfurication systems and these systems are now offered worldwide through a series of international licensing agreements. The rapid economic growth and development in Asia and the Pacific Rim combined with existing problems in ambient air quality in these same geographic areas, has resulted in the use of advanced air pollution control systems; including flue gas desulfurization both for new utility units and for many retrofit projects. To meet the requirements of the utility industry, FGD systems must meet high standards of reliability, operability and performance. Key components in achieving these objectives are: FGD System reliability/operability/performance; FGD system supplier qualifications; process design; equipment selection. This paper will discuss each of the essential factors with a concentration on the equipment selection and wet scrubber hardware issues.

  18. Inert Reassessment Document for Ethylene Glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene Glycol has many uses and are also used as antifreeze and deicers, as solvents, humectants, as chemical intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, and as components of many products such as brake fluids, lubricants, inks,and lacquers.

  19. Effect of short fiber reinforcement on the properties of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene naphthalate) blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsli, Nevin Gamze; Yesil, Sertan; Aytac, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Short fiber reinforcement to the r-PET/PEN blend improved to the tensile strength. ► Fiber reinforcement increased the storage modulus of r-PET/PEN blend. ► CF reinforced composite has the highest storage modulus value. - Abstract: In this study, short carbon (CF), glass (GF) and hybrid carbon/glass fiber reinforced recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (r-PET/PEN) blends were prepared by melt mixing method. The mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of composites were investigated by using tensile tests, differential scanning calorimeter, dynamic mechanical analyzer and scanning electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis showed that there is a better interfacial interaction between fiber and polymer matrix for CF reinforced composite. It was found that addition of short fiber reinforcement to the r-PET/PEN blend improved the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values more than the addition of PEN into r-PET. According to DMA analysis, fiber reinforcement increased the storage modulus of composites when compared with r-PET/PEN blend and among them storage modulus of CF reinforced composite was the highest. It was concluded that mechanical properties of r-PET can be enhanced with addition of PEN and more efficiently with short fiber reinforcement

  20. Arabidopsis ETR1 and ERS1 Differentially Repress the Ethylene Response in Combination with Other Ethylene Receptor Genes1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    The ethylene response is negatively regulated by a family of five ethylene receptor genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The five members of the ethylene receptor family can physically interact and form complexes, which implies that cooperativity for signaling may exist among the receptors. The ethylene receptor gene mutations etr1-1(C65Y)(for ethylene response1-1), ers1-1(I62P) (for ethylene response sensor1-1), and ers1C65Y are dominant, and each confers ethylene insensitivity. In this study, the repression of the ethylene response by these dominant mutant receptor genes was examined in receptor-defective mutants to investigate the functional significance of receptor cooperativity in ethylene signaling. We showed that etr1-1(C65Y), but not ers1-1(I62P), substantially repressed various ethylene responses independent of other receptor genes. In contrast, wild-type receptor genes differentially supported the repression of ethylene responses by ers1-1(I62P); ETR1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE4 (EIN4) supported ers1-1(I62P) functions to a greater extent than did ERS2, ETR2, and ERS1. The lack of both ETR1 and EIN4 almost abolished the repression of ethylene responses by ers1C65Y, which implied that ETR1 and EIN4 have synergistic effects on ers1C65Y functions. Our data indicated that a dominant ethylene-insensitive receptor differentially repressed ethylene responses when coupled with a wild-type ethylene receptor, which supported the hypothesis that the formation of a variety of receptor complexes may facilitate differential receptor signal output, by which ethylene responses can be repressed to different extents. We hypothesize that plants can respond to a broad ethylene concentration range and exhibit tissue-specific ethylene responsiveness with differential cooperation of the multiple ethylene receptors. PMID:22227969

  1. Híbridos de poli(oxido de etileno-b-amida-6 e ZrO2 sol-gel: preparação, caracterização e aplicação em processos de separação por membranas Hybrids of poly(ethylene oxide-b-amide-6 and ZrO2 sol-gel: preparation, characterization and application in membrane separation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita A. Zoppi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Híbridos constituídos de poli(óxido de etileno-b-amida-6, PEBAX, e óxido de zircônio foram preparados a partir da hidrólise e condensação do tetraisopropóxido de zircônio em solução contendo o polímero orgânico dissolvido. Estes foram caracterizados por termogravimetria, calorimetria diferencial de varredura, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho e microscopia eletrônica. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a incorporação da fase inorgânica parece promover a degradação do polímero orgânico. Membranas compostas constituídas de um suporte poroso de poli(fluoreto de vinilideno, PVDF, e uma camada filtrante de PEBAX/ZrO2 foram preparadas e caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica. Foram realizados ensaios de permeação de água e de soluções aquosas contendo poli(etileno glicol de diferentes massas molares. Para determinar a rejeição de fosfato, foram realizados ensaios de permeação de uma solução aquosa de KH2PO4. Independente da composição da camada filtrante, foram obtidos valores de rejeição de fosfato da ordem de 80%.Hybrid films based on poly(ethylene oxide-b-amide-6, PEBAX, and zirconium oxide were prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of zirconium tetraisopropoxide in a 3wt% PEBAX/n-butanol solution. Films were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The results showed that the incorporation of the inorganic phase promoted the organic polymer degradation. Composite membranes constituted by a porous support of poly(vinylidene fluoride, PVDF, covered with a PEBAX/ZrO2 filter layer were prepared and characterized by electron microscopy. Tests including the permeation of water and aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol with different molecular weight were performed. Phosphate retention was also determined by permeation tests of a KH2PO4 aqueous solution. Regardless of the filter layer composition, phosphate

  2. CSER 90-006, addendum 1: Criticality safety control for source term reduction project in the scrubber glovebox of Building 232-Z. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report addendum extends the coverage of the original CSER (90-006) about dismantling the ductwork in 232-Z to include cleanout of the Scrubber Glovebox, with an estimated residual Pu holdup of less than 200 grams. For conservatism and containment considerations, the provisions about waste packaging and water exclusion from the original work are retained, even though it is not credible for the Scrubber Pu content to be made critical with water added (NDA gives about 1/3 a minimum critical mass)

  3. Ethylene responses in three Hydrangea lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Uffe Bjerre; Müller, Renate; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ornamental scrub Hydrangea is generally not considered to be particularly sensitive to the phytohormone ethylene. The present study aimed at testing ethylene sensitivity in three different Hydrangea lines: 1, 2 and 3 taking into account the effect of temperature. Ethylene response...... was measured as leaf epinasty and leaf drop. Data indicated that higher temperature accelerates the effect of 2 μl L-1 ethylene over a 12-day period, and if the inhibitor 1-methylcyclopopene 1-MCP is able to attenuate this effect. Breeding line 1 and 3 dropped 3.8±0.6 and 5.0±0.4 leaves on average......, respectively, during the 12-day experimental period. Non-treated controls of line 1 and 3 dropped 1.8±0.6 and 1.8±0.4 leaves, respectively. In contrast, line 2 did not show a significant response to ethylene treatment with a leaf drop of 2.1±0.3 leaves, compared to a leaf drop of 0.8±0.3 in non...

  4. Production of ethanol from excess ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Adam S.; Carlsen, Kim B.; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    will focus on the synthetic method, which employs direct hydration of ethylene. A conceptual process design of an ethyl alcohol producing plant is performed in a MSc-level course on Process Design at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at DTU. In the designed process, 190 proof ethyl...... alcohol (azeotropic mixture) is produced from excess ethylene containing propylene and methane as impurities. The design work is based on a systematic approach consisting of 12 tasks performed in a specified hierarchy. According to this 12-tasks design procedure, information about the product and process...... of the designed process. The resulting design utilizes 75 million kg/year ethylene feed in order to obtain an ethyl alcohol production of 90.5 million kg/year. The total capital investment has been estimated to 43 million USD and the total product cost without depreciation estimated to 58.5 million USD...

  5. APC implementation in Chandra Asri - ethylene plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiq, Mochamad; Mustofa, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the modern process plants are continuously improved for maximizing production, Optimization of the energy and raw material and reducing the risk. Due to many disturbances appearance between the process units, hence, the failure of one unit might have a bad effect on the overall productivity. Ethylene Plant have significant opportunities for using Advanced Process Control (APC) technologies to improve operation stability, push closer to quality or equipment limit, and improve the capability of process units to handle disturbances. APC implementation had considered a best answer for solving multivariable control problem. PT. Chandra Asri Petrochemical, Tbk (CAP) operates a large naphtha cracker complex at Cilegon, Indonesia. To optimize the plant operation and to enhance the benefit, Chandra Asri has been decided to implement Advance Process Control (APC) for ethylene plant. The APC implementation technology scopes at CAP are as follows: 1. Hot Section : Furnaces, Quench Tower 2. Cold Section : Demethanizer, Deethanizer, Acetylene Converter, Ethylene Fractionator, Depropanizer, Propylene Fractionator, Debutanizer

  6. The proton dynamics of ethylene glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, A G; Sobolev, O V

    2002-01-01

    The results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments on ethylene glycol at T=300 K, T=348 K and T=393 K by using the 'direct-geometry' double time-of-flight neutron-scattering spectrometer DIN-2PI (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna) are presented. The quasi-elastic and inelastic components of the neutron scattering have been considered. The diffusion characteristics and generalized frequency distributions for protons of ethylene glycol molecules were obtained from the neutron-scattering spectra. (orig.)

  7. Description of dedusting in wet flue gas scrubbers with purposeful utilization of the secondary dispersion; Detailliertere Simulation der Staubabscheidung in Nasswaeschern durch Beruecksichtigung der Sekundaerdispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldkamp, M.; Lessmann, B.; Neumann, J.; Fahlenkamp, H. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Umwelttechnik

    2003-07-01

    Modern wet gas scrubbers are used in the power plant technology for the flue gas desulphurisation of coal-fired plants. For this the washing liquid is sprayed by numerous nozzles. The specific arrangement of the nozzles in several levels makes it possible for the spray to penetrate mutually. The penetration and overlapping of the spray in the wet scrubber causes the effect of secondary dispersion. This effect can be used effectively to improve the efficiency of the atomisation and to improve the absorption of the pollution gases in a flue gas desulphurisation scrubber. Analyses show that the cleaning efficiency of a wet scrubber depends on the distribution and the size of the drops. (orig.) [German] Moderne Gaswaescher werden in der Kraftwerkstechnik fuer die Rauchgasentschwefelung kohlebefeuerter Anlagen eingesetzt. Hierzu wird Waschfluessigkeit mit Hilfe zahlreicher Duesen zerstaeubt. Eine gezielte Anordnung der Duesen in mehreren Spruehebenen ermoeglicht es den Sprays der Duesen, sich gegenseitig zu durchdringen. Der Effekt der Sekundaerdisperson, der beim Ueberschneiden und Durchdringen der Sprays waehrend der Zerstaeubung im Rauchgaswaescher auftritt, laesst sich wirksam zur Verbesserung des Wirkungsgrades einer Rauchgasentschwefelungsanlage nutzen. Durchgefuehrte Untersuchungen zeigen, dass die Reinigungsleistung eines nassen REA-Waeschers von der Verteilung und der Groesse der Tropfen abhaengt. (orig.)

  8. Industry-Government-University Cooperative Research Program for the Development of Structural Materials from Sulfate-Rich FGD Scrubber Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. M. Malhotra; Y. P. Chugh

    2003-08-31

    The main aim of our project was to develop technology, which converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sulfate-rich scrubber sludge into value-added decorative materials. Specifically, we were to establish technology for fabricating cost effective but marketable materials, like countertops and decorative tiles from the sludge. In addition, we were to explore the feasibility of forming siding material from the sludge. At the end of the project, we were to establish the potential of our products by generating 64 countertop pieces and 64 tiles of various colors. In pursuit of our above-mentioned goals, we conducted Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the binders and co-processed binders to identify their curing behavior. Using our 6-inch x 6-inch and 4-inch x 4-inch high pressure and high temperature hardened stainless steel dies, we developed procedures to fabricate countertop and decorative tile materials. The composites, fabricated from sulfate-rich scrubber sludge, were subjected to mechanical tests using a three-point bending machine and a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). We compared our material's mechanical performance against commercially obtained countertops. We successfully established the procedures for the development of countertop and tile composites from scrubber sludge by mounting our materials on commercial boards. We fabricated more than 64 pieces of countertop material in at least 11 different colors having different patterns. In addition, more than 100 tiles in six different colors were fabricated. We also developed procedures by which the fabrication waste, up to 30-weight %, could be recycled in the manufacturing of our countertops and decorative tiles. Our experimental results indicated that our countertops had mechanical strength, which was comparable to high-end commercial countertop materials and contained substantially larger inorganic content than the commercial products. Our

  9. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  10. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone ETO...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  12. 40 CFR 180.151 - Ethylene oxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide; tolerances for... § 180.151 Ethylene oxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the antimicrobial agent and insecticide ethylene oxide, when used as a postharvest fumigant in...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  14. Carbon dioxide and ethylene interactions in tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de H.P.J.; Gude, H.; Peppelenbos, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of CO, on ethylene-induced gummosis (secretion of polysaccharides), weight loss and respiration in tulip bulbs (Tulipa gesneriana L.) was investigated. A pretreatment with 1-MCP prevented these ethylene-induced effects, indicating that ethylene action must have been directed via the

  15. 21 CFR 177.2210 - Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated. 177.2210... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2210 Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated. Ethylene polymer, chlorosulfonated as identified in this section may be safely used as an article or...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of articles...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials, containers...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  19. Induction by ethylene of cyanide-resistant respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomos, T.; Laties, G.G.

    1976-05-17

    Ethylene and cyanide induce an increase in respiration in a variety of plant tissues, whereas ethylene has no effect on tissues whose respiration is strongly inhibited by cyanide. It is suggested that the existence of a cyanide-insensitive electron transport path is a prerequisite for stimulation of respiration by ethylene.

  20. Solubility of ethylene in methyl propionate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Peters, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the solubility of ethylene in methyl propionate was measured within a temperature range of 283.5–464.8 K and pressures up to 10.7 MPa. Experiments were carried out using the Cailletet apparatus, which uses a synthetic method for the experiments. The critical points of several isopleths

  1. Experimental simulations of ethylene evaporites on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplinski, E.; Farnsworth, K.; Singh, S.; Chevrier, V.

    2017-12-01

    Titan has an abundance of lakes and seas, as identified by the Cassini spacecraft. Major components of these liquid bodies include methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6), however minor constituents are also thought to exist (e.g. ethylene (C2H4)). As the lakes and seas evaporate, 5-μm-bright deposits, resembling evaporite deposits on Earth, are left behind in a "bathtub ring" fashion. Previous studies include models of evaporites, and observations of the 5-μm-bright regions, but the community is still lacking a complete suite of experimental evaporite studies. In this study, we experimentally investigate evaporites in order to determine their composition and how they affect infrared spectra during the evaporation process. The University of Arkansas owns a specialized chamber that simulates the surface conditions of Titan ( 90 K and 1.5 bar). Gaseous hydrocarbons are condensed within the chamber and analyzed with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and band depth calculations. In this study, three types of experiments were performed: ethane/ethylene, methane/ethylene, and methane/ethane/ethylene. For these experiments, methane was the only species that readily evaporated at Titan conditions (due to its high volatility), while ethane, being the more stable solvent, did not readily evaporate. Therefore, we will present spectral results of ethylene evaporite formation within these mixtures. Our results imply that evaporite formation is strongly dependent on the composition of the solvent. The north polar lakes of Titan are predicted to be methane-rich, indicating that they may be more likely to form evaporites. Alternatively, Ontario Lacus, a south polar lake, is predominately composed of ethane, which may make it more difficult to form evaporites. As we continue to study Titan's mysterious lakes and seas, we hope to draw insights on their exact composition, conditions for evaporite formation, habitability potential, and comparing Titan to prebiotic Earth.

  2. Preparation of ethylene/1-hexene copolymers from ethylene using a fully silica-supported tandem catalyst system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karbach, Fabian F.; Macko, Tibor; Duchateau, Robbert

    2016-01-01

    A silica-supported tandem catalyst system, capable of producing ethylene/1-hexene copolymers from ethylene being the single monomer, has been investigated. As tandem couple a phenoxyimine titanium catalyst for ethylene trimerization was combined with a metallocene catalyst for α-olefin

  3. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizat, Wan M; Able, Jason A; Stangoulis, James C R; Able, Amanda J

    2013-11-28

    Climacteric fruit exhibit high ethylene and respiration levels during ripening but these levels are limited in non-climacteric fruit. Even though capsicum is in the same family as the well-characterised climacteric tomato (Solanaceae), it is non-climacteric and does not ripen normally in response to ethylene or if harvested when mature green. However, ripening progresses normally in capsicum fruit when they are harvested during or after what is called the 'Breaker stage'. Whether ethylene, and components of the ethylene pathway such as 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase (ACO), ACC synthase (ACS) and the ethylene receptor (ETR), contribute to non-climacteric ripening in capsicum has not been studied in detail. To elucidate the behaviour of ethylene pathway components in capsicum during ripening, further analysis is therefore needed. The effects of ethylene or inhibitors of ethylene perception, such as 1-methylcyclopropene, on capsicum fruit ripening and the ethylene pathway components may also shed some light on the role of ethylene in non-climacteric ripening. The expression of several isoforms of ACO, ACS and ETR were limited during capsicum ripening except one ACO isoform (CaACO4). ACS activity and ACC content were also low in capsicum despite the increase in ACO activity during the onset of ripening. Ethylene did not stimulate capsicum ripening but 1-methylcyclopropene treatment delayed the ripening of Breaker-harvested fruit. Some of the ACO, ACS and ETR isoforms were also differentially expressed upon treatment with ethylene or 1-methylcyclopropene. ACS activity may be the rate limiting step in the ethylene pathway of capsicum which restricts ACC content. The differential expression of several ethylene pathway components during ripening and upon ethylene or 1-methylclopropene treatment suggests that the ethylene pathway may be regulated differently in non-climacteric capsicum compared to the climacteric tomato. Ethylene independent pathways may

  4. A hybrid plasma-chemical system for high-NOx flue gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Zwolińska, Ewa; Licki, Janusz; Sun, Yongxia; Zimek, Zbigniew; Bułka, Sylwester

    2018-03-01

    The reduction of high concentrations of NOx and SO2 from simulated flue gas has been studied. Our aim was to optimise energy consumption for NOx and SO2 removal from off-gases from a diesel generator using heavy fuel oil. A hybrid process: electron beam (EB) plasma and wet scrubber has been applied. A much higher efficiency of NOx and SO2 removal was achieved in comparison to dry, ammonia free, electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT). A recorded removal from a concentration of 1500 ppm NOx reached 49% at a low dose of 6.5 kGy, while only 2% NOx was removed at the same dose if EB only was applied. For SO2, removal efficiency at a dose of 6.5 kGy increased from 15% (EB only) to 84% when sea water was used as a wet scrubber agent for 700 ppm SO2. The results of this study indicate that EB combined with wet scrubber is a very promising technology to be applied for removal of high concentrations of NOx and SO2 emitted from diesel engines operated e.g. on cargo ships, which are the main sources of SO2 and NOx pollution along their navigation routes.

  5. Ethylene, a key factor in the regulation of seed dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eCORBINEAU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is an important component of the gaseous environment, and regulates numerous plant developmental processes including seed germination and seedling establishment. Dormancy, the inability to germinate in apparently favorable conditions, has been demonstrated to be regulated by the hormonal balance between abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellins (GAs. Ethylene plays a key role in dormancy release in numerous species, the effective concentrations allowing the germination of dormant seeds ranging between 0.1 and 200 μL L-1. Studies using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or of ethylene action and analysis of mutant lines altered in genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway (etr1, ein2, ain1, etr1, and erf1 demonstrate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of germination and dormancy. Ethylene counteracts ABA effects through a regulation of ABA metabolism and signaling pathways. Moreover, ethylene insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis are more sensitive to ABA and the seeds are more dormant. Numerous data also show an interaction between ABA, GAs and ethylene metabolism and signaling pathways. It has been increasingly demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS may play a significant role in the regulation of seed germination interacting with hormonal signaling pathways. In the present review the responsiveness of seeds to ethylene will be described, and the key role of ethylene in the regulation of seed dormancy via a cross-talk between hormones and other signals will be discussed.

  6. gamma-Aminobutyric acid stimulates ethylene biosynthesis in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathiresan, A.; Tung, P.; Chinnappa, C.C.; Reid, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, is often accumulated in plants following environmental stimuli that can also cause ethylene production. We have investigated the relationship between GABA and ethylene production in excised sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tissues. Exogenous GABA causes up to a 14-fold increase in the ethylene production rate after about 12 h. Cotyledons fed with [14C]GABA did not release substantial amounts of radioactive ethylene despite its chemical similarity to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), indicating that GABA is not likely to be an alternative precursor for ethylene. GABA causes increases in ACC synthase mRNA accumulation, ACC levels, ACC oxidase mRNA levels, and in vitro ACC oxidase activity. In the presence of aminoethoxyvinylglycine or alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, GABA did not stimulate ethylene production. We therefore conclude that GABA stimulates ethylene biosynthesis mainly by promoting ACC synthase transcript abundance. Possible roles of GABA as a signal transducer are suggested

  7. Dynamics of ethylene production in response to compatible Nod factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Dugald; Liu, Huijun; Kelly, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Establishment of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in legumes is regulated by the plant hormone ethylene, but it has remained unclear whether and how its biosynthesis is regulated by the symbiotic pathway. We established a sensitive ethylene detection system for Lotus japonicus and found that ethylene...... production increased as early as six hours after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. This ethylene response was dependent on Nod factor production by compatible rhizobia. Analyses of nodulation mutants showed that perception of Nod factor was required for ethylene emission, while downstream transcription...... factors including CYCLOPS, NIN and ERN1 were not required for this response. Activation of the nodulation signalling pathway in spontaneously nodulating mutants was also sufficient to elevate ethylene production. Ethylene signalling is controlled by EIN2, which is duplicated in L. japonicus. We obtained...

  8. DFT studies on proton-ethylene collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Zhang Fengshou; Wang Jing

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the time-dependent local-density approximation (TDLDA)which applied to valence electrons, coupled non-adiabatically to molecular dynamics of ions, the microscopic mechanisms of collisions between energetic protons and ethylene are studied. Not only the amount of energy lost of the projectile, but also the electron and vibration excitations of the target are identified. In addition, the influences of the collision orientation on the energy loss of the proton and excitation dynamics of ethylene are discussed. It is found that the ionization is enhanced and more electrons are captured by the proton when the proton with the impact energy less than 250 eV moves perpendicularly to the molecular plane. A strong relation between the proton energy lost and the impact orientation is obtained when the impact energy is larger than 250 eV. (authors)

  9. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  10. Poly(ethylene glycol) interactions with proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2006), s. 613-618 ISSN 0044-2968. [European Powder Diffraction Conference /9./. Prague, 02.09.2004-05.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/0843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(ethylene glycol) * PEO * protein-polymer interaction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  11. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers

    OpenAIRE

    VACHEETHASANEE, KATANCHALEE; WANG, SHUWU; QIU, YONGXING; MARCHANT, ROGER E.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO) were simultaneously att...

  12. Ethylene response factor AtERF72 negatively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana response to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Qiwei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Xu, Xuefeng

    2017-09-23

    Ethylene regulates the plant's response to stress caused by iron (Fe) deficiency. However, specific roles of ERF proteins in response to Fe deficiency remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of ERF72 in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the levels of the ethylene response factor AtERF72 increased in leaves and roots induced under the iron deficient conditions. erf72 mutant plants showed increased growth compared to wild type (WT) when grown in iron deficient medium for 5 d. erf72 mutants had increased root H + velocity and the ferric reductase activity, and increase in the expression of the iron deficiency response genes iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) and H + -ATPase (HA2) levels in iron deficient conditions. Compared to WT plants, erf72 mutants retained healthy chloroplast structure with significantly higher Fe and Mg content, and decreased chlorophyll degradation gene pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) and chlorophyllase (CLH1) expression when grown in iron deficient media. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that ERF72 could directly bind to the promoter regions of iron deficiency responses genes IRT1, HA2 and CLH1. Based on our results, we suggest that ethylene released from plants under iron deficiency stress can activate the expression of ERF72, which responds to iron deficiency in the negative regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Can Ethylene Induce Heterophyll in Marsilea quadrifolia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of Marsilea quadrifolia, an amphibious fern, experiencing xtreme variations in environment develop heterophyll with different morphological haracteristics. The objective of this study is to investigate if ethylene can induce floating type of leaves in his fern. To achieve this goal, ratio of stomatal density on abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces (stomatal atio and the mass per unit length of petiole (PML, on leaves of terrestrial shoots sprayed with an ethylene as releaser, Ethephon, were compared with those of leaves produced by submergence of terrestrial hoots. Leaves with different stomatal ratio and PML, corresponding to that of terrestrial type and loating type of leaves, were produced when terrestrial shoots of M. quadrifolia were submerged. The esult reveals that the plasticity of leaves to respond to submergence depends on leaf’s age. Application of thephon significantly altered the stomatal ratio of young leaves on terrestrial shoot but not their PML. eaves response to Ethephon treatment was also age dependent. These results indicate that ethylene ight be involved in the formation of floating leaves in M. quadrifolia.

  14. Atmospheric chemistry of ethane and ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, A.C.; Herman, J.R.; Maier, E.J.; McQuillian, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of ethane and ethylene photochemistry is presented for the troposphere and stratosphere. It is demonstrated that the loss of ethane is controlled by OH in the troposphere and Cl in the stratosphere. Observation of ethane show a stratospheric behavior indicative of a free chlorine concentration below 30 km that is only 10% of the predicted value given by both our photochemical model calculations and those done by others. The inferred lower amount of chlorine cannot be explained by heterogeneous processes for concentration of aerosols representing average background conditions, nor does current stratospheric photochemistry show agreement. Chemical destruction of ethane and ethylene within the atmosphere leads to the production of carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and other products. Tropospheric concentrations of formaldehyde are enhanced by nearly a factor of 3 for an ethylene mixing ratio of 2 ppb. Simultaneous monitoring of formaldehyde and carbon monoxide, as well as other products, will greatly aid in determining the relative importance of different tropospheric CO sources. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) acts as a reservoir for odd-nitrogen at the expense of HNO 3 HO 2 NO 2 , NO, and NO 2

  15. Radiation resistance of ethylene-styrene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kaoru; Ikeda, Masaaki; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Kusama, Yasuo; Harashige, Masahiro; Yazaki, Fumihiko.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the radiation resistance of ethylene-styrene copolymer, a polymeric resin developed newly by the authors, is reported. Resin examined were five kinds of ethylene-styrene copolymers: three random and two graft copolymers with different styrene contents. Low-density polyethylene was used as a reference. The samples were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays to total absorbed doses up to 10 MGy. The mechanical properties of the smaples were examined. Infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray scattering techniques were used to examine the morphology of the samples. The random copolymers are soft and easy to extend, because benzene rings which exisist highly at random hinder the crystallization. As for the radiation resistance, they are highly resistant to γ-rays in the aspects of carbonyl group formation, gel formation, and elongation. Further, they show even better radiation resistance when proper additives were compounded in. The graft copolymers are hard to extend, because they consist of segregated polystyrene and polyethylene regions which are connected with each other. The tensile strength of irradiated graft copolymers does not decrease below that of unirradiated copolymers, up to a total dose of 10 MGy. As a consequence, it can be said that ethylene-styrene copolymers have good radiation resistance owing to the so-called 'sponge' effect of benzene rings. (author)

  16. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. A cultivar (Allium cepa 'Copra') with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 degrees C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO(2) and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO(2) production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy.

  17. Ethylene Separation via Hydrate Formation in W/O Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Pan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid absorption-hydration method was adopted to recover C2H4 from C2H4/CH4 binary gas mixtures and the hydrate formation conditions of C2H4/CH4 mixtures was studied experimentally in diesel in water (w/o emulsions. Span 20 at a concentration of 1.0 wt% in the aqueous phase was added to form water in diesel emulsions before hydrate formation and then hydrate in diesel slurry was separated after hydrate formation. The influences of initial gas-liquid volume ratio (53–142, pressure (3.4–5.4 MPa, temperature (274.15–278.15 K, water cuts (10–30 vol%, and the mole fraction of C2H4 in feed gas (13.19–80.44 mol% upon the C2H4 separation efficiency were systematically investigated. The experimental results show that ethylene can be enriched in hydrate slurry phase with high separation factor (S and recovery ratio (R. Most hydrate formation finished in 20 min, after that, the hydrate formation rate became very slow. The conclusion is useful for determining the suitable operation conditions when adopting an absorption-hydration method to separate C2H4/CH4.

  18. ROLE OF ETHYLENE IN RESPONSES OF PLANTS TO NITROGEN AVAILABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iqbal R Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is a plant hormone involved in several physiological processes and regulates the plant development during the whole life. Stressful conditions usually activate ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in plants. The availability of nutrients, shortage or excess, influences plant metabolism and ethylene plays an important role in plant adaptation under suboptimal conditions. Among the plant nutrients, the nitrogen (N is one the most important mineral element required for plant growth and development. The availability of N significantly influences plant metabolism, including ethylene biology. The interaction between ethylene and N affects several physiological process such as leaf gas exchanges, roots architecture, leaf, fruits and flowers development. Low plant N use efficiency leads to N loss and N deprivation, which affect ethylene biosynthesis and tissues sensitivity, inducing cell damage and ultimately lysis. Plants may respond differently to N availability balancing ethylene production through its signalling network. This review discusses the recent advances in the interaction between N availability and ethylene at whole plant and different organ levels, and explores how N availability induces ethylene biology and plant responses. Exogenously applied ethylene seems to cope the stress conditions and improves plant physiological performance. This can be explained considering the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes under different N availability. A greater understanding of the regulation of N by means of ethylene modulation may help to increase N use efficiency and directly influence crop productivity under conditions of limited N availability, leading to positive effects on the environment. Moreover, efforts should be focused on the effect of N deficiency or excess in fruit trees, where ethylene can have detrimental effects especially during postharvest.

  19. Industrial monument and symbol of a new beginning. Coal scrubber on mine Zollverein; Industriedenkmal und Symbol eines Neubeginns. Die Kohlenwaesche auf Zeche Zollverein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seht, Bernd von; Schneider, Helmut; Ferrarini, Dario [Ingenieurbuero Wetzel und von Seht, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The former coal mine ''Zollverein'' has been accepted in the UNESCO World Heritage List, which proves its status as an outstanding monument of industrial culture in the Ruhr region. Currently, the buildings are being converted into a culture and design forum of international renown. The coal scrubber building of Schacht XII is presented as an example to show how the conflicting goals of conservation and transformation can be integrated in consideration of current standards for supporting structures. (orig.)

  20. Studi Experimental Penggunaan Venturi Scrubber Dan Cyclonic Separator Untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja Pada Sistem Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Dalam Menurunkan NOX Pada Motor Diesel

    OpenAIRE

    N, Samsu Dlukha; Ariana, I Made; Fathallah, Aguk Z. M

    2012-01-01

    Salah satu cara yang efektif untuk mengurangi NOX adalah dengan menggunakan metode Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). Dengan metode EGR, oksigen yang masuk ke ruang bakar akan berkurang sehingga NOX dapat diturunkan dengan signifikan, akan tetapi power dari mesin tersebut juga akan berkurang dan Particulate Matter (PM) akan naik secara signifikan. Dalam penelitian ini dibahas penggunaan EGR yang telah di optimalkan dengan penambahan venturi scrubber dan cyclonic separator, tujuannya mengurangi ...

  1. Ecological effects of scrubber water discharge on coastal plankton: Potential synergistic effects of contaminants reduce survival and feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Stedmon, Colin; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    and hydrocarbons. We investigated 1) the threshold concentrations of scrubber discharge water for survival, feeding and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa, 2) whether the effects depend on the exposure route and 3) whether exposure to discharge water can be detected in field-collected organisms. A direct...... constituents could have synergistic effects on plankton productivity and bioaccumulation of metals, although the effects will depend on their dilution in the marine environment....

  2. The study of water droplets electrical charging effect on spray tower scrubber efficiency for feldspar particles removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Golmohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: One of the modern ways introduced nowadays for increasing the collection efficiency of particulate, is the use of electric charge in wet scrubbers. These systems can be used in places in which scrubbers are suitable for contaminant collection. In fact, this system only increases the collection efficiency, and it is not a new technology for contaminant collection.   Methods: First, according to ACGIH recommendation for pilot study a ventilation system was designed and installed. Later, water was charged by using an DC electric exchanger (1275 Volt, DC& product 3×1014 electron on system. Air velocity in the duct was determined by Pitot tube, pressure drop and speed equations, and sampling prop diameter was calculated considering isokenetic conditions. Sampling was performed at two flow rates of 20.3 and 11.4 liter per minute and in overall 72 samples were collected. Sample analysis was performed using gravimetric method and data analysis was performed using SPSS software.      Results: The collection efficiency of inhalable particles in the flow rate of 20.3 liter per minute in a non-electric intervention, and electric intervention with positive and negative charge was 66, 77.67 and 73 percent and in the flow rate of 11.4 liters per minute 60, 69.43 and 68.32 percent respectively. For non-inhalable particles the efficiency in the flow rate 20.3 liter per minute in a non-electric intervention and electric intervention with positive and negative charge was 94.67, 98.33 and 97.67 percent, and in the flow charge of 11/4 liter per minute the flow charge was 91.33, 95, and 97.33 percent respectively.  Conclusion: The results obtained from the experiments, showed that in a certain flow rate, electric intervention increases the efficiency of inhalable particle collection. By the way, this electric intervention has no significant effect on non-inhalable particle collection. Also, the effect of electric intervention with

  3. Ethylene Receptors Signal via a Noncanonical Pathway to Regulate Abscisic Acid Responses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Arkadipta; Fernandez, Jessica C.

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone perceived by a family of receptors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) including ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (ETR1) and ETR2. Previously we showed that etr1-6 loss-of-function plants germinate better and etr2-3 loss-of-function plants germinate worse than wild-type under NaCl stress and in response to abscisic acid (ABA). In this study, we expanded these results by showing that ETR1 and ETR2 have contrasting roles in the control of germination under a variety of inhibitory conditions for seed germination such as treatment with KCl, CuSO4, ZnSO4, and ethanol. Pharmacological and molecular biology results support a model where ETR1 and ETR2 are indirectly affecting the expression of genes encoding ABA signaling proteins to affect ABA sensitivity. The receiver domain of ETR1 is involved in this function in germination under these conditions and controlling the expression of genes encoding ABA signaling proteins. Epistasis analysis demonstrated that these contrasting roles of ETR1 and ETR2 do not require the canonical ethylene signaling pathway. To explore the importance of receptor-protein interactions, we conducted yeast two-hybrid screens using the cytosolic domains of ETR1 and ETR2 as bait. Unique interacting partners with either ETR1 or ETR2 were identified. We focused on three of these proteins and confirmed the interactions with receptors. Loss of these proteins led to faster germination in response to ABA, showing that they are involved in ABA responses. Thus, ETR1 and ETR2 have both ethylene-dependent and -independent roles in plant cells that affect responses to ABA. PMID:29158332

  4. Ecological effects of scrubber water discharge on coastal plankton: Potential synergistic effects of contaminants reduce survival and feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Marja; Stedmon, Colin; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    To meet the oncoming requirements for lower sulphur emissions, shipping companies can install scrubbers where the exhaust is sprayed with seawater and subsequently discharged to the sea. The discharge water has a pH around 3 and contains elevated concentrations of vanadium, nickel, lead and hydrocarbons. We investigated 1) the threshold concentrations of scrubber discharge water for survival, feeding and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa, 2) whether the effects depend on the exposure route and 3) whether exposure to discharge water can be detected in field-collected organisms. A direct exposure to discharge water increased adult copepod mortality and reduced feeding at metal concentrations which were orders of magnitude lower than the lethal concentrations in previous single-metal studies. In contrast, reproduction was not influenced by dietary uptake of contaminants. Scrubber water constituents could have synergistic effects on plankton productivity and bioaccumulation of metals, although the effects will depend on their dilution in the marine environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance evaluation of poly-urethane foam packed-bed chemical scrubber for the oxidative absorption of NH3 and H2S gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisola, Grace M; Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Anonas, Alex V; Ramos, Kristine Rose M; Lee, Won-Keun; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2018-01-02

    The feasibility of open-pore polyurethane (PU) foam as packing material for wet chemical scrubber was tested for NH 3 and H 2 S removals. The foam is inexpensive, light-weight, highly porous (low pressure drop) and provides large surface area per unit volume, which are desirable properties for enhanced gas/liquid mass transfer. Conventional HCl/HOCl (for NH 3 ) and NaOH/NaOCl (for H 2 S) scrubbing solutions were used to absorb and oxidize the gases. Assessment of the wet chemical scrubbers reveals that pH and ORP levels are important to maintain the gas removal efficiencies >95%. A higher re-circulation rate of scrubbing solutions also proved to enhance the performance of the NH 3 and H 2 S columns. Accumulation of salts was confirmed by the gradual increase in total dissolved solids and conductivity values of scrubbing solutions. The critical elimination capacities at >95% gas removals were found to be 5.24 g NH 3 -N/m 3 -h and 17.2 g H 2 S-S/m 3 -h at an empty bed gas residence time of 23.6 s. Negligible pressure drops (scrubbers for NH 3 and H 2 S removals from high-volume dilute emissions.

  6. Ethylene glycol monolayer protected nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and interactions with biological molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Li, Zhigang; Huang, Xueying

    2004-05-11

    The usefulness of the hybrid materials of nanoparticles and biological molecules on many occasions depends on how well one can achieve a rational design based on specific binding and programmable assembly. Nonspecific binding between nanoparticles and biomolecules is one of the major barriers for achieving their utilities in a biological system. In this paper, we demonstrate a new approach to eliminate nonspecific interactions between nanoparticles and biological molecules by shielding the nanoparticle with a monolayer of ethylene glycol. A direct synthesis of di-, tri-, and tetra(ethylene glycol)-protected gold nanoparticles (Au-S-EGn, n = 2, 3, and 4) was achieved under the condition that the water content was optimized in the range of 9-18% in the reaction mixture. With controlled ratio of [HAuCl4]/[EGn-SH] at 2, the synthesized particles have an average diameter of 3.5 nm and a surface plasma resonance band around 510 nm. Their surface structures were confirmed by 1H NMR spectra. These gold nanoparticles are bonded with a uniform monolayer with defined lengths of 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 nm for Au-S-EG2, Au-S-EG3, and Au-S-EG4, respectively. They have great stabilities in aqueous solutions with a high concentration of electrolytes as well as in organic solvents. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the ethylene glycol monolayer coating is ca. 14% of the total nanoparticle weight. Biological binding tests by using ion-exchange chromatography and gel electrophoresis demonstrated that these Au-S-EGn (n = 2, 3, or 4) nanoparticles are free of any nonspecific bindings with various proteins, DNA, and RNA. These types of nanoparticles provide a fundamental starting material for designing hybrid materials composed of metallic nanoparticles and biomolecules.

  7. Radiation chemically induced telomerization of ethylene with selected telogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtendunk, H.J. von.

    1975-01-01

    The suitability of different compounds for the use as telogenes in the telomerization of ethylene has been studied. In all cases the reactions are initiated by the γ-radiation of a 60 Co-source. Temperature programed gas chromatography has proved to be an adequate method of analysis. In the teleomerization process with ethylene also methane tri carboxylic acid tri-ethylene ester (MTE), ortho-formic acid tri-ethylene ester (o-ASE), formic acid, bromium cyane, chlorine cyane and dicyane have been used. The telomerization of MTE and ethylene has been performed successfully with a high yield. The dependence of the reaction on temperature, pressure, radiation dose has been studied as well as the influence of a solvent (acetonitrile). In the attempt to telomerize ortho-formic acid tri-ethylene ester only high molecular weight solid product could be isolated. No interpretable results could be obtained for the telomerization of formic acid with ethylene. In the case of the radiation induced telomerization of chlorine cyane or di-cyane with ethylene in the gas phase, no reaction products could be found. No telomerization between di-cyane and ethylene has been observed even when palladium (II)-cyanide is used as a catalyst of after cocatalys is with triphenyl-phosphile in acetonitrile. (orig./HK) [de

  8. Nickel-catalyzed reactions of enone with ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, A; Haba, T; Ohashi, M; Ogoshi, S

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of (E)-1-phenylbut-2-en-1-one with ethylene in the presence of a catalytic amount of Ni(cod) 2 and PCy 3 at room temperature gave two kinds of three-component addition products; one is 1,6-enone composed of an enone and two ethylene molecules, and the other is 1,5-diketone composed of two enones and an ethylene. The reactions might proceed via oxidative cyclization of an enone and an ethylene with nickel(0).

  9. Ethylene regulates the timing of anther dehiscence in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, I; Wolters-Arts, M; Derksen, J; Mariani, C; Weterings, K

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the involvement of ethylene signaling in the development of the reproductive structures in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) by studying flowers that were insensitive to ethylene. Ethylene-insensitivity was generated either by expression of the mutant etr1-1 ethylene-receptor allele from Arabidopsis thaliana or by treatment with the ethylene-perception inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP). Development of ovaries and ovules was unaffected by ethylene-insensitivity. Anther development was also unaffected, but the final event of dehiscence was delayed and was no longer synchronous with flower opening. We showed that in these anthers degeneration of the stomium cells and dehydration were delayed. In addition, we found that MCP-treatment of detached flowers and isolated, almost mature anthers delayed dehiscence whereas ethylene-treatment accelerated dehiscence. This indicated that ethylene has a direct effect on a process that takes place in the anthers just before dehiscence. Because a similar function has been described for jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis, we suggest that ethylene acts similarly to or perhaps even in concurrence with jasmonic acid as a signaling molecule controlling the processes that lead to anther dehiscence in tobacco.

  10. Ethylene production in relation to nitrogen metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Nina; Persson, Karl O; Quehl, Paul; Norbeck, Joakim; Larsson, Christer

    2014-11-01

    We have previously shown that ethylene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae is strongly influenced by variations in the mode of cultivation as well as the choice of nitrogen source. Here, we have studied the influence of nitrogen metabolism on the production of ethylene further. Using ammonium, glutamate, glutamate/arginine, and arginine as nitrogen sources, it was found that glutamate (with or without arginine) correlates with a high ethylene production, most likely linked to an observed increase in 2-oxoglutarate levels. Arginine as a sole nitrogen source caused a reduced ethylene production. A reduction of arginine levels, accomplished using an arginine auxotrophic ARG4-deletion strain in the presence of limiting amounts of arginine or through CAR1 overexpression, did however not correlate with an increased ethylene production. As expected, arginine was necessary for ethylene production as ethylene production in the ARG4-deletion strain ceased at the time when arginine was depleted. In conclusion, our data suggest that high levels of 2-oxoglutarate and a limited amount of arginine are required for successful ethylene production in yeast. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  12. The involvement of ethylene in regulation of Arabidopsis gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhu, Lin

    Plant gravitropism is a directional response to gravity stimulus. This response involves a com-plex signaling network. Ethylene, a major plant hormone, has been found to modulate grav-itropism. The biosynthesis of ethylene is induced by the gravi-stimulus and the requirement for ethylene during gravitropism is tissue-dependent. While ethylene plays a modulating role in inflorescence stems, the light-grown hypocotyls of Arabidopsis requires ethylene to achieve a maximum gravicurvature. Because both inhibitory and stimulatory effects of ethylene on gravitropism have been overwhelmingly documented, there is a need to postulate a new theory to consolidate the apparently contradictory results. A dual-and-opposing effects (DOE) theory is therefore hypothesized to address how ethylene is involved in regulation of Arabidopsis grav-itropism, in which it is suggested that both stimulatory and inhibitory effects act on the same organ of a plant and co-exist at the same time in a mutually opposing manner. The final out-come of gravitropic response is determined by the dynamic display between the two opposing effects. A prolonged pretreatment of ethylene promotes the gravitropism in both inflorescence and light-grown hypocotyls, while a short ethylene pretreatment inhibits gravitropism. Gener-ally speaking, the inhibitory effect of ethylene is dominant over the expression of the stimula-tory effect in light-grown hypocotyls, whereas the stimulatory effect is dominant in inflorescence stem. Each effect is also positively correlated with concentrations of ethylene and in a time-dependent manner. The stimulatory effect occurs slowly but continues to react after the removal of ethylene, whereas the inhibitory effect takes place abruptly and diminishes shortly after its removal. Forward genetic screening based on the DOE phenotype of ethylene-treated Arabidop-sis has revealed a novel component in gravity signaling pathway: EGY1 (ethylene-dependent gravitropism-deficient and yellow

  13. Combined biological treatment of sinter plant waste water, blast furnace gas scrubber water polluted groundwater and coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine van Hoorn [Corus Staal, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Waste water from the Corus coke plant in IJmuiden had been handled by the activated sludge process since start-up in 1972 but in the eighties it was clear that although this removed most phenols, the rest of the COD and thiocyanate must also be removed before discharge. The paper describes the original water treatment process and the higher pressure gas scrubber system for removal of SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and other harmful components. It goes on to describe development of a combined biological treatment system, the heart of which is the so-called Bio 2000. The performance of this new plant is discussed. COD concentrations are very constant but Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) concentrations fluctuate. COD, TKN and heavy metals are in compliance but cyanide and suspended solids are not always so. A method of overcoming this is being sought. This paper was presented at a COMA meeting in March 2005 held in Scunthorpe, UK. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Ethylene Regulates the Physiology of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 via an Ethylene Receptor1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the growth and development of plants. The ethylene receptors in plants are well studied, and it is generally assumed that they are found only in plants. In a search of sequenced genomes, we found that many bacterial species contain putative ethylene receptors. Plants acquired many proteins from cyanobacteria as a result of the endosymbiotic event that led to chloroplasts. We provide data that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803) has a functional receptor for ethylene, Synechocystis Ethylene Response1 (SynEtr1). We first show that SynEtr1 directly binds ethylene. Second, we demonstrate that application of ethylene to Synechocystis cells or disruption of the SynEtr1 gene affects several processes, including phototaxis, type IV pilus biosynthesis, photosystem II levels, biofilm formation, and spontaneous cell sedimentation. Our data suggest a model where SynEtr1 inhibits downstream signaling and ethylene inhibits SynEtr1. This is similar to the inverse-agonist model of ethylene receptor signaling proposed for plants and suggests a conservation of structure and function that possibly originated over 1 billion years ago. Prior research showed that SynEtr1 also contains a light-responsive phytochrome-like domain. Thus, SynEtr1 is a bifunctional receptor that mediates responses to both light and ethylene. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a functional ethylene receptor in a nonplant species and suggests that that the perception of ethylene is more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27246094

  15. Parkinsonism secondary to ethylene oxide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egberto R. Barbosa

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide is a gas widely used in the production of industrial chemicals. It is also used to sterilize heat-sensitive medical supplies. Previous reports of acute and chronic exposure have described neurotoxic effects like peripheral neuropathy and cognitive impairment. We describe a pure parkinsonian syndrome following acute ethylene oxide intoxication. A 39-years-old male was referred to our Movement Disorders Clinic tor evaluation of a parkinsonian syndrome. He was acutely exposed to ethylene oxide four years before and remained comatose for three days, and gradually regained consciousness.. At that time he showed a global parkinsonian syndrome including bradykinesia, rigidity and rest tremor, with a severe motor disability; no other neurological disorders were found. The symptomatology was partially controlled with biperidene and levodopa plus carbidopa. Two years later he developed L-dopa induced dyskinesias. Four years after the intoxication he was evaluated at our clinic. General examination showed no abnormalities. Neurologic examination revealed a normal menta1 status. Motor evaluation disclosed moderate bradykinesia, rigidity and rest tremor, shuffling gait, poor facial mimic, stooped posture, and his speech was low and monotonous; deep tendon reflexes were brisk. The Hoehn-Yahr disability score was degree IV. Routine laboratory and radiological exams showed results within normal limits. The CSF examination was normal. Brain computed tomography and magnetic ressonance were normal. A trial with bromocriptine and levodopa plus carbidopa did not improve dyskinesia, and he was put on a schedule including amantadine and biperidene with improvement to grade III in Hoehn-Yahr scale. In the present case there was a clear relation between the acute exogenous intoxication and irreversible parkinsonism. No other causes for the condition were identified.

  16. The effect of nitrate on ethylene biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hun, E-mail: lee323@alumni.purdue.edu [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, 225 South University St., West Lafayette, 47907-2093 IN (United States); Li, Congna; Heber, Albert J. [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, 225 South University St., West Lafayette, 47907-2093 IN (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethylene biofiltration strongly depends on nitrate concentrations and media types. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine reduced N supply can increase ethylene removals in biofilters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perlite medium is better for ethylene biofiltration than activated carbon medium. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of filter media types and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations in nutrient solutions on C{sub 2}H{sub 4} biofiltration. A new nutrient solution with zero NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration was supplied to two perlite-bed biotrickling filters, two perlite-bed biofilters, and two GAC (Granular Activated Carbon)-bed biofilters, while the other with 2 g L{sup -1} of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was used for the other two GAC biofilters. All reactors underwent a total test duration of over 175 days with an EBRT (Empty Bed Residence Time) of 30 s, inlet gas flow rate of 7 L min{sup -1}, and inlet C{sub 2}H{sub 4} concentrations of 20-30 mg m{sup -3}. NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration and media type significantly affected the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} removal efficiencies in all types of biofiltration. The perlite media with no NO{sub 3}{sup -} achieved C{sub 2}H{sub 4} removal efficiencies 10-50% higher than the others. A NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration as high as 2 g L{sup -1} in the original nutrient solution may act as an inhibitor that suppresses the growth or activity of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} degraders. In addition, the perlite media resulted in higher C{sub 2}H{sub 4} removal efficiencies than GAC media, because the hydrophilic surface of the perlite leads to a higher moisture content and thus to favorable microbial growth.

  17. The effect of nitrate on ethylene biofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Li, Congna; Heber, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ethylene biofiltration strongly depends on nitrate concentrations and media types. ► We examine reduced N supply can increase ethylene removals in biofilters. ► Perlite medium is better for ethylene biofiltration than activated carbon medium. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of filter media types and nitrate (NO 3 − ) concentrations in nutrient solutions on C 2 H 4 biofiltration. A new nutrient solution with zero NO 3 − concentration was supplied to two perlite-bed biotrickling filters, two perlite-bed biofilters, and two GAC (Granular Activated Carbon)-bed biofilters, while the other with 2 g L −1 of NO 3 − was used for the other two GAC biofilters. All reactors underwent a total test duration of over 175 days with an EBRT (Empty Bed Residence Time) of 30 s, inlet gas flow rate of 7 L min −1 , and inlet C 2 H 4 concentrations of 20–30 mg m −3 . NO 3 − concentration and media type significantly affected the C 2 H 4 removal efficiencies in all types of biofiltration. The perlite media with no NO 3 − achieved C 2 H 4 removal efficiencies 10–50% higher than the others. A NO 3 − concentration as high as 2 g L −1 in the original nutrient solution may act as an inhibitor that suppresses the growth or activity of C 2 H 4 degraders. In addition, the perlite media resulted in higher C 2 H 4 removal efficiencies than GAC media, because the hydrophilic surface of the perlite leads to a higher moisture content and thus to favorable microbial growth.

  18. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Peng, Huan-huan; Xiao, Yun-yi; Li, Xue-ping; Chen, Wei-xin; He, Quan-guang; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components.

  19. ADVANCED CONTROL FOR A ETHYLENE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru POPESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of control solutions for petrochemical processes, namely the control and optimization of a pyrolysis reactor, the key-installation in the petrochemical industry. We present the technological characteristics of this petrochemical process and some aspects about the proposed control system solution for the ethylene plant. Finally, an optimal operating point for the reactor is found, considering that the process has a nonlinear multi-variable structure. The results have been implemented on an assembly of pyrolysis reactors on a petrochemical platform from Romania.

  20. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Neurologie, Lille (France); Sengler, C. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Laboratoire de Pharmaco-Toxicologie, Guadeloupe (France); Benabdallah, E. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Radiologie, Guadeloupe (France); Colombani, S. [Centre d' Imagerie medicale, Martinique (France)

    2005-02-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  1. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M.; Sengler, C.; Benabdallah, E.; Colombani, S.

    2005-01-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  2. Tissue engineering of fish skin: behavior of fish cells on poly(ethylene glycol terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) copolymers in relation to the composition of the polymer substrate as an initial step in constructing a robotic/living tissue hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Roxane; Azhari, Rosa; Qanadilo, Hala F; Mahmood, Tahir A; Triantafyllou, Michael S; Langer, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the development of a biosynthetic fish skin to be used on aquatic robots that can emulate fish. Smoothness of the external surface is desired in improving high propulsive efficiency and maneuvering agility of autonomous underwater vehicles such as the RoboTuna (Triantafyllou, M., and Triantafyllou, G. Sci. Am. 272, 64, 1995). An initial step was to determine the seeding density and select a polymer for the scaffolds. The attachment and proliferation of chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) and brown bullhead (BB) cells were studied on different compositions of a poly(ethylene glycol terephthalate) (PEGT) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) copolymer (Polyactive). Polymer films were used, cast of three different compositions of PEGT/PBT (weight ratios of 55/45, 60/40, and 70/30) and two different molecular masses of PEGT (300 and 1000 Da). When a 55 wt% and a 300-Da molecular mass form of PEGT was used, maximum attachment and proliferation of CHSE-214 and BB cells were achieved. Histological studies and immunostaining indicate the presence of collagen and cytokeratins in the extracellular matrix formed after 14 days of culture. Porous scaffolds of PEGT/PBT copolymers were also used for three-dimensional tissue engineering of fish skin, using BB cells. Overall, our results indicate that fish cells can attach, proliferate, and express fish skin components on dense and porous Polyactive scaffolds.

  3. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheethasanee, Katanchalee; Wang, Shuwu; Qiu, Yongxing; Marchant, Roger E

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were simultaneously attached to PVAm via reductive amination. Surfactant polymers with different PEO:hexanal ratios and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balances were prepared, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and XPS spectroscopies. Surface active properties at the air/water interface were determined by surface tension measurements. Surface activity at a solid surface/water interface was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, showing epitaxially molecular alignment for surfactant polymers adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The surfactant polymers described in this report can be adapted for simple non-covalent surface modification of biomaterials and hydrophobic surfaces to provide highly hydrated interfaces.

  4. Production of Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide by Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Filer; L. R. Brown; S. Brown-Sarobot; S. Martin

    1984-01-01

    Various quantities of ethylene and carbon monoxide were produced on PDA by Fusicladium effusum, Pestilotia nucicola, Alternaria tenuis, and Fusarium oxysporum subcultured from diseased pecan shucks. Repeated subculturing of these fungi on potato dextrose broth supplemented with iron powder produced ethylene. The production of...

  5. Price dynamics of crude oil and the regional ethylene markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masih, Mansur; Algahtani, Ibrahim; De Mello, Lurion

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt to investigate: (1) is the crude oil (WTI) price significantly related to the regional ethylene prices in the Naphtha intensive ethylene markets of the Far East, North West Europe, and the Mediterranean? (2) What drives the regional ethylene prices? The paper is motivated by the recent and growing debate on the lead-lag relationship between crude oil and ethylene prices. Our findings, based on the long-run structural modelling approach of Pesaran and Shin, and subject to the limitations of the study, tend to suggest: (1) crude oil (WTI) price is cointegrated with the regional ethylene prices (2) our within-sample error-correction model results tend to indicate that although the ethylene prices in North West Europe and the Mediterranean were weakly endogenous, the Far East ethylene price was weakly exogenous both in the short and long term. These results are consistent, during most of the period under review (2000.1-2006.4) with the surge in demand for ethylene throughout the Far East, particularly in China and South Korea. However, during the post-sample forecast period as evidenced in our variance decompositions analysis, the emergence of WTI as a leading player as well, is consistent with the recent surge in WTI price (fuelled mainly, among others, by the strong hedging activities in the WTI futures/options and refining tightness) reflecting the growing importance of input cost in determining the dynamic interactions of input and product prices. (author)

  6. Defining sale ethylene for long term storage of tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de H.P.J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; Dijkstra, M.H.G.E.; Gude, H.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum ethylene level that can be permitted in storage rooms, without causing damage to tulip bulbs, is not exactly known. Therefore, a zero-tolerance for the presence of ethylene during storage of tulip bulbs is common practice. This results in excessive ventilation and coherent large energy

  7. Combined gas-phase oxidation of methane and ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, N.M.; Pogosyan, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    It is established that depending on the reaction conditions combined oxidation of methane and ethylene may result in ethylene and propylene oxides with high selectivity with respect to the process, where in the initial reaction mixture methane is replaced by the same quantity of nitrogen. The formed additional methyl radicals increase the yield of all reaction products except CO. At low temperatures methyl radicals react with oxygen resulting in methyl peroxide radicals, which in turn, reacting with ethylene provide its epoxidation and formation of other oxygen-containing products. At high temperatures as a result of addition reaction between methyl radicals and ethylene, propyl radicals are formed that, in turn yield propylene. Alongside with positive influence on the yield of reaction products, methane exerts negative influence upon the conversion, that is it decreases the rate of ethylene and oxygen conversion, simultaneously decreasing significantly the yield of CO

  8. Mechanistic Insights in Ethylene Perception and Signal Transduction1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chuanli; Chang, Caren

    2015-01-01

    The gaseous hormone ethylene profoundly affects plant growth, development, and stress responses. Ethylene perception occurs at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and signal transduction leads to a transcriptional cascade that initiates diverse responses, often in conjunction with other signals. Recent findings provide a more complete picture of the components and mechanisms in ethylene signaling, now rendering a more dynamic view of this conserved pathway. This includes newly identified protein-protein interactions at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as well as the major discoveries that the central regulator ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2) is the long-sought phosphorylation substrate for the CONSTITUTIVE RESPONSE1 protein kinase, and that cleavage of EIN2 transmits the signal to the nucleus. In the nucleus, hundreds of potential gene targets of the EIN3 master transcription factor have been identified and found to be induced in transcriptional waves, and transcriptional coregulation has been shown to be a mechanism of ethylene cross talk. PMID:26246449

  9. Thermal decomposition of cesium-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Oishi, Y.; Arii, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal decomposition of air-stable Cs-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) is discussed. The air stability of Cs-GICs is improved remarkably after the absorption of ethylene into their interlayer nanospace, because the ethylene molecules oligomerize and block the movement of Cs atoms. In addition, the evaporation of Cs atoms from the Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs is observed above 400 o C under a N 2 atmosphere of 100 Pa by ion attachment mass spectrometry. Although the results indicate that Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs remain stable up to approximately 400 o C, their thermal stability is not very high as compared to that of Cs-GICs.

  10. Ethylene-Mediated Acclimations to Flooding Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is detrimental for plants, primarily because of restricted gas exchange underwater, which leads to an energy and carbohydrate deficit. Impeded gas exchange also causes rapid accumulation of the volatile ethylene in all flooded plant cells. Although several internal changes in the plant can signal the flooded status, it is the pervasive and rapid accumulation of ethylene that makes it an early and reliable flooding signal. Not surprisingly, it is a major regulator of several flood-adaptive plant traits. Here, we discuss these major ethylene-mediated traits, their functional relevance, and the recent progress in identifying the molecular and signaling events underlying these traits downstream of ethylene. We also speculate on the role of ethylene in postsubmergence recovery and identify several questions for future investigations. PMID:25897003

  11. Understanding tantalum-catalyzed ethylene trimerization: When things go wrong

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin

    2013-06-07

    Ethylene oligomerization to linear low-molecular-mass α-olefins is an open industrial challenge. Ta-based catalysts are promising systems, but the unclear understanding of their behavior prevents systematic advances in the field. We demonstrate here that a well-defined (î -SiO)3Ta III species is able to promote ethylene oligo-/polymerization without any cocatalyst, confirming that the active species in Ta systems corresponds to a TaIII species. DFT calculations on a series of Ta systems ranging from ethylene trimerization to ethylene polymerization catalysts highlight the key factors controlling their experimental behavior. Comparison of these Ta systems allows one to set general rules for the rational development of new ethylene Ta oligomerization catalysts. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žiauka, Jonas; Kuusienė, Sigutė; Šilininkas, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ► Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ► Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ► Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ► Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene.

  13. Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

  14. Treatment of ferrous-NTA-based NO x scrubber solution by an up-flow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, B; Sahu, Nidhi; Tabassum, Heena; Pai, Padmaraj; Morone, Amruta; Pandey, R A

    2015-06-01

    A bench scale system consisting of an up-flow packed bed bioreactor (UAPBR) made of polyurethane foam was used for the treatment and regeneration of aqueous solution of ferrous-NTA scrubbed with nitric oxide (NO). The biomass in the UAPBR was sequentially acclimatized under denitrifying and iron reducing conditions using ethanol as electron donor, after which nitric oxide (NO) gas was loaded continuously to the system by absorption. The system was investigated for different parameters viz. pH, removal efficiency of nitric oxide, biological reduction efficiency of Fe(II)NTA-NO and COD utilization. The Fe(II)NTA-NO reduction efficiency reached 87.8 % at a loading rate of 0.24 mmol L(-1) h(-1), while the scrubber efficiency reached more than 75 % with 250 ppm NO. Stover-Kincannon and a Plug-flow kinetic model based on Michaelis-Menten equation were used to describe the UAPBR performance with respect to Fe(II)NTA-NO and COD removal. The Stover-Kincannon model was found capable of describing the Fe(II)NTA-NO reduction (R m = 8.92 mM h(-1) and K NO = 11.46 mM h(-1)) while plug-flow model provided better fit to the COD utilization (U m = 66.62 mg L(-1) h(-1), K COD = 7.28 mg L(-1)). Analyses for pH, Fe(III)NTA, ammonium, nitrite concentration, and FTIR analysis of the medium samples indicated degradation of NTA, which leads to ammonium and nitrite accumulation in the medium, and affect the regeneration process.

  15. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  16. Research tools: ethylene preparation. In: Chi-Kuang Wen editor. Ethylene in plants. Springer Netherlands. Springer Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, germination, fruit ripening, senescence, sex determination, abscission, defense, gravitropism, epinasty, and more. For experimental purposes, one needs to treat plant material with ethylene and its inhibitors t...

  17. Ethylene and rooting of mung bean cuttings. The role of auxin induced ethylene synthesis and phase-dependent effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Hanecakova, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have re-examined the role of ethylene during rooting of mung bean cuttings. Cuttings were treated for 5 days with a low or a high concentration of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid). During this 5 days period, we also applied STS (silverthiosulfate, an inhibitor of ethylene action) or ACC

  18. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  19. HYPER RECOMBINATION1 of the THO/TREX complex plays a role in controlling transcription of the REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 gene in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congyao Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1 represses ethylene hormone responses by promoting ethylene receptor ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (ETR1 signaling, which negatively regulates ethylene responses. To investigate the regulation of RTE1, we performed a genetic screening for mutations that suppress ethylene insensitivity conferred by RTE1 overexpression in Arabidopsis. We isolated HYPER RECOMBINATION1 (HPR1, which is required for RTE1 overexpressor (RTE1ox ethylene insensitivity at the seedling but not adult stage. HPR1 is a component of the THO complex, which, with other proteins, forms the TRanscription EXport (TREX complex. In yeast, Drosophila, and humans, the THO/TREX complex is involved in transcription elongation and nucleocytoplasmic RNA export, but its role in plants is to be fully determined. We investigated how HPR1 is involved in RTE1ox ethylene insensitivity in Arabidopsis. The hpr1-5 mutation may affect nucleocytoplasmic mRNA export, as revealed by in vivo hybridization of fluorescein-labeled oligo(dT45 with unidentified mRNA in the nucleus. The hpr1-5 mutation reduced the total and nuclear RTE1 transcript levels to a similar extent, and RTE1 transcript reduction rate was not affected by hpr1-5 with cordycepin treatment, which prematurely terminates transcription. The defect in the THO-interacting TEX1 protein of TREX but not the mRNA export factor SAC3B also reduced the total and nuclear RTE1 levels. SERINE-ARGININE-RICH (SR proteins are involved mRNA splicing, and we found that SR protein SR33 co-localized with HPR1 in nuclear speckles, which agreed with the association of human TREX with the splicing machinery. We reveal a role for HPR1 in RTE1 expression during transcription elongation and less likely during export. Gene expression involved in ethylene signaling suppression was not reduced by the hpr1-5 mutation, which indicates selectivity of HPR1 for RTE1 expression affecting the consequent ethylene response. Thus

  20. Novel gaseous ethylene binding inhibitor prevents ethylene effects in potted flowering plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serek, M.; Reid, M.S. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Horticulture); Sisler, E.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1994-11-01

    A 6-hour fumigation of flowering Begonia xelatior hybrida Fotsch. Najada' and Rosa', B. xtuberhybrida Voss. Non-Stop', Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tropicana', and Rosa hybrida L. Victory Parade' plants with 1-MCP, (formerly designated as SIS-X), a gaseous nonreversible ethylene binding inhibitor, strongly inhibited exogenous ethylene effects such as bud and flower drop, leaf abscission, and accelerated flower senescence. The inhibitory effects of 1-MCP increased linearly with concentration, and at 20 nl-liter[sup [minus]1] this compound gave equal protection to that afforded by spraying the plants with a 0.5 STS mM solution. Chemical names used: 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), silver thiosulfate (STS).

  1. Ethylene: Role in Fruit Abscission and Dehiscence Processes 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, John A.; Morgan, Page W.

    1972-01-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  2. Ethylene: role in fruit abscission and dehiscence processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, J A; Morgan, P W

    1972-12-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  3. Radicidation as an alternative for ethylene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1985-01-01

    The application of ethylene oxide to sterilize dry foodstuff additions proved to be a source of danger both for the personnel of the food preservation industry and for the consumers due to the residue of some chemicals and toxic reaction products which can not be removed from the foodstuff. A more advantageous and less harmful alternative for the reduction of the number of germs is offered by using ionizing radiation. Based on a great number of references, the applicability and effectiveness of radicidation for the preservation of spices, dry vegetable powders, sugar, thickening materials, protein and enzyme products were confirmed. Regarding the economic aspects, this method can be compared with the traditional chemical treatment. Commercial licenses have been issued by the health organizations of 12 countries.

  4. Information theory and the ethylene genetic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, José S; Díaz, José

    2011-10-01

    information content in the input message that the cell's genetic machinery is processing during a given time interval. Furthermore, combining Information Theory with the frequency response analysis of dynamical systems we can examine the cell's genetic response to input signals with varying frequencies, amplitude and form, in order to determine if the cell can distinguish between different regimes of information flow from the environment. In the particular case of the ethylene signaling pathway, the amount of information managed by the root cell of Arabidopsis can be correlated with the frequency of the input signal. The ethylene signaling pathway cuts off very low and very high frequencies, allowing a window of frequency response in which the nucleus reads the incoming message as a varying input. Outside of this window the nucleus reads the input message as an approximately non-varying one. This frequency response analysis is also useful to estimate the rate of information transfer during the transport of each new ERF1 molecule into the nucleus. Additionally, application of Information Theory to analysis of the flow of information in the ethylene signaling pathway provides a deeper insight in the form in which the transition between auxin and ethylene hormonal activity occurs during a circadian cycle. An ambitious goal for the future would be to use Information Theory as a theoretical foundation for a suitable model of the information flow that runs at each level and through all levels of biological organization.

  5. Radicidation as an alternative for ethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Jozsef

    1985-01-01

    The application of ethylene oxide to sterilize dry foodstuff additions proved to be a source of danger both for the personnel of the food preservation industry and for the consumers due to the residue of some chemicals and toxic reaction products which can not be removed from the foodstuff. A more advantageous and less harmful alternative for the reduction of the number of germs is offered by using ionizing radiation. Based on a great number of references, the applicability and effectiveness of radicidation for the preservation of spices, dry vegetable powders, sugar, thickening materials, protein and enzyme products were confirmed. Regarding the economic aspects, this method can be compared with the traditional chemical treatment. Commercial licenses have been issued by the health organizations of 12 countries. (V.N.)

  6. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1997-11-18

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 31 figs.

  7. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-08-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs.

  8. Palladium/IzQO-Catalyzed Coordination-Insertion Copolymerization of Ethylene and 1,1-Disubstituted Ethylenes Bearing a Polar Functional Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hina; Nakano, Ryo; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2018-02-07

    Coordination-insertion copolymerization of ethylene with 1,1-disubstituted ethylenes bearing a polar functional group, such as methyl methacrylate (MMA), is a long-standing challenge in catalytic polymerization. The major obstacle for this process is the huge difference in reactivity of ethylene versus 1,1-disubstituted ethylenes toward both coordination and insertion. Herein we report the copolymerization of ethylene and 1,1-disubstituted ethylenes by using an imidazo[1,5-a]quinolin-9-olate-1-ylidene-supported palladium catalyst. Various types of 1,1-disubstituted ethylenes were successfully incorporated into the polyethylene chain. In-depth characterization of the obtained copolymers and mechanistic inferences drawn from stoichiometric reactions of alkylpalladium complexes with methyl methacrylate and ethylene indicate that the copolymerization proceeds by the same coordination-insertion mechanism that has been postulated for ethylene.

  9. Studi Experimental Penggunaan Venturi Scrubber dan Cyclonic Separator Untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja pada Sistem Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR dalam Menurunkan NOX pada Motor Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsu Dlukha N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu cara yang efektif untuk mengurangi NOX adalah dengan menggunakan metode Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR. Dengan metode EGR, oksigen yang masuk ke ruang bakar akan berkurang sehingga NOX dapat diturunkan dengan signifikan, akan tetapi power dari mesin tersebut juga akan berkurang dan Particulate Matter (PM akan naik secara signifikan. Dalam penelitian ini dibahas penggunaan EGR yang telah di optimalkan dengan penambahan venturi scrubber dan cyclonic separator, tujuannya mengurangi NOX tanpa meningkatkan PM. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan NOX turun sebesar 48.89% dan PM turun dari 69,87%  menjadi 9.87%.

  10. Root Formation in Ethylene-Insensitive Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David G.; Gubrium, Erika K.; Barrett, James E.; Nell, Terril A.; Klee, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with ethylene-insensitive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and petunia (Petunia × hybrida) plants were conducted to determine if normal or adventitious root formation is affected by ethylene insensitivity. Ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (NR) tomato plants produced more belowground root mass but fewer aboveground adventitious roots than wild-type Pearson plants. Applied auxin (indole-3-butyric acid) increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings of wild-type plants but had little or no effect on rooting of NR plants. Reduced adventitious root formation was also observed in ethylene-insensitive transgenic petunia plants. Applied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings from NR and wild-type plants, but NR cuttings produced fewer adventitious roots than wild-type cuttings. These data suggest that the promotive effect of auxin on adventitious rooting is influenced by ethylene responsiveness. Seedling root growth of tomato in response to mechanical impedance was also influenced by ethylene sensitivity. Ninety-six percent of wild-type seedlings germinated and grown on sand for 7 d grew normal roots into the medium, whereas 47% of NR seedlings displayed elongated taproots, shortened hypocotyls, and did not penetrate the medium. These data indicate that ethylene has a critical role in various responses of roots to environmental stimuli. PMID:10482660

  11. Ethylene and carbon dioxide exchange in leaves and whole plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodrow, L

    1989-01-01

    This investigation addresses the interactions between CO{sub 2}, ethylene, and photosynthetic carbon metabolism in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Xanthium strumarium L. Rates of ethylene release were examined at alternate leaf positions on vegetative tomato plants. The rates of endogenous and ACC-stimulated ethylene release per unit leaf area were highest in the young, rapidly expanding leaves. When plants were grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment rates of ethylene release from the leaf tissue were consistently higher than from tissue grown at ambient levels. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations during short-term incubations further enhanced the rates of ethylene release. Ethylene release from ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) applied to intact tomato plants provided a model system in which to study the effects of ethylene on photosynthetic metabolism and carbon partitioning. The ethephon treated plants exhibited leaf epinasty, flower bud abscission, inhibition of leaf expansion, adventitious root development, and reduction of dry matter accumulation and growth over time. Rates of steady state photosynthesis, respiration, photorespiration, transpiration, and partitioning of recently fixed {sup 14}C into neutral, acidic, basic, and insoluble leaf fractions were unaltered 24 h after ethephon application.

  12. Aging tests of ethylene contaminated argon/ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Bauer, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report on aging tests of argon/ethane gas with a minor (1800 ppM) component of ethylene. The measurements were first conducted with the addition of alcohol to test the suppression of aging by this additive, with exposure up to ∼1.5 C/cm. Tests have included: a proportional tube with ethanol, another with isopropyl alcohol, and for comparison a tube has also been run with ethanol and argon/ethane from CDF's old (ethylene-free) ethane supply. The aging test with ethanol showed no difference between the ethylene-free and the ethylene tube. Furthermore, raw aging rates of argon/ethane and argon/ethane/ethylene were measured by exposing tubes without the addition of alcohol to about 0.1 C/cm. Again, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, we see no evidence that ethylene contamination up to 1800 ppM has any adverse effect on wire aging. However, this level of ethylene does seem to significantly suppress the gas gain

  13. Methionine metabolism and ethylene formation in etiolated pea stem sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, N.; Kende, H.

    1979-01-01

    Stem sections of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were incubated overnight on tracer amounts of L-[U- 14 C]methionine and, on the following morning, on 0.1 millimolar indoleacetic acid to induce ethylene formation. Following the overnight incubation, over 70% of the radioactivity in the soluble fraction was shown to be associated with S-methylmethionine (SMM). The specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved closely paralleled that of carbon atoms 3 and 4 of methionine extracted from the tissue and was always higher than that determined for carbon atoms 3 and 4 of extracted SMM. Overnight incubation of pea stem sections on 1 millimolar methionine enhanced indoleacetic acid-induced ethylene formation by 5 to 10%. Under the same conditions, 1 millimolar homocysteine thiolactone increased ethylene synthesis by 20 to 25%, while SMM within a concentration range of 0.1 to 10 millimolar did not influence ethylene production. When unlabeled methionine or homocysteine thiolactone was applied to stem sections which had been incubated overnight in L-[U- 14 C]methionine, the specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved was considerably lowered. Application of unlabeled SMM reduced the specific radioactivity of ethylene only slightly

  14. Infrared photodissociation of van der Waals molecules containing ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casassa, M.P.; Bomse, D.S.; Janda, K.C.

    1981-01-01

    Vibrational predissociation line shapes in the n 7 region of the ethylene spectrum are measured for van der Waals molecules of ethylene bound to Ne, Ar, Kr, C 2 H 4 , C 2 F 4 , and larger ethylene clusters. The predissociative rate is very fast for this group of molecules. The vibrationally excited state lifetimes are 0.44, 0.59 and 0.89 x 10 -12 sec for (C 2 H 4 ) 2 , ArxC 2 H 4 , and C 2 H 4 xC 2 F 4 respectively. That the observed line shapes are homogeneous is demonstrated by the fact that a low-power, narrow frequency bandwidth laser can dissociate a large fraction of the initial ensemble of ethylene clusters. The observed transition probability is proportional to the number of ethylene subunits for clusters containing three or fewer ethylene subunits. These observations are interpreted in terms of intramolecular energy flow directly from ethylene n 7 to the weak van der Waals modes of motion

  15. The evolution of ethylene signaling in plant chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Simon C; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-07-01

    Ethylene is a key hormone in plant development, mediating plant responses to abiotic environmental stress, and interactions with attackers and mutualists. Here, we provide a synthesis of the role of ethylene in the context of plant ecology and evolution, and a prospectus for future research in this area. We focus on the regulatory function of ethylene in multi-organismal interactions. In general, plant interactions with different types of organisms lead to reduced or enhanced levels of ethylene. This in turn affects not only the plant's response to the interacting organism at hand, but also to other organisms in the community. These community-level effects become observable as enhanced or diminished relationships with future commensals, and systemic resistance or susceptibility to secondary attackers. Ongoing comparative genomic and phenotypic analyses continue to shed light on these interactions. These studies have revealed that plants and interacting organisms from separate kingdoms of life have independently evolved the ability to produce, perceive, and respond to ethylene. This signature of convergent evolution of ethylene signaling at the phenotypic level highlights the central role ethylene metabolism and signaling plays in plant interactions with microbes and animals.

  16. Ethylene production by plants in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    Ethylene production by 20-m^2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce and potato was monitored throughout growth and development in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Biomass Production Chamber. Chamber ethylene concentrations rose during periods of rapid growth for all four species, reaching 120 parts per billion (ppb) for wheat, 60 ppb for soybean, and 40 to 50 ppb for lettuce and potato. Following this, ethylene concentrations declined during seed fill and maturation (wheat and soybean), or remained relatively constant (potato). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. The highest ethylene production rates (unadjusted for chamber leakage) ranged from 0.04 to 0.06 ml m^-2 day^-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or approximately 0.8 to 1.1 nl g^-1 fresh weight h^-1 Results suggest that ethylene production by plants is a normal event coupled to periods of rapid metabolic activity, and that ethylene removal or control measures should be considered for growing crops in a tightly closed CELSS.

  17. Ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds: its physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, A N

    1972-12-01

    The germination and pregermination ethylene production of Grand Rapids lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) incubated at 20 C after a red light treatment are inhibited if the seeds are first imbibed at 30 C for 36 hours. In this study, low concentrations of ethylene were found to enhance the germination of seeds pretreated at 30 C more than that of untreated controls. In the presence of high concentrations of ethylene, pretreated seeds and controls germinated at a similar rate. These results are consistent with the view that a prolonged imbibition at 30 C inhibits germination at a lower temperature through its effect on the ethylene production of the seeds. As a further test of the hypothesis, estimates were made of the pregermination ethylene content of untreated seeds and pretreated seeds incubated in the presence of sufficient ethylene to make them germinate as rapidly as untreated seeds. The values obtained were 0.65 and 0.74 nanoliter of ethylene per gram (dry weight) of seeds, respectively.

  18. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for efficient ethylene glycol utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franden, Mary Ann; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Li, Wing-Jin; Wagner, Neil J; Cleveland, Nicholas S; Michener, William E; Hauer, Bernhard; Blank, Lars M; Wierckx, Nick; Klebensberger, Janosch; Beckham, Gregg T

    2018-06-07

    Ethylene glycol is used as a raw material in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, in antifreeze, as a gas hydrate inhibitor in pipelines, and for many other industrial applications. It is metabolized by aerobic microbial processes via the highly toxic intermediates glycolaldehyde and glycolate through C2 metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has been engineered for environmental remediation applications given its high toxicity tolerance and broad substrate specificity, is not able to efficiently metabolize ethylene glycol, despite harboring putative genes for this purpose. To further expand the metabolic portfolio of P. putida, we elucidated the metabolic pathway to enable ethylene glycol via systematic overexpression of glyoxylate carboligase (gcl) in combination with other genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that all of the four genes in genomic proximity to gcl (hyi, glxR, ttuD, and pykF) are transcribed as an operon. Where the expression of only two genes (gcl and glxR) resulted in growth in ethylene glycol, improved growth and ethylene glycol utilization were observed when the entire gcl operon was expressed. Both glycolaldehyde and glyoxal inhibit growth in concentrations of ethylene glycol above 50 mM. To overcome this bottleneck, the additional overexpression of the glycolate oxidase (glcDEF) operon removes the glycolate bottleneck and minimizes the production of these toxic intermediates, permitting growth in up to 2 M (~124 g/L) and complete consumption of 0.5 M (31 g/L) ethylene glycol in shake flask experiments. In addition, the engineered strain enables conversion of ethylene glycol to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). Overall, this study provides a robust P. putida KT2440 strain for ethylene glycol consumption, which will serve as a foundational strain for further biocatalyst development for applications in the remediation of waste polyester plastics and

  19. Reactions of organic zinc- and cadmium elementoxides with ethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.A.; Krasnov, Yu.N.

    1980-01-01

    Studied are reactions of triphenylmethoxy, -triphenylsiloxyethylzinc and -cadmium with ethylene oxide in ratio of 1:1. Reactions have been carried out in tolyene solutions in ampules sealed in argon atmosphere. It is found that interaction of triphenylsiloxy-, triphenylmethoxyethylcadmium and triphenylsiloxyethylzinc with ethylene oxide occurs at the metal-carbon bond with formation of implantation products. Triphenylmethoxyethylzinc reacts with ethylene oxide both at the metal-carbon and metal-oxygen bonds. Alkoxytriphenylsiloxyderivatives of zinc and cadmium are thermally instable and decompose under the conditions of reaction (130 deg C) with migration of phenyl group from silicon to zinc or cadmium, giving alkoxyphenylderivative and with bensene splitting out

  20. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  1. Potential Use of a Weak Ethylene Receptor Mutant, Sletr1-2, as Breeding Material To Extend Fruit Shelf Life of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarok, Syariful; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Naoya; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-16

    Mutations in the ethylene receptor gene (SlETR1), Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, are effective in reducing ethylene sensitivity and improving fruit shelf life. In this study the effect of Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 mutations was investigated in F1 hybrid lines. These two mutants and control were crossed with four commercial pure-line tomatoes. The Sletr1-1 mutation showed undesirable pleiotropic effects in the F1 hybrid lines. The Sletr1-2 mutation was effective in improving fruit shelf life of F1 hybrid lines for 4-5 days longer. It was also effective in improving fruit firmness without change in fruit size, ethylene production, respiration rate, and total soluble solids or a great reduction in fruit color, lycopene, and β-carotene, although the titratable acidity was increased by Sletr1-2 mutation. These results indicate that the Sletr1-2 mutant allele has the potential to improve fruit shelf life via incorporation in tomato breeding programs.

  2. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene... Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers. Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene... purposes of this section, ethylene-1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers (1,4-benzene...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1570 - Poly-1-butene resins and butene/ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly-1-butene resins and butene/ethylene copolymers... resins and butene/ethylene copolymers. The poly-1-butene resins and butene/ethylene copolymers identified... the catalytic polymerization of 1-butene liquid monomer. Butene/ethylene copolymers are produced by...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1345 - Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate/ terephthalate copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate... Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate/ terephthalate copolymer. Ethylene/1, 3-phenylene... polymers complying with § 177.1630. (a) Identity. For the purpose of this section, ethylene/1,3-phenylene...

  6. In situ ring-opening polymerization of hydroxyapatite/poly (ethylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Hydroxyapatite/poly(ethylene adipate)--poly(ethylene terephthalate) biomaterials (HAp/PEA--PET) have been prepared by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic oligo(ethylene adipate)--oligo(ethylene terephthalate) (C-OEA--C-OET) in the porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds at 250 ...

  7. The effect of ethylene on transgenic melon ripening and fruit quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In cell wall expression analysis, MPG1 increased when fruits of transgenic melons were exposed to ethylene; showing they are ethylene- dependent. MPG2 decreased ... Ethylene productions in transgenic fruits were reestablished when ethylene was applied, exhibiting the same behavior as transgenic fruits. Antioxidant ...

  8. In situ ring-opening polymerization of hydroxyapatite/poly (ethylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydroxyapatite/poly(ethylene adipate)--poly(ethylene terephthalate) biomaterials (HAp/PEA--PET) have been prepared by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic oligo(ethylene adipate)--oligo(ethylene terephthalate) (C-OEA--C-OET) in the porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds at 250 °C for 24 h under ...

  9. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  10. Ethylene biosynthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase: a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Arianna; Borowski, Tomasz; Schofield, Christopher J; Siegbahn, Per E M

    2006-11-24

    The reaction catalyzed by the plant enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO) was investigated by using hybrid density functional theory. ACCO belongs to the non-heme iron(II) enzyme superfamily and carries out the bicarbonate-dependent two-electron oxidation of its substrate ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) concomitant with the reduction of dioxygen and oxidation of a reducing agent probably ascorbate. The reaction gives ethylene, CO(2), cyanide and two water molecules. A model including the mononuclear iron complex with ACC in the first coordination sphere was used to study the details of O-O bond cleavage and cyclopropane ring opening. Calculations imply that this unusual and complex reaction is triggered by a hydrogen atom abstraction step generating a radical on the amino nitrogen of ACC. Subsequently, cyclopropane ring opening followed by O-O bond heterolysis leads to a very reactive iron(IV)-oxo intermediate, which decomposes to ethylene and cyanoformate with very low energy barriers. The reaction is assisted by bicarbonate located in the second coordination sphere of the metal.

  11. Characterisation of the interaction between liquid film and flue gas flow at walls and internals in FGD scrubbers; Beschreibung der gegenseitigen Beeinflussung von Fluessigkeitsschicht und Rauchgasstroemung an Waenden und internen Einbauten in REA-Waeschern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Mario [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Lehrstuhl Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik; Fahlenkamp, Hans

    2012-07-01

    The VGB Research Project 'Characterisation of the interaction between liquid film and flue gas flow at walls and internals in FGD scrubbers' covers the droplet wall interaction in flue gas scrubbers. In the context of optimised FGD design, especially in fulfilling the increasing requirements on the conventional flue gas treatment by the CCS design, a better understanding of the flow behaviour near the wall is crucial. Within the framework of the research project an experimental setup is designed, built up and run. (orig.)

  12. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  13. Energy Conservation Alternatives Study (ECAS): Conceptual Design and Implementation Assessment of a Utility Steam Plant with Conventional Furnace and Wet Lime Stack Gas Scrubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale H.

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to estimate the technical/economic characteristics of a steam power plant (3500 pounds per square inch gauge, 1000 degrees Fahrenheit / 1000 degrees Fahrenheit) with a coal-burning radiant furnace and a wet lime stack gas scrubber to control sulfur emissions. Particulate emissions were controlled by an electrostatic precipitator operating at 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The stack gas from the scrubber was reheated from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 250 degrees Fahrenheit as a base case, and from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 175 degrees Fahrenheit as an alternate case. The study was performed on a basis consistent with the General Electric ECAS Phase II evaluation of advanced energy conversion systems for electric utility baseload applications using coal or coal-derived fuels. A conceptual design of the power plant was developed, including the on-site calcination of limestone to lime and the provision of sludge ponds to store the products of flue gas scrubbing. From this design, estimates were derived for power plant efficiency, capital cost, environmental intrusion characteristics, natural resource requirements, and cost of electricity at an assumed capacity factor of 65 percent. An implementation assessment was performed where factors affecting applicability of the conceptual design power plant in electric utility generation systems were appraised. At 250 degrees Fahrenheit and 175 degrees Fahrenheit stack gas temperatures respectively, the plants showed a cost of electricity of 39.8 and 37.0 mills per kilowatt-hours and overall plant efficiencies of 32 percent and 34 percent.

  14. Interactions between ethylene, abscisic acid and cytokinin during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interactions between ethylene, abscisic acid and cytokinin during germination and seedling establishment in Arabidopsis. VEERAPUTHIRAN SUBBIAH and KARINGU JANARDHAN REDDY. J. Biosci. 35(3), September 2010, 451–459 © Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary figure. Supplementary figure 1.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation and ethylene oxide on neomycin sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, N.G.S.; Rajagopalan, S.

    1981-01-01

    Neomycin is affected by ethylene oxide but not by gamma radiation (2.75 Mrad). Differential refractometry is more advantageous in quantitating neomycin A, B and C than is the ninhydrin method. (Auth.)

  16. Ethylene Production Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Compliance Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    This July 2006 document is intended to help owners and operators of ethylene processes understand and comply with EPA's maximum achievable control technology standards promulgated on July 12, 2002, as amended on April 13, 2005 and April 20, 2006.

  17. Diffusivities and Viscosities of Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomers †

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Escobedo, Fernando; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusivities and viscosities of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) oligomer melts with 1 to 12 repeat units have been obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations using the TraPPE-UA force field. The simulations generated diffusion coefficients

  18. Understanding tantalum-catalyzed ethylene trimerization: When things go wrong

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin; Credendino, Raffaele; Callens, Emmanuel; Atiqullah, Muhammad; Al-Harthi, Mamdouh Ahmed; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene oligomerization to linear low-molecular-mass α-olefins is an open industrial challenge. Ta-based catalysts are promising systems, but the unclear understanding of their behavior prevents systematic advances in the field. We demonstrate here

  19. effects of ethylene oxide resterilisation and in-vitro degradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Subjects: Two composite meshes were used in the study: One mesh is ... Ethylene oxide gas sterilisation was performed ... were completed for control and resterilisation specimens. .... lowers in-hospital care expenses.

  20. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Aaron M; McCollough, Forest W; Eldreth, Bryan L; Binder, Brad M; Abel, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB). In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB). Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations, and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms underlying ethylene

  1. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Prescott

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. However, the dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB. In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB. Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms

  2. Characterization of an ethylene-related small multigene family from Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdsworth, M

    1987-01-01

    cDNA clones derived from a tomato ripening-related cDNA library were used in RNA dot-blot experiments to investigate changes in the abundance of ripening related mRNAs during both natural and ethylene-induced ripening. Accumulation of the ripening-related mRNAs during natural ripening began at the time of autocatalytic ethylene production by the fruit, reached a maximum in orange fruit and declined as they became red. Analysis of the induction kinetics of these mRNAs revealed several patterns of expression as tomatoes ripened. The pTOM 13 cDNA insert was sequenced and used to identify related sequences in a tomato genomic library. 21 hybridizing genomic clones were isolated and divided into three groups of similar sequences based on their restriction maps. The DNA sequences of two of these groups of genomic clones that hybridized to pTOM 13 were determined. This allowed the identification of an incomplete pTOM 13-homologous gene, and a closely related complete gene. Nuclei were isolated from unwounded and wounded leaves and were used in run-off transcription experiments in the presence of (..cap alpha../sup 32/P)UTP. (/sup 32/P)-labelled RNA obtained from transcription experiments was used in dot-blot experiments against pTOM 13 and related genomic subclones. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of pTOM 13-related genes in leaves may be controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  3. Evaluating OSHA's ethylene oxide standard: exposure determinants in Massachusetts hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, A D; Kelsey, K T

    2001-03-01

    This study sought to identify determinants of workplace exposures to ethylene oxide to assess the effect of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) 1984 ethylene oxide standard. An in-depth survey of all hospitals in Massachusetts that used ethylene oxide from 1990 through 1992 (96% participation, N = 90) was conducted. Three types of exposure events were modeled with logistic regression: exceeding the 8-hour action level, exceeding the 15-minute excursion limit, and worker exposures during unmeasured accidental releases. Covariates were drawn from data representing an ecologic framework including direct and indirect potential exposure determinants. After adjustment for frequencies of ethylene oxide use and exposure monitoring, a significant inverse relation was observed between exceeding the action level and the use of combined sterilizer-aerators, an engineering control technology developed after the passage of the OSHA standard. Conversely, the use of positive-pressure sterilizers that employ ethylene oxide gas mixtures was strongly related to both exceeding the excursion limit and the occurrence of accidental releases. These findings provide evidence of a positive effect of OSHA's ethylene oxide standard and specific targets for future prevention and control efforts.

  4. Ethylene Formation by Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol with Industrial Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Shing Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is the primary component in most plastics, making it economically valuable. It is produced primarily by steam-cracking of hydrocarbons, but can alternatively be produced by the dehydration of ethanol, which can be produced from fermentation processes using renewable substrates such as glucose, starch and others. Due to rising oil prices, researchers now look at alternative reactions to produce green ethylene, but the process is far from being as economically competitive as using fossil fuels. Many studies have investigated catalysts and new reaction engineering technologies to increase ethylene yield and to lower reaction temperature, in an effort to make the reaction applicable in industry and most cost-efficient. This paper presents various lab synthesized catalysts, reaction conditions, and reactor technologies that achieved high ethylene yield at reasonable reaction temperatures, and evaluates their practicality in industrial application in comparison with steam-cracking plants. The most promising were found to be a nanoscale catalyst HZSM-5 with 99.7% ethylene selectivity at 240 °C and 630 h lifespan, using a microreactor technology with mechanical vapor recompression, and algae-produced ethanol to make ethylene.

  5. Mechanistic studies of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGeehan, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that elicits a wide variety of responses in plant tissue. Among these responses are the hastening of abscission, ripening and senescence. In 1979 it was discovered that 1-amino-1-cyclopropane carboxylic acid is the immediate biosynthetic precursor to ethylene. Given the obvious economic significance of ethylene production the authors concentrated their studies on the conversion of ACC to ethylene. They delved into mechanistic aspects of ACC oxidation and they studied potential inhibitors of ethylene forming enzyme (EFE). They synthesized various analogs of ACC and found that EFE shows good stereodiscrimination among alkyl substituted ACC analogs with the 1R, 2S stereoisomer being processed nine times faster than the 1S, 2R isomer in the MeACC series. They also synthesized 2-cyclopropyl ACC which is a good competitive inhibitor of EFE. This compound also causes time dependent loss of EFE activity leading us to believe it is an irreversible inhibitor of ethylene formation. The synthesis of these analogs has also allowed them to develop a spectroscopic technique to assign the relative stereochemistry of alkyl groups. 13 C NMR allows them to assign the alkyl stereochemistry based upon gamma-shielding effects on the carbonyl resonance. Lastly, they measured kinetic isotope effects on the oxidation of ACC in vivo and in vitro and found that ACC is oxidized by a rate-determining 1-electron removal from nitrogen in close accord with mechanisms for the oxidation of other alkyl amines

  6. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with ethylene adsorbed on nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchak, V.N.; Tret'yakov, I.I.; Kislyuk, M.U.

    1976-01-01

    The reactivity of ethylene adsorbed on the pure films of nickel at various temperatures was studied with respect to hydrogen atoms generated in the gaseous phase. The experiments were conducted in a glass vacuum apparatus enabling one to obtain the highest vacuum up to 2x20 -10 torr. The catalyst, nickel films, was produced by their deposition onto the walls of the glass reactor at a pressure of the residual gas of 10 -9 torr and a temperature of the walls of 25 deg C. Gas purity was analyzed by the mass spectrometric method. The ethylene adsorbed at the temperatures below 173 deg K reacted readily with the hydrogen atoms to yield ethane. The process ran without practically any activation energy involved and was limited by the attachment of the first hydrogen atom to the ethylene molecule. The efficiency of this interaction was 0.02 of the number of the hydrogen atoms collisions against the surface occupied by the ethylene. The adsorption of the ethylene at room and higher temperatures was accompanied by its disproportioning with the release of the hydrogen into the gaseous phase and a serious destruction of the ethylene molecules adsorbed to produce hydrogen residues interacting with neither molecular nor atomic hydrogen [ru

  7. Ethylene Formation by Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol with Industrial Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denise; Dai, Der-Jong; Wu, Ho-Shing

    2012-12-28

    Ethylene is the primary component in most plastics, making it economically valuable. It is produced primarily by steam-cracking of hydrocarbons, but can alternatively be produced by the dehydration of ethanol, which can be produced from fermentation processes using renewable substrates such as glucose, starch and others. Due to rising oil prices, researchers now look at alternative reactions to produce green ethylene, but the process is far from being as economically competitive as using fossil fuels. Many studies have investigated catalysts and new reaction engineering technologies to increase ethylene yield and to lower reaction temperature, in an effort to make the reaction applicable in industry and most cost-efficient. This paper presents various lab synthesized catalysts, reaction conditions, and reactor technologies that achieved high ethylene yield at reasonable reaction temperatures, and evaluates their practicality in industrial application in comparison with steam-cracking plants. The most promising were found to be a nanoscale catalyst HZSM-5 with 99.7% ethylene selectivity at 240 °C and 630 h lifespan, using a microreactor technology with mechanical vapor recompression, and algae-produced ethanol to make ethylene.

  8. Microfluidic Separation of Ethylene and Ethane Using Frustrated Lewis Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Dan; Stephan, Douglas W; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2015-12-21

    Separation of gaseous olefins and paraffins is one of the most important separation processes in the industry. Development of new cost-effective technologies aims at reducing the high energy consumption during the separation process. Here, we took advantage of the reaction of frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) with ethylene to achieve reactive extraction of ethylene from ethylene-ethane mixtures. The extraction was studied using a microfluidic platform, which enabled a rapid, high-throughput assessment of reaction conditions to optimize gas separation efficiency. A separation factor of 7.3 was achieved for ethylene from a 1:1 volume ratio mixture of ethylene and ethane, which corresponded to an extracted ethylene purity of 88 %. The results obtained in the microfluidic studies were validated using infrared spectroscopy. This work paves the way for further development of the FLPs and optimization of reaction conditions, thereby maximizing the separation efficiency of olefins from their mixtures with paraffins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Drinking water guideline for ethylene thiourea, a metabolite of ethylene bisdithiocarbamate fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frakes, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The ethylene bisdithiocarbamate fungicides are the most heavily used pesticides in Maine. Ethylene thiourea (ETU) is a metabolite and environmental decomposition product of these compounds, is highly water soluble, and has been detected in groundwater in the state. ETU is a recognized animal carcinogen and teratogen. When administered in the diet, ETU produced a significant increase in thyroid carcinomas in rats in two studies. Two strains of mice fed ETU in the diet developed an increased incidence of hepatomas and a slight increase in lymphomas. Application of the linearized multistage model resulted in virtually safe doses (10(-5) lifetime cancer risk) of 0.25 to 1.6 micrograms/kg/day. The major teratologic effect has been the development of hydrocephalus and other CNS defects postnatally, resulting in a high mortality rate among the offspring. The NOEL for this effect was 5 mg/kg in a single oral dose. Retarded parietal ossification was observed at 5 mg/kg/day. Serious nononcogenic thyroid effects, such as goiter, decreased 131I uptake, and reduced thyroxine production, have been observed. Thyroid hyperplasia was produced at doses as low as 0.3 mg/kg/day ETU ingested in the diet. Based on protection against thyroid and/or liver tumors and alteration in thyroid function, the recommended Drinking Water Guideline for ETU is determined to be 3 ppb. This will also provide protection against developmental effects, since these occur at doses that are one to two orders of magnitude higher. 37 references

  10. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment of Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in responsible to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lines concrete vault, replacing and existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. New scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation

  11. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (central off-gas scrubber facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lined concrete vault, replacing an existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. Ne scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation. A formal design certification statement is included herein on Page 53, a certification covering the installation shall be executed prior to placing the modified facility into service

  12. A natural frameshift mutation in Campanula EIL2 correlates with ethylene insensitivity in flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Olsen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The phytohormone ethylene plays a central role in development and senescence of climacteric flowers. In ornamental plant production, ethylene sensitive plants are usually protected against negative effects of ethylene by application of chemical inhibitors. In Campanula, flowers...... are sensitive to even minute concentrations of ethylene. RESULTS: Monitoring flower longevity in three Campanula species revealed C. portenschlagiana (Cp) as ethylene sensitive, C. formanekiana (Cf) with intermediate sensitivity and C. medium (Cm) as ethylene insensitive. We identified key elements in ethylene...... signal transduction, specifically in Ethylene Response Sensor 2 (ERS2), Constitutive Triple Response 1 (CTR1) and Ethylene Insensitive 3- Like 1 and 2 (EIL1 and EIL2) homologous. Transcripts of ERS2, CTR1 and EIL1 were constitutively expressed in all species both throughout flower development...

  13. Simultaneous treatment of NO and SO{sub 2} with aqueous NaClO{sub 2} solution in a wet scrubber combined with a plasma electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun-Woo [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Regional Innovation Center for Environmental Technology of Thermal Plasma (RIC-ETTP), INHA University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sooseok, E-mail: sooseok@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong-Wha, E-mail: dwpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Regional Innovation Center for Environmental Technology of Thermal Plasma (RIC-ETTP), INHA University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • This study was conducted to investigate simultaneous removal of NO and SO{sub 2}. • Proposed process consists of wet chemical reactor and non-thermal plasma reactor. • In the wet chemical reactor, NO and SO{sub 2} were absorbed and oxidized by NaClO{sub 2}. • In the non-thermal plasma reactor, aerosol particles were collected on anode surface. • NO and SO{sub 2} were removed more efficiently by proposed process than other methods. - Abstract: NO and SO{sub 2} gases that are generally produced in thermal power plants and incinerators were simultaneously removed by using a wet scrubber combined with a plasma electrostatic precipitator. The wet scrubber was used for the absorption and oxidation of NO and SO{sub 2}, and non-thermal plasma was employed for the electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles. NO and SO{sub 2} gases were absorbed and oxidized by aerosol particles of NaClO{sub 2} solution in the wet scrubber. NO and SO{sub 2} reacted with the generated NaClO{sub 2} aerosol particles, NO{sub 2} gas, and aqueous ions such as NO{sub 2}{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, HSO{sub 3}{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. The aerosol particles were negatively charged and collected on the surface of grounded anode in the plasma electrostatic precipitator. The NO and SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies of the proposed system were 94.4% and 100% for gas concentrations of 500 mg/m{sup 3} and a total gas flow rate of 60 Nm{sup 3}/h, when the molar flow rate of NaClO{sub 2} and the gas–liquid contact time were 50 mmol/min and 1.25 s, respectively. The total amount and number of aerosol particles in the exhaust gas were reduced to 7.553 μg/m{sup 3} and 210 /cm{sup 3} at the maximum plasma input power of 68.8 W, which are similar to the values for clean air.

  14. Ethylene Receptor 1 (ETR1) Is Sufficient and Has the Predominant Role in Mediating Inhibition of Ethylene Responses by Silver in Arabidopsis thaliana*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Brittany K.; Binder, Brad M.

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene influences many processes in Arabidopsis thaliana through the action of five receptor isoforms. All five isoforms use copper as a cofactor for binding ethylene. Previous research showed that silver can substitute for copper as a cofactor for ethylene binding activity in the ETR1 ethylene receptor yet also inhibit ethylene responses in plants. End-point and rapid kinetic analyses of dark-grown seedling growth revealed that the effects of silver are mostly dependent upon ETR1, and ETR1 alone is sufficient for the effects of silver. Ethylene responses in etr1-6 etr2-3 ein4-4 triple mutants were not blocked by silver. Transformation of these triple mutants with cDNA for each receptor isoform under the promoter control of ETR1 revealed that the cETR1 transgene completely rescued responses to silver while the cETR2 transgene failed to rescue these responses. The other three isoforms partially rescued responses to silver. Ethylene binding assays on the binding domains of the five receptor isoforms expressed in yeast showed that silver supports ethylene binding to ETR1 and ERS1 but not the other isoforms. Thus, silver may have an effect on ethylene signaling outside of the ethylene binding pocket of the receptors. Ethylene binding to ETR1 with silver was ∼30% of binding with copper. However, alterations in the Kd for ethylene binding to ETR1 and the half-time of ethylene dissociation from ETR1 do not underlie this lower binding. Thus, it is likely that the lower ethylene binding activity of ETR1 with silver is due to fewer ethylene binding sites generated with silver versus copper. PMID:22692214

  15. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  16. Ethylene-Related Gene Expression Networks in Wood Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Seyfferth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thickening of tree stems is the result of secondary growth, accomplished by the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. Secondary growth of the stem entails developmental cascades resulting in the formation of secondary phloem outwards and secondary xylem (i.e., wood inwards of the stem. Signaling and transcriptional reprogramming by the phytohormone ethylene modifies cambial growth and cell differentiation, but the molecular link between ethylene and secondary growth remains unknown. We addressed this shortcoming by analyzing expression profiles and co-expression networks of ethylene pathway genes using the AspWood transcriptome database which covers all stages of secondary growth in aspen (Populus tremula stems. ACC synthase expression suggests that the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC is synthesized during xylem expansion and xylem cell maturation. Ethylene-mediated transcriptional reprogramming occurs during all stages of secondary growth, as deduced from AspWood expression profiles of ethylene-responsive genes. A network centrality analysis of the AspWood dataset identified EIN3D and 11 ERFs as hubs. No overlap was found between the co-expressed genes of the EIN3 and ERF hubs, suggesting target diversification and hence independent roles for these transcription factor families during normal wood formation. The EIN3D hub was part of a large co-expression gene module, which contained 16 transcription factors, among them several new candidates that have not been earlier connected to wood formation and a VND-INTERACTING 2 (VNI2 homolog. We experimentally demonstrated Populus EIN3D function in ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ERF hubs ERF118 and ERF119 were connected on the basis of their expression pattern and gene co-expression module composition to xylem cell expansion and secondary cell wall formation, respectively. We hereby establish data resources for ethylene-responsive genes and

  17. Theoretical investigation of the reaction of Mn+ with ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Wenyue; Zhao, Lianming; Liu, Zhaochun; Lu, Xiaoqing; Shan, Honghong

    2012-01-12

    The potential energy surfaces of Mn(+) reaction with ethylene oxide in both the septet and quintet states are investigated at the B3LYP/DZVP level of theory. The reaction paths leading to the products of MnO(+), MnO, MnCH(2)(+), MnCH(3), and MnH(+) are described in detail. Two types of encounter complexes of Mn(+) with ethylene oxide are formed because of attachments of the metal at different sites of ethylene oxide, i.e., the O atom and the CC bond. Mn(+) would insert into a C-O bond or the C-C bond of ethylene oxide to form two different intermediates prior to forming various products. MnO(+)/MnO and MnH(+) are formed in the C-O activation mechanism, while both C-O and C-C activations account for the MnCH(2)(+)/MnCH(3) formation. Products MnO(+), MnCH(2)(+), and MnH(+) could be formed adiabatically on the quintet surface, while formation of MnO and MnCH(3) is endothermic on the PESs with both spins. In agreement with the experimental observations, the excited state a(5)D is calculated to be more reactive than the ground state a(7)S. This theoretical work sheds new light on the experimental observations and provides fundamental understanding of the reaction mechanism of ethylene oxide with transition metal cations.

  18. Novel and existing data for a future physiological toxicokinetic model of ethylene and its metabolite ethylene oxide in mouse, rat, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Johannes Georg; Artati, Anna; Li, Qiang; Pütz, Christian; Semder, Brigitte; Klein, Dominik; Kessler, Winfried

    2015-11-05

    The olefin ethylene is a ubiquitously found gas. It originates predominantly from plants, combustion processes and industrial sources. In mammals, inhaled ethylene is metabolized by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, particularly by cytochrome P450 2E1, to ethylene oxide, an epoxide that directly alkylates proteins and DNA. Ethylene oxide was mutagenic in vitro and in vivo in insects and mammals and carcinogenic in rats and mice. A physiological toxicokinetic model is a most useful tool for estimating the ethylene oxide burden in ethylene-exposed rodents and humans. The only published physiological toxicokinetic model for ethylene and metabolically produced ethylene oxide is discussed. Additionally, existing data required for the development of a future model and for testing its predictive accuracy are reviewed and extended by new gas uptake studies with ethylene and ethylene oxide in B6C3F1 mice and with ethylene in F344 rats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract no. 13460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanochko, Ronald M; Corcoran, Connie

    2012-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling

  20. Inhibition of the Nitrification Process of Activated Sludge Micro-Organism by Scrubber Water from an Industrial Flue Gas Cleaning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2007-01-01

    the nitrogen removal. A major sewage cleaning plant in the southern part of Denmark is a recipient of industrial sewage from a major fish meal industry. Severe nitrification inhibition was observed in scrubber water from an incineration of process air, and the processes that lead to the production were stopped......The microbial transformation of ammonia to nitrate, the nitrification, is a central process in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. In a modern wastewater treatment plant, the nitrification process is a key process in the removal of nitrogen and inhibitory compounds in sewage can seriously affect....... In order to investigate the relation between incineration temperatures and the production of inhibitory compounds, the process air was burned at temperatures from 800°C to 1000°C. The termically affected condensate was collected and the nitrification inhibition effect of the condensate was tested using...

  1. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  2. Ethylene dibromide: toxicology and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, G V; Kilgore, W W; Li, M Y

    1990-01-01

    Since the 1920s ethylene dibromide's (EDB's) primary use has been as a scavenger of lead compounds in gasoline. Gasoline evaporation contributed to EDB emissions into the environment. In 1973, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued regulations to reduce the use of leaded gasoline and this has resulted in lower EDB usage and emissions. In addition, EDB has been used extensively as a fumigant since 1948. Its volatility and versatility, based on chemical and biocidal properties, led to its use as a soil sterilant, as a spot fumigant of grain milling machinery, and as a control agent in grain, fruit and vegetable infestations. In 1977 the EPA began a review of EDB's pesticidal uses which eventually led to its cancellation for most agricultural applications. Disposal of EDB and contamination of water supplies remain major environmental concerns. EDB can be absorbed via the dermal, oral and inhalation routes. It appears to be metabolized in vivo by an oxidative pathway (cytochrome P-450) and a conjugation pathway (glutathione S-transferase). The metabolites play an important role in exerting its toxicity. Few human poisonings have been reported from either acute or chronic exposure. However, EDB is irritating to the skin and eyes. Limited information indicates that EDB can damage the liver and kidneys following extensive or prolonged exposure. The genotoxicity of EDB has been clearly demonstrated. It binds to DNA in vivo and in vitro, and a DNA adduct has been identified. EDB has been shown to be mutagenic in numerous bacterial assays, in fungi, in plants, in insects, and in mammalian cell culture. Some evidence indicates that EDB can cause sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberrations. EDB is a reproductive toxin, but it does not appear to be teratogenic. It has been shown to affect spermatogenesis in rats, bulls and rams and to affect fertility in fowl. Human studies indicate that EDB exposure may harm sperm and decrease fertility. The

  3. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for inhaled ethylene and ethylene oxide in mouse, rat, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Johannes Georg; Klein, Dominik

    2018-04-01

    Ethylene (ET) is the largest volume organic chemical. Mammals metabolize the olefin to ethylene oxide (EO), another important industrial chemical. The epoxide alkylates macromolecules and has mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. In order to estimate the EO burden in mice, rats, and humans resulting from inhalation exposure to gaseous ET or EO, a physiological toxicokinetic model was developed. It consists of the compartments lung, richly perfused tissues, kidneys, muscle, fat, arterial blood, venous blood, and liver containing the sub-compartment endoplasmic reticulum. Modeled ET metabolism is mediated by hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1, EO metabolism by hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolase or cytosolic glutathione S-transferase in various tissues. EO is also spontaneously hydrolyzed or conjugated with glutathione. The model was validated on experimental data collected in mice, rats, and humans. Modeled were uptake by inhalation, wash-in-wash-out effect in the upper respiratory airways, distribution into tissues and organs, elimination via exhalation and metabolism, and formation of 2-hydroxyethyl adducts with hemoglobin and DNA. Simulated concentration-time courses of ET or EO in inhaled (gas uptake studies) or exhaled air, and of EO in blood during exposures to ET or EO agreed excellently with measured data. Predicted levels of adducts with DNA and hemoglobin, induced by ET or EO, agreed with reported levels. Exposures to 10000 ppm ET were predicted to induce the same adduct levels as EO exposures to 3.95 (mice), 5.67 (rats), or 0.313 ppm (humans). The model is concluded to be applicable for assessing health risks from inhalation exposure to ET or EO. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Involvement of ethylene in lesion development and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, M.; Linthorst, H.J.M.; Bol, J.F.; Loon, L.C. van

    2001-01-01

    Different approaches were taken to investigate the significance of ethylene in lesion development and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) reacting hypersensitively to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Gaseous ethylene, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic

  5. The oxidation of copper catalysts during ethylene epoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, M T; Jones, T E; Johnson, B E; Rocha, T C R; Wang, Z J; Armbrüster, M; Willinger, M; Knop-Gericke, A; Schlögl, R

    2015-10-14

    The oxidation of copper catalysts during ethylene epoxidation was characterized using in situ photoemission spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Gas chromatography, proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry and electron-ionization mass spectrometry were used to characterize the catalytic properties of the oxidized copper. We find that copper corrodes during epoxidation in a 1 : 1 mixture of oxygen and ethylene. The catalyst corrosion passes through several stages, beginning with the formation of an O-terminated surface, followed by the formation of Cu2O scale and eventually a CuO scale. The oxidized catalyst exhibits measurable activity for ethylene epoxidation, but with a low selectivity of 8/2500) Cu2O forms and eventually covers the surface.

  6. Strigolactone Regulates Leaf Senescence in Concert with Ethylene in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroaki; Kusaba, Makoto

    2015-09-01

    Leaf senescence is not a passive degenerative process; it represents a process of nutrient relocation, in which materials are salvaged for growth at a later stage or to produce the next generation. Leaf senescence is regulated by various factors, such as darkness, stress, aging, and phytohormones. Strigolactone is a recently identified phytohormone, and it has multiple functions in plant development, including repression of branching. Although strigolactone is implicated in the regulation of leaf senescence, little is known about its molecular mechanism of action. In this study, strigolactone biosynthesis mutant strains of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) showed a delayed senescence phenotype during dark incubation. The strigolactone biosynthesis genes MORE AXIALLY GROWTH3 (MAX3) and MAX4 were drastically induced during dark incubation and treatment with the senescence-promoting phytohormone ethylene, suggesting that strigolactone is synthesized in the leaf during leaf senescence. This hypothesis was confirmed by a grafting experiment using max4 as the stock and Columbia-0 as the scion, in which the leaves from the Columbia-0 scion senesced earlier than max4 stock leaves. Dark incubation induced the synthesis of ethylene independent of strigolactone. Strigolactone biosynthesis mutants showed a delayed senescence phenotype during ethylene treatment in the light. Furthermore, leaf senescence was strongly accelerated by the application of strigolactone in the presence of ethylene and not by strigolactone alone. These observations suggest that strigolactone promotes leaf senescence by enhancing the action of ethylene. Thus, dark-induced senescence is regulated by a two-step mechanism: induction of ethylene synthesis and consequent induction of strigolactone synthesis in the leaf. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Effect of silane coupling agents on the chemical and physical properties of photocrosslinked poly(dimethylsiloxane) dimethacrylate/poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K. W.; Hamid, Z. A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic-organic hydrogels based on dimethacrylated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMSMA) and diacrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDA) macromers were prepared via photocrosslinking method. Silane coupling agent was incorporated into the hydrogel formulations to overcome the phase incompatibility. Pure PEGDA (0:100) hydrogels showed the highest value of ESR %, while pure PDMSMA (100:0) hydrogels showed no swelling as we expected. Inclusion of more hydrophobic domains resulted in a lower value of ESR %, i.e. in 75:25 hybrid hydrogels. Beside, we had noticed 50:50 and 75:25 hybrid hydrogels disintegrate during swelling period. However, their integrity was improved and sustained after the coupling agent was added. Similarly, the value of E* for the hybrid hydrogels showed an increment after the coupling agent was incorporated, and this is in a good agreement with the SEM micrograph which display an improved interfacial adhesion.

  8. Photooxidation of ethylene over Cu-modified and unmodified silica

    OpenAIRE

    Ichihashi, Yuichi; Matsumura, Yasuyuki

    2003-01-01

    Silica catalyzes photooxidation of ethylene to carbon dioxide and modification of copper on silica results in the lower reaction rate and partial production of ethylene oxide. The reaction does not proceed by the light irradiation through a color filter (λ>280 nm). ESR measurement indicates that radical oxygen species assignable T-shape Si − O3− can be produced on silica by UV irradiation at 77 K. The same species are also found on silica modified with copper by UV irradiation whi...

  9. Chemical etching of fission tracks in ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Y.; Tsujimura, S.; Seguchi, T.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical etching of fission tracks in ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer was studied. Etched holes 3000 to 4000 A in diameter were recognized by electron microscopy for a film bombarded by fission fragments in oxygen and etched in a 12N sodium hydroxide solution at 125 0 C. The radial etching rate at 125 0 C was 6 to 8 A/hr, which is less than 17 A/hr for polyvinylidene fluoride in the same sodium hydroxide concentration at 85 0 C. The smaller rate is a reflection of the larger chemical resistivity of ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer than polyvinylidene fluoride. (author)

  10. Heterogeneous phase gamma irradiation of ethylene-hydrogen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, M.A.; Lires, O.A.; Videla, G.J.

    1975-11-01

    Experiments of radioinduced ethylene hydrogenation were performed. The G yield of volatile saturated hydrocarbons was 0,49 for silica-gel with simultaneous irradiation and 0,09-0,05 for the other solids (silica-alumina and molecular sieve 5A). The highest yield corresponds to 4,5% of saturated products in relation to initial ammount of ethylene (silica-gel). Polymerization was the most important reaction, with yields as high as 95%. Changes in color and appearance of silica-aluminia in contact with moisture was observed, after the irradiation process. (author) [es

  11. Atomistic simulation of CO 2 solubility in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations coupled with thermodynamic integration to obtain the excess chemical potential and pressure-composition phase diagrams for CO2 in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers. Poly(ethylene oxide

  12. Membrane-based ethylene/ethane separation: The upper bound and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Rungta, Meha; Zhang, Chen; Koros, William J.; Xu, Liren

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene/ethane separation via cryogenic distillation is extremely energy-intensive, and membrane separation may provide an attractive alternative. In this paper, ethylene/ethane separation performance using polymeric membranes is summarized

  13. Ethylene Control of Fruit Ripening: Revisiting the Complex Network of Transcriptional Regulation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Christian; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in climacteric fruit ripening. Studies on components of ethylene signaling have revealed a linear transduction pathway leading to the activation of ethylene response factors. However, the means by which ethylene selects the ripening-related genes and interacts with other signaling pathways to regulate the ripening process are still to be elucidated. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a reference species, the present review aims to revisit the mechanisms by which ethylene regulates fruit ripening by taking advantage of new tools available to perform in silico studies at the genome-wide scale, leading to a global view on the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes throughout ripening. Overall, it provides new insights on the transcriptional network by which this hormone coordinates the ripening process and emphasizes the interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated developmental factors and the link between epigenetic regulation and ethylene during fruit ripening. PMID:26511917

  14. Crystallization analysis fractionation of poly(ethylene-co-styrene) produced by metallocene catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Bahuleyan, Bijal Kottukkal; Sohail, Omer Bin; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Bercaw, John E.; Al-Harthi, Mamdouh Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene homo polymer and ethylene-styrene copolymers were synthesized using Cp2ZrCl2 (1)/methyl aluminoxane (MAO) and rac-silylene-bis (indenyl) zirconium dichloride (2)/MAO catalyst systems by varying styrene concentration and reaction conditions

  15. Formation of carbonyl compounds in radiolysis of ethylene glycol in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezborodova, S.G.; Vetrov, V.S.; Kalyazin, E.P.; Korolev, V.M.; Salamatov, I.I.

    1977-01-01

    Radiolysis of diluted solutions of ethylene glycol has been investigated. It is shown that acetaldehyde, glycol aldehyde and formaldehyde are the main products of radiolysis of methanol solutions of ethylene glycol. Acetaldehyde and glycol aldehyde yields increase in radiolysis of methanol solutions of ethylene glycol with an increase of the original concentration of ethylene glycol and a temperature rise of radiolysis. Formaldehyde yields increase with the ethylene glycol concentration but decrease with a temperature rise (the formation of formaldehyde from methanol is taken into account). A mechanism of radiation-chemical transformations of ethylene glycol in methanol is explained. It is concluded that the main directions of ethylene glycol decomposition, detected in water solutions of ethylene glycol, are also realized in methanol solutions. However, a role of different directions of decomposition depends on the medium

  16. Absolute molecular sieve separation of ethylene/ethane mixtures with silver zeolite A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Sonia; Bergeret, Gérard; Daniel, Cecile; Farrusseng, David

    2012-09-12

    Absolute ethylene/ethane separation is achieved by ethane exclusion on silver-exchanged zeolite A adsorbent. This molecular sieving type separation is attributed to the pore size of the adsorbent, which falls between ethylene and ethane kinetic diameters.

  17. Ethylene glycol intercalation in smectites. molecular dynamics simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerba, Marek; Klapyta, Zenon; Kalinichev, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Intercalation of ethylene glycol in smectites (glycolation) is widely used to discriminate smectites and vermiculites from other clays and among themselves. During this process, ethylene glycol molecules enter into the interlayer spaces of the swelling clays, leading to the formation of two-layer structure (∼17 A) in the case of smectites, or one-layer structure (∼14 A) in the case of vermiculites. In spite of the relatively broad literature on the understanding/characterization of ethylene glycol/water-clays complexes, the simplified structure of this complex presented by Reynolds (1965) is still used in the contemporary X-ray diffraction computer programs, which simulate structures of smectite and illite-smectite. The monolayer structure is only approximated using the assumption of the interlayer cation and ethylene glycol molecules lying in the middle of interlayer spaces. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the structure of ethylene glycol/water-clays complex in more detail using molecular dynamics simulation. The structural models of smectites were built on the basis of pyrophyllite crystal structure (Lee and Guggenheim, 1981), with substitution of particular atoms. In most of simulations, the structural model assumed the following composition, considered as the most common in the mixed layer illite-smectites: EXCH 0.4 (Si 3.96 Al 0.04 )(Al 1.46 Fe 0.17 Mg 0.37 )O 10 (OH) 2 Atoms of the smectites were described with CLAYFF force field (Cygan et al., 2004), while atoms of water and ethylene glycol with flexible SPC and OPLS force fields, respectively. Ewald summation was used to calculate long range Coulombic interactions and the cutoff was set at 8.5 A. Results of the simulations show that in the two-layer glycolate the content of water is relatively small: up to 0.8 H 2 O per half of the smectite unit cell. Clear thermodynamic preference of mono- or two-layer structure of the complex is

  18. Ethylene production and constitutive expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transduction during grain filling in apical and basal spikelets of compact-and lax-panicle rice (Oryza sativa cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Sekhar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain yields in modern super rice cultivars do not always meet the expectations because many spikelets are located on secondary branches in closely packed homogeneous distribution in these plants, and they do not fill properly. The factors limiting grain filling of such spikelets, especially in the lower panicle branches, are elusive. Two long-duration rice cultivars differing in panicle density, Mahalaxmi (compact and Upahar (lax were cultivated in an open field plot. Grain filling, ethylene production and constitutive expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transducers in apical and basal spikelets of the panicle were compared during the early post-anthesis stage, which is the most critical period for grain development. In another experiment, a similar assessment was made for the medium-duration cultivars compact-panicle OR-1918 and lax-panicle Lalat. Grain weight of the apical spikelets was always higher than that of the basal spikelets. This gradient of grain weight was wide in the compact-panicle cultivars and narrow in the lax-panicle cultivars. Compared to apical spikelets, the basal spikelets produced more ethylene at anthesis and retained the capacity for post-anthesis expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transducers longer. High ethylene production enhanced the expression of the RSR1 gene, but reduced expression of the GBSS1 gene. Ethylene inhibited the partitioning of assimilates of developing grains resulting in low starch biosynthesis and high accumulation of soluble carbohydrates. It is concluded that an increase in grain/spikelet density in rice panicles reduces apical dominance to the detriment of grain filling by production of ethylene and/or enhanced perception of the ethylene signal. Ethylene could be a second messenger for apical dominance in grain filling. The manipulation of the ethylene signal would possibly improve rice grain yield.

  19. MAOHUZI6/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE2 Regulate Ethylene Response of Roots and Coleoptiles and Negatively Affect Salt Tolerance in Rice1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ethylene signaling pathway has been studied extensively, mainly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the molecular mechanism of ethylene signaling is largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Previously, we have isolated a set of rice ethylene-response mutants. Here, we characterized the mutant maohuzi6 (mhz6). Through map-based cloning, we found that MHZ6 encodes ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (OsEIL1), a rice homolog of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), which is the master transcriptional regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Disruption of MHZ6/OsEIL1 caused ethylene insensitivity mainly in roots, whereas silencing of the closely related OsEIL2 led to ethylene insensitivity mainly in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. This organ-specific functional divergence is different from the functional features of EIN3 and EIL1, both of which mediate the incomplete ethylene responses of Arabidopsis etiolated seedlings. In Arabidopsis, EIN3 and EIL1 play positive roles in plant salt tolerance. In rice, however, lack of MHZ6/OsEIL1 or OsEIL2 functions improves salt tolerance, whereas the overexpressing lines exhibit salt hypersensitivity at the seedling stage, indicating that MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 negatively regulate salt tolerance in rice. Furthermore, this negative regulation by MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in salt tolerance is likely attributable in part to the direct regulation of HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER2;1 expression and Na+ uptake in roots. Additionally, MHZ6/OsEIL1 overexpression promotes grain size and thousand-grain weight. Together, our study provides insights for the functional diversification of MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in ethylene response and finds a novel mode of ethylene-regulated salt stress response that could be helpful for engineering salt-tolerant crops. PMID:25995326

  20. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Four Genes Encoding Ethylene Receptors Associated with Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Wu, Qing-Song; Huang, Xia; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Na; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b). The 5' flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2) were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1). The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1-9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET), whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP) and flower primordia (FP) appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1-4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon.

  1. Action of ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropene and silver thiosulfate in two developmental stages of potted ornamental pepper(

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Cristina Carvalho Lima; Milena Maria Tomaz Oliveira; Wellington Souto Ribeiro; Lucas Cavalcante Costa; Fernando Luiz Finger

    2017-01-01

    The species of Capsicum genus have great genetic variability with enormous potential for marketing as ornamental potted plants. The exposure at ethylene induces various deleterious responses during plants life cycle, but there are few studies on how the ethylene affects early developmental stages of these ornamental plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of ethylene and ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and silver thiosulphate (STS) in two ea...

  2. The Bphi008a gene interacts with the ethylene pathway and transcriptionally regulates MAPK genes in the response of rice to brown planthopper feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Zhou, Jiangbo; Peng, Xinxin; Xu, Henghao; Liu, Caixiang; Du, Bo; Yuan, Hongyu; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2011-06-01

    We examined ways in which the Brown planthopper induced008a (Bphi008a; AY256682) gene of rice (Oryza sativa) enhances the plant's resistance to a specialist herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Measurement of the expression levels of ethylene synthases and of ethylene emissions showed that BPH feeding rapidly initiated the ethylene signaling pathway and up-regulated Bphi008a transcript levels after 6 to 96 h of feeding. In contrast, blocking ethylene transduction (using 1-methylcyclopropene) reduced Bphi008a transcript levels in wild-type plants fed upon by BPH. In vitro kinase assays showed that Bphi008a can be phosphorylated by rice Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase5 (OsMPK5), and yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal proline-rich region of Bphi008a interacts directly with this kinase. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that this interaction occurs in the nucleus. Subsequently, we found that Bphi008a up-regulation and down-regulation were accompanied by different changes in transcription levels of OsMPK5, OsMPK12, OsMPK13, and OsMPK17 in transgenic plants. Immunoblot analysis also showed that the OsMPK5 protein level increased in overexpressing plants and decreased in RNA interference plants after BPH feeding. In transgenic lines, changes in the expression levels of several enzymes that are important components of the defenses against the BPH were also observed. Finally, yeast two-hybrid screening results showed that Bphi008a is able to interact with a b-ZIP transcription factor (OsbZIP60) and a RNA polymerase polypeptide (SDRP).

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Silica Nanoparticles Grafted with Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing

    2012-03-01

    A molecular model of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers has been developed for predicting the transport properties of nanoparticle organic-hybrid materials (NOHMs). Ungrafted silica nanoparticles in a medium of poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers were also simulated to clarify the effect of grafting on the dynamics of nanoparticles and chains. The model approximates nanoparticles as solid spheres and uses a united-atom representation for chains, including torsional and bond-bending interactions. The calculated viscosities from Green-Kubo relationships and temperature extrapolation are of the same order of magnitude as experimental data but show a smaller activation energy relative to real NOHMs systems. Grafted systems have higher viscosities, smaller diffusion coefficients, and slower chain dynamics than the ungrafted ones at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, grafted systems exhibit faster dynamics for both nanoparticles and chains relative to ungrafted systems, because of lower aggregation of particles and enhanced correlations between nanoparticles and chains. This agrees with the experimental observation that NOHMs have liquidlike behavior in the absence of a solvent. For both grafted and ungrafted systems at low temperatures, increasing chain length reduces the volume fraction of nanoparticles and accelerates the dynamics. However, at high temperatures, longer chains slow down nanoparticle diffusion. From the Stokes-Einstein relationship, it was determined that the coarse-grained treatment of nanoparticles leads to slip on the nanoparticle surfaces. Grafted systems obey the Stokes-Einstein relationship over the temperature range simulated, but ungrafted systems display deviations from it. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. 78 FR 24738 - Ethylene Oxide; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0276; FRL-9385-2] Ethylene Oxide; Receipt of... ethylene oxide (CAS No. 75-21-8) to sterilize the interior surfaces of enclosed animal isolator units to... APHIS has requested the EPA Administrator to issue a quarantine exemption for the use of ethylene oxide...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3450 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3450 Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1040 - Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene glycol; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1040 Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ethylene glycol as a component of pesticide formulations is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442) is...

  8. 78 FR 20032 - Styrene-Ethylene-Propylene Block Copolymer; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ...-Ethylene-Propylene Block Copolymer; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... for residues of styrene-ethylene-propylene block copolymer (CAS Reg. No. 108388-87-0) when used as an...-ethylene-propylene block copolymer on food or feed commodities. DATES: This regulation is effective April 3...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free of...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or....3410 Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device...

  11. Role of ethylene receptors during senescence and ripening in horticultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Choudhary, Divya; Singh, Virendra P.; Arora, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    The past two decades have been rewarding in terms of deciphering the ethylene signal transduction and functional validation of the ethylene receptor and downstream genes involved in the cascade. Our knowledge of ethylene receptors and its signal transduction pathway provides us a robust platform where we can think of manipulating and regulating ethylene sensitivity by the use of genetic engineering and making transgenic. This review focuses on ethylene perception, receptor mediated regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, role of ethylene receptors in flower senescence, fruit ripening and other effects induced by ethylene. The expression behavior of the receptor and downstream molecules in climacteric and non climacteric crops is also elaborated upon. Possible strategies and recent advances in altering the ethylene sensitivity of plants using ethylene receptor genes in an attempt to modulate the regulation and sensitivity to ethylene have also been discussed. Not only will these transgenic plants be a boon to post-harvest physiology and crop improvement but, it will also help us in discovering the mechanism of regulation of ethylene sensitivity. PMID:22751331

  12. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1016 - Ethylene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1016 Section 180.1016 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1016 Ethylene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ethylene is...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used as articles or components of...

  17. Ethylene decomposition on Rh(100): theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieskens, D.L.S.; Bavel, van A.P.; Curulla Ferre, D.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The decompn. of ethylene on a Rh(100) single crystal has been studied by a combination of exptl. techniques: static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS), temp.-programmed desorption (TPD), LEED, and high-resoln. electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), to gain insight into the nature of the

  18. Anaphylaxis to ethylene oxide - a rare and overlooked phenomenon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Søren; Petersen, J T; Garvey, L H

    2011-01-01

    Spina bifida patients have been reported to be at increased risk of anaphylactic reactions during general anaesthesia. Following a reaction, latex is often incriminated as spina bifida patients are known to have an increased incidence of latex allergy. Ethylene oxide (EO) has recently been...

  19. Oxidation of Ethylene Carbonate on Li Metal Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Thomas M.; Giordano, Livia; Castelli, Ivano Eligio

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the reactivity of the cathode surface is of key importance to the development of batteries. Here, density functional theory is applied to investigate the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte component, ethylene carbonate (EC), on layered LixMO(2) oxide surfaces. We compare...

  20. Development of new photocatalysts for efficient removal of ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Godtfred

    The aim of this thesis has been to remove ethylene/ethene (from here on called ethene because it is shortest) photocatalytically with the primary purpose of preventing fruit ripening during shipping. This has been achieved based on TiO2. The topic has been approached from different angles. The most...

  1. The role of stamens in ethylene production in Ipomoea nil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Ethylene production inhibits filament and corolla growth during young stages in flower development, and it promotes corolla unfolding and senescence in Ipomoea nil. Initial studies with the in vitro application of gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), demonstrated that decreased filament growth occurred when the anthers remained attached to the filaments during the young stages in development. The removal of the anthers from intact plants did not enhance filament growth until the synthesis of wound ethylene was inhibited by applied aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or cobalt chloride. It was hypothesized that the anthers were source tissues and that the filaments were transport vectors for the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to regulate growth events in the various floral organs. To test this hypothesis, endogenous IAA and ACC and ethylene production were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or gas chromatography. The transport of 14 C-IAA and 14 C-ACC through filament segments and filaments within intact flower buds also was examined during flower development

  2. Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide Production by Septoria musiva

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Brown-Skrobot; L. R. Brown; T. H. Filer

    1984-01-01

    An investigation into the mechanism by which Septoria musiva causes the premature defoliation of cottonwood trees was undertaken. Gas-chromatograpic analysis of the atmosphere overlying the original culture indicated that this fungus produced significant quantities of ethylene and carbon monoxide. Subcultures failed to produce either gas on a variety...

  3. Optical properties, ethylene production and softening in mango fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Grassi, M.; Meirelles de Azevedo Pementel, A.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Firmness decay, chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation, controlled by ethylene, are major ripening events in mango fruit. Pigment content and tissue structure affect the optical properties of the mesocarp, which can be measured nondestructively in the intact fruit by time-resolved

  4. Polyketones and polysulfones for conservation in the ethylene polymer market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    1976-04-01

    Because of the increase in cost of foreign oil, ethylene costs have increased markedly within the last several years. There is a sizable incentive to reduce raw material cost for basic polymer manufacture. Polyketones, synthesized from ethylene and CO, and polysulfones, synthesized from ethylene and SO 2 , utilizing high energy radiation, offers one such possibility. CO and SO 2 , usually considered as wastes and pollutants from fossil fuel burning power plants, are converted to useful materials. The polyketones and polysulfones formed from the gas phase below 100 0 C have found to be high molecular weight polymers which, depending on composition, either melt with difficulty, or decompose at temperatures of 250 0 C or higher. The higher temperature (greater than 100 0 C) catalyzed reaction produces low molecular weight waxes. Design calculations indicate that for a G value of 10,000 and 50 percent energy deposition efficiency, it would take 331 MCi of 60 Co to conserve 2 billion pounds of ethylene or 25 percent of the overall U. S. consumption in the PE market by substituting CO and SO 2 . This savings amounts to as much as $280 million at today's market price. Electron machine radiation with a 25 percent energy deposition efficiency requires a total beam power of 9800 kW

  5. Enhanced Ionic Conductivity of Poly(Ethylene Imine) Phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senadeera, G.K.R.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen

    1996-01-01

    The conductivity of mixtures of phosphoric acid with poly(ethylene imine) has been studied, and it was found that the conductivity of such mixtures with high acid content can be enhanced by the addition of highly dispersed silica (fumed silica). At the same time, silica addition increases the sti...

  6. Pollination induces autophagy in petunia petals via ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Niki, Tomoko; Ichimura, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    Autophagy is one of the main mechanisms of degradation and remobilization of macromolecules, and it appears to play an important role in petal senescence. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy in petal senescence. Autophagic processes were observed by electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine staining of senescing petals of petunia (Petunia hybrida); autophagy-related gene 8 (ATG8) homologues were isolated from petunia and the regulation of expression was analysed. Nutrient remobilization was also examined during pollination-induced petal senescence. Active autophagic processes were observed in the mesophyll cells of senescing petunia petals. Pollination induced the expression of PhATG8 homologues and was accompanied by an increase in ethylene production. Ethylene inhibitor treatment in pollinated flowers delayed the induction of PhATG8 homologues, and ethylene treatment rapidly upregulated PhATG8 homologues in petunia petals. Dry weight and nitrogen content were decreased in the petals and increased in the ovaries after pollination in detached flowers. These results indicated that pollination induces autophagy and that ethylene is a key regulator of autophagy in petal senescence of petunia. The data also demonstrated the translocation of nutrients from the petals to the ovaries during pollination-induced petal senescence.

  7. Unusual calcium oxalate crystals in ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Meagher, E P; Sanders, H D; Frohlich, J

    1980-06-01

    A patient poisoned with ethylene glycol exhibited the symptoms of (1) hysteria, (2) metabolic acidosis with both a large anion gap and osmolal gap, and (3) crystalluria. However, the shape of the urinary crystals was prismatic and resembled hippurate rather than the expected dipyramidal calcium oxalate dihydrate. X-ray crystallography positively identified them as calcium oxalate monohydrate.

  8. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  9. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  10. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed. PMID:22451723

  11. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  12. Pore chemistry and size control in hybrid porous materials for acetylene capture from ethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, X.; Chen, K.; Xing, H.; Yang, Q.; Krishna, R.; Bao, Z.; Wu, H.; Zhou, W.; Dong, Xinglong; Han, Y.; Li, B.; Ren, Q.; Zaworotko, M. J.; Chen, B.

    2016-01-01

    The trade-off between physical adsorption capacity and selectivity of porous materials is a major barrier for efficient gas separation and purification through physisorption. We report control over pore chemistry and size in metal coordination

  13. Optimizing the performance of neural interface devices with hybrid poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-chen

    This thesis describes methods for improving the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a direct neural interfacing material. The chronic foreign body response is always a challenge for implanted bionic devices. After long-term implantation (typically 2-4 weeks), insulating glial scars form around the devices, inhibiting signal transmission, which ultimately leads to device failure. The mechanical mismatch at the device-tissue interface is one of the issues that has been associated with chronic foreign body response. Another challenge for using PEDOT as a neural interface material is its mechanical failure after implantation. We observed cracking and delamination of PEDOT coatings on devices after extended implantations. In the first part of this thesis, we present a novel method for directly measuring the mechanical properties of a PEDOT thin film. Before investigating methods to improve the mechanical behavior of PEDOT, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of PEDOT thin film is required. A PEDOT thin film was machined into a dog-bone shape specimen with a dual beam FIB-SEM. With an OmniProbe, this PEDOT specimen could be attached onto a force sensor, while the other side was attached to OmniProbe. By moving the OmniProbe, the specimen could be deformed in tension, and a force sensor recorded the applied load on the sample simultaneously. Mechanical tensile tests were conducted in the FIB-SEM chamber along with in situ observation. With precise force measurement from the force sensor and the corresponding high resolution SEM images, we were able to convert the data to a stress-strain curve for further analysis. By analyzing these stress-strain curves, we were able to obtain information about PEDOT including the Young's modulus, strength of failure, strain to failure, and toughness (energy to failure). This information should be useful for future material selection and molecular design for specific applications. The second section of this thesis is mainly focused on developing a soft and conductive material by in situ PEDOT polymerization into soft matrix. First, PEDOT was in situ polymerized into extracellular matrix (ECM) as a conductive, soft, and bioactive material for neural interfacing. ECM is basically a matrix of proteins which provides biological cues with the potential to promote neural attachment. We modified the electrode to a needle shape, which could be inserted into the ECM film. The limited surface area on the electrode and the close contact with ECM made it possible to polymerize PEDOT into the ECM more easily. The conductivity of PEDOT-ECM was confirmed to be similar to intrinsic PEDOT. A cell adhesion test using the PC12 cell line was used to evaluate its biocompatibility. PEDOT-ECM shows improved cell adhesion for PC12 cells, as compared either bare metal electrodes or PEDOT coated surfaces. In the future this approach may be elevated to an " autologous" concept, where the ECM could be derived from the host patients themselves to further reduce the foreign body response. Second, low modulus hydrogels were used as templates for PEDOT polymerization. EDOT monomers were premixed into agarose hydrogels. The electrochemical polymerization was typically conducted in potentiostatic (constant voltage) mode with working voltage of 2 V. After 0.8 C/cm2 charge density, a significant dark blue cloud was observed indicating that PEDOT was in situ polymerized into hydrogel matrix. A series of studies was conducted to confirm the improved mechanical properties, electrical properties and biocompatibility of the PEDOT-gel as compared to the typical solid PEDOT. Animal studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of PEDOT-gel coated electrode in vivo. Rats were used as the animal model with 3 rats in each group of bare electrode, PEDOT-coated, and PEDOT-gel coated electrode (n=9). The in vivo impedance was used to confirm the performance of the implanted electrodes. The results showed that the impedance had a significant increase after 4 weeks with the bare and solid PEDOT-coated electrode. This is consistent with the typical glial scar encapsulation around the electrode leading to an impedance increase. PEDOT-gel presents consistently low impedance along with 10 weeks implantation implying there was much less reactive response around the insertion site. These in vivo experiments on PEDOT-gels suggest that PEDOT-gels are promising neural interfacing materials for patients clinically.

  14. Ethylene Inhibits Cell Proliferation of the Arabidopsis Root Meristem1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Ian H.; Aman, Sitwat; Zubo, Yan; Ramzan, Aleena; Wang, Xiaomin; Shakeel, Samina N.; Kieber, Joseph J.; Schaller, G. Eric

    2015-01-01

    The root system of plants plays a critical role in plant growth and survival, with root growth being dependent on both cell proliferation and cell elongation. Multiple phytohormones interact to control root growth, including ethylene, which is primarily known for its role in controlling root cell elongation. We find that ethylene also negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root meristem of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic analysis indicates that the inhibition of cell proliferation involves two pathways operating downstream of the ethylene receptors. The major pathway is the canonical ethylene signal transduction pathway that incorporates CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2, and the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 family of transcription factors. The secondary pathway is a phosphorelay based on genetic analysis of receptor histidine kinase activity and mutants involving the type B response regulators. Analysis of ethylene-dependent gene expression and genetic analysis supports SHORT HYPOCOTYL2, a repressor of auxin signaling, as one mediator of the ethylene response and furthermore, indicates that SHORT HYPOCOTYL2 is a point of convergence for both ethylene and cytokinin in negatively regulating cell proliferation. Additional analysis indicates that ethylene signaling contributes but is not required for cytokinin to inhibit activity of the root meristem. These results identify key elements, along with points of cross talk with cytokinin and auxin, by which ethylene negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root apical meristem. PMID:26149574

  15. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  16. Analysis of ethylene biosynthesis and perception during postharvest cold storage of Marsh and Star Ruby grapefruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    Grapefruits are among the citrus species more sensitive to cold and develop chilling injury symptoms during prolonged postharvest storage at temperatures lower than 8 ℃-10 ℃. The plant hormone ethylene has been described either to protect or potentiate chilling injury development in citrus whereas little is known about transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, perception and response during cold storage and how the hormone is regulating its own perception and signaling cascade. Then, the objective of the present study was to explore the transcriptional changes in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis, receptors and response genes during cold storage of the white Marsh and the red Star Ruby grapefruits. The effect of the ethylene action inhibitor, 1-MCP, was evaluated to investigate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of the genes of its own biosynthesis and perception pathway. Ethylene production was very low at the harvest time in fruits of both varieties and experienced only minor changes during storage. By contrast, inhibition of ethylene perception by 1-MCP markedly induced ethylene production, and this increase was highly stimulated during shelf-life at 20 ℃, as well as transcription of ACS and ACO. These results support the auto-inhibitory regulation of ethylene in grapefruits, which acts mainly at the transcriptional level of ACS and ACO genes. Moreover, ethylene receptor1 and ethylene receptor3 were induced by cold while no clear role of ethylene was observed in the induction of ethylene receptors. However, ethylene appears to be implicated in the transcriptional regulation of ERFs both under cold storage and shelf-life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Heat stress differentially modifies ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in pea floral and fruit tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savada, Raghavendra P; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Jayasinghege, Charitha P A; Waduthanthri, Kosala D; Reinecke, Dennis M

    2017-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis is regulated in reproductive tissues in response to heat stress in a manner to optimize resource allocation to pollinated fruits with developing seeds. High temperatures during reproductive development are particularly detrimental to crop fruit/seed production. Ethylene plays vital roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses; however, little is known about ethylene's role in reproductive tissues during development under heat stress. We assessed ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulation within the reproductive and associated tissues of pea during the developmental phase that sets the stage for fruit-set and seed development under normal and heat-stress conditions. The transcript abundance profiles of PsACS [encode enzymes that convert S-adenosyl-L-methionine to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)] and PsACO (encode enzymes that convert ACC to ethylene), and ethylene evolution were developmentally, environmentally, and tissue-specifically regulated in the floral/fruit/pedicel tissues of pea. Higher transcript abundance of PsACS and PsACO in the ovaries, and PsACO in the pedicels was correlated with higher ethylene evolution and ovary senescence and pedicel abscission in fruits that were not pollinated under control temperature conditions. Under heat-stress conditions, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis gene expression in pre-pollinated ovaries was also associated with higher ethylene evolution and lower retention of these fruits. Following successful pollination and ovule fertilization, heat-stress modified PsACS and PsACO transcript profiles in a manner that suppressed ovary ethylene evolution. The normal ethylene burst in the stigma/style and petals following pollination was also suppressed by heat-stress. Transcript abundance profiles of ethylene receptor and signaling-related genes acted as qualitative markers of tissue ethylene signaling events. These data support the hypothesis that ethylene biosynthesis is

  18. Surface morphology and dewettability of self-organized thermosets involving epoxy and POSS-capped poly(ethylene oxide) telechelics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Sixun

    2012-01-01

    A heptaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-capped poly(ethylene oxide) (POSS-capped PEO) telechelics was synthesized via the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 3-azidopropylheptaphenyl POSS and α,ω-dialkynyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide). The organic–inorganic amphiphile was incorporated into epoxy to obtain the organic–inorganic nanocomposites. The morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). It was found that the epoxy thermosets containing POSS-capped PEO telechelics were microphase-separated. The formation of the nanophases in the thermosets followed a self-assembly mechanism. The static contact angle measurements show that the nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity as well as reduction in surface free energy. The improvement in surface dewettability was ascribed to the enrichment of POSS cages at the surface of the nanocomposites and the formation of the specific surface morphology as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Highlights: ► POSS-capped PEO telechelics was synthesized via click chemistry approach. ► The organic–inorganic amphiphile can be self-assembled into the nanophases in epoxy. ► The hybrid nanocomposites were successfully prepared via a self-assembly approach. ► The nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity.

  19. Role of Ethylene and Its Cross Talk with Other Signaling Molecules in Plant Responses to Heavy Metal Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Thu, Nguyen Binh Anh; Hoang, Xuan Lan Thi; Asgher, Mohd; Khan, Nafees A.; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Excessive heavy metals (HMs) in agricultural lands cause toxicities to plants, resulting in declines in crop productivity. Recent advances in ethylene biology research have established that ethylene is not only responsible for many important physiological activities in plants but also plays a pivotal role in HM stress tolerance. The manipulation of ethylene in plants to cope with HM stress through various approaches targeting either ethylene biosynthesis or the ethylene signaling pathway has brought promising outcomes. This review covers ethylene production and signal transduction in plant responses to HM stress, cross talk between ethylene and other signaling molecules under adverse HM stress conditions, and approaches to modify ethylene action to improve HM tolerance. From our current understanding about ethylene and its regulatory activities, it is believed that the optimization of endogenous ethylene levels in plants under HM stress would pave the way for developing transgenic crops with improved HM tolerance. PMID:26246451

  20. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, A.; Nakatani, N.; Tsuboi, N.; Nakane, K.; Sakurai, N.; Nakagawa, N.; Sakugawa, H.

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20degC. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (Clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO 2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NO x or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed. (Author)

  1. Effect of carbon black on electrical and rheological properties of graphite nanoplatelets/poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oxfall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding carbon black on the electrical and rheological properties of graphite nanoplatelets/poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer composites produced via melt or solution mixing was studied. By adding a small amount of low- or high-structured carbon black to the nanocomposite, the electrical percolation threshold decreased and the final conductivity (at higher filler contents increased. The effect on the percolation threshold was significantly stronger in case of the high-structured carbon black where replacing 10 wt% of the total filler content with carbon black instead of graphite nanoplatelets reduced the electrical percolation threshold from 6.9 to 4.6 vol%. Finally, the solution mixing process was found to be more efficient leading to a lower percolation threshold. For the composites containing high-structured carbon black, graphite nanoplatelets and their hybrids there was a quite reasonable correlation between the electrical and rheological percolation thresholds.

  2. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant U. S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix [1]. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility [2]. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling. This study [2] concluded that SBS direct disposal is a viable option to the WTP baseline. The results show: - Off-site transportation and disposal of the SBS condensate is achievable and cost effective. - Reduction of approximately 4,325 vitrified WTP Low Activity Waste canisters could be realized. - Positive WTP operational impacts; minimal WTP construction impacts are realized. - Reduction of mass flow from the LAW Facility to the Pretreatment Facility by 66%. - Improved Double Shell Tank (DST) space management is a benefit. (authors)

  3. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  4. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  5. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  6. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  7. Assessing the allelotypic effect of two aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase-encoding genes MdACS1 and MdACS3a on fruit ethylene production and softening in Malus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Laura; Zhu, Yuandi; Xu, Kenong

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone ethylene largely determines apple fruit shelf life and storability. Previous studies demonstrated that MdACS1 and MdACS3a, which encode 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACS), are crucial in apple fruit ethylene production. MdACS1 is well-known to be intimately involved in the climacteric ethylene burst in fruit ripening, while MdACS3a has been regarded a main regulator for ethylene production transition from system 1 (during fruit development) to system 2 (during fruit ripening). However, MdACS3a was also shown to have limited roles in initiating the ripening process lately. To better assess their roles, fruit ethylene production and softening were evaluated at five time points during a 20-day post-harvest period in 97 Malus accessions and in 34 progeny from 2 controlled crosses. Allelotyping was accomplished using an existing marker (ACS1) for MdACS1 and two markers (CAPS866 and CAPS870) developed here to specifically detect the two null alleles (ACS3a-G289V and Mdacs3a) of MdACS3a. In total, 952 Malus accessions were allelotyped with the three markers. The major findings included: The effect of MdACS1 was significant on fruit ethylene production and softening while that of MdACS3a was less detectable; allele MdACS1–2 was significantly associated with low ethylene and slow softening; under the same background of the MdACS1 allelotypes, null allele Mdacs3a (not ACS3a-G289V) could confer a significant delay of ethylene peak; alleles MdACS1–2 and Mdacs3a (excluding ACS3a-G289V) were highly enriched in M. domestica and M. hybrid when compared with those in M. sieversii. These findings are of practical implications in developing apples of low and delayed ethylene profiles by utilizing the beneficial alleles MdACS1-2 and Mdacs3a. PMID:27231553

  8. A kinetic study of the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedighi, S.; Gardner, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the kinetics of the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene in a PEM reactor. While in itself this reaction is of little industrial interest, this reaction can be looked upon as a model reaction for many of the important hydrogenation processes including the refining of heavy oils and the hydrogenation of vegetable oils. To study the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene, several experimental techniques have been used including polarization measurements, measurement of the composition of the exit gases and potential step, transient measurements. The results show that the hydrogenation reaction proceeds rapidly and essentially to completion. By fitting the experimental transient data to the results from a zero-dimensional mathematical model of the process, a set of kinetic parameters for the reactions has been obtained that give generally good agreement with the experimental results. It seems probable that similar experimental techniques could be used to study the electrochemical hydrogenation of other unsaturated organic molecules of more industrial significance.

  9. Ethylene, nitric oxide and haemoglobins in plant tolerance to flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Chakraborty, U

    2015-01-01

    -tolerant species Rumex palustris and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been extensively exploited to reveal some key molecular events. Our groups have recently demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) triggers the biosynthesis of ethylene during stress and that NO plays key roles in PCD and the hyponastic......As much as 12% of the world's soils may suffer excess water so that flooding is a major limiting factor on crop production in many areas. Plants attempt to deal with submergence by forming root aerenchyma to facilitate oxygen diffusion from the shoot to the root, initiating a hyponastic response....... This chapter will detail our understanding of the roles of ethylene, NO and haemoglobin in flooding stress....

  10. Kinetic modelling of radiochemical ageing of ethylene-propylene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Xavier; Richaud, Emmanuel; Verdu, Jacques; Monchy-Leroy, Carole

    2010-01-01

    A non-empirical kinetic model has been built for describing the general trends of radiooxidation kinetics of ethylene-propylene copolymers (EPR) at low γ dose rate and low temperature. It is derived from a radical chain oxidation mechanism composed of 30 elementary reactions: 19 relative to oxidation of methylene and methyne units plus 11 relative to their eventual cooxidation. The validity of this model has been already checked successfully elsewhere for one homopolymer: polyethylene (PE) (; ). In the present study, it is now checked for polypropylene (PP) and a series of three EPR differing essentially by their mole fraction of ethylene (37%, 73% and 86%) and their crystallinity degree (0%, 5% and 26%). Predicted values of radiation-chemical yields are in good agreement with experimental ones published in the last half past century.

  11. Deformation of confined poly(ethylene oxide) in multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chuan-Yar; Hiltner, Anne; Baer, Eric; Korley, LaShanda T J

    2012-04-01

    The effect of confinement on the deformation behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied using melt processed coextruded poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (EAA) and PEO multilayer films with varying PEO layer thicknesses from 3600 to 25 nm. The deformation mechanism was found to shift as layer thickness was decreased between 510 and 125 nm, from typical axial alignment of the crystalline fraction, as seen in bulk materials, to nonuniform micronecking mechanisms found in solution-grown single crystals. This change was evaluated via tensile testing, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). With the commercially relevant method of melt coextrusion, we were able to overcome the limitations to the testing of solution-grown single crystals, and the artifacts that occur from their handling, and bridged the gap in knowledge between thick bulk materials and thin single crystals.

  12. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Alkylation of isobutane by ethylene: A thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goupil, J.M.; Poirier, J.L.; Cornet, D. (Univ. of Caen (France). Lab. Catalyse et Spectrochimie)

    1994-03-01

    Alkylation of isobutane by ethylene produces mainly hexanes, but a variety of other compounds, alkanes or alkenes, may be formed by secondary reactions such as successive alkylations, isomerization, and ethylene polymerization. The equilibrium distribution of products is evaluated in the temperature range 280--680 K and at various initial compositions and pressures. Isomer groups are treated using Alberty's formulation. Calculations show that alkenes are thermodynamically unstable under usual reaction conditions. The equilibrium amounts of alkanes are such that C[sub 6] [much gt] C[sub 8] [much gt] C[sub 10] and heavy alkanes also appear unstable. The selective formation of particular isomers (dimethylbutanes, trimethylpentanes) is also integrated in the equilibrium equations. The calculated compositions (C[sub 6]:C[sub 8]:C[sub 10]) are compared with experimental data.

  14. Ring current models for acetylene and ethylene molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, Stefano; Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Spatial models of the current density vector field, induced in the electronic cloud of the acetylene and ethylene molecules by a uniform, time-independent magnetic field, are discussed in terms of topological stagnation graphs and three-dimensional streamline plots. The models are validated by documenting their ability to explain magnetic susceptibility and nuclear magnetic shieldings of carbon and hydrogen via related shielding density maps

  15. Excitation and ionization of ethylene by charged projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Wang Jing; Zhang Fengshou

    2010-01-01

    Using the time dependent local density approximation, applied to valence electrons, coupled non-adiabatically to molecular dynamics of ions, the collision process between ethylene and fast charged projectiles is studied in the microscopic way. The impact of ionic motion on the ionization is explored to show the importance of treating electronic and ionic degrees of freedom simultaneously. The number of escaped electrons, ionization probabilities are obtained. Furthermore, it is found that the ionic extensions in different directions show the different patterns. (authors)

  16. Performance limitations of polymer electrolytes based on ethylene oxide polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriez, Olivier; Han, Yong Bong; Hou, Jun; Kerr, John B.; Qiao, Jun; Sloop, Steven E.; Tian, Minmin; Wang, Shanger

    1999-01-01

    Studies of polymer electrolyte solutions for lithium-polymer batteries are described. Two different salts, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf), were dissolved in a variety of polymers. The structures were all based upon the ethylene oxide unit for lithium ion solvation and both linear and comb-branch polymer architectures have been examined. Conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient and transference number measurements demonstrate the superior transport properties of the LiTFSI salt over LiTf. Data obtained on all of these polymers combined with LiTFSI salts suggest that there is a limit to the conductivity achievable at room temperature, at least for hosts containing ethylene oxide units. The apparent conductivity limit is 5 x 10-5 S/cm at 25 C. Providing that the polymer chain segment containing the ethylene oxide units is at least 5-6 units long there appears to be little influence of the polymer framework to which the solvating groups are attached. To provide adequate separator function, the mechanical properties may be disconnected from the transport properties by selection of an appropriate architecture combined with an adequately long ethylene oxide chain. For both bulk and interfacial transport of the lithium ions, conductivity data alone is insufficient to understand the processes that occur. Lithium ion transference numbers and salt diffusion coefficients also play a major role in the observed behavior and the transport properties of these polymer electrolyte solutions appear to be quite inadequate for ambient temperature performance. At present, this restricts the use of such systems to high temperature applications. Several suggestions are given to overcome these obstacles

  17. Solid acid zeolite catalysts for benzene/ ethylene alkylation reactions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Alkylation of benzene with ethylene to ethylbenzene is widely used in the petrochemical industry. Ethylbenzene is an important raw material in the petrochemical industry. It is used as feedstock for the production of styrene, an important material for plastic and rubber production.The conventional catalyst for this alkylation process is AlCl₃, which accounted for 24% of the worldwide ethylbenzene production in 2009.As utilization of this catalyst involves problems with separation, handling, s...

  18. Ethylene vinylacetate copolymer and nanographite composite as chemical vapour sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, Santa; Sakale, Gita; Knite, Maris

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-nanostructured carbon composite as chemical vapour sensor is described, made by the dissolution method of a non-conductive polymer, ethylene vinylacetate copolymer, mixed with conductive nanographite particles (carbon black). Sensor exhibits relative electrical resistance change in chemical vapours, like ethanol and toluene. Since the sensor is relatively cheap, easy to fabricate, it can be used in air quality monitoring and at industries to control hazardous substance concentration in the air, for example, to protect workers from exposure to chemical spills

  19. Multimeric, Multifunctional Derivatives of Poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Bonora

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of multifunctional polymers founded on high-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. The design of new PEG derivatives assembled in a dendrimer-like multimeric fashion or bearing different functionalities on the same molecule is described. Their use as new drug delivery systems based on the conjugation of multiple copies or diversely active drugs on the same biocompatible support is illustrated.

  20. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  1. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  2. Assessment of the Mutagenic Potential of Carbon Disulfide, Carbon Tetrachloride, Dichloromethane, Ethylene Dichloride, and Methyl Bromide: A Comparative Analysis in Relation to Ethylene Dibromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document provides an evaluation of the mutagenic potential of five alternative fumigants to ethylene dibromide(EDB). These include carbon disulfide(CS2), carbon tetrachloride(CCl4), dichloromethane(DCM), ethylene dichloride(EDC), and methyl bromide (MB). Of the five proposed ...

  3. Large Eddy Simulation of High-Speed, Premixed Ethylene Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Kiran; Edwards, Jack R.; Chelliah, Harsha; Goyne, Christopher; McDaniel, James; Rockwell, Robert; Kirik, Justin; Cutler, Andrew; Danehy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A large-eddy simulation / Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (LES/RANS) methodology is used to simulate premixed ethylene-air combustion in a model scramjet designed for dual mode operation and equipped with a cavity for flameholding. A 22-species reduced mechanism for ethylene-air combustion is employed, and the calculations are performed on a mesh containing 93 million cells. Fuel plumes injected at the isolator entrance are processed by the isolator shock train, yielding a premixed fuel-air mixture at an equivalence ratio of 0.42 at the cavity entrance plane. A premixed flame is anchored within the cavity and propagates toward the opposite wall. Near complete combustion of ethylene is obtained. The combustor is highly dynamic, exhibiting a large-scale oscillation in global heat release and mass flow rate with a period of about 2.8 ms. Maximum heat release occurs when the flame front reaches its most downstream extent, as the flame surface area is larger. Minimum heat release is associated with flame propagation toward the cavity and occurs through a reduction in core flow velocity that is correlated with an upstream movement of the shock train. Reasonable agreement between simulation results and available wall pressure, particle image velocimetry, and OH-PLIF data is obtained, but it is not yet clear whether the system-level oscillations seen in the calculations are actually present in the experiment.

  4. Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard

    2014-10-28

    A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C2H4O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.

  5. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  6. Thap Maeo bananas: Fast ripening and full ethylene perception at low doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo A; Castelan, Florence P; Gomes, Bruna L; Purgatto, Eduardo; Cordenunsi-Lysenko, Beatriz R

    2018-03-01

    Brazil is a major producer and consumer of various banana types. Thap Maeo is a promising cultivar for the market due to its resistance to Black and Yellow Sigatoka disease. However, a lack of information and postharvest technologies concerning Thap Maeo physiology seems to be a significant problem limiting its expansion in the market. Thus, this study aims to establish Thap Maeo fruit's physical, biochemical, and physiological aspects, defining the best ethylene dosage for treatment considering fruit ripening parameters. Bananas were harvested and monitored during both natural and ethylene-induced ripening processes. Assessments of pulp firmness, peel color and endogenous ethylene production showed different profiles between ethylene-treated and non-treated fruits, whereas the ethylene responses concerning the carbohydrates and hormones profiles, as well as the ethylene receptors expression, were observed in all ethylene-treated fruits, even applying low concentrations of the hormone. It thus indicated the high ethylene-sensitivity of Thap Maeo cultivar. Such postharvest behaviors reverberate in lower ethylene requirements for treatment, which was established at 10μLL -1 . Ethylene-inducible changes in fruit volatile compounds throughout ripening are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. GDSL LIPASE1 Modulates Plant Immunity through Feedback Regulation of Ethylene Signaling1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Gi; Kwon, Sun Jae; Jang, Young Jin; Nam, Myung Hee; Chung, Joo Hee; Na, Yun-Cheol; Guo, Hongwei; Park, Ohkmae K.

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene is a key signal in the regulation of plant defense responses. It is required for the expression and function of GDSL LIPASE1 (GLIP1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which plays an important role in plant immunity. Here, we explore molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between GLIP1 and ethylene signaling by an epistatic analysis of ethylene response mutants and GLIP1-overexpressing (35S:GLIP1) plants. We show that GLIP1 expression is regulated by ethylene signaling components and, further, that GLIP1 expression or application of petiole exudates from 35S:GLIP1 plants affects ethylene signaling both positively and negatively, leading to ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 activation and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) down-regulation, respectively. Additionally, 35S:GLIP1 plants or their exudates increase the expression of the salicylic acid biosynthesis gene SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION-DEFICIENT2, known to be inhibited by EIN3 and EIN3-LIKE1. These results suggest that GLIP1 regulates plant immunity through positive and negative feedback regulation of ethylene signaling, and this is mediated by its activity to accumulate a systemic signal(s) in the phloem. We propose a model explaining how GLIP1 regulates the fine-tuning of ethylene signaling and ethylene-salicylic acid cross talk. PMID:24170202

  8. Arabidopsis CPR5 regulates ethylene signaling via molecular association with the ETR1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Wang, Lijuan; Qiao, Longfei; Chen, Jiacai; Pappa, Maria Belen; Pei, Haixia; Zhang, Tao; Chang, Caren; Dong, Chun-Hai

    2017-11-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays various functions in plant growth, development and response to environmental stress. Ethylene is perceived by membrane-bound ethylene receptors, and among the homologous receptors in Arabidopsis, the ETR1 ethylene receptor plays a major role. The present study provides evidence demonstrating that Arabidopsis CPR5 functions as a novel ETR1 receptor-interacting protein in regulating ethylene response and signaling. Yeast split ubiquitin assays and bi-fluorescence complementation studies in plant cells indicated that CPR5 directly interacts with the ETR1 receptor. Genetic analyses indicated that mutant alleles of cpr5 can suppress ethylene insensitivity in both etr1-1 and etr1-2, but not in other dominant ethylene receptor mutants. Overexpression of Arabidopsis CPR5 either in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, or ectopically in tobacco, significantly enhanced ethylene sensitivity. These findings indicate that CPR5 plays a critical role in regulating ethylene signaling. CPR5 is localized to endomembrane structures and the nucleus, and is involved in various regulatory pathways, including pathogenesis, leaf senescence, and spontaneous cell death. This study provides evidence for a novel regulatory function played by CPR5 in the ethylene receptor signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Ion-molecule reactions in the binary mixture of ethylene oxide and trioxane, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru; Sugiura, Toshio.

    1977-01-01

    The formation mechanism of protonated molecular ions by cross-reactions in ethylene oxide-trioxane mixtures has been studied with use of a modified time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The precursors of the product ions were determined by analysis of the fine structure of their ionization efficiency curves using deuterated ethylene oxide. Protonated ethylene oxide is formed by the hydrogen atom transfer reaction of ethylene oxide molecular ion with trioxane, and protonated trioxane by the proton transfer reaction of CHO + (from ethylene oxide) with trioxane. In the ion-molecule reactions of ethylene-d 4 oxide-trioxane mixtures, appreciable isotope effect was observed. The CHO + from ethylene oxide is an important reactant ion as compared with that from trioxane in the proton transfer reaction, and CHO + from ethylene oxide was suggested as a thermal reactive ion. The order of proton affinity could be estimated from the proton transfer reactions involving CHO + . It was found that the proton affinity of trioxane is smaller than that of ethylene oxide. (auth.)

  10. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  11. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  12. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  13. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest ripening and senescence of banana by antagonizing the effect of ethylene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ge

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H2S acts as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants, whereas the interaction between H2S and ethylene is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the role of H2S in ethylene-promoted banana ripening and senescence by the application of ethylene released from 1.0 g·L-1 ethephon solution or H2S with 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS as the donor or in combination. Fumigation with ethylene was found to accelerate banana ripening and H2S treatment effectively alleviated ethylene-induced banana peel yellowing and fruit softening in parallel with decreased activity of polygalacturonase (PG. Ethylene+H2S treatment also delayed the decreases in chlorophyll and total phenolics, and increased the accumulation of flavonoid, whereas decreased the contents of carotenoid, soluble protein in banana peel and reducing sugar in pulp compared with ethylene treatment alone. Besides, ethylene+H2S treatment suppressed the accumulation of superoxide radicals (·O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA which accumulated highly in ethylene-treated banana peels. Furthermore H2S enhanced total antioxidant capacity in ethylene-treated banana peels with the 2,2'-azobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assay. The result of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the combined treatment of ethylene with H2S down-regulated the expression of ethylene synthesis genes MaACS1, MaACS2 and MaACO1 and pectate lyase MaPL compared with ethylene treatment, while the expression of ethylene receptor genes MaETR, MaERS1 and MaERS2 was enhanced in combination treatment compared with ethylene alone. In all, it can be concluded that H2S alleviates banana fruit ripening and senescence by antagonizing the effect of ethylene through reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of ethylene signaling pathway.

  14. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest ripening and senescence of banana by antagonizing the effect of ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yun; Hu, Kang-Di; Wang, Sha-Sha; Hu, Lan-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yan-Hong; Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) acts as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants, whereas the interaction between H2S and ethylene is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the role of H2S in ethylene-promoted banana ripening and senescence by the application of ethylene released from 1.0 g·L-1 ethephon solution or H2S with 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as the donor or in combination. Fumigation with ethylene was found to accelerate banana ripening and H2S treatment effectively alleviated ethylene-induced banana peel yellowing and fruit softening in parallel with decreased activity of polygalacturonase (PG). Ethylene+H2S treatment also delayed the decreases in chlorophyll and total phenolics, and increased the accumulation of flavonoid, whereas decreased the contents of carotenoid, soluble protein in banana peel and reducing sugar in pulp compared with ethylene treatment alone. Besides, ethylene+H2S treatment suppressed the accumulation of superoxide radicals (·O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) which accumulated highly in ethylene-treated banana peels. Furthermore H2S enhanced total antioxidant capacity in ethylene-treated banana peels with the 2,2'-azobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay. The result of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the combined treatment of ethylene with H2S down-regulated the expression of ethylene synthesis genes MaACS1, MaACS2 and MaACO1 and pectate lyase MaPL compared with ethylene treatment, while the expression of ethylene receptor genes MaETR, MaERS1 and MaERS2 was enhanced in combination treatment compared with ethylene alone. In all, it can be concluded that H2S alleviates banana fruit ripening and senescence by antagonizing the effect of ethylene through reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of ethylene signaling pathway.

  15. [Carcinogenic activity of ethylene oxide and its reaction products 2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. III. Research on ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol for carcinogenic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberg, H

    1987-03-01

    Ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol were each administered once weekly subcutaneously to groups of 100 female NMRI mice at 3 dosages (30; 10 und 3 mg single dose per mouse). Tricaprylin was used as solvent. The mean total dosage per mouse was 2110.5; 707.0 and 196.2 mg for ethylene glycol and 2029.8; 671.7 and 213.3 mg for diethylene glycol. Neither ethylene glycol nor diethylene glycol induced tumors at the injection site or away from the point of administration.

  16. The effect of ethylene on root growth of Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, M. C.; Feldman, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    The control of primary root growth in Zea mays cv. Merit by ethylene was examined. At applied concentrations of ethylene equal to or greater than 0.1 microliter L-1, root elongation during 24 h was inhibited. The half-maximal response occurred at 0.6 microliter L-1 and the response saturated at 6 microliters L-1. Inhibition of elongation took place within 20 min. However, after ethylene was removed, elongation recovered to control values within 15 min. Root elongation was also inhibited by green light. The inhibition caused by a 24-h exposure to ethylene was restricted to the elongating region just behind the apex, with inhibition of cortical cell elongation being the primary contributor to the effect. Based on use of 2,5-norbornadiene, a gaseous competitive inhibitor of ethylene, it was concluded that endogenous ethylene normally inhibits root elongation.

  17. Ethylene and Hormonal Cross Talk in Vegetative Growth and Development1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Poel, Bram; Smet, Dajo; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that most likely became a functional hormone during the evolution of charophyte green algae, prior to land colonization. From this ancient origin, ethylene evolved into an important growth regulator that is essential for myriad plant developmental processes. In vegetative growth, ethylene appears to have a dual role, stimulating and inhibiting growth, depending on the species, tissue, and cell type, developmental stage, hormonal status, and environmental conditions. Moreover, ethylene signaling and response are part of an intricate network in cross talk with internal and external cues. Besides being a crucial factor in the growth control of roots and shoots, ethylene can promote flowering, fruit ripening and abscission, as well as leaf and petal senescence and abscission and, hence, plays a role in virtually every phase of plant life. Last but not least, together with jasmonates, salicylate, and abscisic acid, ethylene is important in steering stress responses. PMID:26232489

  18. Photo- and radiation chemical cycloaddition of maleic acid derivatives to ethylene and acetylene under elavated pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirbach, M.

    1975-01-01

    Based on spectroscopic and kinetic measurements the influence of high pressure on some selected photochemical cycloaddition-reactions is studied. The photo-cycloaddition-reaction of maleic acid anhydride with ethylen has been performed under high ethylen pressures ( 90%). Surprisingly the quantum yield of the cyclo aduct decreases with increasing ethylene pressure from PHI = 0.06 at p = 1 bar to PHI = 0.022 at p = 42 bar. Based on Stern-Volmer quenching experiments, the decrease in ring formation with increasing ethylene concentrations could be explained by an endoergic triplet energy transfer from maleic acid anhydride to ethylene. The type II dissociation of butyrophenone has been quenched also with ethylene. With a lifetime for the first excited butyrophenone triplett state of tau = 6.8 x 10 -8 sec, obtained from kinetic data, the velocity constant can be calculated for this reaction with the result k 5 = 3 x 10 6 M -1 sec -1 . (orig./HK) [de

  19. Novel Routes to Ethylene Glycol Synthesis via Acid-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Formaldehyde and Dimethoxymethane

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Fuat Emin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-carbon bond forming carbonylation reactions were investigated as candidates to replace ethene epoxidation as the major source of ethylene glycol production. This work was motivated by the potentially lower cost of carbon derived from synthesis gas as compared to ethylene. Synthesis gas can be produced from relatively abundant and cheap natural gas, coal, and biomass resources whereas ethylene is derived from increasingly scarce and expensive crude oil. From synthesis gas, a range of...

  20. Production of volatiles by the red seaweed Gelidium arbuscula (Rhodophyta): emission of ethylene and dimethyl sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jimenez, Pilar; Brito-Romano, Olegario; Robaina, Rafael R

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different light conditions and exogenous ethylene on the emission of volatile compounds from the alga Gelidium arbuscula Bory de Saint-Vincent were studied. Special emphasis was placed on the possibility that the emission of ethylene and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) are related through the action of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) lyase. The conversion of DMSP to DMS and acrylate, which is catalyzed by DMSP lyase, can indirectly support the synthesis of ethylene through the transformation of acrylate to ethylene. After mimicking the desiccation of G. arbuscula thalli experienced during low tides, the volatile compounds emitted were trapped in the headspace of 2 mL glass vials for 1 h. Two methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that the range of organic volatile compounds released was affected by abiotic factors, such as the availability and spectral quality of light, salinity, and exogenous ethylene. Amines and methyl alkyl compounds were produced after exposure to white light and darkness but not after exposure to exogenous ethylene or red light. Volatiles potentially associated with the oxidation of fatty acids, such as alkenes and low-molecular-weight oxygenated compounds, accumu-lated after exposure to exogenous ethylene and red light. Ethylene was produced in all treatments, especially after exposure to exogenous ethylene. Levels of DMS, the most abundant sulfur-compound that was emitted in all of the conditions tested, did not increase after incubation with ethylene. Thus, although DMSP lyase is active in G. arbuscula, it is unlikely to contribute to ethylene synthesis. The generation of ethylene and DMS do not appear to be coordinated in G. arbuscula. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  1. Outcome of patients in acute poisoning with ethylene glycol - factors which may have influence on evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Tanasescu, A; Macovei, RA; Tudosie, MS

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Intoxication with ethylene glycol occurs as a result of intentional ingestion in suicide attempts or accidentally. Clinical ethylene glycol poisoning is not specific and occurs in many poisoning cases therefore the diagnosis is difficult. Early diagnostic and establishment of therapy are very important for a favorable evolution. The mortality rate of ethylene glycol intoxication ranges between 1 and 22% depending on the amount of alcohol ingestion and the time period between alc...

  2. Ethylene Removal in Strong Electric Field Formed by Floating Multi-Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Takeshi

    Ethylene gas that contains the acetic acid ester element can be removed by applying the pulse voltage to the floating multi-electrode device. This phenomenon is caused in the weak discharge by the strong electric field between the narrow electrodes. This device is possible in very small electric power (apples, and 3.5ppm/30min for 2 melons. However, ethylene gas that doesn't contain the acetic acid ester cannot be removed (ex. ethylene pure gas and Japanese apricot).

  3. A novel oxidative method for the absorption of Hg0 from flue gas of coal fired power plants using task specific ionic liquid scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnea, Zach; Sachs, Tatyana; Chidambaram, Mandan; Sasson, Yoel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ionic liquid used as absorption media due to negligible vapor pressure. ► Formation of a stable complex between the oxidation agent and the absorption liquid prevents its sublimation. ► Remarkable concentration factor of six orders of magnitude of mercury/IL unlike active carbon injection that absorb ppb of Hg from flue. ► Reduced metallic mercury swiftly precipitated from the solution and could be quantitatively separated and collected. -- Abstract: A simple continuous process is described for the removal of mercury from gas streams (such as flue gas of a coal fired power stations) using imidazolium based Task Specific Ionic Liquids [TSILs] with the general structure ([RMIM][XI 2 − ]) where X = Cl, Br or I. The latter are formed by blending dialkylimidazolium halide salts with iodine. When applied in a gas/liquid scrubber, these salts were shown to absorb >99% of elemental mercury originally present in a gas stream in concentration of 75–400 ppb. The mercury abatement is attained by oxidating the mercury to HgI 2 which is bound as a stable IL complex ([RMIM + ][XHgI 2 − ]. The novel absorption system exhibits a remarkable mercury concentration factor of seven orders of magnitude. The final solution obtained contains up to 50% (w/w) mercury in the IL. Upon exposure to sodium formate, directly added to the saturated IL at 45 °C, reduced metallic mercury swiftly precipitated from the solution and could be quantitatively separated and collected. The free IL could be fully recycled

  4. Differential feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in pulp and peel tissues of banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Akitsugu; Liu, Xuejun; Yokotani, Naoki; Yamane, Miki; Lu, Wang-Jin; Nakano, Ryohei; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2007-01-01

    The feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in banana [Musa sp. (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Grand Nain] fruit was investigated in an attempt to clarify the opposite effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor, before and after the onset of ripening. 1-MCP pre-treatment completely prevented the ripening-induced effect of propylene in pre-climacteric banana fruit, whereas treatment after the onset of ripening stimulated ethylene production. In pre-climacteric fruit, higher concentrations of propylene suppressed ethylene production more strongly, despite their earlier ethylene-inducing effect. Exposure of the fruit ripened by propylene to 1-MCP increased ethylene production concomitantly with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase activity and ACC content, and prevented a transient decrease in MA-ACS1 transcripts in the pulp tissues. In contrast, in the peel of ripening fruit, 1-MCP prevented the increase in ethylene production and subsequently the ripening process by reduction of the increase in MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 transcripts and of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities. These results suggest that ethylene biosynthesis in ripening banana fruit may be controlled negatively in the pulp tissue and positively in the peel tissue. This differential regulation by ethylene in pulp and peel tissues was also observed for MA-PL, MA-Exp, and MA-MADS genes.

  5. Gas-phase ion-molecular reactions of free ethylsilylic ions with ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchukin, E.V.; Kochina, T.A.; Sinotova, E.N.; Ignat'ev, I.S.

    2001-01-01

    Interaction of ethylsilylic ions, resulting from β-decay of tritium compounds, with ethylene in gaseous phase was studied by radiochemical method. The interaction occurs via formation of excited adduct C 4 H 11 Si + , its structure presenting a complex of ethylsilylic cation and ethylene. In the course of the complex lifetime isotopic exchange between the cation tritium atoms and proton of ethylene takes place along with isomerization of ethylsilylic cation into dimethylsilylic one. Decomposition of the complex gives rise largely to labeled ethylene formation [ru

  6. Inhibition of ethylene production by putrescine alleviates aluminium-induced root inhibition in wheat plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Sun, Chengliang; Wang, Jinghong; Ye, Yiquan; Zhou, Weiwei; Lu, Lingli; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-01-08

    Inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of aluminium (Al) toxicity. Although putrescine (Put) has been identified as an important signaling molecule involved in Al tolerance, it is yet unknown how Put mitigates Al-induced root inhibition. Here, the possible mechanism was investigated by using two wheat genotypes differing in Al resistance: Al-tolerant Xi Aimai-1 and Al-sensitive Yangmai-5. Aluminium caused more root inhibition in Yangmai-5 and increased ethylene production at the root apices compared to Xi Aimai-1, whereas the effects were significantly reversed by ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors. The simultaneous exposure of wheat seedlings to Al and ethylene donor, ethephon, or ethylene biosynthesis precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), increased ethylene production and aggravated root inhibition, which was more pronounced in Xi Aimai-1. In contrast, Put treatment decreased ethylene production and alleviated Al-induced root inhibition in both genotypes, and the effects were more conspicuous in Yangmai-5. Furthermore, our results indicated that Al-induced ethylene production was mediated by ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase, and that Put decreased ethylene production by inhibiting ACS. Altogether, these findings indicate that ethylene is involved in Al-induced root inhibition and this process could be alleviated by Put through inhibiting ACS activity.

  7. Inhalation exposure to ethylene induces eosinophilic rhinitis and nasal epithelial remodeling in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, Christina; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Krieger, Shannon M; Pottenger, Lynn H; Harkema, Jack R

    2015-11-05

    This study investigated the time- and concentration-dependent effects of inhaled ethylene on eosinophilic rhinitis and nasal epithelial remodeling in Fisher 344 rats exposed to 0, 10, 50, 300, or 10,000 ppm ethylene, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 4 weeks. Morphometric quantitation of eosinophilic inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia (MCM) and nasal mucosal gene expression were evaluated at anatomic sites previously shown to undergo ethylene-induced epithelial remodeling. Serum levels of total IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were measured to determine if ethylene exposure increased the expression of Th2-associated (IgE and IgG1) relative to Th1-associated (IgG2a) antibody isotypes. Rats exposed to 0 or 10,000 ppm for 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 days were analyzed to assess the temporal pattern of ethylene-induced alterations in nasal epithelial cell proliferation, morphology and gene expression. Rats exposed to 0, 10, 50, 300, and 10,000 ppm ethylene for 20 days were analyzed to assess concentration-dependent effects on lesion development. Additional rats exposed 4 weeks to 0, 300, or 10,000 ppm ethylene were held for 13 weeks post-exposure to examine the persistence of ethylene-induced mucosal alterations. The data indicate that cell death and reparative cell proliferation were not a part of the pathogenesis of ethylene-induced nasal lesions. Enhanced gene expression of Th2 cytokines (e.g., IL-5, IL-13) and chitinase (YM1/2) in the nasal mucosa was much greater than that of Th1 cytokines (e.g., IFNγ) after ethylene exposure. A significant increase in MCM was measured after 5 days of exposure to 10,000 ppm ethylene and after 20 days of exposure 10 ppm ethylene. Ethylene-induced MCM was reversible after cessation of exposure. No increase in total serum IgE, IgG1 or IgG2a was measured in any ethylene-exposed group. These data do not support involvement of an immune-mediated allergic mechanism in the pathogenesis of ethylene-induced nasal lesions in rats. Repeated

  8. Ethylene Gas Sensing Properties of Tin Oxide Nanowires Synthesized via CVD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhir, Maisara A. M.; Mohamed, Khairudin; Rezan, Sheikh A.; Arafat, M. M.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Uda, M. N. A.; Nuradibah, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies ethylene gas sensing performance of tin oxide (SnO2) nanowires (NWs) as sensing material synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. The effect of NWs diameter on ethylene gas sensing characteristics were investigated. SnO2 NWs with diameter of ∼40 and ∼240 nm were deposited onto the alumina substrate with printed gold electrodes and tested for sensing characteristic toward ethylene gas. From the finding, the smallest diameter of NWs (42 nm) exhibit fast response and recovery time and higher sensitivity compared to largest diameter of NWs (∼240 nm). Both sensor show good reversibility features for ethylene gas sensor.

  9. Nitrogen availability regulates proline and ethylene production and alleviates salinity stress in mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Noushina; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-04-15

    Proline content and ethylene production have been shown to be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms in plants. To assess the role of nitrogen (N) in the protection of photosynthesis under salt stress, the effect of N (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on proline and ethylene was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea). Sufficient N (10 mM) optimized proline production under non-saline conditions through an increase in proline-metabolizing enzymes, leading to osmotic balance and protection of photosynthesis through optimal ethylene production. Excess N (20 mM), in the absence of salt stress, inhibited photosynthesis and caused higher ethylene evolution but lower proline production compared to sufficient N. In contrast, under salt stress with an increased demand for N, excess N optimized ethylene production, which regulates the proline content resulting in recovered photosynthesis. The effect of excess N on photosynthesis under salt stress was further substantiated by the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG), which inhibited proline production and photosynthesis. Without salt stress, AVG promoted photosynthesis in plants receiving excess N by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The results suggest that a regulatory interaction exists between ethylene, proline and N for salt tolerance. Nitrogen differentially regulates proline production and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis in mustard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Expression of jasmonic ethylene responsive factor gene in transgenic poplar tree leads to increased salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiliang; Su, Xiaohua; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Qinjun; Zhang, Xianghua; Huang, Rongfeng

    2009-02-01

    The stress resistance of plants can be enhanced by regulating the expression of multiple downstream genes associated with stress resistance. We used the Agrobacterium method to transfer the tomato jasmonic ethylene responsive factors (JERFs) gene that encodes the ethylene response factor (ERF) like transcription factor to the genome of a hybrid poplar (Populus alba x Populus berolinensis). Eighteen resistant plants were obtained, of which 13 were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase PCR and Southern blot analyses as having incorporated the JERFs gene and able to express it at the transcriptional level. Salinity tests were conducted in a greenhouse with 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl. In the absence of NaCl, the transgenic plants were significantly taller than the control plants, but no statistically significant differences in the concentrations of proline and chlorophyll were observed. With increasing salinity, the extent of damage was significantly less in transgenic plants than that in control plants, and the reductions in height, basal diameter and biomass were less in transgenic plants than those in control plants. At 200 and 300 mM NaCl concentrations, transgenic plants were 128.9% and 98.8% taller, respectively, and had 199.8% and 113.0% more dry biomass, respectively, than control plants. The saline-induced reduction in leaf water content and increase in root/crown ratio were less in transgenic plants than in control plants. Foliar proline concentration increased more in response to salt treatment in transgenic plants than in control plants. Foliar Na(+) concentration was higher in transgenic plants than in control plants. In the coastal area in Panjin of Liaoning where the total soil salt concentration is 0.3%, a salt tolerance trial of transgenic plants indicated that 3-year-old transgenic plants were 14.5% and 33.6% taller than the control plants at two field sites. The transgenic plants at the two field sites were growing

  11. Synthesis by ATRP of poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-polystyrene, poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-poly(4-acetoxystyrene) and its hydrolysis product poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-poly(hydroxystyrene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankova, Katja; Kops, Jørgen; Chen, Xianyi

    1999-01-01

    Diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene-co-butylene) and polystyrene or poly(4-acetoxystyrene) are synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using a 2-bromopropionic ester macroinitiator prepared from commercial monohydroxyl functional narrow dispersity hydrogenated polybutadiene...

  12. A nanostructured graphene/polyaniline hybrid material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualan; Hao, Qingli; Yang, Xujie; Lu, Lude; Wang, Xin

    2010-10-01

    A flexible graphene/polyaniline hybrid material as a supercapacitor electrode was synthesized by an in situ polymerization-reduction/dedoping-redoping process. This product was first prepared in an ethylene glycol medium, then treated with hot sodium hydroxide solution to obtain the reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline hybrid material. Sodium hydroxide also acted as a dedoping reagent for polyaniline in the composite. After redoping in an acidic solution, the thin, uniform and flexible conducting graphene/polyaniline product was obtained with unchanged morphology. The chemical structure of the materials was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The composite material showed better electrochemical performances than the pure individual components. A high specific capacitance of 1126 F g-1 was obtained with a retention life of 84% after 1000 cycles for supercapacitors. The energy density and power density were also better than those of pure component materials.

  13. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  14. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  15. Modelling graphene quantum dot functionalization via ethylene-dinitrobenzoyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noori, Keian; Giustino, Feliciano; Hübener, Hannes; Kymakis, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene-dinitrobenzoyl (EDNB) linked to graphene oxide has been shown to improve the performance of graphene/polymer organic photovoltaics. Its binding conformation on graphene, however, is not yet clear, nor have its effects on work function and optical absorption been explored more generally for graphene quantum dots. In this report, we clarify the linkage of EDNB to GQDs from first principles and show that the binding of the molecule increases the work function of graphene, while simultaneously modifying its absorption in the ultraviolet region.

  16. Modelling graphene quantum dot functionalization via ethylene-dinitrobenzoyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noori, Keian; Giustino, Feliciano [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Hübener, Hannes [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Universidad del País Vasco CFM CSIC-UPV/EHU-MPC & DIPC, Av. Tolosa 72, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Kymakis, Emmanuel [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics & Electrical Engineering Department, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Crete, Heraklion, 71004 Crete (Greece)

    2016-03-21

    Ethylene-dinitrobenzoyl (EDNB) linked to graphene oxide has been shown to improve the performance of graphene/polymer organic photovoltaics. Its binding conformation on graphene, however, is not yet clear, nor have its effects on work function and optical absorption been explored more generally for graphene quantum dots. In this report, we clarify the linkage of EDNB to GQDs from first principles and show that the binding of the molecule increases the work function of graphene, while simultaneously modifying its absorption in the ultraviolet region.

  17. Simulation of soot size distribution in an ethylene counterflow flame

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2014-01-06

    Soot, an aggregate of carbonaceous particles produced during the rich combustion of fossil fuels, is an undesirable pollutant and health hazard. Soot evolution involves various dynamic processes: nucleation soot formation from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) condensation PAHs condensing on soot particle surface surface processes hydrogen-abstraction-C2H2-addition, oxidation coagulation two soot particles coagulating to form a bigger particle This simulation work investigates soot size distribution and morphology in an ethylene counterflow flame, using i). Chemkin with a method of moments to deal with the coupling between vapor consumption and soot formation; ii). Monte Carlo simulation of soot dynamics.

  18. Excitation and Ionization of Ethylene by Charged Projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Ping, Wang; Jing, Wang; Feng-Shou, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Using the time dependent local density approximation, applied to valence electrons, coupled non-adiabatically to molecular dynamics of ions, the collision process between ethylene and fast charged projectiles is studied in the microscopic way. The impact of ionic motion on the ionization is explored to show the importance of treating electronic and ionic degrees of freedom simultaneously. The number of escaped electrons, ionization probabilities are obtained. Furthermore, it is found that the ionic extensions in different directions show the different patterns. (atomic and molecular physics)

  19. Cerium-containing catalysts for obtaining ethylene from ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusman Dossumov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The catalysts Се/γ-Al2O3 и Се-La/γ-Al2O3 were studied by methods of electron microscopy (EM and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD of ammonia. Their activity was studied in reaction of ethanol dehydration with formation of ethylene. Modification of Се/γ-Al2O3 catalyst by Lanthanum promotes dispersion of the catalyst and increases the amount of acidic sites. This modification positively affects the catalyst activity.

  20. Radiation vulcanization of ethylene-propylene rubber with polyfunctional monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinhua, Wang; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on the sensitizing efficiency of several polyfunctional monomers to radiation vulcanization of ethylene-propylene rubber. And the results show that triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) gave the best results. TEGDMA not only lowers the vulcanization dose (D{sub v}), but also increases the tensile strength greatly. The content of TEGDMA does not affect the D{sub v} of TEGDMA-EPM, but affects the tensile strength at the D{sub v}. At best content (0.04 mol/100 g EPM), the tensile strength is increased from 6.0 to 12 MPa, and the elongation is 790% at the D{sub v}. (author)