WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid ethylene scrubber

  1. Influence of brick air scrubber by-product on growth and development of corn and hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carla N; Bauerle, William L; Owino, Tom O; Chastain, John P; Klaine, Stephen J

    2007-03-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of spent reagent from air pollution control scrubbers used at a brick manufacturing facility on emergence, growth, and physiological responses of corn and hybrid poplar plants. Scrubber by-product was obtained from General Shale Brick, Louisville, KY. Potting substrate was weighed and quantities of scrubber by-product were added to the substrate to obtain treatments of 0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% scrubber by-product (w:w) for the corn study. Each treatment mix was potted into nine replicate polyethylene pots and four corn seeds were sown per pot. The pots were randomized in a greenhouse at Clemson University and the number of seedlings emerging from each treatment, dark-adapted leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence, and shoot heights were measured at the end of a 21-day growth period. Then, dry shoot biomass was determined for plants from each treatment and plant tissues were analyzed for selected constituents. For the poplar study, nine-inch cuttings of hybrid poplar clone 15-29 (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) and clone OP367 (P. deltoides x P. nigra) were planted in treatments of scrubber by-product-potting soil mixes of 0% , 5% , 10% , and 25% w:w. Leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured over six weeks and cumulative leaf area, dry biomass, and nutrient content of tissues were determined upon harvest. Results of these studies indicate that percent seedling emergence for corn plants decreased with increasing scrubber by-product application rates. Application rates up to 12.5% scrubber by-product w:w had no adverse effect on corn seedling emergence. Shoot elongation, biomass production, and the status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the seedlings were also not severely impaired at applications below this level. A critical value of 58.2% w:w scrubber by-product was estimated to cause 25% inhibition of seedling emergence. Biomass production, cumulative leaf area, and chlorophyll a fluorescence of

  2. Design of smart oligo(ethylene glycol)-based biocompatible hybrid microgels loaded with magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boularas, Mohamed; Gombart, Emilie; Tranchant, Jean-François; Billon, Laurent; Save, Maud

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a rational strategy for preparing smart oligo(ethylene glycol)-based hybrid microgels loaded with high content of homogeneously distributed preformed magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) (up to 33 wt%). The strategy is based on the synthesis of biocompatible multiresponsive microgels by precipitation copolymerization of di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate, oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate, methacrylic acid, and oligo(ethylene glycol)diac-rylate. An aqueous dispersion of preformed magnetic NPs is straightforwardly loaded into the microgels. Robust monodisperse thermoresponsive magnetic microgels are produced, exhibiting a constant value of the volume phase transition temperature whatever the NPs content. The homogeneous microstructure of the initial stimuli-responsive biocompatible microgels plays a crucial role for the design of unique well-defined ethylene glycol-based thermoresponsive hybrid microgels. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Experimental investigation into the detonation characteristics of hybrid RDX-ethylene-air mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Yao, J.; Yang, Z.; Xie, L.; Peng, J.; Rao, G.

    2016-09-01

    An experimental study is conducted to determine the detonation characteristics of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) particles dispersed in a gaseous fuel air mixture in a vertical detonation tube with an inner diameter of 200 mm and a height of 5400 mm. Experiments are performed in both ethylene-air mixtures and RDX-ethylene-air hybrid mixtures. The detonation front pressure and velocity are measured with six pressure transducers along the detonation tube. The results show that the addition of RDX assists 4.0 vol.% ethylene-air mixtures in achieving detonation. The detonation front pressure increases noticeably with dust concentration up to 474 g/m3 in the RDX-ethylene-air hybrid mixtures, but the velocity only increases slightly. The cellular structures of RDX-ethylene-air hybrid mixtures and ethylene-air mixtures were obtained with the use of smoked foils and exhibit irregular structures. It is found that the measured cell size has a U-shaped curve with respect to RDX concentration.

  4. A genome-wide screen for ethylene-induced ethylene response factors (ERFs) in hybrid aspen stem identifies ERF genes that modify stem growth and wood properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahala, Jorma; Felten, Judith; Love, Jonathan; Gorzsás, András; Gerber, Lorenz; Lamminmäki, Airi; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Sundberg, Björn

    2013-10-01

    Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are a large family of transcription factors that mediate responses to ethylene. Ethylene affects many aspects of wood development and is involved in tension wood formation. Thus ERFs could be key players connecting ethylene action to wood development. We identified 170 gene models encoding ERFs in the Populus trichocarpa genome. The transcriptional responses of ERF genes to ethylene treatments were determined in stem tissues of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) by qPCR. Selected ethylene-responsive ERFs were overexpressed in wood-forming tissues and characterized for growth and wood chemotypes by FT-IR. Fifty ERFs in Populus showed more than five-fold increased transcript accumulation in response to ethylene treatments. Twenty-six ERFs were selected for further analyses. A majority of these were induced during tension wood formation. Overexpression of ERFs 18, 21, 30, 85 and 139 in wood-forming tissues of hybrid aspen modified the wood chemotype. Moreover, overexpression of ERF139 caused a dwarf-phenotype with altered wood development, and overexpression of ERF18, 34 and 35 slightly increased stem diameter. We identified ethylene-induced ERFs that respond to tension wood formation, and modify wood formation when overexpressed. This provides support for their role in ethylene-mediated regulation of wood development.

  5. Multilayer interparticle linking hybrid MOF-199 for noninvasive enrichment and analysis of plant hormone ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Huang, Yichun; Ding, Weiwei; Li, Gongke

    2014-04-01

    Ethylene, an important plant hormone, is of utmost importance during many developmental processes of plants. However, the efficient enrichment and analysis of trace ethylene still remains a challenge. A simple and mild multilayer interparticle linking strategy was proposed to fabricate a novel hybrid MOF-199 enrichment coating. Strong chemical interparticle linkages throughout the coating improved the durability and reproducibility of hybrid MOF-199 coating dramatically. This coating performed a significant extraction superiority of ethylene over commonly used commercial coatings, attributed to the multiple interactions including "molecular sieving effect", hydrogen bonding, open metal site interaction, and π-π affinity. The hybridization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with MOF-199 further improved the enrichment capability and also acted as a hydrophobic "shield" to prevent the open metal sites of MOF-199 from being occupied by water molecules, which effectively improved the moisture-resistant property of MOF-199/CNTs coating. Finally, this novel enrichment method was successfully applied for the noninvasive analysis of trace ethylene, methanol, and ethanol from fruit samples with relatively high humidity. The low detection limit was 0.016 μg/L for ethylene. It was satisfactory that trace ethylene could be actually detected from fruit samples by this noninvasive method. Good recoveries of spiked grape, wampee, blueberry, and durian husk samples were obtained in the range of 90.0-114%, 79.4-88.6%, 78.5-86.8%, and 85.2-105% with the corresponding relative standard deviations of 4.8-9.8%, 6.9-8.9%, 3.8-8.1%, and 9.3-10.5% (n = 3), respectively.

  6. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Ethylene Climacteric of Melon Fruit by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; NIU Yi-ding; HAO Jin-feng; BADE Rengui; ZHANG Li-quan; HASI Agula

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Ethylene regulates the ripening process and affects the ripening rate. To screen genes that are differentially expressed at the burst of ethylene climacteric in melon fruit, we performed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to generate forward and reverse libraries, for which we sequenced 439 and 445 clones, respectively. Our BLAST analysis showed that the genes from the 2 libraries were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, cell structure, transcription, translation, and defense. Six genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR during the differential developmental stage of melon fruit. Our results provide new insight into the understanding of climacteric ripening of melon fruit.

  7. Mechanical Characterization of Hybrid Vesicles Based on Linear Poly(Dimethylsiloxane-b-Ethylene Oxide) and Poly(Butadiene-b-Ethylene Oxide) Block Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane-ethylene oxide) (PDMS-PEO) and poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (PBd-PEO) are two block copolymers which separately form vesicles with disparate membrane permeabilities and fluidities. Thus, hybrid vesicles formed from both PDMS-PEO and PBd-PEO may ultimately allow for systematic, application-specific tuning of vesicle membrane fluidity and permeability. However, given the relatively low strength previously noted for comb-type PDMS-PEO vesicles, the mechanical robustness...

  8. Hybrid CIS-DFT method to study electric field effects on electronic excited states of ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mei-Zhong; Zhu Zheng-He; Chen Xiao-Jun; Xu Guo-Liang; Zhang Yong-Bin; Mao Hua-Ping; Shen Xiao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the study of the effects of external dipole electric field on the molecular structure of ethylene using a hybrid method which combines the single-excitation configuration interactions (CIS) with density functional theory (DFT), i.e. CIS-DFT(B3LYP). It is found that the effects of electric dipole field on the molecular geometry (D2h, D2d and C2v), dipole moment, transition dipole moment, polarizability and, particularly, excitation energy of ethylene are remarkable. The advantages of the hybrid CIS-DFT method are that it can determine the symmetry of molecule and the correct order of excitation as well as the Molecular Orbital (MO) electron configuration;thereby the electronic excitation states of ethylene are easily derived, and most of them are in agreement with those obtained in experiments or references. It may be the first time the effects of external electric field on ethylene molecule have been considered. Compared with other ab initio methods, the CIS-DFT method is relatively accurate and low cost in computation. We expect that it can be used to study other closed-shell molecules.

  9. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol) Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Redouan Mahou; Meier, Raphael P H; Bühler, Léo H.; Christine Wandrey

    2014-01-01

    The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M) were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg) using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly...

  10. Mechanical Characterization of Hybrid Vesicles Based on Linear Poly(Dimethylsiloxane-b-Ethylene Oxide) and Poly(Butadiene-b-Ethylene Oxide) Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Jeffery; Casey, Liam M; Rozin, Matt; Munoz-Pinto, Dany J; Silas, James A; Hahn, Mariah S

    2016-03-18

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane-ethylene oxide) (PDMS-PEO) and poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (PBd-PEO) are two block copolymers which separately form vesicles with disparate membrane permeabilities and fluidities. Thus, hybrid vesicles formed from both PDMS-PEO and PBd-PEO may ultimately allow for systematic, application-specific tuning of vesicle membrane fluidity and permeability. However, given the relatively low strength previously noted for comb-type PDMS-PEO vesicles, the mechanical robustness of the resulting hybrid vesicles must first be confirmed. Toward this end, we have characterized the mechanical behavior of vesicles formed from mixtures of linear PDMS-PEO and linear PBd-PEO using micropipette aspiration. Tension versus strain plots of pure PDMS12-PEO46 vesicles revealed a non-linear response in the high tension regime, in contrast to the approximately linear response of pure PBd33-PEO20 vesicles. Remarkably, the area expansion modulus, critical tension, and cohesive energy density of PDMS12-PEO46 vesicles were each significantly greater than for PBd33-PEO20 vesicles, although critical strain was not significantly different between these vesicle types. PDMS12-PEO46/PBd33-PEO20 hybrid vesicles generally displayed graded responses in between that of the pure component vesicles. Thus, the PDMS12-PEO46/PBd33-PEO20 hybrid vesicles retained or exceeded the strength and toughness characteristic of pure PBd-PEO vesicles, indicating that future assessment of the membrane permeability and fluidity of these hybrid vesicles may be warranted.

  11. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Mahou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-VS. In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. The feasibility of cell microencapsulation was studied using primary human foreskin fibroblasts (EDX cells as a model. The use of cell culture media as polymer solvent, gelation bath, and storage medium did not negatively affect the alg-PEG-M properties. Microencapsulated EDX cells maintained their viability and proliferated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of primary cell microencapsulation within the novel microsphere type alg-PEG-M, serves as reference for future therapy development, and confirms the suitability of EDX cells as control model.

  12. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol) Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahou, Redouan; Meier, Raphael P H; Bühler, Léo H; Wandrey, Christine

    2014-01-09

    The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M) were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg) using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-VS). In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. The feasibility of cell microencapsulation was studied using primary human foreskin fibroblasts (EDX cells) as a model. The use of cell culture media as polymer solvent, gelation bath, and storage medium did not negatively affect the alg-PEG-M properties. Microencapsulated EDX cells maintained their viability and proliferated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of primary cell microencapsulation within the novel microsphere type alg-PEG-M, serves as reference for future therapy development, and confirms the suitability of EDX cells as control model.

  13. Mechanical Characterization of Hybrid Vesicles Based on Linear Poly(Dimethylsiloxane-b-Ethylene Oxide and Poly(Butadiene-b-Ethylene Oxide Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Gaspard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Poly(dimethylsiloxane-ethylene oxide (PDMS-PEO and poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide (PBd-PEO are two block copolymers which separately form vesicles with disparate membrane permeabilities and fluidities. Thus, hybrid vesicles formed from both PDMS-PEO and PBd-PEO may ultimately allow for systematic, application-specific tuning of vesicle membrane fluidity and permeability. However, given the relatively low strength previously noted for comb-type PDMS-PEO vesicles, the mechanical robustness of the resulting hybrid vesicles must first be confirmed. Toward this end, we have characterized the mechanical behavior of vesicles formed from mixtures of linear PDMS-PEO and linear PBd-PEO using micropipette aspiration. Tension versus strain plots of pure PDMS12-PEO46 vesicles revealed a non-linear response in the high tension regime, in contrast to the approximately linear response of pure PBd33-PEO20 vesicles. Remarkably, the area expansion modulus, critical tension, and cohesive energy density of PDMS12-PEO46 vesicles were each significantly greater than for PBd33-PEO20 vesicles, although critical strain was not significantly different between these vesicle types. PDMS12-PEO46/PBd33-PEO20 hybrid vesicles generally displayed graded responses in between that of the pure component vesicles. Thus, the PDMS12-PEO46/PBd33-PEO20 hybrid vesicles retained or exceeded the strength and toughness characteristic of pure PBd-PEO vesicles, indicating that future assessment of the membrane permeability and fluidity of these hybrid vesicles may be warranted.

  14. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Kent by Newcastle University and the Terramare Institute. Samples of raw seawater and scrubber washwater were collected at the inlet and discharge of...from Ships. Research Centre Terramare . Wilhelmshaven, Germany. Couple Systems. 2010. Dry EGCS Process Dry Exhaust Gas Cleaning System (http...BP Marine. Research Centre Terramare , Wilhelmshaven, Germany and School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon

  15. Preparation of poly(ethylene glycol/polylactide hybrid fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available PeiYan Ni, ShaoZhi Fu, Min Fan, Gang Guo, Shuai Shi, JinRong Peng, Feng Luo, ZhiYong QianState Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Polylactide (PLA electrospun fibers have been reported as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering application, however, the great hydrophobicity limits its broad application. In this study, the hybrid amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol (PEG/hydrophobic PLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited improved morphology with regular and continuous fibers compared to corresponding blank PLA fiber mats. The prepared PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds favored mesenchymal stem cell (MSC attachment and proliferation by providing an interconnected porous extracellular environment. Meanwhile, MSCs can penetrate into the fibrous scaffold through the interstitial pores and integrate well with the surrounding fibers, which is very important for favorable application in tissue engineering. More importantly, the electrospun hybrid PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds can enhance MSCs to differentiate into bone-associated cells by comprehensively evaluating the representative markers of the osteogenic procedure with messenger ribonucleic acid quantitation and protein analysis. MSCs on the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds presented better differentiation potential with higher messenger ribonucleic acid expression of the earliest osteogenic marker Cbfa-1 and mid-stage osteogenic marker Col I. The significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity of the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds indicated that these can enhance the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblast-like cells. Furthermore, the higher messenger ribonucleic acid level of the late osteogenic differentiation markers OCN (osteocalcin and OPN (osteopontin, accompanied by the positive Alizarin red S staining, showed better maturation of osteogenic induction on the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds at the

  16. Encapsulation of Huh-7 cells within alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahou, Redouan; Tran, Nhu Mai; Dufresne, Murielle; Legallais, Cécile; Wandrey, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Novel calcium alginate poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (Ca-alg-PEG) were developed and evaluated as potentially suitable materials for cell microencapsulation. Grafting 5-13% of the backbone units of sodium alginate (Na-alg) with α-amine-ω-thiol PEG maintained the gelling capacity in presence of calcium ions, while thiol end groups allowed for preparing chemically crosslinked hydrogel via spontaneous disulfide bond formation. The combination of these two gelling mechanisms yielded Ca-alg-PEG. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Huh-7) were encapsulated in Ca-alg-PEG and calcium alginate beads (Ca-alg), and cultured for 2 weeks under agitation conditions. Immediately after completion of the microencapsulation, the cell viability was 60% and similar in Ca-alg-PEG and Ca-alg. The proliferation of Huh-7 encapsulated in Ca-alg-PEG was slightly higher than in Ca-alg. Accelerated proliferation after 2 weeks was observed for the encapsulation in Ca-alg-PEG. The production of albumin confirmed the functionality of the encapsulated Huh-7 cells. The study confirms the suitability of Ca-alg-PEG and the one-step technology for cell microencapsulation.

  17. Designing a scrubber for maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlmeister, M.E.; Baron, E.S. [New York State Electric and Gas Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States); Watts, J. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Under Round 4 of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology program, New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG), in partnership with Saarberg-Holter-Umwelttechnik (SHU), Consolidation Coal Company and Stebbins Engineering and Manufacturing Company, has retrofitted a formic acid enhanced forced oxidation wet limestone scrubber on Units I and 2 at the Milliken Steam Electric Station. Units I and 2 are 1950s vintage Combustion Engineering tangentially fired pulverized coal units, which are rated at nominal 150 MW each and operate in balanced draft mode. The Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system for Unit 2 was placed into operation in January 1995 and the Unit I system in June 1995. The project incorporates several unique aspects: low pH operation; a ceramic tile-lined cocurrent/countercurrent, split module absorber; a wet stack supported on the roof of the FGD building; and closed loop, zero liquid discharge operation that produces commercial grade gypsum and calcium chloride brine. The project objectives include 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high sulfur coal, the production of marketable byproducts to minimize solid waste disposal, zero wastewater discharge, space-saving design, and minimization of maintenance requirements of a wet scrubber. The paper provides a brief overview of the project scrubber design relating to maintenance considerations. A discussion of the early results of the maintenance history is also provided. Repair techniques that have been developed and tested for ceramic tile lined modules are included. 1 fig.

  18. A Hybrid Algorithm Based on Differential Evolution and Group Search Optimization and Its Application on Ethylene Cracking Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIAN Xiaoyu; WANG Zhenlei; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    To find the optimal operational condition when the properties of feedstock changes in the cracking furnace online,a hybrid algorithm named differential evolution group search optimization (DEGSO) is proposed,which is based on the differential evolution (DE) and the group search optimization (GSO).The DEGSO combines the advantages of the two algorithms:the high computing speed of DE and the good performance of the GSO for preventing the best particle from converging to local optimum.A cooperative method is also proposed for switching between these two algorithms.If the fitness value of one algorithm keeps invariant in several generations and less than the preset threshold,it is considered to fall into the local optimization and the other algorithm is chosen.Experiments on benchmark functions show that.the hybrid algorithm outperforms GSO in accuracy,global searching ability and efficiency.The optimization of ethylene and propylene yields is illustrated as a case by DEGSO.After optimization,the yield of ethylene and propylene is increased remarkably,which provides the proper operational condition of the ethylene cracking furnace.

  19. Highly bioactive polysiloxane modified bioactive glass-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrids monoliths with controlled surface structure for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Que, Wenxiu; Xing, Yonglei; Lei, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Crack-free monoliths with controllable surface microstructure have high bioactivities and therefore potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. In this paper, crack-free polydimethylsiloxane-modified bioactive glass-poly (ethylene glycol) (PDMS-BG-PEG) hybrids monoliths were fabricated via using a modified sol-gel process. Results show that the addition of PEG plays an important part in the formation of crack-free and gelation of the monoliths, and surface microstructures of the as-prepared hybrid monoliths were significantly influenced by the concentration and molecular weight of PEG. The samples obtained from PEG 300 had porous surface result in higher bioactivity (apatite formation) in simulated body fluid (SBF), while the samples obtained from PEG 600 had the smooth surface and inhibited the formation of apatite layer in SBF. These as-prepared hybrid monoliths can be used as a good candidate of implant and scaffold for highly efficient bone tissue regeneration.

  20. Intracellular siRNA delivery dynamics of integrin-targeted, PEGylated chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Colombo, Stefano; Pourcelle, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles. The amount of intracellular siRNA delivered by αvβ3-targeted versus non-targeted nanoparticles was quantified in the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line H1299 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using a stem-loop reverse...... that these nanoparticles might end up in late endosomes or lysosomes without releasing their cargo to the cell cytoplasm. Thus, the silencing efficiency of the chitosan-based nanoparticles is strongly dependent on the uptake and the intracellular trafficking in H1299 EGFP cells, which is critical information towards...

  1. Design Aspects of Wet Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Bang, Young-suk; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Doo-Yong [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The water pool in the wet scrubber system has advantage to cope with decay heat based on the thermal hydraulic balance such as condensation and evaporation inside it. This study focuses on the design aspects of the wet scrubber system to estimate the required water pool mass during the mission time and size of the scrubbing tank including inner structures. The design of the wet scrubber system include the estimation of the required water mass during the mission time and sizing of the scrubber vessel to contain the water pool. The condensation due to the inlet steam and evaporation due to the steam and non-condensable gas superheat and decay heat from filtered fission products should be considered to estimate the water mass required to maintain its function during the mission time. On the other hand, the level swelling due to the noncondensable gas is another important design aspect on the sizing of the scrubber vessel and determination of the entry elevation of the filtration components such as the droplet separator or filter. The minimum water level based on the minimum collapsed water level should be higher than the exit of scrubber nozzle.

  2. Oligo(ethylene glycol)-incorporated hybrid linear alkyl side chains for n-channel polymer semiconductors and their effect on the thin-film crystalline structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ran; Kang, Boseok; Sin, Dong Hun; Choi, Hyun Ho; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Cho, Kilwon

    2015-01-28

    Oligo(ethylene glycol)-incorporated hybrid linear alkyl side chains, serving as solubilizing groups, are designed and introduced into naphthalene-diimide-based n-channel copolymers. The synthesized polymers exhibit unipolar n-type operation with an electron mobility of up to 1.64 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which demonstrates the usefulness of the hybrid side chains in polymer electronics applications.

  3. Preparation of Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) Modified Tungsten Oxide Hybrid Films via Sol-Gel Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Poly (ethylene axide) (PEO) modified WO3 thin films were prepared on glass substrates with special temperature.The sol-gel transition proess was investigated by using DTA-TG,SEM and XRD.The electrochemical characteristic of the films was studied by cyclic voltmmetry measurement.The results show that PEO has heavy effects on the crystallization of WO3 during structure evolution because of the interaction between PEO and WO3.It increases the crystallization temperature of the gels and thus improves the electrochemical properties and cyclic life of WO3 film as electrochromic materials.

  4. The Dynamics of Aerosols in Condensational Scrubbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jens Tue; Christensen, Jan A.; Simonsen, Ole;

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model for the simulation of the dynamics of aerosol change in condensational scrubbers and scrubbing condensers is proposed. The model is applicable for packed column gas/liquid contact when plug flow can be assumed. The model is compared with experimental data for particle removal...... in a pilot plant condensational scrubber. The model can satisfactorily predict particle growth and particle deposition by diffusional, convective and inertial mechanisms for a wide range of conditions. The parameters of principal importance for the model precision are identified and a procedure...

  5. Pore chemistry and size control in hybrid porous materials for acetylene capture from ethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, X.

    2016-05-20

    The trade-off between physical adsorption capacity and selectivity of porous materials is a major barrier for efficient gas separation and purification through physisorption. We report control over pore chemistry and size in metal coordination networks with hexafluorosilicate and organic linkers for the purpose of preferential binding and orderly assembly of acetylene molecules through cooperative host-guest and/or guest-guest interactions. The specific binding sites for acetylene are validated by modeling and neutron powder diffraction studies. The energies associated with these binding interactions afford high adsorption capacity (2.1 millimoles per gram at 0.025 bar) and selectivity (39.7 to 44.8) for acetylene at ambient conditions. Their efficiency for the separation of acetylene/ethylene mixtures is demonstrated by experimental breakthrough curves (0.73 millimoles per gram from a 1/99 mixture).

  6. Evaluation of a Zirconium Recycle Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A hot-cell demonstration of the zirconium recycle process is planned as part of the Materials Recovery and Waste Forms Development (MRWFD) campaign. The process treats Zircaloy® cladding recovered from used nuclear fuel with chlorine gas to recover the zirconium as volatile ZrCl4. This releases radioactive tritium trapped in the alloy, converting it to volatile tritium chloride (TCl). To meet regulatory requirements governing radioactive emissions from nuclear fuel treatment operations, the capture and retention of a portion of this TCl may be required prior to discharge of the off-gas stream to the environment. In addition to demonstrating tritium removal from a synthetic zirconium recycle off-gas stream, the recovery and quantification of tritium may refine estimates of the amount of tritium present in the Zircaloy cladding of used nuclear fuel. To support these objectives, a bubbler-type scrubber was fabricated to remove the TCl from the zirconium recycle off-gas stream. The scrubber was fabricated from glass and polymer components that are resistant to chlorine and hydrochloric acid solutions. Because of concerns that the scrubber efficiency is not quantitative, tests were performed using DCl as a stand-in to experimentally measure the scrubbing efficiency of this unit. Scrubbing efficiency was ~108% ± 3% with water as the scrubber solution. Variations were noted when 1 M NaOH scrub solution was used, values ranged from 64% to 130%. The reason for the variations is not known. It is recommended that the equipment be operated with water as the scrubbing solution. Scrubbing efficiency is estimated at 100%.

  7. Lithium ion solvation by ethylene carbonates in lithium-ion battery electrolytes, revisited by density functional theory with the hybrid solvation model and free energy correction in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Lansac, Yves; Lee, Hochun; Hong, Seung-Tae; Jang, Yun Hee

    2016-09-14

    Complex formation between lithium (Li(+)) ions and electrolyte molecules would affect the ionic conductivity through the electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We hence revisit the solvation number of Li(+) in the most commonly used ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte. The solvation number n of Li(+)(EC)n in the first solvation shell of Li(+) is estimated on the basis of the free energy calculated by the density functional theory combined with a hybrid solvation model where the explicit solvation shell of Li(+) is immersed in a free volume of an implicit bulk solvent. This new hybrid solvation (implicit and explicit) model predicts the most probable solvation number (n = 4) and solvation free energy (-91.3 kcal mol(-1)) of Li(+) in a good agreement with those predicted by calculations employing simpler solvation models (either implicit or explicit). The desolvation (n = 2) of Li(0)(EC)n upon reduction near anodes is also well described with this new hybrid model.

  8. Crack-free polydimethylsiloxane-bioactive glass-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid monoliths with controlled biomineralization activity and mechanical property for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Du, Yuzhang; Que, Wenxiu; Xing, Yonglei; Chen, Xiaofeng; Lei, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Crack-free organic-inorganic hybrid monoliths with controlled biomineralization activity and mechanical property have an important role for highly efficient bone tissue regeneration. Here, biomimetic and crack-free polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-modified bioactive glass (BG)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (PDMS-BG-PEG) hybrids monoliths were prepared by a facile sol-gel technique. Results indicate that under the assist of co-solvents, BG sol and PDMS and PEG could be hybridized at a molecular level, and effects of the PEG molecular weight on the structure, biomineralization activity, and mechanical property of the as-prepared hybrid monoliths were also investigated in detail. It is found that an addition of low molecular weight PEG can significantly prevent the formation of cracks and speed up the gelation of the hybrid monoliths, and the surface microstructure of the hybrid monoliths can be changed from the porous to the smooth as the PEG molecular weight increases. Additionally, the hybrid monoliths with low molecular weight PEG show the high formation of the biological apatite layer, while the hybrids with high molecular weight PEG exhibit negligible biomineralization ability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Furthermore, the PDMS-BG-PEG 600 hybrid monolith has significantly high compressive strength (32 ± 3 MPa) and modulus (153 ± 11 MPa), as well as good cell biocompatibility by supporting osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) attachment and proliferation. These results indicate that the as-prepared PDMS-BG-PEG hybrid monoliths may have promising applications for bone tissue regeneration.

  9. Injectable biodegradable hybrid hydrogels based on thiolated collagen and oligo(acryloyl carbonate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-oligo(acryloyl carbonate) copolymer for functional cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guohui; Wang, Xiaolin; Deng, Chao; Teng, Xiaomei; Suuronen, Erik J; Shen, Zhenya; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2015-03-01

    Injectable biodegradable hybrid hydrogels were designed and developed based on thiolated collagen (Col-SH) and multiple acrylate containing oligo(acryloyl carbonate)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-oligo(acryloyl carbonate) (OAC-PEG-OAC) copolymers for functional cardiac regeneration. Hydrogels were readily formed under physiological conditions (37°C and pH 7.4) from Col-SH and OAC-PEG-OAC via a Michael-type addition reaction, with gelation times ranging from 0.4 to 8.1 min and storage moduli from 11.4 to 55.6 kPa, depending on the polymer concentrations, solution pH and degrees of substitution of Col-SH. The collagen component in the hybrid hydrogels retained its enzymatic degradability against collagenase, and the degradation time of the hydrogels increased with increasing polymer concentration. In vitro studies showed that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) exhibited rapid cell spreading and extensive cellular network formation on these hybrid hydrogels. In a rat infarction model, the infarcted left ventricle was injected with PBS, hybrid hydrogels, BMSCs or BMSC-encapsulating hybrid hydrogels. Echocardiography demonstrated that the hybrid hydrogels and BMSC-encapsulating hydrogels could increase the ejection fraction at 28 days compared to the PBS control group, resulting in improved cardiac function. Histology revealed that the injected hybrid hydrogels significantly reduced the infarct size and increased the wall thickness, and these were further improved with the BMSC-encapsulating hybrid hydrogel treatment, probably related to the enhanced engraftment and persistence of the BMSCs when delivered within the hybrid hydrogel. Thus, these injectable hybrid hydrogels combining intrinsic bioactivity of collagen, controlled mechanical properties and enhanced stability provide a versatile platform for functional cardiac regeneration.

  10. Poly(ethylene oxide)-silica hybrids entrapping sensitive dyes for biomedical optical pH sensors: Molecular dynamics and optical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Paola; Pilati, Francesco; Rovati, Luigi; McKenzie, Ruel; Mijovic, Jovan

    2011-06-01

    Polymer-silica hybrid nanocomposites prepared by sol-gel process based on triethoxisilane-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) chains and tetraethoxysilane as silica precursor, doped with organic pH sensitive dyes, have been prepared and their suitability for use as sensors coupled with plastic optic fibers has been evaluated. Sensors were prepared by immobilizing a drop of the hybrid materials onto the tip of a multi-mode poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber. The performance of the optical sensor in terms of sensitivity and response time was tested in different experimental conditions, and was found to be markedly higher than analogous sensors present on the market. The very fast kinetic of the hybrid's optical response was supported by studies performed at the molecular level by broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), investigated over a wide range of frequency and temperature, showing that poly(ethylene oxide) chains maintain their dynamics even when covalently bonded to silica domains, which decrease the self-association interactions and promote motions of polymer chain segments. Due to the fast response kinetic observed, these pH optical sensors result suitable for the fast-detection of biomedical parameters, i.e. fast esophageous pH-metry.

  11. Effects of temperature and particles concentration on the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluid: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Omid; Akbari, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the effects of temperature and particles concentration on the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluid is examined. The experiments carried out in the solid volume fraction range of 0 to 1.0% under the temperature ranging from 30 °C to 60 °C. The results showed that the hybrid nanofluid behaves as a Newtonian fluid for all solid volume fractions and temperatures considered. The measurements also indicated that the dynamic viscosity increases with increasing the solid volume fraction and decreases with the temperature rising. The relative viscosity revealed that when the solid volume fraction enhances from 0.1 to 1%, the dynamic viscosity increases up to 168%. Finally, using experimental data, in order to predict the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluids, a new correlation has been suggested. The comparisons between the correlation outputs and experimental results showed that the suggested correlation has an acceptable accuracy.

  12. Hydrodynamics of a Multistage Wet Scrubber Incineration Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, M. M.; Manyele, S. V.; Raphael, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the hydrodynamics of the two stage counter-current cascade wet scrubbers used during incineration of medical waste. The dependence of the hydrodynamics on two main variables was studied: Inlet air flow rate and inlet liquid flow rate. This study introduces a new wet scrubber operating features, which are…

  13. Investing in Marine Scrubber under Uncertainty with Real Option Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liping; Hansen, Carsten Ørts

    works that examine the economic feasibility of scrubber retrofitting through the net present value rule, this paper applies the Real Option Analysis to find the optimal investment strategies. The proposed decision-making framework addresses the uncertainty and the value of deferral option embedded......Scrubber technology is one of the valid alternatives to comply with the tightening sulphur regulation. Due to the high uncertainty associated with the oil price and shipping market, making decision about whether and when to invest in marine scrubber is very difficult. In contrast to the previous...... in the scrubber investment. The multiple sources of investment uncertainties are explicitly analyzed and integrated in the modeling by using Rainbow option. The results demonstrate that the value of the scrubber investment has significantly increased for several cases by considering the deferral option...

  14. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  15. Assessment of Industrial VOC Gas-Scrubber Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H

    2004-02-13

    Gas scrubbers for air-pollution control of volatile organic compounds (VOC) cover a wide range of technologies. In this review, we have attempted to evaluate the single-pass scrubber destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for a range of gas-scrubber technologies. We have focused primarily on typical industrial DREs for the various technologies, typical problems, and any DRE-related experiential information available. The very limited literature citations found suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. The potentially significant role of maintenance in maintaining DREs was also investigated for those technologies. An in-depth portrayal of the entire gas scrubbing industry is elusive. Available literature sources suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. Lack of scrubber system maintenance can contribute to even larger variances. ''Typical'' industrial single-pass performance of commonly used VOC gas scrubbers generally ranged from {approx}80 to 99%. Imperfect solid and/or liquid particulates capture (possibly as low as 95% despite design for 99+% capture efficiency) can also lead to VOC releases. Changing the VOC composition in the gas stream without modifying scrubber equipment or operating conditions could also lead to significant deterioration in attainable destruction and removal efficiencies.

  16. Poly(citric acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers--new biocompatible hybrid materials for nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeini, Ashkan Tavakoli; Adeli, Mohsen; Vossoughi, Manouchehr

    2010-08-01

    Linear-dendritic ABA triblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as B block and hyperbranched poly(citric acid) (PCA) as A blocks were synthesized through polycondensation. The molecular self-assembly of synthesized PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers in water led to formation of nanoparticles and fibers in different sizes and shapes depending on the time and size of PCA blocks. Ten days after dissolving PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers in water, the size of fibers had reached several millimeters. Mixing a water solution of fluorescein as a small guest molecule and PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers led to the encapsulation of fluorescein by products of molecular self-assembly. To investigate their potential application in nanomedicine and to understand the limitations and capabilities of these materials as nanoexcipients in biological systems, different types of short-term in vitro cytotoxicity experiments on the HT1080 cell line (human fibrosarcoma) and hemocompatibility tests were performed. From the clinical editor: This manuscript investigates the potentials of linear-dendritic ABA triblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as B block and hyperbranched poly(citric acid) (PCA) as A blocks for future applications in nanomedicine.

  17. Removal of ethylene oxide from waste gases by absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide (EtO is an organic compound, which is used as starting material in the production of polymers and as sterilizing agent for thermolabile materials. Although ethylene oxide is not common as an organic pollutant, its removal from numerous emission sources (e.g. ethylene oxide production plants or food and pharmaceutical sterilizing units is of the crucial importance because of its mutagenic, teratogenic and cancerogenic effect on human health. The objective of this paper is the experimental investigation of ethylene oxide (EtO absorption in diluted aqueous solution of sulfuric acid in order to evaluate the applicability of this procedure as well as to obtain project parameters for industrial plant realization. It was found that absorption is suitable as the fist step in the purification treatment of high EtO concentrations in the emission gases. According to the literature data, the basic parameter that defines the scrubber efficiency is the contact time, i.e. the ratio of packing height in scrubber and velocity of gas mixture. To investigate the characteristics of wet treatment in a broad range of contact time, part of experimental studies were conducted in the system with two and with three scrubbers in series. The obtained experimental results show that the high degree of EtO removal can be achieved (>98% when the contact time is sufficiently long (about 25 s. The process is effective until the concentration of formed glycol in the solution reaches value of about 20%. The process is safe and there is no danger of ignition and explosion of air and EtO mixture, although at the entrance to the scrubber EtO concentrations are significantly above the lower explosive limit.

  18. Preparation and characterization of polylactide/poly(ε-caprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone hybrid fibers for potential application in bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available YueLong Wang,1,2,* Gang Guo,1,* HaiFeng Chen,2 Xiang Gao,1 RangRang Fan,1 DongMei Zhang,1 LiangXue Zhou2 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, 2Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this paper Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a kind of osteogenic biodegradable composite graft consisting of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hPMSC material for site-specific repair of bone defects and attenuation of clinical symptoms. The novel nano- to micro-structured biodegradable hybrid fibers were prepared by electrospinning. The characteristics of the hybrid membranes were investigated by a range of methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Morphological study with scanning electron microscopy showed that the average fiber diameter and the number of nanoscale pores on each individual fiber surface decreased with increasing concentration of poly(ε-caprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (PCEC. The prepared polylactide (PLA/PCEC fibrous membranes favored hPMSC attachment and proliferation by providing an interconnected, porous, three-dimensional mimicked extracellular environment. What is more, hPMSCs cultured on the electrospun hybrid PLA/PCEC fibrous scaffolds could be effectively differentiated into bone-associated cells by positive alizarin red staining. Given the good cellular response and excellent osteogenic potential in vitro, the electrospun PLA/PCEC fibrous scaffolds could be one of the most promising candidates for bone tissue engineering. Keywords: electrospinning, PLA, PCEC, hPMSCs, bone tissue engineering

  19. Intracellular siRNA delivery dynamics of integrin-targeted, PEGylated chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles: A mechanistic insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Colombo, Stefano; Pourcelle, Vincent; Vanvarenberg, Kevin; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Bouzin, Caroline; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Feron, Olivier; Foged, Camilla; Préat, Véronique

    2015-08-10

    Integrin-targeted nanoparticles are promising for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to tumor cells or tumor endothelium in cancer therapy aiming at silencing genes essential for tumor growth. However, during the process of optimizing and realizing their full potential, it is pertinent to gain a basic mechanistic understanding of the bottlenecks existing for nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery. We designed αvβ3 integrin-targeted nanoparticles by coupling arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) or RGD peptidomimetic (RGDp) ligands to the surface of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles. The amount of intracellular siRNA delivered by αvβ3-targeted versus non-targeted nanoparticles was quantified in the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line H1299 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using a stem-loop reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) approach. Data demonstrated that the internalization of αvβ3-targeted nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface concentration of the ligand. Above a certain threshold concentration, the use of targeted nanoparticles provided a two-fold increase in the number of siRNA copies/cell, subsequently resulting in as much as 90% silencing of EGFP at well-tolerated carrier concentrations. In contrast, non-targeted nanoparticles mediated low levels of gene silencing, despite relatively high intracellular siRNA concentrations, indicating that these nanoparticles might end up in late endosomes or lysosomes without releasing their cargo to the cell cytoplasm. Thus, the silencing efficiency of the chitosan-based nanoparticles is strongly dependent on the uptake and the intracellular trafficking in H1299 EGFP cells, which is critical information towards a more complete understanding of the delivery mechanism that can facilitate the future design of efficient siRNA delivery systems.

  20. Experimental approach and techniques for the evaluation of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber fluid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strock, T.W. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gohara, W.F. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fluid mechanics within wet flue desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers involve several complex two-phase gas/liquid interactions. The fluid flow directly affects scrubber pressure drop, mist eliminator water removal, and the SO{sub 2} mass transfer/chemical reaction process. Current industrial efforts to develop cost-effective high-efficiency wet FGD scrubbers are focusing, in part, on optimizing the fluid mechanics. The development of an experimental approach and test facility for understanding and optimizing wet scrubber flow characteristics is discussed in this paper. Specifically, scaling procedures for downsizing a wet scrubber for the laboratory environment with field data comparisons are summarized. Furthermore, experimental techniques for the measurement of wet scrubber flow distribution, pressure drop, spray nozzle droplet size characteristics and wet scrubber liquid-to-gas ratio are discussed. Finally, the characteristics and capabilities of a new hydraulic test facility for wet FGD scrubbers are presented. (author)

  1. Characterization of thermal destruction behavior of hybrid composites based on polyoxymethylene, ethylene-octene copolymer impact modifier and ZnO nanofiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meri, Remo Merijs; Zicans, Janis; Abele, Agnese; Ivanova, Tatjana; Kalnins, Martins

    2016-05-01

    Hybrid polymer nanocomposites, composed of polyoxymethylene (POM), ethylene octene copolymer (EOC) and plasma synthesized tetrapod shaped zinc oxide (ZnO), were prepared by using melt compounding. The content of EOC in the POM based composites was varied between 10 and 50 mass %, while the content of ZnO was constant (2 mass %). Thermal behaviour of POM based systems was studied by using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The influence of the elastomer content and/or ZnO addition on the thermal stability of POM based systems was evaluated. The influence of the α-octene content in the elastomer on the thermal decomposition behaviour of POM and its nanocomposites with ZnO was also evaluated. Results of thermogravimetric analysis showed that, by rising either the elastomer or ZnO content, thermal stability of the investigated POM composites was increased. The modifying effect of EOC17 in respect of thermal resistance was somewhat larger than that of EOC38 because of the smaller amount of tertiary carbon atoms in the macromolecular structure of the former elastomer. Improved thermal resistance of ZnO containing POM based composites was because of impermeable structure the inorganic nanofiller allowing decrease gas exchange rate and facilitating non-combustible gases, such as CO2, stay in the zone of burning. Addition of ZnO have a potential to influence structure of the polymer blend matrix itself by improving its barrier characteristics.

  2. Catalytic dehydration of ethanol to ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ying; Jin, Zhaosheng; Shen, Wei [SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2011-07-01

    The different routes of ethylene production were briefly introduced and the advantage of ethanol to ethylene (ETE) route was explained. Followed by that, the upgraded catalyst applied in this route developed by SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology (SRIPT) was introduced together with the development of the ethanol to ethylene process. The core technologies involved in this process development were discussed, such as isothermal fixed-bed reactor, water scrubber and alkaline wash column, two columns of low-temperature separation as well as process heat integration. Furthermore, the performance of one of ethanol industrial plants licensed by SRIPT was reviewed. It is as follows, conversion of ethanol reaches 99% while selectivity of ethylene is over 96% at the reaction temperature of 350{approx}450 C, the liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV)of 0.5{approx}1.0 h{sup -1} and atmosphere pressure. Meanwhile, the catalyst shows its life time of one year. This route is considered not only as an economical and practical process but also as an environmentfriendly path to ethylene production. (orig.)

  3. Resilin-like polypeptide-poly(ethylene gylcol) hybrid hydrogels for mechanically-demanding tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Christopher Leland

    Technological progress in the life sciences and engineering has combined with important insights in the fields of biology and material science to make possible the development of biological substitutes which aim to restore function to damaged tissue. Numerous biomimetic hydrogels have been developed with the purpose of harnessing the regenerative capacity of cells and tissue through the rational deployment of biological signals. Aided by recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering methods, a new class of hydrogel precursor, the biosynthetic protein polymer, has demonstrated great promise towards the development of highly functional tissue engineering materials. In particular, protein polymers based upon resilin, a natural protein elastomer, have demonstrated outstanding mechanical properties that would have great value in soft tissue applications. This dissertation introduces hybrid hydrogels composed of recombinant resilin-like polypeptides (RLPs) cross-linked with multi-arm PEG macromers. Two different chemical strategies were employed to form RLP-PEG hydrogels: one utilized a Michael-type addition reaction between the thiols of cysteine residues present within the RLP and vinyl sulfone moieties functionalized on a multi-arm PEG macromer; the second system cross-links a norbornene-functionalized RLP with a thiol-functionalized multi-arm PEG macromer via a photoinitiated thiol-ene step polymerization. Oscillatory rheology and tensile testing confirmed the formation of elastic, resilient hydrogels in the RLP-PEG system cross-linked via Michael-type addition. These hydrogels supported the encapsulation and culture of both human aortic adventitial fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells. Additionally, these RLP-PEG hydrogels exhibited phase separation behavior during cross-linking that led to the formation of a heterogeneous microstructure. Degradation could be triggered through incubation with matrix metalloproteinase. Photocross-linking was conferred to

  4. Investing in Marine Scrubber under Uncertainty with Real Option Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liping; Hansen, Carsten Ørts

    works that examine the economic feasibility of scrubber retrofitting through the net present value rule, this paper applies the Real Option Analysis to find the optimal investment strategies. The proposed decision-making framework addresses the uncertainty and the value of deferral option embedded...

  5. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  6. Economic evaluation of membrane potential for ethylene/ethane separation in a retrofitted hybrid membrane-distillation plant using unisim design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, J.; Jelsma, A.R.T.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Nijmeijer, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    Since ethylene/ethane separation by cryogenic distillation is one of the most energy intensive processes, it can be economically interesting to combine it with energy efficient membrane technology. The effect on the viability of different process configurations in relation to the ethylene permeance

  7. Hybrid Randomly Electrospun Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid):Poly(ethylene oxide) (PLGA:PEO) Fibrous Scaffolds Enhancing Myoblast Differentiation and Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrova, Olivera; Hosseini, Vahid; Milleret, Vincent; Palazzolo, Gemma; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Sulser, Tullio; Buschmann, Johanna; Eberli, Daniel

    2016-11-23

    Cellular responses are regulated by their microenvironments, and engineered synthetic scaffolds can offer control over different microenvironment properties. This important relationship can be used as a tool to manipulate cell fate and cell responses for different biomedical applications. We show for the first time in this study how blending of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibers to yield hybrid scaffolds changes the physical and mechanical properties of PLGA fibrous scaffolds and in turn affects cellular response. For this purpose we employed electrospinning to create fibrous scaffolds mimicking the basic structural properties of the native extracellular matrix. We introduced PEO to PLGA electrospun fibers by spinning a blend of PLGA:PEO polymer solutions in different ratios. PEO served as a sacrificial component within the fibers upon hydration, leading to pore formation in the fibers, fiber twisting, increased scaffold disintegration, and hydrophilicity, decreased Young's modulus, and significantly improved strain at break of initially electrospun scaffolds. We observed that the blended PLGA:PEO fibrous scaffolds supported myoblast adhesion and proliferation and resulted in increased myotube formation and self-alignment, when compared to PLGA-only scaffolds, even though the scaffolds were randomly oriented. The 50:50 PLGA:PEO blended scaffold showed the most promising results in terms of mechanical properties, myotube formation, and alignment, suggesting an optimal microenvironment for myoblast differentiation from the PLGA:PEO blends tested. The explored approach for tuning fiber properties can easily extend to other polymeric scaffolds and provides a valuable tool to engineer fibrillar microenvironments for several biomedical applications.

  8. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-28

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O), calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column.

  9. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazara I. A. Barry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  10. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1997-08-31

    A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfurization of flue-gas from burning high sulfur coal. The amount of this sludge is expected to increase in the near future due to ever increasing governmental regulation concerning the amount of sulfur emissions. Scrubber sludge is a fine, grey colored powder that contains calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), silicates, and iron oxides. This material can continue to be landfilled at a steadily increasing cost, or an alternative for utilizing this material can be developed. This study explores the characteristics of a naturally oxidized wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge and uses these characteristics to develop alternatives for recycling this material. In order for scrubber sludge to be used as a feed material for various markets, it was necessary to process it to meet the specifications of these markets. A physical separation process was therefore needed to separate the components of this sludge into useful products at a low cost. There are several physical separation techniques available to separate fine particulates. These techniques can be divided into four major groups: magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, physico-chemical separation, and density-based separation. The properties of this material indicated that two methods of separation were feasible: water-only cycloning (density-based separation), and froth flotation (physico-chemical separation). These processes could be used either separately, or in combination. The goal of this study was to reduce the limestone impurity in this scrubber sludge from 5.6% by weight to below 2.0% by weight. The resulting clean calcium

  11. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, P.; Ogink, N. W. M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage ...

  12. Numerical Study on Shape of Liquid Inlet for Venturi Scrubber in Self-Priming Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, W. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the simulation was developed for different design of liquid inlet to improve injection in submerged self-priming mode venturi scrubber. 1. A hole type is easy to discharged gas from liquid inlet for submerged self-priming mode. 2. A spit type, the liquid is injected into venturi scrubber for all gas volume rate in submerged self-priming mode. 3. A spit type is better than a hole type on improving injection of liquid inlet for submerged self-priming mode in venturi scrubber.The gas accelerate in convergent segment and reach maximum velocity at throat. The liquid is injected into venturi scrubber depends on static pressure difference between outside and inside of the venturi throat, then liquid is atomized into fine droplet when it contacts with high speed airflow. Aerosol removal occur in the diverging section as the inlet gas stream mixes with the fog of tiny liquid droplets. Many studies dealing with the non-submerged selfpriming venturi scrubber. In a non-submerged condition, outlet nozzle of venturi scrubber is not immersed in water pool of a tank whereas in a submerged condition, the outlet of a venturi scrubber is immersed in water pool. The scrubbing liquid is supplied by water reservoir surrounding the throat and is drawn in due to a pressure difference between the outside and the inside of the venturi throat that arises out of the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the flowing gas. The performance of a venturi scrubber is improved with high gas velocities and high liquid flow rate. Therefore, it is important to study the liquid fraction in venturi scrubber operated at different condition. The venturi scrubber is used to a submerged self-priming mode because the system operates in a passive mode in CFVS. The present study focuses on the liquid flow characteristics for various shapes of liquid inlet in submerged self-priming venturi scrubber.

  13. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a type ...

  14. Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieke, Kirsten Inga; Rosenørn, Thomas; Pedersen, Jannik

    2013-01-01

    atomic scale such as layer distance, lamella length, and tortuosity were not observed to be influenced by the scrub-ber. We also found that particles in the size range between 30 and 50 nm, which were abundant in the exhaust before and after scrubber, were not graphitic soot. Furthermore, we found...

  15. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reduci

  16. Scrubber capabilities to remove airborne microorganisms and other aerial pollutants from the exhaust air of animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Zhao, Y.; Ploegaert, J.P.M.; Huynh, T.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess the efficiency of air scrubbers to reduce airborne microorganisms in the exhaust air from animal houses. First, in a field study, the effects of a bio-scrubber and an acid scrubber on total bacterial counts were assessed. Higher bacterial counts were found in the

  17. Numerical Simulation of Flow Behavior within a Venturi Scrubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Toledo-Melchor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work details the three-dimensional numerical simulation of single-phase and two-phase flow (air-water in a venturi scrubber with an inlet and throat diameters of 250 and 122.5 mm, respectively. The dimensions and operating parameters correspond to industrial applications. The mass flow rate conditions were 0.483 kg/s, 0.736 kg/s, 0.861 kg/s, and 0.987 kg/s for the gas only simulation; the mass flow rate for the liquid was 0.013 kg/s and 0.038 kg/s. The gas flow was simulated in five geometries with different converging and diverging angles while the two-phase flow was only simulated for one geometry. The results obtained were validated with experimental data obtained by other researchers. The results show that the pressure drop depends significantly on the gas flow rate and that water flow rate does not have significant effects neither on the pressure drop nor on the fluid maximum velocity within the scrubber.

  18. Effect of addition of poly(ethylene glycol) on electrical conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate)hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tiejun; QI Yingqun; XU Jingkun; HU Xiujie; CHEN Ping

    2003-01-01

    By mixing various concentrations of poly (ethylene glycol), a series of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- poly(styrenesulfonate) composite thin films were prepared. The electrical conductivity of the PEDOT-PSS/PEG thin films was measured by the four-probe method. Experimental results showed that the inclusion of poly(ethylene glycol) influenced the electrical conductivity of PEDOT-PSS film significantly. With the increase of PEG concentrations, the electrical conductivity sharply increased to reach a maximum and then slowly decreased down. Furthermore, the PEG molecular weight and environment temperature also played important roles on the electrical conductivity of PEDOT-PSS/PEG thin films. A good linear relationship was found between ln -DC and T -1/2 within the entire temperature range detected.

  19. Scrubber-Integrated Wet Electrostatic Precipitator; Skrubberintegrerat vaatt elektrofilter, WESP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Baefver, Linda; Davidsson, Kent; Pettersson, Jens; Schmidt, Hans; Strand, Michael; Yngvesson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Combustion processes for heat and power production are an important source of sub-micron particle emissions, which cause enhanced health risks and premature deaths. To meet future requirements of economical and robust dust cleaning equipment, the Wet Electrostatic Precipitation (WESP) technology has been further developed in this project. A pilot scale slip stream WESP unit, installed by Goetaverken Miljoe, has been successfully installed and tested at the Renova Waste-to-Energy plant in Goeteborg, Sweden. The particles in the gas are charged by an ionizing electrode and collected in a concentric cylinder geometry. The WESP pilot consists of a unique combination of several existing technologies: it is integrated with a packed bed scrubber which means an ideally uniformly distributed gas flow in the WESP inlet. Furthermore, the WESP unit has a water cooled condensing collector, which facilitates continuous formation of a water film. The downward flowing water film transports the collected dust counter current to the upward flowing flue gas in order to minimize particle re-entrainment. The WESP is equipped with a high frequency transformer for stable voltage output and is fabricated in electrically conductive corrosion resistant Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP). The concentration of dust upstream of the WESP unit varied between 6.2 and 28 mg/Nm{sup 3} dry gas. All measured outlet dust concentrations were below 0.3 mg/Nm{sup 3} (dry gas, 11% O{sub 2}), which equals 3% of the applicable emission limit. The dust removal efficiency has been higher than 97% in all the dust measurements. The mean value of all the dust measurements was 15.2 mg/Nm{sup 3} upstream and 0.14 mg/Nm{sup 3} in downstream (both as dry gas, 11% O{sub 2}), which gives an average removal efficiency of slightly more than 99%. The removal efficiency increased with increasing inlet dust concentration, SO{sub 2} concentration and {Delta}T of the collector cooling. Chlorine, potassium, sodium, silicon and

  20. Reducing float coal dust: Field evaluation of an inline auxiliary fan scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patts, J R; Colinet, J F; Janisko, S J; Barone, T L; Patts, L D

    2016-12-01

    Controlling float coal dust in underground coal mines before dispersal into the general airstream can reduce the risk of mine explosions while potentially achieving a more effective and efficient use of rock dust. A prototype flooded-bed scrubber was evaluated for float coal dust control in the return of a continuous miner section. The scrubber was installed inline between the face ventilation tubing and an exhausting auxiliary fan. Airborne and deposited dust mass measurements were collected over three days at set distances from the fan exhaust to assess changes in float coal dust levels in the return due to operation of the scrubber. Mass-based measurements were collected on a per-cut basis and normalized on the basis of per ton mined by the continuous miner. The results show that average float coal dust levels measured under baseline conditions were reduced by more than 90 percent when operating the scrubber.

  1. Analysis of Liquid Fraction in Venturi Scrubber by E-E Method Using CFX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the distribution of liquid fraction in cylindrical venturi scrubber is analyzed in ANSYS CFX by Eulerian-Eulerian regime. Liquid gaps allow the aerosols to escape from the venturi scrubber. Therefore, it is vital to investigate the liquid fraction in venturi scrubber at different operating condition. The mesh model is developed in ANSYS ICEM and simulation is conducted in ANSYS CFX. k- ε turbulence model is used for simulation of two phase flow in venturi scrubber. The analysis is based on the boundary condition of mass flow rate for air inlet and static pressure for water inlet. For air mass flow rate 0.11, 0.14, 0.17 and 0.2 kg/s, respectively whereas static pressure 245 and 588 Pa for water inlet is used.

  2. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  3. A field demonstration of a modified wet scrubber for dust control in an Illinois coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Alam, M.M.; Patwardhan, A.; Thatavarthy, K.K. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Department of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A commercial wet scrubber was used in the SIU-Joy dust control laboratory to test several concepts for improving the dust control efficiency of a wet scrubber. The concepts tested included two filter-two-spray systems, hollow and full-cone sprays, horizontal and vertical sprays, different layer filters and addition of surfactant. The optimised scrubber configuration had water-only vertical sprays for pre-wetting coarse dust, and vertical surfactant-laden water sprays for wetting ultrafine particles. This scrubber configuration reduced dust concentrations from 250 mg/m{sup 3} to 1.8 mg/m{sup 3}. Upon successful testing and optimisation of parameters in the laboratory, field demonstration of the concepts was conducted at an Illinois coal mine. The optimised scrubber configuration was tested in the field with good results in terms of improved visibility in the face area and reduced respirable and quartz dust concentrations. Additional modifications in the field involved relocation of the scrubber suction inlets from the bottom to the side and changing the water spray configuration on the miner head. These additional changes were based on a conceptualised spatial dust distribution profile in the face area. The results of these laboratory development and field demonstration studies are presented in this paper. 6 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  5. [Direct biosynthesis of ethylene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhilan; Chen, Yifeng

    2013-10-01

    Ethylene is the most widely used petrochemical feedstock globally. The development of bio-ethylene is essential due to limited fossil fuels and rising oil prices. Bio-ethylene is produced primarily by the dehydration of ethanol, but can alternatively be directly produced from ethylene biosynthesis pathways in plants, algae, or microorganisms by using cheap and renewable substrates. This review addressed the biosynthesis of ethylene in plants and microorganisms, the characterization of key enzymes, genetic engineering strategies for ethylene biosynthesis in microorganisms, and evaluated its perspective and successful cases toward the industrial application. The direct production of bio-ethylene from a biological process in situ is promising to supplement and even replace the petrochemical ethylene production.

  6. Task 2.8 -- Mercury speciation and capture in scrubber solutions. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, S.R.

    1997-08-01

    Investigations into mercury control across conventional scrubber systems have precipitated questions concerning (1) the initial speciation between oxidized and elemental forms of mercury in flue gas from coal-fired boilers and, subsequently, (2) the effects of scrubber slurry composition and pH on the mercury forms. Mercury capture in scrubber slurry is highly dependent on its form. Oxidized mercury is highly water-soluble and can be removed by scrubber slurry, whereas elemental mercury is not and passes through the scrubber to the stack. The objectives of this project are to determine whether scrubber solutions convert either form of mercury to another and whether mercury capture is affected by pH.

  7. CFD simulation on performance of new type umbrella plate scrubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shan-hong; LI Cai-ting; ZENG Guang-ming; LI Si-min; WANG Fei; WANG Da-yong

    2008-01-01

    A new type of umbrella plate scrubber was developed to address the pollution due to the dust, dioxide sulfur and other harmful gases, which were emitted from coal-burning boilers. The performance of the new device was studied through computational fluid dynamics(CFD) simulation and experiment methods. Initial work included experimental measurement of inlet-velocity, and gas phase simulation using Reynolds stress model(RSM). After gas phase was converged, particles were injected from the inlet of the new device. Discrete phase model(DPM) was used for particle trajectories determination. The pressure drop and the collection efficiency of the new device were predicted through simulation. The simulation results show that the pressure drop of the new devices is 230-250 Pa and the efficiency is 84%-86%, with the inlet velocity equal to 10.6 m/s and the dust concentration ranging from 2 to 22 g/m3. The CFD simulation results of the new device show good agreement with experimental data. The relative error of the pressure drop and the efficiency is approximately 4% and 10% respectively. The results obtained both from the numerical simulation and from the experiment demonstrate that CFD simulation is an effective method for this type of study.

  8. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  9. Development of a NO{sub 2} scrubber for accurate sampling of ambient levels of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommer, L.; Fick, J.; Andersson, B. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry; National Inst. for Working Life, Umeaa (Sweden). Centre for Musculoskeletal Research; Nilsson, C. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    The result of pumping air containing 56ppb NO{sub 2} through a terpene-spiked adsorbent (90-130ng, 90-100mlmin{sup -1}), Tenax TA, for 20min (1.8-2.0l) was that 8% of {sup {alpha}}-pinene, 7% of {sup {beta}}-pinene, 21% of {sup {delta}}{sup 3}-carene and 5% of limonene were oxidised. In similar experiments with air containing 56ppb O{sub 3}, 3% of {sup {alpha}}-pinene, 4% of {sup {beta}}-pinene, 10% of {sup {delta}}{sup 3}-carene and 38% of limonene were oxidised. Sampling a mixture of a terpene and NO{sub 2} using Tenax TA can give unwanted overestimation of the amount of reaction products from the terpene-NO{sub 2} reaction or underestimation of the original terpene levels. A scrubber was needed to reduce the problems caused by interfering reactions on the adsorbent of NO{sub 2} and to reduce discrimination of reactive compounds due to their relatively fast decay on the adsorbent. Several chemicals have been tested for their ability of removing NO{sub 2} and our objective was to develop a well functioning, reusable, easy to handle, easy manufactured NO{sub 2} scrubber. The result of the experiments was a scrubber consisting of two glass fibre filters coated with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} assembled in a dust collector. The recovery of the terpenes through the scrubber varied between 75% and 97% at 15-75% relative humidity, and the scrubber is a one-use scrubber due to memory effects. The Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} scrubber could be stored in room air for at least one month without loosing the capacity of removing NO{sub 2}. (Author)

  10. Remarkably enhanced thermal stability of an irradiation-crosslinked ethylene-octene copolymer by incorporation of a novel organic/inorganic hybrid nano-sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sideng; Sun, Bin; Jiang, Xiaoze; Li, Lili; Meng, Zhouqi; Zhu, Meifang

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel method to improve the anti-thermal-deformation performance of an ethylene-octene copolymer (POE) using vinyl functionalized silica nanoparticles (M-SiO2) as a sensitizer to enhance radiation-induced crosslinking. The M-SiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by coupling commercially available silica nanoparticles with KH570 (γ-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane, γ-MPS) and were blended with POE by melt blending. Then, the mixture was irradiated with γ-rays under a nitrogen atmosphere to form the crosslinked POE/M-SiO2 nanocomposite. The novel nanocomposites were characterized, and the results showed that the gel fraction was proportional to the content of M-SiO2 in the loading range studied in this work. When the content of M-SiO2 was 10 wt%, the gel fraction of POE was increased by approximately 50%, and the softening temperature (T0.5D) increased from 104.4 °C to 224.6 °C after a 120 kGy dose of radiation. The tensile strength of the POE/M-SiO2-10 nanocomposite was better than that of the neat POE copolymer irradiated with an absorption dose up to 100 kGy. In contrast, the elongation of the POE/M-SiO2-10 nanocomposite was lower than that of the neat POE irradiated under the same conditions, due to the increased degree of crosslinking by radiation. These results clearly demonstrated that the use of M-SiO2 as an irradiation sensitizer effectively enhanced the radiation-induced crosslinking of POE.

  11. Size reduction of ammonia scrubbers for pig and poultry houses: Use of conditional bypass vent at high air loading rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Mosquera, J.

    2006-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both acid and biological air scrubbers are used for removal of ammonia from exhaust air at pig and poultry houses. Current regulations require that scrubbers are dimensioned for treating the maximum airflow rate that may occur, so on average these systems are overdimensioned and

  12. Pilot-scale field study for ammonia removal from lagoon biogas using an acid wet scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun; Hadlocon, Lara Jane; Manuzon, Roderick; Zhao, Lingying

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic activities in swine slurry storage and treatment generate biogas containing gaseous ammonia component which is a chemical agent that can cause adverse environmental impacts when released to the atmosphere. The aim of this pilot plant study was to remove ammonia from biogas generated in a covered lagoon, using a sulfuric acid wet scrubber. The data showed that, on average, the biogas contained 43.7 ppm of ammonia and its concentration was found to be exponentially related to the air temperature inside the lagoon. When the air temperature rose to 35°C and the biogas ammonia concentration reached 90 ppm, the mass transfer of ammonia/ammonium from the deeper liquid body to the interface between the air and liquid became a limiting factor. The biogas velocity was critical in affecting ammonia removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. A biogas flow velocity of 8 to 12 mm s(-1) was recommended to achieve a removal efficiency of greater than 60%. Stepwise regression revealed that the biogas velocity and air temperature, not the inlet ammonia concentration in biogas, affected the ammonia removal efficiency. Overall, when 73 g L(-1) (or 0.75 M) sulfuric acid solution was used as the scrubber solution, removal efficiencies varied from 0% to 100% with an average of 55% over a 40-d measurement period. Mass balance calculation based on ammonium-nitrogen concentration in final scrubber liquid showed that about 21.3 g of ammonia was collected from a total volume of 1169 m(3) of biogas, while the scrubber solution should still maintain its ammonia absorbing ability until its concentration reaches up to 1 M. These results showed promising use of sulfuric acid wet scrubber for ammonia removal in the digester biogas.

  13. Numerical Simulations of Airflow and Droplet Dispersion in a Horizontal Ammonia Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Heiselberg, Per Kvols;

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia released in pig production industries can lead to eutrophication of surface waters, soil acidification, fertilization of vegetation and changes in ecosystems, etc. Air scrubbers with spray of aerosolized sulphur solution were used to remove the ammonia mixed in the airflow ventilated out......, and they were simulated by Eularian-Lagrangian method of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Realizable k-ε turbulence model were used to simulate airflow turbulence. Strong vortex rotating around the main stream direction were found along the scrubber. To weaken the vortex, the impact of adding a regulating...

  14. Performance of a Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine powder from a confined gas stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Martins Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the performance of a laboratory scale rectangular Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine mineral particles from a confined air stream are presented, and a new correlation is proposed and evaluated. The scrubber was operated with air velocities in the throat varying from 58 m/s to 75 m/s and liquid flow rates varying from 280 ml/min to 900 ml/min. Liquid was injected as a jet emerging from a 1.0 mm orifice at the throat. Results for dust collection grade efficiency varied from 87% to 98% for particles from 0.1 µm to 2.0 µm.

  15. Quantitative HAZOP analysis of ethylene/ethane hybrid distillationmembrane separation system%乙烯/乙烷精馏-膜耦合分离系统的HAZOP量化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉慧丽; 肖武; 王明洋; 贺高红

    2012-01-01

    used to separate many industrially important systems. These systems were difficult or impossible to be separated by simple continuous distillation because the phase behavior contains an azeotrope, a tangent pinch, or an overall low relative volatility. But so far HAZOP analysis for the hybrid separation process has rarely been reported. Simulation model of ethylene/ethane hybrid distillation-membrane separation system was built using the Membrane Extension module developed based on UniSim Design software by our research group. Quantitative HAZOP analysis of hybrid distillation-membrane separation system was achieved by combining HAZOP with process simulation. Then effects of different grade deviations of parameters, including feed temperature, feed flow rate and side-draw flow rate of the rectifying column, were investigated. On the basis of simulated results, firstly, deviations used in HAZOP analysis were quantified according to the safety operation scopes of the equipments, then safety thresholds were achieved. Secondly, results of HAZOP analysis were quantified. Reasons of the deviations, consequences of the accident and the severity were analyzed according to the deviation levels. Then the hazard levels were developed. Finally, an analysis report of ethylene/ethane hybrid distillation-membrane separation system was provided based on deviations used in HAZOP analysis and results of HAZOP analysis.

  16. Ethylene insensitive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Nehring, Ramlah; McGrath, Robert B.

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  17. Comparing environmental impact of air scrubbers for ammonia abatement at pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Jerke W.; Melse, Roland W.

    2017-01-01

    Intensive livestock production involves environmental emissions and impacts, including emission of greenhouse gases and ammonia leading to climate change and terrestrial acidification. Ammonia emission from animal housing systems can be reduced by introducing air scrubbers for cleaning the exhaus

  18. Dust captures effectiveness of scrubber systems on mechanical miners operating in larger roadways.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hole, BJ

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The project was directed towards bord and pillar working by mechanised miners operating in larger section roadways, where the problem of scrubber capture tends to be greatest owing to the limited size of the zone of influence around exhaust...

  19. Removal of nitrogen by Algal Turf Scrubber Technology in recirculating aquaculture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeta, J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing research in recirculation aquaculture focuses on evaluating and improving the purification potential of different types of filters. Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) are special as they combine sedimentation and biofiltration. An ATS was subjected to high nutrient loads of catfish effluent to examin

  20. Removal of nitrogen by Algal Turf Scrubber Technology in recirculating aquaculture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeta, J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing research in recirculation aquaculture focuses on evaluating and improving the purification potential of different types of filters. Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) are special as they combine sedimentation and biofiltration. An ATS was subjected to high nutrient loads of catfish effluent to

  1. CFD simulation with enhancement factor of sulfur dioxide absorption in the spray scrubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang GAO; Wang HUO; Zhong-yang LUO; Ke-fa CEN

    2008-01-01

    A model describing the absorption process of SO2 into limestone slurry with a spray scrubber is presented.Both the physical performance of the spray liquid in the scrubber and the involved chemical reactions are analyzed in the model.A con-tinuous concentration change of H+ was solved by iterative coupling using Matlab,and it was found that there was a remarkable influence on the concentration of the other elements in the process of SO2 absorption.The calculations show that the enhancement factor exponentially grows with an increasing value ofpH and logarithmically decays with an increasing value of the driving force.To verify the accuracy of the model,experiments were also carried out,and the results suggest that the model,after combining the physical performance of the spray and the enhancement factor,can more precisely describe SO2 absorption in a spray scrubber.Furthermore,a commercial computational fluid dynamics(CFD)tool is used to perform several simulations which describe and clarify the effects of variables on SO2 absorption.The results of numerical simulation can provide a basis for further design and optimization of the scrubber.

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Electrostatic Spray Wet Scrubber to Control Particulate Matter Emissions from Poultry Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant emitted from animal production and has significant impacts on health and the environment. Abatement of PM emissions is imperative and effective PM control technologies are strongly needed. In this work, an electrostatic spray wet scrubber (ESWS) techn...

  3. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  4. Shipping and the environment: Smokestack emissions, scrubbers and unregulated oceanic consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Turner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available While shipping has long been recognised as a very carbon-efficient transport medium, there is an increasing focus on its broader environmental consequences. The International Maritime Organisation is responsible for the regulation of ship emissions arising from fuel combustion. Their current regulations are, however, much less strict than those applying to land-based transport within the European Union. Five different groups of pollutant emission from ship smokestacks are addressed in this paper: sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, organic matter and metals. The reduction of sulphur oxide emissions into the atmosphere using scrubber technology adds another dimension to the discussion, as this approach results in focused discharge of some pollutants to the surface water. A scoping calculation shows that an open-loop scrubber on a medium-sized ship could discharge more copper and zinc daily to the surface water than the ship’s antifouling paint. The use of antifouling paint in the European Union is subject to a prior risk assessment, but scrubber discharges are not subject to any such risk assessment. This situation presents a problem from the perspective of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, as environmental monitoring programmes in some coastal areas of the Baltic Sea have shown that levels of both copper and zinc exceed environmental quality standards. To fulfil the Marine Strategy Framework Directive requirements and achieve Good Environmental Status, having knowledge of the magnitude of different anthropogenic pressures is important. Metal inputs from open-loop scrubbers have been largely neglected until now: some metals have the potential to serve as tracers for monitoring scrubber discharges.

  5. Wet scrubber analysis of volatile organic compound removal in the rendering industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, James R; Das, K C

    2002-04-01

    The promulgation of odor control rules, increasing public concerns, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air regulations in nonattainment zones necessitates the remediation of a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated by the rendering industry. Currently, wet scrubbers with oxidizing chemicals are used to treat VOCs; however, little information is available on scrubber efficiency for many of the VOCs generated within the rendering process. Portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) units were used to rapidly identify key VOCs on-site in process streams at two poultry byproduct rendering plants. On-site analysis was found to be important, given the significant reduction in peak areas if samples were held for 24 hr before analysis. Major compounds consistently identified in the emissions from the plant included dimethyl disulfide, methanethiol, octane, hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal. The two branched aldehydes, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal, were by far the most consistent, appearing in every sample and typically the largest fraction of the VOC mixture. A chlorinated hydrocarbon, methanesulfonyl chloride, was identified in the outlet of a high-intensity wet scrubber, and several VOCs and chlorinated compounds were identified in the scrubbing solution, but not on a consistent basis. Total VOC concentrations in noncondensable gas streams ranged from 4 to 91 ppmv. At the two plants, the odor-causing compound methanethiol ranged from 25 to 33% and 9.6% of the total VOCs (v/v). In one plant, wet scrubber analysis using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as the oxidizing agent indicated that close to 100% of the methanethiol was removed from the gas phase, but removal efficiencies ranged from 20 to 80% for the aldehydes and hydrocarbons and from 23 to 64% for total VOCs. In the second plant, conversion efficiencies were much lower in a packed-bed wet scrubber, with a measurable removal of only dimethyl sulfide (20-100%).

  6. A new process and equipment for waste minimization: Conversion of NO(x) scrubber liquor to fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Gamble, Paul H.; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.

    1995-01-01

    A new emissions control system for the oxidizer scrubbers that eliminates the current oxidizer liquor waste and lowers the NO(x) emissions is described. Since fueling and deservicing spacecraft constitute the primary operations in which environmental emissions occur, this will eliminate the second largest waste stream at KSC. This effort is in accord with Executive Order No. 12856 (Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, data 6 Aug. 1993) and Executive Order No. 12873 (Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention, dated 20 Oct. 1993). A recent study found that the efficiencies of the oxidizer scrubbers during normal operations ranged from 70 percent to 99 percent. The new scrubber liquor starts with 1% hydrogen peroxide at a pH of 7 and the process control system adds hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide to the scrubber liquor to maintain those initial conditions. The result is the formation of a solution of potassium nitrate, which is sold as a fertilizer. This report describes the equipment and procedures used to monitor and control the conversion of the scrubber liquor to fertilizer, while reducing the scrubber emissions.

  7. Optimization of selection of chain amine scrubbers for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marri, Mohammed J; Khader, Mahmoud M; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Shibl, Mohamed F

    2014-12-01

    In order to optimize the selection of a suitable amine molecule for CO2 scrubbers, a series of ab initio calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Diethylenetriamine was used as a simple chain amine. Methyl and hydroxyl groups served as examples of electron donors, and electron withdrawing groups like trifluoromethyl and nitro substituents were also evaluated. Interaction distances and binding energies were employed as comparison operators. Moreover, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, namely the second order perturbation approach, was applied to determine whether the amine-CO2 interaction is chemical or physical. Different sizes of substituents affect the capture ability of diethylenetriamine. For instance, trifluoromethyl shields the nitrogen atom to which it attaches from the interaction with CO2. The results presented here provide a means of optimizing the choice of amine molecules for developing new amine scrubbers.

  8. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    CERN Document Server

    De Giovanni, Marina; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not...

  9. CFD analysis on gas distribution for different scrubber redirection configurations in sump cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Organiscak, J A; Zhou, L; Beck, T W; Rider, J P

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Office of Mine Safety and Health Research recently developed a series of models using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study the gas distribution around a continuous mining machine with various fan-powered flooded bed scrubber discharge configurations. CFD models using Species Transport Model without reactions in FLUENT were constructed to evaluate the redirection of scrubber discharge toward the mining face rather than behind the return curtain. The following scenarios are considered in this study: 100 percent of the discharge redirected back toward the face on the off-curtain side of the continuous miner; 100 percent of the discharge redirected back toward the face, but divided equally to both sides of the machine; and 15 percent of the discharge redirected toward the face on the off-curtain side of the machine, with 85 percent directed into the return. These models were compared against a model with a conventional scrubber discharge, where air is directed away from the face into the return. The CFD models were calibrated and validated based on experimental data and accurately predicted sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas levels at four gas monitoring locations. One additional prediction model was simulated to consider a different scrubber discharge angle for the 100 percent redirected, equally divided case. These models identified relatively high gassy areas around the continuous miner, which may not warrant their use in coal mines with medium to high methane liberation rates. This paper describes the methodology used to develop the CFD models, and the validation of the models based on experimental data.

  10. Droplet dispersion angle measurements on a Pease-Antony Venturi scrubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. G. Puentes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Pease-Anthony Venturi scrubber is a gas cleaning device that uses liquid, injected in the equipment as jets, to remove contaminants from the gas. The liquid jet is atomized into droplets, which are dispersed throughout the equipment due to the turbulence. The performance of the scrubber is affected by the spatial distribution of the droplets. Although CFD models have been used to predict the droplet dispersion, these models are expensive. Alternatively, the concept of "jet spreading angle" could be used as a simple and quick way to estimate droplet dispersion. The purpose of this paper is to measure the spreading angle of jets transversally injected into the throat of a Venturi scrubber and correlate it with both gas and jet velocities. The throat gas velocities varied between 59 and 74 m/s and the jet velocity between 3.18 and 19.1 m/s. The angles were measured through image analysis, obtained with high velocity photography. The spreading angle was found to be strongly dependent on jet velocity.

  11. DEVELOPMENT TREND OF ETHYLENE INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Ting

    2014-01-01

    The growth of world ethylene production and demand has been slowed down, but accelarated growth after 2015 is forecasted. Shale gas revolution has promoted the resurge of ethylene industry in North America and changed the investment pattern of world ethylene industry.Chinese ethylene industry has developed rapidly, facing not only opportunities for development but also outside pressure.The diversified pattern of Chinese ethylene industry has been formed , in which MTO has become an effective complement to the ethylene industry.While cracking raw material has become lighter and lighter worldwide, naphtha still dominates the ethylene raw material in China, leading to high cost of raw material.Aiming to reduce the cost and improve the competitiveness, this article introduces the progress of steam cracking technology for ethylene production from the aspects of low energy consumption , low cost, large capacity and long-term operation.

  12. AUXIN STIMULATION OF ETHYLENE EVOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    mechanism of auxin action on the enhancement of ethylene production is the formation of enzymes involved in ethylene biogenesis....The stimulation of ethylene production by auxin was inhibited by actinomycin D and other inhibitors of protein synthesis. It is concluded that the

  13. Ethylene production by apple protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J D; Lieberman, M; Stewart, R N

    1979-05-01

    Freshly prepared protoplasts from apple tissue that produced ethylene were obtained. Ethylene production was inhibited by osmotic shock, 0.01% Triton X-100, and aminoethoxyvinyl glycine. Protoplasts as well as the ethylene system were not greatly affected by protease treatment.

  14. Incorporation of alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid as a Fixed Bed Scrubber Media for the Neutralization of Hydrazine Family Hypergolic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVor, R. W.; Santiago-Maldonado, E.; Parkerson, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    A candidate scrubber media, alpha-ketoglutaric acid (aKGA) adsorbed onto a silica-based substrate was examined as a potential alternative to the hydrazine-family hypergolic fuel neutralization techniques currently utilized at NASA/Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Helvenson et. al. has indicated that aKGA will react with hydrazines to produce non-hazardous, possibly biodegradable products. Furthermore, the authors have previously tested and demonstrated the use of aKGA aqueous solutions as a replacement neutralizing agent for citric acid, which is currently used as a scrubbing agent in liquid scrubbers at KSC. Specific properties examined include reaction efficiency, the loading capacity of aKGA onto various silica substrates, and the comparison of aKGA media performance to that of the citric acid vapor scrubber systems at KSC and a commercial vapor scrubber media. Preliminary investigations showed hydrophobic aerogel particles to be an ideal substrate for the deposition of the aKGA. Current studies have shown that the laboratory produced aKGA-Aerogel absorbent media are more efficient and cost effective than a commercially available fixed bed scrubber media, although much less cost effective than liquid-based citric acid scrubbers (although possibly safer and less labor intensive). A comparison of all three alternative scrubber technologies (liquid aKGA, solid-phase aKGA, and commercially available sorbent materials) is given considering both hypergolic neutralization capabilities and relative costs (as compared to the current citric acid scrubbing technology in use at NASA/KSC).

  15. Maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS Proteins Interact with Ethylene Receptor Signaling Complex, Supporting a Regulatory Role for ARGOS in Ethylene Signal Transduction[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Wang, Hongyu; Habben, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to environmental cues. ARGOS genes reduce plant sensitivity to ethylene when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). A previous genetic study suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-localized maize ARGOS1 targets the ethylene signal transduction components at or upstream of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, but the mechanism of ARGOS modulating ethylene signaling is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis that ZmARGOS1, as well as the Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1, physically interacts with Arabidopsis REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1), an ethylene receptor interacting protein that regulates the activity of ETHYLENE RESPONSE1. The protein-protein interaction was also detected with the yeast split-ubiquitin two-hybrid system. Using the same yeast assay, we found that maize RTE1 homolog REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 LIKE4 (ZmRTL4) and ZmRTL2 also interact with maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS proteins. Like AtRTE1 in Arabidopsis, ZmRTL4 and ZmRTL2 reduce ethylene responses when overexpressed in maize, indicating a similar mechanism for ARGOS regulating ethylene signaling in maize. A polypeptide fragment derived from ZmARGOS8, consisting of a Pro-rich motif flanked by two transmembrane helices that are conserved among members of the ARGOS family, can interact with AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins in Arabidopsis. The conserved domain is necessary and sufficient to reduce ethylene sensitivity in Arabidopsis and maize. Overall, these results suggest a physical association between ARGOS and the ethylene receptor signaling complex via AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins, supporting a role for ARGOS in regulating ethylene perception and the early steps of signal transduction in Arabidopsis and maize. PMID:27268962

  16. Coadsorption of ethylene and potassium on Pt(111). 1. Formation of a. pi. -bonded state of ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windham, R.G.; Bartram, M.E.; Koel, B.E.

    1988-05-19

    High resolution electron energy spectroscopy (HREELS), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) have been combined to study the effect of preadsorbed potassium on the adsorption of ethylene on the platinum(111) single-crystal surface. Addition of potassium increases the relative amount of reversible ethylene adsorption at 100 K/. Upon coadsorption with potassium, the authors also observe a new low-temperature ethylene desorption state at 150 K, with E/sub d/ = 5-9 kcal mol/sup -1/, which is about one-half the binding energy of ethylene adsorbed on clean Pt(111). The origin of this new desorption state is the formation of a weakly interacting ethylene species, which is only slightly distorted from the gas-phase hybridization, as determined primarily by vibrational spectroscopy. An explanation is given for these effects in which the increased charge density at the platinum surface due to coadsorbed potassium inhibits the strong sigma-donation of adsorbed ethylene to platinum and greatly reduces the chemisorption bond strength.

  17. Development and evaluation of a full-scale spray scrubber for ammonia recovery and production of nitrogen fertilizer at poultry facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlocon, Lara Jane S; Manuzon, Roderick B; Zhao, Lingying

    2015-01-01

    Significant ammonia emissions from animal facilities need to be controlled due to its negative impacts on human health and the environment. The use of acid spray scrubber is promising, as it simultaneously mitigates and recovers ammonia emission for fertilizer. Its low pressure drop contribution on axial fans makes it applicable on US farms. This study develops a full-scale acid spray scrubber to recover ammonia emissions from commercial poultry facilities and produce nitrogen fertilizer. The scrubber performance and economic feasibility were evaluated at a commercial poultry manure composting facility that released ammonia from exhaust fans with concentrations of 66-278 ppmv and total emission rate of 96,143 kg yr(-1). The scrubber consisted of 15 spray scrubber modules, each equipped with three full-cone nozzles that used dilute sulphuric acid as the medium. Each nozzle was operated at 0.59 MPa with a droplet size of 113 μm and liquid flow rate of 1.8 L min(-1). The scrubber was installed with a 1.3-m exhaust fan and field tested in four seasons. Results showed that the scrubber achieved high NH3 removal efficiencies (71-81%) and low pressure drop (fertilizer. Preliminary economic analysis indicated that the break-even time is one year. This study demonstrates that acid spray scrubbers can economically and effectively recover NH3 from animal facilities for fertilizer.

  18. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1996--May 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-06-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite, gypsum, and unreacted limestone or lime, with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem.

  19. Integration of advanced oxidation processes at mild conditions in wet scrubbers for odourous sulphur compounds treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Esther; Martin, Maria J; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of different advanced oxidation processes on the treatment of a multicomponent aqueous solution containing ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide (0.5 mg L(-1) of each sulphur compound) was investigated with the objective to assess which one is the most suitable treatment to be coupled in wet scrubbers used in odour treatment facilities. UV/H2O2, Fenton, photo-Fenton and ozone treatments were tested at mild conditions and the oxidation efficiency obtained was compared. The oxidation tests were carried out in magnetically stirred cylindrical quartz reactors using the same molar concentration of oxidants (hydrogen peroxide or ozone). The results show that ozone and photo-Fenton are the most efficient treatments, achieving up to 95% of sulphur compounds oxidation and a mineralisation degree around 70% in 10 min. Furthermore, the total costs of the treatments taking into account the capital and operational costs were also estimated for a comparative purpose. The economic analysis revealed that the Fenton treatment is the most economical option to be integrated in a wet scrubber to remove volatile organic sulphur compounds, as long as there are no space constraints to install the required reactor volume. In the case of reactor volume limitation or retrofitting complexities, the ozone and photo-Fenton treatments should be considered as viable alternatives.

  20. Concept for a cyclonic spray scrubber as a fission product removal system for filtered containment venting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, Luke S., E-mail: Luke.Lebel@cnl.ca; Piro, Markus H., E-mail: Markus.Piro@cnl.ca; MacCoy, Reilly, E-mail: Reilly.MacCoy@cnl.ca; Clouthier, Anthony, E-mail: Tony.Clouthier@cnl.ca; Chin, Yu-Shan, E-mail: Sammy.Chin@cnl.ca

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new cyclonic spray scrubber concept for filtered containment venting is presented. • Mechanistic particle removal model paired with discrete particle CFD simulations. • Calculations predict that very high decontamination factors can be achieved. - Abstract: The application of a cyclonic spray scrubber as a technology for filtered containment venting is proposed in this paper. This study has paired a mechanistic model for the kinetic particle coagulation of with Euler–Lagrange discrete particle simulations in order to predict particle decontamination factors. The continuous phase behavior has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics simulations together with phase Doppler anemometry measurements. Calculations show that spray scrubbing of radionuclide-bearing aerosols could be very effective, and predict that decontamination factors can be in excess of 10{sup 6} for micron sized particles and excess of 10{sup 3} for submicron particles. In the wake of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, filtered containment venting is being viewed as an increasingly important severe accident mitigation technology. Cyclonic spray scrubbing could be implemented as a passive technology for decontaminating containment gases in an emergency prior to their discharge to the atmosphere, and is a novel approach for this application.

  1. Oxidation of North Dakota scrubber sludge for soil amendment and production of gypsum. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, D.J.; Moe, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) the North Dakota Industrial Commission, and the US Department of Energy provided funds for a research project at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The goals of the project were (1) to determine conditions for the conversion of scrubber sludge to gypsum simulating an ex situ process on the laboratory scale; (2) to determine the feasibility of scaleup of the process; (3) if warranted, to demonstrate the ex situ process for conversion on the pilot scale; and (4) to evaluate the quality and handling characteristics of the gypsum produced on the pilot scale. The process development and demonstration phases of this project were successfully completed focusing on ex situ oxidation using air at low pH. The potential to produce a high-purity gypsum on a commercial scale is excellent. The results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of converting CCS scrubber sludge to gypsum exhibiting characteristics appropriate for agricultural application as soil amendment as well as for use in gypsum wallboard production. Gypsum of a purity of over 98% containing acceptable levels of potentially problematic constituents was produced in the laboratory and in a pilot-scale demonstration.

  2. 40 CFR 60.2680 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber to comply with the emission limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that... air pollution control device other than a wet scrubber, or limit emissions in some other manner, to... comply with the emission limitations? 60.2680 Section 60.2680 Protection of Environment...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2115 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber to comply with the emission limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scrubber to comply with the emission limitations? If you use an air pollution control device other than a... comply with the emission limitations? 60.2115 Section 60.2115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which...

  4. Semi-mechanistic modelling of ammonia absorption in an acid spray wet scrubber based on mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model to describe reactive absorption of ammonia (NH3) in an acid spray scrubber was developed as a function of the combined overall mass transfer coefficient K. An experimental study of NH3 absorption using 1% dilute sulphuric acid was carried out under different operating conditions. An empiric...

  5. Elektronische monitoring van luchtwassers op veehouderijbedrijven = Automated process monitoring and data logging of air scrubbers at animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Franssen, J.C.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    At 6 animal houses air scrubbers equipped with an automated process monitoring and data logging system were tested. The measured values were successfully stored but the measured values, especially the pH and EC of the recirculation water, appeared not to be correct at all times.

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND RESPONSES TO POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF SCR AND WET SCRUBBERS ON SUBMICRON PARTICULATE EMISSIONS AND PLUME CHARACTERISTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers on coal-fired boilers have led to substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). However, observations of pilot- and full-scale tes...

  7. Inactivation of airborne Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus using a pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation scrubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Xin, H.

    2014-01-01

    High microbial concentrations and emissions associated with livestock houses raise health and environmental concerns. A pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic (UV-PCO) scrubber was tested for its efficacy to inactivate aerosolized Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Mic

  8. Interstellar Antifreeze: Ethylene Glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, J. M.; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.; Coudert, L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2,OH) has been detected in emission toward the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2(N-LMH) by means of several millimeter-wave rotational torsional transitions of its lowest energy conformer. The types and kinds of molecules found to date in interstellar clouds suggest a chemistry that favors aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols-e.g., formaldehyde (H2CO)/methanol (CH3OH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)/ethanol (CH3CH2OH). Similarly, ethylene glycol is the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), which has also been detected toward Sgr B2(N-LMH). While there is no consensus as to how any such large complex molecules are formed in the interstellar clouds, atomic hydrogen (H) and carbon monoxide (CO) could form formaldehyde on grain surfaces, but such surface chemistry beyond that point is uncertain. However, laboratory experiments have shown that the gas-phase reaction of atomic hydrogen (H) and solid-phase CO at 10-20 K can produce formaldehyde and methanol and that alcohols and other complex molecules can be synthesized from cometary ice analogs when subject to ionizing radiation at 15 K. Thus, the presence of aldehyde/ reduced alcohol pairs in interstellar clouds implies that such molecules are a product of a low-temperature chemistry on grain surfaces or in grain ice mantles. This work suggests that aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols provide unique observational constraints on the formation of complex interstellar molecules.

  9. Chemistry of flyash scrubber sludge components in plant-soil-water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Flyash scrubber sludge (FASS) is a by-product from coal combustion at power plants. Land application and burial beneath wetlands have been suggested as more cost efficient disposal methods than burial in old mines. The FASS from the Associated Electric Power Plant at Thomas Hill, MO was added, 2.5 or 5.0% FASS by weight, to an acidic topsoil. FASS increased soil pH and salt level, and increased growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and tall fescue (Festuca aroundinacea L.). Concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Ni, P, Si, Sr, Ti, and Zn in plant tissues were either unaffected or reduced due to FASS addition. The concentrations of B, Cl, Mo, Mn, and S were higher in tissues of plants grown on FASS treated than untreated soil. Boron content limited the amount of FASS that could be applied to soil.

  10. Development of construction materials using sulfite-rich scrubber sludge and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoginder Chugh; Amit Patwardhan; Santosh Munish; Francois Botha [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Department of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2006-11-15

    Construction materials with characteristics suitable for a variety of applications have been developed using up to 95% of coal combustion by-products comprising of sulfite-rich scrubber sludge and fly ash. These materials can be produced as soil-like mixes that can be prepared at the power plant, transported to the deployment site and compacted using conventional road building equipment without a need for forms. These developed materials provide an early strength of 5.8-8.3 MPa after 7-14 d and are environmentally benign. For a cattle feeding pad application, which is the focus of this paper, the cost is estimated be about 25-30% of the cost of developing a conventional concrete feeding pad. Following mix development and establishment of quality assurance/quality control protocols, a commercial cattle feeding pad has been designed and demonstrated using the developed mix. 15 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF GAS TREATMENT PLANT BASED ON AN EJECTOR SCRUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iu. Panov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article executed the feasibility study of various options for gas treatment. Rapid development of industry and transport worldwide in recent times raises the problem in the protection of habitat environment from harmful waste. In solving problems of flue gas treatment great attention is given to the economic characteristics and recycling techniques for capturing emissions and disposal must also meet the sanitary health requirements: flue gas treatment plants should not cause air or water pollution. The set objective is solved by developing a two-stage wet treatment system for pyrolysis gas based on ejector scrubbers. Their advantage - a central nozzle supply that allows the scrubber to operate on the principle of an ejector pump. Projected plant can be used in enterprises for processing of solid domestic and industrial waste, where there are steam and hot water boilers, whose operations result in contaminated gases emissions obtained with high temperatures. In particular, this installation can be applied at a cement plant in which a large amount of waste gases containing sulfur oxides is emitted. Assessment of market potential for the plant designed to treat waste gases in the cement factory is performed through a SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis results indicate the possibility of the treatment of exhaust gases without a high cost and with high gas treatment efficiency. Plant competitive analysis was done using an expert method in comparison with market competitors. Technical and economic indicators of the plant are presented. Return on investments is 46% and payback period of capital investments - 2.7 years.

  12. Numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in Venturi scrubber by interface tracking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Naoki, E-mail: s1430215@u.tsukuba.ac.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan); Yoshida, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Abe, Yutaka [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Self-priming occur because of pressure balance between inside and outside of throat is confirmed. • VS has similar flow with a Venturi tube except of disturbance and burble flow is considered. • Some of atomization simulated are validated qualitatively by comparison with previous studies. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of protecting a containment vessel of light water reactor and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials from a light water reactor, it is important to develop the device which allows a filtered venting of contaminated high pressure gas. In the filtered venting system that used in European reactors, so called Multi Venturi scrubbers System is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply. This system is able to define to be composed of Venturi scrubbers (VS) and a bubble column. In the VS, scrubbing of contaminated gas is promoted by both gas releases through the submerged VS and gas-liquid contact with splay flow formed by liquid suctioned through a hole provided by the pressure difference between inner and outer regions of a throat part of the VS. However, the scrubbing mechanism of the self-priming VS including effects of gas mass flow rate and shape of the VS are understood insufficiently in the previous studies. Therefore, we started numerical and experimental study to understand the detailed two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In this paper, to understand the VS operation characteristics for the filtered venting, we performed numerical simulations of two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In the first step of this study, we perform numerical simulations of supersonic flow by the TPFIT to validate the applicability of the TPFIT for high velocity flow like flow in the VS. In the second step, numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in the VS including self-priming phenomena. As the results, dispersed flow in the VS was reproduced in the numerical simulation, as same as the visualization experiments.

  13. Novel Adsorbent-Reactants for Treatment of Ash and Scrubber Pond Effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Batchelor; Dong Suk Han; Eun Jung Kim

    2010-01-31

    The overall goal of this project was to evaluate the ability of novel adsorbent/reactants to remove specific toxic target chemicals from ash and scrubber pond effluents while producing stable residuals for ultimate disposal. The target chemicals studied were arsenic (As(III) and As(V)), mercury (Hg(II)) and selenium (Se(IV) and Se(VI)). The adsorbent/reactants that were evaluated are iron sulfide (FeS) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Procedures for measuring concentrations of target compounds and characterizing the surfaces of adsorbent-reactants were developed. Effects of contact time, pH (7, 8, 9, 10) and sulfate concentration (0, 1, 10 mM) on removal of all target compounds on both adsorbent-reactants were determined. Stability tests were conducted to evaluate the extent to which target compounds were released from the adsorbent-reactants when pH changed. Surface characterization was conducted with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify reactions occurring on the surface between the target compounds and surface iron and sulfur. Results indicated that target compounds could be removed by FeS{sub 2} and FeS and that removal was affected by time, pH and surface reactions. Stability of residuals was generally good and appeared to be affected by the extent of surface reactions. Synthesized pyrite and mackinawite appear to have the required characteristics for removing the target compounds from wastewaters from ash ponds and scrubber ponds and producing stable residuals.

  14. Analysis of naturally-occurring radionuclides in coal combustion fly ash, gypsum, and scrubber residue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Angela R; Stabin, Michael G; Delapp, Rossane C; Kosson, David S

    2013-03-01

    Coal combustion residues from coal-fired power plants can be advantageous for use in building and construction materials. These by-products contain trace quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series, as well as other naturally occurring radionuclides such as K. Analysis was performed on samples of coal fly ash, flue gas desulfurization, gypsum and scrubber sludges, fixated scrubber sludges, and waste water filter cakes sampled from multiple coal-fired power plants in the United States. The radioactive content of U and Th decay series nuclides was determined using gamma photopeaks from progeny Pb at 352 keV and Tl at 583 keV, respectively; K specific activities were determined using the 1,461 keV photopeak. The samples were hermetically sealed to allow for secular equilibrium between the radium parents and the radon and subsequent progeny. Samples were analyzed in a common geometry using two high purity germanium photon detectors with low energy detection capabilities. The specific activities (Bq kg) were compared to results from literature studies including different building materials and fly ash specific activities. Fly ash from bituminous and subbituminous coals had U specific activities varying from 30-217 Bq kg (mean + 1 s.d. 119 ± 45 Bq kg) and 72-209 Bq kg (115 ± 40 Bq kg), respectively; Th specific activities from 10-120 Bq kg (73 ± 26 Bq kg) and 53-110 Bq kg (81 ± 18 Bq kg), respectively; and K specific activities from 177 to 928 Bq kg (569 ± 184 Bq kg) and 87-303 Bq kg (171 ± 69 Bq kg), respectively. Gypsum samples had U, Th, and K specific activities approximately one order of magnitude less than measured for fly ash samples.

  15. Ethylene oxide potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Mendes, Gisela Cristina; da Silva Brandão, Teresa Ribeiro; Miranda Silva, Cristina Luisa

    2008-05-01

    The future of ethylene oxide (EO) sterilization has been questioned, owing to its associated toxicity. EO has been around for more than 60 years, mainly due to its recognized characteristics of reliability and effectiveness, coupled with the process flexibility, as well as its compatibility with most mechanical devices. Despite the well-known EO toxicity, the undesirable effects of medical devices' EO residues on the patient's health have not yet been well established. There are limitations related to the current risk-assessment studies. To overcome these drawbacks, demands on greater safety are increasing, which lead to improvements in sterilizers and aeration equipment, as well as the design of the processes. The paper under evaluation highlights risks related to EO sterilization of materials used during processing of stem cells for transplantation, but is an example of a study where the dose of the residues in the devices is not considered.

  16. Quantum Entropic Ambiguities: Ethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Balachandran, A P; Vaidya, S

    2013-01-01

    In a quantum system, there may be many density matrices associated with a state on an algebra of observables. For each density matrix, one can compute its entropy. These are in general different. Therefore one reaches the remarkable possibility that there may be many entropies for a given state [Private communication from R. Sorkin]. This ambiguity in entropy can often be traced to a gauge symmetry emergent from the non-trivial topological character of the configuration space of the underlying system. It can also happen in finite-dimensional matrix models. In the present work, we discuss this entropy ambiguity and its consequences for an ethylene molecule. This is a very simple and well-known system where these notions can be put to tests. Besides its intrinsic conceptual interest, the simplicity of this model can serve as an introduction to a similar discussion of systems such as coloured monopoles and the breaking of colour symmetry.

  17. Mortality among ethylene oxide workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R W; Claxton, K W; Divine, B J; Kaplan, S D; Harris, V B

    1981-11-01

    Because of reports linking an increased risk of leukemia with exposure to ethylene oxide, a mortality study of workers with potential exposure to ethylene oxide at the Texaco Chemical Company Plant in Port Neches, Tex., was undertaken. A total of 767 males with potential exposure to ethylene oxide were identified. Forty-six deaths occurred in this cohort with 80 expected (standardized mortality ratio; SMR = 58). No deaths from leukemia were seen, nor were there any statistically significant excesses from any specific causes of death.

  18. Crystal structures of ethylene glycol and ethylene glycol monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, A Dominic; Suard, Emmanuelle

    2011-12-21

    We have carried out a neutron powder diffraction study of deuterated ethylene glycol (1,2-ethanediol), and deuterated ethylene glycol monohydrate with the D2B high-resolution diffractometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin. Using these data, we have refined the complete structure, including all hydrogen atoms, of the anhydrous phase at 220 K. In addition, we have determined the structure of ethylene glycol monohydrate at 210 K using direct space methods. Anhydrous ethylene glycol crystallizes in space-group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with four formula units in a unit-cell of dimensions a = 5.0553(1) Å, b = 6.9627(1) Å, c = 9.2709(2) Å, and V = 326.319(8) Å(3) [ρ(calc)(deuterated) = 1386.26(3) kg m(-3)] at 220 K. Ethylene glycol monohydrate crystallizes in space-group P2(1)/c with four formula units in a unit-cell of dimensions a = 7.6858(3) Å, b = 7.2201(3) Å, c = 7.7356(4) Å, β = 92.868(3)°, and V = 428.73(2) Å(3) [ρ(calc)(deuterated) = 1365.40(7) kg m(-3)] at 210 K. Both the structures are characterized by the gauche conformation of the ethylene glycol molecule; however, the anhydrous phase contains the tGg' rotamer (or its mirror, g'Gt), whereas the monohydrate contains the gGg' rotamer. In the monohydrate, each water molecule is tetrahedrally coordinated, donating two hydrogen bonds to, and accepting two hydrogen bonds from the hydroxyl groups of neighboring ethylene glycol molecules. There are substantial differences in the degree of weak C-D···O hydrogen bonding between the two crystals, which calls into question the role of these interactions in determining the conformation of the ethylene glycol molecule.

  19. 46 CFR 154.1725 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 154.1725 Section 154.1725 Shipping COAST....1725 Ethylene oxide. (a) A vessel carrying ethylene oxide must: (1) Have cargo piping, vent piping, and... space of an ethylene oxide cargo tank for a period of 30 days under the condition of paragraph (e) of...

  20. Inhibition of ethylene production by rhizobitoxine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, L.D.; Lieberman, M.; Kunishi, A.

    1970-01-01

    Rhizobitoxine, an inhibitor of methionine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium, inhibited ethylene production about 75% in light-grown sorghum seedlings and in senescent apple tissue. Ethylene production stimulated by indoleacetic acid and kinetin in sorghum was similarly inhibited. With both apple and sorghum, the inhibition could only be partially relieved by additions of methionine. A methionine analogue, ..cap alpha..-keto-..gamma..-methylthiobutyric acid, which has been suggested as an intermediate between methionine and ethylene, had no effect on the inhibition. Incorporation of /sup 14/C from added methionine-/sup 14/C into ethylene was curtailed by rhizobitoxine to about the same extent as was ethylene production. These results suggest that rhizobitoxine interferes with ethylene biosynthesis by blocking the conversion of methionine to ethylene and not indirectly by inhibiting the biosynthesis of methionine. Ethylene production by Penicillium digitatum, a fungus which produces ethylene via pathways not utilizing methionine as a precursor, was not affected by rhizobitoxine. 16 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Design of Hybrid Solid Polymer Electrolytes: Structure and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Lyudmila M.; Karlinsey, Robert L.; Ritter, Kyle; Joo, Chan Gyu; Stein, Barry; Zwanziger, Josef W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports synthesis, structure, and properties of novel hybrid solid polymer electrolytes (SPE's) consisting of organically modified aluminosilica (OM-ALSi), formed within a poly(ethylene oxide)-in-salt (Li triflate) phase. To alter the structure and properties we fused functionalized silanes containing poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) tails or CN groups.

  2. Evaluation of Decontamination Factor of Aerosol in Pool Scrubber according to Bubble Shape and Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyun Joung; Ha, Kwang Soon; Jang, Dong Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The scrubbing pool could play an important role in the wet type FCVS because a large amount of aerosol is captured in the water pool. The pool scrubbing phenomena have been modelled and embedded in several computer codes, such as SPARC (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code), BUSCA (BUbble Scrubbing Algorithm) and SUPRA (Suppression Pool Retention Analysis). These codes aim at simulating the pool scrubbing process and estimating the decontamination factors (DFs) of the radioactive aerosol and iodine gas in the water pool, which is defined as the ratio of initial mass of the specific radioactive material to final massy after passing through the water pool. The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the pool. The developed code has been verified using the experimental results and parametric studies the decontamination factor according to bubble shape and size. To evaluate the decontamination factor more accurate whole pool scrubber phenomena, the code was improved to consider the variety shape and size of bubbles. The decontamination factor were largely evaluated in ellipsoid bubble rather than in sphere bubble. The pool scrubbing models will be enhanced to apply more various model such as aerosol condensation of hygroscopic. And, it is need to experiment to measure to bubble shape and size distribution in pool to improve bubble model.

  3. A new ethylene glycol-silane monolayer for highly-specific DNA detection on Silicon Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sandro; Cavallini, Andrea; Maruyama, Yuki; Charbon, Edoardo; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    Monolayer thin films with ethylene-glycol function onto gold surfaces by using thiols have been extensively investigated. They have been proposed as precursors for applications to bio-detection, where their hydrophilic character improves both specificity and sensitivity. The aim of this letter is to characterize ethylene-glycol monolayer precursors formed onto silicon chips by using silanes. The importance of the ethylene-glycol function is demonstrated by comparing with the well known 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The different nano-scale structures of the two precursor monolayers are investigated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Longer, wider, and deeper grooves were measured in the images acquired on 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Fluorescence investigation demonstrates that the presence of ethylene-glycol function improves target hybridization onto silicon chips, assuring highly-specific detection of DNA.

  4. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  5. Colorometric detection of ethylene glycol vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, C.; Mosier, B.; Verostko, C. E.

    1970-01-01

    Very low concentrations of ethylene glycol in air or other gases are detected by passing a sample through a glass tube with three partitioned compartments containing reagents which successively convert the ethylene glycol vapor into a colored compound.

  6. Genetic introgression of ethylene-suppressed transgenic tomatoes with higher-polyamines trait overcomes many unintended effects due to reduced ethylene on the primary metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly P Sobolev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene regulates a myriad physiological and biochemical processes in ripening fruits and is accepted as the ripening hormone for the climacteric fruits. However, its effects on metabolome and resulting fruit quality are not yet fully understood, particularly when some of the ripening-associated biochemical changes are independent of ethylene action. We have generated a homozygous transgenic tomato genotype (2AS-AS that exhibits reduced ethylene production as a result of impaired expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 2 gene by its antisense RNA and had a longer shelf life. Double transgenic hybrid (2AS-AS x 579HO developed through a genetic cross between 2AS-AS and 579HO (Mehta et al., 2002 lines resulted in significantly higher ethylene production than either the WT or 2AS-AS fruit. To determine the effects of reduced ethylene and introgression of higher polyamines’ trait, the metabolic profiles of ripening fruits from WT (556AZ, 2AS-AS, and 2AS-AS x 579HO lines were determined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The levels of Glu, Asp, AMP, Adenosine, Nucl1 and Nucl2 increased during ripening of the WT fruit. The increases in Glu, Asp, and AMP levels were attenuated in 2AS-AS fruit but recovered in the double hybrid with higher ethylene and polyamine levels. The ripening-associated decreases in Ala, Tyr, Val, Ile, Phe, malate and myo-inositol levels in the 2AS-AS line were not reversed in the double hybrid line suggesting a developmental/ripening regulated accumulation of these metabolites independent of ethylene. Significant increases in the levels of fumarate, formate, choline, Nucl1 and Nucl2 at most stages of ripening fruit were found in the double transgenic line due to introgression with higher-polyamines trait. Taken together these results show that the ripening-associated metabolic changes are both ethylene dependent and independent, and that the fruit metabolome is under the control of multiple regulators, including

  7. Metallocene supported core@LDH catalysts for slurry phase ethylene polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Jean-Charles; Byles, Coral F H; Felton, Ryan; Chen, Chunping; O'Hare, Dermot

    2016-03-14

    We report the synthesis of solid catalysts based on a zirconocene supported on either silica@AMO-LDH or zeolite@AMO-LDH for the slurry phase polymerisation of ethylene. The hybrid catalysts demonstrate synergistic effects in which the polymerisation activity is up to three times higher than the zirconocene supported on analogous single phase silica or zeolite supports.

  8. A Nanoarchitecture Based on Silver and Copper Oxide with an Exceptional Response in the Chlorine-Promoted Epoxidation of Ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adrian; Hueso, Jose L; Suarez, Hugo; Mallada, Reyes; Ibarra, Alfonso; Irusta, Silvia; Santamaria, Jesus

    2016-09-05

    The selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene epoxide is highly challenging as a result of competing reaction pathways leading to the deep oxidation of both ethylene and ethylene oxide. Herein we present a novel catalyst based on silver and copper oxide with an excellent response in the selective oxidation pathway towards ethylene epoxide. The catalyst is composed of different silver nanostructures dispersed on a tubular copper oxide matrix. This type of hybrid nanoarchitecture seems to facilitate the accommodation of chlorine promoters, leading to high yields at low reaction temperatures. The stability after the addition of chlorine promoters implies a substantial improvement over the industrial practice: a single pretreatment step at ambient pressure suffices in contrast with the common practice of continuously feeding organochlorinated precursors during the reaction.

  9. EVALUATION OF AEROSOL EMISSIONS DOWNSTREAM OF AN AMMONIA-BASED SO2 SCRUBBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2002-04-01

    Depending on the size and type of boiler, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required specific reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. To meet these requirements, SO{sub 2} reduction strategies have included installing scrubbing technology, switching to a more expensive low-sulfur coal, or purchasing SO{sub 2} allowances. It is expected that over the next 10 years there will be an increase in the price of low-sulfur coals, but that higher-sulfur coal costs will remain the same. Technologies must be strongly considered that allow the use of high-sulfur fuels while at the same time meeting current and future SO{sub 2} emission limits. One such technology is the ammonia based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) (NH{sub 3}-based FGD) system manufactured by Marsulex Environmental Technologies (MET). The MET scrubber is a patented NH{sub 3}-based FGD process that efficiently converts SO{sub 2} (>95%) into a fertilizer product, ammonium sulfate ([NH{sub 4}]{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). A point of concern for the MET technology, as well as other FGD systems, is the emission of sulfuric acid/SO{sub 3} aerosols that could result in increased opacity at the stack. This is a direct result of firing high-sulfur fuels that naturally generate more SO{sub 3} than do low-sulfur coals. SO{sub 3} is formed during the coal combustion process. SO{sub 3} is converted to gaseous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by homogeneous condensation, leading to a submicron acid fume that is very difficult to capture in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The condensed acid can also combine with the fly ash in the duct and scale the duct wall, potentially resulting in corrosion of both metallic and nonmetallic surfaces. Therefore, SO{sub 3} in flue gas can have a significant impact on the performance of coal-fired utility boilers, air heaters, and ESPs. In addition to corrosion problems, excess SO{sub 3} emissions can result in plume opacity problems. Thus the Energy & Environmental Research

  10. 49 CFR 173.323 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 173.323 Section 173.323... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.323 Ethylene oxide. (a) For packaging ethylene oxide in non-bulk packagings, silver mercury or any of its alloys or copper may not be used in any...

  11. Synergistic effect of selectively distributed AlN/MWCNT hybrid fillers on the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of polycarbonate/maleated poly[styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)- b-styrene] triblock copolymer (SEBS-g-MA) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chao; Leng, Xinyu; Wang, Hui; Su, Zheng; Zhang, Xian; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Kang; Tian, Xingyou

    2017-02-01

    A quaternary nanocomposite polycarbonate (PC)- multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/SEBS-g-MA (SM)-AlN is prepared by controlling the selective distribution of nano-fillers via melt-blending. Through a two-step mixing method, surface modified AlN is selectively dispersed in the island-like SM phase; meanwhile, MWCNT acting as bridges are mainly located in the continuous phase of PC. This ‘island-bridge’ morphology is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The selective localization results agree well with the theoretical predictions. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates that the addition of hybrid fillers improved the storage modulus selectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the thermal stability of the PC/SM blends increased significantly; the degradation kinetic has also been changed due to the synergistic effects of the fillers. This novel ‘island-bridge’ network contributes a higher thermal conductivity at low filler content as the effective thermal conductivity reached 0.72 W m‑1 K‑1, which is three times higher than that of 70PC/30SM. The experimental observations coincide well with the optimizing model results.

  12. Selection of amine combination for CO2 capture in a packed bed scrubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was to test different blends of tertiary amine; triethanolamine (TEA into primary amine; Monoethanolamine (MEA used to capture CO2 in packed bed scrubber with recycle stream. Four different operating parameters: Amine Combination (A, Dilution Water (B, Liquid Flow rate (C, and Gas Flow rate (D were varied to study the behavior of the system. Moreover, Taguchi method was employed to establish the order of importance of different parameters in the process. A 4 factor and 3 level was chosen for the study and it was explored using L9 (34 orthogonal array design. According to 3-level design 0%, 20% and 30% were chosen for A, 10%, 20% and 30% for B, 1 Lmin−1, 1.5 Lmin−1 and 2 Lmin−1 for C, 8 Lmin−1, 16 Lmin−1 and 20 Lmin−1 for D. To understand the effectiveness order of different operating parameters, three factors namely Absorption efficiency (E, Absorption Rate (RA, and Scrubbing Factor (E were calculated upon which the order was compared. The highest efficiency of 92.2% was achieved with 20% TEA. However, with 30% of TEA and 20% solvent mix maximum scrubbing factor (E of 0.63 mol-CO2/mol-Solvent was achieved. As per Taguchi analysis the significance sequence for absorption efficiency (ϕ was B > C > D > A; for absorption rate C > B > D > A and for scrubbing factor it was C > B > D > A. The blending of tertiary amine seemed advantageous for carbon dioxide capture process.

  13. Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumporn Nikom

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC, is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the system. NaOCl, the strongest oxidative agent, presents an effective toluene removal. As the scrubbed toluene is reacted, recirculation of the scrubbing liquid could be operated with a constant removal efficiency throughout the operting time. The investigated variables affecting the removal efficiency were air flow rate, inlet toluene concentration, NaOCl concentration, scrubbing liquid flow rate and size of spray nozzle. Influence of the scrubbing parameters was experimentally studied to develop a mathematical model of the toluene removal efficiency. The removal model reveals that the increase of scrubbing liquid flow rate, toluene concentration, and NaOCl concentration together with the decrease of air flow rate and size of spray nozzle can increase the toluene removal efficiency. Optimization problem with an objective function and constraints was set to provide the maximum toluene removal efficiency and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The optimization constraints were formed from the mathematical model and process limitation. The solution of the optimization was an air flow rate of 100 m3/h, toluene concentration of 1500 ppm, NaOCl concentration of 0.02 mol/l, NaOCl solution feed rate of 0.8 m3/h, and spray nozzle size of 0.5 mm. Solution of the optimization gave the highest toluene removal efficiency of 91.7%.

  14. Effects of the methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on phenolic and miscanthus composites containing calcium sulfite scrubber material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sean

    The purpose of this research is to test the effects of methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on composite material containing calcium sulfite obtained from the Southern Illinois Power Co-operative. This scrubber material and the miscanthus plant are of interest due to their use in coal burning power plants to reduce toxic emission. When calcium sulfate is passed through coal fire gas emissions it absorbs mercury and sulfur. In these composites it is used as filler to reduce cost. Miscanthus is a source of both cellulose reinforcement and some natural resin. This plant has low care requirements, little mineral content, useful energy return, and positive environmental effects. Under investigation is whether a post-cure procedure or a silane coupling agent will positively impact the composite. Hot pressing alone may not be enough to fully cure the phenolic. It is hoped that the silane will increase the strength characteristics of the composite by enhancing adhesion between the calcium sulfite and phenolic resin. Possible effects on the miscanthus by the silane will also be tested. Phenolic is being utilized because of its recycling and biodegradable properties along with cost effectiveness in mass production. Composite mechanical performance was measured through 3-point bending to measure flexural strength and strain at breakage. A dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to find thermomechanical properties. The post-cure was found to be effective, particularly on the final composite containing silane. When methyltrimethoxysilane was added to the miscanthus prior to fabrication, it was found to reduce flexural strength and density. However the addition of methyltrimethoxysilane to the calcium sulfite altered thermo-mechanical properties to a state more like pure phenolic, with added flexibility and thermal stability.

  15. Combined nitrogen oxides/sulfur dioxide control in dry scrubber systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J. B.L.; Gorski, A. J.; Huang, H. S.

    1989-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is investigating alternative control concepts that involve modifying existing SO{sub 2}-removal processes and sorbents, with the objective of achieving simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Laboratory-scale research conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and a spray-dryer/fabric-filter system has been paralleled by field tests at ANL's commercial-scale (20-MW electric equivalent) dry scrubber. In the fixed-bed experiments, a range of chemical reagents was surveyed, and the best-performing additives were studied in detail. Sodium chloride, sodium bisulfite, sodium hydroxide, and Fe(II)*EDTA were found to increase both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removals; the additives did not appear to increase NO{sub x} removal directly, but they interacted strongly with the other primary variables to improve sorbent performance. The laboratory spray-dryer system was used to study the effects on combined NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} removal of the best-performing fixed-bed additives and certain process modifications. The tests showed that sodium chloride increased NO{sub x} removal at all temperatures; sodium bisulfite was generally less effective, and calcium chloride was effective only at 65{degree}C. Up to 80{degree}C, all three additives significantly improved SO{sub 2} removal, but improvement ceased at higher temperatures. This report discusses the experimental results in terms of the effects the additives and principal process variables had on NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removals and the mechanistic implications. 14 refs., 74 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, third quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1995--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-06-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. This project is studying the characteristics of flue-gas scrubber sludges from several sources. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  17. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, June 1, 1996--August 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-09-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite, gypsum, and unreacted limestone or lime, with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather then landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product. In this quarter, the installation of a laboratory-scale flotation column was completed. In addition to the installation of the flotation column, research on the determination of the surface properties of the components of the scrubber sludge was continued. Auger electron spectroscopy was investigated as a method for determining the composition of the first few monolayers of unreacted limestone and calcium sulfite/sulfate particles.

  18. Liquid ethylene-propylene copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, R. A.; Ingham, J. D.; Humphrey, M. F.

    1975-01-01

    Oligomers are prepared by heating solid ethylene-propylene rubber in container that retains solid and permits liquid product to flow out as it is formed. Molecular weight and viscosity of liquids can be predetermined by process temperature. Copolymers have low viscosity for given molecular weight.

  19. ETHYLENE OXIDE-ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE SEGMENTED COPOLYMER SOLID ELECTROLYTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiaolie; WANG Chuanqing; WANG Haiqian; HU Keliang; MA Dezhu

    1994-01-01

    A series of ethylene oxide-ethylene terephthalate segmented copolymers (EOET) were synthesized and complexed with LiClO4 to form some new polymer electrolytes. The EOET-LiClO4 electrolytes exhibit not only high ionic conductivity, but also good mechanical strength and toughness. The EOET 3400-25-LiClO4 complex possesses the highest conductivity (4. 65 ×10-5s·cm-1)at room temperature when the ratio [Li+]/[EO] equals 1/16.The structures of these electrolytes were examined with FTIR analysis, X-ray diffraction and DSC thermograms, and the results of high ionic conductivity of the segmented copolymers were discussed.

  20. Ecological effects of scrubber water discharge on coastal plankton: Potential synergistic effects of contaminants reduce survival and feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Stedmon, Colin; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    and hydrocarbons. We investigated 1) the threshold concentrations of scrubber discharge water for survival, feeding and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa, 2) whether the effects depend on the exposure route and 3) whether exposure to discharge water can be detected in field-collected organisms. A direct...... exposure to discharge water increased adult copepod mortality and reduced feeding at metal concentrations which were orders of magnitude lower than the lethal concentrations in previous single-metal studies. In contrast, reproduction was not influenced by dietary uptake of contaminants. Scrubber water...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

    2007-06-06

    This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample

  2. Analysis of a wet scrubber network in the air remediation of industrial workplaces: benefit for the city air quality

    CERN Document Server

    Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Curci, Gabriele; Monaco, Alessio; De Giovanni, Marina; Giammaria, Franco; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities carried out in confined spaces are characterized by a very specific type of air pollution. The extended exposure to this kind of pollution is often highly harmful, resulting in dramatic effects both on health and safety aspects. The indoor industrial abatement systems, adopted to purify the air, are typically applied to the emission points. The processed air is subsequently emitted outside. In this study we present the experimental results of three-stage wet scrubber systems installed in the industrial workplace of a (i) fiberglass processing plant, where the highest exposure levels to volatile compounds are nowadays today monitored,and of a (ii) waste-to-energy plant, characterized by a very high particulate matter level. The adopted technology, to be used as complementing strategy,does not require special disposal procedures and the processed air is re-emitted in the same work environment for the benefit of the work operators. The operation of the scrubbers network during the working a...

  3. Drying poly(ethylene glycol)

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Lucas Kinard, Kurtis Kasper & Antonios Mikos ### Abstract This protocol describes the drying of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) by a simple 6 step procedure. One can implement this protocol using common lab glass and lab equipment. Water is removed from PEG by azeotropic distillation in toluene. The two components are mixed and toluene and water are distilled off by heating the solution to 170°C. This procedure can be implemented in ~2 h. ### Introduction In many ...

  4. Ethylene Glycol Metabolism by Pseudomonas putida

    OpenAIRE

    Mückschel, Björn; Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Graf, Nadja; Rosche, Bettina; Altenbuchner, Josef; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin; Hauer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the...

  5. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Fourth year, first quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1996--December 31, 1996 (Quarter No. 13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-12-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{circ}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{circ}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH)2), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  6. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Third year, second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1995--February 29, 1996 (Quarter {number_sign}10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-03-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product. In the current quarter, research was focused on two different areas. The first part of this quarter the optimization of the feed slurry percent solids for the two inch water-only cyclone was completed. The optimization of the vortex finder, spigot diameter and inlet feed pressure was completed in the previous quarter. The second part of this quarter began the investigation of why water-only cycloning helps froth flotation performance. The hypothesis is that water-only cycloning scrubs the surface of the unreacted limestone. This scrubbing effect provides a clean calcium carbonate surface, which results in better flotation reagent adsorption. This study used the scanning electron microscope to investigate the surface of the unreacted limestone particles.

  7. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, fourth quarterly technical progress report, Quarter No. 8, June 1, 1995--August 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-09-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  8. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Third year, first quarterly technical progress report Quarter No. 9, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-12-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  9. Biocatalytic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide using an engineered toluene monooxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlin, DA; Bertolani, SJ; Siegel, JB

    2015-01-01

    Mutants of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase are demonstrated to oxidize ethylene to ethylene oxide in vivo at yields of >99%. The best mutant increases ethylene oxidation activity by >5500-fold relative to the native enzyme. This is the first report of a recombinant enzyme capable of carrying out this industrially significant chemical conversion.

  10. Biocatalytic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide using an engineered toluene monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, D A; Bertolani, S J; Siegel, J B

    2015-02-11

    Mutants of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase are demonstrated to oxidize ethylene to ethylene oxide in vivo at yields of >99%. The best mutant increases ethylene oxidation activity by >5500-fold relative to the native enzyme. This is the first report of a recombinant enzyme capable of carrying out this industrially significant chemical conversion.

  11. Industry-Government-University Cooperative Research Program for the Development of Structural Materials from Sulfate-Rich FGD Scrubber Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. M. Malhotra; Y. P. Chugh

    2003-08-31

    The main aim of our project was to develop technology, which converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sulfate-rich scrubber sludge into value-added decorative materials. Specifically, we were to establish technology for fabricating cost effective but marketable materials, like countertops and decorative tiles from the sludge. In addition, we were to explore the feasibility of forming siding material from the sludge. At the end of the project, we were to establish the potential of our products by generating 64 countertop pieces and 64 tiles of various colors. In pursuit of our above-mentioned goals, we conducted Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the binders and co-processed binders to identify their curing behavior. Using our 6-inch x 6-inch and 4-inch x 4-inch high pressure and high temperature hardened stainless steel dies, we developed procedures to fabricate countertop and decorative tile materials. The composites, fabricated from sulfate-rich scrubber sludge, were subjected to mechanical tests using a three-point bending machine and a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). We compared our material's mechanical performance against commercially obtained countertops. We successfully established the procedures for the development of countertop and tile composites from scrubber sludge by mounting our materials on commercial boards. We fabricated more than 64 pieces of countertop material in at least 11 different colors having different patterns. In addition, more than 100 tiles in six different colors were fabricated. We also developed procedures by which the fabrication waste, up to 30-weight %, could be recycled in the manufacturing of our countertops and decorative tiles. Our experimental results indicated that our countertops had mechanical strength, which was comparable to high-end commercial countertop materials and contained substantially larger inorganic content than the commercial products. Our

  12. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  13. Experimental study on performance of flow & desulfurisation of a gas-liquid screen scrubber for wet flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, the gas-liquid two-phase flow performance and desulfurisation performance of the gasliquid screen scrubber were experimentally studied when limestone wag used as absorbent. Experiments were carried out at varying the flue gas velocity and slurry flux in concurrent and countercurrent tower respectively. The experimental results showed that the flow resistance of absorber increased rapidly with an increase of the flue gas velocity whether in concurrent or in countercurrent tower, and the up trend of the flow resistance in the countercurrent tower was higher than those in the concurrent one. The influence of the flue gas velocity on the flow resistance of absorber was more than those of the slurry flux density. Whether in the concurrent tower or in the countercurrent one, increasing the flue gas velocity or the slurry flux density would enhance the desulphurization efficiency. The influence of the slurry flux density on the desulfurisation efficiency was greater than those of the flue gas velocity.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Three-dimensional Heat and Mass Transfer in Spray Cooling of Converter Gas in a Venturi Scrubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Tao; WANG Kuisheng

    2009-01-01

    In order to predict the pressure drop, collection efficiency, velocity, temperature and mole fraction of vapor in an industrial venturi scrubber with water spraying for converter gas cooling, a three-dimensional model of heat and mass transfer with phase change is established. The gas flow and liquid droplets are treated as a continuous phase with a Eulerian approach and as a discrete phase with a Lagrangian approach, respectively. The coupled problem of heat, force, and mass transfers between gas flow and liquid droplets is solved by a commercial computational fluid dynamics(CFD) package, FLUENT. The numerical results show that the water injections have an important influence on the distributions of pressure, velocity, temperature, and mole fraction of vapor, especially for the spraying region in the throat. In the spraying region, the pressure drop is higher and the velocity is lower than in other regions due to the gas-droplet drag, while the temperature is lower because the droplet absorbs large amounts of heat from the high temperature gas and the mole fraction of vapor is higher due to the phase change of the liquid droplet. A number of cases with different water-to-gas volume flow ratios and baffle openings were simulated. The dependence of pressure drop, velocity, temperature, mole fraction of vapor, and collection efficiency on both the water-to-gas volume flow ratio and baffle opening are analyzed. The good agreements between simulation results and experiment data of pressure drop, temperature, and collection efficiency validate the model. The model should facilitate optimization of the venturi scrubber design in order to give better performance with lower pressure drops and higher collection efficiency.

  15. Removal of H2S pollutant from gasifier syngas by a multistage dual-flow sieve plate column wet scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurella, Swamy; Bhukya, Pawan Kishan; Meikap, B C

    2017-05-12

    The objective of this study was to observe the performance of a lab-scale three-stage dual-flow sieve plate column scrubber for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas removal from a gas stream, in which the H2S concentration was similar to that of gasifier syngas. The tap water was used as scrubbing liquid. The gas and liquid were operated at flow rates in the range of 16.59 × 10(-4)-27.65 × 10(-4) Nm(3)/s and 20.649 × 10(-6)-48.183 × 10(-6) m(3)/s, respectively. The effects of gas and liquid flow rates on the percentage removal of H2S were studied at 50-300 ppm inlet concentrations of H2S. The increase in liquid flow rate, gas flow rate and inlet H2S concentration increased the percentage removal of H2S. The maximum of 78.88% removal of H2S was observed at 27.65 × 10(-4) Nm(3)/s gas flow rate and 48.183 × 10(-6) m(3)/s liquid flow rate for 300 ppm inlet concentration of H2S. A model has also been developed to predict the H2S gas removal by using the results from the experiments and adding the parameters that affect the scrubber's performance. The deviations between experimental and predicted H2S percentage removal values were observed as less than 16%.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1147 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1926.1147 Section 1926.1147 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1047 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1915.1047 Section 1915.1047 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1047 Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  18. Ethylene: A tiny molecule with great potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Vrije, de T.

    1995-01-01

    Ethylene (C2H4) is a gaseous plant hormone produced by higher and lower (green) plants and, when grown on appropriate substrates, also by fungi, yeasts and bacteria. Ethylene is involved in many developmental processes in plants and is biologically active in trace amounts (10-100 nl/l of air) that m

  19. Serum Calcium Concentration in Ethylene Glycol Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, Michael; Marraffa, Jeanna M; Wojcik, Susan; Grant, William

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of ethylene glycol intoxication can be challenging. Definitive testing for ethylene glycol is not readily available and clinical decisions are often based on clinical suspicion and the results of more readily available tests. One of these findings is hypocalcemia, presumable through complexation with the ethylene glycol metabolite oxalate. We performed a retrospective review of all patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2005 and 2013 with laboratory confirmed ethylene glycol intoxication. Serum calcium on presentation was compared to blood gas pH on presentation as well as presentation serum bicarbonate. We did not find any relationship between calcium and serum pH either by linear regression or when dichotomized by pH ≥ or ethylene glycol poisoning, even in acidotic patients.

  20. Early transcriptional responses to mercury: a role for ethylene in mercury-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Palmero, M Belén; Martín-Barranco, Amanda; Escobar, Carolina; Hernández, Luis E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cellular mechanisms of plant tolerance to mercury (Hg) is important for developing phytoremediation strategies of Hg-contaminated soils. The early responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seedlings to Hg were studied using transcriptomics analysis. A Medicago truncatula microarray was hybridized with high-quality root RNA from M. sativa treated with 3 μM Hg for 3, 6 and 24 h. The transcriptional pattern data were complementary to the measurements of root growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation and NADPH-oxidase activity as stress indexes. Of 559 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 91% were up-regulated. The majority of DEGs were shared between the 3 and 6 h (60%) time points, including the 'stress', 'secondary metabolism' and 'hormone metabolism' functional categories. Genes from ethylene metabolism and signalling were highly represented, suggesting that this phytohormone may be relevant for metal perception and homeostasis. Ethylene-insensitive alfalfa seedlings preincubated with the ethylene signalling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopronene and Arabidopsis thaliana ein2-5 mutants confirmed that ethylene participates in the early perception of Hg stress. It modulates root growth inhibition, NADPH-oxidase activity and Hg-induced apoplastic H2 O2 accumulation. Therefore, ethylene signalling attenuation could be useful in future phytotechnological applications to ameliorate stress symptoms in Hg-polluted plants.

  1. Effect of Ethylene on Polygalacturonase,Lipoxygenase and Expansin in Ripening of Tomato Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zhaohui; KOU Xiaohong; LUO Yunbo; ZHU Benzhong; XU Wentao

    2009-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process and is regulated by many factors.Ethylene and polygalacturonase (PG),lipoxygenase (LOX),expansin (EXP) are all critical regulating factors in fruit ripening and softening process.With antisense,ACS tomato,Nr mutant tomato and cultivated tomato as materials,Northern blot hybridization showed that PG,LeEXP1 and LOX expressed differently in different parts of cultivated tomato fruit during ripening,which was related to fruit ripening.The ripening process of columella and radial pericarp was faster than pericarp.In both Nr mutant and antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit,expression levels of PG,LeEXP1 and LOX were generally lower than those in cultivated fruit but still related to fruit ripening.The expression levels of PG,LeEXP1 and LOX increased in the mature green tomato fruits after 0.5 h treatment with ethylene ( 100 μL/L).These results indicate that gene expression of PG,LeEXP1 and LOXwere positively regulated by ethylene.The time and cumulative effect of the concentration exists in the expression of PG regulated by ethylene.The regulation of LOX expression mainly depended on the fruit development after great amount of ethylene was produced.PG played a major role in ripening and softening of tomato fruit,and cooperated with the regulation of EXP and LOX.

  2. Ethylene-dependent/ethylene-independent ABA regulation of tomato plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; León-Morcillo, Rafael; Vierheilig, Horst; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; García-Garrido, José Manuel

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between ABA and ethylene regulating the formation of the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and tried to define the specific roles played by each of these phytohormones in the mycorrhization process. We analysed the impact of ABA biosynthesis inhibition on mycorrhization by Glomus intraradices in transgenic tomato plants with an altered ethylene pathway. We also studied the effects on mycorrhization in sitiens plants treated with the aminoethoxyvinyl glycine hydrochloride (AVG) ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor and supplemented with ABA. In addition, the expression of plant and fungal genes involved in the mycorrhization process was studied. ABA biosynthesis inhibition qualitatively altered the parameters of mycorrhization in accordance with the plant's ethylene perception and ethylene biosynthesis abilities. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis in wild-type plants negatively affected all the mycorrhization parameters studied, while tomato mutants impaired in ethylene synthesis only showed a reduced arbuscular abundance in mycorrhizal roots. Inhibition of ethylene synthesis in ABA-deficient sitiens plants increased the intensity of mycorrhiza development, while ABA application rescued arbuscule abundance in the root's mycorrhizal zones. The results of our study show an antagonistic interaction between ABA and ethylene, and different roles of each of the two hormones during AM formation. This suggests that a dual ethylene-dependent/ethylene-independent mechanism is involved in ABA regulation of AM formation. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Ethylene and flower longevity in Alstroemeria: relationship between tepal senescence, abscission and ethylene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Carol; Chanasut, Usawadee; Harren, Frans J M; Laarhoven, Luc-Jan; Thomas, Brian; Rogers, Hilary J; Stead, Anthony D

    2005-03-01

    Senescence of floral organs is broadly divided into two groups: those that exhibit sensitivity to exogenous ethylene and those that do not. Endogenous ethylene production from the former group is via a well-characterized biochemical pathway and is either due to developmental or pollination-induced senescence. Many flowers from the order Liliales are characterized as ethylene-insensitive since they do not appear to produce endogenous ethylene, or respond to exogenous ethylene treatments, however, the majority of cases studied are wilting flowers, rather than those where life is terminated by perianth abscission. The role of ethylene in the senescence and abscission of Alstroemeria peruviana cv. Rebecca and cv. Samora tepals was previously unclear, with silver treatments recommended for delaying leaf rather than flower senescence. In the present paper the effects of exogenous ethylene, 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) and silver thiosulphate (STS) treatments on tepal senescence and abscission have been investigated. Results indicate that sensitivity to ethylene develops several days after flower opening such that STS only has a limited ability to delay tepal abscission. Detachment force measurements indicate that cell separation events are initiated after anthesis. Endogenous ethylene production was measured using laser photoacoustics and showed that Alstroemeria senesce independently of ethylene production, but that an extremely small amount of ethylene (0.15 nl flower(-1) h(-1)) is produced immediately prior to abscission. Investigation of the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosysnthesis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that transcriptional regulation is likely to be at the level of ACC oxidase, and that the timing of ACC oxidase gene expression is coincident with development of sensitivity to exogenous ethylene.

  4. Ethylene glycol metabolism by Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mückschel, Björn; Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Graf, Nadja; Rosche, Bettina; Altenbuchner, Josef; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin; Hauer, Bernhard

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol.

  5. Root formation in ethylene-insensitive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D G; Gubrium, E K; Barrett, J E; Nell, T A; Klee, H J

    1999-09-01

    Experiments with ethylene-insensitive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants were conducted to determine if normal or adventitious root formation is affected by ethylene insensitivity. Ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (NR) tomato plants produced more below-ground root mass but fewer above-ground adventitious roots than wild-type Pearson plants. Applied auxin (indole-3-butyric acid) increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings of wild-type plants but had little or no effect on rooting of NR plants. Reduced adventitious root formation was also observed in ethylene-insensitive transgenic petunia plants. Applied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings from NR and wild-type plants, but NR cuttings produced fewer adventitious roots than wild-type cuttings. These data suggest that the promotive effect of auxin on adventitious rooting is influenced by ethylene responsiveness. Seedling root growth of tomato in response to mechanical impedance was also influenced by ethylene sensitivity. Ninety-six percent of wild-type seedlings germinated and grown on sand for 7 d grew normal roots into the medium, whereas 47% of NR seedlings displayed elongated tap-roots, shortened hypocotyls, and did not penetrate the medium. These data indicate that ethylene has a critical role in various responses of roots to environmental stimuli.

  6. Synthesis and properties of highly dispersed ionic silica-poly(ethylene oxide) nanohybrids.

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J

    2013-02-04

    We report an ionic hybrid based on silica nanoparticles as the anion and amine-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a cation. The charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the surface hydroxyls. SAXS and TEM reveal an exceptional degree of dispersion of the silica in the polymer and high degree of order in both thin film and bulk forms. In addition to better dispersion, the ionic hybrid shows improved flow characteristics compared to silica/PEO mixtures in which the ionic interactions are absent.

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-12 - Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 151.50-12 Section 151.50-12 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-12 Ethylene oxide. (a)(1) Ethylene... otherwise provided for in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. (2) Ethylene oxide shall be loaded at a...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO) to...

  9. 21 CFR 172.770 - Ethylene oxide polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene oxide polymer. 172.770 Section 172.770... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.770 Ethylene oxide polymer. The polymer of ethylene oxide may... conditions. (a) It is the polymer of ethylene oxide having a minimum viscosity of 1,500 centipoises in a 1...

  10. The role of ethylene perception in plant disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraats, Bart Peter Johan

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that is involved in responses of the plant to various stress situations, such as pathogen attack. The role of ethylene in plant-pathogen interactions seems to be diverse. Exposure of plants to ethylene can induce disease resistance, but treatment with ethylene during

  11. Oil condensation boilers and problems with sulphur. Sulphur separation for oil-fired condensation boilers and flue gas scrubbers - six measurements at different boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1988-11-01

    Three condensation boilers, one condensating scrubber boiler and two waste gas scrubbers were the objects of measurements made to determine to what degree sulphur is separated. The three condensation boilers which are only equipped with a condenser for the condensation of the combustion water shaved separation levels of between 0.5 and 3.5%. They are therefore not suitable for cutting the SO/sub 2/-emissions from the combustion of sulphur-containing fuel oil. The washer boilers showed better results (40-45%) despite the fact that it works with acid washing liquid (2.85 pH). To explain the high level of separation one must assume that under oxygen influence a large part of the sulphur dioxide is further oxidised to sulphuric acid. Alkaline washers showed very good separations of up to 90%. Here again a large part of the sulphur dioxide further oxidises to sulfates.

  12. Ethylene Glycol and Metabolite Concentrations in Fatal Ethylene Glycol Poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Jenni; Sajantila, Antti; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is used in antifreeze and other industrial products. It metabolizes to glycolic acid (GA) and oxalic acid (OX) that cause metabolic acidosis and are mainly responsible for the toxicity of EG. During 2010-2014, EG or GA was found in 25 postmortem cases in Finland. Of these cases, 21 were classified as fatal EG poisonings and 3 were classified as methanol (MeOH) poisonings. In this study, we report the concentrations of EG and GA in postmortem blood and urine samples of fatal EG or mixed MeOH/EG poisonings. In the fatal EG poisonings, the median EG and GA concentrations were 0.87 and 1.6 g/L in blood and 4.3 and 5.3 g/L in urine. The median urine-blood ratios were 3.8 and 3.1 for EG and GA. These results warrant the use of urine as a primary matrix for screening. In EG positive cases, the quantification of both EG and GA in blood is crucial as GA concentration appears to best indicate a fatal poisoning with an approximate threshold of 1.5 g/L. The measurement of urinary OX does not offer much additional value to toxic alcohol screening as it may originate from varying dietary conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Contamination control by use of ethylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, R. H.; Lyle, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The uses of ethylene oxide as a decontaminating agent for planetary quarantine related applications are reported. Aspects discussed include: applications and limitations, chemical and physical properties, germicidal activity, methods of applications, and effects on personnel.

  14. Nitrous Oxide Ethane Ethylene Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Ethane-Ethylene (NEE) engine is a proposed technology designed to provide spacecraft with non-toxic non-cryogenic high-performance propulsion. With...

  15. Inert Reassessment Document for Ethylene Glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene Glycol has many uses and are also used as antifreeze and deicers, as solvents, humectants, as chemical intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, and as components of many products such as brake fluids, lubricants, inks,and lacquers.

  16. Intensification of volatile organic compounds mass transfer in a compact scrubber using the O3/H2O2 advanced oxidation process: kinetic study and hydroxyl radical tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biard, Pierre-François; Couvert, Annabelle; Renner, Christophe; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre

    2011-11-01

    This study assesses the potential of ozonation and advanced oxidation process O(3)/H(2)O(2) to enhance the dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) mass transfer in a compact chemical scrubber developed for air treatment applications. Theoretical calculations, through Hatta number and enhancement factor evaluations for two parallel irreversible reactions, were compared to experimental data and enabled the description of the mass transfer mechanisms. These calculations required the determination of the kinetic constant of the DMDS oxidation by molecular ozone ( [Formula: see text] ) and the measurement of the hydroxyl radical concentration within the scrubber. The competitive kinetic method using the 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (resorcinol) enabled to determine a value of the kinetic constant [Formula: see text] of 1.1×10(6)M(-1)s(-1) at 293K. Then, experiments using para-chlorobenzoic acid in solution allowed measuring the average hydroxyl concentration in the scrubber between the inlet and the outlet depending on the chemical conditions (pH and inlet O(3) and H(2)O(2) concentrations). High hydroxyl radical concentrations (10(-8)M) and ratio of the HO°-to-O(3) exposure (R(ct)≈10(-4)) were put in evidence.

  17. 槽式擦洗机在红土矿中的应用和改进%Application and Improvement of Trough Type Scrubber in Lateritic Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓光

    2014-01-01

    Since the ore of a certain overseas open-pit lateritic mine project belongs to refractory ore, secondary ore washing process circuit of drum washer+trough type scrubber shall be adopted. But because of difference adaptability of lateritic ore on the structure of trough type scrubber, such problems as insufficient lifting capacity of sand return and short service life of bearing parts at tail end will be occurred. This paper elaborates a good solution of these problems through improvement on seal structure of water sealing box of equipment structure and trough type scrubber.%国外某露天红土矿项目因其矿石属难洗矿石,采用圆筒洗矿机+槽式擦洗机二段洗矿的工艺流程,但由于槽式擦洗机结构上对红土矿适应性的差异,出现了返砂提升量不足和尾端轴承部件使用寿命短暂等问题,通过对设备结构和槽式擦洗机水密封箱密封结构的改造,很好地解决了这些问题。

  18. Ethylene oxide and Acetaldehyde in hot cores

    CERN Document Server

    Occhiogrosso, A; Herbst, E; Viti, S; Ward, M D; Price, S D; Brown, W A

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] Ethylene oxide and its isomer acetaldehyde are important complex organic molecules because of their potential role in the formation of amino acids. Despite the fact that acetaldehyde is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, ethylene oxide has not yet been detected in cold sources. We aim to understand the chemistry of the formation and loss of ethylene oxide in hot and cold interstellar objects (i) by including in a revised gas-grain network some recent experimental results on grain surfaces and (ii) by comparison with the chemical behaviour of its isomer, acetaldehyde. We test the code for the case of a hot core. The model allows us to predict the gaseous and solid ethylene oxide abundances during a cooling-down phase prior to star formation and during the subsequent warm-up phase. We can therefore predict at what temperatures ethylene oxide forms on grain surfaces and at what temperature it starts to desorb into the gas phase. The model reproduces the observed gaseous abundances of ethylene oxid...

  19. Híbridos de poli(oxido de etileno-b-amida-6 e ZrO2 sol-gel: preparação, caracterização e aplicação em processos de separação por membranas Hybrids of poly(ethylene oxide-b-amide-6 and ZrO2 sol-gel: preparation, characterization and application in membrane separation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita A. Zoppi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Híbridos constituídos de poli(óxido de etileno-b-amida-6, PEBAX, e óxido de zircônio foram preparados a partir da hidrólise e condensação do tetraisopropóxido de zircônio em solução contendo o polímero orgânico dissolvido. Estes foram caracterizados por termogravimetria, calorimetria diferencial de varredura, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho e microscopia eletrônica. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a incorporação da fase inorgânica parece promover a degradação do polímero orgânico. Membranas compostas constituídas de um suporte poroso de poli(fluoreto de vinilideno, PVDF, e uma camada filtrante de PEBAX/ZrO2 foram preparadas e caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica. Foram realizados ensaios de permeação de água e de soluções aquosas contendo poli(etileno glicol de diferentes massas molares. Para determinar a rejeição de fosfato, foram realizados ensaios de permeação de uma solução aquosa de KH2PO4. Independente da composição da camada filtrante, foram obtidos valores de rejeição de fosfato da ordem de 80%.Hybrid films based on poly(ethylene oxide-b-amide-6, PEBAX, and zirconium oxide were prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of zirconium tetraisopropoxide in a 3wt% PEBAX/n-butanol solution. Films were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The results showed that the incorporation of the inorganic phase promoted the organic polymer degradation. Composite membranes constituted by a porous support of poly(vinylidene fluoride, PVDF, covered with a PEBAX/ZrO2 filter layer were prepared and characterized by electron microscopy. Tests including the permeation of water and aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol with different molecular weight were performed. Phosphate retention was also determined by permeation tests of a KH2PO4 aqueous solution. Regardless of the filter layer composition, phosphate

  20. Temperature Distribution in Ethylene Pyrolyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝兴英; 高金森; 徐春明

    2003-01-01

    Abstract A good understanding of the detailed temperature distribution in the furnace plays an important role in the implementation of operation optimization and design improvement of ethylene pyrolyzer. Numerical simulation of the turbulent flow, combustion and heat transfer was carried out to investigate the temperature distribution in industrial furnace. Inhomogeneities of the flue-gas temperature distribution were observed in X, Y, and Z direction of the furnace from the simulated results. Along the height of the furnace, the average flue-gas temperature increased initially and decreased afterward, and reached its peak at the height of 5m. The reactor tube skin temperature varied not only along the height of the furnace, but also around the circumference of the tube. The heat flux profiles from the furnace towards the reactor tubes followed the shape of the average flue-gas temperature profile. The heat flux of the inlet tubes was constantly higher than that of the outlet tubes at the same height in the furnace.

  1. Ethylene Controls Autophosphorylation of the Histidine Kinase Domain in Ethylene Receptor ETR1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Voet-van-Vormizeele; Georg Groth

    2008-01-01

    Perception of the phytohormone ethylene is accomplished by a small family of integral membrane receptors.In Arabidopsis,five ethylene receptor proteins are known,including ethylene resistant 1 (ETR1).The hydrophobic aminoterminal domain of these receptors contains the ethylene-binding site while the carboxyl-terminal part consists of a histidine kinase domain and a response regulator domain,which are well known elements found in bacterial two-component signaling.The soluble membrane-extrinsic carboxyl-terminal part of the receptor,which is likely to play an important role in signal transduction,showed intrinsic kinase activity when expressed and purified on its own.However,a correlation between signal input and autokinase activity was not established in these studies,as receptors were missing the transmembrane amino-terminal sensor domain.Thus,it is still unclear whether autophosphorylation occurs in response to perception of the ethylene signal.Here,we report on autophosphorylation studies of purified full-length ETR1.Autokinase activity of the purified receptor is controlled by ethylene or by ethylene agonists like the π-acceptor compound cyanide.In fact,both signal molecules were able to completely turn off the intrinsic kinase activity.Furthermore,the observed inhibition of autophosphorylation in ETR1 by both molecules could be prevented when the ethylene antagonist 1-methyl-cyclopropene (MCP) was applied.

  2. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  3. Postharvest response of oranges of ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharoni, Y.; Lattar, F.S.; Monselise, S.P.

    1969-01-01

    Since the effect of ethylene on the respiration rate of young unripe oranges has not yet been described, experiments were carried out to study the respiratory response of such fruits to ethylene. Oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) of the Washington navel, Shamouti and Valencia varieties, growing on a sandy loam near Rehovot, Israel, were picked in June, July, September, December and January. Immediately after picking, they were weighed, placed in glass jars, and stored at 20/sup 0/. Each experiment comprised 12 jars, 4 for each variety. A constant stream (200 ml/min) of air containing 20 ppm of ethylene was run through the jars. The respiration rate was measured by the amount of CO/sub 2/ evolved by the fruits, and based on a fresh weight unit. The results show that in all 3 varieties, ethylene caused an immediate rise in respiration rate, at all stages of development tested, regardless of whether it was applied from the beginning of the test or after a certain period of storage in air. The pattern of response to ethylene of young unripe oranges (picked in June, July, and September) was therefore similar to that of ripe ones (picked in December and January).

  4. Characteristics of transgenic tomatoes antisensed for the ethylene receptor genes LeERT1 and LeERT2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-feng; YING Tie-jin; ZHANG Ying; BAO Bi-li; HUANG Xiao-dan

    2006-01-01

    Two stable transformed lines containing antisense LeERT1 or LeERT2 sequences and their hybridized line were investigated to determine the effect of LeERT1 and LeERT2 specificity in the ethylene receptor family in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) on ethylene signaling. The transgenic line alel containing antisense LeERT1 displayed shorter length of seedling grown in the dark and adult plant in the light, severe epinastic petiole, and accelerated abscission of petiole explant and senescence of flower explant, compared with its wild type B1. The transgenic line ale2 containing antisense LeERT2 also exhibited shorter hypocotyls and slightly accelerated abscission. The phenotypes of cross line dale of LeERT1 and LeERT2 were close to alel in many aspects. These results suggested that LeERT1 probably plays a relatively important role in ethylene signaling of tomato growth and development.

  5. Structural characterization of aqueous solution poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) monomethyl methacrylate)-grafted silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Arnaldo T; Ponnapati, Ramakrishna; Chatterjee, Tirtha; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2016-01-01

    The structure of aqueous dispersions of poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) monomethyl methacrylate)-grafted silica nanoparticles was characterized using contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering studies. Modeling the low hybrid concentration dispersion scattering data using a fuzzy sphere and a polydisperse core-shell model, demonstrated that the polymer chains are highly swollen in the dispersions as compared to the dimensions of the free polymer chains in dilute solution. At higher hybrid concentrations, the dispersions were well described using a Percus-Yevick approximation to describe the structure factor. These structural characterization tools are excellent starting points for effective molecular level descriptors of dewetting and macroscopic phase transitions for polymer tethered hybrid nanoparticle systems.

  6. THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin H. Pangaribuan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. ‘Revolution’ during storage at 5C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were plus 10 g and minus ethylene absorbent (KMnO4; Purafil; 5C for 12 d. In the experiment of ethylene concentrations, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were exogenous ethylene concentrations of 0 (control, 0.1, 1 or 10 L L–1 respectively (5C for 6 h. In both experiments, the treatments were replicated 5 fold. Results showed that ethylene absorbent resulted in reduced ethylene accumulation, and CO2 accumulation in enclosed containers, and firmer slices. Ethylene applied 2 days after slicing stimulated the rate of ethylene production, CO2 production, and produced softer slices during storage. Changes in soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity development were independent of ethylene effects. These experiments showed that ethylene produced by slicing or introduced exogenously had an undesirable effect of accelerating softening of tomato slices.

  7. APC implementation in Chandra Asri - ethylene plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiq, Mochamad; Mustofa, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the modern process plants are continuously improved for maximizing production, Optimization of the energy and raw material and reducing the risk. Due to many disturbances appearance between the process units, hence, the failure of one unit might have a bad effect on the overall productivity. Ethylene Plant have significant opportunities for using Advanced Process Control (APC) technologies to improve operation stability, push closer to quality or equipment limit, and improve the capability of process units to handle disturbances. APC implementation had considered a best answer for solving multivariable control problem. PT. Chandra Asri Petrochemical, Tbk (CAP) operates a large naphtha cracker complex at Cilegon, Indonesia. To optimize the plant operation and to enhance the benefit, Chandra Asri has been decided to implement Advance Process Control (APC) for ethylene plant. The APC implementation technology scopes at CAP are as follows: 1. Hot Section : Furnaces, Quench Tower 2. Cold Section : Demethanizer, Deethanizer, Acetylene Converter, Ethylene Fractionator, Depropanizer, Propylene Fractionator, Debutanizer

  8. Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettore Guerriero; Antonina Lutri; Rosanna Mabilia; Maria Concetta Tomasi Sciano; Mauro Rotatori [Istituto sull' Inquinamento Atmosferico, Monterotondo Scalo (Italy). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

    2008-11-15

    A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, and in ESP dust is 0.53 {mu}g/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. The proton dynamics of ethylene glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, A G; Sobolev, O V

    2002-01-01

    The results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments on ethylene glycol at T=300 K, T=348 K and T=393 K by using the 'direct-geometry' double time-of-flight neutron-scattering spectrometer DIN-2PI (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna) are presented. The quasi-elastic and inelastic components of the neutron scattering have been considered. The diffusion characteristics and generalized frequency distributions for protons of ethylene glycol molecules were obtained from the neutron-scattering spectra. (orig.)

  11. Sinopec Group: Expanding Its Ethylene Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since its establishment in 1998, Sinopec Group, China's largest integrated energy chemical enterprise, has been sticking to the principle of'developing the petrochemical industry and building core businesses' and actively promoted the development of its ethylene business under the favorable conditions of opportunities and industrial status. In particular in recent years, the group helped China to be the second largest ethylene producing country in the world by the way of importing-learning and absorbing-integrating and innovation through giving more attention to technology innovation, developing its comprehensive advantages, promoting integration between refining and chemical processes.

  12. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Manzano

    Full Text Available Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  13. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  14. THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES

    OpenAIRE

    Darwin H. Pangaribuan1)

    2009-01-01

    Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. ‘Revolution’ during storage at 5C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treat...

  15. Involvement of wound and climacteric ethylene in ripening avocado discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, D A; Laties, G G

    1991-10-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) discs (3 mm thick) ripened in approximately 72 hours when maintained in a flow of moist air and resembled ripe fruit in texture and taste. Ethylene evolution by discs of early and midseason fruit was characterized by two distinct components, viz. wound ethylene, peaking at approximately 18 hours, and climacteric ethylene, rising to a peak at approximately 72 hours. A commensurate respiratory stimulation accompanied each ethylene peak. Aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG) given consecutively, at once and at 24 hours following disc preparation, prevented wound and climacteric respiration peaks, virtually all ethylene production, and ripening. When AVG was administered for the first 24 hours only, respiratory stimulation and softening (ripening) were retarded by at least a day. When AVG was added solely after the first 24 hours, ripening proceeded as in untreated discs, although climacteric ethylene and respiration were diminished. Propylene given together with AVG led to ripening under all circumstances. 2,5-Norbornadiene given continuously stimulated wound ethylene production, and it inhibited climacteric ethylene evolution, the augmentation of ethylene-forming enzyme activity normally associated with climacteric ethylene, and ripening. 2,5-Norbornadiene given at 24 hours fully inhibited ripening. When intact fruit were pulsed with ethylene for 24 hours before discs were prepared therefrom, the respiration rate, ethylene-forming enzyme activity buildup, and rate of ethylene production were all subsequently enhanced. The evidence suggests that ethylene is involved in all phases of disc ripening. In this view, wound ethylene in discs accelerates events that normally take place over an extended period throughout the lag phase in intact fruit, and climacteric ethylene serves the same ripening function in discs and intact fruit alike.

  16. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994 (Quarter No. 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1994-03-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{lg_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}0), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{lg_bullet}2H{sub 2}0), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides; silica; and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. Currently, the only market for scrubber sludge is for manufacture of gypsum products, such as wallboard and plaster, and for cement. However, the quality of the raw sludge is often not high enough or consistent enough to satisfy manufacturers, and so the material is difficult to sell. This project is developing a process that can produce a high-quality calcium sulfite or gypsum product while keeping process costs low enough that the material produced will be competitive with that from other, more conventional sources. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified gypsum or calcium sulfite product. The separated limestone will be a useful by-product, as it can be recycled to the scrubber, thus boosting the limestone utilization and improving process efficiency. Calcium sulfite will then be oxidized to gypsum, or separated as a salable product in its own right from sludges where it is present in sufficient quantity. The main product of the process will be either gypsum or calcium sulfite, depending on the characteristics of the sludge being processed. These products will be sufficiently pure to be easily marketed, rather that being landfilled.

  17. 40 CFR 180.151 - Ethylene oxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide; tolerances for... § 180.151 Ethylene oxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the antimicrobial agent and insecticide ethylene oxide, when used as a postharvest fumigant in...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone ETO...

  19. Growth Control by Ethylene: Adjusting Phenotypes to the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.; Sasidharan, R.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Plants phenotypically adjust to environmental challenges, and the gaseous plant hormone ethylene modulates many of these growth adjustments. Ethylene can be involved in environmentally induced growth inhibition as well as growth stimulation. Still, ethylene has long been considered a growth inhibito

  20. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of...

  1. A multiconfigurational hybrid density-functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sharkas, Kamal; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Toulouse, Julien; 10.1063/1.4733672

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multiconfigurational hybrid density-functional theory which rigorously combines a multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculation with a density-functional approximation based on a linear decomposition of the electron-electron interaction. This gives a straightforward extension of the usual hybrid approximations by essentially adding a fraction \\lambda of exact static correlation in addition to the fraction \\lambda of exact exchange. Test calculations on the cycloaddition reactions of ozone with ethylene or acetylene and the dissociation of diatomic molecules with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functionals show that a good value of \\lambda is 0.25, as in the usual hybrid approximations. The results suggest that the proposed multiconfigurational hybrid approximations can improve over usual density-functional calculations for situations with strong static correlation effects.

  2. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  3. POLYMERIZATION OF ETHYLENE METHYL PHOSPHATE IN THE PRESENCE OF SODIUM POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)ATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wen; Ren-xi Zhuo; Lu Wang

    1999-01-01

    Poly(ethylene methyl phosphate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ethylene methyl phosphate) triblock copolymers carrying hydroxyl group at both chain ends were synthesized with sodium poly(ethylene glycol)ate as initiator. The effects of the factors such as solvent, amount of the initiator and reaction time were investigated. The copolymers were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 1H{31p}-NMR, 13C-NMR, 31P{1H}-NMR, and DSC. High molecular weight of the copolymer and high yield of the polymerization were achieved within 3 min at 25℃. The polymerization process was studied by 31P{1H}-NMR and transesterification was found during longer polymerization time.

  4. Polymerization of ethylene oxide using yttrium isopropoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Young K.; Stevels, W.M.; Ankone, Martinus J.K.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Kim, Sung W.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Well defined poly(ethylene oxide)s were prepared using yttrium isopropoxide as an initiator. End group analysis using 1H- and 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed that only polymers with isopropyl ether and hydroxyl end groups were produced. The molecular weight is controlled by the initial amount of

  5. Complete recovery after massive ethylene glycol ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, L; Kraner, J; Wine, H; Savitt, D; Abuelo, J G

    1992-06-01

    We treated a 64-year-old man who recovered completely from a massive antifreeze ingestion with ethylene glycol levels well above those of previously described survivors. Rapid and aggressive treatment of the patient with recognized methods, including hemodialysis, resulted in the favorable outcome.

  6. Occurrence of ethylene in anaerobic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.A.; Restall, S.W.F.

    1971-01-01

    The production of ethylene and other hydrocarbon gases by soils under anaerobic conditions was measured by gas chromatography. Ethylene was the only hydrocarbon gas which occurred in physiologically significant concentrations; more than 20 ppm was found in several soils after 10 days at 20/sup 0/C. These concentrations were considerably higher than those which were known to cause severe reductions in the extension of root axes of some plant species. Experiments with sterilized and unsterilized soil indicated that ethylene was produced by enzyme activity and not by chemical action. The gas was found in soil when the oxygen concentration fell below 2%; total evolution was correlated with organic matter content, and was affected by drying and rewetting and by the growth of plant roots. The rate of production was increased by raising the temperature and by addition of glucose or peptone; high concentrations of nitrate depressed the rate, but sulfate and phosphate had little effect. It is concluded that ethylene may be a significant factor in causing injury to crop plants under waterlogged conditions and also in situations where anaerobic pockets occur within a mainly aerobic soil structure, provided that escape of the gas from the soil is impeded sufficiently to allow inhibitory concentrations to build up in the vicinity of plant roots. 31 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  8. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  9. Transcriptional regulation of the ethylene response factor LeERF2 in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes controls ethylene production in tomato and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijin; Zhang, Haiwen; Quan, Ruidan; Wang, Xue-Chen; Huang, Rongfeng

    2009-05-01

    Fine-tuning of ethylene production plays an important role in developmental processes and in plant responses to stress, but very little is known about the regulation of ethylene response factor (ERF) proteins in ethylene biosynthesis genes and ethylene production. Identifying cis-acting elements and transcription factors that play a role in this process, therefore, is important. Previously, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum [f. sp. Lycopersicon esculentum]) ERF protein, LeERF2, an allele of TERF2, was reported to confer ethylene triple response on plants. This paper reports the transcriptional modulation of LeERF2/TERF2 in ethylene biosynthesis in tomato and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Using overexpressing and antisense LeERF2/TERF2 transgenic tomato, we found that LeERF2/TERF2 is an important regulator in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes and the production of ethylene. Expression analysis revealed that LeERF2/TERF2 is ethylene inducible, and ethylene production stimulated by ethylene was suppressed in antisense LeERF2/TERF2 transgenic tomato, indicating LeERF2/TERF2 to be a positive regulator in the feedback loop of ethylene induction. Further research showed that LeERF2/TERF2 conservatively modulates ethylene biosynthesis in tobacco and that such regulation in tobacco is associated with the elongation of the hypocotyl and insensitivity to abscisic acid and glucose during germination and seedling development. The effects on ethylene synthesis were similar to those of another ERF protein, TERF1, because TERF1 and LeERF2/TERF2 have overlapping roles in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in tobacco. Biochemical analysis showed that LeERF2/TERF2 interacted with GCC box in the promoter of NtACS3 and with dehydration-responsive element in the promoter of LeACO3, resulting in transcriptional activation of the genes for ethylene biosynthesis in tomato and tobacco, which is a novel regulatory function of ERF proteins in plant ethylene

  10. Ethylene Inhibits Cell Proliferation of the Arabidopsis Root Meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Ian H; Aman, Sitwat; Zubo, Yan; Ramzan, Aleena; Wang, Xiaomin; Shakeel, Samina N; Kieber, Joseph J; Schaller, G Eric

    2015-09-01

    The root system of plants plays a critical role in plant growth and survival, with root growth being dependent on both cell proliferation and cell elongation. Multiple phytohormones interact to control root growth, including ethylene, which is primarily known for its role in controlling root cell elongation. We find that ethylene also negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root meristem of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic analysis indicates that the inhibition of cell proliferation involves two pathways operating downstream of the ethylene receptors. The major pathway is the canonical ethylene signal transduction pathway that incorporates CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2, and the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 family of transcription factors. The secondary pathway is a phosphorelay based on genetic analysis of receptor histidine kinase activity and mutants involving the type B response regulators. Analysis of ethylene-dependent gene expression and genetic analysis supports SHORT HYPOCOTYL2, a repressor of auxin signaling, as one mediator of the ethylene response and furthermore, indicates that SHORT HYPOCOTYL2 is a point of convergence for both ethylene and cytokinin in negatively regulating cell proliferation. Additional analysis indicates that ethylene signaling contributes but is not required for cytokinin to inhibit activity of the root meristem. These results identify key elements, along with points of cross talk with cytokinin and auxin, by which ethylene negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root apical meristem. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Recycling municipal incinerator fly- and scrubber-ash into fused slag for the substantial replacement of cement in cement-mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzen-Chin; Rao, Ming-Kang

    2009-06-01

    Fly- and scrubber-ash (weight ratio of approximately 1:3) from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) are a major land-fill disposal problem due to their leaching of heavy metals. We uniformly mixed both types of ash with optimal amounts of waste glass frit, which was then melted into a glassy slag. The glassy slag was then pulverized to a particle size smaller than 38microm for use as a cement substitute (20-40% of total cement) and blended with sand and cement to produce slag-blended cement-mortar (SCM) specimens. The toxicity characteristics of the leaching procedure tests on the pulverized slag samples revealed that the amount of leached heavy metals was far below regulatory thresholds. The compressive strength of the 28-day cured SCM specimens was comparable to that of ordinary Portland cement mortars, while the compressive strength of specimens cured for 60 or 90 days were 3-11% greater. The observed enhanced strength is achieved by Pozzolanic reaction. Preliminary evaluation shows that the combination of MSWI fly- and scrubber-ash with waste glass yields a cost effective and environmentally friendly cement replacement in cement-mortars.

  12. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  13. Structural and mechanical properties of Laponite-PEG hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikinaka, Kazuhiro; Aizawa, Kazuto; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Osada, Yoshihito; Tokita, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Junji; Shigehara, Kiyotaka

    2012-03-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrids were obtained by the sol-gel type organic modification reaction of Laponite sidewalls with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) bearing alkoxysiloxy terminal functionality. By casting an aqueous dispersion of the hybrid, the flexible and transparent hybrid films were obtained. Regardless of the inorganic/organic component ratio, the hybrid film had the ordered structure of Laponite in-plane flat arrays. The mechanical strength of hybrid films was drastically improved by the presence of cross-linking among alkoxysilyl functionalities of PEG terminals and the absence of PEG crystallines. Hybrid films, especially those that consisted of PEG with short chain, showed good mechanical properties that originate from quasi-homogeneous dispersion of components due to anchoring of PEG terminal to Laponite sidewall and interaction of PEG to Laponite surface.

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of poly(ethylene furanoate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Alessandro; Haernvall, Karolina; Pichler, Christian M; Ghazaryan, Gagik; Breinbauer, Rolf; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-10-10

    The urgency of producing new environmentally-friendly polyesters strongly enhanced the development of bio-based poly(ethylene furanoate) (PEF) as an alternative to plastics like poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) for applications that include food packaging, personal and home care containers and thermoforming equipment. In this study, PEF powders of various molecular weights (6, 10 and 40kDa) were synthetized and their susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated for the first time. According to LC/TOF-MS analysis, cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica liberated both 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and oligomers of up to DP4. The enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed PEF with higher molecular weights but was active on all tested substrates. Mild enzymatic hydrolysis of PEF has a potential both for surface functionalization and monomers recycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethylene Oxide Gas Sterilization of Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2017-01-01

     Ethylene oxide gas is an agent in the sterilization of medical devices due to its effectiveness and compatibility with most materials. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as its recommended uses, are explored in this review article. The variables and their relevance on process optimization are described, the types of processing cycles are detailed and emphasis is given to the design and validation of the sterilization process.

  16. Ethylene Separation via Hydrate Formation in W/O Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Pan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid absorption-hydration method was adopted to recover C2H4 from C2H4/CH4 binary gas mixtures and the hydrate formation conditions of C2H4/CH4 mixtures was studied experimentally in diesel in water (w/o emulsions. Span 20 at a concentration of 1.0 wt% in the aqueous phase was added to form water in diesel emulsions before hydrate formation and then hydrate in diesel slurry was separated after hydrate formation. The influences of initial gas-liquid volume ratio (53–142, pressure (3.4–5.4 MPa, temperature (274.15–278.15 K, water cuts (10–30 vol%, and the mole fraction of C2H4 in feed gas (13.19–80.44 mol% upon the C2H4 separation efficiency were systematically investigated. The experimental results show that ethylene can be enriched in hydrate slurry phase with high separation factor (S and recovery ratio (R. Most hydrate formation finished in 20 min, after that, the hydrate formation rate became very slow. The conclusion is useful for determining the suitable operation conditions when adopting an absorption-hydration method to separate C2H4/CH4.

  17. Fragrance material review on ethylene brassylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2011-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethylene brassylate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethylene brassylate is a member of the fragrance structural group macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives. The fragrance ingredient described herein is one of 12 structurally diverse C14, C15, and C16 compounds that include (7) saturated mono-and (2) saturated di-ester lactones and (3) unsaturated lactones. For the latter, the double bond is not adjacent to (in conjugation with) the ester group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to ethylene brassylate and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; skin sensitization; elicitation; phototoxicity; repeated dose; and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2011) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives in fragrances. Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Hanifin, J.H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2011. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of macrocylic lactone and lactide derivatives when used as fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Fragrance material review on ethylene dodecanedioate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2011-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethylene dodecanedioate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethylene dodecanedioate is a member of the fragrance structural group macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives. The fragrance ingredient described herein is one of 12 structurally diverse C14, C15, and C16 compounds that include (7) saturated mono- and (2) saturated di-ester lactones and (3) unsaturated lactones. For the latter, the double bond is not adjacent to (in conjugation with) the ester group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to ethylene dodecanedioate and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; mucous membrane (eye) irritation; skin sensitization; phototoxicity; repeated dose; and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2011) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives in fragrances. Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Hanifin, J.H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2011. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of macrocylic lactone and lactide derivatives when used as fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. ROLE OF ETHYLENE IN RESPONSES OF PLANTS TO NITROGEN AVAILABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iqbal R Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is a plant hormone involved in several physiological processes and regulates the plant development during the whole life. Stressful conditions usually activate ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in plants. The availability of nutrients, shortage or excess, influences plant metabolism and ethylene plays an important role in plant adaptation under suboptimal conditions. Among the plant nutrients, the nitrogen (N is one the most important mineral element required for plant growth and development. The availability of N significantly influences plant metabolism, including ethylene biology. The interaction between ethylene and N affects several physiological process such as leaf gas exchanges, roots architecture, leaf, fruits and flowers development. Low plant N use efficiency leads to N loss and N deprivation, which affect ethylene biosynthesis and tissues sensitivity, inducing cell damage and ultimately lysis. Plants may respond differently to N availability balancing ethylene production through its signalling network. This review discusses the recent advances in the interaction between N availability and ethylene at whole plant and different organ levels, and explores how N availability induces ethylene biology and plant responses. Exogenously applied ethylene seems to cope the stress conditions and improves plant physiological performance. This can be explained considering the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes under different N availability. A greater understanding of the regulation of N by means of ethylene modulation may help to increase N use efficiency and directly influence crop productivity under conditions of limited N availability, leading to positive effects on the environment. Moreover, efforts should be focused on the effect of N deficiency or excess in fruit trees, where ethylene can have detrimental effects especially during postharvest.

  20. Synthesis and MALDI-ToF characterization of dendronized poly(ethylene glycols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany K. Myers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-defined hybrids of linear poly(ethylene glycols (PEGs and dendritic polyesters were prepared via the dendronization of the alcohol end groups of the mono and difunctional linear PEGs. Though useful for rudimentary product characterization, GPC and NMR could not verify the overall structural purity of these linear-dendritic hybrids. On the other hand, the detailed data provided by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry enabled confirmation of the high structural purity of the dendronized PEGs at each step of the dendronization procedure. The well-defined number of functionalities on these dendronized PEGs, renders them particularly useful for research in the biomedical sphere where functionality and purity are of the utmost importance. The MALDI-ToF mass spectrometric approach described herein represents a valuable technique for detailed monitoring of these dendronization reactions, as well as a variety of other polymer end group modifications.

  1. Modeling and Optimization of the Steam Turbine Network of an Ethylene Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zeqiu; ZHAO Liang; DU Wenli; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we developed a hybrid model for the steam turbines of a utility system,which combines an improved neural network model with the thermodynamic model.Then,a nonlinear programming (NLP) model of the steam turbine network is formulated by utilizing the developed steam turbine models to minimize the total steam cost for the whole steam turbine network.Finally,this model is applied to optimize the steam turbine network of an ethylene plant.The obtained results demonstrate that this hybrid model can accurately estimate and evaluate the performance of steam turbines,and the significant cost savings can be made by optimizing the steam turbine network operation at no capital cost.

  2. Simultaneous treatment of NO and SO{sub 2} with aqueous NaClO{sub 2} solution in a wet scrubber combined with a plasma electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun-Woo [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Regional Innovation Center for Environmental Technology of Thermal Plasma (RIC-ETTP), INHA University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sooseok, E-mail: sooseok@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong-Wha, E-mail: dwpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Regional Innovation Center for Environmental Technology of Thermal Plasma (RIC-ETTP), INHA University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • This study was conducted to investigate simultaneous removal of NO and SO{sub 2}. • Proposed process consists of wet chemical reactor and non-thermal plasma reactor. • In the wet chemical reactor, NO and SO{sub 2} were absorbed and oxidized by NaClO{sub 2}. • In the non-thermal plasma reactor, aerosol particles were collected on anode surface. • NO and SO{sub 2} were removed more efficiently by proposed process than other methods. - Abstract: NO and SO{sub 2} gases that are generally produced in thermal power plants and incinerators were simultaneously removed by using a wet scrubber combined with a plasma electrostatic precipitator. The wet scrubber was used for the absorption and oxidation of NO and SO{sub 2}, and non-thermal plasma was employed for the electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles. NO and SO{sub 2} gases were absorbed and oxidized by aerosol particles of NaClO{sub 2} solution in the wet scrubber. NO and SO{sub 2} reacted with the generated NaClO{sub 2} aerosol particles, NO{sub 2} gas, and aqueous ions such as NO{sub 2}{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, HSO{sub 3}{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. The aerosol particles were negatively charged and collected on the surface of grounded anode in the plasma electrostatic precipitator. The NO and SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies of the proposed system were 94.4% and 100% for gas concentrations of 500 mg/m{sup 3} and a total gas flow rate of 60 Nm{sup 3}/h, when the molar flow rate of NaClO{sub 2} and the gas–liquid contact time were 50 mmol/min and 1.25 s, respectively. The total amount and number of aerosol particles in the exhaust gas were reduced to 7.553 μg/m{sup 3} and 210 /cm{sup 3} at the maximum plasma input power of 68.8 W, which are similar to the values for clean air.

  3. WFGD Sieve Tray Spray Scrubber%湿法烟气脱硫筛板式喷淋塔阻力特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠挺; 钟毅; 高翔; 陈湘文; 骆仲泱; 倪明江; 岑可法

    2009-01-01

    Experimental study on pressure drop characteristics in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) sieve tray spray scrubber was carried out by taking water and air as the medium, during which factors influencing the pressure drop characteristics were discussed, such as the diameter and percentage of the openings, the thickness and location of the tray and the liquid spray rate etc. Results show that the diameter ratio of the opening to the scrubber in the WFGD sieve tray spray scrubber system should be big enough so that it can satisfy the high-speed flue gas requirements. Under low flue gas velocity conditions, the smaller the openings' diameter, the higher the pressure drop will be, and under high flue gas velocity conditions, the variation is just the opposite. Thickness of the tray has little influence on the pressure drop, and the pressure drop can be effectively reduced by raising the percentage of openings, lifting up the location of the tray and lowering the spray rates.%采用水-空气作为介质对湿法烟气脱硫(WFGD)筛板式喷淋塔阻力特性进行了试验研究,分析了筛板孔径、开孔率、厚度、安装位置以及液相喷淋量等因素对筛板喷淋塔内阻力特性的影响.结果表明:在WFGD系统筛板式喷淋塔中必须保证足够大的孔径与塔径比,以适合高速烟气条件;在烟气流速较低条件下,筛板孔径越小,压降越大,而烟气流速较高时则相反;筛板厚度对于压降影响较小;提高开孔率和筛板安装高度以及减少喷淋量均能降低塔内阻力.

  4. Nitric oxide counters ethylene effects on ripening fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Girigowda; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Lokesh, Veeresh; Mur, Luis A J; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2012-04-01

    Ethylene plays a key role in promoting fruit ripening, so altering its biosynthesis/signaling could be an important means to delay this process. Nitric oxide (NO)-generated signals are now being shown to regulate ethylene pathways. NO signals have been shown to transcriptionally repress the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis enzymes and post-translationally modify methionine adenosyl transferase (MAT) activity through S-nitrosylation to reduce the availably of methyl groups required to produce ethylene. Additionally, NO cross-talks with plant hormones and other signal molecules and act to orchestrate the suppression of ethylene effects by modulating enzymes/proteins that are generally triggered by ethylene signaling at post-climacteric stage. Thus, medication of endogenous NO production is suggested as a strategy to postpone the climacteric stage of many tropical fruits.

  5. Experimental Study of Ethylene Combustion in a Scramjet Combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yin-li; SONG Wen-yan; LE Jia-ling

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the ignition characteristics of gaseous ethylene hydrocarbon fuel is investigated in the supersonic clean airstreams experimental facility with a resistance heater. The generic cavity flame holder is used to create recirculation and promote the fuel/air mixing at the lower wall of the combustor. Three different injection concepts are considered in this research: (1) ethylene injection upstream of the cavity; (2) ethylene and hydrogen injection upstream of the cavity simultaneously; (3) ethylene injection preceded by pilot hydrogen injection. The pilot injection showed to be a supportive tool for holding the flame of the main normal ethylene fuel injection. Therefore, using pilot hydrogen injection and cavity configuration necessitates optimizing the combustor length to ensure the complete combustion and the full liberation of the chemical energy stored in the fuel before exiting the combustor. The present study proved the possibility of igniting the ethylene and maintaining its flame in the supersonic airstreams.

  6. Molecular interactions between ethylene and gibberellic acid pathways in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rzewuski, Guillaume

    2004-01-01

    Flooding avoidance in deepwater rice is characterised by rapid growth of the youngest internode which allows the plant to keep part of its foliage above the surface of raising flood waters. The primary signal triggering internodal elongation is the phytohormone ethylene which accumulates as a result of increased ethylene biosynthesis and entrapment. Through unknown signalling components, ethylene increases the level of bioactive gibberellins (GA) and responsiveness of the tissue to GA. GA is ...

  7. Sorption interactions between ethylene glycol and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butyrskaya, E. V.; Belyakova, N. V.; Nechaeva, L. S.; Shaposhnik, V. A.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2017-03-01

    The adsorption of ethylene glycol by carbon nanoparticles is studied. Carbon nanoparticles with the highest affinity to ethylene glycol are identified, and an adsorption isotherm is constructed. Based on quantum chemical calculations of the energies of interaction between the sorbate and nanotubes with (4,4) and (6,6) chirality, a change in mechanism is revealed upon the monomolecular adsorption of ethylene glycol on carbon nanotubes, and the adsorption isotherm is thus interpreted.

  8. Ethylene production with engineered Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veetil, Vinod Puthan; Angermayr, S Andreas; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2017-02-23

    Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of cyanobacteria offer a promising sustainable alternative approach for fossil-based ethylene production, by using sunlight via oxygenic photosynthesis, to convert carbon dioxide directly into ethylene. Towards this, both well-studied cyanobacteria, i.e., Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, have been engineered to produce ethylene by introducing the ethylene-forming enzyme (Efe) from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2 (the Kudzu strain), which catalyzes the conversion of the ubiquitous tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate into ethylene. This study focuses on Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and shows stable ethylene production through the integration of a codon-optimized version of the efe gene under control of the Ptrc promoter and the core Shine-Dalgarno sequence (5'-AGGAGG-3') as the ribosome-binding site (RBS), at the slr0168 neutral site. We have increased ethylene production twofold by RBS screening and further investigated improving ethylene production from a single gene copy of efe, using multiple tandem promoters and by putting our best construct on an RSF1010-based broad-host-self-replicating plasmid, which has a higher copy number than the genome. Moreover, to raise the intracellular amounts of the key Efe substrate, 2-oxoglutarate, from which ethylene is formed, we constructed a glycogen-synthesis knockout mutant (ΔglgC) and introduced the ethylene biosynthetic pathway in it. Under nitrogen limiting conditions, the glycogen knockout strain has increased intracellular 2-oxoglutarate levels; however, surprisingly, ethylene production was lower in this strain than in the wild-type background. Making use of different RBS sequences, production of ethylene ranging over a 20-fold difference has been achieved. However, a further increase of production through multiple tandem promoters and a broad-host plasmid was not achieved speculating that the transcription strength and

  9. Defining sale ethylene for long term storage of tulip bulbs

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, de, H.P.J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; Dijkstra, M.H.G.E.; Gude, H.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum ethylene level that can be permitted in storage rooms, without causing damage to tulip bulbs, is not exactly known. Therefore, a zero-tolerance for the presence of ethylene during storage of tulip bulbs is common practice. This results in excessive ventilation and coherent large energy costs. It is questioned whether this is always necessary. In different phases of the storage period the critical levels of ethylene were determined. Bulbs of eight economically important cultivars (...

  10. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  11. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  12. Genetic Basis of Ethylene Perception and Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziqiang Zhu; Hongwei Guo

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene is a simple gaseous hormone in plants. It plays important roles in plant development and stress tolerance. In the presence of ethylene treatment, all ethylene receptors are in an activated form, which can physically interact with CTR1 and consequently recruit CTR1 protein to endoplasmic reticulum membrane to activate it. Activated CTR1 suppresses the downstream signal transduction by an unknown mechanism. Upon binding to its receptors, ethylene will inactivate the receptor/CTR1 module and in turn alleviate their inhibitory effect on two positive regulators acting downstream of CTRI: EIN2 and EIN3. Genetic study reveals that EIN2 is an essential component in the ethylene signaling pathway but its biochemical function remains a mystery. EIN3 is a plant-specific transcription factor and its protein abundance in the nucleus is rapidly induced upon ethylene treatment. In the absence of ethylene signal, EIN3 protein is degraded by an SCF complex containing one of the two F-box proteins EBF1/EBF2 in a 26S proteasome-dependent manner. EIN3 can bind to the promoter sequences of a number of downstream components, such as ERFs, which in turn bind to a GCC box,a cis-element found in many ethylene-regulated defense genes. Ethylene has been shown to also regulate many other hormones' signaling pathways including auxin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, implying the existence of complicated signaling networks in the growth, development and defense responses of various plants.

  13. Chemical Genetic Dissection of Brassinosteroid-Ethylene Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joshua M.Gendron; Asif Haque; Nathan Gendron; Timothy Chang; Tadao Asami; Zhi-Yong Wang

    2008-01-01

    We undertook a chemical genetics screen to identify chemical inhibitors of brassinosteroid (BR) action.From a chemical library of 10,000 small molecules,one compound was found to inhibit hypocotyl length and activate the expression of a BR-repressed reporter gene (CPD::GUS) in Arabidopsis,and it was named brassinopride (BRP).These effects of BRP could be reversed by co-treatment with brassinolide,suggesting that BRP either directly or indirectly inhibits BR biosynthesis.Interestingly,the compound causes exaggerated apical hooks,similar to that caused by ethylene treatment.The BRP-induced apical hook phenotype can be blocked by a chemical inhibitor of ethylene perception or an ethylene-insensitive mutant,suggesting that,in addition to inhibiting BR,BRP activates ethylene response.Analysis of BRP analogs provided clues about structural features important for its effects on two separate targets in the BR and ethylene pathways.Analyses of the responses of various BR and ethylene mutants to BRP,ethylene,and BR treatments revealed modes of cross-talk between ethylene and BR in dark-grown seedlings.Our results suggest that active downstream BR signaling,but not BR synthesis or a BR gradient,is required for ethylene-induced apical hook formation.The BRP-related compounds can be useful tools for manipulating plant growth and studying hormone interactions.

  14. Ethylene regulates the susceptible response to pathogen infection in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, S T; Stall, R E; Klee, H J

    1998-03-01

    Ethylene evolution occurs concomitantly with the progression of disease symptoms in response to many virulent pathogen infections in plants. A tomato mutant impaired in ethylene perception-Never ripe-exhibited a significant reduction in disease symptoms in comparison to the wild type after inoculations of both genotypes with virulent bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato) and fungal (Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici) pathogens. Bacterial spot disease symptoms were also reduced in tomato genotypes impaired in ethylene synthesis (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase) and perception (14893), thereby corroborating a reducing effect for ethylene insensitivity on foliar disease development. The reduction in foliar disease symptoms in Never ripe plants was a specific effect of ethylene insensitivity and was not due to reductions in bacterial populations or decreased ethylene synthesis. PR-1B1 mRNA accumulation in response to X. c. vesicatoria infection was not affected by ethylene insensitivity, indicating that ethylene is not required for defense gene induction. Our findings suggest that broad tolerance of diverse vegetative diseases may be achieved via engineering of ethylene insensitivity in tomato.

  15. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. I - A role for ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1981-01-01

    Two inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, Co(2+) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), and two inhibitors of ethylene action, Ag(+) and CO2, are shown to delay the gravitropic response of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) stems. Gentle shaking on a mechanical shaker does not inhibit the gravitropic response, but vigorous hand shaking for 120 seconds delays the response somewhat. AVG and Ag(+) further delay the response of mechanically stimulated plants. AVG retards the storage of bending energy but not of stimulus. In gravitropism, graviperception may first stimulate ethylene evolution, which may then influence bending directly, or responses involving ethylene could be more indirect.

  16. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  17. The involvement of ethylene in regulation of Arabidopsis gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhu, Lin

    Plant gravitropism is a directional response to gravity stimulus. This response involves a com-plex signaling network. Ethylene, a major plant hormone, has been found to modulate grav-itropism. The biosynthesis of ethylene is induced by the gravi-stimulus and the requirement for ethylene during gravitropism is tissue-dependent. While ethylene plays a modulating role in inflorescence stems, the light-grown hypocotyls of Arabidopsis requires ethylene to achieve a maximum gravicurvature. Because both inhibitory and stimulatory effects of ethylene on gravitropism have been overwhelmingly documented, there is a need to postulate a new theory to consolidate the apparently contradictory results. A dual-and-opposing effects (DOE) theory is therefore hypothesized to address how ethylene is involved in regulation of Arabidopsis grav-itropism, in which it is suggested that both stimulatory and inhibitory effects act on the same organ of a plant and co-exist at the same time in a mutually opposing manner. The final out-come of gravitropic response is determined by the dynamic display between the two opposing effects. A prolonged pretreatment of ethylene promotes the gravitropism in both inflorescence and light-grown hypocotyls, while a short ethylene pretreatment inhibits gravitropism. Gener-ally speaking, the inhibitory effect of ethylene is dominant over the expression of the stimula-tory effect in light-grown hypocotyls, whereas the stimulatory effect is dominant in inflorescence stem. Each effect is also positively correlated with concentrations of ethylene and in a time-dependent manner. The stimulatory effect occurs slowly but continues to react after the removal of ethylene, whereas the inhibitory effect takes place abruptly and diminishes shortly after its removal. Forward genetic screening based on the DOE phenotype of ethylene-treated Arabidop-sis has revealed a novel component in gravity signaling pathway: EGY1 (ethylene-dependent gravitropism-deficient and yellow

  18. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Peng, Huan-huan; Xiao, Yun-yi; Li, Xue-ping; Chen, Wei-xin; He, Quan-guang; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components.

  19. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  20. [Decontamination of some spices by ethylene oxide. Development of 2-chloroethanol and ethylene glycol during the preservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigneau, M; Muraz, B

    1993-01-01

    After the disinfection by ethylene oxide and storage by ethylene oxide in definite conditions of 16 spices (parsley, chervil, tarragone, chive, thyme, rosemary, coriander, nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, allspices, clove, pepper), the authors observed the fast loss of residual ethylene oxide and ethyleneglycol. On the contrary, the persistence of 2-chloroethanol was followed up for 6 months. They turn their attention to the toxicity of this compound to ensure the protection of customers.

  1. The effect of nitrate on ethylene biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hun, E-mail: lee323@alumni.purdue.edu [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, 225 South University St., West Lafayette, 47907-2093 IN (United States); Li, Congna; Heber, Albert J. [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, 225 South University St., West Lafayette, 47907-2093 IN (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethylene biofiltration strongly depends on nitrate concentrations and media types. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine reduced N supply can increase ethylene removals in biofilters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perlite medium is better for ethylene biofiltration than activated carbon medium. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of filter media types and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations in nutrient solutions on C{sub 2}H{sub 4} biofiltration. A new nutrient solution with zero NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration was supplied to two perlite-bed biotrickling filters, two perlite-bed biofilters, and two GAC (Granular Activated Carbon)-bed biofilters, while the other with 2 g L{sup -1} of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was used for the other two GAC biofilters. All reactors underwent a total test duration of over 175 days with an EBRT (Empty Bed Residence Time) of 30 s, inlet gas flow rate of 7 L min{sup -1}, and inlet C{sub 2}H{sub 4} concentrations of 20-30 mg m{sup -3}. NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration and media type significantly affected the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} removal efficiencies in all types of biofiltration. The perlite media with no NO{sub 3}{sup -} achieved C{sub 2}H{sub 4} removal efficiencies 10-50% higher than the others. A NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration as high as 2 g L{sup -1} in the original nutrient solution may act as an inhibitor that suppresses the growth or activity of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} degraders. In addition, the perlite media resulted in higher C{sub 2}H{sub 4} removal efficiencies than GAC media, because the hydrophilic surface of the perlite leads to a higher moisture content and thus to favorable microbial growth.

  2. ADVANCED CONTROL FOR A ETHYLENE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru POPESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of control solutions for petrochemical processes, namely the control and optimization of a pyrolysis reactor, the key-installation in the petrochemical industry. We present the technological characteristics of this petrochemical process and some aspects about the proposed control system solution for the ethylene plant. Finally, an optimal operating point for the reactor is found, considering that the process has a nonlinear multi-variable structure. The results have been implemented on an assembly of pyrolysis reactors on a petrochemical platform from Romania.

  3. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.

  4. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  5. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  6. Nano-structured Platinum-based Catalysts for the Complete Oxidation of Ethylene Glycol and Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falase, Akinbayowa

    Direct alcohol fuel cells are a viable alternative to the traditional hydrogen PEM fuel cell. Fuel versatility, integration with existing distribution networks, and increased safety when handling these fuels increases their appeal for portable power applications. In order to maximize their utility, the liquid fuel must be fully oxidized to CO2 so as to harvest the full amount of energy. Methanol and ethanol are widely researched as potential fuels to power these devices, but methanol is a toxic substance, and ethanol has a much lower energy density than other liquids such as gasoline or glucose. Oxidation of complex fuels is difficult to realize, due to difficulty in breaking carbon-carbon bonding and poisoning of the catalysts by oxidative byproducts. In order to achieve the highest efficiency, an anode needs to be engineered in such a way as to maximize activity while minimizing poisoning effects of reaction byproducts. We have engineered an anode that uses platinum-based catalysts that is capable of completely oxidizing ethylene glycol and glycerol in neutral and alkaline media with little evidence of CO poisoning. We have constructed a hybrid anode consisting of a nano-structured PtRu electrocatayst with an NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase for improved oxidation of complex molecules. A nano-structured PtRu catalyst was used to oxidize ethylene glycol and glycerol in neutral media. In situ infrared spectroscopy was used to verify complete oxidation via CO2 generation. There was no evidence of poisoning by CO species. A pH study was performed to determine the effect of pH on oxidative current. The peak currents did not trend at 60 mV/pH unit as would be expected from the Nernst equation, suggesting that adsorption of fuel to the surface of the electrode is not an electron-transfer step. We synthesized nano-structured PtRu, PtSn, and PtRuSn catalysts for oxidation of ethylene glycol and glycerol in alkaline media. The PtRu electrocatalyst the highest oxidative

  7. Hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide)-aramide segmented block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araichimani, A.; ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper discusses block copolymers with segments of either poly(ethylene oxide), poly(propylene oxide), or mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide) and monodisperse aramide segments. The length of the polyether segments as well as the concentration of polyethylene oxide was

  8. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as... this section are not applicable to ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers used in food-packaging adhesives... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310...

  10. Price dynamics of crude oil and the regional ethylene markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masih, Mansur [Department of Finance and Economics, Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Algahtani, Ibrahim [Department of Finance and Economics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); De Mello, Lurion [Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    This paper is the first attempt to investigate: (1) is the crude oil (WTI) price significantly related to the regional ethylene prices in the Naphtha intensive ethylene markets of the Far East, North West Europe, and the Mediterranean? (2) What drives the regional ethylene prices? The paper is motivated by the recent and growing debate on the lead-lag relationship between crude oil and ethylene prices. Our findings, based on the long-run structural modelling approach of Pesaran and Shin, and subject to the limitations of the study, tend to suggest: (1) crude oil (WTI) price is cointegrated with the regional ethylene prices (2) our within-sample error-correction model results tend to indicate that although the ethylene prices in North West Europe and the Mediterranean were weakly endogenous, the Far East ethylene price was weakly exogenous both in the short and long term. These results are consistent, during most of the period under review (2000.1-2006.4) with the surge in demand for ethylene throughout the Far East, particularly in China and South Korea. However, during the post-sample forecast period as evidenced in our variance decompositions analysis, the emergence of WTI as a leading player as well, is consistent with the recent surge in WTI price (fuelled mainly, among others, by the strong hedging activities in the WTI futures/options and refining tightness) reflecting the growing importance of input cost in determining the dynamic interactions of input and product prices. (author)

  11. Defining sale ethylene for long term storage of tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de H.P.J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; Dijkstra, M.H.G.E.; Gude, H.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum ethylene level that can be permitted in storage rooms, without causing damage to tulip bulbs, is not exactly known. Therefore, a zero-tolerance for the presence of ethylene during storage of tulip bulbs is common practice. This results in excessive ventilation and coherent large energy

  12. Defining sale ethylene for long term storage of tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de H.P.J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; Dijkstra, M.H.G.E.; Gude, H.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum ethylene level that can be permitted in storage rooms, without causing damage to tulip bulbs, is not exactly known. Therefore, a zero-tolerance for the presence of ethylene during storage of tulip bulbs is common practice. This results in excessive ventilation and coherent large energy c

  13. Abscission of mango fruitlets as influenced by enhanced ethylene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Elisea, R; Davenport, T L

    1986-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on developing fruitlet explants of two mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars to establish the source and dynamics of ethylene production prior to and during fruitlet abscission. Abscission of all fruits in the samples occurred at approximately 86 and 74 hours postharvest in ;Keitt' and ;Tommy Atkins,' respectively. Increased abscission began 26 hours from harvest and was preceded by enhanced ethylene synthesis. Enhanced ethylene production initiated approximately 48 hours prior to abscission and increased to a maximum near the time of fruitlet abscission. The seed produced the highest amount of ethylene on a per gram fresh weight basis. The pericarp, however, was the main source of ethylene on an absolute basis, since it represented more than 85% of total fruitlet weight. Pedicels containing the abscission zone produced no detectable ethylene prior to or at the moment of abscission. Fumigation of ;Tommy Atkins' fruitlets with 1, 15, or 100 microliters per liter ethylene accelerated abscission by 24 to 36 hours in comparison with unfumigated controls. Diffusion of ethylene from distal fruitlet tissues to the abscission zone triggers the events leading to separation of the fruit from the tree.

  14. A non-climacteric fruit gene CaMADS-RIN regulates fruit ripening and ethylene biosynthesis in climacteric fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Dong

    Full Text Available MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4 and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1-3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits.

  15. False hyperlactatemia in life-threatening ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquier, T; Geri, G; Mongardon, N; Bourgogne, E; Pène, F

    2014-04-01

    Ethylene glycol poisoning is rare, but prompt diagnosis is crucial, in order to initiate specific treatments. Herein, we report the case of a patient who was admitted to ICU for coma and extreme metabolic acidosis with unexpected hyperlactatemia on initial ICU blood gas analyzer. Ethylene glycol poisoning was diagnosed, and hyperlactatemia was ruled out on a blood sample sent to the biochemistry department. Interference of blood gas analyzers lactate electrodes with metabolites of ethylene glycol were the source of this apparent hyperlactatemia. Symptoms gradually improved and false hyperlactatemia resolved after renal replacement therapy and fomepizole administration. Time course of ethylene glycol concentration showed similar evolution. After initial confirmation of ethylene glycol presence, this biological interference could thus be used as a surrogate of costly and highly specialised dosages. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding tantalum-catalyzed ethylene trimerization: When things go wrong

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin

    2013-06-07

    Ethylene oligomerization to linear low-molecular-mass α-olefins is an open industrial challenge. Ta-based catalysts are promising systems, but the unclear understanding of their behavior prevents systematic advances in the field. We demonstrate here that a well-defined (î -SiO)3Ta III species is able to promote ethylene oligo-/polymerization without any cocatalyst, confirming that the active species in Ta systems corresponds to a TaIII species. DFT calculations on a series of Ta systems ranging from ethylene trimerization to ethylene polymerization catalysts highlight the key factors controlling their experimental behavior. Comparison of these Ta systems allows one to set general rules for the rational development of new ethylene Ta oligomerization catalysts. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  18. Facile synthesis and photocatalytic activity of bi-phase dispersible Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, HongLing; Zhang, WenXing; Li, XueMei; Fang, Ning; Wang, XianHong; Wu, JunHua

    2015-01-01

    Bi-phase dispersible Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by one-pot non-aqueous nanoemulsion with the use of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO-PPO-PEO) as the surfactant. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) show high crystallinity of the Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles and an average particle size of ~19.4 nm. The ultraviolet-visible light absorbance spectrometry (UV-vis) and photoluminescence spectrophotometry (PL) demonstrate well dispersibility and excellent optical performance of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles both in organic and aqueous solvent. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms Cu(1+) and Cu(2+) in ZnO. The observation using Sudan red (III) as probe molecule reveals that the Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles possess enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability which are promising for potential applications in photocatalysis.

  19. Ethylene and rooting of mung bean cuttings. The role of auxin induced ethylene synthesis and phase-dependent effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Hanecakova, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have re-examined the role of ethylene during rooting of mung bean cuttings. Cuttings were treated for 5 days with a low or a high concentration of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid). During this 5 days period, we also applied STS (silverthiosulfate, an inhibitor of ethylene action) or ACC (1-aminocyclo

  20. Research tools: ethylene preparation. In: Chi-Kuang Wen editor. Ethylene in plants. Springer Netherlands. Springer Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, germination, fruit ripening, senescence, sex determination, abscission, defense, gravitropism, epinasty, and more. For experimental purposes, one needs to treat plant material with ethylene and its inhibitors t...

  1. Ethylene and rooting of mung bean cuttings. The role of auxin induced ethylene synthesis and phase-dependent effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Hanecakova, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have re-examined the role of ethylene during rooting of mung bean cuttings. Cuttings were treated for 5 days with a low or a high concentration of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid). During this 5 days period, we also applied STS (silverthiosulfate, an inhibitor of ethylene action) or ACC (1-aminocyclo

  2. Producing the Ethylene Signal: Regulation and Diversification of Ethylene Biosynthetic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Matthew A; DeLong, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Strictly controlled production of ethylene gas lies upstream of the signaling activities of this crucial regulator throughout the plant life cycle. Although the biosynthetic pathway is enzymatically simple, the regulatory circuits that modulate signal production are fine tuned to allow integration of responses to environmental and intrinsic cues. Recently identified posttranslational mechanisms that control ethylene production converge on one family of biosynthetic enzymes and overlay several independent reversible phosphorylation events and distinct mediators of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. Although the core pathway is conserved throughout seed plants, these posttranslational regulatory mechanisms may represent evolutionarily recent innovations. The evolutionary origins of the pathway and its regulators are not yet clear; outside the seed plants, numerous biochemical and phylogenetic questions remain to be addressed.

  3. Novel gaseous ethylene binding inhibitor prevents ethylene effects in potted flowering plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serek, M.; Reid, M.S. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Horticulture); Sisler, E.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1994-11-01

    A 6-hour fumigation of flowering Begonia xelatior hybrida Fotsch. Najada' and Rosa', B. xtuberhybrida Voss. Non-Stop', Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tropicana', and Rosa hybrida L. Victory Parade' plants with 1-MCP, (formerly designated as SIS-X), a gaseous nonreversible ethylene binding inhibitor, strongly inhibited exogenous ethylene effects such as bud and flower drop, leaf abscission, and accelerated flower senescence. The inhibitory effects of 1-MCP increased linearly with concentration, and at 20 nl-liter[sup [minus]1] this compound gave equal protection to that afforded by spraying the plants with a 0.5 STS mM solution. Chemical names used: 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), silver thiosulfate (STS).

  4. Self-diffusion coefficients of hexamethylphosphoric triamide and ethylene glycol molecules in ethylene glycol solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiyatullin, Z. Sh.; Solonina, I. A.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Sirotkin, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The self-diffusion coefficients of the molecules of hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPT) and ethylene glycol (EG) in ethylene glycol solutions in the concentration range 0-16 mol % HMPT and molecules of pure HMPT in the temperature range 30-60°C are measured by the spin-echo method on protons. Activation energies for the corresponding processes of self-diffusion were calculated. The obtained data are discussed in terms of solvophobic effects in the EG-HMPT system. The self-diffusion coefficient of pure HMPT was 0.344 × 10-5 cm2/s at 33.2°C, and the self-diffusion activation energy was 3.86 kcal/mol.

  5. Hybrid material as contrast agent in magnetic resonance images

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Asunción, Pablo; Cabrera García, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a contrast agent of magnetic resonance based on a hybrid material formed by an organo-metallic core derived from Prussian blue and a silica cover, and optionally, molecules of a poly(ethylene glycol), a fluorescent agent, a radio nucleus and/or a substance that directs to specific receptors, cells or tissues, joined by covalent bonding to the surface of the inorganic cover.

  6. Hybrid material as contrast agent in magnetic resonance images

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Asunción, Pablo; Cabrera García, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a contrast agent of magnetic resonance based on a hybrid material formed by an organo-metallic core derived from Prussian blue and a silica cover, and optionally, molecules of a poly(ethylene glycol), a fluorescent agent, a radio nucleus and/or a substance that directs to specific receptors, cells or tissues, joined by covalent bonding to the surface of the inorganic cover.

  7. Ethylene: Role in Fruit Abscission and Dehiscence Processes 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, John A.; Morgan, Page W.

    1972-01-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  8. Ethylene: role in fruit abscission and dehiscence processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, J A; Morgan, P W

    1972-12-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  9. Radicidation as an alternative for ethylene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1985-01-01

    The application of ethylene oxide to sterilize dry foodstuff additions proved to be a source of danger both for the personnel of the food preservation industry and for the consumers due to the residue of some chemicals and toxic reaction products which can not be removed from the foodstuff. A more advantageous and less harmful alternative for the reduction of the number of germs is offered by using ionizing radiation. Based on a great number of references, the applicability and effectiveness of radicidation for the preservation of spices, dry vegetable powders, sugar, thickening materials, protein and enzyme products were confirmed. Regarding the economic aspects, this method can be compared with the traditional chemical treatment. Commercial licenses have been issued by the health organizations of 12 countries.

  10. CFD Simulation on Ethylene Furnace Reactor Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Different mathematical models for ethylene furnace reactor tubes were reviewed. On the basis of these models a new mathematical simulation approach for reactor tubes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was presented. This approach took the flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and thermal cracking reactions in the reactor tubes into consideration. The coupled reactor model was solved with the SIMPLE algorithm. Some detailed information about the flow field, temperature field and concentration distribution in the reactor tubes was obtained, revealing the basic characteristics of the hydrodynamic phenomena and reaction behavior in the reactor tubes. The CFD approach provides the necessary information for conclusive decisions regarding the production optimization, the design and improvement of reactor tubes, and the new techniques implementation.

  11. Information theory and the ethylene genetic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, José S; Díaz, José

    2011-10-01

    information content in the input message that the cell's genetic machinery is processing during a given time interval. Furthermore, combining Information Theory with the frequency response analysis of dynamical systems we can examine the cell's genetic response to input signals with varying frequencies, amplitude and form, in order to determine if the cell can distinguish between different regimes of information flow from the environment. In the particular case of the ethylene signaling pathway, the amount of information managed by the root cell of Arabidopsis can be correlated with the frequency of the input signal. The ethylene signaling pathway cuts off very low and very high frequencies, allowing a window of frequency response in which the nucleus reads the incoming message as a varying input. Outside of this window the nucleus reads the input message as an approximately non-varying one. This frequency response analysis is also useful to estimate the rate of information transfer during the transport of each new ERF1 molecule into the nucleus. Additionally, application of Information Theory to analysis of the flow of information in the ethylene signaling pathway provides a deeper insight in the form in which the transition between auxin and ethylene hormonal activity occurs during a circadian cycle. An ambitious goal for the future would be to use Information Theory as a theoretical foundation for a suitable model of the information flow that runs at each level and through all levels of biological organization.

  12. Production of ethanol from excess ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Adam S.; Carlsen, Kim B.; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    will focus on the synthetic method, which employs direct hydration of ethylene. A conceptual process design of an ethyl alcohol producing plant is performed in a MSc-level course on Process Design at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at DTU. In the designed process, 190 proof ethyl...... is obtained in tasks 1-2. A preliminary process flowsheet is obtained in task 3 using a modified Douglas hierarchical process synthesis method. The next tasks involves making design decisions and then further refining them in tasks 4-7 related to separation factors, reactor operating conditions, product...... with respect to heat integration and process optimization (tasks 10-11). In the final task-12, the environmental impact of the process design is evaluated together with some of the key sustainability measures. In addition to PRO/II, the following software is used: ICAS (for property prediction, analysis...

  13. Bacterial Modulation of Plant Ethylene Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamalero, Elisa; Glick, Bernard R

    2015-09-01

    A focus on the mechanisms by which ACC deaminase-containing bacteria facilitate plant growth.Bacteria that produce the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, when present either on the surface of plant roots (rhizospheric) or within plant tissues (endophytic), play an active role in modulating ethylene levels in plants. This enzyme activity facilitates plant growth especially in the presence of various environmental stresses. Thus, plant growth-promoting bacteria that express ACC deaminase activity protect plants from growth inhibition by flooding and anoxia, drought, high salt, the presence of fungal and bacterial pathogens, nematodes, and the presence of metals and organic contaminants. Bacteria that express ACC deaminase activity also decrease the rate of flower wilting, promote the rooting of cuttings, and facilitate the nodulation of legumes. Here, the mechanisms behind bacterial ACC deaminase facilitation of plant growth and development are discussed, and numerous examples of the use of bacteria with this activity are summarized.

  14. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1997-11-18

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 31 figs.

  15. Production of ethanol from excess ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Adam S.; Carlsen, Kim B.; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    ) and ECON (cost and economic analysis). This design therefore covers all stages of conceptual design, starting from the consideration of qualitative aspects of the process flowsheet and preliminary calculations to detailed process simulations, equipment sizing, costing and an economic evaluation......Ethyl alcohol is one of the most important and used chemicals. Two common routes exist for the production: synthetic route typically based on petroleum feedstock and a fermentation route. The fermentation route comprises the majority of the produced ethyl alcohol. In this work, however, we...... will focus on the synthetic method, which employs direct hydration of ethylene. A conceptual process design of an ethyl alcohol producing plant is performed in a MSc-level course on Process Design at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at DTU. In the designed process, 190 proof ethyl...

  16. Photothermal degradation of ethylene/vinylacetate copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, R. H.; Chung, S.; Clayton, A.; Di Stefano, S.; Oda, K.; Hong, S. D.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    Photothermal degradation studies were conducted on a 'stabilized' formulation of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) in the temperature range 25-105 C under three different oxygen environments (in open air, with limited access to O2, and in a dark closed stagnant oven). These studies were performed in order to evaluate the utility of EVA as an encapsulation material for photovoltaic modules. Results showed that at low temperature (25 C), slow photooxidation of the polymer occurred via electronic energy transfer involving the UV absorber incorporated in the polymer. However, no changes in the physical properties of the bulk polymer were detected up to 1500 hours of irradiation. At elevated temperatures, leaching and evaporation of the additives occurred, which ultimately resulted in the chemical crosslinking of the copolymer and the formation of volatile photoproducts such as acetic acid.

  17. Information theory and the ethylene genetic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, José S

    2011-01-01

    information content in the input message that the cell's genetic machinery is processing during a given time interval. Furthermore, combining Information Theory with the frequency response analysis of dynamical systems we can examine the cell's genetic response to input signals with varying frequencies, amplitude and form, in order to determine if the cell can distinguish between different regimes of information flow from the environment. In the particular case of the ethylene signaling pathway, the amount of information managed by the root cell of Arabidopsis can be correlated with the frequency of the input signal. The ethylene signaling pathway cuts off very low and very high frequencies, allowing a window of frequency response in which the nucleus reads the incoming message as a varying input. Outside of this window the nucleus reads the input message as an approximately non-varying one. This frequency response analysis is also useful to estimate the rate of information transfer during the transport of each new ERF1 molecule into the nucleus. Additionally, application of Information Theory to analysis of the flow of information in the ethylene signaling pathway provides a deeper insight in the form in which the transition between auxin and ethylene hormonal activity occurs during a circadian cycle. An ambitious goal for the future would be to use Information Theory as a theoretical foundation for a suitable model of the information flow that runs at each level and through all levels of biological organization. PMID:21897127

  18. Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide and risk of lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Sibel; Cocco, Pierluigi; Mannetje, Andrea't; Satta, Giannina; D'Andrea, Ileana; Becker, Nikolaus; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Foretova, Lenka; Staines, Anthony; Kleefeld, Silke; Maynadié, Marc; Nieters, Alexandra; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    Ethylene oxide, a high-volume commodity, is an established human carcinogen, although the relevant epidemiologic evidence is limited. We explored the association between occupational exposure to ethylene oxide and risk of lymphoma in a case-control study, including 2347 lymphoma cases first diagnosed in 1998-2004 and 2463 controls, from 6 European countries. The diagnosis of lymphoma was based on the 2001 World Health Organization Classification of lymphoma. Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide was retrospectively assessed by industrial hygienists and occupational physicians based on detailed self-reported information. We modeled risk of lymphoma with unconditional logistic regression analysis as a function of various exposure measures, adjusting for age, sex, and participating center. Thirty-one cases and 27 controls (1.2% of the total study population) were defined as ever having been exposed to ethylene oxide (odds ratio = 1.3 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7-2.1]). Lymphoma risk showed a 4.3-fold increase associated with medium-high frequency of exposure to ethylene oxide (95% CI = 1.4-13). Among major subtypes, chronic lymphocytic leukemia was consistently associated with ethylene oxide exposure, related in a dose-response manner to probability, frequency, and duration of exposure, as well as to cumulative exposure and (less definitively) with exposure intensity. Our results add to the evidence that ethylene oxide is a human carcinogen.

  19. Ethylene Signaling Influences Light-Regulated Development in Pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, James L; Foo, Eloise M; Hecht, Valérie; Ridge, Stephen; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Reid, James B

    2015-09-01

    Plant responses to light involve a complex network of interactions among multiple plant hormones. In a screen for mutants showing altered photomorphogenesis under red light, we identified a mutant with dramatically enhanced leaf expansion and delayed petal senescence. We show that this mutant exhibits reduced sensitivity to ethylene and carries a nonsense mutation in the single pea (Pisum sativum) ortholog of the ethylene signaling gene ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2). Consistent with this observation, the ein2 mutation rescues the previously described effects of ethylene overproduction in mature phytochrome-deficient plants. In seedlings, ein2 confers a marked increase in leaf expansion under monochromatic red, far-red, or blue light, and interaction with phytochromeA, phytochromeB, and long1 mutants confirms that ein2 enhances both phytochrome- and cryptochrome-dependent responses in a LONG1-dependent manner. In contrast, minimal effects of ein2 on seedling development in darkness or high-irradiance white light show that ethylene is not limiting for development under these conditions. These results indicate that ethylene signaling constrains leaf expansion during deetiolation in pea and provide further evidence that down-regulation of ethylene production may be an important component mechanism in the broader control of photomorphogenic development by phytochrome and cryptochrome.

  20. Ethylene oxide removal by sorption on aluminium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana Lj.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of ethylene oxide sorption and desorption on Al2O3 sorbent were investigated. The investigations of ethylene oxide sorption on Al2O3 show that significant sorption appeared above 125°C. The removal of sorbed ethylene oxide from Al2O3 was achieved by continuous increasing of the temperature up to 450°C in air stream. The analysis of desorbed products show that 90% of adsorbed ethylene oxide is converted to CO2 and the rest consists of the three derivatives of ethylene oxide. The exact composition of desorbed organic products will be determined in further investigation. The desorption temperature profiles point out the presence of two exothermic picks, as was confirmed by detection of CO2 and derivates of ethylene oxide at these temperatures. Investigation of textural characteristics and thermal stability of Al2O3 sorbent show that there are no changes of any characteristics of Al2O3 in sorption/desorption operating temperatures regimes. Only at 700°C the specific surface area of Al2O3 decreases of about 10%. This indicates that the investigated Al2O3 is convenient material for removal of ethylene oxide by sorption.

  1. Localization of the Ethylene-synthesizing System in Apple Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, A K; Lieberman, M

    1977-11-01

    Apple (Malus sp.) slices gradually lost the ability to synthesize ethylene when incubated with a mixture of enzymes that digest cell walls. The released protoplasts did not produce ethylene. The release of protoplasts was faster from climacteric fruit slices than from preclimacteric tissue. In protoplast suspension culture, as new cell wall was deposited (as judged by the intensity of fluorescence of regenerating protoplasts stained with Calcofluor White and the incorporation of labeled myo-inositol into their ethanol-insoluble residue), ethylene synthesis was gradually regained. Restored ethylene synthesis reached a maximum after 80 hours in protoplasts from preclimacteric fruit and in 120 hours in those from climacteric tissue. Addition of methionine (1 mm) to the culture medium was essential for appreciable synthesis of ethylene; and this synthesis was inhibited by the aminoethoxy analogue of rhizobitoxine and by propyl gallate, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis in higher plants. We suggest that the ethylene-synthesizing enzyme system is highly structured in the apple cell and is localized in a cell wall-cell membrane complex.

  2. Potential Use of a Weak Ethylene Receptor Mutant, Sletr1-2, as Breeding Material To Extend Fruit Shelf Life of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarok, Syariful; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Naoya; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-16

    Mutations in the ethylene receptor gene (SlETR1), Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, are effective in reducing ethylene sensitivity and improving fruit shelf life. In this study the effect of Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 mutations was investigated in F1 hybrid lines. These two mutants and control were crossed with four commercial pure-line tomatoes. The Sletr1-1 mutation showed undesirable pleiotropic effects in the F1 hybrid lines. The Sletr1-2 mutation was effective in improving fruit shelf life of F1 hybrid lines for 4-5 days longer. It was also effective in improving fruit firmness without change in fruit size, ethylene production, respiration rate, and total soluble solids or a great reduction in fruit color, lycopene, and β-carotene, although the titratable acidity was increased by Sletr1-2 mutation. These results indicate that the Sletr1-2 mutant allele has the potential to improve fruit shelf life via incorporation in tomato breeding programs.

  3. Shedding light on ethylene metabolism in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aurineide Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene metabolism in higher plants is regulated by a wide array of endogenous and environmental factors. During most physiological processes, ethylene levels are mainly determined by a strict control of the rate-limiting biosynthetic steps responsible for the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC and its subsequent conversion to ethylene. Responsible for these reactions, the key enzymes ACC synthase and ACC oxidase are encoded by multigene families formed by members that can be differentially regulated at the transcription and post-translational levels by specific developmental and environmental signals. Among the wide variety of environmental cues controlling plant ethylene production, light quality, duration and intensity have consistently been demonstrated to influence the metabolism of this plant hormone in diverse plant tissues, organs and species. Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between light signal transduction and ethylene evolution appears to involve a complex network that includes central transcription factors connecting multiple signaling pathways, which can be reciprocally modulated by ethylene itself, other phytohormones, and specific light wavelengths. Accumulating evidence has indicated particular photoreceptors as essential mediators in light-induced signaling cascades affecting ethylene levels. Therefore, this review specifically focuses on discussing the current knowledge of the potential molecular mechanisms implicated in the light-induced responses affecting ethylene metabolism during the regulation of developmental and metabolic plant responses. Besides presenting the state of the art in this research field, some overlooked mechanisms and future directions to elucidate the exact nature of the light-ethylene interplay in higher plants will also be compiled and discussed.

  4. Removal of fly-ash and dust particulate matters from syngas produced by gasification of coal by using a multi-stage dual-flow sieve plate wet scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurella, Swamy; Meikap, Bhim Charan

    2016-08-23

    In this work, fly-ash water scrubbing experiments were conducted in a three-stage lab-scale dual-flow sieve plate scrubber to observe the performance of scrubber in fly-ash removal at different operating conditions by varying the liquid rate, gas rate and inlet fly-ash loading. The percentage of fly-ash removal efficiency increases with increase in inlet fly-ash loading, gas flow rate and liquid flow rate, and height of the scrubber; 98.55% maximum percentage of fly-ash removal efficiency (ηFA) is achieved at 19.36 × 10(-4) Nm(3)/s gas flow rate (QG) and 48.183 × 10(-6) m(3)/s liquid flow rate (QL) at 25 × 10(-3) kg/Nm(3) inlet fly-ash loading (CFA,i). A model has also been developed for the prediction of fly-ash removal efficiency of the column using the experimental results. The predicted values calculated using the correlation matched well with the experimental results. Deviations observed between the experimental and the predicted values were less than 20%.

  5. The molecular basis of ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeste, K.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The simple gas ethylene profoundly influences plants at nearly every stage of growth and development. In the past ten years, the use of a genetic approach, based on the triple response phenotype, has been a powerful tool for investigating the molecular events that underlie these effects. Several fundamental elements of the pathway have been described: a receptor with homology to bacterial two-component histidine kinases (ETR1), elements of a MAP kinase cascade (CTR1) and a putative transcription factor (EIN3). Taken together, these elements can be assembled into a simple, linear model for ethylene signalling that accounts for most of the well-characterized ethylene mediated responses.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomer chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bingbing; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2012-03-01

    A molecular model of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers has been developed for predicting the transport properties of nanoparticle organic-hybrid materials (NOHMs). Ungrafted silica nanoparticles in a medium of poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers were also simulated to clarify the effect of grafting on the dynamics of nanoparticles and chains. The model approximates nanoparticles as solid spheres and uses a united-atom representation for chains, including torsional and bond-bending interactions. The calculated viscosities from Green-Kubo relationships and temperature extrapolation are of the same order of magnitude as experimental data but show a smaller activation energy relative to real NOHMs systems. Grafted systems have higher viscosities, smaller diffusion coefficients, and slower chain dynamics than the ungrafted ones at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, grafted systems exhibit faster dynamics for both nanoparticles and chains relative to ungrafted systems, because of lower aggregation of particles and enhanced correlations between nanoparticles and chains. This agrees with the experimental observation that NOHMs have liquidlike behavior in the absence of a solvent. For both grafted and ungrafted systems at low temperatures, increasing chain length reduces the volume fraction of nanoparticles and accelerates the dynamics. However, at high temperatures, longer chains slow down nanoparticle diffusion. From the Stokes-Einstein relationship, it was determined that the coarse-grained treatment of nanoparticles leads to slip on the nanoparticle surfaces. Grafted systems obey the Stokes-Einstein relationship over the temperature range simulated, but ungrafted systems display deviations from it.

  7. Membrane-based gas separation of ethylene/ethylene oxide mixtures for product enrichment in microreactor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, B; Staudt-Bickel, C; Vuin, A; Wegner, G

    2001-04-17

    For the off-gas product separation in an ethylene oxide microreactor, new concepts need to be developed. Instead of using the technical process of low-temperature distillation, the performance of gas separation through a dense polymeric membrane was investigated. Different noncrosslinked and crosslinked 6FDA-based polyimides and copolyimides (6FDA=4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride) were screened as potential membrane materials. The polymer structure of the membrane material was found to influence the solubility of ethylene oxide and ethylene. The introduction of polar substituents in the polymer backbone increases the solubility selectivity drastically. For permeation experiments in the same pressure range, a novel setup was developed using microstructured membrane supports. With this device, different polymer membranes were tested with respect to the pure gas permeability of ethylene oxide and ethylene as a function of the feed pressure, so that plasticisation effects could be discussed. For different polyimides and copolyimides, ideal ethylene oxide/ethylene selectivities between 3 and 4.5 were found combined with permeabilities between 1.8 and 80.8 barrer.

  8. CO2 permeation through poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide)-nanosilica membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovineh, Shirin Gh.; Asghari, Morteza; Khanbabaei, Ghader

    2014-11-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrids of poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide) (PEBA) and silica utilizing aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as precursor was prepared via sol-gel process and was compared with neat PEBA. The nanodispersed inorganic network produced in the organic matrix was structurally characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) that revealed the existence of different chemical groups corresponding to the silica precursors. The single gas permeability was carried out for neat PEBA and PEBA-nano silica (10 wt.% precursor) membranes. CO2 permeability for the neat polymer membrane was higher than the nano-composite membrane and increased with pressure. Adding 10 wt.% of nanosilica filler into the polymeric matrix caused CO2 permeability to decrease.

  9. Studies of chemical reduction of Fe(III)*EDTA in an SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} aqueous scrubber system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Keener, T.C. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mendelsohn, M.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Livengood, C.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Ferrous*EDTA has been found to be an effective scrubbing agent for nitric oxide gas. A major process problem is oxidation of the iron to the ferric species, leading to a significant decrease in NO{sub x}-removal capability. Argonne National Laboratory discovered a class of organic compounds that, when used with ferrous*EDTA in a sodium carbonate chemistry, could maintain high levels of NO{sub x} removal. However, those antioxidant/reducing agents (A/R) are not effective in a lime-based chemistry. In recent reports, it has been found that ascorbic acid and related compounds are capable of maintaining stable NO{sub x} removals of about 50% (compared with about 15% without the agent) in a lime-based FGD chemistry with Fe(II)*EDTA. It is believed that the improved performance of Fe(II)*EDTA is due to the catalytic action of ascorbate in the Fe(III)*EDTA reduction system, where Fe(III)*EDTA is reduced by ascorbate and oxidized ascorbate is then reduced back to the ascorbate by sulfite/bisulfite anions, which come from the dissolution of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas. In the present work, the kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbate and reduction of oxidized ascorbate by sulfite/bisulfite anions at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ({approximately}55 C) have been determined.

  10. Nutrient removal from horticultural wastewater by benthic filamentous algae Klebsormidium sp., Stigeoclonium spp. and their communities: From laboratory flask to outdoor Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhuo; Danneels, Bram; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Benthic filamentous algae have evident advantages in wastewater treatment over unicellular microalgae, including the ease in harvesting and resistance to predation. To assess the potentials of benthic filamentous algae in treating horticultural wastewater under natural conditions in Belgium, three strains and their mixture with naturally wastewater-borne microalgae were cultivated in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks in laboratory as well as in 1 m(2) scale outdoor Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) with different flow rates. Stigeoclonium competed well with the natural wastewater-borne microalgae and contributed to most of the biomass production both in Erlenmeyer flasks and outdoor ATS at flow rates of 2-6 L min(-1) (water velocity 3-9 cm s(-1)), while Klebsormidium was not suitable for growing in horticultural wastewater under the tested conditions. Flow rate had great effects on biomass production and nitrogen removal, while phosphorus removal was less influenced by flow rate due to other mechanisms than assimilation by algae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of rice ethylene-response mutants and characterization of MHZ7/OsEIN2 in distinct ethylene response and yield trait regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Yang, Chao; Xiong, Qing; Song, Qing-Xin; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Hao-Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2013-11-01

    Ethylene plays essential roles in adaptive growth of rice plants in water-saturating environment; however, ethylene signaling pathway in rice is largely unclear. In this study, we report identification and characterization of ethylene-response mutants based on the specific ethylene-response phenotypes of etiolated rice seedlings, including ethylene-inhibited root growth and ethylene-promoted coleoptile elongation, which is different from the ethylene triple-response phenotype in Arabidopsis. We establish an efficient system for screening and a set of rice mutants have been identified. Genetic analysis reveals that these mutants form eight complementation groups. All the mutants show insensitivity or reduced sensitivity to ethylene in root growth but exhibit differential responses in coleoptile growth. One mutant group mhz7 has insensitivity to ethylene in both root and coleoptile growth. We identified the corresponding gene by a map-based cloning method. MHZ7 encodes a membrane protein homologous to EIN2, a central component of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Upon ethylene treatment, etiolated MHZ7-overexpressing seedlings exhibit enhanced coleoptile elongation, increased mesocotyl growth and extremely twisted short roots, featuring enhanced ethylene-response phenotypes in rice. Grain length was promoted in MHZ7-transgenic plants and 1000-grain weight was reduced in mhz7 mutants. Leaf senescent process was also affected by MHZ7 expression. Manipulation of ethylene signaling may improve adaptive growth and yield-related traits in rice.

  12. Ethylene decomposition at undercoordinated sites on Cu(410).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchuk, Tatyana; Vattuone, Luca; Burkholder, Luke; Tysoe, Wilfred T; Rocca, Mario

    2008-09-24

    We demonstrate the selective, low-temperature chemistry of ethylene on the strongly undercoordinated sites of Cu(410) by investigating its adsorption by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). After dosing ethylene at approximately 110 K, apart from the expected pi-bonded species adsorbed on terraces, di-sigma-bonded ethylene and carbon are formed at the step edges. The latter product results from the complete dehydrogenation of ethylene and blocks sites for further dissociation and/or di-sigma-adsorption. However, these processes can be restored merely by heating the sample to 900 K, by causing the carbon to diffuse into the bulk. The presented results support the relevance of copper-based catalysts for the steam reforming process.

  13. USE OF THERAPEUTIC PLASMAPHERESIS IN ETHYLENE DIBRO MIDE INTOXICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In view of high incidence of mortality with Ethylen e dibromide poisoning, a retrospective study was conducted, with objectives t o compare demographic, toxicological & clinical outcome in patients treated conservatively and those who underwent therapeutic plasmapheresis

  14. Copolymerization Kinetics of Ethylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹红; 陈志荣

    2002-01-01

    The copolymerization kinetics of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide in an atomizing-circulation reactorunder semi-continuous operation is studied which is of great importance for molecular designation. The kineticparameters are obtained by numerical optimization of the kinetic model.

  15. Ethylene binding to Au/Cu alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Michael D.; Stauffer, Shannon; Henkelman, Graeme; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2016-11-01

    Weak chemisorption of ethylene has been shown to be an important characteristic in the use of metals for the separation of ethylene from ethane. Previously, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to predict the binding energies of various metals and alloys, with Ag having the lowest chemisorption energy amongst the metals and alloys studied. Here Au/Cu alloys are investigated by a combination of DFT calculations and experimental measurements. It is inferred from experiments that the binding energy between a Au/Cu alloy and ethylene is lower than to either of the pure metals, and DFT calculations confirm that this is the case when Au segregates to the particle surface. Implications of this work suggest that it may be possible to further tune the binding energy with ethylene by compositional and morphological control of films produced from Au-surface segregated alloys.

  16. Characterization of an ethylene-related small multigene family from Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdsworth, M.

    1987-01-01

    cDNA clones derived from a tomato ripening-related cDNA library were used in RNA dot-blot experiments to investigate changes in the abundance of ripening related mRNAs during both natural and ethylene-induced ripening. Accumulation of the ripening-related mRNAs during natural ripening began at the time of autocatalytic ethylene production by the fruit, reached a maximum in orange fruit and declined as they became red. Analysis of the induction kinetics of these mRNAs revealed several patterns of expression as tomatoes ripened. The pTOM 13 cDNA insert was sequenced and used to identify related sequences in a tomato genomic library. 21 hybridizing genomic clones were isolated and divided into three groups of similar sequences based on their restriction maps. The DNA sequences of two of these groups of genomic clones that hybridized to pTOM 13 were determined. This allowed the identification of an incomplete pTOM 13-homologous gene, and a closely related complete gene. Nuclei were isolated from unwounded and wounded leaves and were used in run-off transcription experiments in the presence of (..cap alpha../sup 32/P)UTP. (/sup 32/P)-labelled RNA obtained from transcription experiments was used in dot-blot experiments against pTOM 13 and related genomic subclones. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of pTOM 13-related genes in leaves may be controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  17. A natural frameshift mutation in Campanula EIL2 correlates with ethylene insensitivity in flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Olsen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The phytohormone ethylene plays a central role in development and senescence of climacteric flowers. In ornamental plant production, ethylene sensitive plants are usually protected against negative effects of ethylene by application of chemical inhibitors. In Campanula, flowers...... are sensitive to even minute concentrations of ethylene. RESULTS: Monitoring flower longevity in three Campanula species revealed C. portenschlagiana (Cp) as ethylene sensitive, C. formanekiana (Cf) with intermediate sensitivity and C. medium (Cm) as ethylene insensitive. We identified key elements in ethylene...

  18. Links Between Ethylene and Sulfur Nutrition—A Regulatory Interplay or Just Metabolite Association?

    OpenAIRE

    Wawrzynska, Anna; Moniuszko, Grzegorz; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Multiple reports demonstrate associations between ethylene and sulfur metabolisms, however the details of these links have not yet been fully characterized; the links might be at the metabolic and the regulatory levels. First, sulfur-containing metabolite, methionine, is a precursor of ethylene and is a rate limiting metabolite for ethylene synthesis; the methionine cycle contributes to both sulfur and ethylene metabolism. On the other hand, ethylene is involved in the complex response networ...

  19. Effect of SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers on transparent conducting oxide-poly(ethylene terephthalate) superstrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y T; Kang, D P; Kang, D J; Chung, I D

    2013-05-01

    SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers were produced by hybridizing acrylic resin and surface-modified colloidal silica (CS) nanoparticles. First, CS nanoparticles were modified with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) by a sol-gel process. The surface-modified CS nanoparticles were then solvent-exchanged to be homogeneous in acrylic resin. The Hybrid materials were mixed in variation with the amount of surface-modified CS nanoparticles, coated with poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), then finally cured by UV light to obtain a hybrid coating layer. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), particle size analysis (using a Zetasizer), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed to determine the morphology of the hybrid thin-films. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the thermal properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UVNis) spectroscopies, and pencil hardness were used to obtain the details of chemical structures, optical properties, and hardness, respectively. The hybrid thin films had shown to be enhanced properties compared to their urethane acrylate prepolymer (UAP) coating film.

  20. Ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by chlorine-promoted silver oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, M O; Onal, I [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Van Santen, R A, E-mail: r.a.v.santen@tue.nl [Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-10-12

    It is demonstrated that, on a silver oxide surface, direct formation of ethylene oxide (EO) through the reaction between gas phase ethylene and surface oxygen is possible. The direct reaction channel produces EO selectively without competing with acetaldehyde (AA) formation. The oxometallacycle (OMC) forms on an oxygen vacant surface and reduces EO selectivity. Cl adsorption removes these surface vacant sites and hence prevents the formation of the OMC intermediate.

  1. Ethylene Emission of Apples Treated with 1-Methylcyclopropene During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Oleksandr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of post-harvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on ethylene emission in early-winter apple (cv. ‘Calville’, winter (‘Gloster’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Jonagold’, and late-winter cultivars (‘Granny Smith’, ‘Idared’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’ w as investigated. The fruits were picked at a commercial harvest time and half of them were treated with 1-MCP (‘SmartFresh™’ 0.068 gm-3 for 24 h at 5 °C. Then both groups of apples were placed in a common storage at the temperature of 2 °C. The intensity of fruit ethylene emission (rate of ethylene production was measured and 1 -MCP inhibition index was calculated. During storage, activity of ethylene emission by control apples of ‘Calville’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ showed typical climacteric pattern, while the intensity of ethylene emission of apples of other cultivars only increased gradually. The change of ethylene activity of early-winter apple cv. ‘Calville’ and winter cv. ‘Jonagold’, both treated with 1-MCP after harvest, had exponential character, especially actively increasing after 3 months of storage. At the same time ethylene emission of 1 -MCP treated fruits of other cultivars changed steadily to a low level and was effectively suppressed during the whole 6-month period of storage in normal atmosphere. The value of inhibition index of fruits treated by 1-MCP confirmed the consistent restoration of the ability to ethylene synthesis and thus to post-harvest ripening of some apples cultivars.

  2. Workers exposed to ethylene oxide: a follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, M J; Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Harris, E C

    1989-12-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2876 men and women with potential exposure to ethylene oxide. Subjects were identified from employment records at four companies that have produced or used ethylene oxide since the 1950s and at eight hospitals which have had ethylene oxide sterilising units since the 1960s. The cohort represents a substantial proportion of the British workforce with a history of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. Industrial hygiene data were not available before 1977, but since then time weighted average exposures have been less than 5 ppm in almost all jobs and less than 1 ppm in many. Past exposures were probably somewhat higher. In contrast to some previous studies, no clear excess of leukaemia (three deaths observed, 2.09 expected) and no increase in stomach cancer (five deaths observed, 5.95 expected) were found. This discrepancy with earlier reports may be due in part to differences in levels of exposure. Total cancer mortality was similar to that expected from national and local death rates. Some specific cancers showed small excesses but their relevance to ethylene oxide exposure is doubtful. Again, contrary to some earlier reports, no excess of cardiovascular disease was found. This study does not exclude the possibility that ethylene oxide is a human carcinogen but suggests that any risk of cancer from currently permitted occupational exposures is small.

  3. Efficient use of Ethylene Oxide in Vinyl Sulphone Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavi M. Pandya, Prof. Bharat H. Shah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl sulphone production includes mainly 4 unit processes which are Chlorosulphonation, Reduction, Condensation, and Esterification. Vinyl sulphone is the highest export dye intermediate. Vinyl sulphone industry in India received a set back in the late nineties due to world competition and insistence on environmental regulations by the controlling authorities. Excess of ethylene oxide is used in condensation, Which is hazardous and it is used in excess as large quantity of Ethylene oxide is reacted with water as a side reaction forming glycols, and also ethylene oxide is soluble in water. So ethylene oxide is wasted in water and increases the volume of reactor. This paper describes to minimize the quantity of water which is causing excess use of ethylene oxide in condensation reaction. Before condensation reaction there are two unit processes Chlorosulphonation and reduction from which we try to limit the quantity of water, so that water coming to condensation reaction is minimized to reduce the side reaction of ethylene oxide and water.

  4. Ethylene Formation by Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol with Industrial Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Shing Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is the primary component in most plastics, making it economically valuable. It is produced primarily by steam-cracking of hydrocarbons, but can alternatively be produced by the dehydration of ethanol, which can be produced from fermentation processes using renewable substrates such as glucose, starch and others. Due to rising oil prices, researchers now look at alternative reactions to produce green ethylene, but the process is far from being as economically competitive as using fossil fuels. Many studies have investigated catalysts and new reaction engineering technologies to increase ethylene yield and to lower reaction temperature, in an effort to make the reaction applicable in industry and most cost-efficient. This paper presents various lab synthesized catalysts, reaction conditions, and reactor technologies that achieved high ethylene yield at reasonable reaction temperatures, and evaluates their practicality in industrial application in comparison with steam-cracking plants. The most promising were found to be a nanoscale catalyst HZSM-5 with 99.7% ethylene selectivity at 240 °C and 630 h lifespan, using a microreactor technology with mechanical vapor recompression, and algae-produced ethanol to make ethylene.

  5. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  6. KINETICS OF NON-ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF POLY (ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) MODIFIED BY POLY (ETHYLENE GLYCOL)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiying; WU Shizhen; DU Yinghua; CAO Zhenlin

    1991-01-01

    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) modified by poly (ethlene glycol) (PEG) were determined by DSC. The dual linear regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between the reciprocal of t1/2 ( the half life of crystallization ) and the appropriate temperature variable. The parameters such as the activation energy (Ed) for transport,the equilibrium melting temperature (T0m),the nucleation parameter (ψ),the maximum crystallization temperature (Tc, max ) , and the kinetic crystallizability (G) for the copolyesters were obtained. The influence of the PEG content in PET chains on the parameters characterizing crystallization kinetics and crystallization thermodynamics was discussed.

  7. Polymérisation de l’éthylène : de l’homopolymérisation radicalaire à la copolymérisation hybride radicalaire / catalytique

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to study ethylene polymerization from the free radical polymerization process to the copolymerization by a hybrid radical/catalytic mechanism. PE is synthesized by free radical polymerization under milder experimental conditions than industrial ones (P>1000 bar and T>100°C). Indeed free radical polymerization of ethylene is efficient even down to pressure of 5 bar and temperature of 10°C. Several unexpected behaviors are observed such as a high solvent activation effect. Beside...

  8. Biosynthesis of ethylene glycol in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaiwei; Ramos, Kristine Rose M; Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Nisola, Grace M; Lee, Won-Keun; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is an important platform chemical with steadily expanding global demand. Its commercial production is currently limited to fossil resources; no biosynthesis route has been delineated. Herein, a biosynthesis route for EG production from D-xylose is reported. This route consists of four steps: D-xylose → D-xylonate → 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate → glycoaldehyde → EG. Respective enzymes, D-xylose dehydrogenase, D-xylonate dehydratase, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate aldolase, and glycoaldehyde reductase, were assembled. The route was implemented in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli, in which the D-xylose → D-xylulose reaction was prevented by disrupting the D-xylose isomerase gene. The most efficient construct produced 11.7 g L(-1) of EG from 40.0 g L(-1) of D-xylose. Glycolate is a carbon-competing by-product during EG production in E. coli; blockage of glycoaldehyde → glycolate reaction was also performed by disrupting the gene encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase, but from this approach, EG productivity was not improved but rather led to D-xylonate accumulation. To channel more carbon flux towards EG than the glycolate pathway, further systematic metabolic engineering and fermentation optimization studies are still required to improve EG productivity.

  9. China's first home-made large ethylene unit put into operation in Daqing%China's first home-made large ethylene unit put into operation in Daqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On October 5, the newly built 600kt/a ethylene unit at Daqing Petrochemical, a key part of the company's 1.2Mt/a ethylene expansion/upgrading project, turned out qualified products, indicating the successful industrialization of the packaged technology for China's first home-made large ethylene unit. This enables China to be independent from importing technologies for ethylene production which lasted for halfa century.

  10. Tuning ethylene gas adsorption via metal node modulation: Cu-MOF-74 for a high ethylene deliverable capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yijun; Zhang, Lin; Weston, Mitchell H; Morris, William; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2017-08-17

    M-MOF-74s were examined for potential applications in ethylene abatement and/or storage/delivery. Due to labile binding resulting from a Jahn-Teller distortion, Cu-MOF-74 exhibits a gradual initial uptake that, in turn, translates into the highest deliverable capacity among the MOFs examined (3.6 mmol g(-1)). In contrast, Co-MOF-74 is the most promising candidate for ethylene abatement due to the sharp uptake at low pressure.

  11. Surface modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by plasma polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthi Kumar, D; Fujioka, Masayori; Asano, Kentaro; Shoji, Atsumu; Jayakrishnan, Athipettah; Yoshida, Yasuhiko

    2007-09-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was 'polymerized' onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surface by radio frequency (RF) plasma polymerization of PEG (average molecular weight 200 Da) at a monomer vapour partial pressure of 10 Pa. Thin films strongly adherent onto PET could be produced by this method. The modified surface was characterized by infra red (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cross-cut test, contact angle measurements and static platelet adhesion studies. The modified surface, believed to be extensively cross-linked, however showed all the chemical characteristics of PEG. The surface was found to be highly hydrophilic as evidenced by an interfacial free energy of about 0.7 dynes/cm. AFM studies showed that the surface of the modified PET became smooth by the plasma polymerized deposition. Static platelet adhesion studies using platelet rich plasma (PRP) showed considerably reduced adhesion of platelets onto the modified surface by SEM. Plasma 'polymerization' of a polymer such as PEG onto substrates may be a novel and interesting strategy to prepare PEG-like surfaces on a variety of substrates since the technique allows the formation of thin, pin-hole free, strongly adherent films on a variety of substrates.

  12. Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on Ethylene Tetra-Fluoro-Ethylene Hollow Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of hollow fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor (HF-SPRS based on the silver-coated ethylene tetra-fluoro-ethylene (ETFE hollow fiber (HF is presented. The ETFE HF-SPRS is fabricated, and its performance is investigated experimentally by measuring the transmission spectra of the sensor when filled by liquid sensed media with different refractive indices (RIs. Theoretical analysis based on the ray transmission model is also taken to evaluate the sensor. Because the RI of ETFE is much lower than that of fused silica (FSG, the ETFE HF-SPRS can extend the lower limit of the detection range of the early reported FSG HF-SPRS from 1.5 to 1.42 approximately. This could greatly enhance the application potential of HF-SPRS. Moreover, the joint use of both ETFE and FSG HF-SPRSs can cover a wide detection range from 1.42 to 1.69 approximately with high sensitivities larger than 1000 nm/RIU.

  13. Evaluation of workers exposed to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Yoon, Chungsik; Byun, Hyaejeong; Kim, Yangho; Park, Donguk; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Sang man; Park, Sungki; Chung, Eunkyo

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA) are widely used in industries as solvents for coatings, paint and ink, but exposure data are limited because they are minor components out of mixed solvents, as well as because of inconsistency in desorption solvent use. The objective of this study was to investigate the worker exposure profile of EGME and EGMEA. Our study investigated 27 workplaces from June to September 2008 and detected EGME and EGMEA in 20 and 13, respectively. Both personal and area sampling were conducted using a charcoal tube to collect EGME and EGMEA. Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector was used to analyze these compounds after desorption using a mixture of methylene chloride and methanol. The arithmetic mean concentrations of EGME and EGMEA during periods of full work shifts were 2.59 ppm and 0.33 ppm, respectively. The exposure levels were lower than the Korean Ministry of Labor (MOL) OEL (5 ppm) but higher than the ACGIH TLV (0.1 ppm). In general, the working environments were poor and required much improvement, including the use of personal protective equipment. Only 50% of the workplaces had local exhaust ventilation systems in operation. The average capture velocity of the operating local exhaust ventilation systems was 0.27 m/s, which did not meet the legal requirement of 0.5 m/s. Educating workers to clearly understand the handling and use of hazardous chemicals and improving working conditions are strongly suggested.

  14. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  15. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  16. Peptides interfering with protein-protein interactions in the ethylene signaling pathway delay tomato fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Melanie M. A.; Kessenbrock, Mareike; Müller, Lena; Hofmann, Alexander; Schmitz, Florian; Cristescu, Simona M.; Groth, Georg

    2016-08-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in the regulation of several processes with high importance for agricultural applications, e.g. ripening, aging and senescence. Previous work in our group has identified a small peptide (NOP-1) derived from the nuclear localization signal of the Arabidopsis ethylene regulator ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE-2 (EIN2) C-terminal part as efficient inhibitor of ethylene responses. Here, we show that NOP-1 is also able to efficiently disrupt EIN2-ETR1 complex formation in tomato, indicating that the NOP-1 inhibition mode is conserved across plant species. Surface application of NOP-1 on green tomato fruits delays ripening similar to known inhibitors of ethylene perception (MCP) and ethylene biosynthesis (AVG). Fruits treated with NOP-1 showed similar ethylene production as untreated controls underlining that NOP-1 blocks ethylene signaling by targeting an essential interaction in this pathway, while having no effect on ethylene biosynthesis.

  17. Auxin and ethylene induce flavonol accumulation through distinct transcriptional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel R; Ramirez, Melissa V; Miller, Nathan D; Vallabhaneni, Prashanthi; Ray, W Keith; Helm, Richard F; Winkel, Brenda S J; Muday, Gloria K

    2011-05-01

    Auxin and ethylene are key regulators of plant growth and development, and thus the transcriptional networks that mediate responses to these hormones have been the subject of intense research. This study dissected the hormonal cross talk regulating the synthesis of flavonols and examined their impact on root growth and development. We analyzed the effects of auxin and an ethylene precursor on roots of wild-type and hormone-insensitive Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants at the transcript, protein, and metabolite levels at high spatial and temporal resolution. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) differentially increased flavonol pathway transcripts and flavonol accumulation, altering the relative abundance of quercetin and kaempferol. The IAA, but not ACC, response is lost in the transport inhibitor response1 (tir1) auxin receptor mutant, while ACC responses, but not IAA responses, are lost in ethylene insensitive2 (ein2) and ethylene resistant1 (etr1) ethylene signaling mutants. A kinetic analysis identified increases in transcripts encoding the transcriptional regulators MYB12, Transparent Testa Glabra1, and Production of Anthocyanin Pigment after hormone treatments, which preceded increases in transcripts encoding flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes. In addition, myb12 mutants were insensitive to the effects of auxin and ethylene on flavonol metabolism. The equivalent phenotypes for transparent testa4 (tt4), which makes no flavonols, and tt7, which makes kaempferol but not quercetin, showed that quercetin derivatives are the inhibitors of basipetal root auxin transport, gravitropism, and elongation growth. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that auxin and ethylene regulate flavonol biosynthesis through distinct signaling networks involving TIR1 and EIN2/ETR1, respectively, both of which converge on MYB12. This study also provides new evidence that quercetin is the flavonol that modulates basipetal auxin transport.

  18. Effects of Ethephon, Ethylene, and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Asexual Embryogenesis in Vitro12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisserat, Brent; Murashige, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Asexual embryogenesis in Daucus carota L. `Queen Anne's Lace' callus was suppressed by Ethephon, ethylene, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The Ethephon effect could be attributed to volatile and nonvolatile substances. The volatile component was probably entirely ethylene. Ethylene was liberated in the cultures in direct proportion to Ethephon added to the medium. Autoclaving of Ethephon caused a substantial decrease of measurable ethylene. Continuous exposure of callus to 5 μl/l ethylene depressed somatic cell embryogenesis, but not markedly. Depression of embryogenesis by 2,4-D was unrelated to ethylene evolution. PMID:16660109

  19. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  20. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  1. Massive ethylene glycol poisoning triggers osmotic demyelination syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Tschetter, Paul A; Krasowski, Matthew D; Engelman, Amy

    2014-03-01

    Ethylene glycol is a toxic organic solvent implicated in thousands of accidental and intentional poisonings each year. Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is traditionally known as a complication of the rapid correction of hyponatremia. Our aim was to describe how patients with ethylene glycol toxicity may be at risk for developing ODS in the absence of hyponatremia. A 64-year old female patient was comatose upon presentation and laboratory results revealed an anion gap of 39, a plasma sodium of 150 mEq/L, a plasma potassium of 3.5 mEq/L, an osmolal gap of 218, an arterial blood gas pH of 7.02, whole blood lactate of 32 mEq/L, no measurable blood ethanol, and a plasma ethylene glycol concentration of 1055.5 mg/dL. The patient was treated for ethylene glycol poisoning with fomepizole and hemodialysis. Despite having elevated serum sodium levels, the patient's hospital course was complicated by ODS. Rapid changes in serum osmolality from ethylene glycol toxicity or its subsequent treatment can cause ODS independent of serum sodium levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel and existing data for a future physiological toxicokinetic model of ethylene and its metabolite ethylene oxide in mouse, rat, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Johannes Georg; Artati, Anna; Li, Qiang; Pütz, Christian; Semder, Brigitte; Klein, Dominik; Kessler, Winfried

    2015-11-05

    The olefin ethylene is a ubiquitously found gas. It originates predominantly from plants, combustion processes and industrial sources. In mammals, inhaled ethylene is metabolized by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, particularly by cytochrome P450 2E1, to ethylene oxide, an epoxide that directly alkylates proteins and DNA. Ethylene oxide was mutagenic in vitro and in vivo in insects and mammals and carcinogenic in rats and mice. A physiological toxicokinetic model is a most useful tool for estimating the ethylene oxide burden in ethylene-exposed rodents and humans. The only published physiological toxicokinetic model for ethylene and metabolically produced ethylene oxide is discussed. Additionally, existing data required for the development of a future model and for testing its predictive accuracy are reviewed and extended by new gas uptake studies with ethylene and ethylene oxide in B6C3F1 mice and with ethylene in F344 rats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Dopamine-assisted deposition of poly (ethylene imine) for efficient heparinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rifang; Wang, Xin; Deng, Jinchuan; Zhang, Hao; Maitz, Manfred F; Yang, Li; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan; Wang, Yunbing

    2016-08-01

    Mussel-inspired self-polymerization of dopamine in the presence of catechols and amines can be used to form coatings on various substrates. In this work dopamine was co-polymerized with poly (ethylene imine) (PEI) to form coatings on 316L stainless steel (SS). The coating formation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compared with a pure polydopamine coating, such hybrid coating presented a higher ratio of nitrogen and increased zeta potential due to the introduction of PEI components. QCM measurement showed good affinity for heparin immobilization on the amine-rich surfaces. Moreover, the heparin-binding surface significantly suppressed platelet adhesion and activation. Further, the interaction with vascular cells, like endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was also investigated. The heparin coating not only decreased the cytotoxicity of amines on ECs, but also significantly inhibited SMCs proliferation. These results showed that the hybrid coating allowed effective heparin immobilization, providing a promising platform for vascular devices modification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of silane coupling agents on the chemical and physical properties of photocrosslinked poly(dimethylsiloxane) dimethacrylate/poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K. W.; Hamid, Z. A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic-organic hydrogels based on dimethacrylated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMSMA) and diacrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDA) macromers were prepared via photocrosslinking method. Silane coupling agent was incorporated into the hydrogel formulations to overcome the phase incompatibility. Pure PEGDA (0:100) hydrogels showed the highest value of ESR %, while pure PDMSMA (100:0) hydrogels showed no swelling as we expected. Inclusion of more hydrophobic domains resulted in a lower value of ESR %, i.e. in 75:25 hybrid hydrogels. Beside, we had noticed 50:50 and 75:25 hybrid hydrogels disintegrate during swelling period. However, their integrity was improved and sustained after the coupling agent was added. Similarly, the value of E* for the hybrid hydrogels showed an increment after the coupling agent was incorporated, and this is in a good agreement with the SEM micrograph which display an improved interfacial adhesion.

  5. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  6. 低压洗涤塔在尿素装置低压尾气回收中的应用%Application of low-pressure scrubber in low-pressure exhaust gas recycling of urea plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯立志

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍二氧化碳汽提尿素装置低压回收工序采用低压洗涤塔工艺,有效降低了尾气中氨、二氧化碳的排放,大大降低了生产成本。%The paper briefly introduces low-pressure scrubber process in low-pressure exhaust gas recycling of CO2 stripping urea plant,reducing ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions effectively in tail gas,and reducing the cost of production greatly.

  7. Temporally Varying Ethylene Emission on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Paul N.; Jennings, Donald E.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Sada, Pedro V.; McCabe. Geprge; Boyle, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene (C2H4) emission has been measured in the poles and equator of Jupiter. The 949 cm(sup -1) spectra were recorded with a high resolution spectrometer at the McMath-Pierce telescope at Kitt Peak in October-November 1998 and at the Infrared Telescope Facility at Mauna Kea in June 2000. C2H4 is an important product of methane chemistry in the outer planets. Knowledge of its abundance can help discriminate among the various proposed sets of CH4 photolysis branching ratios at Ly-alpha, and determine the relative importance of the reaction pathways that produce C2H2 and C2H6. In the equatorial region the C2H4 emission is weak, and we were only able to detect it at high air-mass, near the limb. We derive a peak equatorial molar abundance of C2H4 of 4.5 x 10(exp -7) - 1.7 x 10(exp -6) near 2.2 x 10(exp -3) mbar, with a total column of 5.7 x 10(exp 14) - 2.2 x 10(exp 15) molecules cm(exp -2) above 10 mbar depending upon choice of thermal profile. We observed enhanced C2H4 emission from the poles in the regions where auroras are seen in X-ray, UV, and near infrared images. In 2000 we measured a short-term change in the distribution of polar C2H4 emission; the emission in the north IR auroral "hot spot" decreased by a factor of three over a two-day interval. This transient its contribution peak at 5-10 microbar suggests that the polar e is primarily a thermal effect coupled with vertical transport. Comparing our observations from Kitt Peak and Mauna Kea shows that the C2H4 emission of the northern non-"hot spot" auroral regions did not change over the three-year period while that in the southern polar regions decreased.

  8. Assessment of a semi-quantitative screening method for diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaralingam, Arun; Thomas, Annette; James, David R; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2017-07-01

    Background Ethylene glycol poisoning remains a rare but important presentation to acute toxicology units. Guidelines recommended that ethylene glycol should be available as an 'urgent' test within 4 h, but these are difficult to deliver in practice. This study assessed a semi-quantitative enzymatic spectrophotometric assay for ethylene glycol compatible with automated platforms. Methods The ethylene glycol method was assessed in 21 samples from patients with an increased anion gap and metabolic acidosis not due to ethylene glycol ingestion, and seven samples known to contain ethylene glycol. All samples were analysed in random order in a blinded manner to their origin on a laboratory spectrophotometer. Results In this study, seven samples were known to contain ethylene glycol at concentrations >100 mg/L. The method correctly identified all seven samples as containing ethylene glycol. No false-positives were observed. Thirteen samples gave clear negative results. Ethylene glycol was present at ethylene glycol concentration against results obtained when the samples had been analysed using the quantitative method on an automated analyser showed a good correlation (R = 0.84) but with an apparent under-recovery. Conclusions A semi-quantitative assay for ethylene glycol was able to discriminate well between samples containing ethylene glycol and those with other causes of acidosis. It is a practical small-scale assay for rapid identification of cases of ethylene glycol poisoning.

  9. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  10. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  11. High selective ethane cracking to ethylene at Veba Oel plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, K.M. [ABB Lummus Crest, Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Albano, J.V. [ABB Lummus Crest, Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Goldmann, K. [Ruhr Oel GmbH, Muenchsmuenster (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    Thermal dehydrogenation is the only commercially feasible route to produce ethylene from ethane even today. Like many dehydrogenation reactions, this is also equilibrium limited under typical operating conditions. Factors such as feed impurities, operating conditions, reactor design and surface conditions influence the selectivity to ethylene. These are illustrated in the paper based on experimental data. Based on these results and through the use of rigorous kinetic models to describe the cracking furnace, a state of the art heater was built to crack ethane at Veba Oel. This furnace achieved high selectivity to ethylene ad long run lengths. The improvement in selectivity over conventional long residence time coils was significant and the deterioration of selectivity from start of run to end of run due to coke deposition in the new design was negligible. This heater also achieved long run lengths with high olefin contents in the ethane feed. (orig.)

  12. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene-butene Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The crystallinity of ethylene-butene copolymers prepared by copolymerization of ethylene and butene in the presence of a new highly active catalyst was studied by means of DSC, WAXD and DMA. The results show that the melting temperature, the crystallinity and the crystallite size decreased with increasing the content of butene in the copolymers. The copolymers have a high degree of branching, the butene segments are mainly in the amorphous regions of the copolymers, while the polyethylene sequence forms crystal phase acting as crosslinking bondage between the molecules at room temperature. The ethylene-butene copolymers have a low modulus, a low stress and a high strain analogous to the stress-strain behavior of non-cross thermoplastic elastomer.

  13. COMPOSITIONAL HETEROGENEITY OF ETHYLENE OXIDE-BUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE SEGMENTED COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-zhu Ma; Dong-sheng Li; Ming-chuan Zhao; Mo-zhen Wang; Ran Ye; Xiao-lie Luo

    1999-01-01

    A series of ethylene oxide-butylene terephthalate (EOBT) segmented copolymers with different soft segment length and hard segment content were synthesized. The compositional heterogeneity was studied by solvent extraction. The results show that the compositional heterogeneity increases when soft segment length and hard segment content increase. The compositional heterogeneity is also reflected in the crystallization behavior and morphology of soft and hard segment in EOBT segmented copolymer. The more compositional heterogeneous the EOBT segmented copolymer is, the more different the morphology and the crystallization behavior between separated fractions. Compared with ethylene oxide-ethylene terephthalate (EOET) segmented copolymer, compositional heterogeneity in EOBT segmented copolymer is weaker. But the compositional heterogeneity in EOBT segmented copolymer with long soft segment and high hard segment content is still obvious.

  14. Transcriptional Regulation of the Ethylene Response Factor LeERF2 in the Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes Controls Ethylene Production in Tomato and Tobacco1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijin; Zhang, Haiwen; Quan, Ruidan; Wang, Xue-Chen; Huang, Rongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Fine-tuning of ethylene production plays an important role in developmental processes and in plant responses to stress, but very little is known about the regulation of ethylene response factor (ERF) proteins in ethylene biosynthesis genes and ethylene production. Identifying cis-acting elements and transcription factors that play a role in this process, therefore, is important. Previously, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum [f. sp. Lycopersicon esculentum]) ERF protein, LeERF2, an allele of TERF2, was reported to confer ethylene triple response on plants. This paper reports the transcriptional modulation of LeERF2/TERF2 in ethylene biosynthesis in tomato and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Using overexpressing and antisense LeERF2/TERF2 transgenic tomato, we found that LeERF2/TERF2 is an important regulator in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes and the production of ethylene. Expression analysis revealed that LeERF2/TERF2 is ethylene inducible, and ethylene production stimulated by ethylene was suppressed in antisense LeERF2/TERF2 transgenic tomato, indicating LeERF2/TERF2 to be a positive regulator in the feedback loop of ethylene induction. Further research showed that LeERF2/TERF2 conservatively modulates ethylene biosynthesis in tobacco and that such regulation in tobacco is associated with the elongation of the hypocotyl and insensitivity to abscisic acid and glucose during germination and seedling development. The effects on ethylene synthesis were similar to those of another ERF protein, TERF1, because TERF1 and LeERF2/TERF2 have overlapping roles in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in tobacco. Biochemical analysis showed that LeERF2/TERF2 interacted with GCC box in the promoter of NtACS3 and with dehydration-responsive element in the promoter of LeACO3, resulting in transcriptional activation of the genes for ethylene biosynthesis in tomato and tobacco, which is a novel regulatory function of ERF proteins in plant ethylene

  15. Rotational spectrum of the tetrafluoromethane-ethylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Qian; Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther

    2017-05-01

    The rotational spectrum of one conformer of the CF4-ethylene oxide complex has been measured by using a pulsed jet Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. The observed conformer is stabilized by a CF3⋯O halogen bond, with a distance rC⋯O of ∼3.341 Å. No experimental evidence of the internal rotation of CF4 with respect to ethylene oxide has been observed, but it is expected to be almost free (V3 ∼ 14 cm-1 from ab initio calculations).

  16. [Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy system for trace ethylene detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Jia-Wei; Dai, Jing-Min; Song, Kai

    2012-10-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was characterized by ultra-narrow line width laser and wavelength modulation, which makes it possible to scan a single absorption line. TDLAS has an advantage in trace gas analysis for its high resolution, high sensitivity and quick response. The 1 626.8 nm absorption line of ethylene was selected for detecting by analyzing its absorption line characteristic. The TDLAS system was developed with a white type multi-pass cell, combined with wavelength modulation and harmonic detection. Ethylene concentration ranges from 20 to 1 200 ppmv were tested using this system. The estimated detection limit of the system is 10 ppmv.

  17. Ethylene Control of Fruit Ripening: Revisiting the Complex Network of Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchun; Pirrello, Julien; Chervin, Christian; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-12-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in climacteric fruit ripening. Studies on components of ethylene signaling have revealed a linear transduction pathway leading to the activation of ethylene response factors. However, the means by which ethylene selects the ripening-related genes and interacts with other signaling pathways to regulate the ripening process are still to be elucidated. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a reference species, the present review aims to revisit the mechanisms by which ethylene regulates fruit ripening by taking advantage of new tools available to perform in silico studies at the genome-wide scale, leading to a global view on the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes throughout ripening. Overall, it provides new insights on the transcriptional network by which this hormone coordinates the ripening process and emphasizes the interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated developmental factors and the link between epigenetic regulation and ethylene during fruit ripening.

  18. Numerical Study on Laminar Burning Velocity and Flame Stability of Premixed Methane/Ethylene/Air Flames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珊珊; 蒋勇; 邱榕; 安江涛

    2012-01-01

    A numerical study on premixed methane/ethylene/air flames with various ethylene fractions and equivalence ratios was conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The effects of ethylene addition on laminar burning velocity, flame structure and flame stability under the condition of lean burning were investigated. The results show that the laminar burning velocity increases with ethylene fraction, especially at a large equivalence ratio. More ethylene addition gives rise to higher concentrations of H, O and OH radicals in the flame, which significantly promotes chemical reactions, and a linear correlation exists between the laminar burning velocity and the maximum H + OH concentration in the reaction zone. With the increase of ethylene fraction, the adiabatic flame temperature is raised, while the inner layer temperature becomes lower, contributing to the enhancement of combustion. Markstein length and Markstein number, representative of the flame stability, increase as more ethylene is added, indicating the tendency of flame stability to improve with ethylene addition.

  19. Syntheses of Poly(ethylene oxide) Macromonomers Carrying Tertiary Amine and Quaternary Ammonium End Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senyo, Takamichi; Atago, Yuji; Liang, Huanan; Shen, Renhua; Ito, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    p-Vinylbenzyl alcohol, partially alkoxidated with potassium naphthalene, was used successfully to initiate living polymerization of ethylene oxide to afford α-p-vinylbenzyl-ω-hydroxy poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) macromonomers. The ω...

  20. Effect of Comonomer Ethylene on Plateau Modulus of Crystalline Ethylene-propylene Random Copolymer with Broad Molecular Weight Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁健; 徐日炜; 丁雪佳; 余鼎声

    2005-01-01

    Ethylene-propylene random copolymer with ultra-high molecular weight (UHPPR) and broad molecular weight distribution (MWD) was prepared with Ziegler-Natta catalyst. The viscoelastic behavior of UHPPR has been investigated by means of oscillatory rheometer at 180, 200 and 220℃. The loss modulus (G"""") curves of 180 and 200℃ present a pronounced maximum at 38.10 and 84.70r/s, respectively, For the first time, this makes it possible to directly determine the plateau modulus ( GN0 ) of crystalline ethylene-propylene random copolymer with broad MWD in a certain experimental temperature G""""(w) curve. The plateau modulus of UHPPR is 4.51×105 and 3.67×105 Paat 180 and 200℃ respectively, increasing with random incorporation of comonomer ethylene into the molecular chains and being independent of molecular weight.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of four genes encoding ethylene receptors associated with pineapple (Ananas comosus L. flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b. The 5′ flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2 were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1. The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1-9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET, whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP and flower primordia (FP appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1-4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Four Genes Encoding Ethylene Receptors Associated with Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Wu, Qing-Song; Huang, Xia; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Na; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b). The 5' flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2) were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1). The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1-9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET), whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP) and flower primordia (FP) appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1-4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon.

  3. The tomato ethylene receptors NR and LeETR4 are negative regulators of ethylene response and exhibit functional compensation within a multigene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, D M; Taylor, M G; Ciardi, J A; Klee, H J

    2000-05-09

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in many developmental processes, including fruit ripening, abscission, senescence, and leaf epinasty. Tomato contains a family of ethylene receptors, designated LeETR1, LeETR2, NR, LeETR4, and LeETR5, with homology to the Arabidopsis ETR1 ethylene receptor. Transgenic plants with reduced LeETR4 gene expression display multiple symptoms of extreme ethylene sensitivity, including severe epinasty, enhanced flower senescence, and accelerated fruit ripening. Therefore, LeETR4 is a negative regulator of ethylene responses. Reduced expression of this single gene affects multiple developmental processes in tomato, whereas in Arabidopsis multiple ethylene receptors must be inactivated to increase ethylene response. Transgenic lines with reduced NR mRNA levels exhibit normal ethylene sensitivity but elevated levels of LeETR4 mRNA, indicating a functional compensation of LeETR4 for reduced NR expression. Overexpression of NR in lines with lowered LeETR4 gene expression eliminates the ethylene-sensitive phenotype, indicating that despite marked differences in structure these ethylene receptors are functionally redundant.

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Silica Nanoparticles Grafted with Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing

    2012-03-01

    A molecular model of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers has been developed for predicting the transport properties of nanoparticle organic-hybrid materials (NOHMs). Ungrafted silica nanoparticles in a medium of poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers were also simulated to clarify the effect of grafting on the dynamics of nanoparticles and chains. The model approximates nanoparticles as solid spheres and uses a united-atom representation for chains, including torsional and bond-bending interactions. The calculated viscosities from Green-Kubo relationships and temperature extrapolation are of the same order of magnitude as experimental data but show a smaller activation energy relative to real NOHMs systems. Grafted systems have higher viscosities, smaller diffusion coefficients, and slower chain dynamics than the ungrafted ones at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, grafted systems exhibit faster dynamics for both nanoparticles and chains relative to ungrafted systems, because of lower aggregation of particles and enhanced correlations between nanoparticles and chains. This agrees with the experimental observation that NOHMs have liquidlike behavior in the absence of a solvent. For both grafted and ungrafted systems at low temperatures, increasing chain length reduces the volume fraction of nanoparticles and accelerates the dynamics. However, at high temperatures, longer chains slow down nanoparticle diffusion. From the Stokes-Einstein relationship, it was determined that the coarse-grained treatment of nanoparticles leads to slip on the nanoparticle surfaces. Grafted systems obey the Stokes-Einstein relationship over the temperature range simulated, but ungrafted systems display deviations from it. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  6. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  7. 78 FR 24738 - Ethylene Oxide; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... AGENCY Ethylene Oxide; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment... Service (APHIS) to use the pesticide ethylene oxide (CAS No. 75-21-8) to sterilize the interior surfaces... APHIS has requested the EPA Administrator to issue a quarantine exemption for the use of ethylene oxide...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free of...

  9. 21 CFR 172.808 - Copolymer condensates of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copolymer condensates of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. 172.808 Section 172.808 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. Copolymer condensates of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide may be...

  10. 78 FR 46260 - Sorbitan Monooleate Ethylene Oxide Adduct; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Sorbitan Monooleate Ethylene Oxide Adduct; Exemption From the Requirement of a... ethylene oxide adduct'' and as ``polysorbate 80'') when used as an inert ingredient in antimicrobial... residues of sorbitan monooleate ethylene oxide adduct. DATES: This regulation is effective July 31, 2013...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1040 - Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene glycol; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1040 Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ethylene glycol as a component of pesticide formulations is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production or added to impart desired physical or technical properties. (b) Specifications: Ethylene-1,4... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene...

  13. Genome Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Ethylene Receptor Genes during Soybean Nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youning; Yuan, Jinhong; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Lin; Su, Chao; Wang, Xiaodi; Wu, Haiyan; Sun, Zhengxi; Li, Xia

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that the gaseous plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in nodulation in legumes. The perception of ethylene by a family of five membrane-localized receptors is necessary to trigger the ethylene signaling pathway, which regulates various biological responses in Arabidopsis. However, a systematic analysis of the ethylene receptors in leguminous plants and their roles in nodule development is lacking. In this study, we performed a characterization of ethylene receptor genes based on the latest Glycine max genome sequence and a public microarray database. Eleven ethylene receptor family genes were identified in soybean through homology searches, and they were divided into two subgroups. Exon-intron analysis showed that the gene structures are highly conserved within each group. Further analysis of their expression patterns showed that these ethylene receptor genes are differentially expressed in various soybean tissues and organs, including functional nodules. Notably, the ethylene receptor genes showed different responses to rhizobial infection and Nod factors, suggesting a possible role for ethylene receptors and ethylene signaling in rhizobia-host cell interactions and nodulation in soybean. Together, these data indicate the functional divergence of ethylene receptor genes in soybean, and that some of these receptors mediate nodulation, including rhizobial infection, nodule development, and nodule functionality. These findings provide a foundation for further elucidation of the molecular mechanism by which the ethylene signaling pathway regulates nodulation in soybean, as well as other legumes.

  14. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  15. 浅析尿素装置高压洗涤器的本质安全%Plain Analysis of Essential Safety of High-Pressure Scrubber of Urea Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛斌

    2012-01-01

    对CO2汽提法尿素装置高压洗涤器防爆筒爆裂事故进行探讨,提出提高尿素装置高压洗涤器本质安全管理理念.采用CO2原料气脱氢技术后,扩大了尿素装置主要参数的调节范围,彻底消除了安全隐患,而且吨尿素一般可降低氨耗2 kg左右.%An inquiry is made into rupture accident of explosion-proof cylinder of high-pressure scrubber of urea unit adopting carbon dioxide stripping process, and it is proposed to improve essential safety management concept of high-pressure scrubber of urea unit. With the adoption of CO2 raw gas dehydrogenation technology, adjustment range of main parameters of urea unit are extended, hidden perils in safety are eliminated thoroughly, and ammonia consumption generally reduces about 2 kg per ton of urea.

  16. The experimental study on sodium aerosol removal efficiency of water bath scrubber%水浴除尘器对钠气溶胶除尘效率试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣东; 杜海鸥; 高耀鹏; 刘晨; 王密; 王国芝

    2012-01-01

    This article introduced the structure and the dust removal principle of the water bath scrubber (WBS), which used in the accident ventilation system of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR). Through experiment the dust removal efficiency of the WBS with different air flow rate is measured, and the main factors that influence the dust removal efficiency of the WBS are analyzed. The results show that the water bath scrubber can effectively remove sodium aerosol under certain condition. The results of series experiments are valuable for the selection of dust removal equipment and design of the dust removal system of fast reactor nuclear plant.%本文介绍了中国实验快堆钠工艺间事故通风系统使用的水浴除尘器的结构、除尘原理,试验流程的设计等.通过试验研究测量了不同风量条件下水浴除尘器的除尘效率,分析了影响水浴除尘器除尘效率的因素.试验结果表明,水浴除尘器在特定条件下,对钠气溶胶除尘效率效果较好.该试验研究结果对快堆核电站除尘设备选择及除尘系统的设计有参考价值.

  17. Optimizing the performance of neural interface devices with hybrid poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-chen

    This thesis describes methods for improving the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a direct neural interfacing material. The chronic foreign body response is always a challenge for implanted bionic devices. After long-term implantation (typically 2-4 weeks), insulating glial scars form around the devices, inhibiting signal transmission, which ultimately leads to device failure. The mechanical mismatch at the device-tissue interface is one of the issues that has been associated with chronic foreign body response. Another challenge for using PEDOT as a neural interface material is its mechanical failure after implantation. We observed cracking and delamination of PEDOT coatings on devices after extended implantations. In the first part of this thesis, we present a novel method for directly measuring the mechanical properties of a PEDOT thin film. Before investigating methods to improve the mechanical behavior of PEDOT, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of PEDOT thin film is required. A PEDOT thin film was machined into a dog-bone shape specimen with a dual beam FIB-SEM. With an OmniProbe, this PEDOT specimen could be attached onto a force sensor, while the other side was attached to OmniProbe. By moving the OmniProbe, the specimen could be deformed in tension, and a force sensor recorded the applied load on the sample simultaneously. Mechanical tensile tests were conducted in the FIB-SEM chamber along with in situ observation. With precise force measurement from the force sensor and the corresponding high resolution SEM images, we were able to convert the data to a stress-strain curve for further analysis. By analyzing these stress-strain curves, we were able to obtain information about PEDOT including the Young's modulus, strength of failure, strain to failure, and toughness (energy to failure). This information should be useful for future material selection and molecular design for specific applications. The second section of this thesis is mainly focused on developing a soft and conductive material by in situ PEDOT polymerization into soft matrix. First, PEDOT was in situ polymerized into extracellular matrix (ECM) as a conductive, soft, and bioactive material for neural interfacing. ECM is basically a matrix of proteins which provides biological cues with the potential to promote neural attachment. We modified the electrode to a needle shape, which could be inserted into the ECM film. The limited surface area on the electrode and the close contact with ECM made it possible to polymerize PEDOT into the ECM more easily. The conductivity of PEDOT-ECM was confirmed to be similar to intrinsic PEDOT. A cell adhesion test using the PC12 cell line was used to evaluate its biocompatibility. PEDOT-ECM shows improved cell adhesion for PC12 cells, as compared either bare metal electrodes or PEDOT coated surfaces. In the future this approach may be elevated to an " autologous" concept, where the ECM could be derived from the host patients themselves to further reduce the foreign body response. Second, low modulus hydrogels were used as templates for PEDOT polymerization. EDOT monomers were premixed into agarose hydrogels. The electrochemical polymerization was typically conducted in potentiostatic (constant voltage) mode with working voltage of 2 V. After 0.8 C/cm2 charge density, a significant dark blue cloud was observed indicating that PEDOT was in situ polymerized into hydrogel matrix. A series of studies was conducted to confirm the improved mechanical properties, electrical properties and biocompatibility of the PEDOT-gel as compared to the typical solid PEDOT. Animal studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of PEDOT-gel coated electrode in vivo. Rats were used as the animal model with 3 rats in each group of bare electrode, PEDOT-coated, and PEDOT-gel coated electrode (n=9). The in vivo impedance was used to confirm the performance of the implanted electrodes. The results showed that the impedance had a significant increase after 4 weeks with the bare and solid PEDOT-coated electrode. This is consistent with the typical glial scar encapsulation around the electrode leading to an impedance increase. PEDOT-gel presents consistently low impedance along with 10 weeks implantation implying there was much less reactive response around the insertion site. These in vivo experiments on PEDOT-gels suggest that PEDOT-gels are promising neural interfacing materials for patients clinically.

  18. Adverse health effects of ethylene oxide and occupational exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, K

    1984-01-01

    The proposed revision of the US standard for occupational exposure to ethylene oxide has recently been topical and controversial. Most of the recent experimental and epidemiological evidence of health effects, which provoked lowering the permissible exposure limit, appears to be unreliable and insufficient for risk assessment.

  19. Analysis of the complexation reaction between Ag+ and ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nymeijer, Kitty; Visser, Tymen; Brilman, Wim; Wessling, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    In the present work the reversible, bimolecular (1,1) reaction between ethylene and Ag+ in concentrated AgNO3(aq) solutions is analyzed. Due to interactions between the positively charged Ag+ ions and the negatively charged NO3- ions, the silver nitrate is not completely dissociated and the actual f

  20. Enhanced Ionic Conductivity of Poly(Ethylene Imine) Phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senadeera, G.K.R.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen;

    1996-01-01

    The conductivity of mixtures of phosphoric acid with poly(ethylene imine) has been studied, and it was found that the conductivity of such mixtures with high acid content can be enhanced by the addition of highly dispersed silica (fumed silica). At the same time, silica addition increases the sti...

  1. Polyamine levels and tomato fruit development: possible interaction with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftner, R A; Baldi, B G

    1990-02-01

    Fruits of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Liberty, ripen slowly and have a prolonged keeping quality. Ethylene production and the levels of polyamines in pericarp of cv Liberty, Pik Red, and Rutgers were measured in relation to fruit development. Depending on the stage of fruit development, Liberty produced between 16 and 38% of the ethylene produced by Pik Red and Rutgers. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were present in all cultivars. Cadaverine was detected only in Rutgers. Levels of putrescine and spermidine declined between the immature and mature green stages of development and prior to the onset of climacteric ethylene production. In Pik Red and Rutgers, the decline persisted, whereas in Liberty, the putrescine level increased during ripening. Ripe pericarp of Liberty contained about three and six times more free (unconjugated) polyamines than Pik Red and Rutgers, respectively. No pronounced changes in spermidine or cadaverine occurred during ripening. The increase in the free polyamine level in ripe pericarp of Liberty may account for the reduction of climacteric ethylene production, and prolonged storage life.

  2. SYNTHESIS OF NiO NANOPARTICLES IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desheng Ai; Xiaming Dai; Qingfeng Li; Changsheng Deng; Shinhoo Kang

    2004-01-01

    NiO nanoparticles with well-dispersed property were prepared via a wet chemical method in ethylene glycol (EG) without soluble polymer as a protective agent. The mechanism of chemical process was proposed based on color change during the experiment. The dispersion function of EG was discussed.

  3. Proteomic Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings Treated with Ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene (ET) is a volatile plant growth hormone that most famously modulates fruit ripening, but it also controls plant growth, development and stress responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ET is perceived by receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a signal is transduced through a protein kinase,...

  4. Direct Routes from Synthesis Gas to Ethylene Glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombek, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the synthesis of ethylene glycol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using bimetallic catalysts. Although this technology has not been implemented, it illustrates two important future trends, namely, use of bimetallic catalysts and use of coal-derived carbon monoxide and hydrogen as a new feed stock. (JN)

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. N/A

  6. Challenges in the diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, David J; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M

    2014-03-01

    Ethylene glycol poisoning, while uncommon, is clinically significant due to the associated risk of severe morbidity or lethality and it continues to occur in many countries around the world. The clinical presentation of ethylene glycol toxicity, while classically described in three phases, varies widely and when combined with the range of differential diagnoses that must be considered makes diagnosis challenging. Early and accurate detection is important in these patients, however, as there is a need to start antidotal treatment early to prevent serious harm. In this article, we will review the literature and provide guidance regarding the diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning. While gas chromatography is the gold standard, the usefulness of this test is hampered by delays in access due to availability. Consequently, there are several surrogate markers that can give an indication of ethylene glycol exposure but these must be interpreted with caution and within the clinical context. An in-depth review of these tests, particularly the detection of a raised osmolar gap or an raised anion gap acidosis, will form the main focus of this article.

  7. Ethylene glycol emissions from on-road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ezra C; Knighton, W Berk; Fortner, Ed C; Herndon, Scott C; Onasch, Timothy B; Franklin, Jonathan P; Worsnop, Douglas R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Gentner, Drew R; Goldstein, Allen H; Harley, Robert A

    2015-03-17

    Ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH), used as engine coolant for most on-road vehicles, is an intermediate volatility organic compound (IVOC) with a high Henry's law coefficient. We present measurements of ethylene glycol (EG) vapor in the Caldecott Tunnel near San Francisco, using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Ethylene glycol was detected at mass-to-charge ratio 45, usually interpreted as solely coming from acetaldehyde. EG concentrations in bore 1 of the Caldecott Tunnel, which has a 4% uphill grade, were characterized by infrequent (approximately once per day) events with concentrations exceeding 10 times the average concentration, likely from vehicles with malfunctioning engine coolant systems. Limited measurements in tunnels near Houston and Boston are not conclusive regarding the presence of EG in sampled air. Previous PTR-MS measurements in urban areas may have overestimated acetaldehyde concentrations at times due to this interference by ethylene glycol. Estimates of EG emission rates from the Caldecott Tunnel data are unrealistically high, suggesting that the Caldecott data are not representative of emissions on a national or global scale. EG emissions are potentially important because they can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol following oxidation in the atmospheric aqueous phase.

  8. Glycolic acid production using ethylene glycol-oxidizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, M; Sasaki, M; Hidalgo, A R; Nakano, M; Shimizu, S

    2001-10-01

    Screening for microorganisms oxidizing ethylene glycol to glycolic acid was carried out. Among stock cultures, several yeasts and acetic acid bacteria showed high glycolic acid producing activity. Pichia naganishii AKU 4267 formed the highest concentration of glycolic acid, 35.3 g/l, from 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol (molar conversion yield, 26.0%). Among soil isolates, Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126, isolated using propylene glycol as a sole carbon source, formed the highest concentration of glycolic acid, 25.1 g/l, from 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol (molar conversion yield, 18.5%). Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126 showed higher activity toward 20% (v/v) ethylene glycol than P. naganishii AKU 4267. Optimization of the conditions for glycolic acid production was investigated using P. naganishii AKU 4267 and Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126. Under the optimized conditions, P. naganishii AKU 4267 and Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126 formed 105 and 110 g/l of glycolic acid (corrected molar conversion yields, 88.0 and 92.2%) during 120 h of reaction, respectively.

  9. RTE1, A Novel Regulator of Ethylene Receptor Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caren Chang (PI)

    2013-02-05

    RTE1 is a novel conserved gene found in both plants and animals. The main aims of this project were to: 1) examine Arabidopsis RTE1 function using genetic and cell biological analyses, and 2) determine whether the Arabidopsis RTH gene plays a role similar to that of RTE1 in ethylene signaling.

  10. Development of new photocatalysts for efficient removal of ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Godtfred

    The aim of this thesis has been to remove ethylene/ethene (from here on called ethene because it is shortest) photocatalytically with the primary purpose of preventing fruit ripening during shipping. This has been achieved based on TiO2. The topic has been approached from different angles. The most...

  11. Flower development, reproduction and fruit ripening : the role of ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinis, Domenico de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis approaches the study of the role of ethylene in different aspects of plant reproduction; flower development, pollination, fruit ripening and spoilage. These different aspects have been studied at physiological, biochemical and molecular level. Chapter I, general introduction is divided i

  12. Optical properties, ethylene production and softening in mango fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Grassi, M.; Meirelles de Azevedo Pementel, A.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Firmness decay, chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation, controlled by ethylene, are major ripening events in mango fruit. Pigment content and tissue structure affect the optical properties of the mesocarp, which can be measured nondestructively in the intact fruit by time-resolved reflect

  13. Direct Routes from Synthesis Gas to Ethylene Glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombek, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the synthesis of ethylene glycol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using bimetallic catalysts. Although this technology has not been implemented, it illustrates two important future trends, namely, use of bimetallic catalysts and use of coal-derived carbon monoxide and hydrogen as a new feed stock. (JN)

  14. Inhibition of auxin-induced ethylene production by lycoricidinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bin-G.; Lee, June-S.; Oh, Seung-Eun (Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea)); Horiuchi, Yuko; Imaseki, Hidemasa

    1984-03-01

    Lycoricidinol, a natural growth inhibitor isolated from bulbs of Lycoris radiata Herb. strongly suppressed auxin-induced ethylene production from the hypocotyl segments of etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata Wilczek) seedlings. The inhibitor did not significantly inhibit ethylene formation from its immediate precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), during short-term (up to 4h) incubation. The ACC content in tissue treated with IAA was reduced by lycoricidinol in close parallel with the inhibition of ethylene production. Examination of radioactive metabolites in tissues labeled with 3,4-/sup 14/C-methionine indicated that reduction of the ACC content was not due to any possible promotive effect of lycoricidinol on conjugation of ACC with malonate. Lycoricidinol showed no inhibitory effect on the activity of ACC synthase if applied in vitro, but it almost completely abolished the increase in the enzyme activity when applied in vivo during incubation of the tissue with IAA. Lycoricidinol also strongly inhibited incorporation of /sup 14/C-leucine into protein in the tissue. The suppression of the enzyme induction and, in turn, that of ethylene production by lycoricidinol were interpreted as being due to the inhibition of protein synthesis.

  15. Flower development, reproduction and fruit ripening : the role of ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinis, Domenico de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis approaches the study of the role of ethylene in different aspects of plant reproduction; flower development, pollination, fruit ripening and spoilage. These different aspects have been studied at physiological, biochemical and molecular level. Chapter I, general introduction is divided i

  16. Role of ethylene in the germination metabolism of ricinus communis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Simona; Dumitras, Dan C.; Godeanu, Adriana

    1999-03-01

    A CO2 laser-based photoacoustic method has been used to monitor the ethylene (C2H4) released by castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds during germination. The relationship between the evolution of the C2H4 germinating seeds and the respiration intensity is presented.

  17. Ethylene Glycol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunović, Dragan; Schuchmann, Kai; Müller, Volker

    2016-01-19

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to grow by the oxidation of diols, such as 1,2-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, or ethylene glycol. Recent analyses demonstrated fundamentally different ways for oxidation of 1,2-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of ethylene glycol. Our data demonstrate that ethylene glycol is dehydrated to acetaldehyde, which is then disproportionated to ethanol and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). The latter is further converted to acetate, and this pathway is coupled to ATP formation by substrate-level phosphorylation. Apparently, the product ethanol is in part further oxidized and the reducing equivalents are recycled by reduction of CO2 to acetate in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Biochemical data as well as the results of protein synthesis analysis are consistent with the hypothesis that the propane diol dehydratase (PduCDE) and CoA-dependent propionaldehyde dehydrogenase (PduP) proteins, encoded by the pdu gene cluster, also catalyze ethylene glycol dehydration to acetaldehyde and its CoA-dependent oxidation to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, genes encoding bacterial microcompartments as part of the pdu gene cluster are also expressed during growth on ethylene glycol, arguing for a dual function of the Pdu microcompartment system. Acetogenic bacteria are characterized by their ability to use CO2 as a terminal electron acceptor by a specific pathway, the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, enabling in most acetogens chemolithoautotrophic growth with H2 and CO2. However, acetogens are very versatile and can use a wide variety of different substrates for growth. Here we report on the elucidation of the pathway for utilization of ethylene glycol by the model acetogen Acetobacterium woodii. This diol is degraded by dehydration to acetaldehyde followed by a disproportionation to acetate and ethanol. We present evidence that this pathway is catalyzed by the same enzyme system recently described for the utilization of 1

  18. Ethylene oxidation chemistry in a well-stirred reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinov, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Malte, P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-09-01

    Ethylene is an important intermediate in the combustion of methane, larger aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatics. Detailed fuel-lean C{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O/air well-stirred reactor data by Thornton were used to analyze reported combustion chemistry mechanisms and the development of this study`s ethylene oxidation mechanism. The data set had been obtained for the temperature range 1,003 to 1,253 K and ethylene-oxygen equivalence ratio range 0.086 to 0.103, at atmospheric pressure. Mechanisms were derived from reaction sets of Westbrook and Pitz, and Dagaut, Cathonnet and Boettner. Examination of each reported mechanism indicated unusually large kinetic rates for the vinyl decomposition reaction were used in order to obtain agreement with the Thornton data set. An ethylene oxidation model was developed in order to address the mechanistic problems of the previous models. This study`s mechanism well simulated the overall rate of ethylene oxidation and concentration profiles of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Successful predictions by the model were dependent on a new high temperature vinyl oxidation reaction route, C{sub 2}H{sub 3} + O{sub 2} = CH{sub 2}CHO + O with a branching ratio of 1.19--1.21 at 1,053 K to 1.63--2.47 at 1,253 K. The branching ratio values were dependent upon the extent of fall-off for the C{sub 2}H{sub 3} + O{sub 2} = CH{sub 2}O + HCO reaction. 132 refs.

  19. The Effect of Ethylene and Propylene Pulses on Respiration, Ripening Advancement, Ethylene-Forming Enzyme, and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Avocado Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, D A; Laties, G G

    1991-03-01

    When early-season avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) were treated with ethylene or propylene for 24 hours immediately on picking, the time to the onset of the respiratory climacteric, i.e. the lag period, remained unchanged compared with that in untreated fruit. When fruit were pulsed 24 hours after picking, on the other hand, the lag period was shortened. In both cases, however, a 24 hour ethylene or propylene pulse induced a transient increase in respiration, called the pulse-peak, unaccompanied by ethylene production (IL Eaks [1980] Am Soc Hortic Sci 105: 744-747). The pulse also caused a sharp rise in ethylene-forming enzyme activity in both cases, without any increase in the low level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity. Thus, the shortening of the lag period by an ethylene pulse is not due to an effect of ethylene on either of the two key enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis. A comparison of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis polypeptide profiles of in vitro translation products of poly(A(+)) mRNA from control and ethylene-pulsed fruit showed both up- and down-regulation in response to ethylene pulsing of a number of genes expressed during the ripening syndrome. It is proposed that the pulse-peak or its underlying events reflect an intrinsic element in the ripening process that in late-season or continuously ethylene-treated fruit may be subsumed in the overall climacteric response. A computerized system that allows continuous readout of multiple samples has established that the continued presentation of exogeneous ethylene or propylene to preclimacteric fruit elicits a dual respiration response comprising the merged pulse-peak and climacteric peak in series. The sequential removal of cores from a single fruit has proven an unsatisfactory sampling procedure inasmuch as coring induces wound ethylene, evokes a positive respiration response, and advances ripening.

  20. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-06-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed.

  1. Laser transmission welding of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and biodegradable poly(ethylene terephthalate) - Based blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisario, Annamaria; Veniali, Francesco; Barletta, Massimiliano; Tagliaferri, Vincenzo; Vesco, Silvia

    2017-03-01

    Joining of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) PET and its biodegradable derivatives is of high relevance to ensure good productive rate, low cost and operational safety for fabrication of medical and electronic devices, sport equipments as well as for manufacturing of food and drug packaging solutions. In the present investigation, granules of PET and PETs modified by organic additives, which promote biodegradation of the polymeric chains, were prepared by extrusion compounding. The achieved granules were subsequently re-extruded to shape thin (330 μm) flat sheets. Substrates cut from these sheets were joined by Laser Transmission Welding (LTW) with a continuous wave High Power Diode Laser (cw-HPDL). First, based on a qualitative evaluation of the welded joints, the most suitable operational windows for PETs laser joining were identified. Second, characterization of the mechanical properties of the welded joints was performed by tensile tests. Accordingly, Young's modulus of PET and biodegradable PET blends was studied by Takayanagi's model and, based on the experimental results, a novel predicting analytical model derived from the mixture rule was developed. Lastly, material degradation of the polymeric joints was evaluated by FT-IR analysis, thus allowing to identify the main routes to thermal degradation of PET and, especially, of biodegradable PET blends during laser processing.

  2. in situ ring-opening polymerization of hydroxyapatite/poly(ethylene adipate)--(ethylene terephthalate) biomimetic composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Punnama Siriphannon; Pathavuth Monvisade

    2013-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite/poly(ethylene adipate)--poly(ethylene terephthalate) biomaterials (HAp/PEA--PET) have been prepared by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic oligo(ethylene adipate)--oligo(ethylene terephthalate) (C-OEA--C-OET) in the porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds at 250 °C for 24 h under vacuum. The content of ROP-PEA--PET in the HAp/PEA--PET composite was about 20 wt% with the values of number average molecular weight ($\\bar{M}$n) and weight average molecular weight ($\\bar{M}$W) of 3380 and 7160 g/mol, respectively. Compressive strength and modulus of the HAp/PEA--PET composites were about 29 and 246 MPa, respectively. These mechanical properties were higher than those of the porous HAp templates and natural cancellous bone. In vitro bioactivity of the HAp/PEA--PET composites was studied by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) under the flowing system at the rate of 130 mL/day for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The formation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals was observed on the composite surfaces through the consumption of calcium and phosphorus from the SBF solution, indicating the bioactivity of these HAp/PEA--PET composites. These results indicated the competency of HAp/PEA--PET composites for biomedical applications.

  3. Ethylene adsorption on regularly stepped copper surface: C 2H 4 on Cu(210)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Daichi; Okada, Michio; Franco, Francisco C., Jr.; Kasai, Toshio

    2011-05-01

    Ethylene adsorption on regularly stepped Cu(210) surface was investigated with infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. At 90 K, π-bonded ethylene was adsorbed on Cu(210) molecularly and all species were desorbed below 160 K. There were three types of π-bonded ethylene on the surface. Recent experimental studies have suggested that ethylene is dehydrogenated on Cu(410) due to the regular step [Kravchuk et al ., J. Phys. Chem. C, 113 (2009) 20881]. However, neither the formation of di-σ-bonded ethylene nor dehydrogenation occurred on Cu(210).

  4. Polyamines inhibit biosynthesis of ethylene in higher plant tissue and fruit protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelbaum, A; Burgoon, A C; Anderson, J D; Lieberman, M

    1981-08-01

    Ethylene production in apple fruit and protoplasts and in leaf tissue was inhibited by spermidine or spermine. These polyamines, as well as putrescine, inhibited auxin-induced ethylene production and the conversion of methionine and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to ethylene. Polyamines were more effective as inhibitors of ethylene synthesis at the early, rather than at the late, stages of fruit ripening. Ca(2+) in the incubation medium reduced the inhibitory effect caused by the amines. A possible mode of action by which polyamines inhibit ethylene production is discussed.

  5. FPGA Boot Loader and Scrubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Randall S.; Jones, Bailey

    2009-01-01

    A computer program loads configuration code into a Xilinx field-programmable gate array (FPGA), reads back and verifies that code, reloads the code if an error is detected, and monitors the performance of the FPGA for errors in the presence of radiation. The program consists mainly of a set of VHDL files (wherein "VHDL" signifies "VHSIC Hardware Description Language" and "VHSIC" signifies "very-high-speed integrated circuit").

  6. Thermal decomposition of ethylene oxide on Pd(111). Comparison of the pathways for the selective oxidation of ethylene and olefin metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, R.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Ormerod, R.M. (Univ. of Keele (United Kingdom)); Tysoe, W.T. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The product distribution detected in the multimass temperature-programmed desorption of a saturated overlayer of ethylene oxide adsorbed on Pd(111) at [approximately] 180 K indicates that it decomposes to yield ethylene and acetaldehyde. These observations are interpreted by postulating that ethylene oxide reacts to form an oxymetallocycle. This is proposed to thermally decompose in a manner analogous to carbometallocycles that form during olefin metathesis catalysis by the reaction between an alkene and a surface carbene. Thus, the metallocycle can decompose to yield ethylene and deposit adsorbed atomic oxygen or undergo a [beta]-hydrogen transfer to form acetaldehyde. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Links Between Ethylene and Sulfur Nutrition-A Regulatory Interplay or Just Metabolite Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzynska, Anna; Moniuszko, Grzegorz; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Multiple reports demonstrate associations between ethylene and sulfur metabolisms, however the details of these links have not yet been fully characterized; the links might be at the metabolic and the regulatory levels. First, sulfur-containing metabolite, methionine, is a precursor of ethylene and is a rate limiting metabolite for ethylene synthesis; the methionine cycle contributes to both sulfur and ethylene metabolism. On the other hand, ethylene is involved in the complex response networks to various stresses and it is known that S deficiency leads to photosynthesis and C metabolism disturbances that might be responsible for oxidative stress. In several plant species, ethylene increases during sulfur starvation and might serve signaling purposes to initiate the process of metabolism reprogramming during adjustment to sulfur deficit. An elevated level of ethylene might result from increased activity of enzymes involved in its synthesis. It has been demonstrated that the alleviation of cadmium stress in plants by application of S seems to be mediated by ethylene formation. On the other hand, the ethylene-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants are impaired in sulfur uptake, reduction and metabolism, and they invest their already limited S into methionine needed for synthesis of ethylene constitutively emitted in large amounts to the atmosphere. Regulatory links of EIN3 and SLIM1 (both from the same family of transcriptional factors) involved in the regulation of ethylene and sulfur pathway, respectively, is also quite probable as well as the reciprocal modulation of both pathways on the enzyme activity levels.

  8. Links Between Ethylene and Sulfur Nutrition—A Regulatory Interplay or Just Metabolite Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzynska, Anna; Moniuszko, Grzegorz; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Multiple reports demonstrate associations between ethylene and sulfur metabolisms, however the details of these links have not yet been fully characterized; the links might be at the metabolic and the regulatory levels. First, sulfur-containing metabolite, methionine, is a precursor of ethylene and is a rate limiting metabolite for ethylene synthesis; the methionine cycle contributes to both sulfur and ethylene metabolism. On the other hand, ethylene is involved in the complex response networks to various stresses and it is known that S deficiency leads to photosynthesis and C metabolism disturbances that might be responsible for oxidative stress. In several plant species, ethylene increases during sulfur starvation and might serve signaling purposes to initiate the process of metabolism reprogramming during adjustment to sulfur deficit. An elevated level of ethylene might result from increased activity of enzymes involved in its synthesis. It has been demonstrated that the alleviation of cadmium stress in plants by application of S seems to be mediated by ethylene formation. On the other hand, the ethylene-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants are impaired in sulfur uptake, reduction and metabolism, and they invest their already limited S into methionine needed for synthesis of ethylene constitutively emitted in large amounts to the atmosphere. Regulatory links of EIN3 and SLIM1 (both from the same family of transcriptional factors) involved in the regulation of ethylene and sulfur pathway, respectively, is also quite probable as well as the reciprocal modulation of both pathways on the enzyme activity levels. PMID:26648954

  9. Ethylene Production and Petiole Growth in Rumex Plants Induced by Soil Waterlogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Harren, Frans J. M.; Bögemann, Gerald M.; Blom, Cornelius W. P. M.; Reuss, Jörg

    1990-01-01

    Petiole growth of Rumex acetosa L., Rumex crispus L., and Rumex palustris Sm. in response to soil waterlogging was studied in relation to production of the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. Ethylene production was monitored in a flow-through system and a recently developed laser driven photoacoustic detection system, which allowed ethylene measurements as low as 6 picoliters per liter. R. acetosa showed a two-fold increase in ethylene production correlated with a slight enhancement of the growth of the petiole that developed during the waterlogging treatment. Both R. crispus and R. palustris showed a strong petiole elongation of existing as well as newly formed petioles, which was correlated with a 20-fold increase in ethylene production after approximately 7 days. Increased rates of ethylene production in R. palustris were related to a strong increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and a slight, but detectable, increase in ethylene forming enzyme activity. In R. acetosa on the other hand, only a very small increase in ACC concentration was observed. Changes in ethylene production in Rumex are strongly correlated with variation in ACC content and ethylene forming enzyme activity. The interaction between ethylene production/internal concentration and ethylene sensitivity of the three Rumex species is discussed in relation to their field location in a flooding gradient and their differential resistance toward waterlogging and submergence. PMID:16667798

  10. Sites of ethylene production in the pollinated and unpollinated senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, R

    1977-01-01

    Production of endogenous ethylene from the styles, ovary and petals of pollinated and unpollinated flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus L. was measured. The rate of ethylene production of cut, unpollinated flowers aged in water at 18°C was low until the onset of petal wilting, when a rapid surge of ethylene occurred in all tissues. The flower ethylene production was evolved mostly from the styles and petals. The bases of petals from unpollinated, senescing flowers evolved ethylene faster and sometimes earlier than the upper parts. Treatment of cut flowers with propylene, an ethylene analogue, accelerated wilting of flower petals and promoted endogenous ethylene production in all flower tissues. Pollination of intact flowers also promoted endogenous ethylene production and caused accelerated petal wilting within 2-3 days from pollination. Although the data are consistent with the hypothesis that ethylene forms a link between pollination of the style and petal wilting, in the unpollinated flower the style and petals can evolve a surge of ethylene independently of each other, about the time when the petals irreversibly wilt. The results are discussed in relation to the role of ethylene in flower senescence.

  11. Dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethylene glycol on rutile TiO2(110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjun; Kay, Bruce D; Dohnálek, Zdenek

    2013-08-07

    The interactions of ethylene glycol with a partially reduced rutile TiO2(110) surface have been studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The saturation coverage on surface Ti rows is determined to be 0.43 monolayer (ML), slightly less than one ethylene glycol per two Ti sites. Most of the adsorbed ethylene glycol (∼80%) undergoes further reactions to yield other products. Two major channels are observed, dehydration yielding ethylene and water and dehydrogenation yielding acetaldehyde and hydrogen. Hydrogen formation is rather surprising as it has not been observed previously on TiO2(110) from simple organic molecules. The coverage dependent yields of ethylene and acetaldehyde correlate well with those of water and hydrogen, respectively. Dehydration dominates at lower ethylene glycol coverages (ethylene glycol coverages (>0.2 ML). Our results suggest that the observed dehydration and dehydrogenation reactions proceed via different surface intermediates.

  12. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  13. Differential expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes in drupelets and receptacle of raspberry (Rubus idaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Monsalve, Liliam; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Valdenegro, Mónika; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Defilippi, Bruno G; González-Agüero, Mauricio

    2015-05-01

    Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is traditionally classified as non-climacteric, and the role of ethylene in fruit ripening is not clear. The available information indicates that the receptacle, a modified stem that supports the drupelets, is involved in ethylene production of ripe fruits. In this study, we report receptacle-related ethylene biosynthesis during the ripening of fruits of cv. Heritage. In addition, the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis transcripts was evaluated during the ripening process. The major transcript levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (RiACS1) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (RiACO1) were concomitant with ethylene production, increased total soluble solids (TSS) and decreased titratable acidity (TA) and fruit firmness. Moreover, ethylene biosynthesis and transcript levels of RiACS1 and RiACO1 were higher in the receptacle, sustaining the receptacle's role as a source of ethylene in regulating the ripening of raspberry.

  14. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of an ethylene receptor gene from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) by hormone and environmental stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene receptor (ethylene response sensor, ERS) is the primary component involving in the ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway. In the present study, a GZ-ERS gene encoding ERS was cloned from a sugarcane cv. YL17 (Saccharum spp.) using RT-PCR and ligation-mediated PCR wi...

  15. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, A; Tsuboi, N; Nakatani, N; Nakane, K; Sakurai, N; Nakagawa, N; Sakugawa, H

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20 degrees C. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NOx or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed.

  16. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  17. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  18. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  19. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  20. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  1. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  2. Hyperbranched PEG by random copolymerization of ethylene oxide and glycidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Daniel; Schömer, Martina; Wurm, Frederik; Hermanns, M Iris; Kirkpatrick, C James; Frey, Holger

    2010-10-18

    The synthesis of hyperbranched poly(ethylene glycol) (hbPEG) in one step was realized by random copolymerization of ethylene oxide and glycidol, leading to a biocompatible, amorphous material with multiple hydroxyl functionalities. A series of copolymers with moderate polydispersity ($\\overline {M} _{{\\rm w}} /\\overline {M} _{{\\rm n}} $ < 1.8) was obtained with varying glycidol content (3-40 mol-%) and molecular weights up to 49 800 g mol(-1) . The randomly branched structure of the copolymers was confirmed by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry). MTS assay demonstrated low cell toxicity of the hyperbranched PEG, comparable to the highly established linear PEG.

  3. Ethylene, nitric oxide and haemoglobins in plant tolerance to flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2015-01-01

    As much as 12% of the world's soils may suffer excess water so that flooding is a major limiting factor on crop production in many areas. Plants attempt to deal with submergence by forming root aerenchyma to facilitate oxygen diffusion from the shoot to the root, initiating a hyponastic response...... where petiole elongation facilitates access to atmospheric oxygen or initiating a bio-energetically conserving quiescence phase. Ethylene has well established roles in the initiation of programmed cell death (PCD) to form air-spaces in aerenchyma and in the hyponastic responses in petioles. The flooding......-tolerant species Rumex palustris and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been extensively exploited to reveal some key molecular events. Our groups have recently demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) triggers the biosynthesis of ethylene during stress and that NO plays key roles in PCD and the hyponastic...

  4. Conjugates of abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, ethylene, gibberellins, and jasmonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Alicja; Bajguz, Andrzej

    2011-12-01

    Phytohormones, including auxins, abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, cytokinins, ethylene, gibberellins, and jasmonates, are involved in all aspects of plant growth, and developmental processes as well as environmental responses. However, our understanding of hormonal homeostasis is far from complete. Phytohormone conjugation is considered as a part of the mechanism to control cellular levels of these compounds. Active phytohormones are changed into multiple forms by acylation, esterification or glycosylation, for example. It seems that conjugated compounds could serve as pool of inactive phytohormones that can be converted to active forms by de-conjugation reactions. Some conjugates are thought to be temporary storage forms, from which free active hormones can be released after hydrolysis. It is also believed that conjugation serves functions, such as irreversible inactivation, transport, compartmentalization, and protection against degradation. The nature of abscisic acid, brassinosteroid, ethylene, gibberellin, and jasmonate conjugates is discussed.

  5. Epidemiological studies on ethylene oxide and cancer: an updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstedt, L C

    1988-01-01

    In 1959, Dr Lars Ehrenberg and a coworker warned the Swedish authorities that ethylene oxide, a common chemical, constituted a potential cancer hazard. Twenty years later, the first epidemiological study and case reports were published indicating an increased cancer risk after occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. An updating of three small Swedish cohorts comprising 709 employees revealed 33 deaths from cancer whereas 20 were expected from national average rates. The excess was due mainly to an increased risk of stomach cancer in one production plant and an excess of blood and lymphatic malignancies in all three cohorts. The results are in accordance with the results of clastogenic, animal and short-term tests and support Professor Ehrenberg's hypothesis, formulated 28 years ago.

  6. Methanolysis of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) in Supercritical Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The depolymerization of poly(ethylene terephthalate, PET) in supercritical methanol is studied using a stainless stirred autoclave at temperature of 255~260℃, pressure of 8.5~14.0 MPa, and methanol/PET weight ratio of 3~8. Under the optimal conditions, the PET is depolymerized completely to its monomers in 60 min. The main products of the reaction are dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol. There are still some small amounts of byproducts, such as methyl-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, bis(hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, dimers and oligomers. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chrom- atography and gas chromatography are used to analyze solid products and liquid products respectively. The results of depolymerization show that the yield of dimethyl terephthalate and the degree of PET depolymerization are dependent on the reaction temperature, weight ratio of methanol to PET and reaction time. But the reaction pressure has little influence on the depolymerization as long as methanol is in supercritical state.

  7. A kinetic study of the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedighi, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Gardner, C.L., E-mail: cgardner88@sympatico.c [Department of Chemical Engineering and Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we have examined the kinetics of the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene in a PEM reactor. While in itself this reaction is of little industrial interest, this reaction can be looked upon as a model reaction for many of the important hydrogenation processes including the refining of heavy oils and the hydrogenation of vegetable oils. To study the electrochemical hydrogenation of ethylene, several experimental techniques have been used including polarization measurements, measurement of the composition of the exit gases and potential step, transient measurements. The results show that the hydrogenation reaction proceeds rapidly and essentially to completion. By fitting the experimental transient data to the results from a zero-dimensional mathematical model of the process, a set of kinetic parameters for the reactions has been obtained that give generally good agreement with the experimental results. It seems probable that similar experimental techniques could be used to study the electrochemical hydrogenation of other unsaturated organic molecules of more industrial significance.

  8. Polyamines in conventional and organic vegetables exposed to exogenous ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Maria Rosecler Miranda; Vianello, Fabio; Saeki, Margarida Juri; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Relationships between endogenous levels of polyamines by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography (GC), nitrate and response to the application of ethylene were established between organic and conventional vegetables (broccoli, collard greens, carrots and beets), both raw and cooked. Responses to ethylene showed that organic plants were less responsive to the growth regulator. The levels of free polyamines obtained by TLC were higher in organic vegetables. Organic broccoli showed higher levels of putrescine (Put), and cooking resulted in lowering the overall content of these amines. Conventional collard green showed the highest level of putrescine in the leaves compared with organic. Tubers of carrots and beets contain the highest levels of Put. These plants also contain high levels of spermine. GC analysis showed the highest polyamines contents compared with those obtained by TLC. Cooking process decreased putrescine and cadaverine content, both in conventionally and organically grown vegetables. Organic beets contain lower NO3(-) compared with its conventional counterpart.

  9. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  11. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  12. Hybrid armature projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  13. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  14. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  15. Multimeric, Multifunctional Derivatives of Poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Bonora

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of multifunctional polymers founded on high-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. The design of new PEG derivatives assembled in a dendrimer-like multimeric fashion or bearing different functionalities on the same molecule is described. Their use as new drug delivery systems based on the conjugation of multiple copies or diversely active drugs on the same biocompatible support is illustrated.

  16. Fouling and Antifouling of Depetanizer in Ethylene Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zhongjie; Li Yunlong; Fan Xuezhi; Hong Qingyao

    2002-01-01

    Factors affecting fouling of depentanizer in ethylene units wereexplored through study of thecomposition of pyrolysis gasoline, C5 distillate and fouling deposits from the depentanizer while takinginto consideration the processing parameters. A variety of antifouling measures, in particular the injec-tion of a special anti-fouling agent into the Cs gas phase pipeline and the C5 distillate reflux pipelinewere introduced. Commercial evaluation test of a multifunctional anti-fouling agent, the RIPP-1404anti-fouling agent, was also described.

  17. SURFACE TREATMENT OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) FABRIC WITH POLYETHYLENEIMINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.J. ATEIZA; I. HOLME; J.E. McINTYRE

    1997-01-01

    A branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) was applied to poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET) fabric to improve its surface moisture absorption so that the fabric becomes less liable to retention of electrostatic charge. The durability of this treatment was assessed by washing and followed by measurement of charge development on the fabric. The treated samples showed improved surface wetting compared to the untreated. The results are consistent with attachment of the BPEI to the PET surface by a cross-linking mechanism.

  18. Ethylene oxidation in a well-stirred reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinov, N.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Malte, P.C. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-10-01

    The detailed ethylene oxidation data set of Thornton, obtained for a well-stirred reactor operated fuel-lean at atmospheric pressure and for temperatures of 1003K to 1253K, is used as a basis for the comparison of chemical kinetic mechanisms reported in the literature and for the development of a new ethylene oxidation mechanism. The mechanisms examined are those of Westbrook and Pitz and Dagaut et al. These mechanisms indicated that unusually large rates for the vinyl decomposition reaction are required to obtain agreement with the Thornton data set. A new ethylene oxidation mechanism is developed in order to overcome some of the drawbacks of the previous mechanisms. The new mechanism closely simulates the overall rate of loss of ethylene, and the concentation of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} measured for the stirred reactor. Predictions by this mechanism are dependent on a new high temperature vinyl oxidation route, C{sub 2}H{sub 3} + O{sub 2} = CH{sub 2}CHO + O with a k{sub C2H3+O2=CH2CHO+O}/k{sub C2H3+O2=CH2O+HCO} branching ratio of 1.20 at 1053K to 2.05 at 1253K. The branching ratio values were dependent upon the extent of fall-off for the C{sub 2}H{sub 3} + O{sub 2} = CH{sub 2}O + HCO reaction.

  19. Self-consistent-field analysis of the micellization of carboxy-modified poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauw, Y.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The micellization properties of carboxy-modified Pluronics P85 (poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers) are investigated by means of a molecularly realistic self-consistent-field theory. We consider the, so-called, carboxylic acid

  20. Self-consistent-field analysis of the micellization of carboxy-modified poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauw, Y.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The micellization properties of carboxy-modified Pluronics P85 (poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers) are investigated by means of a molecularly realistic self-consistent-field theory. We consider the, so-called, carboxylic acid end-standi

  1. Insulin/poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) Complexes: Physicochemical Properties and Protein Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippa, Natassa; Kalinova, Radostina; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Pispas, Stergios; Demetzos, Costas

    2015-06-04

    Insulin (INS) was encapsulated into complexes with poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-b-PLys), which is a polypeptide-based block copolymer (a neutral-cationic block polyelectrolyte). The particular cationic-neutral block copolymer can complex INS molecules in aqueous media via electrostatic interactions. Light-scattering techniques are used to study the complexation process and structure of the hybrid nanoparticles in a series of buffers, as a function of protein concentration. The physicochemical and structural characteristics of the complexes depend on the ionic strength of the aqueous medium, while the concentration of PEG-b-PLys was constant through the series of solutions. As INS concentration increased the size distribution of the complexes decreased, especially at the highest ionic strength. The size/structure of complexes diluted in biological medium indicated that the copolymer imparts stealth properties and colloidal and biological stability to the complexes, features that could in turn affect the clearance properties in vivo. Therefore, these studies could be a rational roadmap for designing the optimum complexes/effective nanocarriers for proteins and peptides.

  2. Ethylene and hydrogen peroxide are involved in brassinosteroid-induced salt tolerance in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Deng, Xingguang; Zhou, Xue; Zhu, Lisha; Zou, Lijuan; Li, Pengxu; Zhang, Dawei; Lin, Honghui

    2016-01-01

    Crosstalk between phytohormone pathways is essential in plant growth, development and stress responses. Brassinosteroids (BRs) and ethylene are both pivotal plant growth regulators, and the interaction between these two phytohormones in the tomato response to salt stress is still unclear. Here, we explored the mechanism by which BRs affect ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in tomato seedlings under salt stress. The activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), an ethylene synthesis enzyme, and the ethylene signaling pathway were activated in plants pretreated with BRs. Scavenging of ethylene production or silencing of ethylene signaling components inhibited BR-induced salt tolerance and blocked BR-induced activities of several antioxidant enzymes. Previous studies have reported that BRs can induce plant tolerance to a variety of environmental stimuli by triggering the generation of H2O2 as a signaling molecule. We also found that H2O2 might be involved in the crosstalk between BRs and ethylene in the tomato response to salt stress. Simultaneously, BR-induced ethylene production was partially blocked by pretreated with a reactive oxygen species scavenger or synthesis inhibitor. These results strongly demonstrated that ethylene and H2O2 play important roles in BR-dependent induction of plant salt stress tolerance. Furthermore, we also investigated the relationship between BR signaling and ethylene signaling pathways in plant processes responding to salt stress. PMID:27739520

  3. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  4. Interactions between ethylene, abscisic acid and cytokinin during germination and seedling establishment in Arabidopsis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Veeraputhiran Subbiah; Karingu Janardhan Reddy

    2010-09-01

    In order to investigate the interaction of the plant hormones ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin in seed germination and early seedling development, we studied germination in ethylene-related mutants of Arabidopsis. Mutations in the genes etr1 and ein2, which reduce ethylene responses, showed increased dormancy and a delay in germination in comparison with wild type. Mutations in etr1, ein2 and ein6 also resulted in increased sensitivity to ABA with respect to inhibition of germination. Conversely, mutations in ctr1 and eto3, which lead to an increased ethylene response and overproduction of ethylene, respectively, decreased sensitivity to ABA during germination. Increased ABA sensitivity was also effected in wild type seeds by the presence during germination of AgNO3, an inhibitor of ethylene action. The addition of the cytokinin N-6 benzyl adenine (BA) reversed the increased sensitivity of ethylene-resistant mutants to ABA. The action of cytokinin in reversing increased ABA sensitivity of ethylene-resistant mutants also suggests that at least part of the action of cytokinin in promoting germination is independent of its role in stimulating ethylene production. These observations further extend the evidence in support of interaction between ethylene, ABA and cytokinin signalling in controlling seed germination and early seedling development in Arabidopsis.

  5. Regulation of Senescence in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) by Ethylene: Mode of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayak, S; Vaadia, Y; Dilley, D R

    1977-04-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers were exposed to 2 mul/l ethylene and examined at intervals to determine the time course of wilting, decrease in water uptake, and increase in ionic leakage in response to ethylene. A rapid decrease in water uptake was observed about 4 hours after initiating treatment with ethylene. This was followed by wilting (in-rolling of petals) about 2 hours later. Carbon dioxide inhibited the decline in water uptake and wilting and this is typical of most ethylene-induced responses. Ethylene did not affect closure of stomates. Ethylene enhanced ionic leakage, as measured by efflux of (36)Cl from the vacuole. This was judged to coincide with the decrease in water uptake. Gassing flowers with propylene initiated autocatalytic ethylene production within 2.4 hours. Since the increase in ethylene production by carnations preceded the increase in ionic leakage and the decline in water uptake by several hours, it is apparent that the change in ionic leakage does not lead to the initial increase in ethylene production as reported (Hanson and Kende 1975 Plant Physiol 55:663-669) in morning glory but may explain the autocatalytic phase of ethylene production.

  6. Differential expression of two novel members of the tomato ethylene-receptor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, D M; Klee, H J

    1999-05-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and environmental responses. Much of the developmental regulation of ethylene responses in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) occurs at the level of hormone sensitivity. In an effort to understand the regulation of ethylene responses, we isolated and characterized tomato genes with sequence similarity to the Arabidopsis ETR1 (ethylene response 1) ethylene receptor. Previously, we isolated three genes that exhibit high similarity to ETR1 and to each other. Here we report the isolation of two additional genes, LeETR4 and LeETR5, that are only 42% and 40% identical to ETR1, respectively. Although the amino acids known to be involved in ethylene binding are conserved, LeETR5 lacks the histidine within the kinase domain that is predicted to be phosphorylated. This suggests that histidine kinase activity is not necessary for an ethylene response, because mutated forms of both LeETR4 and LeETR5 confer dominant ethylene insensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression analysis indicates that LeETR4 accounts for most of the putative ethylene-receptor mRNA present in reproductive tissues, but, like LeETR5, it is less abundant in vegetative tissues. Taken together, ethylene perception in tomato is potentially quite complex, with at least five structurally divergent, putative receptor family members exhibiting significant variation in expression levels throughout development.

  7. Tomato FRUITFULL homologs regulate fruit ripening via ethylene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Yoko; Fujisawa, Masaki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Nakamura, Toshihide; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Certain MADS-box transcription factors play central roles in regulating fruit ripening. RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a tomato MADS-domain protein, acts as a global regulator of ripening, affecting the climacteric rise of ethylene, pigmentation changes, and fruit softening. Previously, we showed that two MADS-domain proteins, the FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2, form complexes with RIN. Here, we characterized the FUL1/FUL2 loss-of-function phenotype in co-suppressed plants. The transgenic plants produced ripening-defective fruits accumulating little or no lycopene. Unlike a previous study on FUL1/FUL2 suppressed tomatoes, our transgenic fruits showed very low levels of ethylene production, and this was associated with suppression of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene synthesis. FUL1/FUL2 suppression also caused the fruit to soften in a manner independent of ripening, possibly due to reduced cuticle thickness in the peel of the suppressed tomatoes.

  8. Role of polyamines and ethylene as modulators of plant senescence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Pandey; S A Ranade; P K Nagar; Nikhil Kumar

    2000-09-01

    Under optimal conditions of growth, senescence, a terminal phase of development, sets in after a certain physiological age. It is a dynamic and closely regulated developmental process which involves an array of changes at both physiological and biochemical levels including gene expression. A large number of biotic and abiotic factors accelerate the process. Convincing evidence suggests the involvement of polyamines (PAs) and ethylene in this process. Although the biosynthetic pathways of both PAs and ethylene are interrelated, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) being a common precursor, their physiological functions are distinct and at times antagonistic, particularly during leaf and flower senescence and also during fruit ripening. This provides an effective means for regulation of their biosynthesis and also to understand the mechanism by which the balance between the two can be established for manipulating the senescence process. The present article deals with current advances in the knowledge of the interrelationship between ethylene and PAs during senescence which may open up new vistas of investigation for the future.

  9. Controlling the reactivity of chlorinated ethylenes with flavin mononucleotide hydroquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptadjaya, Christopher G E; Guo, Wen; Angeli, Jayni M; Obare, Sherine O

    2009-03-01

    Reduction rate constants of the chlorinated ethylenes cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) reacted with flavin mononucleotide hydroquinone (FMNH2) under anoxic conditions were investigated. FMNH2 was produced in methanol solvent by the photoreduction of FMN. In aqueous solution, FMN was not fully reduced to FMNH2 but instead yielded the semiquinone radical FMNH*. However, when FMN was anchored to nanocrystalline TiO2, band gap irradiation resulted in electron transfer from the TiO2 conduction band to FMN, thus yielding FMNH2. The FMNH2 generated in aqueous solution on the TiO2 surface was a stronger reductant toward chlorinated ethylenes, relative to FMNH2 in solution. Furthermore, by combining the reactivity of the TiO2 conduction band electrons [TiO2(e-(CB)] with FMNH2, reduction rate constants for the chlorinated ethylenes increased by 2 orders of magnitude relative to FMNH2 alone. The results show how biological molecules such as FMNH2 could have significant effects toward the remediation of organic pollutants.

  10. Metal catalyzed ethylene epoxidation: A comparative density functional theory study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruipeng Ren; Yongkang Lü; Xianyong Pang; Guichang Wang

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene epoxidation on Ag(111), Pt(111), Rh(111) and Mo(100) has been studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that the adsorption energies of possible adsorbed species involved in the ethylene epoxidation increase in the order: Ag<Pt<Rh<Mo, and the activation energies of the formation of epoxide (EtO) and acetaldehyde (Ac) follow the same order. Moreover, it is found that the smallest difference in the activation energies between EtO formation and Ac formation is shown on Ag. These results indicate that the metallic Ag shows the highest between activity and selectivity for ethylene epoxidation among the studied metal surfaces. Perhaps, the stability of OMME intermediate is the crucial factor in controlling the activity and selectivity. And the stronger the binding of OMME, the lower the activity and selectivity are. In addition, the relationships between the reaction enthalpy and activation energy on these four metal surfaces are investigated,and it is found that such a correlation is only applied for OMME(a) → EtO(a) and OMME(a) → Ac(a), while invalid for the case of C2H4(a) +O(a) → OMME(a).

  11. Ethylene signalling affects susceptibility of tomatoes to Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Noel, Jason T; George, Andrée S; Farias, Marcelo A; Jenkins, Keith T; Hochmuth, George; Xu, Yimin; Giovanonni, Jim J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-01-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are increasingly recognized as important reservoirs of human pathogens, and therefore, significant attention has been directed recently to understanding mechanisms of the interactions between plants and enterics, like Salmonella. A screen of tomato cultivars for their susceptibility to Salmonella revealed significant differences in the ability of this human pathogen to multiply within fruits; expression of the Salmonella genes (cysB, agfB, fadH) involved in the interactions with tomatoes depended on the tomato genotype and maturity stage. Proliferation of Salmonella was strongly reduced in the tomato mutants with defects in ethylene synthesis, perception and signal transduction. While mutation in the ripening-related ethylene receptor Nr resulted only in a modest reduction in Salmonella numbers within tomatoes, strong inhibition of the Salmonella proliferation was observed in rin and nor tomato mutants. RIN and NOR are regulators of ethylene synthesis and ripening. A commercial tomato variety heterozygous for rin was less susceptible to Salmonella under the greenhouse conditions but not when tested in the field over three production seasons. PMID:24888884

  12. Large Eddy Simulation of High-Speed, Premixed Ethylene Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Kiran; Edwards, Jack R.; Chelliah, Harsha; Goyne, Christopher; McDaniel, James; Rockwell, Robert; Kirik, Justin; Cutler, Andrew; Danehy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A large-eddy simulation / Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (LES/RANS) methodology is used to simulate premixed ethylene-air combustion in a model scramjet designed for dual mode operation and equipped with a cavity for flameholding. A 22-species reduced mechanism for ethylene-air combustion is employed, and the calculations are performed on a mesh containing 93 million cells. Fuel plumes injected at the isolator entrance are processed by the isolator shock train, yielding a premixed fuel-air mixture at an equivalence ratio of 0.42 at the cavity entrance plane. A premixed flame is anchored within the cavity and propagates toward the opposite wall. Near complete combustion of ethylene is obtained. The combustor is highly dynamic, exhibiting a large-scale oscillation in global heat release and mass flow rate with a period of about 2.8 ms. Maximum heat release occurs when the flame front reaches its most downstream extent, as the flame surface area is larger. Minimum heat release is associated with flame propagation toward the cavity and occurs through a reduction in core flow velocity that is correlated with an upstream movement of the shock train. Reasonable agreement between simulation results and available wall pressure, particle image velocimetry, and OH-PLIF data is obtained, but it is not yet clear whether the system-level oscillations seen in the calculations are actually present in the experiment.

  13. Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crusius, Johann-Philipp, E-mail: johann-philipp.crusius@uni-rostock.de; Hassel, Egon [Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik, Universität Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard [Institut für Chemie, Universität Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2014-10-28

    A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.

  14. Auxin, ethylene and light in gravitropic growth: new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Hg; Sabovljevic, A.; Njio, G.; Roth, U.

    The regulation mechanism of gravitropic differential plant growth is commonly divided into three sequential processes: the perception of the gravistimulus (generally attributed to amyloplast sedimentation), the transduction of the perceived signal (of which very little is known), and the adequate differential growth response (generally attributed to asymmetric auxin redistribution). The detailled mechanism is still unresolved and remains to be elucidated in significant parts. Employing 2D SDS-PAGE /Q-TOF amongst other methods and strategies we studied the effect of different auxins on gravitropism of coleoptiles and hypocotyls. We also analyzed the effects of light and ethylene (synthesis and perception) on gravitropic growth of primary shoots and roots and analyzed the protein pattern with respect to the observed physiological effects. In coleoptiles, under the applied experimental conditions the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4 D) on gravitropism differed from the effect of indolylacetic acid (IAA), which was similar to the one observed in sunflower hypocotyls. In roots, the relevance of ethylene for gravitropic differential growth and the capacity to evade mechanical barriers during horizontal gravistimulation was analyzed in detail. A special focus was addressed on the physiological significance of the root cap. We will show that the relevance of ethylene for gravitropism has hitherto been misjudged. Further new findings and their implications for the regulation mechanism of gravitropism will be presented and discussed. Kramer et al., (2003) J. Ex. Bot. 54, (393), 2723-2732 Edelmann, H.G., (2002) J. Ex. Bot. 53, (375), 1825-1828

  15. Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, A; Woltering, E J

    1997-05-01

    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14) genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and after treatment of fresh flowers with ethylene, production of ethylene and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes first started in the ovary followed by the styles and the petals. ACC oxidase was expressed in all the floral organs whereas, during the vase life, tissue-specific expression of the two ACC synthase genes was observed. After treatment with a high ethylene concentration, tissue specificity of the two ACC synthase genes was lost and only a temporal difference in expression remained. In styles, poor correlation between ethylene production and ACC synthase (CARAS1) gene expression was observed suggesting that either activity is regulated at the translational level or that the CARAS1 gene product requires an additional factor for activity. Isolated petals showed no increase in ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes when excised from the flower before the increase in petal ethylene production (before day 7); showed rapid cessation of ethylene production and gene expression when excised during the early phase of petal ethylene production (day 7) and showed a pattern of ethylene production and gene expression similar to the pattern observed in the attached petals when isolated at day 8. The interorgan regulation of gene expression and ethylene as a signal molecule in flower senescence are discussed.

  16. Novel hybrid coatings with controlled wettability by composite nanoparticle aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritcu, Doina; Dodi, Gianina; Iordache, Mirabela L.; Draganescu, Dan; Sava, Elena; Popa, Marcel I.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate novel hybrid materials as potential candidates for producing coatings with hierarchical roughness and controlled wetting behaviour. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation were embedded in matrices synthesized by radical graft co-polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), hexyl acrylate (HA) or styrene (ST) with ethylene glycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA) onto previously modified chitosan bearing surface vinyl groups. The resulting composite particles were characterized regarding their average size, composition and magnetic properties. Hybrid thin films containing suspension of composite particles in ethanol and pre-hydrolysed hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTS) as a coupling/crosslinking agent were deposited by spin coating or spraying. The films were cured by heating and subsequently characterized regarding their morphology (scanning electron microscopy), contact angle with water and adhesion to substrate (scratch test). The structure-property relationship is discussed.

  17. Highly efficient synthesis of monodisperse poly(ethylene glycols) and derivatives through macrocyclization of oligo(ethylene glycols).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Xuefei; Shi, Qiuyan; Li, Yu; Xia, Guiquan; Chen, Long; Yang, Zhigang; Jiang, Zhong-Xing

    2015-03-16

    A macrocyclic sulfate (MCS)-based approach to monodisperse poly(ethylene glycols) (M-PEGs) and their monofunctionalized derivatives has been developed. Macrocyclization of oligo(ethylene glycols) (OEGs) provides MCS (up to a 62-membered macrocycle) as versatile precursors for a range of monofunctionalized M-PEGs. Through iterative nucleophilic ring-opening reactions of MCS without performing group protection and activation, a series of M-PEGs, including the unprecedented 64-mer (2850 Da), can be readily prepared. Synthetic simplicity coupled with versatility of this new strategy may pave the way for broader applications of M-PEGs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  19. Selective surface modification of ethylene-vinyl acetate and ethylene polymer blend by UV–ozone treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jofre-Reche, José Antonio; Martín-Martínez, José Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers intended for sport sole manufacturing may contain noticeable amounts of polyethylene (LDPE) for improving abrasion resistance and decrease cost; however, this blend (EVA–PE) had low polarity and showed poor adhesion. In this study an effective environmentally friendly and fast surface treatment based on UV–ozone has been used to increase the wettability, polarity and roughness of EVA–PE material. Both the length of the UV–ozone treatment and the distanc...

  20. Ethylene, a Hormone at the Center-Stage of Nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinel, Frédérique C

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenous compounds. Furthermore, as they are rich in nitrogen, legumes are considered important as staple foods for humans and fodder for animals. To tightly control this association and keep it mutualistic, the plant uses several means, including hormones. The hormone ethylene has been known as a negative regulator of nodulation for almost four decades. Since then, much progress has been made in the understanding of both the ethylene signaling pathway and the nodulation process. Here I have taken a large view, using recently obtained knowledge, to describe in some detail the major stages of the process. I have not only reviewed the steps most commonly covered (the common signaling transduction pathway, and the epidermal and cortical programs), but I have also looked into steps less understood (the pre-infection step with the plant defense response, the bacterial release and the formation of the symbiosome, and nodule functioning and senescence). After a succinct review of the ethylene signaling pathway, I have used the knowledge obtained from nodulation- and ethylene-related mutants to paint a more complete picture of the role played by the hormone in nodule organogenesis, functioning, and senescence. It transpires that ethylene is at the center of this effective symbiosis. It has not only been involved in most of the steps leading to a mature nodule, but it has also been implicated in host immunity and nodule senescence. It is likely responsible for the activation of other hormonal

  1. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  2. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  3. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest ripening and senescence of banana by antagonizing the effect of ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yun; Hu, Kang-Di; Wang, Sha-Sha; Hu, Lan-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yan-Hong; Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) acts as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants, whereas the interaction between H2S and ethylene is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the role of H2S in ethylene-promoted banana ripening and senescence by the application of ethylene released from 1.0 g·L-1 ethephon solution or H2S with 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as the donor or in combination. Fumigation with ethylene was found to accelerate banana ripening and H2S treatment effectively alleviated ethylene-induced banana peel yellowing and fruit softening in parallel with decreased activity of polygalacturonase (PG). Ethylene+H2S treatment also delayed the decreases in chlorophyll and total phenolics, and increased the accumulation of flavonoid, whereas decreased the contents of carotenoid, soluble protein in banana peel and reducing sugar in pulp compared with ethylene treatment alone. Besides, ethylene+H2S treatment suppressed the accumulation of superoxide radicals (·O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) which accumulated highly in ethylene-treated banana peels. Furthermore H2S enhanced total antioxidant capacity in ethylene-treated banana peels with the 2,2'-azobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay. The result of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the combined treatment of ethylene with H2S down-regulated the expression of ethylene synthesis genes MaACS1, MaACS2 and MaACO1 and pectate lyase MaPL compared with ethylene treatment, while the expression of ethylene receptor genes MaETR, MaERS1 and MaERS2 was enhanced in combination treatment compared with ethylene alone. In all, it can be concluded that H2S alleviates banana fruit ripening and senescence by antagonizing the effect of ethylene through reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of ethylene signaling pathway.

  4. Poly(ethylene glycol-poly(tetrahydrofuran-poly(ethylene glycol triblock copolymer : Synthesis, crystallization behavior and novel morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Liao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene glycol-poly(tetrahydrofuran-poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-PTHF-PEG triblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide using sodium alcoholate of PTHF as the macroinitiator. Its crystallization behavior and formation mechanisms of different crystal structures were studied. The study showed that the molecular weight of PEG-PTHF-PEG exhibited a significant effect on its crystallization: that is, with the increase of the copolymer’s molecular weight, the crystallizability of PTHF blocks decreased gradually, which led to the transition of copolymer from crystalline-crystalline to crystalline-amorphous. By adjusting the total molecular weight of triblock copolymer, the crystallization process can be effectively controlled, and as a result, different spherulite structures were obtained. Particularly, when PTHF blocks became amorphous, novel double concentric spherulites were observed. The morphological structures were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM, polarized optical microscopy (POM, and its crystalline process was investigated.

  5. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  6. Post harvest ripening of oil palm fruit is accelerated by application of exogenous ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol Nualwijit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted with fresh fully mature fruit bunches of Tenera variety oil-palm. Palm fruit bunches were exposed to 0, 250, 500 or 1000 mlL-1 ethylene for 24 hours. Each fruit bunch was evaluated in three separate sections: the bottom, the middle, and the top. The exogenous ethylene treatments significantly hastened palm fruit ripening, quantified by an increase in the fruit peel coloring that turns from black to reddish orange. Ethylene treatments also significantly eased detaching the fruit, by reducing the tension force required. Total oil contents of fruit increased with 1000 mlL-1 ethylene treatment. Free fatty acids (FFA in untreated palm fruit, especially in the bottom section, were at their highest levels 2 days after harvest, and the FFA levels were lowered by ethylene treatments. In summary, exogenous ethylene fumigation accelerated the ripening of oil palm fruit, increased oil yield, and decreased the FFA levels.

  7. Involvement of ethylene in the accumulation of esculeoside A during fruit ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yoko; Fujiwara, Yukio; Tokita, Takeaki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke

    2009-04-22

    The composition of glycoalkaloids in tomato fruit changes with ripening. However, it has not been clarified whether the accumulation of glycoalkaloids is controlled by the ripening-inducing phytohormone, ethylene. Here, we report the effect of ethylene on the accumulation of tomato fruit glycoalkaloids. We investigated the effect of exogenously applied ethylene. In response to ethylene treatment, the content of alpha-tomatine decreased, whereas the content of esculeoside A increased. Next, we analyzed the fruits of ripening mutants, rin, nor, and Nr. In fruits of these mutant lines, the level of accumulation of esculeoside A decreased, whereas alpha-tomatine accumulated to higher levels than in wild-type fruit. These results demonstrated that the esculeoside A accumulation was associated with production and perception of ethylene. Additionally, the accumulation profiles of the intermediate metabolites of esculeoside A biosynthesis in ripening mutant fruits suggest that a glycosylation step in the putative pathway from alpha-tomatine to esculeoside A depends on ethylene.

  8. Commercial Application of CPP for Producing Ethylene and Propylene from Heavy Oil Feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Dianguo; Xie Chaogang; Wang Xieqing

    2003-01-01

    A new process named CPP (Catalytic Pyrolysis Process) for producing ethylene andpropylene from heavy oil feedstock has been developed. The catalyst CEP was specially designedfor this process, which has bi-functional catalytic activities for both carbonium ion reaction andfree radical reaction, so as to maximize the yields of ethylene and propylene. The commercial trialshowed that the yield of ethylene and propylene was 20.37% and 18.23% respectively inmaximum ethylene operation with Daqing AR as feedstock, and the yield of ethylene and propylenewas 9.77% and 24.60% respectively in maximum propylene operation by using the same feedstock.Compared with steam cracker, the feed cost of CPP is much lower for producing ethylene andpropylene.

  9. The effect of ethylene on root growth of Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, M. C.; Feldman, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    The control of primary root growth in Zea mays cv. Merit by ethylene was examined. At applied concentrations of ethylene equal to or greater than 0.1 microliter L-1, root elongation during 24 h was inhibited. The half-maximal response occurred at 0.6 microliter L-1 and the response saturated at 6 microliters L-1. Inhibition of elongation took place within 20 min. However, after ethylene was removed, elongation recovered to control values within 15 min. Root elongation was also inhibited by green light. The inhibition caused by a 24-h exposure to ethylene was restricted to the elongating region just behind the apex, with inhibition of cortical cell elongation being the primary contributor to the effect. Based on use of 2,5-norbornadiene, a gaseous competitive inhibitor of ethylene, it was concluded that endogenous ethylene normally inhibits root elongation.

  10. [The role of nitric oxide in ethylene-induced stomatal closure in Vicia faba L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Qiu, Li-Yan; Zhao, Fang-Gui; Hou, Li-Xia; Liu, Xin

    2007-08-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene on Vicia faba L. stomatal movement were studied. The results showed that NO donor SNP (sodium nitroprusside) 10 micromol/L and ethylene 0.04% could induce stomatal closure distinctly and they could promote stomatal closure when treated together. When treated with AVG (an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis), c-PTIO (a specific scavenger of NO) and NaN(3) (an inhibitor of NR), the effects of NO- and ethylene-induced stomatal closure were inhibited but the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) had little effect. We presumed that there was coordinative effect between NO and ethylene in regulation of stomatal closure; ethylene could induce stomatal closure by regulating the production of nitrate reductase (NR)-dependent NO.

  11. A new ethylene glycol-silane monolayer for highly-specific DNA detection on Silicon Chips

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Monolayer thin films with ethylene-glycol function onto gold surfaces by using thiols have been extensively investigated. They have been proposed as precursors for applications to bio-detection, where their hydrophilic character improves both specificity and sensitivity. The aim of this letter is to characterize ethylene-glycol monolayer precursors formed onto silicon chips by using silanes. The importance of the ethylene-glycol function is demonstrated by comparing with the well known 3-Amin...

  12. NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis; Breakthrough Offers Cleaner Alternative for Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    NREL scientists have demonstrated a way to produce ethylene through photosynthesis, a breakthrough that could lead to more environmentally friendly ways to produce a variety of materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels. The scientists introduced a gene into a cyanobacterium and demonstrated that the organism remains stable through at least four generations, producing ethylene gas that can be easily captured. In the laboratory, the organism, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, produced 720 milligrams of ethylene per liter each day.

  13. Epidemiologic support for ethylene oxide as a cancer-causing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstedt, C; Aringer, L; Gustavsson, A

    1986-03-28

    The mortality and incidence of cancer in three groups of workers with occupational exposure to ethylene oxide have been assessed. Eight cases of leukemia have occurred among 733 ethylene oxide-exposed workers compared with an expected 0.8 cases. Six cases of stomach cancer have been reported compared with 0.65 cases expected. These epidemiologic results provide support for an increased risk of malignancy in individuals with extended and intermittent exposure to low concentrations of ethylene oxide.

  14. Enzymatic Modification of Poly (ethylene terephthalate) Fiber with Lipase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; LU Da-nian; SHAO Zhi-yu; HONG Feng

    2007-01-01

    Lipase preparation from Aspergiilus oryzae could act on ester bonds on the surface of poly (ethylene terephthalate) fibers and a possible hydrolytic product mono (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate was released. After the iipase modification, there were more carboxyl groups on the treated poly (ethylene terephthalate) fabric surface that resulted in binding with mote cationic dyes. Increased hydrophilicity and antistatic ability of poly (ethylene terephthalate) samples were found based on moisture regain, water contact angle and static half decay time.

  15. Ethylene responses in rice roots and coleoptiles are differentially regulated by a carotenoid isomerase-mediated abscisic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Cui-Cui; Ma, Biao; Collinge, Derek Phillip; Pogson, Barry James; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Chen, Hui; Yang, Chao; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Yi-Qin; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jin-Fang; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-04-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) act synergistically or antagonistically to regulate plant growth and development. ABA is derived from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Here, we analyzed the interplay among ethylene, carotenoid biogenesis, and ABA in rice (Oryza sativa) using the rice ethylene response mutant mhz5, which displays a reduced ethylene response in roots but an enhanced ethylene response in coleoptiles. We found that MHZ5 encodes a carotenoid isomerase and that the mutation in mhz5 blocks carotenoid biosynthesis, reduces ABA accumulation, and promotes ethylene production in etiolated seedlings. ABA can largely rescue the ethylene response of the mhz5 mutant. Ethylene induces MHZ5 expression, the production of neoxanthin, an ABA biosynthesis precursor, and ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ5 overexpression results in enhanced ethylene sensitivity in roots and reduced ethylene sensitivity in coleoptiles. Mutation or overexpression of MHZ5 also alters the expression of ethylene-responsive genes. Genetic studies revealed that the MHZ5-mediated ABA pathway acts downstream of ethylene signaling to inhibit root growth. The MHZ5-mediated ABA pathway likely acts upstream but negatively regulates ethylene signaling to control coleoptile growth. Our study reveals novel interactions among ethylene, carotenogenesis, and ABA and provides insight into improvements in agronomic traits and adaptive growth through the manipulation of these pathways in rice.

  16. Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

  17. Glass transition behavior of ternary disaccharide-ethylene glycol-water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tongxu; Zhao, Lishan; Wang, Qiang; Cao, Zexian

    2017-06-01

    Glass transition behavior of ternary disaccharide-ethylene glycol-water solutions, in reference to that of the binary combinations, has been investigated towards a better understanding of their cryoprotective ability. In water-deficient solutions, the disaccharides, including trehalose, sucrose and maltose, can associate with more than 100 ethylene glycol molecules to form amorphous complex, one order of magnitude larger than the corresponding hydration numbers. In water-rich solutions, a second glass transition emerges with increasing molar fraction of ethylene glycol, indicating the possible synergy of disaccharides and ethylene glycol in vitrification of the ternary aqueous solution.

  18. Current understanding on ethylene signaling in plants: the influence of nutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Noushina; Trivellini, Alice; Masood, Asim; Ferrante, Antonio; Khan, Nafees A

    2013-12-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in many physiological processes, including plant growth, development and senescence. Ethylene also plays a pivotal role in plant response or adaptation under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. In plants, ethylene production often enhances the tolerance to sub-optimal environmental conditions. This role is particularly important from both ecological and agricultural point of views. Among the abiotic stresses, the role of ethylene in plants under nutrient stress conditions has not been completely investigated. In literature few reports are available on the interaction among ethylene and macro- or micro-nutrients. However, the published works clearly demonstrated that several mineral nutrients largely affect ethylene biosynthesis and perception with a strong influence on plant physiology. The aim of this review is to revisit the old findings and recent advances of knowledge regarding the sub-optimal nutrient conditions on the effect of ethylene biosynthesis and perception in plants. The effect of deficiency or excess of the single macronutrient or micronutrient on the ethylene pathway and plant responses are reviewed and discussed. The synergistic and antagonist effect of the different mineral nutrients on ethylene plant responses is critically analyzed. Moreover, this review highlights the status of information between nutritional stresses and plant response, emphasizing the topics that should be further investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of ethylene production by putrescine alleviates aluminium-induced root inhibition in wheat plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Sun, Chengliang; Wang, Jinghong; Ye, Yiquan; Zhou, Weiwei; Lu, Lingli; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-01-08

    Inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of aluminium (Al) toxicity. Although putrescine (Put) has been identified as an important signaling molecule involved in Al tolerance, it is yet unknown how Put mitigates Al-induced root inhibition. Here, the possible mechanism was investigated by using two wheat genotypes differing in Al resistance: Al-tolerant Xi Aimai-1 and Al-sensitive Yangmai-5. Aluminium caused more root inhibition in Yangmai-5 and increased ethylene production at the root apices compared to Xi Aimai-1, whereas the effects were significantly reversed by ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors. The simultaneous exposure of wheat seedlings to Al and ethylene donor, ethephon, or ethylene biosynthesis precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), increased ethylene production and aggravated root inhibition, which was more pronounced in Xi Aimai-1. In contrast, Put treatment decreased ethylene production and alleviated Al-induced root inhibition in both genotypes, and the effects were more conspicuous in Yangmai-5. Furthermore, our results indicated that Al-induced ethylene production was mediated by ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase, and that Put decreased ethylene production by inhibiting ACS. Altogether, these findings indicate that ethylene is involved in Al-induced root inhibition and this process could be alleviated by Put through inhibiting ACS activity.

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 83-335-1618, Kendall Company, Augusta, Georgia. [Ethylene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, P.; Gorman, R.

    1985-08-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for ethylene oxide at the Kendall Company, Augusta, Georgia in August, 1983 and July and August, 1984. The evaluation was requested confidentially to investigate employee complaints of eye irritation and neurologic symptoms and concern over an excessive number of miscarriages. Physicians at the Medical College of Georgia had reported cases of peripheral neuropathy and cataracts related to ethylene-oxide exposure. Twenty-one employees were interviewed. Company medical records were reviewed. Ethylene-oxide concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.83 part per million (ppm). The OSHA standard for ethylene oxide is 1.00 ppm. Grab samples taken during sterilizer down/loading contained 0.3 to 25.0ppm ethylene oxide. Medical records confirmed three cases of neuropathy and four of cataracts. Headache, eye irritation, and fatigue were the most prominent symptoms reported. Many of these symptoms were resolved when ethylene oxide was removed from the alcohol wipes. Five of six miscarriages were not occupationally related. The authors conclude that cases of peripheral neuropathy and cataracts among ethylene-oxide sterilizer operators can be related to past exposures, which were higher. Recommendations include using engineering controls to reduce ethylene-oxide exposure further and complying with OSHA recommendations in monitoring employees exposed to action-level concentrations of 0.5ppm ethylene oxide.

  1. Response to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in tomato involves regulation of ethylene receptor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardi, J A; Tieman, D M; Lund, S T; Jones, J B; Stall, R E; Klee, H J

    2000-05-01

    Although ethylene regulates a wide range of defense-related genes, its role in plant defense varies greatly among different plant-microbe interactions. We compared ethylene's role in plant response to virulent and avirulent strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (Nr) mutant displays increased tolerance to the virulent strain, while maintaining resistance to the avirulent strain. Expression of the ethylene receptor genes NR and LeETR4 was induced by infection with both virulent and avirulent strains; however, the induction of LeETR4 expression by the avirulent strain was blocked in the Nr mutant. To determine whether ethylene receptor levels affect symptom development, transgenic plants overexpressing a wild-type NR cDNA were infected with virulent X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. Like the Nr mutant, the NR overexpressors displayed greatly reduced necrosis in response to this pathogen. NR overexpression also reduced ethylene sensitivity in seedlings and mature plants, indicating that, like LeETR4, this receptor is a negative regulator of ethylene response. Therefore, pathogen-induced increases in ethylene receptors may limit the spread of necrosis by reducing ethylene sensitivity.

  2. Uncoupling Auxin and Ethylene Effects in Transgenic Tobacco and Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, CP; Cooper, ML; Klee, HJ

    1993-01-01

    Overproduction of auxin in transgenic plants also results in the overproduction of ethylene. Plants overproducing both auxin and ethylene display inhibition of stem elongation and growth, increased apical dominance, and leaf epinasty. To determine the relative roles of auxin and ethylene in these processes, transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing the auxin-overproducing tryptophan monooxygenase transgene were crossed to plants expressing an ethylene synthesis-inhibiting 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase transgene. Tobacco and Arabidopsis plants with elevated auxin and normal levels of ethylene were obtained by this strategy. Transgenic auxin-overproducing Arabidopsis plants were also crossed with the ethylene-insensitive ein1 and ein2 mutants. Analysis of these plants indicates that apical dominance and leaf epinasty are primarily controlled by auxin rather than ethylene. However, ethylene is partially responsible for the inhibition of stem elongation observed in auxin-overproducing tobacco. Finally, these data show that auxin overproduction can be effectively uncoupled from ethylene overproduction in transgenic plants to enable direct manipulation of plant morphology for agronomic and horticultural purposes. PMID:12271061

  3. Synthesis of amphiphilic diblock copolymer for surface modification of Ethylene-Norbornene copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Simon; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Horsewell, Andy

    2014-01-01

    -norbornene copolymer TOPAS. Through matching of the radius of gyration for the model polymer and TOPAS the miscibility was achieved. The poly(ethylene-1-butene) polymer was synthesized from a hydrogenated anionic polymerized polybutadiene polymer. As hydrophilic block poly(ethylene oxide) was subsequently added also...... consisting of a bulk material compatible block and a hydrophilic block. To utilize the possibility of incorporating diblock copolymers into ethylenenorbornene copolymers, we have in this work developed a model poly(ethylene-1-butene) polymer compatible with the commercial available ethylene...

  4. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  5. Immobilization of Quantum Dots in the Photo-Cross-Linked Poly(ethylene glycol)-Based Hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gattas-Asfura, Kerim M.(Miami University); Zheng, Yujun (Miami University); Micic, Miodrag (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Snedaker, Michael J.(Miami University); Ji, Xiaojun (Miami University); Sui, Guodong (Miami University); Orbulescu, Jhony (Miami University); Andreopoulos, Fotios M.(Miami University); Pham, Si M.(Miami University); Wang, Chong M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-09-25

    An inorganic/organic composite hybrid nano-system has been successfully synthesized in which nanocrystalline quantum dots (QDs) were effectively immobilized within a photo-cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel. Organometallic synthesis of CdTe and CdSe QDs was accomplished with a trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) cap. Replacing the TOPO cap with mercaptoacetic acid groups further yielded modified water-soluble nanocrystals. The immobilization of these functionalized CdTe and CdSe QDs within PEG hydrogel network has been shown to be effective through utilization of physical trapping. The CdTe and CdSe QDs had a particle diameter of 4.5 and 2.5-6.0 nm, respectively. The most efficiently trapped QDs had a size of 4.5 nm or larger. Particle size determination was derived from spectroscopic (absorption and photoluminescence) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopic techniques. These QD-immobilized gel systems demonstrated photoluminescence characteristics unique to semiconductor QD nanocrystals. The authors have envisioned the utilization of the unique photophysical properties of this material as a convenient signal transducer for in vivo biosensing. The most promising application of the described QD/PEG-NC hybrid system is in the fields of in vivo fluorescence microscopy and as a monitoring system for drug delivery and wound healing.

  6. Ethylene Removal by a Biofilter with Immobilized Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsgaard, Lars

    1998-01-01

    A biofilter which eliminated ethylene (C2H4) from the high parts-per-million range to levels near the limit for plant hormonal activity (0.01 to 0.1 ppm) was developed. Isolated ethylene-oxidizing bacteria were immobilized on peat-soil in a biofilter (687 cm3) and subjected to an atmospheric gas flow (73.3 ml min−1) with 2 or 117 ppm of C2H4. Ethylene was eliminated to a minimum level of 0.017 ppm after operation with 2.05 ppm of C2H4 for 16 days. Also, the inlet C2H4 concentration of 117 ppm was reduced to biofilter. The maximal C2H4 elimination capacity of the biofilter was 21 g of C2H4 m−3 day−1 during operation with 117 ppm of C2H4 in the inlet gas. However, for the first 0- to 5-cm segment of the biofilter, an elimination capacity of 146 g of C2H4 m−3 day−1 was calculated. Transition of the biofilter temperature from 21 to 10°C caused a 1.6-fold reduction in the C2H4 removal rate, which was reversed during operation for 18 days. Batch experiments with inoculated peat-soil demonstrated that C2H4 removal still occurred after storage at 2, 8, and 20°C for 2, 3, and 4 weeks. However, the C2H4 removal rate decreased with increasing storage time and was reduced by ca. 50% after storage for 2 weeks at all three temperatures. The biofilter could be a suitable tool for C2H4 removal in, e.g., horticultural storage facilities, since it (i) removed C2H4 to 0.017 ppm, (ii) had a good operational stability, and (iii) operated efficiently at 10°C. PMID:9797261

  7. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  8. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  9. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  10. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  12. Anaphylaxis to ethylene oxide - a rare and overlooked phenomenon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Søren; Petersen, J T; Garvey, L H

    2011-01-01

    Spina bifida patients have been reported to be at increased risk of anaphylactic reactions during general anaesthesia. Following a reaction, latex is often incriminated as spina bifida patients are known to have an increased incidence of latex allergy. Ethylene oxide (EO) has recently been...... the case of a spina bifida patient with a known latex allergy, where EO was found to be the cause of an anaphylactic reaction during general anaesthesia. In addition, we describe measures taken during preparation of a subsequent general anaesthesia to minimise exposure to EO. Spina bifida patients seem...

  13. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is initiating a public comment period prior to peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene oxide (cancer) that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA seeks external peer review on how the Agency responded to the SAB panel recommendations, the exposure-response modeling of epidemiologic data, including new analyses since the 2007 external peer review, and on the adequacy, transparency, and clarity of the revised draft. The peer review will include an opportunity for the public to address the peer reviewers.

  14. THE FAR-INFRARED ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM OF ETHYLENE OXIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medcraft, Chris; Thompson, Christopher D.; McNaughton, Don [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Robertson, Evan G. [Department of Chemistry, La Trobe Institute of Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Appadoo, Dominique R. T., E-mail: donald.mcnaughton@monash.edu [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2012-07-01

    High-resolution FTIR spectra of ethylene oxide have been measured in the far-infrared region using synchrotron radiation. A total of 1182 lines between 15 and 73 cm{sup -1} were assigned, with J{sub max} = 64, expanding upon previous studies that had recorded spectra up to 12 cm{sup -1}, J{sub max} = 49. All available data were co-fitted to provide greatly imp- roved rotational constants for the ground vibrational state that are capable of predicting transitions up to 73 cm{sup -1}.

  15. Modelling graphene quantum dot functionalization via ethylene-dinitrobenzoyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noori, Keian; Giustino, Feliciano [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Hübener, Hannes [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Universidad del País Vasco CFM CSIC-UPV/EHU-MPC & DIPC, Av. Tolosa 72, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Kymakis, Emmanuel [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics & Electrical Engineering Department, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Crete, Heraklion, 71004 Crete (Greece)

    2016-03-21

    Ethylene-dinitrobenzoyl (EDNB) linked to graphene oxide has been shown to improve the performance of graphene/polymer organic photovoltaics. Its binding conformation on graphene, however, is not yet clear, nor have its effects on work function and optical absorption been explored more generally for graphene quantum dots. In this report, we clarify the linkage of EDNB to GQDs from first principles and show that the binding of the molecule increases the work function of graphene, while simultaneously modifying its absorption in the ultraviolet region.

  16. Simulation of soot size distribution in an ethylene counterflow flame

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2014-01-06

    Soot, an aggregate of carbonaceous particles produced during the rich combustion of fossil fuels, is an undesirable pollutant and health hazard. Soot evolution involves various dynamic processes: nucleation soot formation from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) condensation PAHs condensing on soot particle surface surface processes hydrogen-abstraction-C2H2-addition, oxidation coagulation two soot particles coagulating to form a bigger particle This simulation work investigates soot size distribution and morphology in an ethylene counterflow flame, using i). Chemkin with a method of moments to deal with the coupling between vapor consumption and soot formation; ii). Monte Carlo simulation of soot dynamics.

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  18. Fouling and Antifouling of Depetanizer in Ethylene Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Factors affecting fouling of depentanizer in ethylene units were explored through study of thecomposition of pyrolysis gasoline, C5 distillate and fouling deposits from the depentanizer while takinginto consideration the processing parameters. A variety of antifouling measures, in particular the injec-tion of a special anti-fouling agent into the Cs gas phase pipeline and the C5 distillate reflux pipelinewere introduced. Commercial evaluation test of a multifunctional anti-fouling agent, the RIPP-1404anti-fouling agent, was also described.

  19. Fouling and Antifouling of Depetanizer in Ethylene Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DongZhongjie; LiYunlong; 等

    2002-01-01

    Factors affecting fouling of depentanizer in ethylene units were explored through study of the composition of pyrolysis gasoline,C5 distillate and fouling deposits from the depentanizer while taking into consideration the processing parameters.A variety of antifouling measures,in particular the injec-tion of a special anti-fouling agent into the C5 gas phase pipeline and the C5 distillate reflux pipeline were introduced.Commercial evaluation test of a multifunctional anti-fouling agent,the RIPP-1404 anti-fouling agent,was also described.

  20. Thermal Behavior of Poly(trimethylene-co-ethylene terephthalate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong XU; Sheng Rong YE; Jin Wen QIAN

    2005-01-01

    Poly (trimethylene-co-ethylene terephthalate) with various compositions of diol has been synthesized. The crystallization of copolyesters with high comonomer content was observed by both wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that the copolyesters become less crystallizable with the involvement of the comonomer,the crystals of crystallizable copolyesters come from PTT or PET homopolymers. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the copolyester increases with increasing PET component in the copolyester, and the relationship between Tg and composition obey both Fox equation and additive law, the former is better in describing this relationship.

  1. Electron beam irradiation effects on poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burillo, G. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx; Tenorio, L.; Bucio, E. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Adem, E. [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Lopez, G.P. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Changes in poly(ethylene terephthalate) subjected to electron beam irradiation at doses up to 15 MGy and dose rate of 1.65 MGy/h, were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, molecular weight measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Irradiated samples showed a decrease of molecular weight with a minimum at 5 MGy, which is attributed to chain scission of the macromolecules and then an increase at further doses due to branching and some degradation effect. Irradiation in air is not an important factor because the high dose rate of irradiation inhibits oxygen diffusion in the samples.

  2. Chemical Modification of Silk Fibers with Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-qiang; ZHOU Xiang

    2002-01-01

    Silk fibers have been grafted with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and characteristics of the grafted silk fibers were analyzed in relation to the graft yield on the basis of the tensile properties, dyeing behaviour, durability during laundering and solubility of the specimen in NaOH solution. The amount of the acid dye absorbed by the fibers decreased with increasing graft yield, while the value of rating for washing fastness on silk fibers was almost unchanged by the graft treatment. The breaking loads of the fiber were almost unchanged whereas rigidity of the fibers increased after graft treatment. Graft treatment enhanced silk fiber durability during laundering and in NaOH solution.

  3. Hybrid Unifying Variable Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare new phenomenon of topology change,evolution,hybrid ratio and network characteristics of unified hybrid network theoretical model with unified hybrid supernetwork model,this paper constructed unified hybrid variable supernetwork model(HUVSM).The first layer introduces a hybrid ratio dr,the

  4. Large Unifying Hybrid Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    For depicting multi-hybrid process,large unifying hybrid network model(so called LUHNM)has two sub-hybrid ratios except dr.They are deterministic hybrid ratio(so called fd)and random hybrid ratio(so called gr),respectively.

  5. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems...

  6. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  7. Study on the Relationship Between Sex Differentiation and Ethylene in Ramie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Hu-cheng; SHE Wei; LUO Zhong-qin; QIN Zhan-jun; JIE Yu-cheng

    2009-01-01

    To explore the role of ethylene in sexual determination in ramie,the ethylene release rates in ramie stem apex of different sex,bud of the same node in female and hermaphrodite ramie in the second crop,and single inflorescence of different sex in hermaphrodite ramie were measured by gas chromatography.Effects of two ethylene inhibitors on sex expression in ramie were investigated.The ethylene release rate of stem apex was higher in the second crop or female ramie than that in the third crop or hermaphrodite ramie during growth.Although ethylene release rates between lower nodes and higher nodes were little different,it was lower in the middle nodes in hermaphrodite ramie.The ethylene release rates were higher in the higher nodes of female ramie at the second crop.At the third crop,the ethylene release rates were higher in lower nodes,lower in middle nodes and then highest in higher nodes in female ramie.However,an opposite ethylene release pattern was observed in hermaphrodite ramie.The ethylene release rate was higher in female flower than male flower and mixed inflorescence in hermaphrodite ramie.The male flower could be distinctly induced by AVG(aminooethoxyvinylglycine).The node of the first male flower,percentage of female flowers and ratio of female flowers to male in ramie were evidently depressed by AVG in contrast to water.The percentage of mixed male and female flowers was also increased and the percentage of female flower decreased by spraying AgNO3.There was a close relationship between sexual differentiation and ethylene release rate in ramie.The female ramie could be induced by high ethylene release rate.The female flower could be inhibited by AVG and AgNO3.AVG at a concentration of 300 mg L-1 was most effective.

  8. Effects of ethylene on the kinetics of curvature and auxin redistribution in gravistimulated roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    We tested the involvement of ethylene in maize (Zea mays L.) root gravitropism by measuring the kinetics of curvature and lateral auxin movement in roots treated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, or inhibitors of ethylene action. In the presence of ethylene the latent period of gravitropic curvature appeared to be increased somewhat. However, ethylene-treated roots continued to curve after control roots had reached their final angle of curvature. Consequently, maximum curvature in the presence of ethylene was much greater in ethylene-treated roots than in controls. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action had effects on the kinetics of curvature opposite to that of ethylene, i.e. the latent period appeared to be shortened somewhat while total curvature was reduced relative to that of controls. Label from applied 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was preferentially transported toward the lower side of stimulated roots. In parallel with effects on curvature, ethylene treatment delayed the development of gravity-induced asymmetric auxin movement across the root but extended its duration once initiated. The auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid reduced both gravitropic curvature and the effect of ethylene on curvature. Since neither ethylene nor inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action prevented curvature, we conclude that ethylene does not mediate the primary differential growth response causing curvature. Because ethylene affects curvature and auxin transport in parallel, we suggest that ethylene modifies curvature by affecting gravity-induced lateral transport of auxin, perhaps by interfering with adaptation of the auxin transport system to the gravistimulus.

  9. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E; Archibald, Rayeann L; Drummond, Bruce J; Chamberlin, Mark A; Williams, Robert W; Lafitte, H Renee; Weers, Ben P

    2015-09-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions.

  10. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  11. Immobilized Palladium on Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials: A Novel and Reusable Catalyst for the Copper-Free Sonogashira Coupling Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Yuan; WANG Lei

    2008-01-01

    The immobilized palladium on organic-inorganic hybrid materials catalyzing the copper-free Sonogashira cou pling reaction has been described.Terminal alkynes were reacted with aryl iodides and aryl bromides in the pres ence of 3-[N,N-bis(diphenylphosphino)amino]propyl functionalized silica gel immobilized palladium catalyst.The protocol involved the use of ethylene glycol as a solvent,and triethylamine as a base.The reactions generated the corresponding cross-coupling products in excellent yields.Furthermore,the silica-supported phosphine palladium complexes and ethylene glycol could be recovered and recycled for six consecutive trials without significant loss of their activity.

  12. Natural-Synthetic Hybrid Polymers Developed via Electrospinning: The Effect of PET in Chitosan/Starch System

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide found in nature, which is biodegradable, nontoxic and biocompatible. It has versatile features and can be used in a variety of applications including films, packaging, and also in medical surgery. Recently a possibility to diversify chitosan properties has emerged by combining it with synthetic materials to produce novel natural-synthetic hybrid polymers. We have studied structural and thermophysical properties of chitosan + starch + poly(ethylene terephtha...

  13. Active packaging using ethylene absorber to extend shelf-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, Patricia; Carbonari, Guilherme L.R.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: patponce@iq.usp.br, e-mail: guilacaz@uol.com.br, e-mail: ablugao@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Ethylene gas is a plant hormone which is produced by fruits and vegetables during ripening and it is also found in the environment. It plays an essential role in normal ripening, but excessive exposure can radically reduce the shelf-life of the product, in some cases inducing undesirable reactions such as development of bitter flavors and loss of chlorophyll (yellowing of greens). The objectives of our work were: to test an active packaging of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for apple stored; to test the effect of ethylene absorber agent, impregnated in plastic film, to reduce decay of fresh apple; to study the influence of radiation on the barrier properties, mechanical properties and biodegradability of PVA films. This study evaluated the effect of coating produced from PVA and polyol (glycerol and sorbitol) as plasticizer on apple conservation (75 deg F (24 deg C); 70%RH). The coated product was analyzed for mass loss, color alterations and fungi. The PVA films were produced by casting process (dehydration of a filmogenic solution on Petriplastic dishes) and were irradiated at low doses of 2, 5 and 10 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The resulting films were transparent and homogeneous. The active packaged fruits presented higher acceptance, lower microbiological growth, less alterations in acidity, lower weight loss rate during the storage time and an extended shelf-life as compared to the control fruits (without plastic films). (author)

  14. Issues in assessing the carcinogenic hazards of ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S G; Sielken, R L

    1988-03-01

    Characterization of the health risks associated with occupational and environmental exposure to ethylene oxide (a gaseous sterilization agent and chemical building block) is made difficult by the limited dose-response information contained in the few published epidemiologic studies available, and the absence of toxicologic data for chronic exposures in species other than the rat. Federal regulatory agencies have relied heavily on conventional quantitative risk assessment techniques in setting revised occupational exposure standards for ethylene oxide. This paper indicates the variability in risk assessment results that can be obtained using the multistage dose-response model and a single animal study depending on the method used to characterize risk, the health endpoint selected, the use of confidence intervals, and the method used to equate animal and human exposure levels. Selection of the most pessimistic options available in each of these four areas is shown to result in a virtually safe dose being characterized as 0.005 ppb, whereas other reasonable assumptions yield a safe dose estimate of 1.3 ppm.

  15. Micropatterning of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saniya; Cuchiara, Maude L; West, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes the techniques to synthesize and fabricate micropatterned poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate-based hydrogels that can be used as substrates in cellular studies and tissue engineering scaffolds. These materials provide an essentially bioinert background material due to the very low protein adsorption characteristics of poly(ethylene glycol), but the materials can be modified with covalently grafted peptides, proteins, or other biomolecules of interest to impart specific biofunctionality to the material. Further, it is possible to use micropatterning technologies to control the localization of such covalent grafting of biomolecules to the hydrogel materials, thus spatially controlling the cell-material interactions. This protocol presents a relatively simple approach for mask-based photolithographic patterning, generally best suited for patterning the surface of hydrogel materials for 2D cell studies. A more sophisticated technique, two-photon laser scanning lithography, is also presented. This technique allows free-form, 3D micropatterning in hydrogels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of ethylene on root elongation in barley and rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, A.; Hall, M.A.; Crossett, R.N.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of rice and barley to growth inhibition by ethylene. The mechanism of growth inhibition was investigated at the cellular level and a detailed comparison was made between the responses of the two species. The following measurements were made on intact plants in short (up to 200 minutes), medium (up to 3 days) or long (up to 10 days) experiments: the rate of extension growth of main root axes; the final cell length and number of elongating cells produced; and the extensibility of the apical growing region. Results indicate that the effects of ethylene on the elongation of roots of rice and barley plants are different. In barley there is a rapid inhibition of root extension which persists with prolonged exposure to the gas but with little effect on the production of growing cells. However, rice roots exhibit no rapid growth inhibition response, but a reduction does occur after prolonged exposure. Low concentrations promote extension rice roots. The inhibition of root growth is reflected in a reduced extensibility of the apical growing region.

  17. Ethylene Polymerization with Palygorskite Supported Nickel-Diimine Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严小伟; 王靖贷; 阳永荣; 张雷

    2005-01-01

    A nickel-diimine catalyst IN, N′-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,4-diaza-2,3-dimethyl-1, 3-butadiene nickel dibromide, DMN] was supported on palygorskite clay for ethylene slurry polymerization. The effect of supporting methods on the catalyst impregnation was studied and compared. Pretreatment of the support with methylaluminoxane (MAO) followed by DMN impregnation gave higher catalyst loading and catalytic activity than the direct impregnation of DMN. Catalyst activity as high as 5.42 × 105 g PE·molNi-l·h-1 was achieved at ethylene pressure of 6.87 × 105 Pa and polymerization temperature of 20℃ In particular, the morphological change of the support during MAO treatment was characterized and analyzed. It was found that nano-fiber clusters formed during the support pretreatment, which increased the surface area of the support and favored the impregnation of the catalyst. The investigation of polymerization behavior of supported catalyst revealed that the polymerization rate could be kept at a relatively high level for a long time, different from the homogeneous catalyst. By analyzing the SEM photographs of the polymer produced by the supported catalyst, the morphological evolution of polymer particles was preliminarily studied.

  18. Crystallization Behavior of Copolymer Poly (ethylene terephthalate/isophthalate) (IPET)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾书英; 肖茹; 顾利霞

    2001-01-01

    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics, isothermal crystallization and the morphology of crystals of the copolymer poly (ethylene terephthalate/ isophthalate )(IPET) were studied by DSC and polarized-light microscopy in this paper. DSC results indicate that the glass transition temperature Tg of IPET is slightly lower than that of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), but the melting temperature Tm and the crystallization temperature Tc of PET and IPET have much difference.The difference of Tc between PET and IPET2 is about 7℃, and the difference of Tm between PET and IPET2 is about 16℃. From the kinetics analysis of the crystallization, the crystallization mechanism of all samples is of three-dimension spherulitic growth from instantaneous nuclei and the incorporation of isophthalate (IPA) decreases the crystallization rate of IPET greatly. The isothermal results indicate that the morphologies of PET and IPET crystals are all spherulite, which is in conformity to the results of nonisothermal dynamic crystallization. At the same time,the spherulite of IPET grows slower and has longer incubation time than the spherulite of PET under the same crystallization condition.

  19. Ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropene and silver thiosulfate on the post-production of ornamental pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Carvalho Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Species from Capsicum genus are used for different purposes and in more recent years as ornamental potted plant. Despite the increased commercial importance, there are only a few studies on the environmental factors affecting the post-production shelf life of these ornamental plants. The presence of ethylene induces various responses on potted peppers, reducing the shelf life of sensitive cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ethylene and the inhibitors of ethylene action, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and silver thiosulfate (STS on the shelf life of potted 'Calypso' and 'MG 302' peppers. Cultivar 'MG 302' showed intermediate sensitivity to ethylene action, while the cultivar 'Calypso' showed complete abscission of leaves when exposed to ethylene. In both cultivars, treatment with STS + Ethylene presented symptoms of phytotoxicity in plants, while treatment with 1-MCP + Ethylene was effective in delaying senescence and abscission for the cultivar 'MG 302', while cultivar 'Calypso' showed abscission similar to control plants. Plants treated with STS showed the longest durability when compared to the other treatments, about six days for 'Calypso' and 18 days for 'MG 302'. Nevertheless, plants treated with 1-MCP also exhibited good shelf life, about six days for 'Calypso' and nine days for the 'MG 302'. Although the treatment with STS was more efficient on the plants shelf life, did not completely block the action of ethylene and exhibited some phytotoxicity, while the treatment with 1-MCP had good efficiency without inducing any toxicity.

  20. The relation between in vivo ethylene production and oxygen partial pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, M.G.; Wild, de H.P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Modelling in vivo ethylene production rate in relation to O2 partial pressure was used to improve understanding of enzyme kinetics of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACC oxidase). Tomato fruit were stored in an extensive range of O2 partial pressures at 8, 13 and 18 °C. Ethylene