WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid electric bus

  1. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  2. From the hybrid bus to the fully electrical bus; Vom Hybridbus zum vollelektrischen Bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffel, Christian [VCDB VerkehrsConsult Dresden-Berlin GmbH, Dresden (Germany). Team Elektromobilitaet

    2013-05-15

    To an increasing extent, hybrid buses have become omnipresent in conurbations as far as public transport is concerned. However, they are only an intermediate stage on the path to the fully electrical bus. The development path has been marked out and depends on the progress made in energy storage technology and automobile industry. From an economic point of view, practicable and adequate funding measures are required for the time being for precisely arranging electromobility in public transport and thus before an audience of millions. (orig.)

  3. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  4. Economical launching and accelerating control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Song, Jian; Li, Liang; Li, Shengbo; Cao, Dongpu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an economical launching and accelerating mode, including four ordered phases: pure electrical driving, clutch engagement and engine start-up, engine active charging, and engine driving, which can be fit for the alternating conditions and improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric bus (HEB) during typical city-bus driving scenarios. By utilizing the fast response feature of electric motor (EM), an adaptive controller for EM is designed to realize the power demand during the pure electrical driving mode, the engine starting mode and the engine active charging mode. Concurrently, the smoothness issue induced by the sequential mode transitions is solved with a coordinated control logic for engine, EM and clutch. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed launching and accelerating mode and its control methods are effective in improving the fuel economy and ensure the drivability during the fast transition between the operation modes of HEB.

  5. Simulating Study on Drive System Performance for Hybrid Electric Bus Based on ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric bus has a number of advantages when compared with ordinary passenger cars, but in the dynamic matching and the vehicle performance are difficult to detect, thus limits its development process. In this paper, combined with the actual models, the hybrid electric bus module parameters were modified in the software of ADVISOR (Advanced Vehicle Simulator, main including: module of the vehicle, the wheel module, motor module, a battery module and engine module, three kinds of bus models for A, B and C were established, and the related performance that need to be analyzed was set up, such as acceleration, gradability, emissions and energy utilization and so on, in order to ensure the vehicle running in the same environment and convenient for comparison, a fixed vehicle driving cycles was chose, then the simulation results was analyzed, and the various performance was compared with the dynamic indicators and economic indicators which determined by referencing of traditional city bus standard and each other, and finally, the performance optimal model of B was chose out which can meet the demand, its related performance parameters of the simulation results are as follows: the best gradability is 26%, maximum speed is 72.7km/h, maximum acceleration is 1.7m/s2, 0~50km/h acceleration time is 9.5s and fuel consumption is 25L/km.

  6. The Development and Verification of a Novel ECMS of Hybrid Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the system modeling, control strategy design, and hardware-in-the-loop test for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus. First, the powertrain mathematical models and the system architecture were proposed. Then an adaptive ECMS is developed for the real-time control of a hybrid electric bus, which is investigated and verified in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. The ECMS through driving cycle recognition results in updating the equivalent charge and discharge coefficients and extracting optimized rules for real-time control. This method not only solves the problems of mode transition frequently and improves the fuel economy, but also simplifies the complexity of control strategy design and provides new design ideas for the energy management strategy and gear-shifting rules designed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed real-time A-ECMS can coordinate the overall hybrid electric powertrain to optimize fuel economy and sustain the battery SOC level.

  7. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  8. Parameters Design for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus Using Regenerative Brake Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A design methodology which uses the regenerative brake model is introduced to determine the major system parameters of a parallel electric hybrid bus drive train. Hybrid system parameters mainly include the power rating of internal combustion engine (ICE, gear ratios of transmission, power rating, and maximal torque of motor, power, and capacity of battery. The regenerative model is built in the vehicle model to estimate the regenerative energy in the real road conditions. The design target is to ensure that the vehicle meets the specified vehicle performance, such as speed and acceleration, and at the same time, operates the ICE within an expected speed range. Several pairs of parameters are selected from the result analysis, and the fuel saving result in the road test shows that a 25% reduction is achieved in fuel consumption.

  9. Comparison of PMAC Machines for Starter-Generator Application in a Series Hybrid-Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sinisa Jurkovic; Strangas, Elias G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of outer rotor PMAC machine candidates for starter-generator application in hybrid bus with series power train configuration. PMAC machines with interior and surface mount permanent magnets are considered and compared, although a complete analysis is only carried out for the SPM. Different design aspects such as concentrated versus distributed windings as well as interior and exterior rotor structures are evaluated. Different slot numbers per p...

  10. Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies.

  11. A hybrid algorithm combining EKF and RLS in synchronous estimation of road grade and vehicle' mass for a hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Li, Liang; Yan, Bingjie; Yang, Chao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm for simultaneously estimating the vehicle mass and road grade for hybrid electric bus (HEB). First, the road grade in current step is estimated using extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the initial state including velocity and engine torque. Second, the vehicle mass is estimated twice, one with EKF and the other with recursive least square (RLS) using the estimated road grade. A more accurate value of the estimated mass is acquired by weighting the trade-off between EKF and RLS. Finally, the road grade and vehicle mass thus obtained are used as the initial states for the next step, and two variables could be decoupled from the nonlinear vehicle dynamics by performing the above procedure repeatedly. Simulation results show that in different starting conditions, the proposed algorithm provides higher accuracy and faster convergence speed, compared with the results using EKF or RLS alone.

  12. Predictive-model-based dynamic coordination control strategy for power-split hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Yang, Nannan; Wang, Junnian; Song, Dafeng; Zhang, Nong; Shang, Mingli; Liu, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Parameter-matching methods and optimal control strategies of the top-selling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), namely, power-split HEV, are widely studied. In particular, extant research on control strategy focuses on the steady-state energy management strategy to obtain better fuel economy. However, given that multi-power sources are highly coupled in power-split HEVs and influence one another during mode shifting, conducting research on dynamic coordination control strategy (DCCS) to achieve riding comfort is also important. This paper proposes a predictive-model-based DCCS. First, the dynamic model of the objective power-split HEV is built and the mode shifting process is analyzed based on the developed model to determine the reason for the system shock generated. Engine torque estimation algorithm is then designed according to the principle of the nonlinear observer, and the prediction model of the degree of shock is established based on the theory of model predictive control. Finally, the DCCS with adaptation for a complex driving cycle is realized by combining the feedback control and the predictive model. The presented DCCS is validated on the co-simulation platform of AMESim and Simulink. Results show that the shock during mode shifting is well controlled, thereby improving riding comfort.

  13. King County Metro Transit: Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Laboratory Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, R. R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-09-01

    Paper summarizes chassis dynamometer testing of two 60-foot articulated transit buses, one conventional and one hybrid, at NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory. It includes experimental setup, test procedures, and results from vehicle testing performed at the NREL ReFUEL laboratory.

  14. Research and Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles CAN-Bus Data Monitor and Diagnostic System through OBD-II and Android-Based Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalian Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the smartphone market, future cars seem to have more connections with intelligent cell phone and Internet. Intelligent transportation system (ITS and telematics system have become research focus in recent years. There is an increasing demand for remote monitoring and diagnostic system as the further research of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV goes on. In this paper, a remote controller area network bus (CAN-Bus data monitor and diagnostic system for HEV is presented using on board diagnostic version-II (OBD-II and Android-based smartphone. It is low-cost, convenient, and extensible with smartphone used in the system to realize communication with ELM327 and remote monitoring center wirelessly. The prototype of client and server is developed in Java language, and it is proved by the test that the system works stably and the collected data have practical values.

  15. Global Optimal Energy Management Strategy Research for a Plug-In Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus by Using Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategy influences the power performance and fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles greatly. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB, this paper searched the global optimal energy management strategy using dynamic programming (DP algorithm. Firstly, the simplified backward model of the PHEB was built which is necessary for DP algorithm. Then the torque and speed of engine and the torque of motor were selected as the control variables, and the battery state of charge (SOC was selected as the state variables. The DP solution procedure was listed, and the way was presented to find all possible control variables at every state of each stage in detail. Finally, the appropriate SOC increment is determined after quantizing the state variables, and then the optimal control of long driving distance of a specific driving cycle is replaced with the optimal control of one driving cycle, which reduces the computational time significantly and keeps the precision at the same time. The simulation results show that the fuel economy of the PEHB with the optimal energy management strategy is improved by 53.7% compared with that of the conventional bus, which can be a benchmark for the assessment of other control strategies.

  16. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  17. Parameter Matching and Simulation of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric City Bus%Plug—in混合动力城市公交车参数匹配与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨攀; 赵又群

    2011-01-01

    We rebuild a conventional city bus to a parallel plug-in hybrid electric city bus, and the structure and parameters of the power system are designed. Ni-MH battery and permanent magnet synchronous motor are used in this hybrid electric city bus. Based on the result of simulation in ADVISOR, the plug-in hybrid electric bus has almost equal kinetic performance to the prototype bus, but the fuel economy increases by at least 20% compared with the prototype bus.%将一种传统城市公交车改造成单轴并联结构的Plug-in混合动力公交车,并对动力系统进行参数匹配和设计。该混合动力公交车的储能原件采用镍氢电池,电机采用永磁同步电机。在电动汽车仿真软件ADVISOR中进行建模仿真的结果表明,Plug-in混合动力公交车的动力性与原型车相当,经济性与原型车相比提高了20%以上,达到了预期开发设计的目标。

  18. Development of a New Hybrid Electric City Bus%一种新型混合动力城市客车的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红涛; 史广奎; 王仁广; 张林涛; 于潮

    2012-01-01

    It introduces a new kind of hybrid power train which can be used in parallel/series HEV city bus to meet the requirements of saving energy and reducing pollution. The power train has low and high speed operation modes. The HEV city bus adopting this new type hybrid power train has four operation modes including pure electric driving, parallel /series driving, generating with bus stop, and charging from grid. The new technology makes the engine, generator and motor work match smoothly to reach the target of reducing pollution and using fuel more efficiently.%针对城市公交客车的实际运行工况需要,开发出一种新型混合动力总成装置,用于混合动力城市公交客车.混合动力总成具有高低速双电机模式,能充分发挥串联式和并联式优点.混合动力客车具有纯电、混联、驻车发电和电网充电4种工作模式,使发动机、发电机、电机等部件更优化地匹配工作,在结构上保证了在复杂的工况下系统工作在最优状态,达到更高的节能和减排目标.

  19. DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT OF ELECTRIC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Performance and reliability experiments on BJD-6100EV electric buses, jointly developed by Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Public Transport Company, are introduced. Output power model of battery pack is established and maximum output power is analyzed. A permanent magnetic direct current (PMDC) motor with enhanced windings is developed for the bus. Torque-speed characteristics of the motor are modeled and performance of electric bus is analyzed. Computational method of the range of electric bus is proposed and discussed. Experiments show that electric bus can realize design requirements. Computational methods are verified with the help of field test. It is expected that design and computation method will provide helpful reference to development of electric vehicles.

  20. Drivetrain system of an ultracapacitor electric bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Zhigu; Zhu Chunbo; Yang Shiyan; Cheng Shukang

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a design of the drivetrain system of an electric bus with ultracapacitor (UC) as the only on-board power source. The system includes three main parts, namely, UC bank, motor and the converter, vehicle management unit (VMU). Analyses results in detail on the functional design and experiments on work bench of each part were also presented, which validated the reliability of the system. Furthermore, driving results in field of the bus verified the feasibility of the design of the drivetrain system. The bus has very good dynamic performances and shows a promising applications prospect in the short and medium route buses system.

  1. Development of HFF6120G03SHEV Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus%HFF6120G03SHEV插电式混合动力客车开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少凯

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍HFF6120G03SHEV插电式混合动力客车整车的开发和驱动控制系统的设计,以及整车动力电池组布置技术方案.%The author briefly introduces the whole vehicle development, drive control system design and the vehicle power battery layout scheme of HFF6120G03SHEV plug-in hybrid electric bus.

  2. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  3. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  4. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  5. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  6. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    include utility boom trucks and beverage haulers. Eaton Corp. manufactures a parallel hybrid-electric drivetrain that is used by many of the truck...Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). Most of the hybrid buses use series hybrid-electric drivetrains , and key manufacturers are BAE Systems, ISE...Competing Alternatives to Diesel-Electric Hybrid Powertrains ............................................ 153 6.1 Hydraulic Hybrid Drivetrains

  7. 面向公交客车应用的插电式混合动力实时优化策略研究%Research on City-bus Application-oriented Real-time Optimal Energy Management Strategy for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 焦晓红; 李亮; 游思雄; 颜丙杰; 马兹林

    2015-01-01

    插电式混合动力汽车随着电功率比的逐渐提升实现了机电耦合系统的能量深度混合.然而在应对复杂瞬变的城市公交工况时,如何通过设计实时高效的能量管理策略实现插电式混合动力客车全工况能量消耗最优已成为学术界的研究热点.考虑城市公交工况路况信息对能量分配的影响以及同轴并联式系统构型的自身特点,提出等效坡道在线估计及相应的电池荷电状态(State of charge, SOC)轨线修正方法,在此基础上利用等效油耗最小策略(Equivalent consumption minimization strategy, ECMS)设计一种实时优化能量管理策略,将整条公交线路的能量需求进行合理分配,另外对发动机起停的约束条件保证了发动机的合理高效运行.仿真结果表明所提出的实时优化能量管理策略与实际中应用的规则策略相比,对整车燃油经济性的提升更为显著,且可以更好地匹配公交工况与动力系统构型.实车试验结果也验证了所提出方法的有效性.因此所提出方法为基于优化理论的实车控制策略应用提供了理论依据.%With the gradual increase of the electric power ratio, the energy hybridization might be implemented in the electromechanical coupling system of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. But for the complicated and transient driving conditions of city bus, how to minimize the energy consumption within the driving cycle through designing the real-time energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric bus(PHEB) might be the research focus in theacademia. Considering the characteristics of the driving condition of city bus and the single-shaft parallel hybrid powertrain, an equivalent grade estimation method and the relevant battery state of charge(SOC) correction approach are proposed, and then based on the above two approaches, the energy in one city bus route might be optimally distributed by the employed equivalent consumption minimization

  8. Matching Study on Power System for a Hybrid Electric Bus Based on ADVISOR Simulation%基于ADVISOR仿真的混合动力客车动力系统匹配研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严程健; 夏靖武; 崔月月

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyse the working principle of a single-axle hybrid power system, do the matching calcula-tion of key components of the powertrain, make the secondary development for the electric vehicle simulation soft-ware ADVISOR in Matlab/Simulink, insert the power system control strategy, and take a simulation analysis on the power and economy properties. The results provide references for the matching design of a hybrid electric bus power system.%分析一种单轴并联式混合动力系统的工作原理,对动力总成关键部件进行匹配计算。在Matlab/Simulink环境下,对电动汽车仿真软件ADVISOR进行二次开发,嵌入动力系统的控制策略,对整车进行动力性和经济性仿真分析,为混合动力客车动力系统的匹配设计提供参考。

  9. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  10. Development and realization of a hydrogen range extender hybrid city bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergi, F.; Andaloro, L.; Napoli, G.; Randazzo, N.; Antonucci, V.

    2014-03-01

    Electric vehicles, equipped with electrochemical batteries, are expected to significantly penetrate the automotive market in the next few years. Though, the recharge time for battery pack and the autonomy range can constitute a limit. An appropriate use of fuel cell technology in electric vehicles can now represent an advantageous choice both from a technical and economic point of view. This paper reports the results of the development of a hybrid electric city bus, performed by the synergy between fuel cell and batteries. A pure electric city bus, equipped with eight Zebra batteries, was acquired and modified in a fuel cell and batteries hybrid vehicle. In the final version the bus was equipped with six batteries and a hydrogen plant with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system. In particular an innovative powertrain management, where even the time required for the terminal stops is used to charge the batteries by the fuel cell, is described. Set-up tests on the fuel cell system acquired are presented. Further, tests were conducted also on the battery pack working on board in a real route to demonstrate the capability of the reduced battery pack to drive the vehicle.

  11. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  12. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  13. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  14. 某型混合动力传动系统扭振减振器参数的优化设计%Parameter Optimization on the Torsional Vibration Damper in the Drive Line of a Hybrid Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫明刚; 侯之超; 杨福源; 余平; 叶晓

    2015-01-01

    以某同轴混联型混合动力客车传动系统为对象,应用AMESim建立其扭振力学和控制模型,并设计一个包含全工况的车辆运行过程,计算其在该运行过程中的扭振响应.通过响应灵敏度分析,得出影响系统关键部位扭振水平的主要因素.以全工况下减振器最大扭转角为目标函数,对扭转减振器的刚度参数进行优化.分工况计算优化后传动系统的固有特性,并通过与激振信号对比进行共振校核.优化前、后系统的扭振响应对比表明,该优化达到了预期减振效果.%With drive line of a series-parallel hybrid electric bus as research object, a torsional vibration mechanics& control model is built with software AMESim, and a vehicle operation process incorporating various operating conditions is designed to calculate the torsional vibration responses of the drive line in those operating conditions. Through response sensitivity analysis, the main factors affecting torsional vibration of critical system components are derived. The stiffness parameters of the vibration damper in the drive line are optimized with the maximum twist angle of the dampers as the objective function. The natural characteristics of the optimized drive line is calculated separately under various operational modes, which are used for resonance check with excitation signals. The torsional vibration response of the optimized system after is compared with that without optimization, which shows that the expected vibration damping effect is achieved with this optimization.

  15. Control Strategy of SOC Open-Loop of Hybrid Electric Bus Based on Driving Cycle Prediction%基于道路工况预测混合动力公交车SOC开环控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱道伟; 谢辉; 严英

    2012-01-01

    混合动力车辆一般采用基于荷电状态(SOC)闭环的控制策略,对蓄电池组进行频繁充电,使SOC维持在较高水平,影响制动能量的回收,从而导致燃油经济性不理想.为此,利用BP神经网络并结合城市公交运行特点,提出SOC开环控制策略,对公交车未来站点间的运行工况进行预测,减少蓄电池组的充电次数,降低蓄电池组的荷电状态.试验表明,采用该控制策略可以显著降低电池组充电时间和次数,有利于制动能量的回收,百公里油耗降低了3%.%The conventional strategy of hybrid electric vehicle was based on the state of charge (SOC) closed-loop which charged the battery frequently to sustain a high-level SOC and decreased the fuel efficiency because the energy from the regenerative braking couldn't be stored any more. SOC open-loop control strategy was proposed using the BP neural network and considering the trait of city bus to predict the next driving cycles between two stops in short future. Experiment result shows that the control strategy is useful to decrease charging times and time-period, which improve fuel efficiency by 3% higher than the vehicle on the route with the control strategy of SOC closed-loop because of enhanced regenerative braking energy.

  16. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  17. Hybrid Technologies for Clandestine Electric Reconnaissance Vehicles (CERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    of other on board equipment. The OPC and high voltage Energy Storage system operate in concert with the Motor-Generator and Controller to form...the Vehicle DC Bus. When operating in PHEV mode from external power, the OPC provides power to the Vehicle DC Bus if either the Energy Storage System...commercial electric and hybrid buses. He has designed several motor drives including a 500 HP drive for sonar pulse power using a flywheel for energy

  18. 昆联式昆合动力城市客车动力系统的匹配及控制策略研究%Research on Drive Train Matching for a Series-parallel Hybrid Electric City Bus and Its Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷良育; 张培培; 赵大旭; 刘建军

    2011-01-01

    Based on the drive train for series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle that can make more combination between engines, generators, motors and so on,and the system can be ensured to work under the better conditions from the structure. By matching and analyzing on the drive train for series-parallel hybrid electric city bus,it is advanced that matching scheme and control strategy were proposed on drive train for series-parallel hybrid electric city bus,also,a sample bus was developed successfully. By the demonstration, it is indicated that the vehicle performance of drive and economy meets the design demands. The sample vehicle has better result in saving oil and can provide the reference for the scale demonstration.%混联式混合动力系统能够使发动机、发电机、电动机等部件间有更多的组合,并在结构上保证系统能在复杂的工况下工作在最优状态.通过对混联式混合动力城市客车动力系统的匹配和分析,提出了一种混联式动力系统的匹配方案和控制策略并成功开发出样车.示范运行结果表明,整车动力性及经济性满足设计要求,节油效果良好,可为规模化示范运行提供依据.

  19. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  20. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  1. Implementation of a solar thermal electricity pilot plant (Concentrated Tower) of 1MW and introduction of a bus fleet of plug-in hybrids on the Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Implementacao de uma planta piloto de heliotermia (Torre de Concentracao) de 1MW e introducao de uma frota de onibus hibridos plug-in na Ilha do Fundao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Bruno Soares Moreira Cesar; Malagueta, Diego Cunha [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to simulate a solar thermal electricity pilot plant at the Campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), at Fundao Island, which would generate part of the electricity demanded by the Technology Center (CT) of the UFRJ. Based on the electricity demand from UFRJ and the electric prices paid by the institution, this study proposes the construction of a 1MW Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) pilot plant and analyses the economical, energy and environmental viability of implementation of this plant, operating from 2015 to 2045. This CSP plant would cover a field of 0,01km{sup 2} and have a 30% of capacity factor. This study also evaluates the impact caused by the substitution of the current Campus internal bus fleet for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The current service is provided by Normandy, which operates 12 buses plus 1 backup. These new buses would be regularly partially recharged by the energy generated from CSP. All the simulations have been made with the RETScreen software, which simulated the operation of the CSP, the amount of electricity produced, the carbon emissions avoided, the acquisition and implementation of the plug-in hybrid electric bus fleet and the cash flow. Six scenarios generated were, namely A1, B1, C1 (all for lower costs for the CSP plants) and A2, B2, C2 (for higher costs). For a social discount rate around 8% and along 30 years, only the A1, C1 and C2 scenarios showed a non-negative cash flow. Also, the emissions avoided were around 222 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 6.660 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in the A1 and A2 scenarios, and around 550 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 16.512 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in all others scenarios. (author)

  2. Vibration reduction in electric bus during acceleration and gear shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles have replaced many gasoline vehicles in urban environments. The magnitude of vibrations and emissions from electric vehicles are less than those from conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. However, electric vehicles still have mechanical vibrations, such as those created by the power system. During vehicle acceleration, driveline vibration is very prominent. This work focuses on vehicle vibration caused by the electric powertrain in electric vehicles under rapid acceleration/deceleration and gear shifting. Since the dynamic response of an electric motor is rapid, driving torsional vibration arising from acceleration/deceleration and gear shifting is typically transmitted from driveline to vehicle’s body, adversely affecting a driver’s comfort. This work presents a novel effective control logic that reduces vibrations from an electric driveline system. This system controls the electric motor to suppress driveline torsional vibration transmitted to the driver’s seat, effectively reducing vertical vibrations and enhancing driver comfort. This work conducts simulations and hardware tests. In the development of the driveline and motor control logic, Adaptive Modeling Environment for Simulation analytical software is applied to create the driveline system model. To model structural vibrations, HyperMesh is used, and LS DYNA is applied to simulate free vibration and forced vibration. The analytical results for free vibration are compared with empirical data. The analytical results for driveline dynamics are applied as input for the finite element model to analyze forced vibration. Vibrations from the electric driveline move through the motor mount and frame to the driver’s seat track. The simulation results demonstrate this control logic strategy applied to an electric bus motor controller effectively reduces fluctuation in driveline torque during acceleration by up to 84.19% and during gear shifting by up to 44.96%. The

  3. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  4. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  5. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  6. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Moo-Yeon Lee; Jong-Phil Won; Chung-Won Cho; Ho-Seong Lee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volum...

  7. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  8. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  9. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  10. Simulation of the Control Strategy for an Electric Bus with Motorized Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liqiang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to simulate the running state of the bus as real as possible and verify the correctness of electric bus control system that is developing, which is good for reducing the development cycle and cost for enterprise. The vehicle dynamics model is built and the actual vehicle driving condition is simulated in AMESim and the vehicle control strategy is established in Simulink. The co-simulation platform is used to simulate the actual running state of the bus with the action of the control system, which provides the reference for subsequent real vehicle test.

  11. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  12. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  13. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  14. Increasing throughput of multiplexed electrical bus in pipe-lined architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Brezzo, Bernard V; Kapur, Mohit

    2014-05-27

    Techniques are disclosed for increasing the throughput of a multiplexed electrical bus by exploiting available pipeline stages of a computer or other system. For example, a method for increasing a throughput of an electrical bus that connects at least two devices in a system comprises introducing at least one signal hold stage in a signal-receiving one of the two devices, such that a maximum frequency at which the two devices are operated is not limited by a number of cycles of an operating frequency of the electrical bus needed for a signal to propagate from a signal-transmitting one of the two devices to the signal-receiving one of the two devices. Preferably, the signal hold stage introduced in the signal-receiving one of the two devices is a pipeline stage re-allocated from the signal-transmitting one of the two devices.

  15. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua

    2016-01-01

    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  16. Gear Decision for Regenarative Brake in Single Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Transmitting Bus%单轴并联式混合动力城市客车再生制动挡位决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泳丹; 席军强; 陈慧岩

    2012-01-01

    Mathmalic model of regenerative brake for single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) was established and a series-parallel multi-brake pedal was correspondingly designed. To ensure the brake stability, a new brake torque distribution similar to the atomic transition was proposed. The factors of generator efficiency, battery charging efficiency and braking stability, which restrict the increase in regenerative efficiency, were analyzed and the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm was used to optimize the gear decision and regenerative brake torque ouput. The model of hybrid propulsion system has been built under the Cruise and Matlab/Simulink joint simulation platforms. According to the rule of UDC drive cycle simulation, the experimental data indicate that, compared with traditional dual parameters shift decision, the final state of charge (SOC) could be increased by 1.5% and the regenerative efficiency be 11. 00% more than that in the normal brake pattern. Three typical cycle road tests have been implemented and the results well fit in with the simulation ones.%设计一种串并混联式复合制动踏板方案,并针对该方案制订再生制动阶跃式制动力分配曲线.分析了影响再生制动效率的多种因素,提出运用序列二次规划(SQP)算法优化挡位决策和电机输出扭矩以解决再生制动中回收效率与制动力分配曲线和电机转速的矛盾.在Cruise和Matlab/Simulink联合仿真平台下,建立了单轴并联式混合动力传动系统整车模型,基于欧洲公交客车循环工况(UDC)进行了仿真研究.结果表明,电池荷电状态(SOC)比采用传统双参数换挡规律提高了近1.5%.进行了三种典型制动工况下实车试验,取得了与仿真结果相吻合的试验结果,其中正常制动工况下的能量回收率比传统双参数换挡策略提高了近11.00%.

  17. Geometric-Process-Based Battery Management Optimizing Policy for the Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry and promotive policies worldwide, the electric bus (E-bus has been adopted in many major cities around the world. One of the most important factors that restrain the widespread application of the E-bus is the high operating cost due to the deficient battery management. This paper proposes a geometric-process-based (GP-based battery management optimizing policy which aims to minimize the average cost of the operation on the premise of meeting the required sufficient battery availability. Considering the deterioration of the battery after repeated charging and discharging, this paper constructs the model of the operation of the E-bus battery as a geometric process, and the premaintenance time has been considered with the failure repairment time to enhance the GP-based battery operation model considering the battery cannot be as good as new after the two processes. The computer simulation is carried out by adopting the proposed optimizing policy, and the result verifies the effectiveness of the policy, denoting its significant performance on the application of the E-bus battery management.

  18. Energy Management Strategy Optimization for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle%基于极小值原理的混联混合动力客车能量管理策略优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林歆悠; 孙冬野; 邓涛

    2012-01-01

    In view of the requirements of the special structural features of a series-parallel hybrid electric bus on its control strategy, an optimization simulation on its energy management strategy, which determines the power distribution between engine and battery, is conducted by using Pontryagin's minimum principle and based on the solution flow chart designed and the simulation model built, with battery power as control variable and minimizing fuel consumption as objective. The results demonstrate the marked effects of optimization on energy management strategy based on Pontryagin's minimum principle with the fuel consumption per 100km 18. 33% lower than that with rule-based control strategy.%针对一款混联式混合动力客车特殊的结构特点对控制策略的要求,以电池功率为控制变量,以燃油消耗最小为目标,采用极小值原理,并基于所设计的求解流程和所建立的模型,对确定发动机和电池之间功率分配的能量控制策略进行优化仿真.结果表明,采用极小值原理对能量控制策略的优化效果显著,与规则控制策略相比,100km油耗降低了18.33%.

  19. Study on Ultracapacitors Parameter Design and Control Strategy of Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of ultracapacitors efficiency and vehicle driving character, three conditions restricting the ultracapacitors charge/discharge time are derived. The study focuses on ultracapacitors specific design rules decided by charge/discharge time and how to integrate with battery packs and converter through ultracapacitors' voltage and current double regulators. Through BFC6100-EV electric bus test, it is shown that the proposed method and control strategy are feasible and the system can effectively improve the bus dynamic performance and ability to receive braking energy effectively.

  20. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  1. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics systems and components, networking and hybrid drive

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the "Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics" technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle. Content Electrical and electronical systems – Basic principles of networking - Examples of networked vehicles – Bus systems – Architecture of electronic systems – Mechatronics – Elektronics – Electronic control Units – Software – Sensors – Actuators – Hybrid drives – Vehicle electrical system – Start...

  2. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  3. Dynamic Programming-Based Energy Management System for Range-Extended Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavy computational burden associated with the application of the traditional DP strategy to the energy management of range-extended electric buses poses a serious problem. On the basis of one Chinese typical urban bus driving cycle, an optimal control strategy is designed according to the SOC consumption trend, which is optimized by the DP algorithm. The dissipative energy and the energy-traction efficiency are our evaluation indices. The energy efficiencies of the powertrain system and components are analyzed by the energy flow diagram method. The results show that when the range-extended electric bus runs 35 Chinese typical urban bus driving cycles, the energy consumption and the energy efficiency of the powertrain system, which are optimized by the traditional DP strategy, can reach 2844.28 MJ and 31.29%, respectively. Compared with the traditional bus, the energy consumption can be reduced by 31.08%. The energy consumption and the energy efficiency of the powertrain system, which are based on one driving cycle optimal strategy, can reach 2857.69 MJ and 31.14%, respectively. The energy consumption is 0.47% higher than that with the traditional DP strategy, but the computation time is reduced by 96.85%.

  4. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  5. 混合动力客车控制策略设计%Control Strategy Design of the Hybrid Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽; 邓永瑞

    2013-01-01

    Control strategy design is one of the key technologies of the hybrid bus, which has a greater impact on the performances of the vehicle. In order to make a modified hybrid bus have better power and economy, it puts forward a set of logic threshold strategies based on engineering experience. By setting the speed, the battery state of charge (SOC)and the upper and lower engine torque and other parameters of a set threshold, according to pre-bus real-time parameters and dynamic system of rules to adjust the working status of components, the corresponding control strategies of pure electric mode, pure electric ready mode, engine individual drive mode, parking power generation mode and united drive mode design model are designed. The strategy is relatively simple and intuitive, with a strong practical value.%控制策略设计是混合动力汽车的关键技术之一,对车辆的性能有着较大影响.为了使某款改装的混合动力客车有较好的动力性和经济性,依据工程经验,提出一套逻辑门限值策略.通过设置车速、电池荷电状态(SOC)上下限及发动机工作转矩等一组门限参数,根据客车的实时参数及预定的规则调整动力系统各部件的工作状态,分别为纯电动模式、纯电动准备模式、发动机单独驱动模式、停车发电模式和联合驱动模式设计了相应的控制策略.该策略比较简单、直观,具有较强的实用价值.

  6. 基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制方案%Air-conditioner Control Project for Electric Bus Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桥生

    2012-01-01

    The author simply introduces two kinds of present control modes for air-conditioner of electric bus in domestic market,puts forward a new kind of its control mode based on CAN bus,and design the CAN's messages reports.%简述国内电动客车空调的两种控制模式;提出一种基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制模式,并设计CAN通讯报文。

  7. Design of Engine-Generator Work Mode for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何洪文; 余晓江; 孙逢春

    2004-01-01

    From electric circuit theory view, a system model of series hybrid electric vehicle was built which uses engine-generator and battery pack as its on-board energy source in this paper. Based on the analysis for the constant power work mode and constant bus voltage work mode of engine-generator, a third work mode was put forward which combined the advantages of constant power and constant bus voltage work modes. The new work mode is reasonable to keep the battery in good working conditions and to extend its life. Also the working conditions of engine can be bettered to get low pollution and high efficiency.

  8. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  9. DOE Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Test Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yimin [Advanced Vehicle Research Center, Danville, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    Based on the contract NT-42790 to the Department of Energy, “Plug-in Hybrid Ethanol Research Platform”, Advanced Vehicle Research Center (AVRC) Virginia has successfully developed the phase I electric drive train research platform which has been named as Laboratory Rapid Application Testbed (LabRAT). In phase II, LabRAT is to be upgraded into plug-in hybrid research platform, which will be capable of testing power systems for electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles running on conventional as well as alternative fuels. LabRAT is configured as a rolling testbed with plentiful space for installing various component configurations. Component connections are modularized for flexibility and are easily replaced for testing various mechanisms. LabRAT is designed and built as a full functional vehicle chassis with a steering system, brake system and four wheel suspension. The rear drive axle offers maximum flexibility with a quickly changeable gear ratio final drive to accommodate different motor speed requirements. The electric drive system includes an electric motor which is mechanically connected to the rear axle through an integrated speed/torque sensor. Initially, a 100 kW UQM motor and corresponding UQM motor controller is used which can be easily replaced with another motor/controller combination. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is installed, which consists of 108 cells of 100 AH capacity, giving the total energy capacity of 32.5 kWh. Correspondingly, a fully functional battery management system (BMS) is installed to perform battery cell operation monitoring, cell voltage balancing, and reporting battery real time operating parameters to vehicle controller. An advanced vehicle controller ECU is installed for controlling the drive train. The vehicle controller ECU receives traction or braking torque command from driver through accelerator and brake pedal position sensors and battery operating signals from the BMS through CAN BUS

  10. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volume flow rate of the coolant water of the electrical devices. Heating capacity, compressor work, and heating COP were measured; their behaviors with regard to the parameters were observed. Experimental results showed that heating COP increased with decrease of outdoor temperature, from 20.0 °C to 0 °C, and it observed to be 3.0 in the case of 0 °C outdoor temperature. The observed characteristics of the heating COP suggest that the heat pump is applicable as the cabin heater of an electric vehicle, which is limited by short driving range.

  11. Real-Time Hybrid In-Station Bus Dispatching Strategy Based on Mixed Integer Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The actual bus headway often deviates from the planned departure frequency because of external factors, such as traffic conditions and public transport demand, leading to transit resource waste and reducing the quality of service. In view of the existing shortcomings of the current dispatching strategy, a mixed integer programming model, integrating a bus-holding and stop-skipping strategy, is constructed to improve transit service with a minimum cost. The real-time optimal holding and stop-skipping strategies can be obtained by solving the proposed model using the Lagrangian relaxation algorithm. A numerical example is conducted using real transit GPS (Global Position System and IC (Intelligent Card data in Harbin. The results show that compared to a single control strategy, the proposed hybrid model is a better trade-off between the quality of the transit service and the operation cost. Notably, such a strategy would produce a minimal passengers’ average travel time coefficient. It is a great help for promoting the transit service level and increasing competitiveness.

  12. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  13. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  14. NASA's Involvement in Technology Development and Transfer: The Ohio Hybrid Bus Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government and industry cooperative is using advanced power technology in a city transit bus that will offer double the fuel economy, and reduce emissions to one tenth of government standards. The heart of the vehicle's power system is a natural gas fueled generator unit. Power from both the generator and an advanced energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. A unique aspect of the vehicle's design is its use of "super" capacitors for recovery of energy during braking. This is the largest vehicle ever built using this advanced energy recovery technology. This paper describes the project goals and approach, results of its system performance modeling, and the status of the development team's effort.

  15. Very-low-frequency and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields associated with electric shuttle bus wireless charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Kavet, Robert; Bailey, J R; Halliwell, John

    2014-01-01

    Tests conducted to date at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) indicate that wireless charging of the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority's (CARTA) downtown shuttle bus, currently operating with off-board battery charging technology, offers significant improvements in performance and cost. The system operates at a frequency of 20 kHz and a peak power of 60 kW. Because the system's wireless charging is expected to occur during a nominal 3-min charging period with passengers on-board, the magnetic and electric fields associated with charging were characterised at UTC's Advanced Vehicle Test Facility and compared with established human exposure limits. The two most prominent exposure limits are those published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Both organisations include limits for groups who are trained (workers in specific industries) to be aware of electromagnetic environments and their potential hazards, as well as a lower set of limits for the general public, who are assumed to lack such awareness. None of the magnetic or electric fields measured either within or outside the bus during charging exceeded either the ICNIRP or the IEEE exposure limits for the general public.

  16. Modeling and energy management control design for a fuel cell hybrid passenger bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kyle; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and supervisory energy management design of a hybrid fuel cell/battery-powered passenger bus. With growing concerns about petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, finding alternative methods for vehicle propulsion is necessary. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are viable possibilities for energy converters due to their high efficiencies and zero emissions. It has been shown that the benefits of PEM fuel cell systems can be greatly improved through hybridization. In this work, the challenge of developing an on-board energy management strategy with near-optimal performance is addressed by a two-step process. First, an optimal control based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is implemented to find the global optimal solution which minimizes fuel consumption, for different drive cycles, with and without grade. The optimal solutions are analyzed in order to aid in development of a practical controller suitable for on-board implementation, in the form of an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) regulator. Simulation results show that the ARMA controller is capable of achieving fuel economy within 3% of the PMP controller while being able to limit the transient demand on the fuel cell system.

  17. The Federal electric and hybrid vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The commercial development and use of electric and hybrid vehicles is discussed with respect to its application as a possible alternative transportation system. A market demonstration is described that seeks to place 10,000 electric hybrid vehicles into public and private sector demonstrations.

  18. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  19. DataBus-based hybrid routing approach for orbit access networks in lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Meng, Ke; Deng, Julia

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges for lunar exploration missions is how to achieve dynamic and robust routing. To reduce the development cost, it is desirable to leverage existing technologies, such as routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and delay tolerant networks (DTN). However, these technologies are developed for the Earth environment and hence need further investigation for the lunar environment. To support robust access and dynamic mission operations, we propose a DataBus-based Hybrid Routing (DBHR) approach that combines MANET reactive routing protocol (such as AODV) and DTN-based bundle delivery. Our DBHR approach is designed for a tiered architecture where remote nodes communicate with upper-tier gateways through data carriers (DataBus) using short-range radio interfaces. Our scheme explores the (non)availability of the end-to-end path between two peers using MANET routing and provides diverse route options based upon different parameters. This interaction between hop-by-hop DTN technologies and end-to-end MANET protocol will result in a reliable and robust routing protocol for orbit access and improve the overall communication capabilities. To evaluate its performance, we implemented our proposed scheme on commercial-off-theshelf (COTS) routers with the custom OpenWRT and tailored IBR-DTN bundle protocol distribution. The on-demand service request and grant mechanisms are also developed in our implementation to allow certain DTN nodes to reserve the future access opportunities. Finally, we demonstrate the achieved capabilities and performance gains through experiments on a hardware test bed that consists of several COTS routers with our implementation.

  20. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  1. Analysis of Control Characteristic for the Drive System of Electric Transit Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张承宁; 李红林; 孙逢春; 张旺

    2003-01-01

    The drive control system of the permanent magnetic direct current motor with the enhanced magnetism windings used in the electric transit bus is developed. The mathematics model of the drive control system for this motor is established. The new mode that the added-exiting magnetism field could be weakened and the speed of the motor could be controlled automatically is proposed and realized. The method of root locus design is applied to analyze the acceleration control characteristic. The results of simulation show that the new drive motor control system has extraordinary response characteristic and adjustable performance. Experiments of vehicle running show that the drive control system's antijamming ability is strong and the adjustable performance is fast and smooth, it can meet the demand of power characteristic very well.

  2. Thermo-electric Analysis of the Interconnection of the LHC main Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Casali, M; Bottura, L; Siemko, A

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the question of the maximum allowable energy for the operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have progressed in the understanding of the thermo-electric behavior of the 13 kA superconducting bus bars interconnecting its main magnets. A deep insight of the underlying mechanisms is required to ensure the protection of the accelerator against undesired effects of resistive transitions. This is especially important in case of defective interconnections which can jeopardize the operation of the whole LHC. In this paper we present a numerical model of the interconnections between the main dipole and quadrupole magnets, validated against experimental tests of an interconnection sample with a purposely built-in defect. We consider defective interconnections featuring a lack of bonding among the superconducting cables and the copper stabilizer components, such as those that could be present in the machine. We evaluate the critical defect length limiting the maximum allowable current for powering th...

  3. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  4. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC URBAN BUSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuanjun; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2008-01-01

    A novel parallel hybrid electrical urban bus (PHEUB) configuration consisting of an extra one-way clutch and an automatic mechanical transmission (AMT) is taken as the study subject. An energy management strategy combining a logic threshold approach and an instantaneous optimization algorithm is proposed for the investigated PHEUB. The objective of the energy management strategy is to achieve acceptable vehicle performance and drivability requirements while simultaneously maximizing the engine fuel consumption and maintaining the battery state of charge in its operation range at all times. Under the environment of Matlab/Simulink, a computer simulation model for the PHEUB is constructed by using the model building method combining theoretical analysis and bench test data. Simulation and experiment results for China Typical Bus Driving Schedule at Urban District (CTBDS_UD) are obtained, and the results indicate that the proposed control strategy not only controls the hybrid system efficiently but also improves the fuel economy significantly.

  6. Modification and tuning of diesel bus engine for biogas electricity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittiboon Siripornakarachai

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is to convert and tune a bus diesel engine for electricity production in a farm using biogas as fuel. The engine under study is a Hino K-13CTI 13,000 cc 24 valve turbocharged engine coupled to a 3 phase 4 pole induction motor to produce electricity at 50 Hz. Modifications include an addition of biogas carburetor for air-fuel mixing, replacing the fuel injection system with spark ignition system, reduction of compression ratio from the original 16:1 to 8:1 using a cylinder head spacer, and modification of the turbocharger waste gate so the boost pressure can be adjusted. When the induction motor is synchronized to the power grid, the running speed of the engine is 1,500 rpm. Optimal engine efficiency was achieved at 28.6% by setting the lambda factor at 1.097, ignition timing at 54o before top dead center, and the turbocharger boost at 56 kPa. With this setting, the generator power output is 134.20 kilowatt with emission of CO and NOX being 1,154 and 896 ppm respectively.

  7. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  8. Neoplan bus with optional electric drive. Neoplan-Omnibus mit multipler Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.; Ehrhart, P.

    The Gottlob Auwaerter GmbH and Co has been involved with the manufacturing of electrically driven omnibuses for some time. In co-operation with Varta they developed an optinal technology for the nickel-metal hybrid batteries. In order to fully use the advantages of the electric drives the company developed a drive system in co-operation with the magnet Motor GmbH which uses almost no mechanical components. This omnibus with its fibre-compound plastic body is suited to the urban traffic of today and tomorrow. (orig.)

  9. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Jasper; Langer, Martin; Gill, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a questionnaire representing 60 launched CubeSats and 44 to be launched CubeSats. It is found that the bus interfaces are not the main driver for mission failures. However, it is concluded that the Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) data bus, as implemented in a great majority of the CubeSats, caused some catastrophic satellite failures and a vast amount of bus lockups. The power distribution may lead to catastrophic failures if the power lines are not protected against overcurrent. A connector and wiring standard widely implemented in CubeSats is based on the PC/104 standard. Most participants find the 104 pin connector of this standard too large. For a future CubeSat bus interface standard, it is recommended to implement a reliable data bus, a power distribution with overcurrent protection and a wiring harness with smaller connectors compared with PC/104.

  10. Comparative study of two different powertrains for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2016-07-01

    The powertrain plays an essential role in improving the tractive performance and the fuel consumption of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. This paper presents a comparative study of two different powertrains for fuel cell hybrid buses. The significant difference between the two powertrains lies in the types and arrangements of the electrical motor. One powertrain employs an induction motor to drive the vehicle, while the other powertrain adopts two permanent magnetic synchronous motors for near-wheel propulsion. Besides, the tiny difference between the proposed powertrain is the supply path of the fuel cell accessories, which can have an effect on the powertrain efficiency. The component parameters and energy management strategies for the two powertrain are determined. The fuel cell hybrid buses equipped with the two powertrains are developed, and some road tests are achieved, according to the chosen procedures or driving cycles. The paper focuses on the tractive performance and energy analysis of the powertrains based on the testing results. Finally, the paper summarizes the relative merits of the proposed powertrains.

  11. Thermo-electric analysis of the interconnection of the LHC main superconducting bus bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, P. P.; Breschi, M.; Casali, M.; Bottura, L.; Siemko, A.

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the question of the maximum allowable energy for the operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have progressed in the understanding of the thermo-electric behavior of the 13 kA superconducting bus bars interconnecting its main magnets. A deep insight of the underlying mechanisms is required to ensure the protection of the accelerator against undesired effects of resistive transitions. This is especially important in case of defective interconnections which can jeopardize the operation of the whole LHC. In this paper we present a numerical model of the interconnections between the main dipole and quadrupole magnets, validated against experimental tests of an interconnection sample with a purposely built-in defect. We consider defective interconnections featuring a lack of bonding among the superconducting cables and the copper stabilizer components, such as those that could be present in the machine. We evaluate the critical defect length limiting the maximum allowable current for powering the magnets. We determine the dependence of the critical defect length on different parameters as the heat transfer towards the cooling helium bath, the quality of manufacturing, the operating conditions and the protection system parameters, and discuss the relevant mechanisms.

  12. Ecodriving for Reduction of Bus Transit Emission with Vehicle’s Hybrid Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzheng Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a global ecodriving optimal control to advise the green driving speed for bus transit to minimize the exhaust emission using Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I communication. Assuming communication between vehicles and infrastructure (V2I and knowledge of traffic signal timings and waiting passengers at stations are known, an optimal driving speed is proposed to minimize the total vehicle emissions of the bus route. The dwell time of the bus transit at each station which includes two parts is proposed. A traffic lights timing model is employed as constraints to control the formation of the green wave band. Vehicle specific power (VSP model is further applied to evaluate the exhaust emission level linked with the speed and acceleration of the bus transit. An approximate sixteen-kilometer traffic network including fourteen intersections and fifteen stations of Beijing bus transit line 1 in Chaoyang District, Beijing, is chosen to investigate the performance of the developed ecodriving approach.

  13. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  14. Electrical-energy storage in hybrid ultracapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, MK; Niranjana, E; Sundar Rajan, A; Banerjee, A.; Gaffoor, SA; Shukla, AK

    2009-01-01

    There are several ways of storing electrical energy in chemical and physical forms and retrieving it on demand, and ultracapacitors are one among them. This article presents the taxonomy of ultracapacitor and describes various types of rechargeable-battery electrodes that can be used to realize the hybrid ultracapacitors in conjunction with a high-surface-area-graphitic-carbon electrode. While the electrical energy is stored in a battery electrode in chemical form, it is stored in physical...

  15. A Comprehensive Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiying Shen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the environmental pollution and energy crises are getting more and more remarkable, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs have taken on an accelerated pace in the world. A comprehensive overview of HEVs is presented in this paper, with the emphasis on configurations, main issues, and energy management strategies. Conclusions are discussed finally.

  16. Velocity trajectory optimization in Hybrid Electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Jager, B. de; Foster, D.L.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) enable fuel savings by re-using kinetic and potential energy that was recovered and stored in a battery during braking or driving down hill. Besides, the vehicle itself can be seen as a storage device, where kinetic energy can be stored and retrieved by changing the

  17. TARDEC Hybrid Electric (HE) Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-05

    System Generator /Motor...ireDifferential Differential Energy Storage System Generator / Motor Inverter Engine Generator/Motor Transmission 3-Phase AC power into Motor Inverter When...Hybrid Electric Drive Propulsion TireTire Tire Energy Storage System Generator Controller 3Ø A/C to HV DC Generator Controller rectifies AC to DC

  18. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To suppor

  19. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  20. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  1. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  2. Variability of particle number emissions from diesel and hybrid diesel-electric buses in real driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Gao, H Oliver; Holmén, Britt A

    2008-08-01

    A linear mixed model was developed to quantify the variability of particle number emissions from transit buses tested in real-world driving conditions. Two conventional diesel buses and two hybrid diesel-electric buses were tested throughout 2004 under different aftertreatments, fuels, drivers, and bus routes. The mixed model controlled the confounding influence of factors inherent to on-board testing. Statistical tests showed that particle number emissions varied significantly according to the after treatment, bus route, driver, bus type, and daily temperature, with only minor variability attributable to differences between fuel types. The daily setup and operation of the sampling equipment (electrical low pressure impactor) and mini-dilution system contributed to 30-84% of the total random variability of particle measurements among tests with diesel oxidation catalysts. By controlling for the sampling day variability, the model better defined the differences in particle emissions among bus routes. In contrast, the low particle number emissions measured with diesel particle filters (decreased by over 99%) did not vary according to operating conditions or bus type but did vary substantially with ambient temperature.

  3. Double Resonant Topology for 72V Battery Charger used in a Hybrid Electric Locomotive - Study and Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    BUTTERBACH, S; DE-BERNARDINIS, A; Lallemand, R; Coquery, G.; JEUNESSE, A; EVAIN, Y; AUBIN, PH

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the study, adaptation and experimental validation of a 9kW lead-acid battery charger used to feed the 72VDC bus inside the hybrid electric locomotive demonstrator in the frame of the French research project PLATHEE. The topology of the charger is based on a high frequency double resonant series-parallel circuit which allows soft switching, losses minimization, reduction of passive component weight and facilitates system integration. Specific charging and floating modes we...

  4. Torque Distribution Strategy for Integrated Starter/ Generator Hybrid Bus Implemented by Fuzzy Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Hu; AO Guo-qiang; WANG Feng; MA Zi-lin; MAO Xiao-jian; ZHUO Bin

    2008-01-01

    A torque distribution strategy was designed by using fuzzy logic to realize the optimal control. Thevehicle load zones were dynamically divided into several zones by several torque lines to indicate the driversdemand and the high or low efficient operating areas of the diesel engine. The fuzzy logic controller withtrapezoid membership function and Mamdani rule reference mechanism was utilized. There are over 100 rulesused in this fuzzy-based torque distribution strategy which are sorted into four rule-bases. The fuel economyand acceleration tests were designed to test and validate the integrated starter/generator (ISG) bus perfor-mance using fuzzy-based torque distribution strategy. The fuel economy is improved 7.7% compared with therule-based strategy. Finally the road test results reveal that there is about 157% improvement of fuel economy.And the 0-50 km/h acceleration time is 9.5% shorter than the original bus.

  5. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  6. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  7. Optimal vehicle control strategy of a fuel cell/battery hybrid city bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Hua, Jianfeng; Li, Xiangjun; Ouyang, Minggao [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-09-15

    In this article, an optimal vehicle control strategy based on a time-triggered controller area network (TTCAN) system for a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell/nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery powered city bus is presented. Aiming at improving the fuel economy of the city bus, the control strategy comprises an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) and a braking energy regeneration strategy (BERS). On the basis of the introduction of a battery equivalent hydrogen consumption model incorporating a charge-sustaining coefficient, an analytical solution to the equivalent consumption minimization problem is given. The proposed strategy has been applied in several city buses for the Beijing Olympic Games of 2008. Results of the ''China city bus typical cycle'' testing show that, the ECMS and the BERS lowered hydrogen consumption by 2.5% and 15.3% respectively, compared with a rule-based strategy. The BERS contributes much more than the ECMS to the fuel economy, because the fuel cell system does not leave much room for the optimal algorithm in improving the efficiency. (author)

  8. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  9. A comparison study of different semi-active hybrid energy storage system topologies for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ziyou; Hofmann, Heath; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Zhang, Xiaowu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, four different semi-active hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs), which use both supercapacitors (SCs) and batteries, are compared based on an electric city bus running the China Bus Driving Cycle (CBDC). The SC sizes of the different HESS topologies are optimized by using the dynamic programming (DP) approach, based on a dynamic degradation model of the LiFePO4 battery. The operation costs of different HESSs, including the electricity and the battery degradation costs over a whole CBDC, are minimized in the optimization process. Based on the DP results, near-optimal control strategies of different HESSs for on-line uses are proposed. Finally, the four HESS topologies are comprehensively compared from different aspects, including operation cost, initial cost, and DC bus voltage variation. Simulation results show that all HESS topologies have their merits and drawbacks, and can be used in different applications with different requirements. In addition, about 50% of the operation cost of the energy storage system is reduced by the semi-active HESSs when compared to the battery-only topology. Thus the effectiveness of adopting the SC in the HESS is verified.

  10. Study and Analysis of Congestion Management in Hybrid Electric Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayed Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The congestion management system is a systematic approach, collaboratively developed and implemented throughout a metropolitan region that provides for the safe and effective management and operation of new and existing transportation facilities through the use of demand reduction and operational management strat­e­gies. In this paper we try to present some points which should be investigated in congestion management problems. We calculate different kinds of congestion problems which may be occurred in our network. Here, the hybrid model is used to solve problems in the electricity market to solve the congestion problem in the network and Benders techniques is used together with an optimal power flow (OPF. In fact, by using of Benders algorithm the problem is divided into two major and minor problems. Therefore, the major problem related to the economy sector and no network is included and the minor problem is to solve the network and examine the accuracy of the network. Benders algorithm has been tested on a standard network IEEE 24 bus and Matlab software is used to implement the algorithm.

  11. System Matching and Scheme Designing of a Specified Pure Electric Bus%某款纯电动客车系统匹配和方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石添华

    2015-01-01

    Taking the R&D and application of a specified pure electric bus as an example, the author introduces pure electric power system matching and CAN network architecture, and then expounds appropriate high voltage power management solution of pure electric bus.%结合某款纯电动客车的研发与应用,介绍纯电动系统的匹配设计和整车CAN网络架构,并提出合理的纯电动系统高压配电管理方案.

  12. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  13. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  14. Minimization of Construction Costs for an All Battery-Swapping Electric-Bus Transportation System: Comparison with an All Plug-In System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Chyuan Fang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. Electric-bus (e-bus transportation systems help reduce pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO, a genetic algorithm (GA, and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was shown to be lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system.

  15. Implementación de lenguajes de contrato electrónico en Oracle Service Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Flores Valdés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development and implementation of integration scenarios have involved services from various sources, where attention has focused on the operations they provide and have rarely been taken into account its non-functional requirements which include aspects such as response time and availability. This has caused the need for automated policy negotiation between the parties that interact with the service to consider those aspects. To solve this problem we have used the Service Level Agreements that are not formal specification of the agreements between the parties relating to the non-functional service requirements. Electronic contract languages for quality of service management were specified in order to formalize these agreements using standard specifications. Oracle Service Bus implements the Enterprise Service Bus technology that mediates communication between applications technology and has support for defining Service Level Agreements for Web Services that connect to it. This article has the main objective of verifying the explicit support of the languages ​​in Oracle Service Bus and concluded that it does not, but a strategy is proposed to implement the fundamental aspects of the languages ​​used tool components.

  16. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  17. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles advanced simulation methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu; Moldovanu, Dan; Iclodean, Calin

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed as an interdisciplinary platform for specialists working in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles powertrain design and development, and for scientists who want to get access to information related to electric and hybrid vehicle energy management, efficiency and control. The book presents the methodology of simulation that allows the specialist to evaluate electric and hybrid vehicle powertrain energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption. The mathematics behind each electric and hybrid vehicle component is explained and for each specific vehicle the powertrain

  18. Design on CAN Network Project for Pure Electric Bus with Power Battery Replacement%换电式纯电动客车CAN网络方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房永强

    2015-01-01

    结合某款换电式纯电动客车的研发与应用,介绍一种换电式纯电动客车三级CAN网络架构,以及合理的纯电动系统CAN总线管理方案。%Taking the R&D and application of a pure electric bus with the power battery replacement as an example, the author introduces a three-level CAN network architecture and appropriate management project of the control system based on the CAN bus of the pure electric system.

  19. 纯电动机场摆渡车应用的可行性%Feasibility of Application for Pure Electric Airport Shuttle Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵; 王泽平

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of airport shuttle bus are analyzed. Based on the use and technique features, as well as cost state, the authors elaborate the practicability of pure electric airport shuttle bus application. Last, they present the significance and prospect of pure electric airport shuttle buses.%分析机场摆渡车的主要特点,从使用特点、技术特点和成本情况出发,阐述纯电动机场摆渡车的应用可行性,并分析纯电动机场摆渡车的意义和前景。

  20. Design of NPS61000SHEV Extended Range Electric Bus%NPS6100SHEV增程式电动客车设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐本祥

    2011-01-01

    Through the power matching, generator-set matching, battery capacity calculation and control strategy analyzing of NPS6100SHEV extended range electric bus, the author puts forward the overall design requirement and general design method of the extended range electric bus.%通过对NPS6100SHEV增程式电动客车的动力匹配、发电机组匹配、电池容量计算和控制策略分析,提出增程式电动客车的总体设计要求和一般设计方法。

  1. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  2. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  3. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  5. Further validation of artificial neural network-based emissions simulation models for conventional and hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth-Nagy, Csaba; Conley, John J; Jarrett, Ronald P; Clark, Nigel N

    2006-07-01

    With the advent of hybrid electric vehicles, computer-based vehicle simulation becomes more useful to the engineer and designer trying to optimize the complex combination of control strategy, power plant, drive train, vehicle, and driving conditions. With the desire to incorporate emissions as a design criterion, researchers at West Virginia University have developed artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting emissions from heavy-duty vehicles. The ANN models were trained on engine and exhaust emissions data collected from transient dynamometer tests of heavy-duty diesel engines then used to predict emissions based on engine speed and torque data from simulated operation of a tractor truck and hybrid electric bus. Simulated vehicle operation was performed with the ADVISOR software package. Predicted emissions (carbon dioxide [CO2] and oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)]) were then compared with actual emissions data collected from chassis dynamometer tests of similar vehicles. This paper expands on previous research to include different driving cycles for the hybrid electric bus and varying weights of the conventional truck. Results showed that different hybrid control strategies had a significant effect on engine behavior (and, thus, emissions) and may affect emissions during different driving cycles. The ANN models underpredicted emissions of CO2 and NO(x) in the case of a class-8 truck but were more accurate as the truck weight increased.

  6. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  7. High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 9-11 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER CONVERTERS FOR MILITARY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES ABSTRACT...SUBTITLE High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...public release High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles Page 2 of 8 I. INTRODUCTION Today, wide bandgap devices

  8. Practical experience with IEEE 1588 high precision time synchronization in electrical substation based on IEC 61850 process bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.; Goraj, M.J.; McGhee, J. [RuggedCom Inc., Concord, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a time synchronization and dynamic multicast filtering procedure conducted on an IEC 61850 process bus. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic (IEEE) 1588 time synchronization and dynamic multicast filtering procedure was conducted at a substation equipped with non-conventional instrument transformers (NCIT) and intelligent circuit breakers. The process bus interconnected IEDs within a bay that included a real time sampled value (SV) measurement system. The system was designed to reduce the use of copper wiring and to eliminate high energy signal processes. Digitized sampled measured values were sent from the electronic instrument transformers to protect and control relays. A merging unit was used to enable the transmission of the digitized current and voltage measurements across an ethernet network. Two sampling rates were supplied for power system monitoring and protection applications. The merging units continuously sent sampling values of current and voltages acquired from primary equipment. Precision time protocol systems were discussed, and issues related to time synchronization were reviewed. A network topology was provided. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Modelization and Simulation of an Electric and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle under Real Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Alfonsin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a toolbox for the simulation of a zero emission urban hybrid bus, which combines batteries and fuel cells. This type of vehicle performs predefined routes with a certain frequency, then they are an ideal option to the replacement of combustion engines with renewable energy systems. The simulation of these vehicles can be made for different standard driving cycles (ECE-15, EUDC, NEDC, SFUDS or for real routes from GPS device data. This will allow to consider the orography of the route, considering the slope that overcomes the vehicle at each time, generally this parameter is not included in other models, and it could become a determining factor for the applicability of these vehicles on certain specified routes. Moreover, this tool lets to study and to analyse other not easily quantifiable factors, such as the weather or peak-hour traffic. Finally, the performance of an urban hybrid bus was investigated to assess its theoretical range and the technical feasibility of zero-emission vehicles. Keywords: Electric vehicle; Battery; Fuel cell; Hydrogen; Simulation 

  10. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  11. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  12. Parameter Design for the Energy-Regeneration System of Series Hydraulic-Hybrid Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yunpu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper simplifies the energy recovery process in the series hydraulic hybrid bus’ energy regeneration system into a process in which the main axle’s moment of inertia drives the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor and brings hydraulic oil from the oil tank to the accumulator. This process enables braking of the vehicle and also allows recovery of energy to the accumulator. Based on the flow equation for the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor and the torque equilibrium equation for its axle, the force equilibrium equation for vehicle braking and the pressure variation and flow continuity equations for the accumulator, simulation studies are conducted to analyze the effects of various system parameters, such as accumulator capacity, displacement of the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor, initial operating pressure of the system, etc. on system performance during regenerative braking.  

  13. Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-29

    operate as a generator to convert mechanical energy from the diesel t~nginc 01 from regenerative braking to electrical energy. A vehicle control module...Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid- Electric Vehicle Ning Wu’, Curtis Rands t , Charles E. Lucas!, Eric A. Walters§, and Maher A...Masrurit US Army RDECOM-TARDEC, Warren, MI, 48397 Hybrid- electric military vehicles provide many advantages over conventional military vehicles powered

  14. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Luis M., E-mail: luis.fernandez@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Carlos Andres, E-mail: carlosandres.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Jurado, Francisco, E-mail: fjurado@ujaen.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Linares, University of Jaen, C/Alfonso X, No. 28. 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. {yields} Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. {yields} New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. {yields} Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  15. DIAGNOSTICS CONCEPTION OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE OF A HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Borodenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual approach to creat the diagnostic system of the power elements of the electric drive of the hybrid vehicle has been considered. Approbation of the imitation model of electric drive with brushless DC electric motor as a diagnostic object has been carried out.

  16. Sensorless Suitability Analysis of Hybrid PM Machines for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben Nørregaard; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    Electrical machines for traction in electric vehicles are an essential component which attract attention with respect to machine design and control as a part of the emerging renewable industry. For the hybrid electric machine to replace the familiar behaviour of the combustion engine torque...

  17. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  18. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  19. KLQ6129GQEV2纯电动客车总体设计%Overall Design of KLQ6129GQEV2 Pure Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代国玉

    2012-01-01

    The author briefly introduces control and management about the KLQ6 the features of vehicle layout design, power batteries arrangement, and it's 129GEV2 pure electric bus.%简要介绍KLQ6129GQEV2纯电动客车的整车布置设计和动力电池布置特点及其控制与管理。

  20. A hybrid approach for probabilistic forecasting of electricity price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Wang, Yelei

    2014-01-01

    The electricity market plays a key role in realizing the economic prophecy of smart grids. Accurate and reliable electricity market price forecasting is essential to facilitate various decision making activities of market participants in the future smart grid environment. However, due...... to probabilistic interval forecasts can be of great importance to quantify the uncertainties of potential forecasts, thus effectively supporting the decision making activities against uncertainties and risks ahead. This paper proposes a hybrid approach to construct prediction intervals of MCPs with a two...... electricity price forecasting is proposed in this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid method has been validated through comprehensive tests using real price data from Australian electricity market....

  1. Forecast analysis of optical waveguide bus performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, R.; Rourke, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Elements to be considered in the design of a data bus include: architecture; data rate; modulation, encoding, detection; power distribution requirements; protocol, work structure; bus reliability, maintainability; interterminal transmission medium; cost; and others specific to application. Fiber- optic data bus considerations for a 32 port transmissive star architecture, are discussed in a tutorial format. General optical-waveguide bus concepts, are reviewed. The electrical and optical performance of a 32 port transmissive star bus, and the effects of temperature on the performance of optical-waveguide buses are examined. A bibliography of pertinent references and the bus receiver test results are included.

  2. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  3. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W(center dot)h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  4. Technique current status and development trend of new energy bus%新能源客技术现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤君; 常青

    2012-01-01

    Aim at the technique current status of electric bus,series,parallel,series-parallel hybrid bus,analyse the development trend of new energy bus,point out the development priority of new energy bus.%针对纯电动客车,串联、并联、混联混合动力客车技术的现状,分析了新能源客车发展趋势,指出了新能源客车发展重点。

  5. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  6. 纯电动客车能耗分解及降低方法%Measures of Energy Consumption Resolution and Reduction for Pure Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓冰

    2015-01-01

    对一款纯电动客车整车能量消耗率进行分解,分析各项能量消耗率的影响因素,发现整车轻量化和降低滚阻系数对该纯电动客车在中国典型城市工况能量消耗率的降低最有效。通过一系列降耗措施,增加续驶里程29 km,能量消耗率降低12.5%。%The author resolves the energy consumption rate for a pure electric bus, analyzes the influence factors of each energy consumption rate, and finds that reducing the vehicle weight and rolling resistance coefficient are the most effective ways to reduce the energy consumption rate of the pure electric bus under the China typical city cycle. By a series measures of reducing the energy consumption, the range of the electric bus increases 29 km and the en-ergy consumption rate reduces12.5%.

  7. CA6127URE31纯电动客车总体设计%Overall Design of CA6127URE31 Pure Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘力楠; 孙红; 黄俊杰

    2013-01-01

    The authors briefly introduce the whole vehicle technical parameters, the pure electric system technical plan, the interior decoration technical scheme and the vehicle power battery layout technical scheme of CA6127URE31 pure electric bus.%简要介绍CA6127URE31纯电动客车的整车技术参数、纯电动系统的技术方案、内饰技术方案以及整车动力电池组布置技术方案。

  8. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  9. THE ELECTRIC DRIVE FOR A CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bazhinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of converting a car with an internal combustion engine and manual transmission in a hybrid is regarded. Is regarded the technique of choosing the parameters of the electric and simple technical solution to achieve the efficient operation of the brushless electric motor in the traction mode and into recovery mode.

  10. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  11. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  12. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012......In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...

  13. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...... developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012...

  14. FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

    2006-08-01

    This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

  15. Analysis of the Fuel Efficiency of a Hybrid Electric Drive with an Electric Power Splitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Čundev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the fuel efficiency of a hybrid electric car drive, with an electric power splitter based on a double rotor synchronous permanent magnet generator. The results have been obtained through a precisely determined mathematical model and by simulating the characteristics of all essential values for the entire drive. This work is related to the experimental working stand for electric and hybrid car drive research, which has been developed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FEE at CTU in Prague. 

  16. Hybrid-Electric and All-Electric Rotorcraft Analysis and Tool Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I effort ESAero will draw upon its knowledge of hybrid-electric propulsion system design and analysis for fixed wing aircraft to investigate the...

  17. The research of controller area network on hybrid electrical vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hongxing; Song Liwei; Kou Baoquan; Cheng Shukang

    2006-01-01

    It is of increasing importance to design and implement vehicle networks for transferring information between electrical control units on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV). This paper presents a scheme of using Controller Area Network (CAN) technology to realize communication and datasharing between the electrical units on the HEV. The principle and communication protocol of Electrical Control Units (ECU) CAN node are introduced. By considering different sensitivity of the devices to the latency of data transportation, a new design procedure is proposed for the purpose of simplifying network codes and wiring harness, reducing assembly space and weight, improving assembly efficiency, and enhancing fault-diagnose in auto networks.

  18. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  19. Software architecture for hybrid electrical/optical data center network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...... OpenDaylight is presented to control an optical switching matrix based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology.......This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...

  20. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  1. Adaptive Second Order Sliding Mode Control of a Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an adaptive-gain second order sliding mode (SOSM control applied to a hybrid power system for electric vehicle applications. The main advantage of the adaptive SOSM is that it does not require the upper bound of the uncertainty. The proposed hybrid system consists of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC with a unidirectional DC/DC converter and a Li-ion battery stack with a bidirectional DC/DC converter, where the PEMFC is employed as the primary energy source and the battery is employed as the second energy source. One of the main limitations of the FC is its slow dynamics mainly due to the air-feed system and fuel-delivery system. Fuel starvation phenomenon will occur during fast load demand. Therefore, the second energy source is required to assist the main source to improve system perofrmance. The proposed energy management system contains two cascade control structures, which are used to regulate the fuel cell and battery currents to track the given reference currents and stabilize the DC bus voltage while satisfying the physical limitations. The proposed control strategy is evaluated for two real driving cycles, that is, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS and Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (HWFET.

  2. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

  3. Interim Evaluation Results from New Flyer/Allison Hybrid Buses at King County Metro: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric articulated transit buses operated by King County Metro.

  4. Electrical characterization of standard and radiation-hardened RCA CDP1856D 4-BIT, CMOS, bus buffer/separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Tests performed to determine accuracy and efficiency of bus separators used in microprocessors are presented. Functional, AC parametric, and DC parametric tests were performed in a Tektronix S-3260 automated test system. All the devices passed the functional tests and yielded nominal values in the parametric test.

  5. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    P. Suntharalingam

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  6. Energy management strategies for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Sheldon S

    2013-01-01

    Covers power electronics and motor drives for energy management of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Addresses specific issues and design solutions related to photovoltaic/grid based EV battery charging infrastructures and on-board battery management systems Emphasis on power electronic converter topologies for on-board battery management

  7. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

  8. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  9. Fiat designs a platform suitable for gasoline, electric or hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, P.G.; Bonino, M. [Fiat Auto SpA, Turin (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    With the debate between purpose-built and existing designs, Fiat is working on a strategy to use a common platform for its new generation models which will allow economic concurrent design and development of a small car range featuring thermal, electric and hybrid versions. (Author)

  10. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the installation of real time test bed with a small electric generator and dynamic solar panels with battery backups.

  12. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  13. 纯电动客车在线诊断系统设计及应用%Design and Application of On-line Diagnosis System for Pure Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈顺东; 尹剑

    2012-01-01

    At present, most pure electric bus production still relies on the artificial debugging of technicians. This can not adapt the mass production. The authors detail the on-line rapid diagnosis system for pure electric bus, which vails the mass production of the pure electric bus.%目前大部分纯电动客车生产时的整车性能调试依赖技术开发人员.非常不利于纯电动客车的批量生产。本文详述一种能够对纯电动客车进行快速调试和在线诊断的系统,有利于纯电动客车的批量生产。

  14. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.

    1979-09-30

    The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop the hybrid vehicles and to determine R and D priorities. It was concluded that by the year 2010 hybrid vehicles could replace 80% of the automotive power that would otherwise be produced from petroleum fuels; the public should not suffer any mobility loss through the use of hybrid vehicles; high initial and life-cycle costs are a limiting factor; and R and D funds should be spent for systems design and the development of low-cost batteries and controllers. (LCL)

  15. Evaluation of Orion/BAE Hybrid Buses and Orion CNG Buses at New York City Transit: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Chandler, K.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses the NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric transit buses operated by New York City Transit.

  16. Hybrid Opto-electric Manipulation of Macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereley, Steve

    2013-11-01

    Recently our research group has developed an innovative method for capturing, concentrating, manipulating and sorting populations of micro- and nanometer-scaled entities-particles, cells, macro-molecules, etc. These populations range from individual particles to thousands of particles (Lab-on-a-Chip, 2008; Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, 2008) while the sizes range from microns to nanometers. This novel technique combines features of optical trapping and dielectrophoresis in an innovative, dynamic way using a simple parallel plate electrode configuration. Transparent electrodes comprised of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) on glass substrates are used to generate an electric field in the fluid while at the same time allowing light into and out of the fluid. Near-IR optical illumination causes subtle localized heating, creating an electric permittivity gradient that in turn drives a microscopic toroidal vortex. The vortex efficiently transports particles to a preferred location, usually the surface of the electrode. Recent advances have extended have allowed us to apply this technique to macromolecules (DNA, proteins) as well as nanoscale particles (quantum dots, nanowires and PSL particles).

  17. Parameters Matching and Performance Analysis of Power System on Pure Electric Bus%纯电动客车动力系统参数匹配及性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕燕

    2011-01-01

    以纯电动客车为研究对象,对动力传动系统,主要对驱动电动机、变速器以及动力电池参数进行合理地计算和设计。为纯电动客车动力传动系统的初步选型提供依据。%Taking the pure electric bus as the study object, the parameters of driving motor, transmission and power battery are calculated and designed so as to provide the basis for lectotype of power transmission system on pure electric bus.

  18. Batteries for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Elton J; Albertus, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Batteries have powered vehicles for more than a century, but recent advances, especially in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, are bringing a new generation of electric-powered vehicles to the market. Key barriers to progress include system cost and lifetime, and derive from the difficulty of making a high-energy, high-power, and reversible electrochemical system. Indeed, although humans produce many mechanical and electrical systems, the number of reversible electrochemical systems is very limited. System costs may be brought down by using cathode materials less expensive than those presently employed (e.g., sulfur or air), but reversibility will remain a key challenge. Continued improvements in the ability to synthesize and characterize materials at desired length scales, as well as to use computations to predict new structures and their properties, are facilitating the development of a better understanding and improved systems. Battery research is a fascinating area for development as well as a key enabler for future technologies, including advanced transportation systems with minimal environmental impact.

  19. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  20. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  1. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  2. Unregulated emissions from light-duty hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Astorga, C.

    2016-07-01

    The number of registrations of light duty hybrid electric vehicles has systematically increased over the last years and it is expected to keep growing. Hence, evaluation of their emissions becomes very important in order to be able to anticipate their impact and share in the total emissions from the transport sector. For that reason the emissions from a Euro 5 compliant hybrid electric vehicle (HV2) and a Euro 5 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHV1) were investigated with special interest on exhaust emissions of ammonia, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Vehicles were tested over the World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) at 23 and -7 °C using two different commercial fuels E5 and E10 (gasoline containing 5% and 10% vol/vol of ethanol, respectively). PHV1 resulted in lower emissions than HV2 due to the pure electric strategy used by the former. PHV1 and HV2 showed lower regulated emissions than conventional Euro 5 gasoline light duty vehicles. However, emissions of ammonia (2-8 and 6-15 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively), ethanol (0.3-0.8 and 2.6-7.2 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) and acetaldehyde (∼0.2 and 0.8-2.7 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) were in the same range of those recently reported for conventional gasoline light duty vehicles.

  3. Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

  4. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  5. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  6. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  7. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  8. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  9. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  10. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  11. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  12. ENERGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Jinhuan; Yin Chengliang; ZhangJianwu

    2005-01-01

    Energy management strategy (EMS) is the core of the real-time control algorithm of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A novel EMS using the logic threshold approach with incorporation of a stand-by optimization algorithm is proposed. The aim of it is to minimize the engine fuel consumption and maintain the battery state of charge (SOC) in its operation range, while satisfying the vehicle performance and drivability requirements. The hybrid powertrain bench test is carried out to collect data of the engine, motor and battery pack, which are used in the EMS to control the powertrain. Computer simulation model of the HEV is established in the MATLAB/Simulink environment according to the bench test results. Simulation results are presented for behaviors of the engine, motor and battery. The proposed EMS is implemented for a real parallel hybrid car control system and validated by vehicle field tests.

  13. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  14. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L.H. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  15. Multivariable speed synchronisation for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, B.; Antritter, F.; Svaricek, F.; Schultalbers, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this article, a new drivetrain configuration of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle is considered and a novel model-based control design strategy is given. In particular, the control design covers the speed synchronisation task during a restart of the internal combustion engine. The proposed multivariable synchronisation strategy is based on feedforward and decoupled feedback controllers. The performance and the robustness properties of the closed-loop system are illustrated by nonlinear simulation results.

  16. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

  17. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  18. Dynamic Hybrid Model for Short-Term Electricity Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Cerjan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecasting tools are essential in the operation of electric power systems, especially in deregulated electricity markets. Electricity price forecasting is necessary for all market participants to optimize their portfolios. In this paper we propose a hybrid method approach for short-term hourly electricity price forecasting. The paper combines statistical techniques for pre-processing of data and a multi-layer (MLP neural network for forecasting electricity price and price spike detection. Based on statistical analysis, days are arranged into several categories. Similar days are examined by correlation significance of the historical data. Factors impacting the electricity price forecasting, including historical price factors, load factors and wind production factors are discussed. A price spike index (CWI is defined for spike detection and forecasting. Using proposed approach we created several forecasting models of diverse model complexity. The method is validated using the European Energy Exchange (EEX electricity price data records. Finally, results are discussed with respect to price volatility, with emphasis on the price forecasting accuracy.

  19. Electrical test prediction using hybrid metrology and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Mary; Chao, Robin; Muthinti, Gangadhara Raja; de la Peña, Abraham A.; Simon, Jacques; Cepler, Aron J.; Sendelbach, Matthew; Gaudiello, John; Emans, Susan; Shifrin, Michael; Etzioni, Yoav; Urenski, Ronen; Lee, Wei Ti

    2017-03-01

    Electrical test measurement in the back-end of line (BEOL) is crucial for wafer and die sorting as well as comparing intended process splits. Any in-line, nondestructive technique in the process flow to accurately predict these measurements can significantly improve mean-time-to-detect (MTTD) of defects and improve cycle times for yield and process learning. Measuring after BEOL metallization is commonly done for process control and learning, particularly with scatterometry (also called OCD (Optical Critical Dimension)), which can solve for multiple profile parameters such as metal line height or sidewall angle and does so within patterned regions. This gives scatterometry an advantage over inline microscopy-based techniques, which provide top-down information, since such techniques can be insensitive to sidewall variations hidden under the metal fill of the trench. But when faced with correlation to electrical test measurements that are specific to the BEOL processing, both techniques face the additional challenge of sampling. Microscopy-based techniques are sampling-limited by their small probe size, while scatterometry is traditionally limited (for microprocessors) to scribe targets that mimic device ground rules but are not necessarily designed to be electrically testable. A solution to this sampling challenge lies in a fast reference-based machine learning capability that allows for OCD measurement directly of the electrically-testable structures, even when they are not OCD-compatible. By incorporating such direct OCD measurements, correlation to, and therefore prediction of, resistance of BEOL electrical test structures is significantly improved. Improvements in prediction capability for multiple types of in-die electrically-testable device structures is demonstrated. To further improve the quality of the prediction of the electrical resistance measurements, hybrid metrology using the OCD measurements as well as X-ray metrology (XRF) is used. Hybrid metrology

  20. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.

    2015-11-01

    The European Flightpath 2050 and corresponding Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) as well as the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation N+ series have elaborated aggressive emissions and external noise reduction targets according to chronological waypoints. In order to deliver ultra-low or even zero in-flight emissions levels, there exists an increasing amount of international research and development emphasis on electrification of the propulsion and power systems of aircraft. Since the late 1990s, a series of experimental and a host of burgeouning commercial activities for fixed-wing aviation have focused on glider, ultra-light and light-sport airplane, and this is proving to serve as a cornerstone for more ambitious transport aircraft design and integration technical approaches. The introduction of hybrid-electric technology has dramatically expanded the design space and the full-potential of these technologies will be drawn through synergetic, tightly-coupled morphological and systems integration emphasizing propulsion - as exemplified by the potential afforded by distributed propulsion solutions. With the aim of expanding upon the current repository of knowledge associated with hybrid-electric propulsion systems a quad-fan arranged narrow-body transport aircraft equipped with two advanced Geared-Turbofans (GTF) and two Electrical Fans (EF) in an under-wing podded installation is presented in this technical article. The assessment and implications of an increasing Degree-of-Hybridization for Useful Power (HP,USE) on the overall sizing, performance as well as flight technique optimization of fuel-battery hybrid-electric aircraft is addressed herein. The integrated performance of the concept was analyzed in terms of potential block fuel burn reduction and change in vehicular efficiency in comparison to a suitably projected conventional aircraft employing GTF-only propulsion targeting year 2035. Results showed that by increasing HP,USE, significant

  1. Connected Ways and Spontaneous Combustion Fire of Battery Piles for Pure Electric City Bus%纯电动城市客车电池组的连接方式与自燃火灾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车兆华

    2012-01-01

    The author introduces some connected ways of battery piles for pure electric city bus, and analyzes the reasons of causing the batteries spontaneous combustion fire.%介绍纯电动客车动力电池组的几种连接方式,分析造成电池自燃火灾的原因。

  2. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Division; Ayers, C. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Division; Marlino, L. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Division; Chiasson, J. N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burress, B. A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200–1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design

  3. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  4. High-Speed Ring Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  5. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs. Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator permanent magnet (stator-PM motor, a hybrid-excitation motor, a flux memory motor and a redundant motor structure. Then, it illustrates advanced electric drive systems, such as the magnetic-geared in-wheel drive and the integrated starter generator (ISG. Finally, three machine-based implementations of the power split devices are expounded, built up around the dual-rotor PM machine, the dual-stator PM brushless machine and the magnetic-geared dual-rotor machine. As a conclusion, the development trends in the field of electric machines and machine-based systems for EVs are summarized.

  6. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  7. A Kind of Hybrid Scheduling Algorithm for Armored Vehicles’CAN Bus%一种装甲车辆CAN总线混合调度算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小庆; 陈永星; 赵梓旭; 张健; 朱昀癤

    2014-01-01

    For the shortage of information transmission for integrated electronic system of current armored vehicles,such as a node message transmission is not fair and an urgent message transmission is not time-ly,a kind of hybrid scheduling algorithm of“hierarchical decision and dynamic equilibrium”is proposed in accordance with message emergency degree and deadline of a certain type of vehicle,and the bus proto-col is improved based on the principle of hierarchical processing.The algorithm is verified by experiments to be practicable and effective.%针对当前装甲车辆综合电子系统节点消息传输不公平、紧急消息传输不及时等缺点,结合某型车辆消息紧急度和截止期,按照分层处理原则对总线协议进行了改进,提出了“分级决策动态均衡”的混合调度算法,并通过试验验证了算法的可行性和有效性。

  8. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Real-Time Energy Management Control for Hybrid Electric Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on embedded control of a hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real-time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and mechanical (flywheel. The real-time control challenge is to balance the system power demands from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle. In the worst-case scenario, only the engine is used and the hybrid system is completely disabled. A rule-based control algorithm is developed and is tuned for different work cycles and could be linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the work machine and its position via GPS and maps both of them to the gains.

  10. Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle utility factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Quinn, Casey W.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can be fueled from both conventional liquid fuels and grid electricity. To represent the total contribution of both of these fuels to the operation, energy use, and environmental impacts of PHEVs, researchers have developed the concept of the utility factor. As standardized in documents such as SAE J1711 and SAE J2841, the utility factor represents the proportion of vehicle distance travelled that can be allocated to a vehicle test condition so as to represent the real-world driving habits of a vehicle fleet. These standards must be used with care so that the results are understood within the context of the assumptions implicit in the standardized utility factors. This study analyzes and derives alternatives to the standard utility factors from the 2001 National Highway Transportation Survey, so as to understand the sensitivity of PHEV performance to assumptions regarding charging frequency, vehicle characteristics, driver characteristics, and means of defining the utility factor. Through analysis of these alternative utility factors, this study identifies areas where analysis, design, and policy development for PHEVs can be improved by alternative utility factor calculations.

  11. Cascade Control Solution for Traction Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Preitl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid electric vehicle is considered, which contains both aninternal combustion engine and an electric motor (EM. Without focusing on the othercomponents of the vehicle, the EM is treated in detail, both regarding modelling aspectsand control solutions.After a brief modelling of the plant, two cascade speed control solutions are presented: firsta classical PI+PI cascade control solution is presented. The control systems related totraction electric motors (used in vehicle traction must be able to cope with differentrequests, such as variation of the reference signal, load disturbances which depend on thetransport conditions and parametric disturbances regarding changes in the total mass ofthe vehicle. For this purpose, in the design of the speed controller (external loop a specificmethodology based on extension of the symmetrical optimum method is presented. Thecontrollers are developed using the Modulus–Optimum method for the inner loop, and theExtended Symmetrical Optimum Method, corrected based on the 2p-SO-method, for theouter loop (for a more efficient disturbance rejection.In order to force the behaviour of the system regarding the reference input, a correctionterm is introduced as a non-homogenous structured PI controller solution.Simulations were performed using numerical values taken from a real applicationconsisting in a hybrid vehicle prototype, showing satisfactory behaviour.

  12. Wind hybrid electrical supply system: behaviour simulation and sizing optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notton, G.; Cristofari, C.; Poggi, P.; Muselli, M.

    2001-04-01

    Using a global approach, a wind hybrid system operation is simulated and the evolution of several parameters is analysed, such as the wasted energy, the fuel consumption and the role of the wind turbine subsystem in the global production. This analysis shows that all the energies which take part in the system operation are more dependent on the wind turbine size than on the battery storage capacity. A storage of 2 or 3 days is sufficient, because an increase in storage beyond these values does not have a notable impact on the performance of the wind hybrid system. Finally, a cost study is performed to determine the optimal configuration of the system conducive to the lowest cost of electricity production.

  13. Simulation Analysis on Side Impact for Pure Electric Bus Based on American Standard%基于美标的纯电动客车侧面碰撞仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松; 陈婉平; 纪绪北

    2015-01-01

    建立某纯电动客车侧面碰撞有限元模型,依照美国公共交通协会(APTA)制定的客车侧面碰撞试验标准,对客车进行侧面碰撞仿真分析,从乘员安全和电池安全两方面评价客车的侧面碰撞安全性,并对客车的结构进行改进。%The side impact finite element model of a pure electric bus is established, and the side impact simulation analysis for the bus is conducted in accordance with the standard about the bus side impact test constituted by American Public Transportation Association (APTA). The side impact safety of the bus is evaluated by the safety of passengers and the safety of batteries, then the structure of the bus is improved.

  14. Hybrid PID and PSO-based control for electric power assist steering system for electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, R. A.; Toha, S. F.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-12-01

    Electric power assist steering (EPAS) system provides an important significance in enhancing the driving performance of a vehicle with its energy-conserving features. This paper presents a hybrid PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based control scheme to minimize energy consumption for EPAS. This single objective optimization scheme is realized using the PSO technique in searching for best gain parameters of the PID controller. The fast tuning feature of this optimum PID controller produced high-quality solutions. Simulation results show the performance and effectiveness of the hybrid PSO-PID based controller as opposed to the conventional PID controller.

  15. STRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND SIMULATION OF PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marozka; Yu. N. Petrenko

    2013-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) have gained attention, especially in the context of growing concerns about global warming and energy security aspects associated with road transport. The main characteristic of EDVs is that the torque is supplied to the wheels by an electric motor that is powered either solely by a battery or in combination with an internal combustion engine (ICE). This covers hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

  16. Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.

    2009-12-01

    Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

  17. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Laboratory

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  18. A Matlab—Based Simulation for Hybrid Electric Motorcycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵定国; 李永斌; 汪信尧; 江建中

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation and modeling package based on Matlab for a parallel hybrid electric motorcycle (HEM).The package consists of several main detailed models: internal combustion engine (ICE), motor, continuously variable transmission(CVT), battery, energy management system (EMS) etc. Each component is built as a library, and can be connected together accord-ing to the parallel HEM's topology. Simulation results, such as ICE power demand, motor power demand, battery instantaneous state-of-charge (SOC), pollution emissions etc. Are given and discussed. Lastly experimental data verify our simulation results.

  19. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  20. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  1. Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

  2. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  3. OPTIMIZATION APPROACH FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWERTRAIN DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhengli; Zhang Jianwu; Yin Chengliang

    2005-01-01

    According to bench test results of fuel economy and engine emission for the real powertrain system of EQ7200HEV car, a 3-D performance map oriented quasi-linear model is developed for the configuration of the powertrain components such as internal combustion engine, traction electric motor, transmission, main retarder and energy storage unit. A genetic algorithm based on optimization procedure is proposed and applied for parametric optimization of the key components by consideration of requirements of some driving cycles. Through comparison of numerical results obtained by the genetic algorithm with those by traditional optimization methods, it is shown that the present approach is quite effective and efficient in emission reduction and fuel economy for the design of the hybrid electric car powertrain.

  4. Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pecht

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The battery management system (BMS is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well.

  5. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  6. Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Burress, T.A.; Marlino, L.D.

    2006-09-11

    The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. The vehicle systems technologies subprogram, which is one of four subprograms under the FCVT program, supports the efforts of the FreedomCAR through a three-phase approach [1] intended to: (1) Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry's recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the vehicle systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  7. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  8. Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-13

    34Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited" Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications Sonya...requirements for DC-DC converters for electric and hybrid vehicles . This paper introduces a bidirectional, isolated DC-DC converter for medium power...the design and build of a medium power DC-DC converter . Key words: Power Converter , DC-DC, Hybrid Electric Vehicle , Battery, Galvanically Isolation

  9. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Department of Energy. 2007. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. “Freedom CAR and vehicle technology program; Plug-In hybrid- electric vehicle R&D Plan...ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES by Eddie E. McCown September 2014 Thesis...HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Eddie E. McCown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  10. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...... based approach is used to control the DC/DC power converters associated with the DC sources, the backstepping technique combined with the field oriented control strategy are invoked in order to control the induction motor. It is formally shown, using a theoretical analysis and simulation results...

  11. Asymmetric backscattering from the hybrid magneto-electric meta particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Vitali; Filonov, Dmitry; Shalin, Alexander S.; Steinberg, Ben Z.; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    The optical theorem relates the total scattering cross-section of a given structure with its forward scattering, but does not impose any restrictions on other directions. Strong backward-forward asymmetry in scattering could be achieved by exploring retarded coupling between particles, exhibiting both electric and magnetic resonances. Here, a hybrid magneto-electric particle (HMEP), consisting of a split ring resonator acting as a magnetic dipole and a wire antenna acting as an electric dipole, is shown to possess asymmetric scattering properties. When illuminated from opposite directions with the same polarization of the electric field, the structure has exactly the same forward scattering, whereas the backward scattering is drastically different. The scattering cross section is shown to be as low as zero at a narrow frequency range when illuminated from one side, while being maximal at the same frequency range when illuminated from the other side. Theoretical predictions of the phenomena are supported with both numerical and experimental conformations, obtained at the GHz frequency range, and all are in a good agreement with each other. HMEP meta-particles could be used as building blocks for various metamaterials assembling solar cells, invisibility cloaks, holographic masks, etc.

  12. Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a 4 Passenger VTOL Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advancement of hybrid-electric propulsion systems for rotorcraft enables vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles to take advantage of aerodynamic...

  13. Hybrid Microfluidic Platform for Multifactorial Analysis Based on Electrical Impedance, Refractometry, Optical Absorption and Fluorescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Fábio; Bernacka-Wojcik, Iwona; Ribeiro, Rita; Lobato, Maria; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Igreja, Rui; Jorge, Pedro; Águas, Hugo; Oliva, Abel

    2016-01-01

    ...: electrical impedance, refractometry, optical absorption and fluorescence. We present the rationale for the design and the details of the microfabrication of this multifactorial hybrid microfluidic chip...

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    An elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base was developed using data obtained on sixteen electric, hybrid, and sub-compact production vehicles tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current four-passenger proto-type automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Vehicles were tested at yaw angles up to 40 degrees and a wing weighting analysis is presented which yields a vehicle's effective drag coefficient as a function of wing velocity and driving cycle. Other parameters investigated included the effects of windows open and closed, radiators open and sealed, and pop-up headlights. Complete six-component force and moment data are presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Only limited commentary is offered since, by its very nature, a data base should consist of unrefined reference material. A justification for pursuing efficient aerodynamic design of EHVs is presented.

  15. Design of a hybrid emissivity domestic electric oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ozgur; Onbasioglu, Seyhan Uygur

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the radiative properties of the surfaces of an electric oven were investigated. Using experimental data related to an oven-like enclosure, a novel combination of surface properties was developed. Three different surface emissivity combinations were analysed experimentally: low-emissivity, high emissivity (black-coated), and hybrid emissivity. The term "hybrid emissivity design" here corresponds to an enclosure with some high emissive and some low-emissive surfaces. The experiments were carried out according to the EN 50304 standard. When a brick (load) was placed in the enclosure, the view factors between its surfaces were calculated with the Monte Carlo method. These and the measured surface temperatures were then used to calculate the radiative heat fluxes on the surfaces of the load. The three different models were compared with respect to energy consumption and baking time. The hybrid model performed best, with the highest radiative heat transfer between the surfaces of the enclosure and the load and minimum heat loss from the cavity. Thus, it was the most efficient model with the lowest energy consumption and the shortest baking time. The recent European Union regulation regarding the energy labelling of domestic ovens was used.

  16. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP, we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.

  17. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  18. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  19. Electric field dependence of hybridized gap in InAs/GaSb quantum well system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jiufu; Wei, Xiangfei; Wang, Weiyang

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that exchange interaction induced by electron-hole scattering via Coulomb interaction can cause a hybridized gap in InAs/GaSb based type II and broken-gap quantum wells. The hybridized energy spectra are obtained analytically at the low temperature and long wave limits. An electric field depended hybridized gap about 4 meV opens at the anti-crossing points of the hybridized energy spectra, in accordance with experimental measurements. The hybridized gap varies linearly with the gate electric voltage due to the fact that the electric field can change the exchange self-energy by tuning the overlap of the wavefunctions and the Fermi energy. Our theoretical results can give a deep insight of the origin of the hybridized gap and provide a simple way to determine the value and the position of the hybridized gap in the presence of the gate electric voltage.

  20. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs.

  1. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if

  2. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if

  3. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  4. 一汽锡柴国Ⅳ客车电气维护%Electrical Maintenance of N1V Bus Made by Wuxi Diesel Engine Works of FAW( I )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周行卜

    2012-01-01

    概述一汽锡柴国Ⅳ汽车发动机种类、型号及技术参数;给出整车电路图,介绍其电气原理;重点阐述国Ⅳ柴油机电控系统、排气净化系统;分析柴油机故障诊断及其处理。%Diesel Engine The author Works of FAW, emphasis on its electric control of the engine for this bus. narizes the type, model number and technical parameters of N IV bus made presents its vehicle circuit diagram and introduces its electrical principle system and emission control system. It also analyzes tbe fault diagnosis and by Wuxi with the resolution

  5. Development tools for hybrids and electric cars; Entwicklungswerkzeuge fuer Hybrid- und Elektroautos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauff, Ulrich; Stoermer, Christoph; Dollmaier, Thomas; Klauda, Matthias [ETAS GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    With the ongoing CO{sub 2} discussion as a backdrop, there is a rush to get hybrid and electric vehicles ready for series production. This calls for the development of numerous new components and systems, along with their integration in the vehicle. The function, safety, and reliability of both ECU software and electronics contribute to a successful market introduction of the new vehicle concepts. To handle the design, implementation, testing, integration, and calibration of the complex functions of electronic controls, engineers require development tools suited to these tasks. (orig.)

  6. Efficient design and simulation of an expandable hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) power system with MPPT and inverter input voltage regulation features in compliance with electric grid requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skretas, Sotirios B.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios P. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritos University of Thrace (DUTH), 12 V. Sofias, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper an efficient design along with modeling and simulation of a transformer-less small-scale centralized DC - bus Grid Connected Hybrid (Wind-PV) power system for supplying electric power to a single phase of a three phase low voltage (LV) strong distribution grid are proposed and presented. The main components of the hybrid system are: a PV generator (PVG); and an array of horizontal-axis, fixed-pitch, small-size, variable-speed wind turbines (WTs) with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) having an embedded uncontrolled bridge rectifier. An overview of the basic theory of such systems along with their modeling and simulation via Simulink/MATLAB software package are presented. An intelligent control method is applied to the proposed configuration to simultaneously achieve three desired goals: to extract maximum power from each hybrid power system component (PVG and WTs); to guarantee DC voltage regulation/stabilization at the input of the inverter; to transfer the total produced electric power to the electric grid, while fulfilling all necessary interconnection requirements. Finally, a practical case study is conducted for the purpose of fully evaluating a possible installation in a city site of Xanthi/Greece, and the practical results of the simulations are presented. (author)

  7. Lightweight Design and Analysis on a 10 m-length Pure Electric Bus%10 m纯电动客车轻量化设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乐强; 杨彦三; 杨延功; 孙国伟; 刘涛

    2016-01-01

    For a 10 m-length pure electric bus, the authors make it lightweight design through measures of its local parts using low-density materials, its chassis frame using high-strength materials and its partial skeleton structures taking optimization. Then, they use CAE to analyze the strength for the lightweight designed vehicle framework. The lightweight designed structure can not only meet the strength requirement of the vehicle but also increase the contin-uous travel distance of the vehicle.%通过对某10 m纯电动客车局部采用低密度材料,车架采用高强度材料,部分骨架结构采用优化的方法进行轻量化设计,并采用CAE对轻量化设计后的整车骨架进行强度分析。轻量化设计后的结构,不但能够满足整车的强度要求,而且能够增加车辆的续驶里程。

  8. The International Energy Agency's implementing agreement on hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed implementing agreements and programs developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) for hybrid and electric vehicles. The agreement was designed to provide an international platform for the coordination of ideas, themes, and technologies related to hybrid and electric vehicles. Industries, governments, and users must also communicate to ensure the successful deployment of new technologies, laws and incentives. International collaboration programs will lower the cost for implementing new technologies in addition to enhancing information exchange. The IEA's Hybrid Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) program was designed to promote pre-competitive research projects and provide information on hybrid vehicles and their impacts on energy efficiency and the environment. Annex groups related to the program include: (1) an information exchange on HEV technologies and programs; (2) an annex on hybrid electric vehicles; (3) clean city vehicles; (4) electrochemical systems; (5) electric cycles; (6) heavy-duty hybrid vehicles; (7) fuel cells for vehicles; and (8) deployment of HEVs. The Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Annex Group was established in 1994 to exchange information and prepare a series of reports on subjects related to components for hybrid vehicles, as well as on topics related to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A new annex group has been proposed to study advanced battery technologies, policy issues, charging, marketability, and group administration. It was concluded that the group will report on progress and make all its research and findings available. Details of the IEA structure and governing board were provided. 6 figs.

  9. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  10. Fuel optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan PU; Chenliang YIN; Jianwu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for fuel optimal control and its corresponding dynamic programming (DP) recurs-ive equation were established for an existing parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Two augmented cost func-tions for gear shifting and engine stop-starting were designed to limit their frequency. To overcome the prob-lem of numerical DP dimensionality, an algorithm to restrict the exploring region was proposed. The algorithm significantly reduced the computational complexity. The system model was converted into real-time simulation code by using MATLAB/RTW to improve computation efficiency. Comparison between the results of a chassis dynamometer test, simulation, and DP proves that the proposed method can compute the performance limita-tion of the HEV within an acceptable time period and can be used to evaluate and optimize the control strategy.

  11. Design Optimization of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangun, Firdause; Idres, Moumen; Abdullah, Kassim

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an optimization work on hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain using Genetic Algorithm (GA) method. It focused on optimization of the parameters of powertrain components including supercapacitors to obtain maximum fuel economy. Vehicle modelling is based on Quasi-Static-Simulation (QSS) backward-facing approach. A combined city (FTP-75)-highway (HWFET) drive cycle is utilized for the design process. Seeking global optimum solution, GA was executed with different initial settings to obtain sets of optimal parameters. Starting from a benchmark HEV, optimization results in a smaller engine (2 l instead of 3 l) and a larger battery (15.66 kWh instead of 2.01 kWh). This leads to a reduction of 38.3% in fuel consumption and 30.5% in equivalent fuel consumption. Optimized parameters are also compared with actual values for HEV in the market.

  12. Development of an Auxiliary Power Unit Specification for Medium Duty Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    As a part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) program to develop hybrid and electric vehicles , a specification for medium duty...hybrid electric vehicles . Intended applications include medium duty commercial vehicles and buses. For the purposes of this specification an APU is

  13. Comunicación electrónica del automóvil : sistema CAN-BUS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Este articulo trata sobre los aspectos relacionados a la técnica de control del motor de combustión interna y los sistemas eléctricos utilizados en el automóvil, que desde su fabricación en 1885 es objeto de avances tecnológicos significativos día a día. El control electrónico del automóvil ha permitido que el vehiculo moderno sea más eficiente, ofrezca mayor seguridad, mayor confort y cumplir con estándares que le permite emanar la menor contaminación posible. Los circuitos electrón...

  14. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  15. Highly Electrically Conducting Glass-Graphene Nanoplatelets Hybrid Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E; Nistal, A; Khalifa, A; Essa, Y; Martín de la Escalera, F; Osendi, M I; Miranzo, P

    2015-08-19

    Hybrid coatings consisting of a heat resistant Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 (YAS) glass containing 2.3 wt % of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were developed by flame spraying homogeneous ceramic powders-GNP granules. Around 40% of the GNPs survived the high spraying temperatures and were distributed along the splat-interfaces, forming a percolated network. These YAS-GNP coatings are potentially interesting in thermal protection systems and electromagnetic interference shields for aerospace applications; therefore silicon carbide (SiC) materials at the forefront of those applications were employed as substrates. Whereas the YAS coatings are nonconductive, the YAS-GNP coatings showed in-plane electrical conductivity (∼10(2) S·m(-1)) for which a low percolation limit (below 3.6 vol %) is inferred. Indentation tests revealed the formation of a highly damaged indentation zone showing multiple shear displacements between adjacent splats probably favored by the graphene sheets location. The indentation radial cracks typically found in brittle glass coatings are not detected in the hybrid coatings that are also more compliant.

  16. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle.

  17. An Interleaved Reduced-Component-Count Multivoltage Bus DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    An interleaved reduced-component-count dc/dc converter is proposed for power management in fuel cell powered vehicles with a multivoltage electric net. The converter is based on a simplified topology and can handle more power with less ripple current, therefore reducing the capacitor requirements, making it more suited for fuel cell powered vehicles in the near future. A prototype rated at 4.3 kW was built and tested to verify the proposed topology.

  18. Regenerative polymeric bus architecture for board-level optical interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N; Hashim, A; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2012-05-21

    A scalable multi-channel optical regenerative bus architecture based on the use of polymer waveguides is presented for the first time. The architecture offers high-speed interconnection between electrical cards allowing regenerative bus extension with multiple segments and therefore connection of an arbitrary number of cards onto the bus. In a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 4-channel 3-card polymeric bus module is designed and fabricated on standard FR4 substrates. Low insertion losses (≤ -15 dB) and low crosstalk values (bus modules using a prototype 3R regenerator.

  19. Heat Transfer in the LHC Main Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Richter, D

    2011-01-01

    CERN is performing a systematic analysis of the interconnecting bus bars of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) main magnets. Their thermal, electrical, mechanical and hydraulic performances are addressed. In the frame of these studies, the heat transfer between the main superconducting (SC) bus bars and the surrounding He bath is investigated. It represents a key parameter in the comprehension of the bus bars stability and quench propagation mechanisms, thus crucial for the analysis of the 2008 incident which was triggered by a defective bus bars joint. This paper reports on the experimental tests and relative analysis aiming at describing the thermal behavior of the LHC main bus bars.

  20. PRICING ELECTRIC POWER UNDER A HYBRID WHOLESALE MECHANISM: EVALUATING THE TURKISH ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Karahan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the restructuring process, Turkish electricity sector has gone through significant changes both in wholesale and retail markets. In this framework, the Market Financial Settlement Mechanism established for handling market imbalances has become a spot market in time. So, it can be claimed that the wholesale electricity market in Turkey is a hybrid mechanism composed of bilateral contracts and the balancing market. On the other hand, the main target of liberalization program is providing consumers with affordable electric power. Hence, this study attempts to explore the link between retail tariffs for ineligible consumers and prices in the two wholesale mechanisms, in the period after the launch of the day-ahead market. Findings suggest that regulated wholesale prices are more effective in the determination of end-user prices, whereas unregulated ones might have a price reduction effect in case the free market dominates. However, the volatility in spot market prices implies that the sector would better continue with the hybrid mechanism for quite some time.

  1. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  2. Development of hybrid electric vehicle powertrain test system based on virtue instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Guo, Konghui; Chen, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid powertrain has become the standard configuration of some automobile models. The test system of hybrid vehicle powertrain was developed based on virtual instrument, using electric dynamometer to simulate the work of engines, to test the motor and control unit of the powertrain. The test conditions include starting, acceleration, and deceleration. The results show that the test system can simulate the working conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain under various conditions.

  3. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  4. Assessment of Technologies for Noncryogenic Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos R.; Lowe, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is researching aircraft propulsion technologies that will lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. One promising technology is noncryogenic electric propulsion, which could be either hybrid electric propulsion or turboelectric propulsion. Reducing dependence on the turbine engine would certainly reduce emissions. However, the weight of the electricmotor- related components that would have to be added would adversely impact the benefits of the smaller turbine engine. Therefore, research needs to be done to improve component efficiencies and reduce component weights. This study projects technology improvements expected in the next 15 and 30 years, including motor-related technologies, power electronics, and energy-storage-related technologies. Motor efficiency and power density could be increased through the use of better conductors, insulators, magnets, bearings, structural materials, and thermal management. Energy storage could be accomplished through batteries, flywheels, or supercapacitors, all of which expect significant energy density growth over the next few decades. A first-order approximation of the cumulative effect of each technology improvement shows that motor power density could be improved from 3 hp/lb, the state of the art, to 8 hp/lb in 15 years and 16 hp/lb in 30 years.

  5. Stochastic Optimal Control of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategies (EMSs in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are highly related to the fuel economy and emission performances. However, EMS constitutes a challenging problem due to the complex structure of a HEV and the unknown or partially known driving cycles. To meet this problem, this paper adopts a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP method for the EMS of a specially designed vehicle, a pre-transmission single-shaft torque-coupling parallel HEV. In this parallel HEV, the auto clutch output is connected to the transmission input through an electric motor, which benefits an efficient motor assist operation. In this EMS, demanded torque of driver is modeled as a one-state Markov process to represent the uncertainty of future driving situations. The obtained EMS has been evaluated with ADVISOR2002 over two standard government drive cycles and a self-defined one, and compared with a dynamic programming (DP one and a rule-based one. Simulation results have shown the real-time performance of the proposed approach, and potential vehicle performance improvement relative to the rule-based one.

  6. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of the Three Phase Induction Motor Couple to DC Motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Lubis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With emphasis on a cleaner environment and efficient operation, vehicles today rely more and more heavily on electrical power generation for success. Approach: Mathematical modeling the components of the HEV as the three phase induction motor couple to DC motor in hybrid electric vehicle was introduced. The controller of Induction Motor (IM was designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. It allowed greater electrical generation capacity and the fuel economy and emissions benefits of hybrid electric automotive propulsion. Results: A typical series hybrid electric vehicle was modeled and investigated. Conclusion: Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp and fuel consumption and emission were performed on the proposed model of 3 phase induction motor coupler DC motor in electric hybrid vehicles drive.

  8. Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells for pure electric bus applications: Aging mechanism identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zeyu; Jiang, Jiuchun; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Weige; Mi, Chunting Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to provide more realistic and accurate State of Health estimations for batteries in electric vehicles. Thus, it is necessary to research various lithium-ion cell aging processes, including cell degradation and related path dependence. This paper focuses on quantitative analyses of cell aging path dependence in a repeatable laboratory setting, considering the influence of duty cycles, depth of discharge (DOD), and the frequency and severity of the thermal cycle, as reflected in pure electric buses operated in Beijing. Incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and differential voltage analysis (DVA) are applied to infer cell degradation mechanisms and quantify the attributions to capacity fade. It was observed that the cells experienced a higher rate of aging at 80% DOD and an accelerated aging at 40 °C in the thermal cycling, as a result of possible loss of active material (LAM) in both electrodes, in addition to the loss of lithium inventory (LLI) and inhibited kinetics. The slight capacity fade from low-temperature extremes likely caused by LLI due to lithium plating, whereas the noticeable fade after the high-temperature excursion was likely caused by LAM and hindrance to kinetics. These results may lead to improved battery management in EV applications.

  9. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  10. A comparative study of hybrid electric vehicle fuel consumption over diverse driving cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution and declining resources of fossil fuels in recent years,have increased demand for better fuel economy and less pollution for ground transportation.Among the alternative solutions provided by researchers in recent decades,hybrid electric vehicles consisted of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor have been considered as a promising solution in the short-term.In the present study,fuel economy characteristics of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle are investigated by using ...

  11. Electromagnetic Analysis and Design of Switched Reluctance Double-Rotor Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Shouliang Han; Shumei Cui; Liwei Song; Ching Chuen Chan

    2014-01-01

    The double-rotor machine is a kind of multiple input and output electromechanical energy transducer with two electrical ports and two mechanical ports, which is an ideal transmission system for hybrid electric vehicles and has a series of advantages such as integration of power and energy, high efficiency and compaction. In this paper, a switched reluctance double-rotor machine (SRDRM) is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles, while no conductor or PM in the middle rotor. This machine not onl...

  12. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a source of distributed frequency regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Sara Kathryn

    The movement to transform the North American power grid into a smart grid may be accomplished by expanding integrated sensing, communications, and control technologies to include every part of the grid to the point of end-use. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) provide an opportunity for small-scale distributed storage while they are plugged-in. With large numbers of PHEV and the communications and sensing associated with the smart grid, PHEV could provide ancillary services for the grid. Frequency regulation is an ideal service for PHEV because the duration of supply is short (order of minutes) and it is the highest priced ancillary service on the market offering greater financial returns for vehicle owners. Using Simulink a power system simulator modeling the IEEE 14 Bus System was combined with a model of PHEV charging and the controllers which facilitate vehicle-to-grid (V2G) regulation supply. The system includes a V2G controller for each vehicle which makes regulation supply decisions based on battery state, user preferences, and the recommended level of supply. A PHEV coordinator controller located higher in the system has access to reliable frequency measurements and can determine a suitable local automatic generation control (AGC) raise/lower signal for participating vehicles. A first step implementation of the V2G supply system where battery charging is modulated to provide regulation was developed. The system was simulated following a step change in loading using three scenarios: (1) Central generating units provide frequency regulation, (2) PHEV contribute to primary regulation analogous to generator speed governor control, and (3) PHEV contribute to primary and secondary regulation using an additional integral term in the PHEV control signal. In both cases the additional regulation provided by PHEV reduced the area control error (ACE) compared to the base case. Unique contributions resulting from this work include: (1) Studied PHEV energy systems

  13. Co-simulation Analysis of Increased Program Pure Electric Bus Based on Cruise and Matlab Software%基于Cruise和Matlab的增程式电动车联合仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹剑

    2012-01-01

    According to the Cruise and Matlab Co-simulation for the pure electric buses,the author presents the simulation model and analysis of the increased program pure electric bus based on the precise management to the battery SOC.%在对纯电动客车进行Cruise和Matlab联合仿真的基础上,提出基于电池SOC精确管理的增程式电动客车的仿真模型及分析。

  14. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Sadeghi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicle performance,dynamic modeling of the motor and other components is necessary. Whereas the switchedreluctance machine is well suited for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, due to the simpleand rugged construction, low cost, and ability to operate over a wide speed range atconstant power, in this paper dynamic performance of the switched reluctance motor for eseries hybrid electric vehicles is investigated. For this purpose a switched reluctance motorwith its electrical drive is modeld and simulated first, and then the other components of aseries hybrid electric vehicle, such as battery, generator, internal combusion engine, andgearbox, are designed and linked with the electric motor. Finally a typical series hybridelectric vehicle is simulated for different drive cycles. The extensive simulation results showthe dynamic performance of SRM, battery, fuel consumption, and emissions.

  15. Economic and environmental comparison of conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Published data from various sources are used to perform economic and environmental comparisons of four types of vehicles: conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell. The production and utilization stages of the vehicles are taken into consideration. The comparison is based on a mathematical procedure, which includes normalization of economic indicators (prices of vehicles and fuels during the vehicle life and driving range) and environmental indicators (greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions), and evaluation of an optimal relationship between the types of vehicles in the fleet. According to the comparison, hybrid and electric cars exhibit advantages over the other types. The economic efficiency and environmental impact of electric car use depends substantially on the source of the electricity. If the electricity comes from renewable energy sources, the electric car is advantageous compared to the hybrid. If electricity comes from fossil fuels, the electric car remains competitive only if the electricity is generated on board. It is shown that, if electricity is generated with an efficiency of about 50-60% by a gas turbine engine connected to a high-capacity battery and an electric motor, the electric car becomes advantageous. Implementation of fuel cells stacks and ion conductive membranes into gas turbine cycles permits electricity generation to increase to the above-mentioned level and air pollution emissions to decrease. It is concluded that the electric car with on-board electricity generation represents a significant and flexible advance in the development of efficient and ecologically benign vehicles.

  16. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  17. 混合动力城市客车用电池参数的匹配及优化%Parameters matching and optimizing of battery for hybrid city bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兹林; 冒晓建

    2012-01-01

    分析了混合动力城市客车在动力电池选型及参数匹配时存在的主要制约因素,以及电池主要参数对整车性能的影响,在初步确定动力电池基本参数的基础上进行优化.将优化后的动力电池进行整车道路试验,结果表明:匹配优化参数的蓄电池组的混合动力城市客车,动力性和经济性较优化之前都得到了提升,特别是冬季低温时,节油率可提高约5%.%The main constrains about power battery selection and parameter matching for hybrid city bus were analyzed, the parameters were optimized by simulation on the basis of selecting the original parameters of the battery. The power battery after optimizing was tested via road test, the results showed that the fuel economy and dynamic property of the hybrid city bus with optimized battery were improved,especially about 5% fuel saving could be increased in low temperature in winter.

  18. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  19. 纯电动公交车车架的谐响应分析%Harmonic Response Analysis of Pure Electric Bus Frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于一冰; 李耀刚; 琚立颖; 万国睿; 冯泽

    2016-01-01

    根据某纯电动公交车车架三维模型,应用ANSYS Workbench建立其有限元模型,并进行有预应力的模态分析,得到其固有频率。将模态分析作为基础,以驱动电机作为激励,分析车架的谐响应。分析得到位移频率曲线,进而得到驱动电机与车架发生共振的部位,并提出两种解决方案。经验证,只有在驱动电机与车架之间安装橡胶减振器,才能使位移幅值大幅度减小,达到减振的目的。%Based on the three-dimensional model of a pure electric bus frame ,the finite element model of the frame is established by ANSYS Workbench .The modal analysis of the frame under prestress is carried out and the natural frequencies of the frame are ob-tained .The harmonic response analysis of the frame is conducted ,the displacement-frequency curve is got ,and the resonance site of drive motor and frame is found out .A solving scheme is presented ,which is installing a rubber shock absorbers between the drive motor and the frame to make the displacement amplitude greatly decrease .

  20. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE HIGH-VOLTAGE BATTERY IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of hybrid electric vehicle NiMH high-voltage battery is obtained. This model allows to explore the interaction of vehicle tractive electric drive and high-voltage battery at the electric motive power motion and in the process of recuperation of braking kinetic energy.

  1. 基于混杂Petri网的共直流母线交流传动系统建模与节能控制%Modeling and energy saving control for common DC bus AC drive system based on hybrid Petri nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继方; 汤天浩; 姚刚

    2011-01-01

    通过引入混杂系统理论,在分析系统运行过程的基础上,建立了共直流母线交流传动系统混杂Petri网模型和电机功率模型.在此基础上提出了一种基于配对理论的节能控制算法,即在电机状态可调控时段,通过改变随机运行状态,使耗能状态激发与回馈状态激发模糊配对的电机状态调控算法.采用该方法的直流母线功率仿真结果表明,该方法能有效地调整控制电机状态,使处在耗能状态电机最大限度地吸收制动状态电机再生的电能,减小了直流母线功率波动,提高了系统性能.%This paper introduces the hybrid system theory and establishes a common DC bus AC drive system hybrid Petri nets model and a motor power model based on the analysis of the system operation process. On this basis an energy saving control algorithm based on matching theory is proposed, namely the motor state adjusting algorithm which gets fuzzy pair of energy consumption state excitation and feedback state excitation through changing the random operation state in the controllable period of motor state. The results of simulation on DC bus power adopting this method show that it can effectively adjust and control the motor state, make the motor in energy consumption state absorb the electrical energy regenerated by motor in braking mode to a large extent,thus can reduce the DC bus power fluctuation and improve the system performance.This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51007056).

  2. Dynamic simulation of urban hybrid electric vehicles; Dynamische Simulation von Stadthybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winke, Florian; Bargende, Michael [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (IVK)

    2013-09-15

    As a result of the rising requirements on the development process of modern vehicles, simulation models for the prediction of fuel efficiency have become an irreplaceable tool in the automotive industry. Especially for the design of hybrid electric drivetrains, the increasingly short development cycles can only be met by the use of efficient simulation models. At the IVK of the University of Stuttgart, different approaches to simulating the longitudinal dynamics of hybrid electric vehicles were analysed and compared within the presented project. The focus of the investigations was on urban operation. The objective was to develop a hybrid vehicle concept that allows an equitable comparison with pure battery electric vehicles. (orig.)

  3. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Report of the International Evaluation Committee. June 96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlen, H. [Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany); Maggetto, G. [Vrije Univ., Brussel (Belgium); Scrosati, B. [Univ. di Roma (Italy); Srinivasan, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)

    1996-11-01

    As requested by NUTEK our task was to evaluate the results and progress achieved in the electric and hybrid electric vehicles programme. This is a multidisciplinary research programme involving 12 projects at four universities and is planned to be extended over two three-year periods, i.e. 1993-1996 and 1997-1999 at a level of 8 MSKR (about USD 1,2M) per year. The programme has been launched to stimulate the development of electric vehicle technology in Sweden and is supporting projects to optimize the material processes, improve battery and engine components and promote of their production by the Swedish industry. In addition, the programme is directed to: 1. improve the knowledge and experience in the field at the academic level; 2. to support long time research on the subject and, 3. promote collaboration nationally and internationally. Our first comment is that the latter aspect appears to be satisfactorily accomplished. Most of the groups we have visited demonstrate an acquired experience in the field and presented their results with competence and enthusiasm. In many cases, we found valid interactions on ongoing projects in Swedish universities and established collaborations with high rank international groups. The programme has provided the material and the motivation for high-quality thesis work and, consequently, the formation of a class of well prepared and professionally competent students. Since electric vehicle technology is fast developing and is expected to have important fall-outs not only in the car industry but also in battery and electric engine manufacturing, the training of competent scientists and engineers in the field is of paramount relevance for Sweden where these types of industries are active and spread out. Therefore, we believe that as far as educational promotion is concerned, the funds distribution was worthwhile in all the projects which we evaluated

  4. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  5. Enhanced Electrical Conductivity of Aluminum by Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigers, Shelby; Savadelis, Alexader; Carruba, Kathryn; Johns, Kiley; Adu, Kofi

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been recognized as potential candidate for reinforcements in lightweight metals. A composite consisting of CNTs embedded in an Al-matrix might work as an ultra-low-resistive material with the potential of having a room-temperature resistivity far below Al, Cu and Ag. While several advances have been made in developing Al-CNT composites, three major challenges: (1) interfacial bond strength between CNT and the Al matrix, (2) homogeneous dispersion of the CNTs in the Al matrix and impurity (CNTs) scattering centers, continue to limit progress in Al-CNT composites. Several conventional methods including powder metallurgy, melting and solidification, thermal spray and electrochemical deposition have been used to process Al and CNT to form composites. We present preliminary results that address these challenges and demonstrate the fabrication of easily drawable Al-CNT composites into wires of diameter <= 1.0mm with ~ 18% +/- 2% reduction in the electrical resistivity of Al-CNT composite using CNT-hybrid as reinforcement and an inductive melting technique that takes advantage of the induced eddy current in the melt to provide in-situ stirring. This Work is Supported by Penn State Altoona Undergraduate Research Sponsored Program and Penn State Materials Research Institute, University Park.

  6. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  7. Development of commercial hybrid electric vehicle with native key components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bakhmutov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives of development of medium weight cargo vehicles with hybrid powertrain including Russian native key components are considered in this article. Series-parallel scheme of HEV is more relevant owing to limitations of series and parallel schemes. An example of this technology is described. This technical solution has good facilities for variation of HEV and AWD type. The authors have patented it. In addition, another main issue is to choose the types of key components with good correlation for parameters of ICE, electric motors, batteries, and inverter. Using mathematical model of the vehicle a selection and correlation of technical characteristics were carried out to meet ecological and economical requirements. After computing calculation two control strategies were accepted. The first strategy contributes to good fuel consumption, while the other one is aimed at ecology. Researchers use test benches to confirm the results of calculation, and this one was built by the authors applying native components. The result of experiment on the test bench is the growth of fuel consumption of the medium weight cargo vehicle by 25% and compliance with ecological class Euro-4.

  8. Energy management of electric and hybrid vehicles dependent on powertrain configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Bogdan

    2012-06-01

    Electric and hybrid vehicles are going to become the most reliable source of transport for future years. The CO2 and NOx targets in Euro 6 normative puts the producers of vehicles in a dilemma, whether to adapt the internal combustion engines further, or to develop hybrid or electric power trains that are going to reach the pollution limit of the future norms or to go below that. Before acting a well-developed strategy in determining the optimum power flow has to be developed by producers; CRUISE software is a tool with the unique and special characteristics to determine the optimum in this highly important area. Whether electric vehicle, electric vehicle with range extender or a hybrid with CVT or planetary gearbox, the complexity of the mathematical modules remains the same, giving the developer the possibility to create complex functions and distinctive characteristics for each component of the vehicle. With such a powerful tool it becomes extremely easy to evaluate the energy flow in all directions, from electric machine to the battery, from electric machine to the power generator, and from the electric machine to the internal combustion engine. Applying to the (Electric Vehicle, Electric Vehicle with Range Extender, Hybrid vehicle with CVT, Hybrid vehicle with planetary gear set) the ECE-15 in a virtual environment (urban driving cycle) the simulation results show a different usage, rate of storage and efficiency concerning the energy, this being dependent of the power train configuration in most part.

  9. A New Method to Optimize Semiactive Hybrid Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electrical Vehicle by Using PE Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both battery and super-capacitor are important power sources for hybrid electric vehicles, there is no accurate configuration theory to match the above two kinds of power sources which have significantly different characteristics on energy and power storage for the goal of making good use of their individual features without size wasting. In this paper, a new performance is presented that is used for analysis and optimal design method of battery and super-capacitor for hybrid energy storage system of a parallel hybrid electrical vehicle. In order to achieve optimal design with less consumption, the power-energy function is applied to establish direct mathematical relationship between demand power and the performance. During matching process, firstly, three typical operating conditions are chosen as the basis of design; secondly, the energy and power capacity evaluation methods for the parameters of battery and super-capacitor in hybrid energy storage system are proposed; thirdly, the mass, volume, and cost of the system are optimized simultaneously by using power-energy function. As a result, there are significant advantages on mass, volume, and cost for the hybrid energy storage system with the matching method. Simulation results fit well with the results of analysis, which confirms that the optimized design can meet the demand of hybrid electric vehicle well.

  10. Hybrid propulsion with highest electric power density for the ML 450 BlueHYBRID; Hybridantrieb mit hoechster elektrischen Leistungsdichte fuer den ML 450 BlueHYBRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Michael; Armstrong, Neil; Schenk, Juergen; Nietfeld, Franz; Inderka, Robert [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The ML 450 BlueHYBRID is an elementary milestone in the strategy to the sustainable mobility at Daimler AG (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany). This hybrid system based on the current M-class and is equipped with the innovative Two-Mode-Hybrid-System AHS-C with two high speed electrical engines. The entire propulsion system, the battery and power electronics and the strategy of operation particularly developed for this vehicle integrally provide for a significant reduction of consumption and emission. At the same time, the comfort of the total vehicle increases. In the ML 450 BlueHYBRID, a high volt battery on basis of nickel metal hydride is used. This battery consists of an extremely compact building method and enables an optimal packaging in the vehicle. For the first time, the cooling is performed with a liquid. This enables a stable operation in all situations. For the first time, the cooling takes place with a liquid and enables a stable enterprise in all situations. In connection with the AHS-C Two-Mode-Hybrid system, the battery system enables all hybrid-specific operation conditions such as a purely electrical tour, engine start stop, recupation, boosting. The ML 450 BlueHYBRID serially is produced in Tuscaloose (Alabama, USA). The manufacturing of the hybrid vehicle completely is integrated in the operation of work and is based on the existing serial production plants with hybrid-specific supplements and adjustments in assembly stations.

  11. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  12. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    Gandzha S.A.; Kiessh I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  13. The Swedish electric and hybrid vehicle R, D and D program. Seminar October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This publication presents a selection of the ongoing projects in the form of abstracts, within the KFB RDD-program Electric- and Hybrid Vehicles. These projects were presented at a project manager seminar 20-21 October 1998

  14. Investigative Research, FMECA and PHM Modeling of Hybrid-Electric Distributed Propulsion System Architectures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development with validation and demonstrations...

  15. Mechanical and electrical performance of Roystonea regia/glass fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govardhan Goud; R N Rao

    2012-08-01

    The present paper investigates mechanical and electrical properties of Roystonea regia/glass fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. Five varieties of hybrid composites have been prepared by varying the glass fibre loading. Roystonea regia (royal palm), a natural fibre was collected from the foliage of locally available royal palm tree through the process of water retting and mechanical extraction. Roystonea regia, -glass short fibres were used together as reinforcement in epoxy matrix to form hybrid composites. It has been observed that tensile, flexural, impact and hardness properties of hybrid composites considerably increased with increase in glass fibre loading. But electrical conductivity and dielectric constant values decreased with increase in glass fibre content in the hybrid composites at all frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy of fractured hybrid composites has been carried out to study the fibre matrix adhesion.

  16. Super-capacitors as an energy storage for fuel cell automotive hybrid electrical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, P.; Rael, St.; Davat, B. [Institut National Polytechnique, GREEN-INPL-CNRS (UMR 7037), 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2004-07-01

    The design, implementation and testing of a purely super-capacitors energy storage system for automotive system having a fuel cell as main source are presented. The system employs a super-capacitive storage device, composed of six components (3500 F, 2.5 V, 400 A) associated in series. This device is connected to automotive 42 V DC bus by a 2-quadrant DC-DC converter. The control structure of the system is realised by means of analogical and digital control. The experimental results show that super-capacitors are suitable as energy storage device for fuel cell automotive electrical system. (authors)

  17. Hybrid electric system for an Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle and its energy management

    OpenAIRE

    DA FONSECA, Ramon Naiff; BIDEAUX, Eric; Gerard, Mathias; DESBOIS-RENAUDIN, Matthieu; JEANNERET, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles, (FCV) are characterized by the utilization on the same electric bus of an hydrogen fuel cell (FC) as a primary energy source and of storage elements like batterie s as a secondary source. In our project, the fuel c ell is a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM), which is well adapted for transport field applications. A Lithium rechargeable battery , more specifically a LiFePO4, is used to supplement the FC over the driv ing cycle. According to the requirements of the dri ...

  18. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami; Mehdi Ali Ehyaei; Marc A. Rosen; Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid sy...

  19. Parallel Hybrid Gas-Electric Geared Turbofan Engine Conceptual Design and Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, Charles; Hardin, Larry; Rheaume, Jonathan; Kohlman, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design of a parallel gas-electric hybrid propulsion system for a conventional single aisle twin engine tube and wing vehicle has been developed. The study baseline vehicle and engine technology are discussed, followed by results of the hybrid propulsion system sizing and performance analysis. The weights analysis for the electric energy storage & conversion system and thermal management system is described. Finally, the potential system benefits are assessed.

  20. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY PASSENGER CAR WITH USING OF NON-ELECTRICAL HYBRID DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Skrucany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only electrical hybrid technology is used for drivetrain of passenger cars. Also other systems using non-electrical principles (hydraulic or air pressure, mechanical energy storage can be found in current vehicles. There is a quantification of the spared energy by using a hybrid vehicle in the paper. Driving cy-cle ECE 15 was chosen as a platform for simulation of driving resistances.

  1. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimental Model with CAN Network Real Time Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATOI, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental model with a distributed control system of a hybrid electrical vehicle is presented. A communication CAN network of high speed (1 Mbps assures a distributed control of the all components. The modeling and the control of different operating regimes are realized on an experimental test-bench of a hybrid electrical vehicle. The experimental results concerning the variations of the mains variables (currents, torques, speeds are presented.

  2. OPTIMAL PARAMETERS FOR ELECTRIC-POWER INSTALLATION COMPONENTS OF HYBRID CAR

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A conception for low-cost reconstruction of cars using hybrid drive was developed. Integrations of internal-combustion engine with electric motor fed from lead-acid storage battery and supercapacitor is the aim of the reconstruction. Such a way for modernization allows fast provide the output of hybrid cars in Ukraine in the framework of the program of energy storage technologies.

  3. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  4. Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Selman, J. R.

    A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be "scaled-up safely", i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes than the commercially available near-2-Ah cells. Here, we review a novel thermal management system using phase-change material (PCM). A prototype of this PCM-based system is presently being manufactured. A PCM-based system has never been tested before with lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and battery packs, although its mode of operation is exceptionally well suited for the cell chemistry of the most common commercially available Li-ion batteries. The thermal management system described here is intended specifically for EV/HEV applications. It has a high potential for providing effective thermal management without introducing moving components. Thereby, the performance of EV/HEV batteries may be improved without complicating the system design and incurring major additional cost, as is the case with "active" cooling systems requiring air or liquid circulation.

  5. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  6. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  7. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  8. Analysis on Electric Field Around HVAC-HVDC Hybrid Transmission Lines%Analysis on Electric Field Around HVAC-HVDC Hybrid Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qian; LIU Jun-xiang; LI Hua; LIN Fu-chang

    2011-01-01

    As the transmission line corridors become more and more rare in China, it is now inevitable for people to construct HVAC-HVDC hybrid transmission lines. The research on the electric field around the transmission lines plays an important role in evaluating the electromagnetic environment nearby. However, few existing research now considered the mutual effect of HVAC-HVDC hybrid transmission lines. Thus, this research designed a program based on windows, which calculated the surface voltage gradient on the transmission lines and the electric field at ground level respectively. This research calculated the surface voltage gradient on the transmission lines by applying the improved method of successive images. For the electric field at ground level under AC transmission line, simula- tion charge method is used, while for the electric field at the ground level under DC transmission lines, deutsch as- sumption method is used. Comparing the results generated by the calculation with those in published literature, the program is reliable. Taking 500 kV transmission lines as an example, when considering the mutual effect of the HVAC-HVDC'lines, the amplitude of the surface voltage gradient will increase by about 10% and the amplitude of the electric field at ground level will increase by about 8%, making the mutual effect of the AC and DC lines unneglectable. Larger part of the electric field at ground level under hybrid lines is produced by the DC line. Thus, in order to control the electric field at ground level under hybrid lines, it should pay more attention on that produced by the DC line.

  9. Electrical system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  10. Design, implementation, and experimental validation of optimal power split control for hybrid electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Mullem, D. van; Jager, B. van; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles require an algorithm that controls the power split between the internal combustion engine and electric machine(s), and the opening and closing of the clutch. Optimal control theory is applied to derive a methodology for a real-time optimal-control-based power split

  11. ELECTRICAL AND DYNAMIC BRAKING OF THE HYBRID VEHICLE ON THE ROADS WITH LOW COUPLING COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitovskyi, O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There were carried out theoretical researches of the processes of the electrical and dynamic braking of the vehicle with hybrid power-plant on the roads with low coupling coefficient, it was proved the probability of the wheels blocking appearing, during electrical and dynamic braking.

  12. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume VI. Cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, K.S.

    1979-09-30

    The purpose of the cost analysis is to determine the economic feasibility of a variety of hybrid vehicles with respect to conventional vehicles specifically designed for the same duty cycle defined by the mission analysis. Several different hybrid configurations including parallel, parallel-flywheel, and series vehicles were evaluated. The ramifications of incorporating examples of advanced batteries, these being the advanced lead-acid, nickel-zinc, and sodium sulfur were also investigated. Vehicles were specifically designed with these batteries and for the driving cycles specified by the mission. Simulated operation on the missions yielded the energy consumption (petroleum and/or electricity) over the driving cycles. It was concluded that: in the event that gasoline prices reach $2.50 to $3.00/gal, hybrid vehicles in many applications will become economically competitive with conventional vehicles without subsidization; in some commercial applications hybrid vehicles could be economically competitive, when the gasoline price ranges from $1.20 to $1.50/gal. The cost per kWh per cycle of the advanced batteries is much more important economically than the specific energy; the series hybrid vehicles were found to be more expensive in comparison to the parallel or parallel-flywheel hybrids when designed as passenger vehicles; and hybrid vehicles designed for private use could become economically competitive and displace up to 50% of the fuel normally used on that mission if subsidies of $500 to $2000 were supplied to the owner/operator. (LCL)

  13. An Optimization Method to Alleviate Tire Wear of Front Suspension on Pure Electric Bus%一种减轻纯电动中巴前悬轮胎磨损的优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁炜彬; 陈新度; 夏鸿建; 熊会元; 吴义忠

    2015-01-01

    纯电动中巴悬架系统通常以传统中巴悬架为设计基础,但由于其质量及外形结构的变化,易产生轮胎磨损严重等问题.以某纯电动中巴的双横臂前悬架为对象,以减轻轮胎磨损为目标,对其硬点作灵敏度分析,辨识影响悬架性能的关键参数.采用RBF构造响应面,通过遗传算法寻优,对悬架的外倾角、前束角及轮心侧向位移量进行多目标综合优化.结果表明,悬架性能获得显著提升,有效减轻轮胎磨损.%Pure electric bus suspension system usually adopts traditional bus suspension as design basis,but due to changes in the quality and structure, easy to produce the tire wear serious problem. In a pure electric bus double wishbone front suspension as the object, in order to reduce tire wear as the goal,for the sensitivity analysis of the hard point,key parameters identification of influence of suspension performance. Using RBF method to construct the response surface, optimized by genetic algorithm, multi objective optimization of the suspension camber angle, toe angle and lateral displacement of wheel center. The optimization results show that the suspension performance can be improved,effectively reduce the tire wear.

  14. EMI Measurement and Mitigation Testing for the ARPA Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-27

    will be a more realistic approach for evaluating the EMI radiated from the electric vehicles . Vehicle Converter TyJ:!e OJ:!en-Field Screen Room...radiation from the electric vehicles considered were motor controllers, de to de converters , power steering motors, brake vacuum pumps, distribution...the ARPA Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program Anthony B. Bruno Engineering and Technical Services Department Oscar R. Zelaya Submarine Electromagnetic

  15. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  16. 电动客车制动和转向复合驱动机组研制%Development of braking and steering composite driving set for electric bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书伟; 葛友华; 刘绍娜

    2012-01-01

    In order to\\use electric energy effectively,reduce mass of body as well as optimize layout reasonably and reduce cost of electric bus, the technology status of electric bus has been analyzedAnd a composite driving set with air compressor and steering pump used for electric bus has been proposed i.e. one electric motor is applied to drive air compressor for pneumatic braking system and hydraulic pump for power steering simultaneously.The optimal layout of chassis technology, the active adapting control technology based on load detecting,the dynamic optimum design technology and the anti-rattle and vibration isolating technology have been used to design the composite driving set.After some tests such as energy consumption comparison, dynamic performance test as well as matching ability test for parts and reliability test for control system,the result indicates that the set is characterized with alleviating mass of complete vehicle, saving cost,reducing energy consumption and convenient arranging.%为了实现电动客车有效利用电能、减轻自身质量、合理优化布局和降低成本等目标,对电动客车技术现状做了分析,提出了一种电动客车空压机和转向油泵复合机组,即采用一台电机同时驱动气压制动系统的空压机和动力转向系统的液压油泵.运用底盘优化布置、负载检测主动适配控制、动态优化设计和防震隔振控制等技术进行设计,通过能耗对比、动态性能、零部件匹配性和控制系统可靠性等试验,结果表明,具有减轻整车质量、节省成本、降低能耗和方便布置等特点.

  17. Electric power management for the International Space Station experiment racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burcham, M. [Boeing Missile and Space, Huntsville, AL (United States); Darty, M.A.; Thibodeau, P.E. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, Huntsville, AL (United States); Coe, R. [SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); Dunn, M. [Europa Ltd., Glenrothes (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    An intelligent, all solid state, electric power management system for International Space Station experiment racks is described. This power system is implemented via redundant internal microcomputers, controlling hybridized solid state power controllers in response to 1553B data bus commands. The solid state power controllers are programmable for current trip level and for normally-open or normally-closed operation.

  18. Pattern of secure bilateral transactions ensuring power economic dispatch in hybrid electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Gao, Wenzhong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    This paper proposes a new method for secure bilateral transactions determination ensuring economic power dispatch of the generators using new AC distribution factors for pool and bilateral coordinated markets. The new optimization problem considers simultaneous minimization of deviations from scheduled transactions and fuel cost of the generators in the network. The fuel cost has been obtained for hybrid market model and impact of different percentage of bilateral demand on fuel cost, generation share, and pattern of transactions has also been determined. The impact of optimally located unified power flow controller (UPFC) on the bilateral transactions, fuel cost and generation pattern has also been studied. The results have also been obtained for pool market model. The proposed technique has been applied on IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (RTS). (author)

  19. Inrush-Current Limiter And Bus Isolator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, Carlisle R.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic circuit protects electrical power bus and source of power against excessive current demands. Circuit intended for use with power-consuming electronic system drawing pulsed currents and including capacitor bank as low-impedance secondary source from which pulsed currents drawn.

  20. Conversion of Gasoline Vehicles to CNG Hybrid Vehicles (CNG-Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Halvaei Niasar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigation of the feasibility and advantages of using the natural gas as an alternative to gasoline as a fuel for hybrid electric vehicles. Operating CNG vehicles are really beneficial in the Middle East region considering the fact that gasoline is offered at a heavily subsidized price and therefore, by converting a significant portion of the automobiles to run on CNG, the gasoline internal consumption could be reduced. This in turn will result in more oil being available for export which will be beneficial to the economy of country. Hybrid Vehicles mainly have a CNG engine along with an electric drive. The batteries of Hybrid Vehicles are charged by a CNG engine. The engine size is smaller and emissions may be considerably less in hybrid vehicles relative to typical vehicles since the CNG engine is employed only to recharge the electric batteries. Although CNG-Electric hybrid vehicles are less common than Diesel-Electric hybrids, but they have been tested in several U.S. cities such as Denver and Seattle. CNG-electric hybrids hold huge potential for the future in the fact that they are significantly cleaner sources of energy and are conveniently suited to serve the needs of the current economy and modes of transportation. The use of these alternative sources of fuels requires investment and significant studies need to be made to evaluate their efficiencies and reliability. This study would cover most of these aspects and also explores the use of these technologies with particular reference to Qatar and the Middle East.

  1. Penalty for Fuel Economy - System Level Perspectives on the Reliability of Hybrid Electric Vehicles During Normal and Graceful Degradation Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-27

    the issue of system level reliability in hybrid electric vehicles from a quantitative point of view. It also introduces a quantitative meaning to the...internal combustion engine based vehicle and later transition of those to hybrid electric vehicles . The paper intends to drive the point that in HEV...Generally people tend to think only in terms of fuel economy and additional cost premium on vehicle price while discussing about hybrid electric

  2. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach.

  3. Hybrid porphyrin-silicon nanowire field-effect transistor by opto-electrical excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Myeong-Lok; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Ji-Min; Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2012-09-25

    A porphyrin-silicon nanowire (Si-NW) hybrid field-effect transistor is introduced. The hybrid device has separate electrical and optical gates surrounding the Si-NW channel. Porphyrin, a component of chlorophyll, is employed as an optical gate to modulate the potential of the Si-NW channel. Due to the independently formed hybrid gates, both optical and electrical excitation can effectively modulate the device. The exposed porphyrin optical gate responds to the optical excitation, and independently formed electrical gates respond to the electrical excitation. Charge transfer characteristics between a semiconductor channel and the porphyrin optical gate are deeply investigated. Optical, electrical, and opto-electrical excitation methods are employed to analyze the charging and discharging behaviors. Of these methods, opto-electrical excitation enables the strongest charge transfer because the inversion electron formation by an electrical pulse and the photoinduced charge transfer by an optical stimulus are affected simultaneously. Discharging processes, such as rapid discharging, exponential detrapping, and the formation of metastable states are also analyzed.

  4. Stochastic Optimal Control for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for improving fuel economy and reducing emissions has stimulated significant research and investment in hybrid propulsion systems. In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing online the supervisory control in a series hybrid configuration by modeling its operation as a controlled Markov chain using the average cost criterion. We treat the stochastic optimal control problem as a dual constrained optimization problem. We show that the control policy that yields higher probability distribution to the states with low cost and lower probability distribution to the states with high cost is an optimal control policy, defined as an equilibrium control policy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed controller in a series hybrid configuration and compare it with a thermostat-type controller.

  5. 共直流母线式风光互补发电系统的仿真研究%Research on the simulation of wind-solar hybrid power system with common dc bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南国君; 丁明; 王贻玲

    2011-01-01

    由于太阳能、风能的互补特性以及光伏发电、风力发电技术的日趋成熟,风光互补发电成为研究热点.文章分析了风力发电技术、光伏发电技术以及风光互补发电技术,设计了共直流母线式风光互补发电系统的整体结构,讨论了该拓扑结构的工作原理和控制策略,并利用PSCAD软件建立了风光互补发电的仿真模型,分别在外部环境不变与外部环境(风速、日照强度)变化2种情况下对发电系统讲行了仿直分析,获得了较好的结果.%As the solar energy and wind energy can be complementary and the photovoltaic technology and wind power technology are becoming mature, the wind-solar hybrid power has become a hotspot of research. In this paper, the wind power technology, photovoltaic technology and wind-solar hybrid power technology are introduced, the whole structure of wind-solar hybrid power system with common dc bus is designed, and the operating principle and control strategy of the topological structure are analyzed. The simulation model of wind-solar hybrid power system is set up by using the software PSCAD, and the simulation analysis is carried out in external environment with or without change in wind speed and sunshine intensity. Finally satisfying results are obtained.

  6. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  7. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  8. Predictive control strategy for power management in parallel hybrid-electric vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodeh, Mohammad Taqi; Gholizade, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid model-based nonlinear optimal control method is used to compute the optimal power distribution and power management in parallel hybrid electric vehicles. In the power management strategy, for optimal power distribution between the internal combustion engine, electrical...... system and the other subsystems, nonlinear predictive control is applied. In order to achieve this goal, a hierarchical control structure is utilized. This type of control structure consists of three levels of monitoring, coordinating and local controllers. Nonlinear modeling and performance index...... in the proposed method should be formulated at the regulatory level of the controller. Discrete dynamic mode of operation (motor-generator) in hybrid electric vehicle requires to use a dual-mode switch model and to define an alternative expression of performance index for the optimal control problem...

  9. Modeling of plasma in a hybrid electric propulsion for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugroot, Manish; Christou, Alex

    2016-09-01

    As space flight becomes more available and reliable, space-based technology is allowing for smaller and more cost-effective satellites to be produced. Working in large swarms, many small satellites can provide additional capabilities while reducing risk. These satellites require efficient, long term propulsion for manoeuvres, orbit maintenance and de-orbiting. The high exhaust velocity and propellant efficiency of electric propulsion makes it ideally suited for low thrust missions. The two dominant types of electric propulsion, namely ion thrusters and Hall thrusters, excel in different mission types. In this work, a novel electric hybrid propulsion design is modelled to enhance understanding of key phenomena and evaluate performance. Specifically, the modelled hybrid thruster seeks to overcome issues with existing Ion and Hall thruster designs. Scaling issues and optimization of the design will be discussed and will investigate a conceptual design of a hybrid spacecraft plasma engine.

  10. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  11. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  12. Energy management in hybrid electric vehicles: benefit of prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Jager, B. de; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles require a supervisory algorithm, often referred to as energy management strategy, which governs the drivetrain components. In general the energy management strategy objective is to minimize the fuel consumption subject to constraints on the components, vehicle performance and driver

  13. BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

      BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-100-introduction-to-business-entire-course/   BUS 100 Assignment 1 Fundamentals of Effective Communication in the Workplace BUS 100 Assignment 2 Ethical and Socially Responsive Business BUS 100 Introduction To Business Week 1-11 Discussions BUS 100 week 1 discussions BUS 100 week 2 Discussions BUS 100 week 3 Discussions BUS 100 week 4 Discussions ...

  14. Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-yi LIANG; Jian-long ZHANG; Xi ZHANG; Shi-fei YUAN; Cheng-liang YIN

    2013-01-01

    To solve the low power density issue of hybrid electric vehicular batteries,a combination of batteries and ultracapacitors(UCs)could be a solution.The high power density feature of UCs can improve the performance of battery/UC hybrid energy storage systems(HESSs).This paper presents a parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)equipped with an internal combustion engine and an HESS.An advanced energy management strategy(EMS),mainly based on fuzzy logic,is proposed to improve the fuel economy of the HEV and the endurance of the HESS.The EMS is capable of determining the ideal distribution of output power among the internal combustion engine,battery,and UC according to the propelling power or regenerative braking power of the vehicle.To validate the effectiveness of the EMS,numerical simulation and experimental validations are carried out.The results indicate that EMS can effectively control the power sources to work within their respective efficient areas.The battery load can be mitigated and prolonged battery life can be expected.The electrical energy consumption in the HESS is reduced by 3.91%compared with that in the battery only system.Fuel consumption of the HEV is reduced by 24.3% compared with that of the same class conventional vehicles under Economic Commission of Europe driving cycle.

  15. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  16. Development of a software platform for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlis, Athanasios; Bibeau, Eric; Zanetel, Paul; Lye, Zelon

    2012-03-01

    Electricity use for transportation has had limited applications because of battery storage range issues, although many recent successful demonstrations of electric vehicles have been achieved. Renewable biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol also contribute only a small percentage of the overall energy mix for mobility. Recent advances in hybrid technologies have significantly increased vehicle efficiencies. More importantly, hybridization now allows a significant reduction in battery capacity requirements compared to pure electric vehicles, allowing electricity to be used in the overall energy mix in the transportation sector. This paper presents an effort made to develop a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) platform that can act as a comprehensive alternative energy vehicle simulator. Its goal is to help in solving the pressing needs of the transportation sector, both in terms of contributing data to aid policy decisions for reducing fossil fuel use, and to support research in this important area. The Simulator will allow analysing different vehicle configurations, and control strategies with regards to renewable and non-renewable fuel and electricity sources. The simulation platform models the fundamental aspects of PHEV components, that is, process control, heat transfer, chemical reactions, thermodynamics and fluid properties. The outcomes of the Simulator are: (i) determining the optimal combination of fuels and grid electricity use, (ii) performing greenhouse gas calculations based on emerging protocols being developed, and (iii) optimizing the efficient and proper use of renewable energy sources in a carbon constrained world.

  17. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  18. A New Buck-Boost Converter for a Hybrid-Electric Drive Stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mašek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes work on the laboratory working stand for a hybrid-electric drive located in laboratory T2:H1-26.The basic idea is to operate the combustion engine in its optimal regime. In this regime the engine has the highest efficiency and minimal smoke exhaust. This optimal regime is only a small portion of its operation area. Because the engine has to operate in this area, it is necessary to add a new converter to the hybrid-electric stand. The new converter must be allowed to buck and boost and must operate as a current source in this regime. 

  19. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  20. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  1. Optical absorption and electrical transport in hybrid TiO2 and polymer nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi-Song; Li, Zheng; Wang, Ning; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2006-06-01

    Hybrid nanofilms of poly(2-methoxy-5-ethylhexyloxy-1,4-phenylene)vinylene (MEH-PPV) and anatase-TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared. The results showed that the optical absorption spectra and electrical transport properties of the TiO2/MEH-PPV nanocomposite films were strongly dependent on the particle size and concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles in the hybrid films. In comparison with pure TiO2 nanofilms, the hybrid TiO2/MEH-PPV films presented a shift of the absorption edge to the lower-energy region, and an obvious nonlinear current-voltage characteristic.

  2. Polymer waveguide based hybrid opto-electric integration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinbin; Deng, Lingling; Jiang, Xiyan; Ren, Rong; Zhai, Yumeng; Wang, Jin

    2014-10-01

    While monolithic integration especially based on InP appears to be quite an expensive solution for optical devices, hybrid integration solutions using cheaper material platforms are considered powerful competitors because of the high freedom of design, yield optimization and relative cost-efficiency. Among them, the polymer planar-lightwave circuit (PLC) technology is regarded attractive as polymer offers the potential of fairly simple and low-cost fabrication, and of low-cost packaging. In our work, polymer PLC was fabricated by using the standard reactive ion etching (RIE) technique, while other active and passive devices can be integrated on the polymer PLC platform. Exemplary polymer waveguide devices was a 13-channel arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) chip, where the central channel cross-talk was below -30dB and the polarization dependent frequency shift was mitigated by inserting a half wave plate. An optical 900 hybrid was also realized with one 2×4 multi-mode interferometer (MMI). The excess insertion losses are below 4dB for the C-band, while the transmission imbalance is below 1.2dB. When such an optical hybrid was integrated vertically with mesa-type photodiodes, the responsivity of the individual PD was around 0.06 A/W, while the 3 dB bandwidth reaches 24 ~ 27 GHz, which is sufficient for 100Gbit/s receivers. Another example of the hybrid integration was to couple the polymer waveguides to fiber by applying fiber grooves, whose typical loss value was 0.2 dB per-facet over a broad spectral range from 1200-1600 nm.

  3. Preliminary design data package, appendix C. [hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.

  4. Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Assessment of Electrical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performances of various lithium-ion chemistries for use in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have been investigated and compared to several other rechargeable energy storage systems technologies such as lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and electrical-double layer capacitors. The analysis has shown the beneficial properties of lithium-ion in the terms of energy density, power density and rate capabilities. Particularly, the nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode stands out with the high energy density up to 160 Wh/kg, compared to 70–110, 90 and 71 Wh/kg for lithium iron phosphate cathode, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum cathode and, lithium titanate oxide anode battery cells, respectively. These values are considerably higher than the lead-acid (23–28 Wh/kg and nickel-metal hydride (44–53 Wh/kg battery technologies. The dynamic discharge performance test shows that the energy efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries is significantly higher than the lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride technologies. The efficiency varies between 86% and 98%, with the best values obtained by pouch battery cells, ahead of cylindrical and prismatic battery design concepts. Also the power capacity of lithium-ion technology is superior compared to other technologies. The power density is in the range of 300–2400 W/kg against 200–400 and 90–120 W/kg for lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride, respectively. However, considering the influence of energy efficiency, the power density is in the range of 100–1150 W/kg. Lithium-ion batteries optimized for high energy are at the lower end of this range and are challenged to meet the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, SuperLIB and Massachusetts Institute of Technology goals. Their association with electric-double layer capacitors, which have low energy density (4–6 Wh/kg but outstanding power capabilities, could be very interesting. The study of the rate capability of the lithium-ion batteries has

  5. Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Hou; Hewu Wang; Minggao Ouyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal b...

  6. Eco-efficiency optimization of Hybrid Electric Vehicle based on response surface method and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Nzisabira, Jonathan; Louvigny, Yannick; Duysinx, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The electric vehicles (EV) and sometimes the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies are environmentally very efficient but can not succeed on the market because of a smaller ability to satisfy customer’s requirements. Comparison of clean technologies in automotive and transportation systems has been measured using different analysis tools such as LCA (life cycle analysis). However, these instruments never account for the user’s satisfaction which partly explains the market acceptance prob...

  7. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Seong Lee; Moo-Yeon Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2) for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experim...

  8. Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Hou; Hewu Wang; Minggao Ouyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal b...

  9. Electrical anisotropy in multiscale nanotube/fiber hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thostenson, Erik T.; Gangloff, John J.; Li, Chunyu; Byun, Joon-Hyung

    2009-08-01

    This letter reports an experimental and theoretical study on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube/glass fiber composites. Experimental measurements on unidirectional glass fiber composites with nanotubes dispersed in the polymer matrix show a high degree of anisotropy. The composites, manufactured with a vacuum infusion technique, do not show any significant process-induced anisotropy. Theoretical modeling reveals that the microstructure of the fiber composite plays a dominant role in the electrical behavior due to alteration of percolating paths in the carbon nanotube network.

  10. Hybrid partial least squares and neural network approach for short-term electrical load forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shukang YANG; Ming LU; Huifeng XUE

    2008-01-01

    Intelligent systems and methods such as the neural network (NN) are usually used in electric power systems for short-term electrical load forecasting. However, a vast amount of electrical load data is often redundant, and linearly or nonlinearly correlated with each other. Highly correlated input data can result in erroneous prediction results given out by an NN model. Besides this, the determination of the topological structure of an NN model has always been a problem for designers. This paper presents a new artificial intelligence hybrid procedure for next day electric load forecasting based on partial least squares (PLS) and NN. PLS is used for the compression of data input space, and helps to determine the structure of the NN model. The hybrid PLS-NN model can be used to predict hourly electric load on weekdays and weekends. The advantage of this methodology is that the hybrid model can provide faster convergence and more precise prediction results in comparison with abductive networks algorithm. Extensive testing on the electrical load data of the Puget power utility in the USA confirms the validity of the proposed approach.

  11. Multi-Period Optimization Model for Electricity Generation Planning Considering Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ahmadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges for widespread penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs is their impact on the electricity grid. The energy sector must anticipate and prepare for this extra demand and implement long-term planning for electricity production. In this paper, the additional electricity demand on the Ontario electricity grid from charging PHEVs is incorporated into an electricity production planning model. A case study pertaining to Ontario energy planning is considered to optimize the value of the cost of the electricity over sixteen years (2014–2030. The objective function consists of the fuel costs, fixed and variable operating and maintenance costs, capital costs for new power plants, and the retrofit costs of existing power plants. Five different case studies are performed with different PHEVs penetration rates, types of new power plants, and CO2 emission constraints. Among all the cases studied, the one requiring the most new capacity, (~8748 MW, is assuming the base case with 6% reduction in CO2 in year 2018 and high PHEV penetration. The next highest one is the base case, plus considering doubled NG prices, PHEV medium penetration rate and no CO2 emissions reduction target with an increase of 34.78% in the total installed capacity in 2030. Furthermore, optimization results indicate that by not utilizing coal power stations the CO2 emissions are the lowest: ~500 tonnes compared to ~900 tonnes when coal is permitted.

  12. Enhanced Structural, Thermal, and Electrical Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Hybridized with Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusliza Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the structural, thermal, and electrical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT hybridized with silver nanoparticles (AgNP obtained via chemical reduction of aqueous silver salt assisted with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS as stabilizing agent. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM reveals microstructural analysis of the MWNT-Ag hybrids. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra prove the interactions between the AgNP and carboxyl groups of the MWNT. Raman spectra reveal that the D- to G-band intensity ratios ID/IG and ID′/IG increase upon the deposition of AgNP onto the surface of the MWNT. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA shows that the MWNT-Ag hybrids decompose at a much faster rate and the weight loss decreased considerably due to the presence of AgNP. Nonlinearity of current-voltage (I-V curves indicates that electrical transport of pristine MWNT is enhanced when AgNP is induced as charge carriers in the MWNT-Ag hybrids. The threshold voltage Vth value for the MWNT doped with a maximum of 70 vol% of AgNP was substantially reduced by 65% relative to the pristine MWNT. The MWNT-Ag hybrids have a favourable electrical characteristic with a low threshold voltage that shows enhancement mode for field-effect transistor (FET applications.

  13. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaqing Wu; Rui Song; Youan Wang; Feng Chen; Shubin Li

    2015-01-01

    The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT) and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the ...

  14. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  15. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  16. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  17. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constru

  18. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  19. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  20. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constru

  1. The Swedish electric and hybrid vehicle R, D and D program. Seminar no. 2, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This publication presents a selection of the ongoing and finalised projects in form of abstracts, within the KFB RDD-program Electric- and Hybride Vehicles. These projects were presented at the second project manager seminar 14-15 June 1999. The first project manager seminar was held 20-21 October 1998

  2. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Saakes, M.; Kluiters, C.E.; Schmal, D.; Have, P. ten

    1998-01-01

    A 80V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run succesfully. Model calculations showed that the constructed 80V module,

  3. Research Experience with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Kelly, K.; Thornton, M.; Nortman, P.

    2007-12-01

    This technical document reports on the exploratory research conducted by NREL on PHEV technology using a Toyota Prius that has been converted to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The data includes both controlled dynamometer and on-road test results, particularly for hilly driving. The results highlight the petroleum savings and benefits of PHEV technology.

  4. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  5. Lyapunov based control of hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Lyapunov based control principle in a hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle. The storage system consists on fuel cell (FC) as a main power source and a supercapacitor (SC) as an auxiliary power source. The power stage of energy conversion consists on a boost...

  6. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  7. Model-based eco-driving and integrated powertrain control for (hybrid) electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, T.; Spronkmans, S.; Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is engaged in research, development and testing of a range of technologies relating to hybrid and electric vehicle energy management and performance. The impact of driver behaviour on vehicle energy consumption is a significant facto

  8. OPTIMIZATION BALANCING DEVICES LI-ION BATTERIES FOR HYBRID AND ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Sharkovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and proves the feasibility of using the proposed system balancing Li-ion battery consisting of a plurality of series-connected cells, applied to hybrid and electric transportation. The main objective of the system is to increase the performance and operating time of Li-ion batteries.

  9. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  10. BUS 438 Concepts of Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    BUS 438 Concepts of Emerging Markets Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-438-concepts-of-emerging-markets/   BUS438 BUS/438  MODULE 3 ASSIGNMENT 3 Concepts of Emerging Markets [ARGOSY

  11. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  12. Structure improvement and electrochemical studies of bipolar nickel metal hydride batteries for hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Chao; SHI Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride battery in bipolar design offers some advantages for its application as a power storage system for electric and hybrid vehicles. This paper deals with the structure design and electrochemical studies of bipolar Ni/MH batteries for hybrid vehicles. An improvement is applied in bipolar battery design,and such bipolar Ni/MH batteries with 5 sub-cells have been assembled and investigated. Testing results show that bipolar batteries with improved structure have better compression tolerance and cycle performance than conventional ones. In addition, the improved bipolar batteries display excellent large current discharge ability and high power density. As simulating working conditions for hybrid vehicles, the batteries show good stability during pulse cycles, which verifies the possibility of being used as a power storage device on hybrid vehicles.

  13. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the

  14. Development of a Electrically Inspired Low Emission Microcontroller Based Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habib Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, influx of research afford is being concentrated in automobile engineering to develop low emission hybrid electric vehicle to reduce the greenhouse gases such as hydro-carbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, produces from the vehicle. Approach: Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs powered by electric machines and an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE are a promising mean of reducing emissions and fuel consumption without compromising vehicle functionality and driving performances. Reduction of emission is a significant issue to save the environment from pollution that cause of many diseases in urban areas is almost entirely due to transport using fossil fuel. Although zero emission transport has not been developed and used practically yet. Results: This study introduce a control mechanism for alternative hybrid electric vehicle combination of electric motor and gasoline engine that reduce the use of fossil fuel without compromising the overall car performance. Conclusion: In this study, a microcontroller based control mechanism of HEV is introduced which consists of battery, voltage indicator, DC motor controller and battery charger."

  15. Hybrid-Electric Aircraft TOGW Development Tool with Empirically-Based Airframe and Physics-Based Hybrid Propulsion System Component Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development. This Phase I SBIR proposal creates a...

  16. MODELLING AND TORQUE TRACKING CONTROL OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabirin Rahmat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed derivation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor, which may be used as the electric power train for the simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle. A torque tracking control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed by using an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative controller. Several tests such as step function, saw tooth function, sine wave function and square wave function were used in order to examine the performance of the proposed control structure. The effectiveness of the proposed controller was verified and compared with the same system under a PID controller and the desired control. The result of the observations shows that the proposed control structure proves to be effective in tracking the desired torque with a good response. The findings of this study will be considered in the design, optimisation and experimentation of series hybrid electric vehicle.

  17. An Investigation into Regenerative Braking Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dong; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Jian-wu

    2005-01-01

    Energy regeneration during braking is an important technique for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to improve their fuel economy and extend their driving range. Due to the effect of regenerative braking torque which is added by electric motor, the braking torque distribution between front and rear axles should be changed and the control logic of anti-lock braking system (ABS) ought to be adjusted according to the regenerative braking torque. This paper put forward a braking control strategy for hybrid electric vehicle; the control strategy is implemented with eight DOFs (Degree-of-Freedom) nonlinear vehicle forward simulation model which is built under the environment of Matlab/Simulink. Based on target wheel slip ratio, a fuzzy logic approach was applied to maintain the optimal target slip ratio so that best compromise between hydraulic torque and regenerative torque can be obtained for the vehicle.

  18. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anees A. Ansari; M. A. M. Khan; M. Naziruddin Khan; Salman A. Alrokayan; M. Alhoshan; M. S. Alsalhi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI)/cerium oxide (CeO2) hybrid nano-composite film onto indium-fin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. UV-visible spectroscopy and I-V characteristic were performed to study the optical and electrical parameters of the electrochemically deposited film. The film exhibited a strong absorption below 400 nm (3.10 eV) with a well defined absorbance peak at around 285 nm (4.35 eV). The estimated band gap of the CeO2 sample was 3.44 eV, higher than bulk CeO2 powder (Eg = 3.19 eV) due to the quantum confinement effect. Optical and electrochemical characteristics indicated that the electrical properties of PANI/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film are dominated by PANI doping.

  19. Plasma simulation in a hybrid ion electric propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugroot, Manish; Christou, Alex

    2015-04-01

    An exciting possibility for the next generation of satellite technology is the microsatellite. These satellites, ranging from 10-500 kg, can offer advantages in cost, reduced risk, and increased functionality for a variety of missions. For station keeping and control of these satellites, a suitable compact and high efficiency thruster is required. Electrostatic propulsion provides a promising solution for microsatellite thrust due to their high specific impulse. The rare gas propellant is ionized into plasma and generates a beam of high speed ions by electrostatic processes. A concept explored in this work is a hybrid combination of dc ion engines and hall thrusters to overcome space-charge and lifetime limitations of current ion thruster technologies. A multiphysics space and time-dependent formulation was used to investigate and understand the underlying physical phenomena. Several regions and time scales of the plasma have been observed and will be discussed.

  20. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle over Different Driving Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Aishwarya; Bansal, Hari Om

    2017-02-01

    Article aims to find the nature and response of a hybrid vehicle on various standard driving cycles. Road profile parameters play an important role in determining the fuel efficiency. Typical parameters of road profile can be reduced to a useful smaller set using principal component analysis and independent component analysis. Resultant data set obtained after size reduction may result in more appropriate and important parameter cluster. With reduced parameter set fuel economies over various driving cycles, are ranked using TOPSIS and VIKOR multi-criteria decision making methods. The ranking trend is then compared with the fuel economies achieved after driving the vehicle over respective roads. Control strategy responsible for power split is optimized using genetic algorithm. 1RC battery model and modified SOC estimation method are considered for the simulation and improved results compared with the default are obtained.

  1. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  2. A control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles based on extremum seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçmen, Erkin; Aksun Güvenç, Bilin

    2012-02-01

    An energy management control strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle based on the extremum-seeking method for splitting torque between the internal combustion engine and electric motor is proposed in this paper. The control strategy has two levels of operation: the upper and lower levels. The upper level decision-making controller chooses the vehicle operation mode such as the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, use of only the electric motor, use of only the internal combustion engine, or regenerative braking. In the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, the optimum energy distribution between these two sources of energy is determined via the extremum-seeking algorithm that searches for maximum drivetrain efficiency. A dynamic programming solution is also obtained and used to form a benchmark for performance evaluation of the proposed method based on extremum seeking. Detailed simulations using a realistic model are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology.

  3. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  4. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity

  5. Hybrid inversion method for equivalent electric charge of thunder cloud based on multi-station atmospheric electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING; Hongyan; ZHANG; Qiang; JI; Xinyuan; XU; wei

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the hybrid method to inverse the equivalent electric charge of thunder cloud based on the data of multi-station atmospheric electric field. Firstly,the method combines the genetic algorithm( GA) and New ton method through the mosaic hybrid structure. In addition,the thunder cloud equivalent charge is inversed based on the forw ard modeling results by giving the parameters of the thunder cloud charge structure. Then an ideal model is built to examine the performance compared to the nonlinear least squares method. Finally,a typical thunderstorms process in Nanjing is analyzed by Genetic-New ton algorithm with the help of weather radar. The results show the proposed method has the strong global searching capability so that the problem of initial value selection can be solved effectively,as well as gets the better inversion results. Furthermore,the mosaic hybrid structure can absorb the advantages of tw o algorithms better,and the inversion position is consistent with the strongest radar echo.The inversion results find the upper negative charge is small and can be ignored,w hich means the triple-polarity charge structure is relatively scientific,w hich could give some references to the research like lightning forecasting,location tracking.

  6. SCHOOL BUS GARAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PALLIDINO, STEVE; STRIPLING, CHARLES W.

    COUNTY BOARDS, COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS, SCHOOL PERSONNEL, AND ARCHITECTS PLANNING BUS GARAGE FACILITIES WILL FIND THIS PUBLICATION USEFUL. DECISIONS NEED TO BE MADE IN REGARD TO WHO WILL USE THE GARAGE, WHAT PURPOSE IT SHOULD SERVE, AND WHAT KIND OF SPACES ARE NEEDED. SITE SELECTION FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED ARE LOCATION, PARKING SPACE, MANEUVERING…

  7. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  8. Development in Conducting Bus of RE-Al Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德富; 胡捷; 章萍芝; 石瑛; 李彦利

    2001-01-01

    Four kinds of deformed aluminum alloys were tested. One kind of RE-A1-Mg-Si alloy, which possessed high conductivity and strength, was the first priority by contrast test, The large specification bus of conducting aluminum all oys was made by thermomechanical process during the industrial experiment. The properties of the bus are as follows:the tensile strength σb is 238 MPa, the conductivity (v.s. IACS) is 54.3%, and the current-carrying capacity is beyond 3.1kA during working process. This kind of RE-Al alloy bus has been applied to several electrical transmitting and transforming work.

  9. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  10. Brake Performance Simulation and Test Analysis of Hydraulic Hybrid Bus%液压混合动力公交车制动性能仿真与试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲金玉; 李训明; 任传波; 韩尔樑; 刘林

    2014-01-01

    In consideration of city buses operating characteristics and poor fuel economy in urban driving cycles, we present a novel hydraulic hybrid system, and build three models, i.e. brake energy recovery dynamic model, energy regeneration dynamic model and diesel hydraulic start model, and then make brake performance simulation. Finally we test performance of the system by bench and road test. The results show that the hydraulic hybrid bus is capable of braking energy recovery, braking energy recovery rate in typical urban driving cycle is up to 69.7 % and energy regeneration rate is 32.8%, hydraulic engine start time is 1.7 second.%针对城市公交车运行特点和在城市运行工况下燃油经济性差的问题,提出一种新型液压混合动力系统,并建立制动回收过程动力学模型、能量再生过程动力学模型和柴油机液压起动模型等,对其制动性能进行仿真,最后进行了样机台架、实车道路试验。试验结果表明,该液压混合动力公交车可实现汽车制动能量回收等功能,在典型城市循环工况下制动能量回收率为69.7%,制动能量再生率为32.8%,液压起动发动机时间为1.7 s。

  11. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  12. Hybrid Forecasting Approach Based on GRNN Neural Network and SVR Machine for Electricity Demand Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weide Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate electric power demand forecasting plays a key role in electricity markets and power systems. The electric power demand is usually a non-linear problem due to various unknown reasons, which make it difficult to get accurate prediction by traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel hybrid forecasting method for managing and scheduling the electricity power. EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR, the proposed new method, combines ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, seasonal adjustment (S, cross validation (C, general regression neural network (GRNN and support vector regression machine optimized by the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSVR. The main idea of EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR is respectively to forecast waveform and trend component that hidden in demand series to substitute directly forecasting original electric demand. EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR is used to predict the one week ahead half-hour’s electricity demand in two data sets (New South Wales (NSW and Victorian State (VIC in Australia. Experimental results show that the new hybrid model outperforms the other three models in terms of forecasting accuracy and model robustness.

  13. Conductive Fabric-Based Stretchable Hybridized Nanogenerator for Scavenging Biomechanical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2016-04-26

    We demonstrate a stretchable hybridized nanogenerator based on a highly conductive fabric of glass fibers/silver nanowires/polydimethylsiloxane. Including a triboelectric nanogenerator and an electromagnetic generator, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver output voltage/current signals from stretchable movements by both triboelectrification and electromagnetic induction, maximizing the efficiency of energy scavenging from one motion. Compared to the individual energy-harvesting units, the hybridized nanogenerator has a better charging performance, where a 47 μF capacitor can be charged to 2.8 V in only 16 s. The hybridized nanogenerator can be integrated with a bus grip for scavenging wasted biomechanical energy from human body movements to solve the power source issue of some electric devices in the pure electric bus.

  14. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, J. F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  16. Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power System Optimization Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wu, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), compared with conventional vehicles, have complex structures and more component parameters. If variables optimization designs are carried on all these parameters, it will increase the difficulty and the convergence of algorithm program, so this paper chooses the parameters which has a major influence on the vehicle fuel consumption to make it all work at maximum efficiency. First, HEV powertrain components modelling are built. Second, taking a tandem hybrid structure as an example, genetic algorithm is used in this paper to optimize fuel consumption and emissions. Simulation results in ADVISOR verify the feasibility of the proposed genetic optimization algorithm.

  17. New electric drive concepts for hybrid vehicles; Neue elektrische Antriebskonzepte fuer Hybridfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    Hybrid drive concepts are receiving much interest at the moment. During the past few years, several different concepts have been developed to maturity and some were even launched in the market. As the experience of most producers has shown, cost-optimized solutions that will be acceptable to the customer can only be achieved by a systematic approach. Higher attractivity of hybrid drives could be achieved with new electric drive concepts that will result in lower cost, reduced fuel consumption, and additional functionalities. As higher requirements are made on energy efficiency and environment-friendliness, drive solutions must be found which ensure sustainable mobility. (orig.)

  18. Fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell/battery systems for more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcau, Jenica-Ileana; Dinca, Liviu; Grigorie, Teodor Lucian; Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    In this paper is presented the simulation and analysis of a Fuzzy Energy Management for Hybrid Fuel cell/Battery Systems used for More Electric Aircraft. The fuel cell hybrid system contains of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries along with associated dc to dc boost converters. In this configuration the battery has a dc to dc converter, because it is an active in the system. The energy management scheme includes the rule based fuzzy logic strategy. This scheme has a faster response to load change and is more robust to measurement imprecisions. Simulation will be provided using Matlab/Simulink based models. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance.

  19. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV

  20. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  1. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis, appendices B1 - B4. [hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Documentation is presented for a program which separately computes fuel and energy consumption for the two modes of operation of a hybrid electric vehicle. The distribution of daily travel is specified as input data as well as the weights which the component driving cycles are given in each of the composite cycles. The possibility of weight reduction through the substitution of various materials is considered as well as the market potential for hybrid vehicles. Data relating to battery compartment weight distribution and vehicle handling analysis is tabulated.

  2. Development of Novel Bipolar Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超; 史鹏飞; 张森

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of bipolar Ni/MH batteries. After optimizing the parameters of bipolar plates by adjusting electrode thickness and modifying the capacity ratio of two adjacent electrodes of a single cell, some bipolar Ni/MH stacks with a voltage of 6 V were assembled and examined. Electrochemical testing results showed that the bipolar battery has excellent high rate discharge and recharge characteristics, satisfying pulse discharge performance even in a low state of charge (SOC). Moreover, the battery showed good stability during pulse cycles as simulating hybrid electric vehicle working conditions. It would be a promising alternative for power storage system in hybrid electxic vehicles.

  3. 76 FR 37184 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... bicycles to public transportation facilities, to provide shelters and parking facilities for bicycles in or around public transportation facilities, or to install equipment for transporting bicycles on public... or retrofitted hybrid electric propulsion systems and any equipment related to such a system. For...

  4. Computational analysis of electrical conduction in hybrid nanomaterials with embedded non-penetrating conductive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jizhe; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a comprehensive multi-resolution two-dimensional (2D) resistor network model is proposed to analyze the electrical conductivity of hybrid nanomaterials made of insulating matrix with conductive particles such as CNT reinforced nanocomposites and thick film resistors. Unlike existing approaches, our model takes into account the impenetrability of the particles and their random placement within the matrix. Moreover, our model presents a detailed description of intra-particle conductivity via finite element analysis, which to the authors’ best knowledge has not been addressed before. The inter-particle conductivity is assumed to be primarily due to electron tunneling. The model is then used to predict the electrical conductivity of electrospun carbon nanofibers as a function of microstructural parameters such as turbostratic domain alignment and aspect ratio. To simulate the microstructure of single CNF, randomly positioned nucleation sites were seeded and grown as turbostratic particles with anisotropic growth rates. Particle growth was in steps and growth of each particle in each direction was stopped upon contact with other particles. The study points to the significant contribution of both intra-particle and inter-particle conductivity to the overall conductivity of hybrid composites. Influence of particle alignment and anisotropic growth rate ratio on electrical conductivity is also discussed. The results show that partial alignment in contrast to complete alignment can result in maximum electrical conductivity of whole CNF. High degrees of alignment can adversely affect conductivity by lowering the probability of the formation of a conductive path. The results demonstrate approaches to enhance electrical conductivity of hybrid materials through controlling their microstructure which is applicable not only to carbon nanofibers, but also many other types of hybrid composites such as thick film resistors.

  5. Price forecasting of day-ahead electricity markets using a hybrid forecast method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafie-khah, M., E-mail: miadreza@gmail.co [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghaddam, M. Parsa, E-mail: parsa@modares.ac.i [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K., E-mail: aleslam@modares.ac.i [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A hybrid method is proposed to forecast the day-ahead prices in electricity market. {yields} The method combines Wavelet-ARIMA and RBFN network models. {yields} PSO method is applied to obtain optimum RBFN structure for avoiding over fitting. {yields} One of the merits of the proposed method is lower need to the input data. {yields} The proposed method has more accurate behavior in compare with previous methods. -- Abstract: Energy price forecasting in a competitive electricity market is crucial for the market participants in planning their operations and managing their risk, and it is also the key information in the economic optimization of the electric power industry. However, price series usually have a complex behavior due to their nonlinearity, nonstationarity, and time variancy. In this paper, a novel hybrid method to forecast day-ahead electricity price is proposed. This hybrid method is based on wavelet transform, Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFN). The wavelet transform provides a set of better-behaved constitutive series than price series for prediction. ARIMA model is used to generate a linear forecast, and then RBFN is developed as a tool for nonlinear pattern recognition to correct the estimation error in wavelet-ARIMA forecast. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to optimize the network structure which makes the RBFN be adapted to the specified training set, reducing computation complexity and avoiding overfitting. The proposed method is examined on the electricity market of mainland Spain and the results are compared with some of the most recent price forecast methods. The results show that the proposed hybrid method could provide a considerable improvement for the forecasting accuracy.

  6. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  7. Enhancement of the energy regeneration capability of an electric urban bus using inertia proportional valve%利用惯性比例阀增强电动公交车制动能回收力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国柱; 魏民祥; 李玉芳

    2012-01-01

    With aims of improving braking stability and the capability of capturing braking energy of an electric urban bus with parallel regenerative braking strategy,the influence on the reclaiming efficiency of braking energy under the braking stability demand is analyzed. Following ECE R13 and using the positional relation between generalized braking force distribution line and generalized expected braking forcedistribution curve, the braking intensity of electro-mechanical parallel braking under parallel braking strategy is determined between 0. 1 and 0. 3 with a consideration on engineering practices of an electric urban bus. Braking force distribution ratio of a mechanical braking system system during electro-mechanical parallel braking is adjusted to maximum within the regulation permissible range by inertia proportional valve. ADVISOR2002 is redeveloped to build a simulation model of a rear-wheel-drive electric vehicle. Simulation results with this strategy show a significant improvement of an electric urban bus braking energy reclaiming performance under the typical urban driving cycles conditions.%为提高城市电动客车并联再生制动策略的制动稳定性与制动能回收量,分析了电动客车制动稳定性要求对机电并行再生制动时制动能回收率的影响。根据欧洲经济委员会第13号制动法规(regulation No.13 of the Economic Commission for Europe,简称ECER13)要求,利用广义制动力分配线与广义理想制动力分配曲线的位置关系,结合电动客车在典型城市工况下的运行特征,将机电并行制动的制动强度确定在0.1与0.3之间;在机电并行制动时,利用惯性比例阀将机械制动系制动力分配比调整为ECER13法规许可的最大值。对advisor2002电动汽车仿真软件进行了二次开发,建立了后驱型电动汽车仿真模型。仿真表明新策略使城市电动客车在典型城市工况下的制动能回收量得到了明显提高。

  8. Parallel hybrid algorithm for solution in electrical impedance equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr; Robles-Gonzalez, Marco; Bucio-Ramirez, Ariana; Ramirez-Tachiquin, Marco; Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    This work is dedicated to the analysis of the forward and the inverse problem to obtain a better approximation to the Electrical Impedance Tomography equation. In this case, we employ for the forward problem the numerical method based on the Taylor series in formal power and for the inverse problem the Finite Element Method. For the analysis of the forward problem, we proposed a novel algorithm, which employs a regularization technique for the stability, additionally the parallel computing is used to obtain the solution faster; this modification permits to obtain an efficient solution of the forward problem. Then, the found solution is used in the inverse problem for the approximation employing the Finite Element Method. The algorithms employed in this work are developed in structural programming paradigm in C++, including parallel processing; the time run analysis is performed only in the forward problem because the Finite Element Method due to their high recursive does not accept parallelism. Some examples are performed for this analysis, in which several conductivity functions are employed for two different cases: for the analytical cases: the exponential and sinusoidal functions are used, and for the geometrical cases the circle at center and five disk structure are revised as conductivity functions. The Lebesgue measure is used as metric for error estimation in the forward problem, meanwhile, in the inverse problem PSNR, SSIM, MSE criteria are applied, to determine the convergence of both methods.

  9. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine, D M; Kammen, D M; Farrell, A E [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)], E-mail: dlemoine@berkeley.edu, E-mail: kammen@berkeley.edu, E-mail: aef@berkeley.edu

    2008-01-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream.

  10. Bandwidth based methodology for designing a hybrid energy storage system for a series hybrid electric vehicle with limited all electric mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Masood

    The cost and fuel economy of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) are significantly dependent on the power-train energy storage system (ESS). A series HEV with a minimal all-electric mode (AEM) permits minimizing the size and cost of the ESS. This manuscript, pursuing the minimal size tactic, introduces a bandwidth based methodology for designing an efficient ESS. First, for a mid-size reference vehicle, a parametric study is carried out over various minimal-size ESSs, both hybrid (HESS) and non-hybrid (ESS), for finding the highest fuel economy. The results show that a specific type of high power battery with 4.5 kWh capacity can be selected as the winning candidate to study for further minimization. In a second study, following the twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance, a sports car class Series-HEV (SHEV) was considered as a potential application which requires even more ESS minimization. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size compared to 4.5 kWh, because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the allowed battery size in the mid-size study by volume. Therefore, an advanced bandwidth-based controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ model to be realized with a light ESS. The result allows a SHEV to be realized with 1.13 kWh ESS capacity. In a third study, the objective is to find optimum SHEV designs with minimal AEM assumption which cover the design space between the fuel economies in the mid-size car study and the sports car study. Maximizing FE while minimizing ESS cost is more aligned with customer acceptance in the current state of market. The techniques applied to manage the power flow between energy sources of the power-train significantly affect the results of this optimization. A Pareto Frontier, including ESS cost and FE, for a SHEV with limited AEM, is introduced using an advanced bandwidth-based control strategy teamed up with duty ratio control. This controller

  11. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  12. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  13. Analysis of PV-FC Hybrid System Operation Considering Sale Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirali Shahkoomahalli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid power generation system modeling and simulation with the objective of electricity sale to distribution network (DN which consists of photovoltaic (PV module, proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell (FC, hydrogen storage tank (HST and electrolyzer (EL.Since last researches in optimal FC and PV application aimed in power electronic approach, In this paper the application between FC and PV is considered with the aim of maximizing profit gained due to electricity sale revenue to DN. The revenue from electricity sale to DN considering electricity price in low load, shoulder load and peak load hours is considered as the system profit. Also in a sensitivity analysis the impact of technical parameters of hybrid system components is investigated on system profit. The results showed that the system saves the electricity by hydrogen storage in HST in low load hours and sale it with more prices in shoulder load hours to DN. Also the obtained results show that several technical parameters of PV and PEM FC have considerable impact on system operation and profit.

  14. Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program: Thinking of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State University, with support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and two electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

  15. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seong Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2 for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experiments under various operating conditions of inlet air temperature, air flow rates for the gas cooler side and evaporator side, and electric compressor revolution respectively. As a result, cooling performances of the tested air-conditioning system for the EDC driving mode (electricity driven compressor were better than those for the BDC driving mode (belt driven compressor. The cooling capacity and cooling COP of the tested air-conditioning system for both driving modes were over 5.0 kW and 2.0, respectively. The observed cooling performance of the tested air-conditioning system may be sufficient for the cabin cooling of hybrid electric vehicles.

  16. Characterization of hybrid lighting systems of the Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, D.; Exposito, C.; Osma, G.; Amado, L.; Ordóñez, G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of hybrid lighting systems of Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander, which is a pilot of green building for warm- tropical conditions. Analysis of lighting performance of inner spaces is based on lighting curves obtained from characterization of daylighting systems of these spaces. A computation tool was made in Excel-Visual Basic to simulate the behaviour of artificial lighting system considering artificial control system, user behaviour and solar condition. Also, this tool allows to estimate the electrical energy consumption of the lighting system for a day, a month and a year.

  17. Simulation and experimental results of hybrid electric machine with a novel flux control strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paplicki Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected simulation and experimental results of a hybrid ECPMS-machine (Electric Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine. This permanent magnets (PMs excited machine offers an extended magnetic field control capability which makes it suitable for battery electric vehicle (BEV drives. Rotor, stator and the additional direct current control coil of the machine are analyzed in detail. The control system and strategy, the diagram of power supply system and an equivalent circuit model of the ECPMS-machine are presented. Influence of the additional excitation on the performance parameters of the machine, such as: torque, efficiency, speed limits and back-EMF have also been discussed.

  18. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid system in Tehran is 0.62 US$/kWh, which is 78% less expensive than a wind turbine system and 34% less expensive than a photovoltaic system.

  19. Dynamic Modeling and Control Strategy Optimization for a Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid electric tracked bulldozer composed of an engine generator, two driving motors, and an ultracapacitor is put forward, which can provide high efficiencies and less fuel consumption comparing with traditional ones. This paper first presents the terramechanics of this hybrid electric tracked bulldozer. The driving dynamics for this tracked bulldozer is then analyzed. After that, based on analyzing the working characteristics of the engine, generator, and driving motors, the power train system model and control strategy optimization is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and OPTIMUS software. Simulation is performed under a representative working condition, and the results demonstrate that fuel economy of the HETV can be significantly improved.

  20. The Study of Microwave and Electric Hybrid Sintering Process of AZO Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yun Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated the microwave sintering of ZnO by 3D modelling. A large-size Al-doped ZnO (AZO green ceramic compact was prepared by slurry casting. Through studying the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of the green compact, a relative density of up to 98.1% could be obtained by starting microwave heating at 1200°C and increasing the power 20 min later to 4 kW for an AZO ceramic target measuring 120 × 240 × 12 mm. The resistivity of AZO targets sintered with microwave assistance was investigated. The energy consumption of sintering could be greatly reduced by this heating method. Until now, few studies have been reported on the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of large-size AZO ceramic targets. This research can aid in developing sintering technology for large-size high-quality oxide ceramic targets.

  1. Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: 15 years of development at the Ohio State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzoni Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to document 15 years of hybrid electric vehicle energy management research at The Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research (OSUCAR. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV technology encompasses many diverse aspects. In this paper we focus exclusively on the evolution of supervisory control strategies for on-board energy management in HEV. We present a series of control algorithms that have been developed in simulation and implemented in prototype vehicles for charge-sustaining HEVs at OSU-CAR. These solutions span from fuzzy-logic control algorithms to more sophisticated model-based optimal control methods. Finally, methods developed for plug-in HEVs energy management are also discussed

  2. Direct Electrical Detection of DNA Hybridization Based on Electrolyte-Gated Graphene Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yasuhide; Okamoto, Shogo; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-01

    DNA hybridization was electrically detected by graphene field-effect transistors. Probe DNA was modified on the graphene channel by a pyrene-based linker material. The transfer characteristic was shifted by the negative charges on the probe DNA, and the drain current was changed by the full-complementary DNA while no current change was observed after adding noncomplementary DNA, indicating that the graphene field-effect transistor detected the DNA hybridization. In addition, the number of DNAs was estimated by the simple plate capacitor model. As a result, one probe DNA was attached on the graphene channel per 10×10 nm2, indicating their high density functionalization. We estimated that 30% of probe DNA on the graphene channel was hybridized with 200 nM full-complementary DNA while only 5% of probe DNA was bound to the noncomplementary DNA. These results will help to pave the way for future biosensing applications based on graphene FETs.

  3. Lithium-ion Battery Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Prognostic activity deals with prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL of physical systems based on their actual health state and their usage conditions. RUL estimation gives operators a potent tool in decision making by quantifying how much time is left until functionality is lost. In addition, it can be used to improve the characterization of the material proprieties that govern damage propagation for the structure being monitored. RUL can be estimated by using three main approaches, namely model-based, data-driven and hybrid approaches. The prognostics methods used later in this paper are hybrid and data-driven approaches, which employ the Particle Filter in the first one and the autoregressive integrated moving average in the second. The performance of the suggested approaches is evaluated in a comparative study on data collected from lithium-ion battery of hybrid electric vehicle.

  4. Intermittent use of a low-cost alkaline fuel cell-hybrid system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Voss, Susanne; Hacker, Victor; Aronson, Robert R.; Fabjan, Christoph; Hejze, Thomas; Daniel-Ivad, Josef

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) hybrids with the capability to shut down completely between uses (by draining the circulating KOH electrolyte) can expect an operating life of about 4000 h, which is equivalent to 200,000 km of driving, They should be able to compete on cost with heat engines (US50 to US100 per kW). An early model is the hydrogen/air fuel cell lead-acid hybrid car, built by K. Kordesch in the 1970s. Improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz, make success probable. In cooperation with Electric Auto (EAC), an ammonia cracker is also in development. A RAM™ battery-AFC hybrid combination has been optimized.

  5. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric machine are coordinatively controlled to achieve AMT shifting control for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV without clutch is proposed. In the shifting process, the engine and electric machine are well controlled, and the shift jerk and power interruption and restoration time are reduced. Simulation and real car test results show that the proposed control strategy can more efficiently improve the shift quality for PHEVs equipped with AMTs.

  6. Control Demonstration of Multiple Doubly-Fed Induction Motors for Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Bodson, Marc; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Hunker, Keith R.; Theman, Casey J.; Taylor, Linda M.

    2017-01-01

    The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application.The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application. DFIMs are attractive for several reasons, including but not limited to the ability to self-start, ability to operate sub- and super-synchronously, and requiring only fractionally rated power converters on a per-unit basis depending on the required range of operation. The focus of this paper is based specifically on the presentation and analysis of a novel strategy which allows for independent operation of each of the aforementioned doubly-fed induction motors. This strategy includes synchronization, soft-start, and closed loop speed control of each motor as a means of controlling output thrust; be it concurrently or differentially. The demonstration of this strategy has recently been proven out on a low power test bed using fractional horsepower machines. Simulation and hardware test results are presented in the paper.

  7. A review of composite material applications in the automotive industry for the electric and hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A review is made of the state-of-the-art in regard to the use of composite materials for reducing the structural mass of automobiles. Reduction of mass provides, in addition to other engineering improvements, increased performance/range advantages that are particularly needed in the electric and hybrid vehicle field. Problems encountered include the attainment of mass production techniques and the prevention of environmental hazards.

  8. Thermal, Mechanical, and Electrical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Graphene Oxide/ Polyurethane Hybrid Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Pashupati; Lee, Sang Hyub; Lee, Dai Soo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of polyurethane (PU) were prepared by in-situ polymerization of 4,4'- diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) with mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) dispersed in a poly(tetramethylene ether glycol) (PTMEG). Effects of the fillers, GO and GNP, on the thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of the nanocomposites of PU were investigated. Sonication of the hybrid of GNP and GO with PTMEG enabled effective dispersion of the fillers in the solution than the sonication of GNP alone. The addition of PTMEG in the solution prevented the GNPs from the restacking during the drying process. It was observed that the electrical conductivity and mechanical property of the nanocomposites based on the hybrid of GO and GNP were superior to the nanocomposite based on GNP alone at the same loading of the filler. At the loading of the 3 wt% hybrid filler in PU, we observed the improvement of Young's modulus -200% and the surface resistivity of 10(9.5) ohm/sq without sacrificing the elongation at break.

  9. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

    2012-02-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  10. Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Günter

    In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

  11. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  12. Intelligent Energy Management Strategy for a Separated-Axle Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fallahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV in addition to provide the benefits of electric vehicles could satisfy consumers for some performances of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles such as acceleration and long range. On this way, suitable energy optimization strategies should be employed to get desired efficiency, less fuel consumption and pollution. One of the favorite and simple configurations of HEVs is parallel type. A student team at University of Kashan, IRAN have designed and manufactured Shaheb 2 hybrid electric vehicle. It is a separated-axle (or Through-to-Road (TTR parallel HEV type based on Pride platform. Employed energy management in Shaheb 2 is on/off strategy and three modes; motor, engine and hybrid have been implemented. This paper investigates the modeling of separated-axle (or TTR parallel type of HEV in ADVISOR software and then evaluates two control strategies for Shaheb 2; on/off strategy and an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic. On this way, maximizing the engine is considered as objective function. The simulation results indicate that the fuzzy strategy leads to less fuel consumption and lower pollution for given UDDS driving cycle rather than on/off strategy for Shaheb 2.

  13. Development and Simulation of a Type of Four-Shaft ECVT for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In hybrid electric vehicles with power-split configurations, the engine can be decoupled from the wheel and operated with improved fuel economy, while the entire efficiency of the powertrain is affected by the circular electric power flow. Two planetary gear (2-PG sets with adding brakes/clutches, namely a type of four shaft elelctric continuously variable transmission (ECVT can provide multi-mode operation for the powertrain and extend the efficient area. First, a conventional 2-PG AT (Automatic Transmission architecture is investigated. By analyzing and comparing the connection and operating modes based on the kinematic relationship and lever analogy, a feasible four-shaft ECVT architecture with two brakes and two simplified versions are picked. To make a trade-off between fuel economy and configuration complexity, an instantaneous optimal control strategy based on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS concept is then developed and employed as the unified optimization method in the simulations of three different configurations. Finally, the simulation results show that the simplified versions are suboptimal sets and the fuel economy is sacrificed by the limits of different modes. From the viewpoint of concept design, a multi-mode power-split configuration is more suitable for hybrid electric vehicles. This research applied a systematic methodology from concept design to energy management optimization, which can provide the guidelines for researchers to select a suitable multi-mode power-split hybrid powertrain.

  14. Nonvolatile, reversible electric-field controlled switching of remanent magnetization in multifunctional ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlmaier, A.; Geprägs, S.; Woltersdorf, G.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

    2011-08-01

    In spin-mechanics, the magnetoelastic coupling in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid devices is exploited in order to realize an electric-voltage control of magnetization orientation. To this end, different voltage-induced elastic strain states are used to generate different magnetization orientations. In our approach, we take advantage of the hysteretic expansion and contraction of a commercial piezoelectric actuator as a function of electrical voltage to deterministically select one of two electro-remanent elastic strain states. We investigate the resulting magnetic response in a nickel thin film/piezoelectric actuator hybrid device at room temperature, using simultaneous magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetotransport measurements. The magnetic properties of the hybrid can be consistently described in a macrospin model, i.e., in terms of a single magnetic domain. At zero external magnetic field, the magnetization orientation in the two electro-remanent strain states differs by 15°, which corresponds to a magnetoresistance change of 0.5%. These results demonstrate that the spin-mechanics scheme indeed enables a nonvolatile electrically read- and writable memory bit where the information is encoded in a magnetic property.

  15. 纯电动客车用BLDCM双闭环控制系统建模与仿真%Model and Simulation of BLDCM Double Closed-loop Control System for Pure Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昌利; 马建

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide reference for the development of electric vehicles, a velocity-current double closed-loop control system was devised for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) in a pure electric bus reassembled from a given city transit bus. A dynamic simulation model for this control system was established on MATLAB, and three simulation experiments, i. e. , no-/on- load switch on BLDCM, gear shift of vehicle, as well as vehicle running under a given city driving cycle, were conducted. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional motor- focused control systems, this system takes vehicle velocity as control object, and integrates vehicle control and motor control into a more coherent pattern. By installing speed detecting devices on wheels other than on the motor, this system also introduces a possible way to reduce both the design difficulty and the manufacture cost for BLDCM. Besides having equal controlling effect on BLDCM's rotating speed to traditional control systems, this system also has excellent performance in vehicle speed stabilization during gear shift period, and has fast respond to frequently changing vehicle speed, therefore meets the demands of city road driving for pure electric bus.%为了给电动汽车的研发提供参考,针对某型城市公交中巴客车改装的纯电动汽车,设计了无刷直流电机(BLDCM)的车速-电流双闭环控制系统,在MATLAB环境下搭建了该系统的动态仿真模型,并从空载(负载)运行、换挡运行、循环工况运行3个方面进行了仿真试验。研究结果表明:相比于传统的仅针对电机的驱动控制系统,该系统直接以车速为控制对象,可以将整车控制与电机控制有机结合起来;测速装置从电机转移到车轮上,利于降低BLDCM的设计复杂度和制造成本;该系统的电机调速控制效果与传统的电机驱动控制系统相当,并可有效控制汽车换挡带来的车速突变、迅速响应频繁变化的

  16. Integrated optics bus access module for intramachine communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Tammela, Simo K. T.; Hannula, Tapio

    1991-12-01

    The feasibility of a passive bidirectional fiber optic bus and the packaging considerations of a bus access module have been studied. The bus uses 110/125 micrometers HCS fiber and passive integrated optic couplers for bus access. The access couplers are asymmetric and were fabricated using a Ag-Na ion exchange process. The asymmetry of the coupler was 5 dB, the launch loss to the bus was 6 dB and the tap-off loss to the node was 11 dB. With the integrated optics coupler it is possible to connect 6 nodes to the bidirectional bus. It is also possible to realize a simple, easy-to-use, and reliable bus access module for intramachine communication. The integrated optics coupler, a LED chip, and a PIN-diode chip and transceiver electronics are packaged in an electrical connector with a two-fiber optical cable pigtail. Active and passive components are butt coupled to the coupler. The 0.5 dB alignment tolerances for the fiber pigtails, the LED, and the PIN-diode chips are +/- 5 micrometers .

  17. Design Optimization and Performance of a Novel 6-Slot 5-Pole PMFSM with Hybrid Excitation for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Erwan; Kosaka, Takashi; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    With growing concerns over our environment, more and more people in automakers, governments and customers think that the electric drive becomes more attractive research. Since electric motors play an important role in both EVs and HEVs, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop advanced electric machines. As one of the candidates, permanent magnet flux switching machine (PMFSM) with additional coil excitation has several attractive features compared to interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) conventionally employed in HEV. The variable flux control capability and robust rotor structure make this machine becoming more attractive to apply for high speed motor drive system coupled with reduction gear. This paper presents an investigation into design possibility of 6-slot 5-pole PMFSM with hybrid excitation for traction drives in HEVs. An improved design is examined to gain a better performance in its maximum torque and power production. The final designed machine enables to keep much power density compared to existing IPMSM installed on the commercial SUV-HEV.

  18. Design of Solar/Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV) System with Charge Pattern Optimization for Energy Cost

    OpenAIRE

    T Balamurugan; Dr.S.Manoharan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a Solar Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV) system which solves the major problems of fuel and pollution. An electric vehicle usually uses a battery which has been charged by external electrical power supply. All recent electric vehicles present a drive on AC power supplied motor. An inverter set is required to be connected with the battery through which AC power is converted to DC power. During this conversion many losses take place and also the maintenance cost of th...

  19. The Hybrid RFNN Control for a PMSM Drive Electric Scooter Using Rotor Flux Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hong Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid recurrent fuzzy neural network (HRFNN control for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive system using rotor flux estimator is developed to control electric scooter in this paper. First, the dynamic models of a PMSM drive system were derived in according to electric scooter. Owing to the load of electric scooter exited many uncertainties, for example, nonlinear friction force of the transmission belt, and so forth. The electric scooter with nonlinear uncertainties made the PI controller to disable speed tracking control. Moreover, in order to reduce interference of encoder and cost down, an HRFNN control system using rotor flux estimator was developed to control PMSM drive system in order to drive electric scooter. The rotor flux estimator consists of the estimation algorithm of rotor flux position and speed based on the back electromagnetic force (EMF in order to supply with HRFNN controller. The HRFNN controller consists of the supervisor control, RFNN, and compensated control with adaptive law is applied to PMSM drive system. The parameters of RFNN are trained according to different speeds in electric scooter. The electric scooter is operated to provide disturbance torque. To show the effectiveness of the proposed controller, comparative studies with PI controller are demonstrated by experimental results.

  20. Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors in Hybrid Topologies —Assessment and Evaluation of Their Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri Van Mierlo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PHEVs and BEVs make use of battery cells optimized for high energy rather than for high power. This means that the power abilities of these batteries are limited. In order to enhance their performance, a hybrid Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS architecture can be used combining batteries with electrical-double layer capacitors (EDLCs. Such a hybridized architecture can be accomplished using passive or active systems. In this paper, the characteristics of these topologies have been analyzed and compared based on a newly developed hybridization simulation tool for association of lithium-ion batteries and EDLCs. The analysis shows that the beneficial impact of the EDLCs brings about enhanced battery performances in terms of energy efficiency and voltage drops, rather than extension of vehicle range. These issues have been particularly studied for the passive and active hybrid topologies. The classical passive and active topologies being expensive and less beneficial in term of cost, volume and weight, a new hybrid configuration based on the parallel combination of lithium-ion and EDLCs on cell level has been proposed in this article. This topology allows reducing cost, volume, and weight and system complexity in a significant way. Furthermore, a number of experimental setups have illustrated the power of the novel topology in terms of battery capacity increase and power capabilities during charging and discharging. Finally, a unique cycle life test campaign demonstrated that the lifetime of highly optimized lithium-ion batteries can be extended up to 30%–40%.

  1. Hybrid Systems of Distributed Generation with Renewable Sources: Modeling and Analysis of Their Operational Modes in Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gashimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to modeling and simulation of operational hybrid system modes of the distributed generation comprising conventional sources – modular diesel generators, gas-turbine power units; and renewable sources – wind and solar power plants. Operational modes of the hybrid system have been investigated under conditions of electrical connection with electric power system and in case of its isolated operation. As a consequence

  2. Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System Jarrett Goodell and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System 5a...for ~ 22 ton tracked vehicle • Tested and Developed: – Motors, Generators, Batteries, Inverters, DC-DC Converters , Thermal Management, Pulse Power

  3. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ...As required by the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 this rule proposes to establish a Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) setting minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. This new standard would require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs), medium and heavy duty, trucks, and buses, low speed vehicles (LSVs), and motorcycles to produce sounds meeting the requirements of this standard. This proposed standard applies to electric vehicles (EVs) and to those hybrid vehicles (HVs) that are capable of propulsion in any forward or reverse gear without the vehicle's internal combustion engine (ICE) operating. This standard would ensure that blind, visually-impaired, and other pedestrians are able to detect and recognize nearby hybrid and electric vehicles, as required by the PSEA, by requiring that hybrid and electric vehicles emit sound that pedestrians would be able to hear in a range of ambient environments and contain acoustic signal content that pedestrians will recognize as being emitted from a vehicle. The benefit of reducing the pedestrian injury rate per registered vehicle of HVs to ICE vehicles when 4.1% of the fleet is HV and EV would be 2790 fewer pedestrian and pedalcyclist injuries. We also estimate that this proposal will result in 10 fewer pedestrian and pedalcyclist injuries caused by LSVs. Thus, 2800 total injured pedestrians are expected to be avoided due to this proposal representing 35 equivalent lives saved. We do not estimate any quantifiable benefits for EVs because it is our view that EV manufacturers would have installed alert sounds in their cars without passage of the PSEA and this proposed rule. Comparison of costs and benefits expected due to this rule provides a cost of $0.83 to $0.99 million per equivalent life saved across the 3 and 7 percent discount levels for the light EV and HV and LSV fleet. According to our present model, a countermeasure that allows a vehicle

  4. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J

    1992-11-01

    This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

  5. Hybridizing DEMD and Quantum PSO with SVR in Electric Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Peng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric load forecasting is an important issue for a power utility, associated with the management of daily operations such as energy transfer scheduling, unit commitment, and load dispatch. Inspired by strong non-linear learning capability of support vector regression (SVR, this paper presents an SVR model hybridized with the differential empirical mode decomposition (DEMD method and quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm (QPSO for electric load forecasting. The DEMD method is employed to decompose the electric load to several detail parts associated with high frequencies (intrinsic mode function—IMF and an approximate part associated with low frequencies. Hybridized with quantum theory to enhance particle searching performance, the so-called QPSO is used to optimize the parameters of SVR. The electric load data of the New South Wales (Sydney, Australia market and the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO, New York, USA are used for comparing the forecasting performances of different forecasting models. The results illustrate the validity of the idea that the proposed model can simultaneously provide forecasting with good accuracy and interpretability.

  6. 玉柴国Ⅳ客车发动机电气原理%Electrical Principle of YUCHAI N Ⅳ Engine for Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周行卜

    2012-01-01

    阐述广西玉柴机器股份有限公司国Ⅳ发动机电控系统和整车的电气原理,详细介绍各部件的功能、OBD系统,及电控发动机车辆线束的制作要求。重点介绍SCR系统及其与车辆间的电气连接,并给出整车电路连接图。%The author expounded the electrical system of N Ⅳ engine made by Yuchai Machinery Co., Ltd., and the electrical principle of the whole vehicle, introduced in details the function of each part, the OBD system and the manufacture requirements on vehicle wiring harness, emphasizing on the SCR system and its electrical connection with vehicle, then presented the circuit connection diagram of the whole vehicle.

  7. Online Identification of Power Required for Self-Sustainability of the Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles have shown great potential for enhancing fuel economy and reducing emissions. Deriving a power management control policy to distribute the power demanded by the driver optimally to the available subsystems (e.g., the internal combustion engine, motor, generator, and battery) has been a challenging control problem. One of the main aspects of the power management control algorithms is concerned with the self-sustainability of the electrical path, which must be guaranteed for the entire driving cycle. This paper considers the problem of identifying online the power required by the battery to maintain the state of charge within a range of the target value. An algorithm is presented that realizes how much power the engine needs to provide to the battery so that self-sustainability of the electrical path is maintained.

  8. Cyclic Parameter Refinement of 4S-10 Hybrid Flux-Switching Motor for Lightweight Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, J. Abd; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the reduction of lighting the vehicle because the lighter the vehicle the energy consumption is comparatively low. Hence, the lightweight electric vehicle was introduced for lower carbon footprint and the sizing of the vehicle itself. One of the components to reduce the weight of the vehicle is the propulsion system which comprised of electric motor functioning as the source of torque to drive the propulsion system of the machine. This paper presents the refinement methodology for the optimized design of the 4S-10P E-Core hybrid excitation flux switching motor. The purpose of the refinement methodology is to improve the torque production of the optimized motor. The result of the successful improvement of the torque production is justifiable for a lightweight electric vehicle to drive the propulsion system.

  9. Regenerative Braking Control Strategy of Electric-Hydraulic Hybrid (EHH Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel electric-hydraulic hybrid drivetrain incorporating a set of hydraulic systems is proposed for application in a pure electric vehicle. Models of the electric and hydraulic components are constructed. Two control strategies, which are based on two separate rules, are developed; the maximum energy recovery rate strategy adheres to the rule of the maximization of the braking energy recovery rate, while the minimum current impact strategy adheres to the rule of the minimization of the charge current to the battery. The simulation models were established to verify the effects of these two control strategies. An ABS (Anti-lock Braking System fuzzy control strategy is also developed and simulated. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed control strategy can effectively absorb the braking energy, suppress the current impact, and assure braking safety.

  10. Position Error Compensation via a Variable Reluctance Sensor Applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Ömür Bucak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

  11. Position error compensation via a variable reluctance sensor applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Ihsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

  12. Optimization of Electric Power Leveling Systems by a Novel Hybrid Algorithm with Simulated Evolution and Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Jyunpei; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Funabiki, Shigeyuki

    Electric power demand has an increasing tendency year by year. The fluctuation of the electric power causes further increase in the cost of the electric power facility and electricity charges. The development of the electric power-leveling systems (EPLS) using energy storage technology is desired to improve the electric power quality. The EPLS with a SMES is proposed as one of the countermeasures for the electric power quality improvement. However, the SMES is very expensive and it is difficult to decide the gains of the controller. It is essential in the practical use that the reduction of SMES capacity is realized. This paper proposes a new optimization method of the EPLS. The proposed algorithm is hybrid architecture with a combination of SimE (Simulated Evolution) and GA (Genetic Algorithms). The optimization of the EPLS can be achieved by the proposed hybrid algorithm compared to the SimE and the GA.

  13. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  14. Electrically-responsive core-shell hybrid microfibers for controlled drug release and cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuntao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Li; Li, Chenxi; Dai, Beibei; Yang, Jiazhi; Liu, Jian; Sun, Dongping

    2017-06-01

    It is an active research field to develop fiber-shaped smart materials for biomedical applications. Here we report the development of the multifunctional core-shell hybrid microfibers with excellent mechanical and electrical performance as a new smart biomaterial. The microfibers were synthesized using a combination of co-axial spinning with a microfluidic device and subsequent dip-coating, containing a hydrogel core of bacterial cellulose (BC) and a conductive polymer shell layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The hybrid microfibers were featured with a well-controlled microscopic morphology, exhibiting enhanced mechanic properties. A model drug, diclofenac sodium, can be loaded in the core layer of the microfibers in situ during the process of synthesis. Our experiments suggested that the releasing behaviors of the drug molecules from the microfibers were enhanced by external electrical stimulation. Interestingly, we demonstrated an excellent biocompatibility and electroactivity of the hybrid microfibers for PC12 cell culture, thus promising a flexible template for the reconstruction of electrically-responsive tissues mimicking muscle fibers or nerve networks. Fiber-shaped biomaterials are useful in creating various functional objects from one dimensional to three-dimensional. The fabrication of microfibers with integrated physicochemical properties and bio-performance has drawn an increasing attention on researchers from chemical to biomedical. This study combined biocompatible bacterial cellulose with electroconductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and further reduced them to a highly electroactive BC/PEDOT core-shell microfiber electrode for electrochemical actuator design. The result showed that the microfibers were well fabricated and the release of drugs from the microfibers was enhanced and could be controlled under electrical stimulation externally. Considering the excellent biocompatibility and electroactive toward PC12 cells, these

  15. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  16. Equivalence of Optical and Electrical Noise Equivalent Power of Hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, R M J; de Visser, P J; Klapwijk, T M; Baselmans, J J A

    2014-01-01

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical NEP from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  17. Making use of the energy potential of hybrid heat production from excess green electricity; Energetische Potenziale hybrider Waermeerzeugung aus Oekostrom-Ueberangeboten nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkmann, Lukas; Riegebauer, Philipp; Oesterwind, Dieter [Zentrum fuer Innovative Energiesysteme (ZIES), Duesseldorf (Germany); Muench, Wolfram [Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG (EnBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Convert electricity to heat? Integration with the heat market opens up the option of using excess yields of electricity from renewable resources for hybrid provision of room heating, warm water and process steam. Environmental protection associations such as BUND e.V. (Association for Environmental Protection and Nature Conservation) are demanding a ban on conventional electric heating, but at the same time acknowledge the potential of plants that can flexibly switch between generating heat from fossil fuels and from electricity. Time for a paradigm change.

  18. Electrical Resistance Behavior of Vinylester Composites Filled with Glass-carbon Hybrid Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; ZHANG Lianmeng; XU Renxin; DUAN Huajun; YANG Xiaoli; WANG Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Vinylester (bismethacryloxy derivative of a bisphenol-A type EP resin, VE) composites with glass-carbon hybrid fibers (CF-GF) weight fraction of 50%, were prepared by the compress molding method. The distribution of carbon fiber in the hybrids was observed by stereomicroscope. The electrical resistance behavior of the composites filled with different carbon fiber (CF) weight contents (0.5% to 20%) was studied. The experimental results show that the electrical resistance behaviors of CF-GF/VE composites are different with those of CF/VE composites because carbon fibers' conducting networks are broken by the glass fibers in the CF-GF/VE composites. The carbon fibers distribute uniformly in the networks of glass fibers (GF) like single silk and form the semi-continuous conducting networks. Composite filled with GF-CF hybrid has a higher percolation threshold than that filled with pure CF. At that time, the resistivity of CF-GF/VE composites varies little with the temperature increasing. The temperature coefficient of resistivity in GF-CF/VE composite is less than 317 ppm and the variation of the resistivity after ten thermal cycles from 20 ℃to 240 ℃ is less than 1.96%.

  19. Electrochemical synthesis of CdTe/SWNT hybrid nanostructures and their tunable electrical and optoelectrical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chong Hyun; Jung, Hyunsung; Rheem, Youngwoo; Lee, Kyu-Hwan; Lim, Dong-Chan; Jeong, Yongsoo; Lim, Jae-Hong; Myung, Nosang V

    2013-02-21

    A facile electrodeposition technique was utilized to deposit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with cadmium telluride (CdTe) with well-controlled size, density, surface morphology, and composition. By controlling the applied charge, the morphology of these hybrid nanostructures was altered from CdTe nanoparticles on SWNTs to SWNT/CdTe core/shell nanostructures and the composition of the CdTe nanoparticles was altered from Te-rich (29 at% Cd) to Cd-rich (79 at% Cd) CdTe by adjusting the deposition potential. The electrical and optoelectrical properties of these hybrid nanostructures showed that photo-induced current can be tuned by tailoring the conductivity type (n-type or p-type), morphology, and size of the CdTe nanostructures, with a maximum photosensitivity (ΔI/I(0)) of about 30% for SWNT/Cd-rich CdTe (n-type) core/shell nanostructures. This work demonstrates a novel approach for synthesizing metal chalcogenide/SWNT hybrid nanostructures for various electrical and optoelectrical applications.

  20. Research of Application Layer Protocol in Electric Vehicle Based on CAN Bus%应用于电动汽车的CAN网络应用层协议研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁传义; 吴志新; 刘成晔; 黄学勤

    2012-01-01

    介绍了CAN技术规范和OSI参考模型;从通信内容的确定、标识符分配、消息编码方式、消息调度策略、数据格式定义5个方面考虑,制定了一套适用于电动汽车的CAN网络应用层协议.实际应用表明,采用该协议的CAN总线通信系统有很高的可靠性,通信负载率不超过30%,保证了紧急报文的及时发现和处理.%The CAN technical specifications and OS1 reference model were introduced, and an application layer protocol of CAN network was established for electric vehicle considering five aspects including determination of communication contents, identifier assignment, message encoding, message scheduling strategies and data format define. Practical application result showed that CAN bus communication system adopting the protocol has high reliability and the communication load rate is less than 30%, which ensures timely detection and treatment of emergency messages.

  1. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... authorized by 49 U.S.C. 5309(b), as amended by Section 3011 of the Safe, Affordable, Flexible, Efficient... Livability Initiatives (77 FR 6178). The NOFA explained the requirements and procedures for eligible... facilities, bus-related equipment, and transit asset management systems. The FY 2012 Bus...

  2. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume IV. Series systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popinski, Z.

    1979-09-30

    In the Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task three major powertrain configurations (parallel, parallel with flywheel, and series) were studied. An evaluation of the series configuration is presented. The series configuration has the advantage that the engine is mechanically uncoupled from the wheels and can be operated at its best economy point much of the time. The mechanical energy produced by the engine is converted through a generator into electrical energy which is used to drive the motor or charge the batteries. This configuration offers a good degree of flexibility. It has the disadvantage that substantial losses of energy occur since the mechanical energy from the engine passes through several components before being used to drive the wheels. The energy produced by the engine is reduced by the product of efficiencies of components connected in series. Trade-offs involved in the study of the series configuration were directed toward establishing the size of the engine, motor and generator to meet vehicle acceleration performance; determining what level to operate the engine, and determining when to use the battery. These results were then used in the electric range simulation.

  3. A Novel Degradation Estimation Method for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Consisting of Battery and Double-Layer Capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanbin Yu; Dongdong Zhang; Haitao Min; Yi Tang; Tao Zhu(GCAP-CASPER, Physics Department, Baylor University, One Bear Place, # 97316, Waco, TX 76798-7316, U.S.A.)

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for battery degradation estimation using a power-energy (PE) function in a battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS), and the integrated optimization which concerns both parameters matching and control for HESS has been done as well. A semiactive topology of HESS with double-layer capacitor (EDLC) coupled directly with DC-link is adopted for a hybrid electric city bus (HECB). In the purpose of presenting the quantitative relationship between s...

  4. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV

  5. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature r

  6. Test methods for evaluating energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with electric, hybrid and fuel cell power trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Ploumen, S.; Conte, M.; Buning, L.; Meier-Engel, K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the MATADOR-project measurement methods have been developed for the evaluation of the energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with advanced propulsion systems, such as battery-electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles. Based on an inventory of existing and prospective standard

  7. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahalik, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation to help researchers understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for recharging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs.

  8. Test methods for evaluating energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with electric, hybrid and fuel cell power trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Ploumen, S.; Conte, M.; Buning, L.; Meier-Engel, K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the MATADOR-project measurement methods have been developed for the evaluation of the energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with advanced propulsion systems, such as battery-electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles. Based on an inventory of existing and prospective standard

  9. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature

  10. Directly connected series coupled HTPEM fuel cell stacks to a Li-ion battery DC bus for a fuel cell electrical vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Remón, Ian Natanael

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this paper examines the use of pure hydrogen fuelled high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stacks in an electrical car, charging a Li-ion battery pack. The car is equipped with two branches of two series coupled 1 kW fuel cell stacks which...... are connected directly parallel to the battery pack during operation. This enables efficient charging of the batteries for increased driving range. With no power electronics used, the fuel cell stacks follow the battery pack voltage, and charge the batteries passively. This saves the electrical and economical...... losses related to these components and their added system complexity. The new car battery pack consists of 23 Li-ion battery cells and the charging and discharging are monitored by a battery management system (BMS) which ensures safe operating conditions for the batteries. The direct connection...

  11. New secure bilateral transaction determination and study of pattern under contingencies and UPFC in competitive hybrid electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Chanana, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2009-01-15

    In the competitive electricity environment, the flexibility of power transactions is expected to drastically increase among the trading partners and can compromise the system security and reliability. These transactions are to be evaluated ahead of their scheduling in a day-ahead and hour-ahead market to avoid congestion and ensure their feasibility with respect to the system operating conditions. The security of the transactions has become essential in the new environment for better planning and management of competitive electricity markets. This paper proposes a new method of secure bilateral transaction determination using AC distribution factors based on the full Jacobian sensitivity and considering the impact of slack bus for pool and bilateral coordinated markets. The secure bilateral transactions have also been determined considering critical line outage contingencies cases. The bilateral transaction matrix pattern has also been determined in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC). The optimal location of UPFC has been determined using mixed integer non-linear programming approach. The proposed technique has been applied on IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (RTS). (author)

  12. Concentrating PV/T Hybrid System for Simultaneous Electricity and Usable Heat Generation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhou Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power generation is one of the attractive choices for efficient utilization of solar energy. Considering that the efficiency and cost of PV cells cannot be significantly improved in near future, a relatively cheap concentrator to replace part of the expensive solar cells could be used. The photovoltaic thermal hybrid system (PV/T, combining active cooling with thermal electricity and providing both electricity and usable heat, can enhance the total efficiency of the system with reduced cell area. The effect of nonuniform light distribution and the heat dissipation on the performance of concentrating PV/T was discussed. Total utilization of solar light by spectral beam splitting technology was also introduced. In the last part, we proposed an integrated compound parabolic collector (CPC plate with low precision solar tracking, ensuring effective collection of solar light with a significantly lowered cost. With the combination of beam splitting of solar spectrum, use of film solar cell, and active liquid cooling, efficient and full spectrum conversion of solar light to electricity and heat, in a low cost way, might be realized. The paper may offer a general guide to those who are interested in the development of low cost concentrating PV/T hybrid system.

  13. Electromagnetic Analysis and Design of Switched Reluctance Double-Rotor Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouliang Han

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The double-rotor machine is a kind of multiple input and output electromechanical energy transducer with two electrical ports and two mechanical ports, which is an ideal transmission system for hybrid electric vehicles and has a series of advantages such as integration of power and energy, high efficiency and compaction. In this paper, a switched reluctance double-rotor machine (SRDRM is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles, while no conductor or PM in the middle rotor. This machine not only inherits the merits of switched reluctance machine, such as simple salient rotor structure, high reliability and wide speed range, but also can avoid the outer rotor’s cooling problem effectively. By using an equivalent magnetic circuit model, the function of middle rotor yoke is analyzed. Electromagnetic analyses of the SRDRM are performed with analytical calculations and 2-D finite element methods, including the effects of main parameters on performance. Finally, a 4.4 kW prototype machine is designed and manufactured, and the tests are performed, which validate the proposed design method.

  14. Characteristic evaluation of Al2O3/CNTs hybrid materials for micro-electrical discharge machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Seok TAK; Chang-Seung HA; Ho-Jun LEE; Hyung-Woo LEE; Young-Keun JEONG; Myung-Chang KANG

    2011-01-01

    The characteristic evaluation of aluminum oxide (Al2O3)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid composites for micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) was described. Alumina matrix composites reinforced with CNTs were fabricated by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. Al2O3 composites with different CNT concentrations were synthesized. The electrical characteristic of Al2O3/CNTs composites was examined. These composites were machined by the EDM process according to the various EDM parameters, and the characteristics of machining were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The electrical conductivity has a increasing tendency as the CNTs content is increased and has a critical point at 5% Al2O3 (volume fraction). In the machining accuracy, many tangles of CNT in Al2O3/CNTs composites cause violent spark. Thus, it causes the poor dimensional accuracy and circularity. The results show that conductivity of the materials and homogeneous distribution of CNTs in the matrix are important factors for micro-EDM of Al2O3/CNTs hybrid composites.

  15. Hybrid CIS-DFT method to study electric field effects on electronic excited states of ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mei-Zhong; Zhu Zheng-He; Chen Xiao-Jun; Xu Guo-Liang; Zhang Yong-Bin; Mao Hua-Ping; Shen Xiao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the study of the effects of external dipole electric field on the molecular structure of ethylene using a hybrid method which combines the single-excitation configuration interactions (CIS) with density functional theory (DFT), i.e. CIS-DFT(B3LYP). It is found that the effects of electric dipole field on the molecular geometry (D2h, D2d and C2v), dipole moment, transition dipole moment, polarizability and, particularly, excitation energy of ethylene are remarkable. The advantages of the hybrid CIS-DFT method are that it can determine the symmetry of molecule and the correct order of excitation as well as the Molecular Orbital (MO) electron configuration;thereby the electronic excitation states of ethylene are easily derived, and most of them are in agreement with those obtained in experiments or references. It may be the first time the effects of external electric field on ethylene molecule have been considered. Compared with other ab initio methods, the CIS-DFT method is relatively accurate and low cost in computation. We expect that it can be used to study other closed-shell molecules.

  16. Control Strategy Optimization for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using a Memetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huei Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV control strategy is a management approach for generating, using, and saving energy. Therefore, the optimal control strategy is the sticking point to effectively manage hybrid electric vehicles. In order to realize the optimal control strategy, we use a robust evolutionary computation method called a “memetic algorithm (MA” to optimize the control parameters in parallel HEVs. The “local search” mechanism implemented in the MA greatly enhances its search capabilities. In the implementation of the method, the fitness function combines with the ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR and is set up according to an electric assist control strategy (EACS to minimize the fuel consumption (FC and emissions (HC, CO, and NOx of the vehicle engine. At the same time, driving performance requirements are also considered in the method. Four different driving cycles, the new European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal Test Procedure (FTP, Economic Commission for Europe + Extra-Urban driving cycle (ECE + EUDC, and urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS are carried out using the proposed method to find their respectively optimal control parameters. The results show that the proposed method effectively helps to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, as well as guarantee vehicle performance.

  17. The electric motor in the hybrid vehicle. A comparison of three different types of electric motors; Der Elektromotor im Hybridfahrzeug. Vergleich von drei unterschiedlichen Elektromotorentypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschnik, Harald

    2009-07-01

    According to the experts, hybrid technology is the key technology in the automotive industry for the next few decades. Many of the well established automobile manufacturers are focusing their research and development activities on this upcoming technology. The big advantage of hybrid vehicles is the electrified powertrain. Due to intelligent combination of the combustion- and electric engine, the benefits of the two different powertrain configurations can be used. The following research is concerned and closely examines the role of the electric engine in the hybrid vehicle. The scope of the research is focused on the demands of an electric engine, the technical configuration, functionality and economy of three different engine types which are often used in the serial production and prototyping. In order to make a direct comparison of the performance of this different engine types, they were all tested in a go-cart. The go-carts for each engine were constructed in the same way. The interpretation of the measurement results showed that the synchronous engine with permanent magnets had the best performance when considering the level of electrical efficiency, closely followed by the switched reluctance motor. The efficiency of the electrical motor makes a high contribution to the total efficiency of the vehicle. The measurement result confirms the selection of a synchronous motor is, under consideration of the electrical efficiency, the most advantageous solution for hybrid vehicles. (orig.)

  18. Improvement of multiprocessing performance by using optical centralized shared bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuliang; Chen, Ray T.

    2004-06-01

    With the ever-increasing need to solve larger and more complex problems, multiprocessing is attracting more and more research efforts. One of the challenges facing the multiprocessor designers is to fulfill in an effective manner the communications among the processes running in parallel on multiple multiprocessors. The conventional electrical backplane bus provides narrow bandwidth as restricted by the physical limitations of electrical interconnects. In the electrical domain, in order to operate at high frequency, the backplane topology has been changed from the simple shared bus to the complicated switched medium. However, the switched medium is an indirect network. It cannot support multicast/broadcast as effectively as the shared bus. Besides the additional latency of going through the intermediate switching nodes, signal routing introduces substantial delay and considerable system complexity. Alternatively, optics has been well known for its interconnect capability. Therefore, it has become imperative to investigate how to improve multiprocessing performance by utilizing optical interconnects. From the implementation standpoint, the existing optical technologies still cannot fulfill the intelligent functions that a switch fabric should provide as effectively as their electronic counterparts. Thus, an innovative optical technology that can provide sufficient bandwidth capacity, while at the same time, retaining the essential merits of the shared bus topology, is highly desirable for the multiprocessing performance improvement. In this paper, the optical centralized shared bus is proposed for use in the multiprocessing systems. This novel optical interconnect architecture not only utilizes the beneficial characteristics of optics, but also retains the desirable properties of the shared bus topology. Meanwhile, from the architecture standpoint, it fits well in the centralized shared-memory multiprocessing scheme. Therefore, a smooth migration with substantial

  19. Electrical properties of films of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its hybrid with reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhuri, K. Priya; Bramhaiah, K.; John, Neena S., E-mail: jsneena@cnsms.res.in [Center for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, P. B. No. 1329, Jalahalli, Bangalore-560013 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Free-standing films of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-ZnO NPs hybrid are prepared at a liquid/liquid interface. The films are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. ZnO film consists of spherical aggregated NPs while the hybrid film contains folded sheets of rGO with embedded ZnO NPs. Electrical properties of the films and its photoresponse in presence of UV radiation are investigated using current sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM) at nanoscale and bulk measurements using two probe methods. Enhancement in photocurrent is observed in both cases and the current imaging reveals an inhomogeneous contribution by different ZnO grains in the film.

  20. Drilling of Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminate (HTCL with Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramulu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the application of die sinker electrical discharge machining (EDM as it applies to a hybrid titanium thermoplastic composite laminate material. Holes were drilled using a die sinker EDM. The effects of peak current, pulse time, and percent on-time on machinability of hybrid titanium composite material were evaluated in terms of material removal rate (MRR, tool wear rate, and cut quality. Experimental models relating each process response to the input parameters were developed and optimum operating conditions with a short cutting time, achieving the highest workpiece MRR, with very little tool wear were determined to occur at a peak current value of 8.60 A, a percent on-time of 36.12%, and a pulse time of 258 microseconds. After observing data acquired from experimentation, it was determined that while use of EDM is possible, for desirable quality it is not fast enough for industrial application.

  1. Initial position estimation strategy for a surface permanent magnet synchronous motor used in hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing TIAN; Qun-tao AN; Li SUN‡; Dong-yang SUN; Jian-dong DUAN

    2016-01-01

    A novel nonlinear model for surface permanent magnet synchronous motors (SPMSMs) is adopted to estimate the initial rotor position for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Usually, the accuracy of initial rotor position estimation for SPMSMs relies on magnetic saturation. To verify the saturation effect, the transient finite element analysis (FEA) model is presented first. Hybrid injection of a static voltage vector (SVV) superimposed with a high-frequency rotating voltage is proposed. The magnetic polarity is roughly identified with the aid of the saturation evaluation function, based on which an estimation of the position is performed. During this procedure, a special demodulation is suggested to extract signals of iron core saturation and rotor position. A Simulink/MATLAB platform for SPMSMs at standstill is constituted, and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified. The proposed method is also validated by experimental results of an SPMSM drive.

  2. Hybrid Modulation of Bidirectional Three-Phase Dual-Active-Bridge DC Converters for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ching Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional power converters for electric vehicles (EVs have received much attention recently, due to either grid-supporting requirements or emergent power supplies. This paper proposes a hybrid modulation of the three-phase dual-active bridge (3ΦDAB converter for EV charging systems. The designed hybrid modulation allows the converter to switch its modulation between phase-shifted and trapezoidal modes to increase the conversion efficiency, even under light-load conditions. The mode transition is realized in a real-time manner according to the charging or discharging current. The operation principle of the converter is analyzed in different modes and thus design considerations of the modulation are derived. A lab-scaled prototype circuit with a 48V/20Ah LiFePO4 battery is established to validate the feasibility and effectiveness.

  3. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... and ultracapacitor. In this paper a design method to design the power system of a FCHEV is presented. 10 cases of combining the fuel stack with either the battery, ultracapacitor, or both are investigated. The system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime are also compared. It is concluded that when...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  4. MODELING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SPEED GOVERNOR FOR THE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE ENGINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Qishan; Zhang Jianwu; Yin Chengliang

    2005-01-01

    A speed control analysis for an in-line gasoline fueled internal combustion (IC) engine is presented for the purpose of alleviation of high frequency oscillations in engine revolutions. A dynamic cylinder-by-cylinder model is proposed, base on slider-crank mechanism, which is extended to develop a digital governor providing a high fidelity estimation of rotary speed oscillation for hybrid vehicle engines. A modified PID controller that P and I gain is placed in feedback path is also described for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) engine speed regulation. By comparison between measured and estimated signals, it is demonstrated that a good agreement has been achieved and the governor behaves an excellent damping speed ripple.

  5. Electrically switchable organo-inorganic hybrid for a white-light laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chieh; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Ting; Lee, Chia-Rong; Lee, Wei

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a spectrally discrete white-light laser device based on a photonic bandgap hybrid, which is composed of a soft photonic crystal; i.e., a layer of dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), sandwiched between two imperfect but identical, inorganic multilayer photonic crystals. With a sole optical pump, a mono-, bi-, or tri-chromatic laser can be obtained and, through the soft photonic crystal regulated by an applied voltage, the hybrid possesses electrical tunability in laser wavelength. The three emitted spectral peaks originate from two bandedges of the CLC reflection band as well as one of the photonic defect modes in dual-mode lasing. Thanks to the optically bistable nature of CLC, such a white-light laser device can operate in quite an energy-saving fashion. This technique has potential to fulfill the present mainstream in the coherent white-light source.

  6. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lebeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles. Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  7. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile. PMID:26236769

  8. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  9. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  10. PERFORMANCE OF BUS LANES IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin KIM

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance impacts of reserved bus lanes in Seoul were evaluated and several suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the bus preferential treatment are proposed. The impacts of reserved bus lanes on both bus and auto performance were primarily measured by the relative speed changes of buses and autos and the average circulation rate of bus trips. Empirical results showed that the bus lanes were successful in improving average bus performance compared with other adjacent traffic. It was confirmed that right turning movement of the buses would cause the deterioration of bus speed in the curbside bus lanes. The average circulation rate of daily bus trips during the bus operation periods was somewhat increased by the bus lane introduction. A current warrant for reserved bus lanes in Korea was reviewed, and average bus speed during peak periods was proposed as a new warrant. In order to improve the effectiveness of the reserved bus lane, the type of lane markings in reserved bus lane, enforcement strategies for illegal parking in the bus lane and FIFO service at bus stops are discussed.

  11. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  12. The Impact of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Incentives on Demand and the Determinants of Hybrid-Vehicle Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggieri, Alison

    According to the Energy Information Administration, transportation currently accounts for over 60% of U.S. oil demand (E.I.A. 2010). Improving automobile energy efficiency could therefore reduce oil consumption and the negative environmental effects of automobile use. Subsidies for energy-efficient technologies such as hybrid-electric vehicles have gained political popularity since their introduction into the market and therefore have been implemented with increasing frequency. After the introduction of hybrid-electric vehicles into the U.S. market, the federal government initially implemented a 2000 federal tax deduction for these vehicles (later increased to a 3500 credit). Many states followed, offering various exemptions, such as high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane use, and excise-tax, sales-tax, and income-tax exemptions. Because not all states have implemented these subsidies, this policy topic is an ideal candidate for an outcome evaluation using an observational study postulation. States adopt incentives for different reasons based on factors that make adoption more attractive, however, so it is first necessary to identify these differences that predict policy adoption. This allows for the evaluative work to control for self selection bias. Three classes of internal determinants of policy adoption, political context, problem severity, and institutional support, and one type of external diffusion factor, are tested using logistic regression. Results suggest that the number of neighboring states that have already adopted incentives are consistently a determinant of diffusion for all three types of incentives test, HOV lane exemptions, sales-tax exemptions, and income-tax exemptions. In terms of internal factors, constituent support, a type of political context, predicts, sale-tax, income-tax, and HOV lane exemptions, but that the other two classes of determinants, problem severity and institutional support, were not universally significant across types of

  13. Spaceflight qualification of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanegan, Mark C.

    1993-09-01

    The small explorer (SMEX) project at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) launched the first spaceflight implementation of the MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) in July of 1992. The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), of which the MIL-STD-1773 data bus is a part, has been successful. The MIL-STD-1773 bus is the implementation of the MIL-STD-1553 protocol using fiber optics. Advantages of the fiber optic bus over the electrical bus include lower power, lower weight, and immunity from EMI/RFI. It does not radiate electrical or magnetic fields. It is a nonconductor so it cannot conduct electrical noise into or from a subsystem. This is particularly advantageous on a spacecraft with very sensitive instruments which are often susceptible to electrical interference. Although the MIL-STD-1773 bus is a 1 Mbps bus like the MIL-STD-1553 bus, the fiber optics also provide a path to the much higher rate systems required in upcoming NASA missions.

  14. UNIVERSALIZATION OF BUS BODY FACING DETAILS AND PRODUCTION TOOLING FOR THEIR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taranenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The directions concerning bus body production costs reduction based on large-size facing details stamping on electric-hydraulic presses are considered. The engineering of unified large-size facing detail blanks, manufacturing processes and variants of unified technological tooling for bus body facing details production, including simple- or multi-type details are described.

  15. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  16. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Sixteenth annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY 1992. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY 1992 in the areas of battery, fuel cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. This Annual Report also contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components, as well as a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

  17. Electro-mechanical Braking Method in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Feedback Control Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; YU Jun-quan; LIU Zheng-yu; CHANG Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the hybrid electric vehicle braking process is researched, by using variables consists of HEV speed, motor speed, and state of charge established, functions of mechanical braking force, regenerative braking force and efficiency of energy recovery are constructed, and the control goal is to maximization the energy recovery efficiency. Under the feedback control strategy, with the constrain condition of braking strength and braking stability, combining experiments in ADVISOR, in different experiments of different working conditions, we can see that in UDDS Cycle, the regenerative braking efficiency is the best. What’s more, compared with strategies in ADVISOR, strategy proposed in this paper is obviously better.

  18. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Seventeenth annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation`s transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

  19. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC reaches its boundaries.

  20. Day-Ahead Self-Scheduling of Thermal Generator in Competitive Electricity Market Using Hybrid PSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pindoriya, N.M.; Singh, Sri Niwas; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    in day-ahead energy market subject to operational constraints and 2) at the same time, to minimize the risk due to uncertainty in price forecast. Therefore, it is a conflicting biobjective optimization problem which has both binary and continuous optimization variables considered as constrained mixed......This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm (HPSO) to solve the day-ahead selfscheduling for thermal power producer in competitive electricity market. The objective functions considered to model the selfscheduling problem are: 1) to maximize the profit from selling energy...... integer nonlinear programming. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for self-scheduling in a dayahead energy market, the locational margin price (LMP) forecast uncertainty in PJM electricity market is considered. An adaptive wavelet neural network (AWNN) is used to forecast the dayahead...