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Sample records for hybrid electric bus

  1. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  2. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  3. Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lu, Xin; Xue, Junliang; Li, Bos

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series regenerative braking system and two of which are parallel regenerative braking systems. The existing friction based Adjustable Braking System (ABS) on the bus is integrated with each of the new braking systems in order to ensure bus...

  4. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  5. Development of a multi-mode hybrid electric bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmans, M.J. [Overland Custom Coach, Thorndale, ON (Canada); Bland, C. [BET Services Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes the development of an energy efficient, low floor, 28 foot hybrid electric bus for use as an airport shuttle bus or other specialized transit operations. A multi-mode concept was also adopted to include the capability of operating in battery-only drive, engine-only drive or a range of hybrid electric drive modes. The electric drivetrain was powered by a battery pack or a combination of a battery pack and an internal combustion engine-powered electric generator. The participating companies in this project include Overland Custom Coach, BET Services Inc., Siemens and Transport Canada. The technical feasibility study was described with reference to duty cycles, performance issues, vehicle weight, mechanical drive issues, brakes, suspension, powertrain cooling, heating, ventilation, electrical system, batteries and control system. The commercial feasibility was also described in terms of capital and operating costs. Results of the prototype tests validate the possibilities of zero or reduced emission transit in real world applications. 25 tabs., 32 figs.

  6. Multi Bus DC-DC Converter in Electric Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krithika, V.; Subramaniam, C.; Sridharan, R.; Geetha, A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper is cotncerned with the design, simulation and fabrication of the prototype of a Multi bus DC- DC converter operating from 42V DC and delivering 14V DC and 260V DC. As a result, three DC buses are interconnected through a single power electronic circuitry. Such a requirement is energized in the development of a hybrid electric automobile which uses the technology of fuel cell. This is implemented by using a Bidirectional DC-DC converter configuration which is ideally suitable for multiple outputs with mutual electrical isolation. For the sake of reduced size and cost of step-up transformer, selection of a high frequency switching cycle at 10 KHz was done.

  7. Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework for plug-in hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yan, Bingjie; Du, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Considering the complicated characteristics of traffic flow in city bus route and the nonlinear vehicle dynamics, optimal energy management integrated with clustering and recognition of driving conditions in plug-in hybrid electric bus is still a challenging problem. Motivated by this issue, this paper presents an innovative energy optimization control framework based on the cloud computing for plug-in hybrid electric bus. This framework, which includes offline part and online part, can realize the driving conditions clustering in offline part, and the energy management in online part. In offline part, utilizing the operating data transferred from a bus to the remote monitoring center, K-means algorithm is adopted to cluster the driving conditions, and then Markov probability transfer matrixes are generated to predict the possible operating demand of the bus driver. Next in online part, the current driving condition is real-time identified by a well-trained support vector machine, and Markov chains-based driving behaviors are accordingly selected. With the stochastic inputs, stochastic receding horizon control method is adopted to obtain the optimized energy management of hybrid powertrain. Simulations and hardware-in-loop test are carried out with the real-world city bus route, and the results show that the presented strategy could greatly improve the vehicle fuel economy, and as the traffic flow data feedback increases, the fuel consumption of every plug-in hybrid electric bus running in a specific bus route tends to be a stable minimum. - Highlights: • Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework is proposed. • Driving cycles are clustered into 6 types by K-means algorithm. • Support vector machine is employed to realize the online recognition of driving condition. • Stochastic receding horizon control-based energy management strategy is designed for plug-in hybrid electric bus. • The proposed framework is verified by simulation and hard

  8. Longevity-conscious dimensioning and power management of the hybrid energy storage system in a fuel cell hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaosong; Johannesson, Lars; Murgovski, Nikolce; Egardt, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid energy storage system is optimally sized and controlled for a hybrid bus. • Dynamic battery health model is incorporated in the optimization. • Convex programming is efficient for optimizing hybrid propulsion systems. • Optimal battery replacement strategy is explored. • Comparison to the battery-only option is made in the health-aware optimization. - Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESSs) play an important role in the performance and economy of electrified vehicles. Hybrid energy storage system (HESS) combining both lithium-ion cells and supercapacitors is one of the most promising solutions. This paper discusses the optimal HESS dimensioning and energy management of a fuel cell hybrid electric bus. Three novel contributions are added to the relevant literature. First, efficient convex programming is used to simultaneously optimize the HESS dimension (including sizes of both the lithium-ion battery pack and the supercapacitor stack) and the power allocation between the HESS and the fuel cell system (FCS) of the hybrid bus. In the combined plant/controller optimization problem, a dynamic battery State-of-Health (SOH) model is integrated to quantitatively examine the impact of the battery replacement strategy on both the HESS size and the bus economy. Second, the HESS and the battery-only ESS options are systematically compared in the proposed optimization framework. Finally, the battery-health-perceptive HESS optimization outcome is contrasted to the ideal one neglecting the battery degradation (assuming that the battery is durable over the bus service period without deliberate power regulation)

  9. Braking energy regeneration control of a fuel cell hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lv, Chen; Qiu, Mingzhe; Li, Yutong; Sun, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A braking energy regeneration system has been designed for a fuel cell bus. • Control strategy coordinating energy efficiency and brake safety is proposed. • The system and control strategy proposed are experimentally verified. • Based on test results, energy efficiency of the FCB is improved greatly. - Abstract: This paper presents the braking energy regeneration control of a fuel cell hybrid electric bus. The configuration of the regenerative braking system based on a pneumatic braking system was proposed. To recapture the braking energy and improve the fuel economy, a control strategy coordinating the regenerative brake and the pneumatic brake was designed and applied in the FCHB. Brake safety was also guaranteed by the control strategy when the bus encounters critical driving situations. Fuel economy tests were carried out under China city bus typical driving cycle. And hardware-in-the-loop tests of the brake safety of the FCHB under proposed control strategy were also accomplished. Test results indicate that the present approach provides an improvement in fuel economy of the fuel cell hybrid electric bus and guarantees the brake safety in the meantime

  10. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  11. Simulating Study on Drive System Performance for Hybrid Electric Bus Based on ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric bus has a number of advantages when compared with ordinary passenger cars, but in the dynamic matching and the vehicle performance are difficult to detect, thus limits its development process. In this paper, combined with the actual models, the hybrid electric bus module parameters were modified in the software of ADVISOR (Advanced Vehicle Simulator, main including: module of the vehicle, the wheel module, motor module, a battery module and engine module, three kinds of bus models for A, B and C were established, and the related performance that need to be analyzed was set up, such as acceleration, gradability, emissions and energy utilization and so on, in order to ensure the vehicle running in the same environment and convenient for comparison, a fixed vehicle driving cycles was chose, then the simulation results was analyzed, and the various performance was compared with the dynamic indicators and economic indicators which determined by referencing of traditional city bus standard and each other, and finally, the performance optimal model of B was chose out which can meet the demand, its related performance parameters of the simulation results are as follows: the best gradability is 26%, maximum speed is 72.7km/h, maximum acceleration is 1.7m/s2, 0~50km/h acceleration time is 9.5s and fuel consumption is 25L/km.

  12. Optimal energy management for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Weiwei; Zhang Yong; Yin Chengliang

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present a new type of series-parallel hybrid electric bus and its energy management strategy. This hybrid bus is a post-transmission coupled system employing a novel transmission as the series-parallel configuration switcher. In this paper, the vehicle architecture, transmission scheme and numerical models are presented. The energy management system governs the mode switching between the series mode and the parallel mode as well as the instantaneous power distribution. In this work, two separated controllers using fuzzy logic called Mode Decision and Parallel-driving Energy Management are employed to fulfill these two tasks. The energy management strategy and the applications of fuzzy logic are described. The strategy is validated by a forward-facing simulation program based on the software Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the energy management strategy is effective to control the engine operating in a high-efficiency region as well as to sustain the battery charge state while satisfy the drive ability. The energy consumption is theoretically reduced by 30.3% to that of the conventional bus under transit bus driving cycle. In addition, works need future study are also presented.

  13. Power-balancing instantaneous optimization energy management for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongye; Lin, Xinyou; Qin, Datong; Deng, Tao

    2012-11-01

    Energy management(EM) is a core technique of hybrid electric bus(HEB) in order to advance fuel economy performance optimization and is unique for the corresponding configuration. There are existing algorithms of control strategy seldom take battery power management into account with international combustion engine power management. In this paper, a type of power-balancing instantaneous optimization(PBIO) energy management control strategy is proposed for a novel series-parallel hybrid electric bus. According to the characteristic of the novel series-parallel architecture, the switching boundary condition between series and parallel mode as well as the control rules of the power-balancing strategy are developed. The equivalent fuel model of battery is implemented and combined with the fuel of engine to constitute the objective function which is to minimize the fuel consumption at each sampled time and to coordinate the power distribution in real-time between the engine and battery. To validate the proposed strategy effective and reasonable, a forward model is built based on Matlab/Simulink for the simulation and the dSPACE autobox is applied to act as a controller for hardware in-the-loop integrated with bench test. Both the results of simulation and hardware-in-the-loop demonstrate that the proposed strategy not only enable to sustain the battery SOC within its operational range and keep the engine operation point locating the peak efficiency region, but also the fuel economy of series-parallel hybrid electric bus(SPHEB) dramatically advanced up to 30.73% via comparing with the prototype bus and a similar improvement for PBIO strategy relative to rule-based strategy, the reduction of fuel consumption is up to 12.38%. The proposed research ensures the algorithm of PBIO is real-time applicability, improves the efficiency of SPHEB system, as well as suite to complicated configuration perfectly.

  14. The Development and Verification of a Novel ECMS of Hybrid Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the system modeling, control strategy design, and hardware-in-the-loop test for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus. First, the powertrain mathematical models and the system architecture were proposed. Then an adaptive ECMS is developed for the real-time control of a hybrid electric bus, which is investigated and verified in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. The ECMS through driving cycle recognition results in updating the equivalent charge and discharge coefficients and extracting optimized rules for real-time control. This method not only solves the problems of mode transition frequently and improves the fuel economy, but also simplifies the complexity of control strategy design and provides new design ideas for the energy management strategy and gear-shifting rules designed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed real-time A-ECMS can coordinate the overall hybrid electric powertrain to optimize fuel economy and sustain the battery SOC level.

  15. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  16. Parameters Design for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus Using Regenerative Brake Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A design methodology which uses the regenerative brake model is introduced to determine the major system parameters of a parallel electric hybrid bus drive train. Hybrid system parameters mainly include the power rating of internal combustion engine (ICE, gear ratios of transmission, power rating, and maximal torque of motor, power, and capacity of battery. The regenerative model is built in the vehicle model to estimate the regenerative energy in the real road conditions. The design target is to ensure that the vehicle meets the specified vehicle performance, such as speed and acceleration, and at the same time, operates the ICE within an expected speed range. Several pairs of parameters are selected from the result analysis, and the fuel saving result in the road test shows that a 25% reduction is achieved in fuel consumption.

  17. Trip-oriented stochastic optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yongchang; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Qinpu; Zhang, Yuanbo; Xia, Huaicheng

    2016-01-01

    A trip-oriented stochastic optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric bus is presented in this paper, which includes the offline stochastic dynamic programming part and the online implementation part performed by equivalent consumption minimization strategy. In the offline part, historical driving cycles of the fixed route are divided into segments according to the position of bus stops, and then a segment-based stochastic driving condition model based on Markov chain is built. With the segment-based stochastic model obtained, the control set for real-time implemented equivalent consumption minimization strategy can be achieved by solving the offline stochastic dynamic programming problem. Results of stochastic dynamic programming are converted into a 3-dimensional lookup table of parameters for online implemented equivalent consumption minimization strategy. The proposed strategy is verified by both simulation and hardware-in-loop test of real-world driving cycle on an urban bus route. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms both the well-tuned equivalent consumption minimization strategy and the rule-based strategy in terms of fuel economy, and even proved to be close to the optimal result obtained by dynamic programming. Furthermore, the practical application potential of the proposed control method was proved by hardware-in-loop test. - Highlights: • A stochastic problem was formed based on a stochastic segment-based driving condition model. • Offline stochastic dynamic programming was employed to solve the stochastic problem. • The instant power split decision was made by the online equivalent consumption minimization strategy. • Good performance in fuel economy of the proposed method was verified by simulation results. • Practical application potential of the proposed method was verified by the hardware-in-loop test results.

  18. Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage in a Large Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The power requirements for inner city transit buses are characterized by power peaks about an order of magnitude larger than the average power usage of the vehicle. For these vehicles, hybrid power trains can offer significantly improved fuel economy and exhaust emissions. A critical design challenge, however, has been developing the energy storage and power management system to respond to these rapid power variations. Most hybrid vehicles today use chemical energy storage batteries to supplement the power from the fuel burning generator unit. Chemical storage batteries however, present several difficulties in power management and control. These difficulties include (1) inadequate life, (2) limited current delivery as well as absorption during regenerative braking, (3) inaccurate measurement of state of charge, and (4) stored energy safety issues. Recent advances in ultra-capacitor technology create an opportunity to address these concerns. The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with industry and academia, has developed an advanced hybrid electric transit bus using ultra-capacitors as the primary energy storage system. At over 15,000-kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using this advanced energy storage technology. Results of analyses show that the vehicle will match the performance of an equivalent conventionally powered vehicle over typical inner city drive cycles. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and analysis of power flow and vehicle performance.

  19. Impact of Spanish electricity mix, over the period 2008–2030, on the Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of Electric, Hybrid Diesel-Electric, Fuel Cell Hybrid and Diesel Bus of the Madrid Transportation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López Martínez, José María; Lumbreras Martín, Julio; Flores Holgado, María Nuria; Aguilar Morales, Hansel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the performance of 4 buses that run on different alternative fuel types and technologies. • The buses assessed are Fuel Cell-Hybrid Bus, Hybrid Diesel-Electric Bus, Battery Electric Bus, and a Diesel Bus. • We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each vehicle technology, fossil fuel and energy carrier. • Life Cycle of Battery Electric Bus shows that it has a big potential of improvement in terms of environmental impact. - Abstract: In spite of the advanced research in automotive technology, and the improvement of fuels, the road transport sector continues to be an environmental concern, since the increase in transport demand is offsetting the effects of these technological improvements. Therefore, this poses the following question: what combination of technology and fuel is more efficient in terms of energy consumption and green house gas (GHG) emissions? To fully address this question it is necessary to carry out a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper presents a global LCA of 4 buses that run on the following fuel types and technologies: (1) Fuel Cell- Hybrid Bus, (2) Hybrid Diesel-Electric Bus (series configuration), (3) Battery Electric Bus and (4) Combustion Ignition Engine Bus. The impact categories assessed are: primary energy consumption, fossil energy and GHG emissions. Among the principal results, we can conclude that the Global LCA of buses (3) and (1) (which are the more sensitive pathways to the electricity mix variation) have for the 2008–2030 period a room for improvement of 25.62% and 28.16% in terms of efficiency of fossil energy consumption and a potential GHG emission reduction of 28.70% and 30.88% respectively

  20. Comparison of PMAC Machines for Starter-Generator Application in a Series Hybrid-Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sinisa Jurkovic; Elias G. Strangas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of outer rotor PMAC machine candidates for starter-generator application in hybrid bus with series power train configuration. PMAC machines with interior and surface mount permanent magnets are considered and compared, although a complete analysis is only carried out for the SPM. Different design aspects such as concentrated versus distributed windings as well as interior and exterior rotor structures are evaluated. Different slot numbers per pole per p...

  1. Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies.

  2. Model predictive control-based efficient energy recovery control strategy for regenerative braking system of hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Marina Martinez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 7-degree-of-freedom model of hybrid electric vehicle with regenerative braking system is built. • A modified nonlinear model predictive control strategy is developed. • The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem. • The proposed control strategy is verified by simulation and hardware-in-loop tests. • Test results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. - Abstract: As one of the main working modes, the energy recovered with regenerative braking system provides an effective approach so as to greatly improve fuel economy of hybrid electric bus. However, it is still a challenging issue to ensure braking stability while maximizing braking energy recovery. To solve this problem, an efficient energy recovery control strategy is proposed based on the modified nonlinear model predictive control method. Firstly, combined with the characteristics of the compound braking process of single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus, a 7 degrees of freedom model of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics is built. Secondly, considering nonlinear characteristic of the vehicle model and the efficiency of regenerative braking system, the particle swarm optimization algorithm within the modified nonlinear model predictive control is adopted to optimize the torque distribution between regenerative braking system and pneumatic braking system at the wheels. So as to reduce the computational time of modified nonlinear model predictive control, a nearest point method is employed during the braking process. Finally, the simulation and hardware-in-loop test are carried out on road conditions with different tire–road adhesion coefficients, and the proposed control strategy is verified by comparing it with the conventional control method employed in the baseline vehicle controller. The simulation and hardware-in-loop test results show that the proposed strategy can ensure vehicle safety during emergency braking

  3. A hybrid algorithm combining EKF and RLS in synchronous estimation of road grade and vehicle' mass for a hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Li, Liang; Yan, Bingjie; Yang, Chao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm for simultaneously estimating the vehicle mass and road grade for hybrid electric bus (HEB). First, the road grade in current step is estimated using extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the initial state including velocity and engine torque. Second, the vehicle mass is estimated twice, one with EKF and the other with recursive least square (RLS) using the estimated road grade. A more accurate value of the estimated mass is acquired by weighting the trade-off between EKF and RLS. Finally, the road grade and vehicle mass thus obtained are used as the initial states for the next step, and two variables could be decoupled from the nonlinear vehicle dynamics by performing the above procedure repeatedly. Simulation results show that in different starting conditions, the proposed algorithm provides higher accuracy and faster convergence speed, compared with the results using EKF or RLS alone.

  4. Research and Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles CAN-Bus Data Monitor and Diagnostic System through OBD-II and Android-Based Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalian Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the smartphone market, future cars seem to have more connections with intelligent cell phone and Internet. Intelligent transportation system (ITS and telematics system have become research focus in recent years. There is an increasing demand for remote monitoring and diagnostic system as the further research of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV goes on. In this paper, a remote controller area network bus (CAN-Bus data monitor and diagnostic system for HEV is presented using on board diagnostic version-II (OBD-II and Android-based smartphone. It is low-cost, convenient, and extensible with smartphone used in the system to realize communication with ELM327 and remote monitoring center wirelessly. The prototype of client and server is developed in Java language, and it is proved by the test that the system works stably and the collected data have practical values.

  5. Air-pollution and economics: diesel bus versus electric bus

    OpenAIRE

    Adheesh, SR; Vasisht, Shravanth M; Ramasesha, Sheela K

    2016-01-01

    The Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) took an initiative to check the overall benefits of introducing electric buses as a suitable replacement for the diesel buses to tackle the burgeoning pollution in the city of Bengaluru, India. For a trial run of three months, an electric bus was procured from a Chinese company `Build Your Dreams' (BYD). Data were collected by BMTC on the operation and maintenance of the bus. This new initiative, if rightly guided, could have a direct im...

  6. Global Optimal Energy Management Strategy Research for a Plug-In Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus by Using Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategy influences the power performance and fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles greatly. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB, this paper searched the global optimal energy management strategy using dynamic programming (DP algorithm. Firstly, the simplified backward model of the PHEB was built which is necessary for DP algorithm. Then the torque and speed of engine and the torque of motor were selected as the control variables, and the battery state of charge (SOC was selected as the state variables. The DP solution procedure was listed, and the way was presented to find all possible control variables at every state of each stage in detail. Finally, the appropriate SOC increment is determined after quantizing the state variables, and then the optimal control of long driving distance of a specific driving cycle is replaced with the optimal control of one driving cycle, which reduces the computational time significantly and keeps the precision at the same time. The simulation results show that the fuel economy of the PEHB with the optimal energy management strategy is improved by 53.7% compared with that of the conventional bus, which can be a benchmark for the assessment of other control strategies.

  7. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  8. Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations NREL's technology validation team evaluates fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) to provide comprehensive, unbiased evaluation results of fuel cell bus early transportation applications for fuel cell technology. Buses operate in congested areas where

  9. A Pontryagin Minimum Principle-Based Adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus on a Fixed Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When developing a real-time energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, it is still a challenge for the Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy to achieve near-optimal energy consumption, because the optimal equivalence factor is not readily available without the trip information. With the help of realistic speeding profiles sampled from a plug-in hybrid electric bus running on a fixed commuting line, this paper proposes a convenient and effective approach of determining the equivalence factor for an adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy. Firstly, with the adaptive law based on the feedback of battery SOC, the equivalence factor is described as a combination of the major component and tuning component. In particular, the major part defined as a constant is applied to the inherent consistency of regular speeding profiles, while the second part including a proportional and integral term can slightly tune the equivalence factor to satisfy the disparity of daily running cycles. Moreover, Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle is employed and solved by using the shooting method to capture the co-state dynamics, in which the Secant method is introduced to adjust the initial co-state value. And then the initial co-state value in last shooting is taken as the optimal stable constant of equivalence factor. Finally, altogether ten successive driving profiles are selected with different initial SOC levels to evaluate the proposed method, and the results demonstrate the excellent fuel economy compared with the dynamic programming and PMP method.

  10. MIL-STD-1553 dynamic bus controller/remote terminal hybrid set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. N.

    This paper describes the performance, physical and electrical requirements of a Dual Redundant BUS Interface Unit (BIU) acting as a BUS Controller Interface Unit (BCIU) or Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) between a Motorola 68000 VME BUS and MIL-STD-1553B Multiplex Data Bus. A discussion of how the BIU Hybrid set is programmed, and operates as a BCIU or RTU, will be included. This paper will review Dynamic Bus Control and other Mode Code capabilities. The BIU Hybrid Set interfaces to a 68000 Microprocessor with a VME Bus using programmed I/O transfers. This special interface will be discussed along with the internal Dual Access Memory (4K x 16) used to support the data exchanges between the CPU and the BIU Hybrid Set. The hybrid set's physical size and power requirements will be covered. This includes the present Double Eurocard the BIU function is presently being offered on.

  11. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  12. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  13. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  14. Research on a Novel Hydraulic/Electric Synergy Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegang Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing concerns regarding environmental pollution and requirements for lower fossil fuel consumption have increased interest in alternative hybrid powertrains. As a result, this paper presents a novel hydraulic/electric synergy powertrain with multiple working modes. The three energy sources (i.e., engine, battery, and hydraulic accumulator in this configuration are regulated by a dual planetary gear set to achieve optimal performances. This paper selects the component sizes of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV, a hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV, and a hydraulic/electric synergy vehicle (HESV, based on the dynamic performance of a target vehicle (TV. In addition, this paper develops the forward simulation models of the four aforementioned vehicles in the MATLAB/Simulink/Driveline platform, in which the fuel economy simulations are carried out in relation to the Chinese urban bus cycle. The simulation results show that the fuel consumption of the three hybrid vehicles is similar, but much better than, that of the TV. Finally, based on the operating cost calculations over a five-year working period, the lowest cost ranges of the three hybrid vehicles are determined, which provides a method for choosing the optimal hybrid scheme.

  15. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  16. Optimum Dispatch of Hybrid Solar Thermal (HSTP Electric Power Plant Using Non-Smooth Cost Function and Emission Function for IEEE-30 Bus System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Kumar Dash

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of economic load dispatch (ELD is to optimize the total fuel cost of hybrid solar thermal electric power plant (HSTP. In ELD problems the cost function for each generator has been approximated by a single quadratic cost equation. As cost of coal increases, it becomes even more important have a good model for the production cost of each generator for the solar thermal hybrid system. A more accurate formulation is obtained for the ELD problem by expressing the generation cost function as a piece wise quadratic cost function. However, the solution methods for ELD problem with piece wise quadratic cost function requires much complicated algorithms such as the hierarchical structure approach along with evolutionary computations (ECs. A test system comprising of 10 units with 29 different fuel [7] cost equations is considered in this paper. The applied genetic algorithm method will provide optimal solution for the given load demand.

  17. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  18. Scenario-based electric bus operation: A case study of Putrajaya, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lay Eng Teoh; Hooi Ling Khoo; Siew Yoke Goh; Lai Mun Chong

    2018-01-01

    Globally, transportation sector has emerged as one of the major sources of air pollution. Correspondingly, green mobility (with electric bus) is gaining increasing attention as an essential step to mitigate emission concern. As such, a proper electric bus network design and fleet planning is important especially for bus operator to acquire an adequate number of electric bus, right on time, in order to operate electric bus system viably. Thus, this paper aims to examine the possibility to oper...

  19. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  20. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Electric Vehicles to supply battery modules for Smith’s lineup of zero-emission, all-electric commercial vehicles (CVs). A123 expects to begin...hybrids may have generally improved reliability compared to conventional diesel vehicles, their maintenance procedures are specialized. Hybrid

  1. Energy efficient motion control of the electric bus on route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotiev, G. O.; Butarovich, D. O.; Kositsyn, B. B.

    2018-02-01

    At present, the urgent problem is the reduction of energy costs of urban motor transport. The article proposes a method of solving this problem by developing an energy-efficient law governing the movement of an electric bus along a city route. To solve this problem, an algorithm is developed based on the dynamic programming method. The proposed method allows you to take into account the constraints imposed on the phase coordinates, control action, as well as on the time of the route. In the course of solving the problem, the model of rectilinear motion of an electric bus on a horizontal reference surface is considered, taking into account the assumptions that allow it to be adapted for the implementation of the method. For the formation of a control action in the equations of motion dynamics, an algorithm for changing the traction / braking torque on the wheels of an electric bus is considered, depending on the magnitude of the control parameter and the speed of motion. An optimal phase trajectory was obtained on a selected section of the road for the prototype of an electric bus. The article presents the comparison of simulation results obtained with the optimal energy efficient control law with the results obtained by a test driver. The comparison proved feasibility of the energy efficient control law for the automobile city electric transport.

  2. Scenario-based electric bus operation: A case study of Putrajaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, transportation sector has emerged as one of the major sources of air pollution. Correspondingly, green mobility (with electric bus is gaining increasing attention as an essential step to mitigate emission concern. As such, a proper electric bus network design and fleet planning is important especially for bus operator to acquire an adequate number of electric bus, right on time, in order to operate electric bus system viably. Thus, this paper aims to examine the possibility to operate electric bus as a replacement for the conventional bus operation (with natural gas buses for the study area in Putrajaya, Malaysia. In order to determine a proper-designed electric bus operating system in terms of electric bus route, service frequency and quantity, the proposed methodology is developed with the aid of a traffic modeling software to cater various scenarios. Based on the existing (conventional traffic and transit system in Putrajaya, the developed electric bus operating model is calibrated accordingly by considering various operational concerns including battery capacity and charging facility. The resultant findings revealed that the developed electric bus operating system in Putrajaya outperforms the conventional bus operation, not only in generating a higher profit margin for the bus operator, but also satisfying the passengers in a better manner (by carrying more passengers per unit of bus with a lower energy consumption.

  3. Developing a viable electric bus service: the Milton Keynes demonstration project

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, John; Potter, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Buses can be a serious source of city centre air pollution. Electric buses deliver zero emissions but, because of the time required to recharge, more buses are needed for a given timetable than diesel counterparts, so making mainstream electric bus operations prohibitively expensive.\\ud \\ud Early 2014 saw the implementation in Milton Keynes of an electric bus service designed to overcome this problem. An entire bus route has been converted to electric operation with inductive charging at bus ...

  4. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  6. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  7. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  8. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  9. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  10. Economic Optimization Analysis of Chengdu Electric Community Bus Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidong, Wang; Yun, Cai; Zhengping, Tan; Xiong, Wan

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the government has strongly supported and promoted electric vehicles and has given priority to demonstration and popularization in the field of public transport. The economy of public transport operations has drawn increasing attention. In this paper, Chengdu wireless charging pure electric community bus is used as the research object, the battery, air conditioning, driver’s driving behavior and other economic influence factors were analyzed, and optimizing the operation plan through case data analysis, through the reasonable battery matching and mode of operation to help businesses effectively save operating costs and enhance economic efficiency.

  11. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  12. Electric bus migration in Bengaluru with dynamic charging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Begwani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid but unplanned urban development coupled with economic growth has resulted in congestion and pollution concerns in Indian cities. This forced India consider taking concrete steps towards design policies that would help stir the nation towards a more sustainable future. India, along with other bigger Asian economies like China, needs to address the growing global concerns over climate change and design their framework and policies to help cut down the greenhouse gas emissions. Transportation is a major source of pollution. A shift towards a pro-public transport policy would solve the traffic congestion problems and address the emission concerns. India has a significantly higher modal share of public transportation in its major cities. Public bus transport system acts as a lifeline to the India’s poor and middle class citizens. The following study focuses on the need for a replacement of conventional fossil fuel dependent buses with Electric buses in the existing public transport bus fleet in the city of Bengaluru. A design has been developed to utilize wireless charging technologies to realize electric bus migration in Bengaluru.

  13. Study on emission characteristics of hybrid bus under driving cycles in typical Chinese city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yongdong; Xu, Guangju

    2017-09-01

    In this study, hybrid city bus was taken as the research object, through the vehicle drum test, the vehicle emissions of hybrid bus, the transient emissions of gas pollutants, as well as the particle size and number distribution were surveyed. The results of the studies are listed as follows: First, compared to traditional fuel bus, hybrid bus could reduce about 44% of the NOx emissions, 33% of the total hydrocarbon emissions, and 51% of the particles emissions. Furthermore, the distribution of particles number concentration of test vehicle became high in middle and low in both sides. More specifically, the particle number concentration was mainly concentrated in the range from 0.021 to 0.755μm, the maximum was 0.2μm, and particle size of particulate matter (PM) less than 1.2μm accounted for 95% of the total number concentration. Particulate mass concentration was increased with increment of particle size, and the maximum of particulate mass (PM) concentration was 6.2μm. On average, whether traditional fuel bus or hybrid bus, the particle size of particulate matter(PM) less than 2.5μm accounted for more than 98% in the particles emission. It is found that the particles are more likely to deposit to the lung, respiratory bronchioles and alveoli, causing respiratory and lung diseases. Therefore, how to control the PM emissions of hybrid bus is the key factor of the study.

  14. Implementation of a solar thermal electricity pilot plant (Concentrated Tower) of 1MW and introduction of a bus fleet of plug-in hybrids on the Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Implementacao de uma planta piloto de heliotermia (Torre de Concentracao) de 1MW e introducao de uma frota de onibus hibridos plug-in na Ilha do Fundao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Bruno Soares Moreira Cesar; Malagueta, Diego Cunha [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to simulate a solar thermal electricity pilot plant at the Campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), at Fundao Island, which would generate part of the electricity demanded by the Technology Center (CT) of the UFRJ. Based on the electricity demand from UFRJ and the electric prices paid by the institution, this study proposes the construction of a 1MW Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) pilot plant and analyses the economical, energy and environmental viability of implementation of this plant, operating from 2015 to 2045. This CSP plant would cover a field of 0,01km{sup 2} and have a 30% of capacity factor. This study also evaluates the impact caused by the substitution of the current Campus internal bus fleet for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The current service is provided by Normandy, which operates 12 buses plus 1 backup. These new buses would be regularly partially recharged by the energy generated from CSP. All the simulations have been made with the RETScreen software, which simulated the operation of the CSP, the amount of electricity produced, the carbon emissions avoided, the acquisition and implementation of the plug-in hybrid electric bus fleet and the cash flow. Six scenarios generated were, namely A1, B1, C1 (all for lower costs for the CSP plants) and A2, B2, C2 (for higher costs). For a social discount rate around 8% and along 30 years, only the A1, C1 and C2 scenarios showed a non-negative cash flow. Also, the emissions avoided were around 222 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 6.660 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in the A1 and A2 scenarios, and around 550 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 16.512 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in all others scenarios. (author)

  15. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  16. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  17. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  18. Development and Commissioning Results of the Hybrid Sensor Bus Engineering Qualification Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Andreas; Putzer, Phillipp; Roner, Markus; Gurster, Markus; Hulsemeyer, Christian; Lemke, Norbert M. K.

    2016-08-01

    In order to reduce mass, AIT effort and overall costs of classical point-to-point wired temperature sensor harness on-board spacecraft OHB System AGhas introduced the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system which interrogates sensors connected in a bus architecture. To use the advantages of electrical as wellas of fiber-optical sensing technologies, HSB is designed as a modular measurement system interrogating digital sensors connected on electricalsensor buses based on I2C and fiber-optical sensor buses based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors inscribed in optical fibers. Fiber-optical sensor bus networks on-board satellites are well suited for temperature measurement due to low mass, electro-magnetic insensitivity and the capability to embed them inside structure parts. The lightweight FBG sensors inscribed in radiation tolerant fibers can reach every part of the satellite. HSB has been developed in the frame of the ESA ARTES program with European and German co- funding and will be verified as flight demonstrator on- board the German Heinrich Hertz satellite (H2Sat).In this paper the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) development of HSB and first commissioning results are presented. For the HSB development requirements applicable for telecommunication satellite platforms have been considered. This includes an operation of at least 15 years in a geostationary orbit.In Q3/2016 the qualification test campaign is planned to be carried out. The HSB EQM undergoes a full qualification according to ECSS. The paper concludes with an outlook regarding this HSB flight demonstrator development and its in-orbit verification (IOV) on board H2Sat.

  19. Feasibility study on the introduction of hybrid buses; Hybrid bus donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to design pilot projects for introducing hybrid buses into the public transportation sector. This research also covers contents regarding hybrid buses with a trolley-collector motor and a diesel engine, to identify technical and economical problems and to analyze cost beneficiation using hybrid buses. The trolley parallel hybrid system has been employed for the feasibility study. This system has abundant operation results in Europe and the USA. Its battery is small or is not necessary, and the maintenance cost is also low. As a result of the feasibility study, reduction effects of CO2 emission were found out. When the CO2 generation at the power plant is not counted, the reduction effect was estimated to be 32% compared with the CO2 emission from diesel buses. When the CO2 generation at the power plant is considered, it was estimated to be 18%. The cost beneficiation was investigated for the cases of the transportations using trolley system surrounding a medium-scale terminal among large-scale housing development, tourist resort, and stations. The annual income is estimated to be larger than the annual payment in each case. It was found that the hybrid bus is economically established. 17 refs., 48 figs., 41 tabs.

  20. Transit experience with hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M.; Levin, J.; Edwards, T.

    2006-01-01

    Both AC Transit and SunLine Transit operate hybrid electric hydrogen fueled buses in their transit service. ACT presently operates three fuel cell buses in daily revenue service, and SunLine operates a fuel cell bus and a HHICE (Hybrid Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine) bus. All these buses use similar electric drive train and electric accessories, although the detailed design differs notably between the fuel cell and the hybrid ICE buses. The fuel cell buses use a 120kW UTC fuel cell and a Van Hool Chassis, whereas the HHICE bus uses a turbocharged Ford engine which is capable of 140kW generator output in a New Flyer Chassis. The HHICE bus was the first in service, and has been subjected to both winter testing in Manitoba, Canada and summer testing in the Palm Springs, CA region. The winter testing included passenger sampling using questionnaires to ascertain passenger response. The fuel cell buses were introduced to service at the start of 2006. All five buses are in daily revenue service use. The paper will describe the buses and the experience of the transit properties in operating the buses. (author)

  1. Transit experience with hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M. [ISE Corp., Poway, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Mass transit buses are ideal candidates for hydrogen implementation due to their capability of carrying 30 to 60 kg of hydrogen. ISE Corporation is a supplier of hydrogen fueled buses, including the first hybrid electric fuel cell bus which was commercialized in 2002, the hybrid electric fuel cell bus, and the hybrid hydrogen internal combustion engine (HHICE) bus which was commercialized in 2004. The configuration of a HHICE bus was illustrated with reference to its engine, control system, energy storage, generator, drive motor, inverter and accessories. Although these vehicles are expensive, the cost is amortized over a large base of hours used and passengers carried. The buses are operated primarily in urban areas where quiet and clean operation is needed the most. ISE has established a joint venture with Thor industries to develop a series of fuel cell buses equipped with a 60 kW PEM fuel cell. A schematic illustrating the energy flow in HHICE bus was also presented. It was shown that regenerative braking recovers the energy of motion. When using regenerative braking, most of the braking energy is saved in the battery. ISE drive systems convert 30 per cent or more of the bus energy to electrical energy to be used in later acceleration. Reduced fuel consumption also reduces the vehicle emissions. Testing of HHICE buses in both summer and winter operating conditions have shown that the range needs to be improved along with engine component reliability and durability. Fuel supply is also a major issue. A comparison with a fuel cell hybrid system was also presented. In the United States, more than 100,000 miles have been logged for the use of hydrogen hybrid buses, fuel cell buses and HHICE buses. The HHICE bus offers low capital cost, familiar technologies, but some NOx. CAT absorber technology offers the possibility of near zero emission capability. The fuel cell bus was found to be more fuel efficient, and can travel nearly twice as far per unit energy as

  2. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  3. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  4. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  5. A hybrid scheme for real-time prediction of bus trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fadaei, Masoud; Cats, O.; Bhaskar, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with public transport services can be partially counteracted by developing real-time models to predict downstream service conditions. In this study, a hybrid approach for predicting bus trajectories by integrating multiple predictors is proposed. The prediction model

  6. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, Allister; Phillips, Al; Morales, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  7. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  8. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  9. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  10. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J. Jr.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K. (Center for Fuel Cell Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 United States)

    2010-06-15

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions. (author)

  11. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions.

  12. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations How Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work Hybrid electric vehicles combine a primary power source, an energy storage system, and an is used to propel the vehicle during normal drive cycles. The batteries supply additional power for

  13. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications The following technical papers, conference papers, and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hybrid electric fleet vehicle Class 8 Hybrid Electric Delivery Trucks. Mike Lammert. (2011) FedEx Delivery Trucks In-Use and Vehicle

  14. Increasing throughput of multiplexed electrical bus in pipe-lined architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Brezzo, Bernard V; Kapur, Mohit

    2014-05-27

    Techniques are disclosed for increasing the throughput of a multiplexed electrical bus by exploiting available pipeline stages of a computer or other system. For example, a method for increasing a throughput of an electrical bus that connects at least two devices in a system comprises introducing at least one signal hold stage in a signal-receiving one of the two devices, such that a maximum frequency at which the two devices are operated is not limited by a number of cycles of an operating frequency of the electrical bus needed for a signal to propagate from a signal-transmitting one of the two devices to the signal-receiving one of the two devices. Preferably, the signal hold stage introduced in the signal-receiving one of the two devices is a pipeline stage re-allocated from the signal-transmitting one of the two devices.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A wide variety of hybrid electric vehicle models is currently available. Although HEVs are often -go traffic), further improving fuel economy. Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using Hybrid Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric

  16. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua

    2016-01-01

    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  17. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics systems and components, networking and hybrid drive

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the "Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics" technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle. Content Electrical and electronical systems – Basic principles of networking - Examples of networked vehicles – Bus systems – Architecture of electronic systems – Mechatronics – Elektronics – Electronic control Units – Software – Sensors – Actuators – Hybrid drives – Vehicle electrical system – Start...

  18. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus. (author)

  19. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  20. Tohyco-Rider: hybrid bus with super-caps and inductive power transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harri, V.; Carriero, D. [HTA Luzern, Horw (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    The TOHYCO-Rider-Bus was developed during a Swiss research project at HTA Lucerne (University of Applied Sciences of Central Switzerland). Each time, the bus only picks up enough energy to safely reach the next charging station. Instead of common re-chargeable batteries, the TOHYCO-Rider uses electrical high-power capacitors, so-called super-capacitors, as energy storage. In combination with an absolutely non-dangerous, non-contact, inductive energy re-charging system the S-CAPs can be reloaded with a higher efficiency and much more quickly than batteries. Within 3-5 minutes of charging time the vehicle is prepared for its next trip. A further advantage of this concept is that, with the S-CAPs, only the energy supply has to be taken along for the next stop (approx. 300 kg) and not a charge of batteries for the entire day (approx. 2t). Because of the lighter weight, the TOHYCO-Rider is therefore an economically and ecologically interesting mean of transportation. In summer 2004 the TOHYCO-Rider ran in a pilot operation. During three months the mini-bus drove in a time-scheduled operation in the city of Lucerne, with the aim of proving the reliability and fitness of the developed system in daily operation. The test operation was terminated recently and the results were very promising. (authors)

  1. Operational demands as determining factor for electric bus charging infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, R.; Van Den Hoed, R.

    2016-01-01

    Many cities in Europe have ambitious goals when it comes to making their public transport buses emission free. This article outlines the reasoning behind the choices made in the city of Amsterdam with regards to charging infrastructure for electric buses. Emphasising the importance of operational

  2. Electric bus fleet size and mix problem with optimization of charging infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogge, Matthias; van der Hurk, Evelien; Larsen, Allan

    2018-01-01

    Battery electric buses are seen as a well-suited technology for the electrification of road-based public transport. However, the transition process from conventional diesel to electric buses faces major hurdles caused by range limitations and required charging times of battery buses. This work...... addresses these constraints and provides a methodology for the cost-optimized planning of depot charging battery bus fleets and their corresponding charging infrastructure. The defined problem covers the scheduling of battery buses, the fleet composition, and the optimization of charging infrastructure...... in a joint process. Vehicle schedule adjustments are monetized and evaluated together with the investment and operational costs of the bus system. The resulting total cost of ownership enables a comparison of technical alternatives on a system level, which makes this approach especially promising...

  3. Frame analysis of UNNES electric bus chassis construction using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Untoro; Anis, Samsudin; Kusumawardani, Rini; Khoiron, Ahmad Mustamil; Maulana, Syahdan Sigit; Irvandi, Muhammad; Mashdiq, Zia Putra

    2018-03-01

    Designing the chassis needs to be done element simulation analysis to gain chassis strength on an electric bus. The purpose of this research is to get the results of chassis simulation on an electric bus when having load use FEM (Finite element method). This research was conduct in several stages of process, such as modeling chassis by Autodesk Inventor and finite element simulation software. The frame is going to be simulated with static loading by determine fixed support and then will be given the vertical force. The fixed on the frame is clamped at both the front and rear suspensions. After the simulation based on FEM it can conclude that frame is still under elastic zone, until the frame design is safe to use.

  4. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  5. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  6. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  7. Overview of hybrid electric vehicle trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haomiao; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Yingshu; Wang, Yun

    2018-04-01

    With the increase of per capita energy consumption, environmental pollution is worsening. Using new alternative sources of energy, reducing the use of conventional fuel-powered engines is imperative. Due to the short period, pure electric vehicles cannot be mass-produced and there are many problems such as imperfect charging facilities. Therefore, the development of hybrid electric vehicles is particularly important in a certain period. In this paper, the classification of hybrid vehicle, research status of hybrid vehicle and future development trends of hybrid vehicles is introduced. It is conducive to the public understanding of hybrid electric vehicles, which has a certain theoretical significance.

  8. Driving-behavior-aware stochastic model predictive control for plug-in hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Song, Jian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel approximated global optimal energy management strategy has been proposed for hybrid powertrains. • Eight typical driving behaviors have been classified with K-means to deal with the multiplicative traffic conditions. • The stochastic driver models of different driving behaviors were established based on the Markov chains. • ECMS was used to modify the SMPC-based energy management strategy to improve its fuel economy. • The approximated global optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric buses has been verified and analyzed. - Abstract: Driving cycles of a city bus is statistically characterized by some repetitive features, which makes the predictive energy management strategy very desirable to obtain approximate optimal fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric bus. But dealing with the complicated traffic conditions and finding an approximated global optimal strategy which is applicable to the plug-in hybrid electric bus still remains a challenging technique. To solve this problem, a novel driving-behavior-aware modified stochastic model predictive control method is proposed for the plug-in hybrid electric bus. Firstly, the K-means is employed to classify driving behaviors, and the driver models based on Markov chains is obtained under different kinds of driving behaviors. While the obtained driver behaviors are regarded as stochastic disturbance inputs, the local minimum fuel consumption might be obtained with a traditional stochastic model predictive control at each step, taking tracking the reference battery state of charge trajectory into consideration in the finite predictive horizons. However, this technique is still accompanied by some working points with reduced/worsened fuel economy. Thus, the stochastic model predictive control is modified with the equivalent consumption minimization strategy to eliminate these undesirable working points. The results in real-world city bus routines show that the

  9. Analysis of On-Board Photovoltaics for a Battery Electric Bus and Their Impact on Battery Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Mallon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-duty electric powertrains provide a potential solution to the high emissions and low fuel economy of trucks, buses, and other heavy-duty vehicles. However, the cost, weight, and lifespan of electric vehicle batteries limit the implementation of such vehicles. This paper proposes supplementing the battery with on-board photovoltaic modules. In this paper, a bus model is created to analyze the impact of on-board photovoltaics on electric bus range and battery lifespan. Photovoltaic systems that cover the bus roof and bus sides are considered. The bus model is simulated on a suburban bus drive cycle on a bus route in Davis, CA, USA for a representative sample of yearly weather conditions. Roof-mounted panels increased vehicle driving range by 4.7% on average annually, while roof and side modules together increased driving range by 8.9%. However, variations in weather conditions meant that this additional range was not reliably available. For constant vehicle range, rooftop photovoltaic modules extended battery cycle life by up to 10% while modules on both the roof and sides extended battery cycle life by up to 19%. Although side-mounted photovoltaics increased cycle life and range, they were less weight- and cost-effective compared to the roof-mounted panels.

  10. Fuel cell bus operation, system investigation H2 bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The WP covers two tasks: - Prepartion of Technical Catalogue: In cooperation with ICIL, AR have compiled a technical catalogue, providing the impartial descriptions, both of existing technology and regulations, and the likely future developments of these, as to remedy the first problem faced by a potential hydrogen bus fleet operator viz the absence of an impartial description of the available vehicle and fuels systems together with the absence of a description of regulatory and safety factors which need consideration. - Fuel Cell Bus Operation - System Investigation H 2 Bus: The application of fuel cell electric generation systems to hybrid electrical buses or electrical busses without any storage system on board is considered. The task will cover safety and environmental aspects, a cost estimate and a market evaluation. (orig.)

  11. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  12. Electrical engineering unit for the reactive power control of the load bus at the voltage instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenev, A. V.; Kotenev, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. V.; Elkin, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    For the purpose of reactive power control error reduction and decrease of the voltage sags in the electric power system caused by the asynchronous motors started the mathematical model of the load bus was developed. The model was built up of the sub-models of the following elements: a transformer, a transmission line, a synchronous and an asynchronous loads and a capacitor bank load, and represents the automatic reactive power control system taking into account electromagnetic processes of the asynchronous motors started and reactive power changing of the electric power system elements caused by the voltage fluctuation. The active power/time and reactive power/time characteristics based on the recommended procedure of the equivalent electric circuit parameters calculation were obtained. The derived automatic reactive power control system was shown to eliminate the voltage sags in the electric power system caused by the asynchronous motors started.

  13. The Federal electric and hybrid vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The commercial development and use of electric and hybrid vehicles is discussed with respect to its application as a possible alternative transportation system. A market demonstration is described that seeks to place 10,000 electric hybrid vehicles into public and private sector demonstrations.

  14. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  15. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkesson, Anders

    2008-05-01

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  16. Modeling and energy management control design for a fuel cell hybrid passenger bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kyle; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and supervisory energy management design of a hybrid fuel cell/battery-powered passenger bus. With growing concerns about petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, finding alternative methods for vehicle propulsion is necessary. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are viable possibilities for energy converters due to their high efficiencies and zero emissions. It has been shown that the benefits of PEM fuel cell systems can be greatly improved through hybridization. In this work, the challenge of developing an on-board energy management strategy with near-optimal performance is addressed by a two-step process. First, an optimal control based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is implemented to find the global optimal solution which minimizes fuel consumption, for different drive cycles, with and without grade. The optimal solutions are analyzed in order to aid in development of a practical controller suitable for on-board implementation, in the form of an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) regulator. Simulation results show that the ARMA controller is capable of achieving fuel economy within 3% of the PMP controller while being able to limit the transient demand on the fuel cell system.

  17. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  18. Very-low-frequency and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields associated with electric shuttle bus wireless charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tell, R. A.; Kavet, R.; Bailey, J. R.; Halliwell, J.

    2014-01-01

    Tests conducted to date at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) indicate that wireless charging of the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority's (CARTA) downtown shuttle bus, currently operating with off-board battery charging technology, offers significant improvements in performance and cost. The system operates at a frequency of 20 kHz and a peak power of 60 kW. Because the system's wireless charging is expected to occur during a nominal 3-min charging period with passengers on-board, the magnetic and electric fields associated with charging were characterised at UTC's Advanced Vehicle Test Facility and compared with established human exposure limits. The two most prominent exposure limits are those published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Both organisations include limits for groups who are trained (workers in specific industries) to be aware of electromagnetic environments and their potential hazards, as well as a lower set of limits for the general public, who are assumed to lack such awareness. None of the magnetic or electric fields measured either within or outside the bus during charging exceeded either the ICNIRP or the IEEE exposure limits for the general public. (authors)

  19. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  20. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To

  1. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Imagine being able to one that's in a standard hybrid electric vehicle. The larger battery pack allows plug-in hybrids to between fill-ups) that's very similar to the range of a conventional vehicle. A plug-in hybrid vehicle's

  2. Electric Motor-Generator for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odvářka, Erik; Mebarki, Abdeslam; Gerada, David; Brown, Neil; Ondrůšek, Čestmír

    2009-01-01

    Several topologies of electrical machines can be used to meet requirements for application in a hybrid electric vehicle. This paper describes process of an electric motor-generator selection, considering electromagnetic, thermal and basic control design. The requested electrical machine must develop 45 kW in continuous operation at 1300 rpm with field weakening capability up to 2500 rpm. Both radial and axial flux topologies are considered as potential candidates. A family of axial flux machi...

  3. Lifecycle cost assessment and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel, natural gas, hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid and electric transit buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajunen, Antti; Lipman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the lifecycle costs and carbon dioxide emissions of different types of city buses. The simulation models of the different powertrains were developed in the Autonomie vehicle simulation software. The carbon dioxide emissions were calculated both for the bus operation and for the fuel and energy pathways from well to tank. Two different operating environment case scenarios were used for the primary energy sources, which were Finland and California (USA). The fuel and energy pathways were selected appropriately in relation to the operating environment. The lifecycle costs take into account the purchase, operating, maintenance, and possible carbon emission costs. Based on the simulation results, the energy efficiency of city buses can be significantly improved by the alternative powertrain technologies. Hybrid buses have moderately lower carbon dioxide emissions during the service life than diesel buses whereas fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, by up to 75%. The lifecycle cost analysis indicates that diesel hybrid buses are already competitive with diesel and natural gas buses. The high costs of fuel cell and battery systems are the major challenges for the fuel cell hybrid buses in order to reduce lifecycle costs to more competitive levels. - Highlights: • Alternative powertrains can significantly improve energy efficiency of transit buses. • Operating environment has an important impact on the lifecycle costs of buses. • Diesel hybrid buses are already cost effective solution for public transportation. • The cost of fuel cell technology is the major challenge for fuel cell hybrid buses. • Fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  4. Approach to Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Dimensioning for Urban Electric Buses Regarding Efficiency and Battery Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nájera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESS, consisting of a combination of batteries and Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC, for electric urban busses. The aim of the paper is to develop a methodology to determine the hybridization percentage that allows the electric bus to work with the highest efficiency while reducing battery aging, depending on the chosen topology, control strategy, and driving cycle. Three power electronic topologies are qualitatively analyzed based on different criteria, with the topology selected as the favorite being analyzed in detail. The whole system under study is comprised of the following elements: a battery pack (LiFePO4 batteries, an EDLC pack, up to two DC-DC converters (depending on the topology, and an equivalent load, which behaves as an electric bus drive (including motion resistances and inertia. Mathematical models for the battery, EDLCs, DC-DC converter, and the vehicle itself are developed for this analysis. The methodology presented in this work, as the main scientific contribution, considers performance variation (energy efficiency and battery aging and hybridization percentage (ratio between batteries and EDLCs, defined in terms of mass, using a power load profile based on standard driving cycles. The results state that there is a hybridization percentage that increases energy efficiency and reduces battery aging, maximizing the economic benefits of the vehicle, for every combination of topology, type of storage device, control strategy, and driving cycle.

  5. Thermo-electric Analysis of the Interconnection of the LHC main Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Casali, M; Bottura, L; Siemko, A

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the question of the maximum allowable energy for the operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have progressed in the understanding of the thermo-electric behavior of the 13 kA superconducting bus bars interconnecting its main magnets. A deep insight of the underlying mechanisms is required to ensure the protection of the accelerator against undesired effects of resistive transitions. This is especially important in case of defective interconnections which can jeopardize the operation of the whole LHC. In this paper we present a numerical model of the interconnections between the main dipole and quadrupole magnets, validated against experimental tests of an interconnection sample with a purposely built-in defect. We consider defective interconnections featuring a lack of bonding among the superconducting cables and the copper stabilizer components, such as those that could be present in the machine. We evaluate the critical defect length limiting the maximum allowable current for powering th...

  6. Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. PHEVs are powered by an internal combustion engine that

  7. Optimal Charging Schedule Planning and Economic Analysis for Electric Bus Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Ceng Leou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The battery capacity of electric buses (EB used for public transportation is greater than that of electric cars, and the charging power is also several times greater than that used in electric cars; this can result in high energy consumption and negatively impact power distribution networks. This paper proposes a framework to determine the optimal contracted power capacity and charging schedule of an EB charging station in such a way that energy costs can be reduced. A mathematical model of controlled charging, which includes the capacity and energy charges of the station, was developed to minimize costs. The constraints of the model include the charging characteristics of an EB and the operational guidelines of the bus company. A practical EB charging station was used to verify the proposed model. The financial viability of this EB charging station is also studied in this paper. The economic analysis model for this charging station considers investment and operational costs, and the operational revenue. Sensitivity analyses with respect to some key parameters are also performed in this paper. Based on actual operational routes and EB charging schemes, test results indicate that the EB charging station investment is feasible, and the planning model proposed can be used to determine optimal station power capacity and minimize energy costs.

  8. Modification and tuning of diesel bus engine for biogas electricity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittiboon Siripornakarachai

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is to convert and tune a bus diesel engine for electricity production in a farm using biogas as fuel. The engine under study is a Hino K-13CTI 13,000 cc 24 valve turbocharged engine coupled to a 3 phase 4 pole induction motor to produce electricity at 50 Hz. Modifications include an addition of biogas carburetor for air-fuel mixing, replacing the fuel injection system with spark ignition system, reduction of compression ratio from the original 16:1 to 8:1 using a cylinder head spacer, and modification of the turbocharger waste gate so the boost pressure can be adjusted. When the induction motor is synchronized to the power grid, the running speed of the engine is 1,500 rpm. Optimal engine efficiency was achieved at 28.6% by setting the lambda factor at 1.097, ignition timing at 54o before top dead center, and the turbocharger boost at 56 kPa. With this setting, the generator power output is 134.20 kilowatt with emission of CO and NOX being 1,154 and 896 ppm respectively.

  9. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL98-0521 : Development of an Electric Bus Inverter Based on ORNL Auxiliary Resonant Tank (ART) Soft-Switching Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has for many years been developing technologies for power converters for motor drives and many other applications. Some of the research goals are to improve efficiency and reduce audible and electromagnetic interference noise generation for inverters and the driven loads. The converters are being required to produce more power with reduced weight and volume, which requires improvements in heat removal from the electronics, as well as improved circuit designs that have fewer electrical losses. PEEMRC has recently developed and patented a soft-switching inverter topology called an Auxiliary Resonant Tank (ART), and this design has been tested and proven at ORNL using a 10-kW laboratory prototype. The objective of this project was to develop, test, and install the ART inverter technology in an electric transit bus with the final goal of evaluating performance of the ORNL inverter under field conditions in a vehicle. A scaled-up inverter with the capacity to drive a 22-e bus was built based on the 10-kW ORNL laboratory prototype ART soft-switching inverter. Most (if not all) commercially available inverters for traction drive and other applications use hard-switching inverters. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was established with the Chattanooga Area Regional Transit Authority (CARTA), the Electric Transit Vehicle Institute (ETVI), and Advanced Vehicle Systems (AVS), all of Chattanooga, along with ORNL. CARTA, which maintains and operates the public transit system in Chattanooga, provided an area for testing the vehicle alongside other similar vehicles in the normal operating environment. ETVI offers capabilities in standardized testing and reporting and also provides exposure in the electric transit vehicle arena for ORNL's technologies. The third Chattanooga partner, (AVS) manufactures all-electric and hybrid electric transit buses using

  10. Ecodriving for Reduction of Bus Transit Emission with Vehicle’s Hybrid Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzheng Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a global ecodriving optimal control to advise the green driving speed for bus transit to minimize the exhaust emission using Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I communication. Assuming communication between vehicles and infrastructure (V2I and knowledge of traffic signal timings and waiting passengers at stations are known, an optimal driving speed is proposed to minimize the total vehicle emissions of the bus route. The dwell time of the bus transit at each station which includes two parts is proposed. A traffic lights timing model is employed as constraints to control the formation of the green wave band. Vehicle specific power (VSP model is further applied to evaluate the exhaust emission level linked with the speed and acceleration of the bus transit. An approximate sixteen-kilometer traffic network including fourteen intersections and fifteen stations of Beijing bus transit line 1 in Chaoyang District, Beijing, is chosen to investigate the performance of the developed ecodriving approach.

  11. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  12. The hybrid electric vehicle revolution, off road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.E. [ePower Technologies (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In this presentation the author presents concepts and details of hybrid vehicles in general, including their benefits, then describes off-road hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles have been experimented with for over a century. Demonstrator vehicles include a diesel-electric tractor, an electric lawn tractor, a hybrid snow thrower, and a hybrid wheel loader. A duty cycle for the loader is shown with battery-assisted acceleration, and regenerative braking. Both of these keep the size of the engine small, the loads on it less variable, thus improving fuel economy. A hybrid excavator and its duty cycle is shown. A fuel cell lift truck that is currently in design is illustrated. The author then describes the possibilities of the hydrogen economy where sourcing and infrastructure are yet to be demonstrated on a commercial scale. The author predicts that off-road hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will be commercially viable five years before on-road applications. The author predicts hydrogen sourced from biogas, photovoltaics, and wind power. tabs, figs.

  13. INNOVATIVE HYBRID GAS/ELECTRIC CHILLER COGENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Kollross; Mike Connolly

    2004-06-30

    Engine-driven chillers are quickly gaining popularity in the market place (increased from 7,000 tons in 1994 to greater than 50,000 tons in 1998) due to their high efficiency, electric peak shaving capability, and overall low operating cost. The product offers attractive economics (5 year pay back or less) in many applications, based on areas cooling requirements and electric pricing structure. When heat is recovered and utilized from the engine, the energy resource efficiency of a natural gas engine-driven chiller is higher than all competing products. As deregulation proceeds, real time pricing rate structures promise high peak demand electric rates, but low off-peak electric rates. An emerging trend with commercial building owners and managers who require air conditioning today is to reduce their operating costs by installing hybrid chiller systems that combine gas and electric units. Hybrid systems not only reduce peak electric demand charges, but also allow customers to level their energy load profiles and select the most economical energy source, gas or electricity, from hour to hour. Until recently, however, all hybrid systems incorporated one or more gas-powered chillers (engine driven and/or absorption) and one or more conventional electric units. Typically, the cooling capacity of hybrid chiller plants ranges from the hundreds to thousands of refrigeration tons, with multiple chillers affording the user a choice of cooling systems. But this flexibility is less of an option for building operators who have limited room for equipment. To address this technology gap, a hybrid chiller was developed by Alturdyne that combines a gas engine, an electric motor and a refrigeration compressor within a single package. However, this product had not been designed to realize the full features and benefits possible by combining an engine, motor/generator and compressor. The purpose of this project is to develop a new hybrid chiller that can (1) reduce end-user energy

  14. Velocity trajectory optimization in Hybrid Electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Jager, B. de; Foster, D.L.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) enable fuel savings by re-using kinetic and potential energy that was recovered and stored in a battery during braking or driving down hill. Besides, the vehicle itself can be seen as a storage device, where kinetic energy can be stored and retrieved by changing the

  15. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  16. Thermo-electric analysis of the interconnection of the LHC main superconducting bus bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, P. P.; Breschi, M.; Casali, M.; Bottura, L.; Siemko, A.

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the question of the maximum allowable energy for the operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have progressed in the understanding of the thermo-electric behavior of the 13 kA superconducting bus bars interconnecting its main magnets. A deep insight of the underlying mechanisms is required to ensure the protection of the accelerator against undesired effects of resistive transitions. This is especially important in case of defective interconnections which can jeopardize the operation of the whole LHC. In this paper we present a numerical model of the interconnections between the main dipole and quadrupole magnets, validated against experimental tests of an interconnection sample with a purposely built-in defect. We consider defective interconnections featuring a lack of bonding among the superconducting cables and the copper stabilizer components, such as those that could be present in the machine. We evaluate the critical defect length limiting the maximum allowable current for powering the magnets. We determine the dependence of the critical defect length on different parameters as the heat transfer towards the cooling helium bath, the quality of manufacturing, the operating conditions and the protection system parameters, and discuss the relevant mechanisms.

  17. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  18. Plug-in vs. wireless charging: Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an electric bus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Zicheng; Song, Lingjun; De Kleine, Robert; Mi, Chunting Chris; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this study, plug-in and wireless charging for an all-electric bus system are compared from the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions perspectives. The comparison of life cycle GHG emissions is shown in the graph below. The major differences between the two systems, including the charger, battery and use-phase electricity consumption, are modeled separately and compared aggregately. In the base case, the wireless charging system consumes 0.3% less energy and emits 0.5% less greenhouse gases than plug-in charging system in the total life cycle. To further improve the energy and environmental performance of the wireless charging system, key parameters including grid carbon intensity and wireless charging efficiency are analyzed and discussed in this paper. - Highlights: • Compared life cycle energy and GHG emissions of wireless to plug-in charging. • Modeled a transit bus system to compare both charging methods as a case study. • Contrasted tradeoffs of infrastructure burdens with lightweighting benefits. • The wireless battery can be downsized to 27–44% of a plug-in charged battery. • Explored sensitivity of wireless charging efficiency & grid carbon intensity. - Abstract: Wireless charging, as opposed to plug-in charging, is an alternative charging method for electric vehicles (EVs) with rechargeable batteries and can be applicable to EVs with fixed routes, such as transit buses. This study adds to the current research of EV wireless charging by utilizing the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive framework for comparing the life cycle energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with a stationary wireless charging all-electric bus system to a plug-in charging all-electric bus system. Life cycle inventory analysis of both plug-in and wireless charging hardware was conducted, and battery downsizing, vehicle lightweighting and use-phase energy consumption were modeled. A bus system in Ann Arbor

  19. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Fueling and Driving Options Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle batteries can be charged by an outside sized hybrid electric vehicle. If the vehicle is driven a shorter distance than its all-electric range drives the wheels almost all of the time, but the vehicle can switch to work like a parallel hybrid at

  1. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  2. SPFC bus design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, L.; Reinkingh, J.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study assessing the design options for a solid polymer fuel cell bus. Commercial and operation requirements, environmental and market drivers, and fuel processor modeling are examined. Power train specifications and detailed system design are investigated covering fuel cell system dynamic response, hybrid system size, fuel cell system start-up time, system specifications, and hybrid bus component dimensions and costs. (UK)

  3. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  4. A hybrid model for electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity prices were highly regulated prior to the deregulation of the electric power industry. Prices were predictable, allowing generators and wholesalers to calculate their production costs and revenues. With deregulation, electricity has become the most volatile of all commodities. Electricity must be consumed as soon as it is generated due to the inability to store it in any sufficient quantity. Economic uncertainty exists because the supply of electricity cannot shift as quickly as the demand, which is highly variable. When demand increases quickly, the price must respond. Therefore, price spikes occur that are orders of magnitude higher than the base electricity price. This paper presents a robust and realistic model for spot market electricity prices used to manage risk in volatile markets. The model is a hybrid of a top down data driven method commonly used for financial applications, and a bottom up system driven method commonly used in regulated electricity markets. The advantage of the model is that it incorporates primary system drivers and demonstrates their effects on final prices. The 4 primary modules of the model are: (1) a model for forced outages, (2) a model for maintenance outages, (3) an electrical load model, and (4) a price model which combines the results of the previous 3 models. The performance of each model was tested. The forced outage model is the first of its kind to simulate the system on an aggregate basis using Weibull distributions. The overall spot price model was calibrated to, and tested with, data from the electricity market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The model performed well in simulated market prices and adapted readily to changing system conditions and new electricity markets. This study examined the pricing of derivative contracts on electrical power. It also compared a range of portfolio scenarios using a Cash Flow at Risk approach

  5. A hybrid model for electricity spot prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.L.D.

    2004-07-01

    Electricity prices were highly regulated prior to the deregulation of the electric power industry. Prices were predictable, allowing generators and wholesalers to calculate their production costs and revenues. With deregulation, electricity has become the most volatile of all commodities. Electricity must be consumed as soon as it is generated due to the inability to store it in any sufficient quantity. Economic uncertainty exists because the supply of electricity cannot shift as quickly as the demand, which is highly variable. When demand increases quickly, the price must respond. Therefore, price spikes occur that are orders of magnitude higher than the base electricity price. This paper presents a robust and realistic model for spot market electricity prices used to manage risk in volatile markets. The model is a hybrid of a top down data driven method commonly used for financial applications, and a bottom up system driven method commonly used in regulated electricity markets. The advantage of the model is that it incorporates primary system drivers and demonstrates their effects on final prices. The 4 primary modules of the model are: (1) a model for forced outages, (2) a model for maintenance outages, (3) an electrical load model, and (4) a price model which combines the results of the previous 3 models. The performance of each model was tested. The forced outage model is the first of its kind to simulate the system on an aggregate basis using Weibull distributions. The overall spot price model was calibrated to, and tested with, data from the electricity market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The model performed well in simulated market prices and adapted readily to changing system conditions and new electricity markets. This study examined the pricing of derivative contracts on electrical power. It also compared a range of portfolio scenarios using a Cash Flow at Risk approach.

  6. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  7. Study and Analysis of Congestion Management in Hybrid Electric Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayed Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The congestion management system is a systematic approach, collaboratively developed and implemented throughout a metropolitan region that provides for the safe and effective management and operation of new and existing transportation facilities through the use of demand reduction and operational management strat­e­gies. In this paper we try to present some points which should be investigated in congestion management problems. We calculate different kinds of congestion problems which may be occurred in our network. Here, the hybrid model is used to solve problems in the electricity market to solve the congestion problem in the network and Benders techniques is used together with an optimal power flow (OPF. In fact, by using of Benders algorithm the problem is divided into two major and minor problems. Therefore, the major problem related to the economy sector and no network is included and the minor problem is to solve the network and examine the accuracy of the network. Benders algorithm has been tested on a standard network IEEE 24 bus and Matlab software is used to implement the algorithm.

  8. Power Management of the DC Bus Connected Converters in a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid Tied to the Main Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Antonio Salas-Puente

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a centralized control strategy for the efficient power management of power converters composing a hybrid AC/DC microgrid is explained. The study is focused on the converters connected to the DC bus. The proposed power management algorithm is implemented in a microgrid central processor which is based on assigning several operation functions to each of the generators, loads and energy storage systems in the microgrid. The power flows between the DC and AC buses are studied in several operational scenarios to verify the proposed control. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm allows control of the power dispatch inside the microgrid properly by performing the following tasks: communication among power converters, the grid operator and loads; connection and disconnection of loads; control of the power exchange between the distributed generators and the energy storage system and, finally, supervision of the power dispatch limit set by the grid operator.

  9. Bus systems in motor vehicles; Bussysteme im Kfz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schule, Roland

    2008-07-01

    There is hardly any modern vehicle without a bus system. This interactive learning software explains why electric and electronic systems in motor vehicles should be linked and uses various bus types to illustrate the various alternatives, bus structures, and data types. The physical side of bus systems is gone into, the data structure is explained, and the various bus typologies are outlined. From the fundamentals of bus systems, the software proceeds to present the most important bus systems and their main properties. Subjects: Diagnosis bus, LIN bus, CAN bus, MOST bus, Bluetooth. The bus systems EIA-485, LVDS, D{sup 2}B, byteflight, and Flexray are briefly characterised. (orig.)

  10. A solution to energy and environmental problems of electric power system using hybrid harmony search-random search optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Kumar Kamboj

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, global warming and carbon dioxide (CO2 emission reduction have become important issues in India, as CO2 emission levels are continuing to rise in accordance with the increased volume of Indian national energy consumption under the pressure of global warming, it is crucial for Indian government to impose the effective policy to promote CO2 emission reduction. Challenge of supplying the nation with high quality and reliable electrical energy at a reasonable cost, converted government policy into deregulation and restructuring environment. This research paper presents aims to presents an effective solution for energy and environmental problems of electric power using an efficient and powerful hybrid optimization algorithm: Hybrid Harmony search-random search algorithm. The proposed algorithm is tested for standard IEEE-14 bus, -30 bus and -56 bus system. The effectiveness of proposed hybrid algorithm is compared with others well known evolutionary, heuristics and meta-heuristics search algorithms. For multi-objective unit commitment, it is found that as there are conflicting relationship between cost and emission, if the performance in cost criterion is improved, performance in the emission is seen to deteriorate.

  11. Hybrid Electric Propulsion Technologies for Commercial Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Jankovsky, Amy

    2016-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate has set strategic research thrusts to address the major drivers of aviation such as growth in demand for high-speed mobility, addressing global climate and capitalizing in the convergence of technological advances. Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the key strategic research thrust and drives the search for alternative and greener propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The Hybrid Gas-Electric Subproject in the Advanced Air Transportation Project is energizing the transport class landscape by accepting the technical challenge of identifying and validating a transport class aircraft with net benefit from hybrid propulsion. This highly integrated aircraft of the future will only happen if airframe expertise from NASA Langley, modeling and simulation expertise from NASA Ames, propulsion expertise from NASA Glenn, and the flight research capabilities from NASA Armstrong are brought together to leverage the rich capabilities of U.S. Industry and Academia.

  12. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

  13. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczur-Uermoessy, G. [DAUG Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, Esslingen (Germany)

    1998-03-30

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g. nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries. (orig.)

  14. Development of an Integrated Cooling System Controller for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid electrical bus employs both a turbo diesel engine and an electric motor to drive the vehicle in different speed-torque scenarios. The cooling system for such a vehicle is particularly power costing because it needs to dissipate heat from not only the engine, but also the intercooler and the motor. An electronic control unit (ECU has been designed with a single chip computer, temperature sensors, DC motor drive circuit, and optimized control algorithm to manage the speeds of several fans for efficient cooling using a nonlinear fan speed adjustment strategy. Experiments suggested that the continuous operating performance of the ECU is robust and capable of saving 15% of the total electricity comparing with ordinary fan speed control method.

  15. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  17. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  18. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  19. Electric and hybrid vehicle technology: TOPTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between 'refueling' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of 'Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  20. New drive axles for hybrid applications in low-floor city busses. The electric axle AVE 130; Neue Antriebsachse fuer Hybridapplikationen in Niederflur-Stadtbussen. Die Elektroachse AVE 130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solka, Ulrich [ZF Passau GmbH (Germany); Mueller, Axel M. [ZF Friedrichshafen AG (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the mechanically constructional structure of the electrically driven low-floor axle AVE 130 of ZF Friedrichshafen AG (Friedrichshafen, Federal Republic of Germany). The characteristics of the electric drive are presented with the particularities of the implemented asynchronous machine and the road performances which can be developed by a city bus using this axle. Also the system characteristics of a hybrid bus with serial hybrid drive system concerning to aggregate arrangement, mass balances and the interaction of the aggregates in the drive briefly are discussed. The results of numerical simulation regarding fuel saving potential in these systems round the remarks off.

  1. Visions of the Future: Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investing continually in improving civil aviation. Hybridization of aircraft propulsion is one aspect of a technology suite which will transform future aircraft. In this context, hybrid propulsion is considered a combination of traditional gas turbine propulsion and electric drive enabled propulsion. This technology suite includes elements of propulsion and airframe integration, parallel hybrid shaft power, turbo-electric generation, electric drive systems, component development, materials development and system integration at multiple levels.

  2. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  3. Minimization of Construction Costs for an All Battery-Swapping Electric-Bus Transportation System: Comparison with an All Plug-In System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Chyuan Fang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. Electric-bus (e-bus transportation systems help reduce pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO, a genetic algorithm (GA, and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was shown to be lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system.

  4. Electrical Load Survey and Forecast for a Decentralized Hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical Load Survey and Forecast for a Decentralized Hybrid Power System at Elebu, Kwara State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The paper reports the results of electrical load demand and forecast for Elebu rural community ...

  5. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  6. Practical experience with IEEE 1588 high precision time synchronization in electrical substation based on IEC 61850 process bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.; Goraj, M.J.; McGhee, J. [RuggedCom Inc., Concord, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a time synchronization and dynamic multicast filtering procedure conducted on an IEC 61850 process bus. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic (IEEE) 1588 time synchronization and dynamic multicast filtering procedure was conducted at a substation equipped with non-conventional instrument transformers (NCIT) and intelligent circuit breakers. The process bus interconnected IEDs within a bay that included a real time sampled value (SV) measurement system. The system was designed to reduce the use of copper wiring and to eliminate high energy signal processes. Digitized sampled measured values were sent from the electronic instrument transformers to protect and control relays. A merging unit was used to enable the transmission of the digitized current and voltage measurements across an ethernet network. Two sampling rates were supplied for power system monitoring and protection applications. The merging units continuously sent sampling values of current and voltages acquired from primary equipment. Precision time protocol systems were discussed, and issues related to time synchronization were reviewed. A network topology was provided. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  8. Hybrid-electric propulsion for automotive and aviation applications

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, C; Robertson, Paul Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In parallel with the automotive industry, hybrid-electric propulsion is becoming a viable alternative propulsion technology for the aviation sector and reveals potential advantages including fuel savings, lower pollution, and reduced noise emission. Hybrid-electric propulsion systems can take advantage of the synergy between two technologies by utilizing both internal combustion engines and electric motors together, each operating at their respective optimum conditions...

  9. Parameter Design for the Energy Regeneration System of Series Hydraulic Hybrid Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yunpu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper simplifies the energy recovery process in the series hydraulic hybrid bus’ energy regeneration system into a process in which the main axle’s moment of inertia drives the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor and brings hydraulic oil from the oil tank to the accumulator. This process enables braking of the vehicle and also allows recovery of energy to the accumulator. Based on the flow equation for the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor and the torque equilibrium equation for its axle, the force equilibrium equation for vehicle braking and the pressure variation and flow continuity equations for the accumulator, simulation studies are conducted to analyze the effects of various system parameters, such as accumulator capacity, displacement of the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor, initial operating pressure of the system, etc. on system performance during regenerative braking.

  10. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Luis M.; Garcia, Pablo; Garcia, Carlos Andres; Jurado, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. → Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. → New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. → Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  11. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Luis M., E-mail: luis.fernandez@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Carlos Andres, E-mail: carlosandres.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Jurado, Francisco, E-mail: fjurado@ujaen.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Linares, University of Jaen, C/Alfonso X, No. 28. 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. {yields} Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. {yields} New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. {yields} Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  12. Rethinking impact evaluation and carbon reduction analysis on electric bus vehicles in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Li, Chao; Liao, Kai; Yin, Zhifang

    2018-02-01

    New energy bus vehicles (NEBVs) are expanding in China, but they have some problems such as technology, high cost and safety etc., thus NEBVs should be comprehensively evaluated from costs, technologies, environment, and based on the evaluation results, some changes should be improved. This paper firstly analyses the current status of both vehicle development and existing policies, identifies the main characteristics and the main problems in term of the economic, standard, policy, etc., by scenario analysis, forecasts the future growth from now to 2030 and calculates the emission reduction in low level scenario and high level scenario. In 2020 and 2030, 6 million and 24 million ton of CO2 emission will be reduced respectively. Finally, the paper makes a conclusion of Chinese experiences and gives some measures for the future development.

  13. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  14. DIAGNOSTICS CONCEPTION OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE OF A HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Borodenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual approach to creat the diagnostic system of the power elements of the electric drive of the hybrid vehicle has been considered. Approbation of the imitation model of electric drive with brushless DC electric motor as a diagnostic object has been carried out.

  15. Research on minimum sound specifications for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    This report documents research by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to identify ways : to develop sound specifications for electric and hybrid vehicles. The research was conducted to support activities : related to the implem...

  16. Research on Energy Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the fuel economy and reduce emissions of hybrid electric vehicles, energy management strategy has received high attention. In this paper, by analyzing the deficiency of existing energy management strategy for hybrid cars, it not only puts forward the minimal equivalent fuel consumption adaptive strategy, but also is the first time to consider the driving dynamics target simultaneously, and to explain the future development direction of China’s hybrid energy management strategy.

  17. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  18. Application-Oriented Optimal Shift Schedule Extraction for a Dual-Motor Electric Bus with Automated Manual Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The conventional battery electric buses (BEBs have limited potential to optimize the energy consumption and reach a better dynamic performance. A practical dual-motor equipped with 4-speed Automated Manual Transmission (AMT propulsion system is proposed, which can eliminate the traction interruption in conventional AMT. A discrete model of the dual-motor-AMT electric bus (DMAEB is built and used to optimize the gear shift schedule. Dynamic programming (DP algorithm is applied to find the optimal results where the efficiency and shift time of each gear are considered to handle the application problem of global optimization. A rational penalty factor and a proper shift time delay based on bench test results are set to reduce the shift frequency by 82.5% in Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle (C-WTVC. Two perspectives of applicable shift rule extraction methods, i.e., the classification method based on optimal operating points and clustering method based on optimal shifting points, are explored and compared. Eventually, the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL simulation results demonstrate that the proposed structure and extracted shift schedule can realize a significant improvement in reducing energy loss by 20.13% compared to traditional empirical strategies.

  19. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  20. Personal Rotorcraft Design and Performance with Electric Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent and projected improvements for more or all-electric aviation propulsion systems can enable greater personal mobility, while also reducing environmental impact (noise and emissions). However, all-electric energy storage capability is significantly less than present, hydrocarbon-fueled systems. A system study was performed exploring design and performance assuming hybrid propulsion ranging from traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (gasoline Otto and diesel) to all-electric systems using electric motors generators, with batteries for energy storage and load leveling. Study vehicles were a conventional, single-main rotor (SMR) helicopter and an advanced vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew); the design range for the VTOL aircraft was set to 150 miles (about one hour total flight). Search and rescue (SAR), loiter, and cruise-dominated missions were chosen to illustrate each vehicle and degree of hybrid propulsion strengths and weaknesses. The traditional, SMR helicopter is a hover-optimized design; electric hybridization was performed assuming a parallel hybrid approach by varying degree of hybridization. Many of the helicopter hybrid propulsion combinations have some mission capabilities that might be effective for short range or on-demand mobility missions. However, even for 30 year technology electrical components, all hybrid propulsion systems studied result in less available fuel, lower maximum range, and reduced hover and loiter duration than the baseline vehicle. Results for the VTOL aircraft were more encouraging. Series hybrid combinations reflective of near-term systems could improve range and loiter duration by 30. Advanced, higher performing series hybrid combinations could double or almost triple the VTOL aircrafts range and loiter duration. Additional details on the study assumptions and work performed are given, as well as suggestions for future study effort.

  1. Development of hybrid genetic-algorithm-based neural networks using regression trees for modeling air quality inside a public transportation bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Akhil; Kaur, Devinder; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-02-01

    The present study developed a novel approach to modeling indoor air quality (IAQ) of a public transportation bus by the development of hybrid genetic-algorithm-based neural networks (also known as evolutionary neural networks) with input variables optimized from using the regression trees, referred as the GART approach. This study validated the applicability of the GART modeling approach in solving complex nonlinear systems by accurately predicting the monitored contaminants of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), 0.3-0.4 microm sized particle numbers, 0.4-0.5 microm sized particle numbers, particulate matter (PM) concentrations less than 1.0 microm (PM10), and PM concentrations less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) inside a public transportation bus operating on 20% grade biodiesel in Toledo, OH. First, the important variables affecting each monitored in-bus contaminant were determined using regression trees. Second, the analysis of variance was used as a complimentary sensitivity analysis to the regression tree results to determine a subset of statistically significant variables affecting each monitored in-bus contaminant. Finally, the identified subsets of statistically significant variables were used as inputs to develop three artificial neural network (ANN) models. The models developed were regression tree-based back-propagation network (BPN-RT), regression tree-based radial basis function network (RBFN-RT), and GART models. Performance measures were used to validate the predictive capacity of the developed IAQ models. The results from this approach were compared with the results obtained from using a theoretical approach and a generalized practicable approach to modeling IAQ that included the consideration of additional independent variables when developing the aforementioned ANN models. The hybrid GART models were able to capture majority of the variance in the monitored in-bus contaminants. The genetic

  2. The integration of electrical axle drives in hybrid vehicle and electric vehicles; Die Integration elektrischer Achsantriebe in Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Heinz [hofer eds GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In the following contribution the advantages of a high integrated electrical axle module will be explained. Furthermore different electrical machines will be introduced and the specific operational behavior will be described. After a short introduction regarding the utilization of electrical machines some proposals regarding the gear ratio will be given. At the end a novel hybrid transmission with electrical power split will be introduced. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of the Fuel Efficiency of a Hybrid Electric Drive with an Electric Power Splitter

    OpenAIRE

    D. Čundev

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the fuel efficiency of a hybrid electric car drive, with an electric power splitter based on a double rotor synchronous permanent magnet generator. The results have been obtained through a precisely determined mathematical model and by simulating the characteristics of all essential values for the entire drive. This work is related to the experimental working stand for electric and hybrid car drive research, which has been developed at the Fac...

  4. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  5. THE ELECTRIC DRIVE FOR A CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bazhinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of converting a car with an internal combustion engine and manual transmission in a hybrid is regarded. Is regarded the technique of choosing the parameters of the electric and simple technical solution to achieve the efficient operation of the brushless electric motor in the traction mode and into recovery mode.

  6. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Veen, W.R. ter; Raadschelders, J.W.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    2000-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the requirements on batteries are very different from those for battery electric vehicles (BEV). A high power (bipolar) lead-acid battery could be a good alternative for other types of batteries under development for this application. It is potentially cheap and

  7. Manitoba plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoemsen, R. [Red River College, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Parsons, R. [Government of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Centre for Emerging Renewable Energy

    2010-07-01

    Manitoba has low electricity rates, the highest proportion of renewables, and a legislated commitment to reduce greenhouse gases. However, the province still relies heavily on oil as everyone else. The mix of energy opportunities in Manitoba were highlighted in this presentation, with particular reference to the commercialization of electric vehicles. Several photographs were presented of the Toyota plug-in hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid electric demonstration vehicle. A demonstration project overview was offered that used technology from A123 Systems Inc. The conversion module and vehicle users were profiled. Topics that were presented related to the demonstration project included monitoring; gasoline fuel economy results; fuel economy variability; cold weather operation; cold weather issues; battery upgrade solutions; and highly qualified personnel. It was concluded that in terms of follow-up, there is a need to combine findings of current plug-in hybrid electric vehicle demonstration with those for the new Toyota production plug-in hybrid vehicles. Key next steps for the demonstration are to address cabin heating requirements; better characterizing winter performance; and implementation of IPLC units on all plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for electricity consumption. figs.

  8. Sensorless Suitability Analysis of Hybrid PM Machines for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben Nørregaard; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    Electrical machines for traction in electric vehicles are an essential component which attract attention with respect to machine design and control as a part of the emerging renewable industry. For the hybrid electric machine to replace the familiar behaviour of the combustion engine torque......, control seems necessary to implement. For hybrid permanent magnet (PM) machines torque control in an indirect fashion using dq-current control is frequently done. This approach requires knowledge about the machine shaft position which may be obtained sensorless. In this article a method based on accurate...

  9. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minjie [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zhaoguang [State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  10. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Minjie; Hu, Zhaoguang; Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  11. Electric energy storage systems for future hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, Hans; Huelshorst, Thomas [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Elektrochemische Energiewandlung und Speichersystemtechnik, ISEA, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Electric energy storage systems play a key role in today's and even more in future hybrid and electric vehicles. They enable new additional functionalities like Start/Stop, regenerative braking or electric boost and pure electric drive. This article discusses properties and requirements of battery systems like power provision, energy capacity, life time as a function of the hybrid concepts and the real operating conditions of the today's and future hybrid drivetrains. Battery cell technology, component sizing, system design, operating strategy safety measures and diagnosis, modularity and vehicle integration are important battery development topics. A final assessment will draw the conclusion that future drivetrain concepts with higher degree of electrician will be significantly dependent on the progress of battery technology. (orig.)

  12. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Cheng; Le Sun; Giuseppe Buja; Lihua Song

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs). Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator perm...

  13. System design and energetic characterization of a four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid electric powertrain for heavy-duty applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Enhua; Guo, Di; Yang, Fuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid powertrain is proposed. • A system model and a rule-based control strategy are designed. • Energetic performance is compared to a rear-wheel-driven hybrid powertrain. • Less torsional oscillation and more robust regenerative braking are achieved. - Abstract: Powertrain topology design is vital for system performance of a hybrid electric vehicle. In this paper, a novel four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid electric powertrain is proposed. A motor is connected to the differential of the rear axle. An auxiliary power unit is linked to the differential of the front axle via a clutch. First, a mathematical model was established to evaluate the fuel-saving potential. A rule-based energy management algorithm was subsequently designed, and its working parameters were optimized. The hybrid powertrain system was applied to a transit bus, and the system characteristics were analyzed. Compared to an existing coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain, the fuel economy of the four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid powertrain can be at the same level under normal road conditions. However, the proposed four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid powertrain can recover braking energy more efficiently under road conditions with a low adhesive coefficient and can alleviate the torsional oscillation occurring at the existing coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain. Therefore, the four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid powertrain is a good solution for transit buses toward more robust performance.

  14. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Ridwan Arief; Hartanto, Agus; Susanti, Vita

    2012-01-01

    The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the probl...

  15. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, H.; Sousa, T.; Soares, J.; Faria, P.; Vale, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition fuel shifting demand response programs applied to the electric vehicles. • Integration of the proposed fuel shifting in energy resource management algorithm. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the consumption increasing. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the electric vehicles growing. • Sensitivity analysis considering different electric vehicles penetration levels. - Abstract: In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems’ operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles’ charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services. This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting into the network. These programs are included in an energy resources management algorithm which integrates the management of other resources. The paper presents a case study considering a 37-bus distribution network with 25 distributed generators, 1908 consumers, and 2430 plug-in vehicles. Two scenarios are tested, namely a scenario with high photovoltaic generation, and a scenario without photovoltaic generation. A sensitivity analyses is performed in order to evaluate when each energy resource is required

  16. Integrated powertrain control for hybrid electric vehicles with electric variable transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Foster, D.L.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The electric variable transmission (EVT) offers a powersplit for hybrid electric vehicles by integrating two motor/ generator sets into one electric machine. This double rotor concept implements a continuously variable transmission between the engine and the driveline, including the possibility for

  17. Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yuan-Yong; Lu, Shao-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a successful design and implement of a shunt-winding hybrid electric motorcycle management system which utilizes an electronic control unit (ECU) to integrate two major subsystems together, one being the traditional system of 125 c.c. internal combustion engine and the other an electric power motor. The hybrid electric motorcycle is assembled together robustly by these two major subsystems and eventually leads to successful road tests. The hybrid power system thus implemented can recharge its own batteries with electricity provided by the electrical recharge system and thus increasing the cruising mileages largely. The testing results obtained by using the proposed experimental platform indicate that lead-acid cells can boost their state of charge (SOC) by approximately 4% when it is operated under the hybrid mode for four driving cycles (about 1600 s) with the recharger on in a standard ECE-40 testing procedure. The results of road tests also clearly show that the pollutant emissions of the engine can be reduced at a lower speed or idling condition, and the problem of insufficient cruising range for electric motorcycles can also be greatly enhanced.

  18. Impact Safety Control Strategy for the Battery System of an Example Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-po Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a side impact safety control strategy for the battery system, aiming at defusing the hazards of unacceptable behaviors of the battery system such as high-voltage hazards. Based on some collision identification metrics, a side impact discrimination algorithm and a side impact severity algorithm are developed for electric buses. Based on the study on the time to break for power battery, the side impact discrimination algorithm response time is about 20 ms posing a great challenge to the side impact discrimination algorithm. At the same time, the reliability of the impact safety control strategy developed in this paper is evaluated for other plausible side impact signals generated by finite element analysis. The results verify that the impact safety control strategy exhibits robust performance and is able to trigger a breaking signal for power battery system promptly and accurately.

  19. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected......‐2013). Also the power capabilities may increase meaning that e.g. acceleration capabilities will improve as well as the top speed. This development occurs due to new battery technology that may experience substantial improvements in the coming years. When looking at plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles...... developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...

  20. Hybrid systems to address seasonal mismatches between electricity production and demand in nuclear renewable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to enable zero-carbon variable electricity production with full utilization of renewable and nuclear energy sources has been developed. Wind and solar systems send electricity to the grid. Nuclear plants operate at full capacity with variable steam to turbines to match electricity demand with production (renewables and nuclear). Excess steam at times of low electricity prices and electricity demand go to hybrid fuel production and storage systems. The characteristic of these hybrid technologies is that the economic penalties for variable nuclear steam inputs are small. Three hybrid systems were identified that could be deployed at the required scale. The first option is the gigawatt-year hourly-to-seasonal heat storage system where excess steam from the nuclear plant is used to heat rock a kilometer underground to create an artificial geothermal heat source. The heat source produces electricity on demand using geothermal technology. The second option uses steam from the nuclear plant and electricity from the grid with high-temperature electrolysis (HTR) cells to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is primarily for industrial applications; however, the HTE can be operated in reverse using hydrogen for peak electricity production. The third option uses variable steam and electricity for shale oil production. -- Highlights: •A system is proposed to meet variable hourly to seasonal electricity demand. •Variable solar and wind electricity sent to the grid. •Base-load nuclear plants send variable steam for electricity and hybrid systems. •Hybrid energy systems can economically absorb gigawatts of variable steam. •Hybrid systems include geothermal heat storage, hydrogen, and shale-oil production

  1. Analysis of the Fuel Efficiency of a Hybrid Electric Drive with an Electric Power Splitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Čundev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the fuel efficiency of a hybrid electric car drive, with an electric power splitter based on a double rotor synchronous permanent magnet generator. The results have been obtained through a precisely determined mathematical model and by simulating the characteristics of all essential values for the entire drive. This work is related to the experimental working stand for electric and hybrid car drive research, which has been developed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FEE at CTU in Prague. 

  2. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  3. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  4. Optimization of transit bus fleet's life cycle assessment impacts with alternative fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Tolga; Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer; Pazour, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Public transportation is one of the most promising transportation modes to reduce the environmental emissions of the transportation sector in the U.S. In order to mitigate the environmental impacts brought by the transit bus system, new energy buses are introduced into the vehicle market. The goal of this study is to find an optimal bus fleet combination for different driving conditions to minimize life cycle cost, greenhouse gas emissions, and conventional air pollutant emission impacts. For this purpose, a Multi-Objective Linear Programming approach is used to select the optimum bus fleet combinations. Given different weight scenarios, this method could effectively provide solutions for decision makers with various budget constraints or emission reduction requirements. The results indicate that in heavily congested driving cycles such as the Manhattan area, the battery electric bus is the dominant vehicle type, while the hybrid bus has more balanced performances in most scenarios because of its lower initial investment comparing to battery electric buses. Petroleum powered buses have seldom been selected by the model. The trade-off analysis shows that the overall greenhouse gas impact performance is sensitive to the life cycle cost after certain points, which could provide valuable information for the bus fleet combination planning. - Highlights: • Hybrid-Life Cycle Assessment analysis approach for transit bus operations. • Optimizing the economic and sustainability impacts of transit bus fleet operation. • CO 2 emissions and other air pollutants related health and environmental damage cost. • Trade-offs between CO 2 emissions and cost of transit bus fleet operation.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. Hybrid Electric Vehicles Icon cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select Fuel/Technology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Propane (LPG) Next Vehicle Cost

  6. Solving Bi-Objective Optimal Power Flow using Hybrid method of Biogeography-Based Optimization and Differential Evolution Algorithm: A case study of the Algerian Electrical Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafa Herbadji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new hybrid metaheuristique algorithm based on the hybridization of Biogeography-based optimization with the Differential Evolution for solving the optimal power flow problem with emission control. The biogeography-based optimization (BBO algorithm is strongly influenced by equilibrium theory of island biogeography, mainly through two steps: Migration and Mutation. Differential Evolution (DE is one of the best Evolutionary Algorithms for global optimization. The hybridization of these two methods is used to overcome traps of local optimal solutions and problems of time consumption. The objective of this paper is to minimize the total fuel cost of generation, total emission, total real power loss and also maintain an acceptable system performance in terms of limits on generator real power, bus voltages and power flow of transmission lines. In the present work, BBO/DE has been applied to solve the optimal power flow problems on IEEE 30-bus test system and the Algerian electrical network 114 bus. The results obtained from this method show better performances compared with DE, BBO and other well known metaheuristique and evolutionary optimization methods.

  7. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

  8. Simulation of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems for variable electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandoni, C.; Renzi, M.; Caresana, F.; Polonara, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) unit and a solar energy conversion device. In addition to a traditional PV system, a High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) device, the design of which is suitable for building integration application, was also modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. The work identifies the optimal management strategies for the hybrid renewable system in an effort to minimise the primary energy usage, the carbon dioxide emissions and the operational costs for variable electricity prices that result from the day-ahead electricity market. An “ad hoc” model describes the performance of the HCPV module, PV and Internal Combustion Engine, whilst the other units were simulated based on their main characteristic parameters. The developed algorithm was applied to three different building typologies. The results indicate that the best configuration is the hybrid renewable system with PV, which can provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. The hybrid renewable system with HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology when the level of solar radiation is high. - Highlights: • The paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-CCHP unit and a solar energy conversion device. • Both PV and High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) systems have been modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. • The work identifies the optimal management strategies for variable electricity prices. • Hybrid renewable systems provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. • When the level of solar radiation is high, HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology

  9. Hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy systems in forecasting regional electricity loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Ping-Feng [Department of Information Management, National Chi Nan University, 1 University Road, Puli, Nantou 545, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-15

    Because of the privatization of electricity in many countries, load forecasting has become one of the most crucial issues in the planning and operations of electric utilities. In addition, accurate regional load forecasting can provide the transmission and distribution operators with more information. The hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system was originally designed to solve control and pattern recognition problems. The main objective of this investigation is to develop a hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system for time series forecasting (HEFST) and apply the proposed model to forecast regional electricity loads in Taiwan. Additionally, a scaled conjugate gradient learning method is employed in the supervised learning phase of the HEFST model. Subsequently, numerical data taken from the existing literature is used to demonstrate the forecasting performance of the HEFST model. Simulation results reveal that the proposed model has better forecasting performance than the artificial neural network model and the regression model. Thus, the HEFST model is a valid and promising alternative for forecasting regional electricity loads. (author)

  10. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi; S.Paramasivam

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the ...

  11. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Suntharalingam, P

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  12. A hybrid electrical power system for aircraft application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Chin, C. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Possible improvements to present aircraft electrical power systems for use in future advanced types of aircraft have been investigated. The conventional power system is examined, the characteristics of electric loads are reviewed, and various methods of power generation and distribution are appraised. It is shown that a hybrid system, with variable-frequency generation and high-voltage dc distribution, could overcome some of the limitations of the conventional system.

  13. Developments in batteries and fuel cells for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to ever increasing threats of climate change, urban air pollution and costly and depleting oil and gas sources a lot of work is being done for the development of electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and all electric vehicles are powered by batteries or by hydrogen and fuel cells are the main types of vehicles being developed. Main types of batteries which can be used for electric vehicles are lead-acid, Ni-Cd, Nickel-Metal-Hybrid ( NiMH) and Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries which are discussed and compared. Lithium ion battery is the mostly used battery. Developments in the lithium ion batteries are discussed and reviewed. Redox flow batteries are also potential candidates for electric vehicles and are described. Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce fuel consumption considerably and is a good midterm solution. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles are discussed. Electric vehicles are necessary to mitigate the effects of pollution and dependence on oil. For all the electric vehicles there are two options: batteries and fuel Cells. Batteries are useful for small vehicles and shorter distances but for vehicle range greater than 150 km fuel cells are superior to batteries in terms of cost, efficiency and durability even using natural gas and other fuels in addition to hydrogen. Ultimate solution for electric vehicles are hydrogen and fuel cells and this opinion is also shared by most of the automobile manufacturers. Developments in fuel cells and their applications for automobiles are described and reviewed. Comparisons have been done in the literature between batteries and fuel cells and are described. (author)

  14. Impact of Distribution Feeders that do not have Voltage Regulators on the number of Charged Electric Vehicles using IEEE 34 Bus Test Feeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allehyani, Ahmed [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering

    2015-02-01

    Voltage regulators help maintain an acceptable voltage profile for the system. This paper discusses the effect of installing voltage regulators to the system to fix the voltage drop resulting from the electrical vehicles loading increase when they are being charged. The effect will be studied in the afternoon, when the peak load occurs, using the IEEE 34 bus test feeder. First, only one spot node is used to charge the electric vehicles while a voltage regulator is present. Second, five spot nodes are loaded at the same time to charge the electric vehicles while voltage regulators are installed at each node. After that, the impact of electric vehicles on distribution feeders that do not have voltage regulators will appear.

  15. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  16. Analyzing the performance index for a hybrid electric vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D. V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A. F A

    2011-01-01

    The definition of a performance index for the optimization design and optimal control problem of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle is not often considered and analyzed explicitly. In literature, there is no study about proposing a method of building or evaluating whether a performance index is appropriate.

  17. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    world, the paragon of animals -William Shakespeare I would not have made it this far without the love and support of my parents. Their work-ethic...xiii  I.  Introduction ...Condition 1 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS I. Introduction 1. Background Physically

  18. Analysis and design of hybrid electric regional turboprop aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuijl, M.; van Bogaert, J.; Gangoli Rao, A.

    2017-01-01

    The potential environmental benefits of hybrid electric regional turboprop aircraft in terms of fuel consumption are investigated. Lithium–air batteries are used as energy source in combination with conventional fuel. A validated design and analysis framework is extended with sizing and analysis

  19. Wayside charging and hydrogen hybrid bus : extending the range of electric shuttle buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    This report documents the results completed by the Center for Energy, Transportation and the Environment (CETE) at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) under Federal Transit Administration Cooperative Agreement TN-26-7034. This research h...

  20. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...

  1. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  2. Modelling and control of a light-duty hybrid electric truck

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jong-Kyu

    2006-01-01

    This study is concentrated on modelling and developing the controller for the light-duty hybrid electric truck. The hybrid electric vehicle has advantages in fuel economy. However, there have been relatively few studies on commercial HEVs, whilst a considerable number of studies on the hybrid electric system have been conducted in the field of passenger cars. So the current status and the methodologies to develop the LD hybrid electric truck model have been studied through the ...

  3. Electric control of wave vector filtering in a hybrid magnetic-electric-barrier nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Hong; Lu, Ke-Yu; He, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xu-Hui; Fu, Xi; Li, Ai-Hua

    2018-06-01

    We theoretically investigate how to manipulate the wave vector filtering effect by a traverse electric field for electrons across a hybrid magnetic-electric-barrier nanostructure, which can be experimentally realized by depositing a ferromagnetic stripe and a Schottky-metal stripe on top and bottom of a GaAs/Al x Ga1- x As heterostructure, respectively. The wave vector filtering effect is found to be related closely to the applied electric field. Moreover, the wave vector filtering efficiency can be manipulated by changing direction or adjusting strength of the traverse electric field. Therefore, such a nanostructure can be employed as an electrically controllable electron-momentum filter for nanoelectronics applications.

  4. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Serve; Fricke, Birger [Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe, Suesterfeldstr. 200, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent [Ford Sustainable Mobility Technologies, 15050 Commerce Drive North, Dearborn, MI 48120 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential ''battery pack'' system suppliers are discussed. (author)

  5. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Servé; Fricke, Birger; Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential "battery pack" system suppliers are discussed.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversions Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  8. State-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and available literature. The data given include: (1) information and data base (electric and hybrid vehicle systems descriptions, sources of vehicle data and information, and sources of component data); (2) electric vehicles (theoretical background, electric vehicle track tests, user experience, literature data, and summary of electric vehicle status); (3) electric vehicle components (tires, differentials, transmissions, traction motors, controllers, batteries, battery chargers, and component summary); and (4) hybrid vehicles (types of hybrid vehicles, operating modes, hybrid vehicles components, and hybrid vehicles performance characteristics).

  9. Batteries for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Elton J; Albertus, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Batteries have powered vehicles for more than a century, but recent advances, especially in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, are bringing a new generation of electric-powered vehicles to the market. Key barriers to progress include system cost and lifetime, and derive from the difficulty of making a high-energy, high-power, and reversible electrochemical system. Indeed, although humans produce many mechanical and electrical systems, the number of reversible electrochemical systems is very limited. System costs may be brought down by using cathode materials less expensive than those presently employed (e.g., sulfur or air), but reversibility will remain a key challenge. Continued improvements in the ability to synthesize and characterize materials at desired length scales, as well as to use computations to predict new structures and their properties, are facilitating the development of a better understanding and improved systems. Battery research is a fascinating area for development as well as a key enabler for future technologies, including advanced transportation systems with minimal environmental impact.

  10. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  11. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  12. A hybrid approach for probabilistic forecasting of electricity price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Wang, Yelei

    2014-01-01

    to the nonstationarities involved in market clearing prices (MCPs), it is rather difficult to accurately predict MCPs in advance. The challenge is getting intensified as more and more renewable energy and other new technologies emerged in smart grids. Therefore transformation from traditional point forecasts...... electricity price forecasting is proposed in this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid method has been validated through comprehensive tests using real price data from Australian electricity market.......The electricity market plays a key role in realizing the economic prophecy of smart grids. Accurate and reliable electricity market price forecasting is essential to facilitate various decision making activities of market participants in the future smart grid environment. However, due...

  13. Optimal Energy Control Strategy Design for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled, and its optimal energy control is studied in this paper. The fundamental architecture of the parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled feed-forwardly, together with necessary dynamic features of subsystem or components. Dynamic programming (DP technique is adopted to find the optimal control strategy including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and the motor subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the fuel economy can be achieved in the heavy-duty vehicle cycle from the natural driving statistics.

  14. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  15. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  16. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicle simulation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are summarized. Altogether, 111 programs were identified as being in a usable state. The complexity of the existing programs spans a range from a page of simple desktop calculator instructions to 300,000 lines of a high-level programming language. The capability to simulate electric vehicles was most common, heat-engines second, and hybrid vehicles least common. Batch-operated programs are slightly more common than interactive ones, and one-third can be operated in either mode. The most commonly used language was FORTRAN, the language typically used by engineers. The higher-level simulation languages (e.g. SIMSCRIPT, GPSS, SIMULA) used by "model builders" were conspicuously lacking.

  17. Design of digital load torque observer in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yukun; Zhang, Haoming; Wang, Yinghai

    2008-12-01

    In hybrid electric vehicle, engine begain to work only when motor was in high speed in order to decrease tail gas emission. However, permanent magnet motor was sensitive to its load, adding engine to the system always made its speed drop sharply, which caused engine to work in low efficiency again and produced much more environment pollution. Dynamic load torque model of permanent magnet synchronous motor is established on the basic of motor mechanical equation and permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control theory, Full- digital load torque observer and compensation control system is made based on TMS320F2407A. Experiment results prove load torque observer and compensation control system can detect and compensate torque disturbing effectively, which can solve load torque disturbing and decrease gas pollution of hybrid electric vehicle.

  18. A new parallel-type hybrid electric-vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Huang, K.; Tzeng, S.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This new system promises an internal-combustion engine that always maintains optimal operating conditions. The system comprises two parts: (1) an internal-combustion power-distribution device and (2) an integrated design involving the engine and electronic motor. The internal-combustion power-distribution device provides an engine capable of constantly operating in an optimal fashion, minimizing emissions and maximizing thermal-efficiency. The electric motor can generate extra power. Notably, the integrated torque design comprises three helical gears. This design can release the power of the engine or electric motor separately, or can integrate these two different powers into a hybridized power system

  19. Component sizing optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaolan; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xueyan; Xu, Jun; Ren, Xiaolong

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as one of the most promising means to improve the near-term sustainability of the transportation and stationary energy sectors. This paper describes a methodology for the optimization of PHEVs component sizing using parallel chaos optimization algorithm (PCOA). In this approach, the objective function is defined so as to minimize the drivetrain cost. In addition, the driving performance requirements are considered as constraints. Finally, the optimization process is performed over three different all electric range (AER) and two types of batteries. The results from computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and the reduction in drivetrian cost while ensuring the vehicle performance.

  20. Software architecture for hybrid electrical/optical data center network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...... OpenDaylight is presented to control an optical switching matrix based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology....

  1. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  2. Panorama 2011: The development of hybrid and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Car manufacturers are having to deal with increasingly stringent norms and customers who are increasingly demanding with respect to fuel savings. As a result, large numbers of them are now looking into solutions that involve electrifying their vehicles. Hybrid vehicles, some of which can be recharged, and electric vehicles are the new stars of the auto trade shows. But not all manufacturers are necessarily using the same strategies. (author)

  3. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  4. Cost Performance Estimating Relationships for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-31

    Permanent magnet motors are more likely to be used as generators, while AC induction motors are more efficiently used as motors. Inverters/controllers can...than permanent magnet motors . Switched Reluctance motors are also used on hybrid electric vehicles, but are not used as widely as either AC...induction or permanent magnet motors , and are not analyzed here. Methodology The motor estimates are based on power, with kilowatts being the unit of

  5. Bus basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobinson, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The aims of this course are: 1. To introduce the general concepts of buses used to interconnect processors, perpherals, and instrumentation. 2. To classify, albeit crudely, different types of bus systems. 3. To give some examples of past, present, and future buses as applied to the field of high-energy physics, including some details of software. 4. To provide references for further study. (orig.)

  6. Conceptual Design of Operation Strategies for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hoelzen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambitious targets to reduce emissions caused by aviation in the light of an expected ongoing rise of the air transport demand in the future drive the research of propulsion systems with lower CO2 emissions. Regional hybrid electric aircraft (HEA powered by conventional gas turbines and battery powered electric motors are investigated to test hybrid propulsion operation strategies. Especially the role of the battery within environmentally friendly concepts with significantly reduced carbon footprint is analyzed. Thus, a new simulation approach for HEA is introduced. The main findings underline the importance of choosing the right power-to-energy-ratio of a battery according to the flight mission. The gravimetric energy and power density of the electric storages determine the technologically feasibility of hybrid concepts. Cost competitive HEA configurations are found, but do not promise the targeted CO2 emission savings, when the well-to-wheel system is regarded with its actual costs. Sensitivity studies are used to determine external levers that favor the profitability of HEA.

  7. Model Predictive Control for Connected Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model predictive control system for connected hybrid electric vehicles to improve fuel economy. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the battery charge and discharge profile and the driving velocity profile are simultaneously optimized. One is energy management for HEV for Pbatt; the other is for the energy consumption minimizing problem of acc control of two vehicles. Second, a system for connected hybrid electric vehicles has been developed considering varying drag coefficients and the road gradients. Third, the fuel model of a typical hybrid electric vehicle is developed using the maps of the engine efficiency characteristics. Fourth, simulations and analysis (under different parameters, i.e., road conditions, vehicle state of charge, etc. are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method to achieve higher fuel efficiency. The model predictive control problem is solved using numerical computation method: continuation and generalized minimum residual method. Computer simulation results reveal improvements in fuel economy using the proposed control method.

  8. Optimal Day-Ahead Scheduling of a Hybrid Electric Grid Using Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    with 214 turbines [22]. In July 2011, the DoD declared that a complete study of 217 wind farm projects proposed in 35 states and Puerto Rico found...14. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid electric grid , Microgrid , Hybrid renewable energy system , energy management center, optimization, Day...electric grid. In the case of a hybrid electric grid (HEG), or hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) where the microgrid can be connected to the commercial

  9. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  10. Electrical Energy Forecasting and Optimal Allocation of ESS in a Hybrid Wind-Diesel Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasingly serious energy crisis and environmental pollution problem, traditional fossil energy is gradually being replaced by renewable energy in recent years. However, the introduction of renewable energy into power systems will lead to large voltage fluctuations and high capital costs. To solve these problems, an energy storage system (ESS is employed into a power system to reduce total costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, this paper proposes a two-stage method based on a back-propagation neural network (BPNN and hybrid multi-objective particle swarm optimization (HMOPSO to determine the optimal placements and sizes of ESSs in a transmission system. Owing to the uncertainties of renewable energy, a BPNN is utilized to forecast the outputs of the wind power and load demand based on historic data in the city of Madison, USA. Furthermore, power-voltage (P-V sensitivity analysis is conducted in this paper to improve the converge speed of the proposed algorithm, and continuous wind distribution is discretized by a three-point estimation method. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE 30-bus system is adopted to perform case studies. The simulation results of each case clearly demonstrate the necessity for optimal storage allocation and the efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L H [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  12. Elimination of bus voltage impact on temperature sensitive electrical parameter during turn-on transition for junction temperature estimation of high-power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Junction temperature is of great importance to safe operating area of IGBT modules. Various information of the IGBT operating state is reflected on electrical characteristics during turn-on transient. A unified extraction method for internal junction temperature via dynamic thermo......-sensitive electrical parameters (DTSEP) during turn-on transient is proposed. Two DTSEP, turn-on delay time (tdon) and the maximum increasing rate of collector current dic/dt(max), are combined to eliminate the bus voltage impact. Using the inherent emitter-auxiliary inductor LeE in high-power modules, the temperature......-dependent DTSEPs can be converted into a low-voltage and measurable signal. Finally, experiment results are exhibited to verify the effectiveness of proposed method....

  13. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.

    2015-11-01

    The European Flightpath 2050 and corresponding Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) as well as the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation N+ series have elaborated aggressive emissions and external noise reduction targets according to chronological waypoints. In order to deliver ultra-low or even zero in-flight emissions levels, there exists an increasing amount of international research and development emphasis on electrification of the propulsion and power systems of aircraft. Since the late 1990s, a series of experimental and a host of burgeouning commercial activities for fixed-wing aviation have focused on glider, ultra-light and light-sport airplane, and this is proving to serve as a cornerstone for more ambitious transport aircraft design and integration technical approaches. The introduction of hybrid-electric technology has dramatically expanded the design space and the full-potential of these technologies will be drawn through synergetic, tightly-coupled morphological and systems integration emphasizing propulsion - as exemplified by the potential afforded by distributed propulsion solutions. With the aim of expanding upon the current repository of knowledge associated with hybrid-electric propulsion systems a quad-fan arranged narrow-body transport aircraft equipped with two advanced Geared-Turbofans (GTF) and two Electrical Fans (EF) in an under-wing podded installation is presented in this technical article. The assessment and implications of an increasing Degree-of-Hybridization for Useful Power (HP,USE) on the overall sizing, performance as well as flight technique optimization of fuel-battery hybrid-electric aircraft is addressed herein. The integrated performance of the concept was analyzed in terms of potential block fuel burn reduction and change in vehicular efficiency in comparison to a suitably projected conventional aircraft employing GTF-only propulsion targeting year 2035. Results showed that by increasing HP,USE, significant

  14. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register...-0148] RIN 2127-AK93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and...

  15. Multiple target sound quality balance for hybrid electric powertrain noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera-Sánchez, J. A.; Sarrazin, M.; Janssens, K.; de Oliveira, L. P. R.; Desmet, W.

    2018-01-01

    The integration of the electric motor to the powertrain in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) presents acoustic stimuli that elicit new perceptions. The large number of spectral components, as well as the wider bandwidth of this sort of noises, pose new challenges to current noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) approaches. This paper presents a framework for enhancing the sound quality (SQ) of the hybrid electric powertrain noise perceived inside the passenger compartment. Compared with current active sound quality control (ASQC) schemes, where the SQ improvement is just an effect of the control actions, the proposed technique features an optimization stage, which enables the NVH specialist to actively implement the amplitude balance of the tones that better fits into the auditory expectations. Since Loudness, Roughness, Sharpness and Tonality are the most relevant SQ metrics for interior HEV noise, they are used as performance metrics in the concurrent optimization analysis, which, eventually, drives the control design method. Thus, multichannel active sound profiling systems that feature cross-channel compensation schemes are guided by the multi-objective optimization stage, by means of optimal sets of amplitude gain factors that can be implemented at each single sensor location, while minimizing cross-channel effects that can either degrade the original SQ condition, or even hinder the implementation of independent SQ targets. The proposed framework is verified experimentally, with realistic stationary hybrid electric powertrain noise, showing SQ enhancement for multiple locations within a scaled vehicle mock-up. The results show total success rates in excess of 90%, which indicate that the proposed method is promising, not only for the improvement of the SQ of HEV noise, but also for a variety of periodic disturbances with similar features.

  16. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  17. Life cycle cost analysis of a car, a city bus and an intercity bus powertrain for year 2005 and 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellgren, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    The international economy, in the beginning of the 20th century, is characterized by uncertainty about the supply and the price of oil. Together with the fast decrease of electrical propulsion component prices, it becomes more and more cost effective to develop vehicles with alternative powertrains. This paper focuses on two questions: Are alternative powertrains especially cost effective for specific applications?; How does an increased fossil fuel price influences the choose of powertrain? To assess these questions, a computer tool named THEPS, developed in a Ph.D. project, is used. Three applications and three scenarios are analysed. The applications, a car, a city bus and an intercity bus, are vehicles all assumed to operate in Sweden. One scenario represents year 2005, the other two year 2020. The two future scenarios are characterized by different fossil fuel prices. The study, presented in the paper, indicates that alternative powertrains can be competitive from a cost perspective, in some applications, already in year 2005. It is for example cost effective to equip a city bus, running in countries with a high fuel price, with a hybrid powertrain. The study also indicates that pure electric, hybrid and/or fuel cell cars will probably be a more cost effective choice than conventional cars in year 2020. Another indication is that it will not be clear which powertrain concept to choose. The reason is that many cost effective powertrain concepts will be offered. The best choice will depend on the application

  18. Real-Time Energy Management Control for Hybrid Electric Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on embedded control of a hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real-time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and mechanical (flywheel. The real-time control challenge is to balance the system power demands from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle. In the worst-case scenario, only the engine is used and the hybrid system is completely disabled. A rule-based control algorithm is developed and is tuned for different work cycles and could be linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the work machine and its position via GPS and maps both of them to the gains.

  19. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics. Systems and components, networking and hybrid drive. 5. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Complete reference guide to automotive electrics and electronics. The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the ''Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics'' technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle.

  20. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs. Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator permanent magnet (stator-PM motor, a hybrid-excitation motor, a flux memory motor and a redundant motor structure. Then, it illustrates advanced electric drive systems, such as the magnetic-geared in-wheel drive and the integrated starter generator (ISG. Finally, three machine-based implementations of the power split devices are expounded, built up around the dual-rotor PM machine, the dual-stator PM brushless machine and the magnetic-geared dual-rotor machine. As a conclusion, the development trends in the field of electric machines and machine-based systems for EVs are summarized.

  1. Clean air program : design guidelines for bus transit systems using electric and hybrid electric propulsion as an alternative fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including : Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and : Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used. At presen...

  2. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Some Theoretical Considerations on Consumption Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carlucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Solving the problem of the lack of environmental sustainability in transport activities requires the involvement of new technologies, particularly in populated cities where mobility activities play a major role in generating externalities. The move from cars powered by conventional internal combustion engines to cars powered by alternative energies can make an important contribution to reducing emissions and achieving a more sustainable transport system. Unfortunately, green car market development still remains uncertain because of the higher production costs of batteries and engines. In this context, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to analysing the economic factors affecting consumers’ behaviour in the choice of hybrid electric vehicles. To fill this gap, the diffusion process of hybrid technology as well as intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and the crowding-out effect on consumers’ purchasing decisions are taken under consideration. Finally, some policy recommendations are provided.

  3. A robust H∞ control-based hierarchical mode transition control system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Jiao, Xiaohong; Li, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Chen, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    To realize a fast and smooth operating mode transition process from electric driving mode to engine-on driving mode, this paper presents a novel robust hierarchical mode transition control method for a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB) with pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain. Firstly, the mode transition process is divided into five stages to clearly describe the powertrain dynamics. Based on the dynamics models of powertrain and clutch actuating mechanism, a hierarchical control structure including two robust H∞ controllers in both upper layer and lower layer is proposed. In upper layer, the demand clutch torque can be calculated by a robust H∞controller considering the clutch engaging time and the vehicle jerk. While in lower layer a robust tracking controller with L2-gain is designed to perform the accurate position tracking control, especially when the parameters uncertainties and external disturbance occur in the clutch actuating mechanism. Simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test are carried out in a traditional driving condition of PHEB. Results show that the proposed hierarchical control approach can obtain the good control performance: mode transition time is greatly reduced with the acceptable jerk. Meanwhile, the designed control system shows the obvious robustness with the uncertain parameters and disturbance. Therefore, the proposed approach may offer a theoretical reference for the actual vehicle controller.

  4. Electrical-Loss Analysis of Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonfiglio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs has seen the spread of architectures with transmission based on planetary gear train, realized thanks to two electric machines. This architecture, by continuously regulating the transmission ratio, allows the internal combustion engine (ICE to work in optimal conditions. On the one hand, the average ICE efficiency is increased thanks to better loading situations, while, on the other hand, electrical losses are introduced due to the power circulation between the two electrical machines mentioned above. The aim of this study is then to accurately evaluate electrical losses and the average ICE efficiency in various operating conditions and over different road missions. The models used in this study are presented for both the Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT architecture and the Discontinuously Variable Transmission (DVT architecture. In addition, efficiency maps of the main components are shown. Finally, the simulation results are presented to point out strengths and weaknesses of the CVT architecture.

  5. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Hybrid Electric Energy Storages: Their Specific Features and Application (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel', O. S.; Tarasenko, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents a review of various aspects related to development and practical use of hybrid electric energy storages (i.e., those uniting different energy storage technologies and devices in an integrated system) in transport and conventional and renewable power engineering applications. Such devices, which were initially developed for transport power installations, are increasingly being used by other consumers characterized by pronounced nonuniformities of their load schedule. A range of tasks solved using such energy storages is considered. It is shown that, owing to the advent of new types of energy storages and the extended spectrum of their performance characteristics, new possibilities for combining different types of energy storages and for developing hybrid systems have become available. This, in turn, opens up the possibility of making energy storages with better mass and dimension characteristics and achieving essentially lower operational costs. The possibility to secure more comfortable (base) operating modes of primary sources of energy (heat engines and renewable energy source based power installations) and to achieve a higher capacity utilization factor are unquestionable merits of hybrid energy storages. Development of optimal process circuit solutions, as well as energy conversion and control devices facilitating the fullest utilization of the properties of each individual energy storage included in the hybrid system, is among the important lines of research carried out in this field in Russia and abroad. Our review of existing developments has shown that there are no universal technical solutions in this field (the specific features of a consumer have an essential effect on the process circuit solutions and on the composition of a hybrid energy storage), a circumstance that dictates the need to extend the scope of investigations in this promising field.

  7. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  8. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  9. Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  11. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  12. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  13. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    2001-03-06

    Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

  14. Lower hybrid current drive in the presence of electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveliev Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new one-dimensional approach to the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD modelling in the presence of an inductive electric field is suggested in this paper. The approach is based on using time-dependent solutions of a well-known Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function of fast electrons calculated concurrently with solving plasma transport equation in the Automated System for TRansport Analysis (ASTRA [1]. A good agreement between experimental and modelling results is demonstrated for an FT-2 [2] plasma shot. Also new formulae for the steady-state solution of this kinetic equation are found.

  15. Lower hybrid current drive in the presence of electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexander; Zakharov, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    A new one-dimensional approach to the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) modelling in the presence of an inductive electric field is suggested in this paper. The approach is based on using time-dependent solutions of a well-known Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function of fast electrons calculated concurrently with solving plasma transport equation in the Automated System for TRansport Analysis (ASTRA) [1]. A good agreement between experimental and modelling results is demonstrated for an FT-2 [2] plasma shot. Also new formulae for the steady-state solution of this kinetic equation are found.

  16. HEV Test Bench Based on CAN Bus Sensor Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng ZHAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HEV test bench based on Controller Area Network bus was studied and developed. Control system of HEV power test bench used the CAN bus technology. The application of CAN bus technology on control system development has opened up a new research direction for domestic automobile experimental platform. The HEV power control system development work was completed, including power master controller, electric throttle controller, driving simulation platform, CAN2.0 B communication protocol procedures for formulation, CAN communication monitoring system, the simulation model based on MATLAB code automatic generation technology research, etc. Maximum absorption power of the test bench is 90 kW, the test bench top speed is 6000 r/min, the CAN communication data baud rate is 10~500 k, the conventional electric measurement parameter part precision satisfies the requirement of development of HEV. On the HEV test bench the result of regenerative braking experiment shows that the result got by the test bench was closer to the results got by outdoor road test. And the fuel consumption experiment test results show that the HEV fuel consumption and the charge-discharge character are in linear relationship. The establishment of the test platform for the evaluation of the development of hybrid electric vehicle and power provides physical simulation and test platform.

  17. Component sizing optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaolan; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xueyan; Xu, Jun; Ren, Xiaolong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as one of the most promising means to improve the near-term sustainability of the transportation and stationary energy sectors. This paper describes a methodology for the optimization of PHEVs component sizing using parallel chaos optimization algorithm (PCOA). In this approach, the objective function is defined so as to minimize the drivetrain cost. In addition, the driving performance requirements are considered as constraints. Finally, the optimization process is performed over three different all electric range (AER) and two types of batteries. The results from computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and the reduction in drivetrian cost while ensuring the vehicle performance. (author)

  18. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  19. Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pecht

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The battery management system (BMS is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well.

  20. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Siavash Sadeghi; Mojtaba Mirsalim; Arash Hassanpour Isfahani

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicl...

  1. Electrically driven hybrid photonic metamaterials for multifunctional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lei; Liu, Liu; Campbell, Sawyer D.; Yue, Taiwei; Ren, Qiang; Mayer, Theresa S.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2017-08-01

    The unique light-matter interaction in metamaterials, a type of artificial medium in which the geometrical features of subunits dominate their optical responses, have been utilized to achieve exotic material properties that are rare or nonexistent in natural materials. Furthermore, to extend their behaviors, active materials have been introduced into metamaterial systems to advance tunability, switchability and nonlinearity. Nevertheless, practical examples of versatile photonic metamaterials remain exceedingly rare for two main reasons. On the one hand, in sharp contrast to the broad material options available at lower frequencies, it is less common to find active media in the optical regime that can provide pronounced dielectric property changes under external stimuli, such as electric and magnetic fields. Vanadium dioxide (VO2), offering a large refractive index variation over a broad frequency range due to its near room temperature insulator-to-metal transition (IMT), has been favored in recent studies on tunable metamaterials. On the other hand, it turns out that regulating responses of hybrid metamaterials to external forces in an integrated manner is not a straightforward task. Recently, metamaterial-enabled devices (i.e., metadevices) with `self-sufficient' or `self-contained' electrical and optical properties have enabled complex functionalities. Here, we present a design methodology along with the associated experimental validation of a VO2 thin film integrated optical metamaterial absorber as a hybrid photonic platform for electrically driven multifunctional control, including reflectance switching, a rewritable memory process and manageable localized camouflage. The nanoengineered topologically continuous metal structure simultaneously supports the optical resonance and electrical functionality that actuates the phase transition in VO2 through the process of Joule heating. This work provides a universal approach to creating self-sufficient and highly

  2. Design of a hybrid emissivity domestic electric oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ozgur; Onbasioglu, Seyhan Uygur

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the radiative properties of the surfaces of an electric oven were investigated. Using experimental data related to an oven-like enclosure, a novel combination of surface properties was developed. Three different surface emissivity combinations were analysed experimentally: low-emissivity, high emissivity (black-coated), and hybrid emissivity. The term "hybrid emissivity design" here corresponds to an enclosure with some high emissive and some low-emissive surfaces. The experiments were carried out according to the EN 50304 standard. When a brick (load) was placed in the enclosure, the view factors between its surfaces were calculated with the Monte Carlo method. These and the measured surface temperatures were then used to calculate the radiative heat fluxes on the surfaces of the load. The three different models were compared with respect to energy consumption and baking time. The hybrid model performed best, with the highest radiative heat transfer between the surfaces of the enclosure and the load and minimum heat loss from the cavity. Thus, it was the most efficient model with the lowest energy consumption and the shortest baking time. The recent European Union regulation regarding the energy labelling of domestic ovens was used.

  3. Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a 4 Passenger VTOL Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advancement of hybrid-electric propulsion systems for rotorcraft enables vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles to take advantage of aerodynamic...

  4. Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, C.C.; Jwo, W.S.; Chien, W.L.; Liu, Y.L.; Chen, S.W.; Hsu, C.Y. [Chienkuo Technology Univ., Changhua, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A hybrid electric motorcycle (HEM) was described. The HEM was developed from a modified 50 cc motorcycle currently available on the market. The motorcycle gearbox was attached to the back wheel. A master-slave tracking control method was used to expedite the HEM's development phases and cost. A 600 watt DC servo-motor was used to track the speed of the rear wheel of the HEM as well as to increase torque. The real time master-slave composite was comprised of a gearbox, a frequency-voltage converter, and a proportional, integrative, and derivative (PID) speed tracking controller. The frequency-voltage converter was used to convert the frequency signals of the rear wheels and electric motor rotational speeds into voltage signals. A Hall was used to sense 4 permanent magnets place along the rear wheel. A Schmitt trigger gate was used to detect signals from the rear wheel. An actuation system consisted of a motor driving circuit, a current-limiting protection circuit, and a low battery voltage protection circuit. It was concluded that the HEM design is both feasible and highly marketable. Artificial intelligence will be used to build a high performance hybrid motorcycle in the future. 10 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  5. Electric Motors for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  6. Electric Motor Considerations for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  7. Electricity-price arbitrage with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle: Gain or loss?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Duo; Sun, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Customers, utilities, and society can gain many benefits from distributed energy resources (DERs), including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Using battery on PHEV to arbitrage electricity price is one of the potential benefits to PHEV owners. There is, however, disagreement on the magnitude of such profit. This study uses a stochastic optimization model to estimate the potential profit from electricity price arbitrage of two types of PHEVs (PHEV-10, and PHEV-40) under three scenarios with variant electricity tariff and PHEV owners over a five-year period. The simulation results indicate that under current market structure, even with significant improvement in battery technologies (e.g., higher efficiency, lower cost), the PHEV owners can't achieve a positive arbitrage profit. This finding implies that expected arbitrage profit solely is not a viable option to engage PHEVs larger adoption. Subsidy and combining PHEV arbitraging with alternative PHEV services are required. - Highlights: •A stochastic optimization model is proposed to assess the arbitrage value of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). •Under current market condition, PHEV owners lose money from conducting PHEV arbitrage if counting battery degradation cost. •PHEV owner loses more money at real time pricing (RTP) than at time of use (TOU) scheme. •Battery improvement will reduce but can't even the arbitrage loss. •Expected arbitrage profit is not a viable option to engage PHEVs in dispatching and in providing ancillary services.

  8. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  9. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  10. Experimental analysis on the performance of lithium based batteries for road full electric and hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, Clemente; Veneri, Ottorino

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance analysis for lithium storage technologies, such as Li[NiCoMn]O 2 and LiFePO 4 batteries. • Actual capacity of lithium technologies analyzed almost close to their nominal capacity also for high discharging current. • The charging efficiency for Li[NiCoMn]O 2 positively affects the regenerative breaking and fast recharging operations. • The analyzed battery packs follow dynamic power requirements on performed road driving cycles. • Experimental results demonstrate driving range is much higher when battery packs are based on lithium technology. - Abstract: This paper deals with an experimental evaluation regarding the real performance of lithium based energy storage systems for automotive applications. In particular real working operations of different lithium based storage system technologies, such as Li[NiCoMn]O 2 and LiFePO 4 batteries, are compared in this work from the point of view of their application in supplying full electric and hybrid vehicles, taking as a reference the well-known behavior of lead acid batteries. For this purpose, the experimental tests carried out in laboratory are firstly performed on single storage modules in stationary conditions. In this case the related results are obtained by means of a bidirectional cycle tester based on the IGBT technology, and consent to evaluate, compare and contrast charge/discharge characteristics and efficiency at constant values of current/voltage/power for each storage technology analyzed. Then, lithium battery packs are tested in supplying a 1.8 kW electric power train using a laboratory test bench, based on a 48 V DC bus and specifically configured to simulate working operations of electric vehicles on the road. For this other experimentation the test bench is equipped with an electric brake and acquisition/control system, able to represent in laboratory the real vehicle conditions and road characteristics on predefined driving cycles at different slopes. The obtained

  11. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs.

  12. Evaluation of sounds for hybrid and electric vehicles operating at low speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), operated at low speeds may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic creating a safety issue. This field study compares the auditory detectability of num...

  13. Lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles; Lithium-Ionen-Batterie-Entwicklung fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Michael; Birke, Peter; Schiemann, Michael; Moerstaedt, Uwe [Continental AG, Berlin (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich HEV

    2009-03-15

    Continental is the first company worldwide to produce lithium-ion batteries for a serial production vehicle (Mercedes S 400 Hybrid). The supplier describes cell and system strategies, as well as safety relevant production details and integration strategies, which determine the application in hybrid and electric vehicles. (orig.)

  14. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  15. Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This project is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHVs). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO x and CO 2 emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NO x and CO 2 emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO 2 increases with EHV use although the amount is small-less than 1% of total utility emissions even vath the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO 2 totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO 2 emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles

  16. Mild hybrids with CVT: comparison of electrical and mechanical torque assist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.; Vroemen, B.G.; Tillaart, van den E.L.; de Haas, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper evaluates two mild hybrid drive trains for a mid-class passenger car with a gasoline engine by means of comptuer simulation. The term mild hybrid is used for vehicles with sustained electric propulsion. The mild hybrid drive trains both have a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) with

  17. Development of a new loss allocation method for a hybrid electricity market using graph theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Valerie S.C.; McDonald, John D.F.; Saha, Tapan K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for allocating losses in a power system using a loop-based representation of system behaviour. Using the new method, network behaviour is formulated as a series of presumed power transfers directly between market participants. In contrast to many existing loss allocation methods, this makes it easier to justify the resulting loss distribution. In addition to circumventing the problems of non-unique loss allocations, a formalised process of loop identification, using graph theory concepts, is introduced. The proposed method is applied to both the IEEE 14-bus system and a modified CIGRE Nordic 32-bus system. The results provide a demonstration of the capability of the proposed method to allocate losses in the hybrid market, and demonstrate the approach's capacity to link the technical performance of the network to market instruments. (author)

  18. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  19. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  20. On-line energy and battery thermal management for hybrid electric heavy-duty truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Nevels, R.M.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses an integrated approach for energy and thermal management to minimize the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric heavy-duty truck. Conventional Energy Management Systems (EMS) operate separately from the Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs).

  1. Design Optimization of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangun, Firdause; Idres, Moumen; Abdullah, Kassim

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an optimization work on hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain using Genetic Algorithm (GA) method. It focused on optimization of the parameters of powertrain components including supercapacitors to obtain maximum fuel economy. Vehicle modelling is based on Quasi-Static-Simulation (QSS) backward-facing approach. A combined city (FTP-75)-highway (HWFET) drive cycle is utilized for the design process. Seeking global optimum solution, GA was executed with different initial settings to obtain sets of optimal parameters. Starting from a benchmark HEV, optimization results in a smaller engine (2 l instead of 3 l) and a larger battery (15.66 kWh instead of 2.01 kWh). This leads to a reduction of 38.3% in fuel consumption and 30.5% in equivalent fuel consumption. Optimized parameters are also compared with actual values for HEV in the market.

  2. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  3. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle.

  4. Highly Electrically Conducting Glass-Graphene Nanoplatelets Hybrid Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E; Nistal, A; Khalifa, A; Essa, Y; Martín de la Escalera, F; Osendi, M I; Miranzo, P

    2015-08-19

    Hybrid coatings consisting of a heat resistant Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 (YAS) glass containing 2.3 wt % of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were developed by flame spraying homogeneous ceramic powders-GNP granules. Around 40% of the GNPs survived the high spraying temperatures and were distributed along the splat-interfaces, forming a percolated network. These YAS-GNP coatings are potentially interesting in thermal protection systems and electromagnetic interference shields for aerospace applications; therefore silicon carbide (SiC) materials at the forefront of those applications were employed as substrates. Whereas the YAS coatings are nonconductive, the YAS-GNP coatings showed in-plane electrical conductivity (∼10(2) S·m(-1)) for which a low percolation limit (below 3.6 vol %) is inferred. Indentation tests revealed the formation of a highly damaged indentation zone showing multiple shear displacements between adjacent splats probably favored by the graphene sheets location. The indentation radial cracks typically found in brittle glass coatings are not detected in the hybrid coatings that are also more compliant.

  5. Optimal powertrain dimensioning and potential assessment of hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgovski, Nikolce

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), compared to conventional vehicles, complement the traditional combustion engine with one, or several electric motors and an energy buffer, typically a battery and/or an ultra capacitor. This gives the vehicle an additional degree of freedom that allows for a more efficient operation, by e.g. recuperating braking energy, or operating the engine at higher efficiency. In order to be cost effective, the HEV may need to include a downsized engine and a carefully selected energy buffer. The optimal size of the powertrain components depends on the powertrain configuration, ability to draw electric energy from the grid, charging infrastructure, drive patterns, varying fuel, electricity and energy buffer prices and on how well adapted is the buffer energy management to driving conditions. This thesis provides two main contributions for optimal dimensioning of HEV powertrains while optimally controlling the energy use of the buffer on prescribed routes. The first contribution is described by a methodology and a tool for potential assessment of HEV powertrains. The tool minimizes the need for interaction from the user by automizing the processes of powertrain simplification and optimization. The HEV powertrain models are simplified by removing unnecessary dynamics in order to speed up computation time and allow Dynamic Programming to be used to optimize the energy management. The tool makes it possible to work with non-transparent models, e.g. models which are compiled, or hidden for intellectual property reasons. The second contribution describes modeling steps to reformulate the powertrain dimensioning and control problem as a convex optimization problem. The method considers quadratic losses for the powertrain components and the resulting problem is a semi definite convex program. The optimization is time efficient with computation time that does not increase exponentially with the number of states. This makes it possible to include more

  6. Efficient design and simulation of an expandable hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) power system with MPPT and inverter input voltage regulation features in compliance with electric grid requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skretas, Sotirios B.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios P. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritos University of Thrace (DUTH), 12 V. Sofias, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper an efficient design along with modeling and simulation of a transformer-less small-scale centralized DC - bus Grid Connected Hybrid (Wind-PV) power system for supplying electric power to a single phase of a three phase low voltage (LV) strong distribution grid are proposed and presented. The main components of the hybrid system are: a PV generator (PVG); and an array of horizontal-axis, fixed-pitch, small-size, variable-speed wind turbines (WTs) with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) having an embedded uncontrolled bridge rectifier. An overview of the basic theory of such systems along with their modeling and simulation via Simulink/MATLAB software package are presented. An intelligent control method is applied to the proposed configuration to simultaneously achieve three desired goals: to extract maximum power from each hybrid power system component (PVG and WTs); to guarantee DC voltage regulation/stabilization at the input of the inverter; to transfer the total produced electric power to the electric grid, while fulfilling all necessary interconnection requirements. Finally, a practical case study is conducted for the purpose of fully evaluating a possible installation in a city site of Xanthi/Greece, and the practical results of the simulations are presented. (author)

  7. A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqiao

    In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

  8. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  9. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Mohamed [Automotive and Tractors Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  10. The effects of urban driving conditions on the operating characteristics of conventional and hybrid electric city buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Operating characteristics of conventional and hybrid electric buses were examined. • Recovery of braking energy offers an excellent opportunity to improve fuel economy. • Speed and altitude profiles of routes have dramatic impacts on the energy recovery. • Capacity of the auxiliary power source has a dramatic impact on the energy recovery. • Round-trip efficiency of the regenerative braking system was calculated to be 27%. - Abstract: The basic operating characteristics of a conventional bus (CB) and a hybrid electric bus (HEB) were examined under urban driving conditions. To perform this examination, real-time operating data from the buses were collected on the Campus-Return route of the Sakarya Municipality. The main characteristics examined were the traction, braking, engine, engine generator unit (EGU), motor/generator (M/G), and ultracapacitor (Ucap) energies and efficiencies of the buses. The route elevation profile and the frequency of stop-and-go operations of the buses were found to have dramatic impacts on the braking and traction energies of the buses. The declining profile of the Campus-Return route provided an excellent opportunity for energy recovery by the regenerative braking system of the HEB. However, owing to the limits on the capacities and efficiencies of the hybrid drive train components and the Ucap, the bus braking energies were not recovered completely. Braking energies as high as 2.2 kW h per micro-trip were observed, but less than 1 kW h of braking energy per micro-trip was converted to electricity by the M/G; the rest of the braking energy was wasted in frictional braking. The maximum energy recovered and stored in the Ucap per micro-trip was 0.5 kW h, but the amount of energy recovered and stored per micro-trip was typically less than 0.2 kW h for the entire route. The cumulative braking energy recovered and stored in the Ucap for the Campus-Return route was 52% of the available brake energy, which was 13.02 kW h

  11. PRICING ELECTRIC POWER UNDER A HYBRID WHOLESALE MECHANISM: EVALUATING THE TURKISH ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Karahan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the restructuring process, Turkish electricity sector has gone through significant changes both in wholesale and retail markets. In this framework, the Market Financial Settlement Mechanism established for handling market imbalances has become a spot market in time. So, it can be claimed that the wholesale electricity market in Turkey is a hybrid mechanism composed of bilateral contracts and the balancing market. On the other hand, the main target of liberalization program is providing consumers with affordable electric power. Hence, this study attempts to explore the link between retail tariffs for ineligible consumers and prices in the two wholesale mechanisms, in the period after the launch of the day-ahead market. Findings suggest that regulated wholesale prices are more effective in the determination of end-user prices, whereas unregulated ones might have a price reduction effect in case the free market dominates. However, the volatility in spot market prices implies that the sector would better continue with the hybrid mechanism for quite some time.

  12. Polyaniline-CuO hybrid nanocomposite with enhanced electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vânia S.; da Frota, Hidembergue O.; Sanches, Edgar A.

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid nanocomposite based on a polymer matrix constituted of Polyaniline Emeraldine-salt form (PANI-ES) reinforced by copper oxide II (CuO) particles was obtained by in situ polymerization. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of the pure materials and nanocomposite form were investigated. The presence of CuO particles in the nanocomposite material affected the natural alignment of the polymer chains. XRD technique allowed the visualization of the polymer amorphization in the nanocomposite form, suggesting an interaction between both phases. The FTIR spectra confirmed this molecular interaction due to the blue shift of the characteristic absorption peaks of PANI-ES in the nanocomposite form. SEM images revealed that the polymer nanofiber morphology was no longer observed in the nanocomposite. The CuO spherical particles are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix. The density functional theory plus the Coulomb interaction method revealed a charge transfer from PANI to CuO slab. Moreover, the density of states (DOS) has revealed that the nanocomposite behaves as a metal. In agreement, the electrical conductivity showed an increase of 60% in the nanocomposite material.

  13. Stochastic Optimal Control of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategies (EMSs in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are highly related to the fuel economy and emission performances. However, EMS constitutes a challenging problem due to the complex structure of a HEV and the unknown or partially known driving cycles. To meet this problem, this paper adopts a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP method for the EMS of a specially designed vehicle, a pre-transmission single-shaft torque-coupling parallel HEV. In this parallel HEV, the auto clutch output is connected to the transmission input through an electric motor, which benefits an efficient motor assist operation. In this EMS, demanded torque of driver is modeled as a one-state Markov process to represent the uncertainty of future driving situations. The obtained EMS has been evaluated with ADVISOR2002 over two standard government drive cycles and a self-defined one, and compared with a dynamic programming (DP one and a rule-based one. Simulation results have shown the real-time performance of the proposed approach, and potential vehicle performance improvement relative to the rule-based one.

  14. Research on Braking Stability of Electro-mechanical Hybrid Braking System in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Fenzhu; Tian, Mi

    2010-01-01

    For the electro-mechanical hybrid braking system, which is composed of electric brake and general friction brake, the models of electric braking force, total braking force and the utilization adhesion coefficient for front and rear axles were established based on the analysis of braking torque distribution. The variation relationship between electric braking force and friction braking force in different braking intensity was calculated and analyzed with the paralleled-hybridized braking contr...

  15. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  16. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  17. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting baseline performance, battery benchmark and fleet tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 2.5 million test miles. Testing is currently incorporating PHEVs from four different vehicle converters. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory.

  18. GO Bus impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NJ TRANSIT launched two relatively new enhanced bus services: GO 25 serving the : Springfield Avenue corridor in 2008 and GO 28 serving the Bloomfield Avenue corridor in 2009. : As an enhanced but not full Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service, GO Bus feat...

  19. Dynamic simulation of urban hybrid electric vehicles; Dynamische Simulation von Stadthybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winke, Florian; Bargende, Michael [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (IVK)

    2013-09-15

    As a result of the rising requirements on the development process of modern vehicles, simulation models for the prediction of fuel efficiency have become an irreplaceable tool in the automotive industry. Especially for the design of hybrid electric drivetrains, the increasingly short development cycles can only be met by the use of efficient simulation models. At the IVK of the University of Stuttgart, different approaches to simulating the longitudinal dynamics of hybrid electric vehicles were analysed and compared within the presented project. The focus of the investigations was on urban operation. The objective was to develop a hybrid vehicle concept that allows an equitable comparison with pure battery electric vehicles. (orig.)

  20. Multilayered Functional Insulation System (MFIS) for AC Power Transmission in High Voltage Hybrid Electrical Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, Maricela

    2017-01-01

    High voltage hybrid electric propulsion systems are now pushing new technology development efforts for air transportation. A key challenge in hybrid electric aircraft is safe high voltage distribution and transmission of megawatts of power (>20 MW). For the past two years, a multidisciplinary materials research team at NASA Glenn Research Center has investigated the feasibility of distributing high voltage power on future hybrid electric aircraft. This presentation describes the team's approach to addressing this challenge, significant technical findings, and next steps in GRC's materials research effort for MW power distribution on aircraft.

  1. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  2. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  3. Development of commercial hybrid electric vehicle with native key components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bakhmutov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives of development of medium weight cargo vehicles with hybrid powertrain including Russian native key components are considered in this article. Series-parallel scheme of HEV is more relevant owing to limitations of series and parallel schemes. An example of this technology is described. This technical solution has good facilities for variation of HEV and AWD type. The authors have patented it. In addition, another main issue is to choose the types of key components with good correlation for parameters of ICE, electric motors, batteries, and inverter. Using mathematical model of the vehicle a selection and correlation of technical characteristics were carried out to meet ecological and economical requirements. After computing calculation two control strategies were accepted. The first strategy contributes to good fuel consumption, while the other one is aimed at ecology. Researchers use test benches to confirm the results of calculation, and this one was built by the authors applying native components. The result of experiment on the test bench is the growth of fuel consumption of the medium weight cargo vehicle by 25% and compliance with ecological class Euro-4.

  4. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

  5. Simulation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. F.; Cole, G. H.

    Computer programs for the simulation of the operation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems are described. These programs treat cases in which high energy density ultracapacitors or high power density pulse batteries are used to load level the main energy storage battery in the vehicle. A generalized control strategy for splitting the power between the main battery and the pulse power devices is implemented such that the user can specify the nominal battery power as a function of the state-of-charge of the ultracapacitor or pulse power battery. The programs display graphically on the screen, as they run, the power from both the main battery and the pulse power device and the state-of-charge of the pulse power device. After each run is completed, a summary is printed out from which the effect of load leveling the battery on vehicle range and energy consumption can be determined. Default input files are provided with the programs so various combinations of vehicles, driveline components, and batteries of special current interest to the EV community can be run with either type of pulse power device. Typical simulation results are shown including cases in which the pulse power devices are connected in parallel with the main battery without interface electronics.

  6. Analysis and optimization of hybrid electric vehicle thermal management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamut, H. S.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G. F.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the thermal management system of a hybrid electric vehicle is optimized using single and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms in order to maximize the exergy efficiency and minimize the cost and environmental impact of the system. The objective functions are defined and decision variables, along with their respective system constraints, are selected for the analysis. In the multi-objective optimization, a Pareto frontier is obtained and a single desirable optimal solution is selected based on LINMAP decision-making process. The corresponding solutions are compared against the exergetic, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental single objective optimization results. The results show that the exergy efficiency, total cost rate and environmental impact rate for the baseline system are determined to be 0.29, ¢28 h-1 and 77.3 mPts h-1 respectively. Moreover, based on the exergoeconomic optimization, 14% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower cost can be achieved, compared to baseline parameters at an expense of a 14% increase in the environmental impact. Based on the exergoenvironmental optimization, a 13% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower environmental impact can be achieved at the expense of a 27% increase in the total cost.

  7. Evaluation of energy requirements for all-electric range of plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, Shaik; Rudramoorthy, R.; Neelakrishnan, S.; Sri Raja Varman, K.; Arjunan, T.V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are emerging as one of the promising alternative to improve the sustainability of transportation energy and air quality especially in urban areas. The all-electric range in PHEV design plays a significant role in sizing of battery pack and cost. This paper presents the evaluation of battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler for different all-electric ranges. An analytical vehicle model and MATLAB simulation analysis has been discussed. The MATLAB simulation results estimate the impact of driving cycle and all-electric range on energy capacity, additional mass and initial cost of lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries. This paper also focuses on influence of cycle life on annual cost of battery pack and recommended suitable battery pack for implementing in plug-in hybrid electric two-wheelers. -- Research highlights: → Evaluates the battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler. → Simulation results reveal that the IDC demand more energy and cost of battery compared to ECE R40. → If cycle life is considered, the annual cost of Ni-MH battery pack is lower than lead-acid and Li-ion.

  8. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Report of the International Evaluation Committee. June 96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlen, H [Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany); Maggetto, G [Vrije Univ., Brussel (Belgium); Scrosati, B [Univ. di Roma (Italy); Srinivasan, S [Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)

    1996-11-01

    As requested by NUTEK our task was to evaluate the results and progress achieved in the electric and hybrid electric vehicles programme. This is a multidisciplinary research programme involving 12 projects at four universities and is planned to be extended over two three-year periods, i.e. 1993-1996 and 1997-1999 at a level of 8 MSKR (about USD 1,2M) per year. The programme has been launched to stimulate the development of electric vehicle technology in Sweden and is supporting projects to optimize the material processes, improve battery and engine components and promote of their production by the Swedish industry. In addition, the programme is directed to: 1. improve the knowledge and experience in the field at the academic level; 2. to support long time research on the subject and, 3. promote collaboration nationally and internationally. Our first comment is that the latter aspect appears to be satisfactorily accomplished. Most of the groups we have visited demonstrate an acquired experience in the field and presented their results with competence and enthusiasm. In many cases, we found valid interactions on ongoing projects in Swedish universities and established collaborations with high rank international groups. The programme has provided the material and the motivation for high-quality thesis work and, consequently, the formation of a class of well prepared and professionally competent students. Since electric vehicle technology is fast developing and is expected to have important fall-outs not only in the car industry but also in battery and electric engine manufacturing, the training of competent scientists and engineers in the field is of paramount relevance for Sweden where these types of industries are active and spread out. Therefore, we believe that as far as educational promotion is concerned, the funds distribution was worthwhile in all the projects which we evaluated

  9. UAV Mission Optimization through Hybrid-Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwelder, Philip Scott

    Hybrid-electric powertrain leverages the superior range of petrol based systems with the quiet and emission free benefits of electric propulsion. The major caveat to hybrid-electric powertrain in an airplane is that it is inherently heavier than conventional petroleum powertrain due mostly to the low energy density of battery technology. The first goal of this research is to develop mission planning code to match powertrain components for a small-scale unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to complete a standard surveillance mission within a set of user input parameters. The second goal is to promote low acoustic profile loitering through mid-flight engine starting. The two means by which midmission engine starting will be addressed is through reverse thrust from the propeller and a servo actuated gear to couple and decouple the engine and motor. The mission planning code calculates the power required to complete a mission and assists the user in sourcing powertrain components including the propeller, motor, battery, motor controller, engine and fuel. Reverse thrust engine starting involves characterizing an off the shelf variable pitch propeller and using its torque coefficient to calculate the advance ratio required to provide sufficient torque and speed to start an engine. Geared engine starting works like the starter in a conventional automobile. A servo actuated gear will couple the motor to the engine to start it and decouple once the engine has started. Reverse thrust engine starting was unsuccessful due to limitations of available off the shelf variable pitch propellers. However, reverse thrust engine starting could be realized through a custom larger diameter propeller. Geared engine starting was a success, though the system was unable to run fully as intended. Due to counter-clockwise crank rotation of the engine and the right-hand threads on the crankshaft, cranking the engine resulted in the nut securing the engine starter gear to back off as the engine cranked

  10. Electrifying Australian transport: Hybrid life cycle analysis of a transition to electric light-duty vehicles and renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, Paul; Wiedmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •This research assesses life-cycle carbon impacts of different powertrains. •We illustrate a transition to low-carbon vehicles in a hybrid IO-LCA model. •Different electricity and transport scenarios are integrated in the model. •With Australia’s current grid-mix, electric vehicles offer no mitigation potential. •Using renewable energy, electric vehicle carbon footprints can be cut by 66%. -- Abstract: Recent life cycle assessments confirmed the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential of renewable electricity and electric vehicle technologies. However, each technology is usually assessed separately and not within a consistent macro-economic, multi-sectoral framework. Here we present a multi-regional input-output based hybrid approach with integrated scenarios to facilitate the carbon footprint assessment of all direct and indirect effects of a transition to low-emission transportation and electricity generation technologies in Australia. The work takes into account on-road energy consumption values that are more realistic than official drive-cycle energy consumption figures used in previous work. Accounting for these factors as well as for Australia’s grid electricity, which heavily relies on coal power, electric vehicles are found to have a higher carbon footprint than conventional vehicles, whereas hybrid electric vehicles have the lowest. This means that – from a carbon footprint perspective – powertrain electrification is beneficial only to a certain degree at the current stage. This situation can be changed by increasing shares of renewable electricity in the grid. In our best-case scenario, where renewable energy accounts for 96% of the electricity mix in 2050, electric vehicle carbon footprints can be cut by 66% by 2050 relative to 2009. In the business-as-usual scenario (36% renewable electricity share by 2050), electric vehicles can reach a 56% reduction if fossil fuel power plants significantly increase their efficiencies

  11. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Razi Iqbal; Muhammad Usman Ghani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT), the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming ...

  12. A Supervisory Control Algorithm of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy with Fuzzy PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqi Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new energy management system based on equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS for hybrid electric vehicles. The aim is to enhance fuel economy and impose state of charge (SoC charge-sustainability. First, the relationship between the equivalent factor (EF of ECMS and the co-state of pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP is derived. Second, a new method of implementing the adaptation law using fuzzy proportional plus integral (PI controller is developed to adjust EF for ECMS in real-time. This adaptation law is more robust than one with constant EF due to the variation of EF as well as driving cycle. Finally, simulations for two driving cycles using ECMS are conducted as opposed to the commonly used rule-based (RB control strategy, indicating that the proposed adaptation law can provide a promising blend in terms of fuel economy and charge-sustainability. The results confirm that ECMS with Fuzzy PI adaptation law is more robust than ECMS with constant EF as well as PI adaptation law and it achieves significant improvements compared with RB in terms of fuel economy, which is enhanced by 4.44% and 14.7% for china city bus cycle and economic commission of Europe (ECE cycle, respectively.

  13. Synthetic fuels for transportation : background paper #1 : the future potential of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    This report presents a comprehensive review of the future of electric and hybrid : vehicles through the year 2010 in the United States. It was prepared for the : Office of Technology Assessment as background information for its study, : "Synthetic Fu...

  14. Internet Enabled Remote Driving of a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System for Duty Cycle Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodell, Jarrett; Compere, Marc; Smith, Wilford; Holtz, Dale; Brudnak, Mark; Pozolo, Mike; Paul, Victor; Mohammad, Syed; Mortsfield, Todd; Shvartsman, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a human-in-the-loop motion-based simulator interfaced to hybrid-electric power system hardware, both of which were used to measure the duty cycle of a combat vehicle in a virtual...

  15. The Swedish electric and hybrid vehicle R, D and D program. Seminar October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This publication presents a selection of the ongoing projects in the form of abstracts, within the KFB RDD-program Electric- and Hybrid Vehicles. These projects were presented at a project manager seminar 20-21 October 1998

  16. FEV's new parallel hybrid transmission with single dry clutch and electric torque support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellenbroich, Gereon [VKA, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Rosenburg, Volker [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    FEV is currently developing a new 7-speed hybrid transmission for transverse installation. The transmission with a design torque of 320 Nm is based on AMT (automated manual transmission) technology and uses a single electric motor. The innovative gear set layout combines the advantages of modern AMTs such as best efficiency, low costs and few components with full hybrid capabilities and electric torque support during all gear shifts. Furthermore, the gear set layout allows for very short-shift-times due to the favorable distribution of inertias. Other features include an A/C compressor being electrically driven by the electric motor of the transmission during start/stop phases. (orig.)

  17. Hybrid power system (hydro, solar and wind) for rural electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahinda Kurukulasuriya

    2000-01-01

    Generation of affordable cheap electric energy for rural development by a hybrid power system (10-50 kW) of hydropower, solar and wind energies on self determining basis and computer application to determine its performance. In this paper the following topics were discussed, design of hybrid power system, its justification and economic analysis, manufacturing and installation of the system. (Author)

  18. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    GANDZHA S.A.; KIESSH I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  19. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  20. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY PASSENGER CAR WITH USING OF NON-ELECTRICAL HYBRID DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Skrucany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only electrical hybrid technology is used for drivetrain of passenger cars. Also other systems using non-electrical principles (hydraulic or air pressure, mechanical energy storage can be found in current vehicles. There is a quantification of the spared energy by using a hybrid vehicle in the paper. Driving cy-cle ECE 15 was chosen as a platform for simulation of driving resistances.

  1. Short-term electricity prices forecasting in a competitive market by a hybrid intelligent approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalao, J.P.S. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Pousinho, H.M.I. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, a hybrid intelligent approach is proposed for short-term electricity prices forecasting in a competitive market. The proposed approach is based on the wavelet transform and a hybrid of neural networks and fuzzy logic. Results from a case study based on the electricity market of mainland Spain are presented. A thorough comparison is carried out, taking into account the results of previous publications. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  2. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimental Model with CAN Network Real Time Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATOI, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental model with a distributed control system of a hybrid electrical vehicle is presented. A communication CAN network of high speed (1 Mbps assures a distributed control of the all components. The modeling and the control of different operating regimes are realized on an experimental test-bench of a hybrid electrical vehicle. The experimental results concerning the variations of the mains variables (currents, torques, speeds are presented.

  3. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Chhanwal, N.; Ezhilarasi, P. N.; Indrani, D.; Anandharamakrishnan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with h...

  4. Parallel Hybrid Gas-Electric Geared Turbofan Engine Conceptual Design and Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, Charles; Hardin, Larry; Rheaume, Jonathan; Kohlman, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design of a parallel gas-electric hybrid propulsion system for a conventional single aisle twin engine tube and wing vehicle has been developed. The study baseline vehicle and engine technology are discussed, followed by results of the hybrid propulsion system sizing and performance analysis. The weights analysis for the electric energy storage & conversion system and thermal management system is described. Finally, the potential system benefits are assessed.

  5. Short-term electricity prices forecasting in a competitive market by a hybrid intelligent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalao, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid intelligent approach is proposed for short-term electricity prices forecasting in a competitive market. The proposed approach is based on the wavelet transform and a hybrid of neural networks and fuzzy logic. Results from a case study based on the electricity market of mainland Spain are presented. A thorough comparison is carried out, taking into account the results of previous publications. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  6. Decarbonizing Public Bus Transport – a case study on Curitiba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Düllmann Vasques Pereira, Joana Lena

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major issue in cities across the world, its common cause being the use of fossil fuel combustion engines in both private and collective transport modes. However, alternative technologies, such as biofuels, hybrid and battery electric vehicles, are on the rise. The objective of this thesis is to assess the optimal system’s configuration – a combination of electric traction and the use of biofuels – in a sub-group of Curitiba’s public bus network through the applicat...

  7. Integrated Inverter For Driving Multiple Electric Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN; Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-04-04

    An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The drive (50) has a common control section (53, 54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) with only one microelectronic processor (54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), only one gate driver circuit (53) for controlling conduction of semiconductor switches (S1-S10) in the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), and also includes a common dc bus (70), a common dc bus filtering capacitor (C1) and a common dc bus voltage sensor (67). The electric machines (57, 62) may be synchronous machines, induction machines, or PM machines and may be operated in a motoring mode or a generating mode.

  8. Study on Two-segment Electric-mechanical Composite Braking Strategy of Tracked Vehicle Hybrid Transmission System

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Tian; Gai, Jiangtao; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2010-01-01

    In order to lighten abrasion of braking system of hybrid electric tracked vehicle, according to characteristic of hybrid electric transmission, electric-mechanical composite braking method was proposed. By means of analyzing performance of electric braking and mechanical braking and three-segment composite braking strategy, two-segment electric-mechanical composite braking strategy was put forward in this paper. Simulation results of Matlab/Simulink indicated that the two-segment electric-mec...

  9. Energy consumption and cost analysis of hybrid electric powertrain configurations for two wheelers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Paul D.; Roser, Holger M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyse several driving cycles to for the preliminary design of hybrid two wheelers. • Simulation of alternate configurations to compare achievable driving range and economy. • Demonstrate that pure electric vehicles provide cost benefits over the vehicle life. • Hybrid and plug-in hybrid two wheelers have comparable costs to conventional vehicles. - Abstract: The development of hybrid electric two wheelers in recent years has targeted the reduction of on road emissions produced by these vehicles. However, added cost and complexity have resulted in the failure of these systems to meet consumer expectations. This paper presents a comparative study of the energy economy and essential costs of alternative forms of small two wheelers such as scooters or low capacity motorcycles. This includes conventional, hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric variants. Through simulations of vehicle driving range using two popular driving cycles it is demonstrated that there is considerable benefit in fuel economy realised by hybridising such vehicles. However, the added costs associated with electrification, i.e. motor/generator, power electronics, and energy storage provide a significant cost obstacle to the purchase of such vehicles. Only the pure electric configuration is demonstrated to be cost effective over its life in comparison to conventional two wheelers. Both the hybrid electric and plug-in equivalents must overcome significant upfront costs to be cost competitive with conventional vehicles. This is demonstrated to be achieved if the annual driving range of the vehicle is increased substantially from the assumed mean. Given the shorter distances travelled by most two wheeler drivers it can therefore be concluded that the development of similar hybrid electric vehicles are unlikely to achieve the desired acceptance that pure electric or conventional equivalents currently achieve

  10. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  11. Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Selman, J. R.

    A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be "scaled-up safely", i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes than the commercially available near-2-Ah cells. Here, we review a novel thermal management system using phase-change material (PCM). A prototype of this PCM-based system is presently being manufactured. A PCM-based system has never been tested before with lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and battery packs, although its mode of operation is exceptionally well suited for the cell chemistry of the most common commercially available Li-ion batteries. The thermal management system described here is intended specifically for EV/HEV applications. It has a high potential for providing effective thermal management without introducing moving components. Thereby, the performance of EV/HEV batteries may be improved without complicating the system design and incurring major additional cost, as is the case with "active" cooling systems requiring air or liquid circulation.

  12. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume VI. Cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, K.S.

    1979-09-30

    The purpose of the cost analysis is to determine the economic feasibility of a variety of hybrid vehicles with respect to conventional vehicles specifically designed for the same duty cycle defined by the mission analysis. Several different hybrid configurations including parallel, parallel-flywheel, and series vehicles were evaluated. The ramifications of incorporating examples of advanced batteries, these being the advanced lead-acid, nickel-zinc, and sodium sulfur were also investigated. Vehicles were specifically designed with these batteries and for the driving cycles specified by the mission. Simulated operation on the missions yielded the energy consumption (petroleum and/or electricity) over the driving cycles. It was concluded that: in the event that gasoline prices reach $2.50 to $3.00/gal, hybrid vehicles in many applications will become economically competitive with conventional vehicles without subsidization; in some commercial applications hybrid vehicles could be economically competitive, when the gasoline price ranges from $1.20 to $1.50/gal. The cost per kWh per cycle of the advanced batteries is much more important economically than the specific energy; the series hybrid vehicles were found to be more expensive in comparison to the parallel or parallel-flywheel hybrids when designed as passenger vehicles; and hybrid vehicles designed for private use could become economically competitive and displace up to 50% of the fuel normally used on that mission if subsidies of $500 to $2000 were supplied to the owner/operator. (LCL)

  13. Design, implementation, and experimental validation of optimal power split control for hybrid electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Mullem, D. van; Jager, B. van; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles require an algorithm that controls the power split between the internal combustion engine and electric machine(s), and the opening and closing of the clutch. Optimal control theory is applied to derive a methodology for a real-time optimal-control-based power split

  14. Acoustic characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and the safety of pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  15. Consumer adoption and grid impact models for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This proposed study focuses on assessing the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in Wisconsin and its economic : impacts on the States energy market and the electric grid. PHEVs are expected to provide a range of about 40 miles per ...

  16. Auditory detectability of hybrid electric vehicles by pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  17. An optimal control-based algorithm for hybrid electric vehicle using preview route information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D.V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Control strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are generally aimed at optimally choosing the power distribution between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor in order to minimize the fuel consumption and/or emissions. Using vehicle navigation systems in combination with

  18. Field weakening performance of flux-switching machines for hybrid/electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Y.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flux-switching machines (FSMs) are a viable candidate for electric propulsion of hybrid/electric vehicles. This paper investigates the field weakening performance of FSMs. The investigation starts with general torque and voltage expressions, which reveal the relationships between certain parameters

  19. Performance assessment of a hybrid electric-powered long-range commercial airliner

    OpenAIRE

    Zöld, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recent increase in the amount of smaller electric general aviation aircrafts, a fully electric airliner is not likely to fly in the near future. Partially inspired by the automotive industry’s success with the hybrid car, this thesis investigated the feasibility of an electric-hybrid propulsion system for an Airbus A340-600 on a long-haul flight and its effect on the aircraft’s performance. First, an analysis was done of the reference aircraft, A340-600, using conventional propuls...

  20. Estimating bus passenger waiting times from incomplete bus arrivals data

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of estimating bus passenger waiting times at bus stops using incomplete bus arrivals data. This is of importance to bus operators and regulators as passenger waiting time is a key performance measure. Average waiting times are usually estimated from bus headways, that is, time gaps between buses. It is both time-consuming and expensive to measure bus arrival times manually so methods using automatic vehicle location systems are attractive; however, these syste...

  1. The impact of government incentives for hybrid-electric vehicles: Evidence from US states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of government incentives policies designed to promote the adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). As a primary methodology, it employs cross-sectional analysis of hybrid registration data over time from US states to test the relationship between hybrid adoption and a variety of socioeconomic and policy variables. It also compares hybrid adoption patterns over time to the US average for specific states that have changed incentive policies, to examine how differences in incentive schemes influence their efficacy. The results of these analyses suggest a strong relationship between gasoline prices and hybrid adoption, but a much weaker relationship between incentive policies and hybrid adoption. Incentives that provide payments upfront also appear to be the most effective

  2. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  3. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach.

  4. Environmental Benefits of Using Wind Generation to Power Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As alternatives to conventional vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs running off electricity stored in batteries could decrease oil consumption and reduce carbon emissions. By using electricity derived from clean energy sources, even greater environmental benefits are obtainable. This study examines the potential benefits arising from the widespread adoption of PHEVs in light of Alberta’s growing interest in wind power. It also investigates PHEVs’ capacity to mitigate natural fluctuations in wind power generation.

  5. High Voltage Hybrid Electric Propulsion - Multilayered Functional Insulation System (MFIS) NASA-GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, M.

    2017-01-01

    High power transmission cables pose a key challenge in future Hybrid Electric Propulsion Aircraft. The challenge arises in developing safe transmission lines that can withstand the unique environment found in aircraft while providing megawatts of power. High voltage AC, variable frequency cables do not currently exist and present particular electrical insulation challenges since electrical arcing and high heating are more prevalent at higher voltages and frequencies. Identifying and developing materials that maintain their dielectric properties at high voltage and frequencies is crucial.

  6. Performance and energy management of a novel full hybrid electric powertrain system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Cheng-Ta; Hung, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the performance and energy management between a novel full hybrid electric powertrain and a traditional power-split hybrid system. The developed planetary gearset and dual clutch configuration provides five operation modes. Equations for the torque and speed of power sources for the planetary gearset and dual clutch system and the Toyota Hybrid System are firstly derived. By giving vehicle performance of gradability, maximal speeds in hybrid and pure electric modes, the power sources of the 210 kg target vehicle are: a 125 cc engine and two 1.8 kW motor and generator. The optimal tank-to-wheel efficiencies, ratios of circulating power, and operation points at specific vehicle speeds and out loads are calculated. Simulation results show that the dual-motor electric vehicle mode offers superior performance regarding electric drive; the low capacity of the battery is conducive to reducing manufacturing and maintenance costs; the tank-to-wheel efficiency is mainly operated above 20% while the power split electronic-continuously-variable-transmission mode is the major operation mode, and a maximum of 17% fuel economy improvement is achieved compared with the Toyota Hybrid System in most of the vehicle speed ranges. The outstanding performance warrants further real-system development, especially regarding the implementation in plug-in and sport hybrid powertrain designs. - Highlights: • An innovative power split hybrid powertrain was designed. • Dual-motor electric-vehicle mode highlighted for plug-in function. • Power circulation ratios and five driving modes were analyzed. • Global search method utilized for optimal energy management. • Maximal 17+% fuel improvement compared to Toyota Hybrid System

  7. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  8. Electrical Design and Evaluation of Asynchronous Serial Bus Communication Network of 48 Sensor Platform LSIs with Single-Ended I/O for Integrated MEMS-LSI Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenzhong; Tanaka, Shuji; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hata, Yoshiyuki

    2018-01-01

    For installing many sensors in a limited space with a limited computing resource, the digitization of the sensor output at the site of sensation has advantages such as a small amount of wiring, low signal interference and high scalability. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Large-Scale Integration (LSI) (referred to as “sensor platform LSI”) for bus-networked Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS)-LSI integrated sensors. In this LSI, collision avoidance, adaptation and event-driven functions are simply implemented to relieve data collision and congestion in asynchronous serial bus communication. In this study, we developed a network system with 48 sensor platform LSIs based on Printed Circuit Board (PCB) in a backbone bus topology with the bus length being 2.4 m. We evaluated the serial communication performance when 48 LSIs operated simultaneously with the adaptation function. The number of data packets received from each LSI was almost identical, and the average sampling frequency of 384 capacitance channels (eight for each LSI) was 73.66 Hz. PMID:29342923

  9. Electrical Design and Evaluation of Asynchronous Serial Bus Communication Network of 48 Sensor Platform LSIs with Single-Ended I/O for Integrated MEMS-LSI Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhong Shao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For installing many sensors in a limited space with a limited computing resource, the digitization of the sensor output at the site of sensation has advantages such as a small amount of wiring, low signal interference and high scalability. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS Large-Scale Integration (LSI (referred to as “sensor platform LSI” for bus-networked Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS-LSI integrated sensors. In this LSI, collision avoidance, adaptation and event-driven functions are simply implemented to relieve data collision and congestion in asynchronous serial bus communication. In this study, we developed a network system with 48 sensor platform LSIs based on Printed Circuit Board (PCB in a backbone bus topology with the bus length being 2.4 m. We evaluated the serial communication performance when 48 LSIs operated simultaneously with the adaptation function. The number of data packets received from each LSI was almost identical, and the average sampling frequency of 384 capacitance channels (eight for each LSI was 73.66 Hz.

  10. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  11. Pattern of secure bilateral transactions ensuring power economic dispatch in hybrid electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Gao, Wenzhong

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for secure bilateral transactions determination ensuring economic power dispatch of the generators using new AC distribution factors for pool and bilateral coordinated markets. The new optimization problem considers simultaneous minimization of deviations from scheduled transactions and fuel cost of the generators in the network. The fuel cost has been obtained for hybrid market model and impact of different percentage of bilateral demand on fuel cost, generation share, and pattern of transactions has also been determined. The impact of optimally located unified power flow controller (UPFC) on the bilateral transactions, fuel cost and generation pattern has also been studied. The results have also been obtained for pool market model. The proposed technique has been applied on IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (RTS). (author)

  12. Characterization of Alternative Hybrid Solar Thermal Electric Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid power towers offer a number of advantages over solar-only power tower systems for early commercial deployment of the technology. These advantages include enhanced modularity, reduced financial and technical risks, and lower energy costs. With the changes in the domestic and world markets for bulk power, hybrid power towers are likely to have the best opportunities for power projects. This paper discusses issues that are likely to be important to the deployment of hybrid power towers in the near future. A large number of alternative designs are possible, and it is likely that there is no single approach that can be considered best or optimal for all project opportunities. The preferred design will depend on the application, as well as the unique objectives and perspectives of the person evaluating the design

  13. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  14. State-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (PL 94-413) requires that data be developed to characterize the state of the art of vehicles powered by an electric motor and those propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power sources. Data obtained from controlled tests of a representative number of sample vehicles, from information supplied by manufacturers or contained in the literature, and from surveys of fleet operators of individual owners of electric vehicles is discussed. The results of track and dynamometer tests conducted by NASA on 22 electric, 2 hybrid, and 5 conventional vehicles, as well as on 5 spark-ignition-engine-powered vehicles, the conventional counterparts of 5 of the vehicles, are presented.

  15. Implementation and evaluation of change-over speed in plug-in hybrid electric two wheeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, Shaik; Rudramoorthy, R.; Sadagopan, P.; Neelakrishnan, S.

    2016-01-01

    In Asia, two wheelers are popular mode of transportation to a large group of people because of their relative affordability and ability to maneuver in heavy city traffic. However, the rate of fuel consumption and emission contribution by them, especially in urban areas need more attention to improve sustainability of energy and air quality. Recently, plug-in hybrid technology has been emerged as one of the most promising alternatives in reducing petroleum consumption and emission. This paper presents the implementation of plug-in hybrid technology on a two wheeler by formulation of novel control strategy suitable for Indian city driving needs. Experimental investigations on hub motor and IC (internal combustion) engine has been carried out to fix the change-over speed in hybrid mode, followed by road test on prototype vehicle. The performance of prototype vehicle on IDC (Indian driving cycle) simulated road pattern and actual road driving, confirmed the change-over speed of vehicle in hybrid mode. The converted plug-in hybrid electric two wheeler also demonstrated the drive strategy adopted for higher energy efficiency up to 2.5 times. So, plug-in hybrid electric two wheelers show significant improvements in fuel economy by replacing petroleum fuel with electricity for portions of trip to achieve nations' energy security. - Highlights: • Implementation of plug-in hybrid concept for two wheelers suitable for city driving. • Investigation on hub motor, engine and prototype vehicle to fix change-over speed. • Plug-in hybrid electric two wheeler demonstrates 2.48 times higher fuel efficiency. • Significant improvements in fuel economy help to achieve nations' energy security.

  16. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  17. Towards an ankle neuroprosthesis for hybrid robotics: Concepts and current sources for functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco, S; Fuster, I; Galeano, R; Moreno, J C; Pons, J L; Brunetti, F

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid rehabilitation robotics combine neuro-prosthetic devices (close-loop functional electrical stimulation systems) and traditional robotic structures and actuators to explore better therapies and promote a more efficient motor function recovery or compensation. Although hybrid robotics and ankle neuroprostheses (NPs) have been widely developed over the last years, there are just few studies on the use of NPs to electrically control both ankle flexion and extension to promote ankle recovery and improved gait patterns in paretic limbs. The aim of this work is to develop an ankle NP specifically designed to work in the field of hybrid robotics. This article presents early steps towards this goal and makes a brief review about motor NPs and Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) principles and most common devices used to aid the ankle functioning during the gait cycle. It also shows a current sources analysis done in this framework, in order to choose the best one for this intended application.

  18. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  19. Benchmarking of OEM Hybrid Electric Vehicles at NREL: Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. J.; Rajagopalan, A.

    2001-10-26

    A milestone report that describes the NREL's progress and activities related to the DOE FY2001 Annual Operating Plan milestone entitled ''Benchmark 2 new production or pre-production hybrids with ADVISOR.''

  20. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  1. Electrical system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  2. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  3. Presentation of electric motor and motor control technology for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles; Denki jidosha hybrid sha yo motor oyobi motor seigyo gijutsu no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudaira, N.; Masakik, R.; Tajima, F. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The authors have developed a motor drive system for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. This system consists of a permanent magnet type synchronous motor, an inverter using insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and a controller based on a single-chip microcomputer. To achieve a compact and light weight synchronous motor, an internal permanent magnet type rotor structure was designed. This paper presents motor control technology for electric vehicles, such as an optimization method of field weakening control and a new current control method. (author)

  4. The structure and control method of hybrid power source for electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Maobing; Xu, Hui; Li, Weimin; Liu, Yin; Li, Fade; Hu, Yue; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an electric vehicle powertrain configuration is presented, which the lithium-ion battery integrated with ultracapacitors is developed as the hybrid power system to improve the transient performance of an electric vehicle, and to decrease the damage to the battery pack. In the proposed system, a bidirectional direct current/direct current converter is used to couple the ultracapacitors bank to the main battery pack. The energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for hybrid power system has been proposed to promote the performance of energy flow in the electric vehicle. The experiment results in urban driving cycles show remarkable advantages of the proposed hybrid system configuration and energy management strategy. About 30% of the battery capacity energy is saved while using the hybrid power source. Besides, the voltage and current curves of battery become smoother than that with the single power. - Highlights: • A hybrid power source electric vehicle powertrain configuration is presented. • The energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed. • The experiment results show remarkable advantages of the configuration and method.

  5. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhanwal, N; Ezhilarasi, P N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2015-07-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with hybrid heating mode (H-1 and H-2, hybrid oven) on the quality characteristics of bread as against conventional heating mode (C-1, pilot scale oven; C-2, hybrid oven) was studied. The results showed that breads baked in hybrid heating mode (H-2) had higher moisture content (28.87%), higher volume (670 cm(3)), lower crumb firmness value (374.6 g), and overall quality score (67.0) comparable to conventional baking process (68.5). Moreover, bread baked in hybrid heating mode showed 28% reduction in baking time.

  6. Microscopic Description of Electric and Magnetic Toroidal Multipoles in Hybrid Orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki

    2018-03-01

    We derive the quantum-mechanical operator expressions of multipoles under the space-time inversion group. We elucidate that electric and magnetic toroidal multipoles, in addition to ordinary non-toroidal ones, are fundamental pieces to express arbitrary electronic degrees of freedom. We show that electric (magnetic) toroidal multipoles higher than the dipole (monopole) can become active in a hybridized-orbital system. We also demonstrate emergent cross-correlated couplings between the electric, magnetic, and elastic degrees of freedom, such as magneto-electric and magneto(electro)-elastic coupling, under toroidal multipole orders.

  7. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  8. Performance of electric and hybrid vehicles at the 1995 American Tour de Sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Buitrago, C.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption and performance data were collected on more than 40 electric and hybrid vehicles during the 1995 American Tour de Sol. At this competition, one electric vehicle drove 229 miles on one charge using nickel metalhydride batteries. The results obtained from the data show that electric vehicle efficiencies reached 9.07 mi./kWh or 70 equivalent mpg of gasoline when compared to the total energy cycle efficiency of electricity and gasoline. A gasoline-fueled 1995 Geo Metro that drove the same route attained 36.4 mpg.

  9. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified : hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities in this research : are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) solutions ...

  10. An energy management for series hybrid electric vehicle using improved dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Yang, Yaoquan; Liu, Chunyu

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing numbers of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), management for two energy sources, engine and battery, is more and more important to achieve the minimum fuel consumption. This paper introduces several working modes of series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) firstly and then describes the mathematical model of main relative components in SHEV. On the foundation of this model, dynamic programming is applied to distribute energy of engine and battery on the platform of matlab and acquires less fuel consumption compared with traditional control strategy. Besides, control rule recovering energy in brake profiles is added into dynamic programming, so shorter computing time is realized by improved dynamic programming and optimization on algorithm.

  11. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  12. Can propulsion and fuel diversity for the bus fleet achieve the win–win strategy of energy conservation and environmental protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Renjie; Wu, Ye; Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhou, Boya; Hao, Jiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We first report WTW energy and environmental impacts of new-energy buses in China. • Both CNGV and BEV eliminate petroleum use but increase the burden of other fossil fuels. • BEV is the best to reduce WTW NO X and VOC emissions but no benefit for PM 2.5 and SO 2 . • CNGV has PM 2.5 emission reductions by 70% greater than DV but no benefit in GHG emissions. • HEV is the only option that can reduce energy use and pollutant emissions at the same time. - Abstract: China is facing serious issues involving energy sufficiency, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution caused partly by the rapid growth of vehicles. In order to relieve those problems, new energy vehicles are introduced into the bus and car market. We adopt life cycle analysis to evaluate the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy consumption, CO 2 emissions and pollutant emissions from the traditional diesel bus and new energy buses, including diesel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), compressed natural gas vehicles (CNGVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This study reports the current situation and projects future scenarios for the BEV bus for several regions in China due to significant regional differences in the power generation mix. Compared to the diesel bus, the HEV bus can reduce petroleum, fossil fuel use and CO 2 emissions by about 20%, and, at the same time, produce stable reduction benefits for all air pollutants. The CNG bus achieves reductions of WTW primary PM 2.5 emissions by 70% over its diesel counterpart and, of course, uses little petroleum; but increases fossil fuel consumption moderately and has no benefit in GHG emissions. The BEV bus can deliver a substantial petroleum consumption advantage and greatly reduce the WTW NO X , VOC and CO emissions; but, if the electricity is generated from burning coal, the BEV bus has no PM 2.5 emission benefit compared to the conventional diesel bus. Currently, the BEV bus increases fossil energy use and CO 2 emissions in the

  13. Electrical production for domestic and industrial applications using hybrid PV-wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essalaimeh, S.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdullat, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modeling and building hybrid system of PV and wind turbine. ► Investigation of the electrical generation under Amman–Jordan’s climate. ► Configuration of theoretical and actual characteristics of the hybrid system. ► Testing effects of dust, inclination and load on the electrical generation. ► Financial analysis for various applications. - Abstract: The present work shows an experimental investigation of using a combination of solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling. The system has also integration with grid connection to have more reliable system. Measurements included the solar radiation intensity, the ambient temperature, the wind speed and the output power from the solar PV panels and wind turbine. The performance characteristic of the PV panels has been obtained by varying the load value through a variable resistance. Some major factors have been studied and practically measured; one of them is the dust effect on electrical production efficiency for photovoltaic panels. Another factor is the inclination of the PV panels, where varying the angle of inclination has a seasonal importance for gathering the maximum solar intensity. Through mathematical calculation and the collected and measured data, a simple payback period has been calculated of the hybrid system in order to study the economical aspects of installing such a system under Jordanian climate conditions and for different usages and local tariffs including domestic, industrial and commercial applications. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of hybrid system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical heating and cooling through split units and resistive heaters.

  14. Electricity/electronics in electric-powered vehicles and electric management III; Elektrik/Elektronik in Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeugen und elektrisches Energiemanagement III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Carsten; Sirch, Ottmar

    2012-07-01

    The concept of e-Mobility currently is on everyone's lips. Worldwide, manufacturers and suppliers work with high pressure on new concepts and vehicles. Hybrid vehicles pave the way for pure electric-powered vehicles. Due to the problems of energy saving, electric-powered vehicles will take a long time for an extensively utilization. In the book underconsideration, experts from research and practice report on the latest technologies.

  15. Electric buses - An energy efficient urban transportation means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Reinhart [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Transportation Studies, Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Bus transit systems with electric traction are an important contribution to the post fossil fuel mobility. Most renewable energy sources provide energy in the form of electricity. Electric motors thus have promise in the development of the way ''beyond oil''. The reactivation of trolley bus systems - grid bounded but also catenary free for short distances - paves this way. The design of modern trolley bus operations overcomes the existing disadvantages of conventional buses using fossil fuel. Germany has an efficient industry in this field, that offers braking energy recovery and energy storage in modern supercapacitors as well as technical and organisational innovations for a local emission free and a low noise transit system. Gentle but powerful when starting and braking, the trolley bus is cost effective and easy to integrate into an existing infrastructure. Such an electric bus system is ecological, customer-friendly and suitable for cities. It has a high economic efficiency and it also expands the traffic planning field towards an ecological future technology. This paper shows examples at home and abroad how electric buses achieve an energy solving modern urban traffic. It gives insights into technical developments of electric vehicle equipment, cateneries with fast driving handling characteristics and the use of plain electric and hybrid powertrains. (author)

  16. On the electrification of road transport - Learning rates and price forecasts for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin K.; Junginger, Martin; Perujo, Adolfo; Bonnel, Pierre; Grootveld, Geert van

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) are currently more expensive than conventional passenger cars but may become cheaper due to technological learning. Here, we obtain insight into the prospects of future price decline by establishing ex-post learning rates for HEVs and ex-ante price forecasts for HEVs and BEVs. Since 1997, HEVs have shown a robust decline in their price and price differential at learning rates of 7±2% and 23±5%, respectively. By 2010, HEVs were only 31±22 € 2010 kW −1 more expensive than conventional cars. Mass-produced BEVs are currently introduced into the market at prices of 479±171 € 2010 kW −1 , which is 285±213 € 2010 kW −1 and 316±209 € 2010 kW −1 more expensive than HEVs and conventional cars. Our forecast suggests that price breakeven with these vehicles may only be achieved by 2026 and 2032, when 50 and 80 million BEVs, respectively, would have been produced worldwide. We estimate that BEVs may require until then global learning investments of 100–150 billion € which is less than the global subsidies for fossil fuel consumption paid in 2009. These findings suggest that HEVs, including plug-in HEVs, could become the dominant vehicle technology in the next two decades, while BEVs may require long-term policy support. - Highlights: ► Learning rates for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles. ► Prices and price differentials of hybrid-electric vehicles show a robust decline. ► Battery-electric vehicles may require policy support for decades.

  17. Electric and hybrid vehicle program. Quarterly report, January-February-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Highlights of program developments are discussed, and ETV-1 test results are described. The temperature effects on lead-acid battery performance from 27 to 55/sup 0/C are reported, and the status of demonstration electric vehicle orders and deliveries is summarized. The certification and testing status of demonstration project vehicles is outlined, and a personnel directory for the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program is included. (WHK)

  18. Eco-efficiency optimization of Hybrid Electric Vehicle based on response surface method and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Nzisabira, Jonathan; Louvigny, Yannick; Duysinx, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The electric vehicles (EV) and sometimes the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies are environmentally very efficient but can not succeed on the market because of a smaller ability to satisfy customer’s requirements. Comparison of clean technologies in automotive and transportation systems has been measured using different analysis tools such as LCA (life cycle analysis). However, these instruments never account for the user’s satisfaction which partly explains the market acceptance prob...

  19. Integration, Testing, and Validation of a Small Hybrid-Electric Remotely-Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    unmanned aircraft offers the capability to unrelentingly pursue a target in a way the stamina of a human pilot simply cannot match. Unmanned systems can...electricity in these examples is provided by batteries, other hybrid-electric systems use generators, solar cells , or even hydrogen fuel cells ... cells , or solar panels. Throughout this paper, HE-RPA will refer specifically to the battery and fossil fuel combination. Usually, the secondary energy

  20. The erigone bus study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durieu, L.; Vignes, M.; Wolstenholme, P.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of some factors determining the performance and cost-effectiveness of microcomputer bus systems implemented in Europa crates. An experimental system has been specified and a number of modules constructed in accordance with the specification, in order to test the validity of some of the ideas proposed. It has been demonstrated that the bus interfacing logic can be simple and inexpensive, while maintaining a high degree of processor independence and also a high degree of transparency in operation. The number of pins required by the bus is minimized by multiplexing address and data. A series termination for the drive of the multiplexed lines permits cross-talk to be reduced to insignificant levels: this technique is recommended for wider application. The experimental bus is proposed as a basis for the construction of simple microcomputer-based instrumentation systems. (orig.)

  1. Creative Bus Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  2. Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Assessment of Electrical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performances of various lithium-ion chemistries for use in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have been investigated and compared to several other rechargeable energy storage systems technologies such as lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and electrical-double layer capacitors. The analysis has shown the beneficial properties of lithium-ion in the terms of energy density, power density and rate capabilities. Particularly, the nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode stands out with the high energy density up to 160 Wh/kg, compared to 70–110, 90 and 71 Wh/kg for lithium iron phosphate cathode, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum cathode and, lithium titanate oxide anode battery cells, respectively. These values are considerably higher than the lead-acid (23–28 Wh/kg and nickel-metal hydride (44–53 Wh/kg battery technologies. The dynamic discharge performance test shows that the energy efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries is significantly higher than the lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride technologies. The efficiency varies between 86% and 98%, with the best values obtained by pouch battery cells, ahead of cylindrical and prismatic battery design concepts. Also the power capacity of lithium-ion technology is superior compared to other technologies. The power density is in the range of 300–2400 W/kg against 200–400 and 90–120 W/kg for lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride, respectively. However, considering the influence of energy efficiency, the power density is in the range of 100–1150 W/kg. Lithium-ion batteries optimized for high energy are at the lower end of this range and are challenged to meet the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, SuperLIB and Massachusetts Institute of Technology goals. Their association with electric-double layer capacitors, which have low energy density (4–6 Wh/kg but outstanding power capabilities, could be very interesting. The study of the rate capability of the lithium-ion batteries has

  3. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  4. PyBus -- A Python Software Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrijsen, W

    2005-01-01

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer...

  5. The Swedish electric and hybrid vehicle R, D and D program. Seminar no. 2, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This publication presents a selection of the ongoing and finalised projects in form of abstracts, within the KFB RDD-program Electric- and Hybride Vehicles. These projects were presented at the second project manager seminar 14-15 June 1999. The first project manager seminar was held 20-21 October 1998

  6. Design sensitivity analysis for heavy-duty hybrid electric trucks with a waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, F.J.R.; Hofman, T.

    One general trend aiming to improve the development of hybrid electric powertrains is the reduction of production cost of powertrains by developing powertrain components that can be used for multiple vehicle segments. The development of these kind of modular powertrain components requires knowledge

  7. Model-based eco-driving and integrated powertrain control for (hybrid) electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, T.; Spronkmans, S.; Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is engaged in research, development and testing of a range of technologies relating to hybrid and electric vehicle energy management and performance. The impact of driver behaviour on vehicle energy consumption is a significant

  8. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  9. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...

  10. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  11. A control-oriented cycle-life model for hybrid electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suri, Girish; Onori, Simona

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a semi-empirical Lithium-iron phosphate-graphite battery aging model is identified over data mimicking actual cycling conditions that a hybrid electric vehicle battery encounters under real driving scenarios. The aging model is then used to construct the severity factor map, used to characterize relative aging of the battery under different operating conditions. This is used as a battery degradation criterion within a multi-objective optimization problem where battery aging minimization is to be achieved along with fuel consumption minimization. The method proposed is general and can be applied to other battery chemistry as well as different vehicular applications. Finally, simulations conducted using a hybrid electric vehicle simulator show how the two modeling tools developed in this paper, i.e., the severity factor map and the aging model, can be effectively used in a multi-objective optimization problem to predict and control battery degradation. - Highlights: • Battery aging model for hybrid electric vehicles using real driving conditions data. • Development of a modeling tool to assess battery degradation for real time optimization. • "3"1P NMR analysis of an enzyme-treated extract showed expected hydrolysis of P forms. • Development of an energy management strategy to minimize battery degradation. • Simulation results from hybrid electric vehicle simulator.

  12. Lyapunov based control of hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Lyapunov based control principle in a hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle. The storage system consists on fuel cell (FC) as a main power source and a supercapacitor (SC) as an auxiliary power source. The power stage of energy conversion consists on a boost...

  13. Integrated energy and advanced thermal management system for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) featuring a fuel source engine and an energy storage source battery play an important role in improving fuel efficiency compared with its conventional counterparts. In view of the drawbacks of the existing research neglecting the thermal aspects when it comes to

  14. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

  15. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  16. Hybrid propulsion testing using direct-drive electrical machines for super yacht and inland shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Djukic, N.; de Roon, J.A.; Encica, L.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid or full electric propulsions for inland ships are becoming more popular. In these application, direct-drive PM propulsion motors are a preferred machine configuration. This paper discusses the challenges to determine the losses, as estimated with simulations, during the testing procedures of

  17. COOPERATIVE MODE OF ELECTRIC MOTOR AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OPERATION IN THE CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the authors proposed a method to control the car, which is converted into a hybrid one. The electric motor and combustion engine operate alternately in the car. They proposed a device for implementing this method and a circuit design for the device in question. They also calculated the dynamics of the vehicle under the joint acceleration.

  18. Effect of gear shift and engine start losses on control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, energetic loss models in the events of shifting gear and starting engine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle equipped with an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) will be introduced. The optimal control algorithm for the start-stop, power split and gear shift problem based on Dynamic

  19. Review of Optimization Strategies for System-Level Design in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Hofman, T.; Murgovski, N.; Etman, L.F.P.; Steinbuch, M.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal design of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) can be formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem that spreads over multiple levels (technology, topology, size, and control). In the last decade, studies have shown that by integrating these optimization levels, fuel benefits are

  20. Review of optimization strategies for system-level design in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Hofman, T.; Murgovski, N.; Etman, P.; Steinbuch, M.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal design of a hybrid electric vehicle can be formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem that spreads over multiple levels (technology, topology, size and control). In the last decade, studies have shown that, by integrating these optimization levels fuel benefits are obtained,

  1. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  2. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  3. Cost-effective energy management for hybrid electric heavy-duty truck including battery aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Huisman, R.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Battery temperature has large impact on battery power capability and battery life time. In Hybrid Electric Heavy-duty trucks (HEVs), the high-voltage battery is normally equipped with an active Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) guaranteeing a desired battery life time. Since the BTMS can

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Hybrid Electric Cars Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery is engaged and also powers vehicle accessories. DC/DC converter: This device converts higher -voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power needed to run vehicle generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions. Electric traction motor: Using power from

  5. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  6. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO 2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO 2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO 2 emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO 2 emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO 2 emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO 2 emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO 2 emissions should, therefore, be adapted.

  7. Hybrid-Electric Aircraft TOGW Development Tool with Empirically-Based Airframe and Physics-Based Hybrid Propulsion System Component Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development. This Phase I SBIR proposal creates a...

  8. Multi-Period Optimization Model for Electricity Generation Planning Considering Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ahmadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges for widespread penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs is their impact on the electricity grid. The energy sector must anticipate and prepare for this extra demand and implement long-term planning for electricity production. In this paper, the additional electricity demand on the Ontario electricity grid from charging PHEVs is incorporated into an electricity production planning model. A case study pertaining to Ontario energy planning is considered to optimize the value of the cost of the electricity over sixteen years (2014–2030. The objective function consists of the fuel costs, fixed and variable operating and maintenance costs, capital costs for new power plants, and the retrofit costs of existing power plants. Five different case studies are performed with different PHEVs penetration rates, types of new power plants, and CO2 emission constraints. Among all the cases studied, the one requiring the most new capacity, (~8748 MW, is assuming the base case with 6% reduction in CO2 in year 2018 and high PHEV penetration. The next highest one is the base case, plus considering doubled NG prices, PHEV medium penetration rate and no CO2 emissions reduction target with an increase of 34.78% in the total installed capacity in 2030. Furthermore, optimization results indicate that by not utilizing coal power stations the CO2 emissions are the lowest: ~500 tonnes compared to ~900 tonnes when coal is permitted.

  9. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  10. Energy integration on multi-periods and multi-usages for hybrid electric and thermal powertrains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The improvement of the efficiency of vehicle energy systems promotes an active search to find innovative solutions during the design process. This requires more accurate modeling of complex systems, which offers new ways to improve the design efficiency of energy systems. The vehicle is a highly dynamic system. The size and the efficiency of the convertors are dependent on the dynamic driving profile. In order to increase the energy efficiency, using energy integration techniques, an adapted methodology is required to choose the best points for the integrated system design. The idea is to clusterize the dynamic profile on typical multi-periods of the vehicle use. The energy system design is then optimized for these typical multi-periods. In this article a new methodology is applied on hybrid electric vehicles, in order to define the energy integrated powertrain configuration of the vehicle. The energy recovery potential of a single stage Organic Rankine Cycle for a thermal engine in combination with a hybrid electric powertrain is assessed for different drive cycles profiles and comfort situations. After the energy integration, a multi-objective optimization is applied to define the optimal design of a hybrid electric vehicle with a waste heat recovery system. - Highlights: • K-means algorithm transforms the dynamic driving profile on static multi-periods. • The clusters represent the typical powertrain use and size the heat recovery utility. • The maximal heat recovery potential on thermal powertrains is 11% for urban driving. • The maximal heat recovery potential on hybrid electric powertrains is 5%. • Engine downsizing increases heat recovery potential on hybrid electric powertrains

  11. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle over Different Driving Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Aishwarya; Bansal, Hari Om

    2017-02-01

    Article aims to find the nature and response of a hybrid vehicle on various standard driving cycles. Road profile parameters play an important role in determining the fuel efficiency. Typical parameters of road profile can be reduced to a useful smaller set using principal component analysis and independent component analysis. Resultant data set obtained after size reduction may result in more appropriate and important parameter cluster. With reduced parameter set fuel economies over various driving cycles, are ranked using TOPSIS and VIKOR multi-criteria decision making methods. The ranking trend is then compared with the fuel economies achieved after driving the vehicle over respective roads. Control strategy responsible for power split is optimized using genetic algorithm. 1RC battery model and modified SOC estimation method are considered for the simulation and improved results compared with the default are obtained.

  12. Enhanced Electric Power Transmission by Hybrid Compensation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Kiu, G Q

    2015-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, new power system engineers are likely to contribute immediately to the task, without years of seasoning via on-the-job training, mentoring, and rotation assignments. At the same time it is becoming obligatory to train power system engineering graduates for an increasingly quality-minded corporate environment. In order to achieve this, there is a need to make available better-quality tools for educating and training power system engineering students and in-service system engineers too. As a result of the swift advances in computer hardware and software, many windows-based computer software packages were developed for the purpose of educating and training. In line with those packages, a simulation package called Hybrid Series-Shunt Compensators (HSSC) has been developed and presented in this paper for educational purposes. (paper)

  13. Multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Tsang, Kaiming; Chan, Wailok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synchronization transitions in hybrid scale-free neuronal networks are investigated. • Multiple synchronization transitions can be induced by the time delay. • Effect of synchronization transitions depends on the ratio of the electrical and chemical synapses. • Coupling strength and the density of inter-neuronal links can enhance the synchronization. -- Abstract: The impacts of information transmission delay on the synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses are investigated. Numerical results show that multiple appearances of synchronization regions transitions can be induced by different information transmission delays. With the time delay increasing, the synchronization of neuronal activities can be enhanced or destroyed, irrespective of the probability of chemical synapses in the whole hybrid neuronal network. In particular, for larger probability of electrical synapses, the regions of synchronous activities appear broader with stronger synchronization ability of electrical synapses compared with chemical ones. Moreover, it can be found that increasing the coupling strength can promote synchronization monotonously, playing the similar role of the increasing the probability of the electrical synapses. Interestingly, the structures and parameters of the scale-free neuronal networks, especially the structural evolvement plays a more subtle role in the synchronization transitions. In the network formation process, it is found that every new vertex is attached to the more old vertices already present in the network, the more synchronous activities will be emerge

  14. Benefits of a parallel hybrid electric architecture on medium commercial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boot, Marco Aimo; Consano, Ludovico [Iveco S.p.A, Turin (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid electric technology is becoming an increasingly interesting solution for medium and heavy trucks involved in urban and suburban missions. The increasing demand for gas and oil, consequent price rises and environmental concerns are driving a market that is in need of alternative solutions. For these reasons, the growth in the global hybrid market significantly exceeded all the hybrid sales forecasts. The parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) employs an additional power source (electric motogenerator) in combination with the conventional diesel engine. This architecture exploits the benefits of both power sources in order to reduce the fuel consumption, increase the overall power, and above all, decrease CO2 emissions. Moreover, the emissions reduction target is lead by EU Regulations and local initiatives for traffic limitations, but the real drivers for the growth in the market are demonstrable fuel economy improvements and productivity costs optimization (global efficiency). This paper presents the results achieved by Iveco in the development and testing of parallel hybrid systems applied to medium range commercial vehicles, with the intent to evaluate the functionality, driveability performance and leading the best reduction in terms of fuel consumption and emissions in different real-world missions. The system architecture foresees one electric motor/generator and a single clutch unit. An external electrical power source for the battery recharging it is not necessary. The chosen configuration allows to implement the following functional modes: Stop and Start with Electric Launch, Hybrid Mode, Regenerative Braking Mode, Inertial Start and Creeping Mode. The software contained in the supervisor control unit has been tuned to the customer specific missions, taking in account on road data acquisition in order to demonstrate the reliability, driveability and the overall efficiency of the hybrid system. The field tests carried out in collaboration with

  15. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  16. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity

  17. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  18. Bus fuel consumption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargari, S.A. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, A.M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The interest in rapid bus transit has increased sharply with the realization that modern metropolitan areas rely on public transit to provide for strong economies and communities. As a prevention tool against traffic congestion, deteriorating air quality and rising greenhouse gas emissions, this study of bus fuel consumption was designed to assist in the planning and management of rapid bus transit. The Australian Road Research Board's (ARRB) Road Fuel Consumption Model was used as a starting point. The estimations required were realized with the help of Newtonian Mechanics. The four states of vehicular traffic were examined: acceleration, cruise, deceleration, and idle. The estimated total power required from the engine to overcome resistance forces, to run vehicle accessories and overcome internal engine friction was calculated. The data for the standard and articulated bus was obtained from OC Transpo in Ottawa. The study permitted the authors to conclude that the estimations for the parameters for power requirements and fuel consumption for heavy duty vehicles are appropriate. The methodology for the estimation of fuel consumption on the Transitway, which is part of the rapid bus transit system, proved adequate. In addition, the methodology was useful to estimate fuel savings resulting from demand management strategies with potential for modal shift. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Parameter Design and Energy Control of the Power Train in a Hybrid Electric Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diju Gao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development worldwide of the inland shipping industry, emissions to the atmosphere have become a serious threat in terms of pollution. Hybrid power technology is an important means for reducing pollution due to emissions from ships. This paper considers a power train series in a hybrid electric inland waterway boat. From the analysis of the structure and principle of the power train, the parameter design for its key devices is presented, and a novel energy control strategy is proposed. Navigation experience shows that the proposed design method and control strategy are useful and satisfactory.

  20. Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power System Optimization Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wu, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), compared with conventional vehicles, have complex structures and more component parameters. If variables optimization designs are carried on all these parameters, it will increase the difficulty and the convergence of algorithm program, so this paper chooses the parameters which has a major influence on the vehicle fuel consumption to make it all work at maximum efficiency. First, HEV powertrain components modelling are built. Second, taking a tandem hybrid structure as an example, genetic algorithm is used in this paper to optimize fuel consumption and emissions. Simulation results in ADVISOR verify the feasibility of the proposed genetic optimization algorithm.

  1. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  2. Fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell/battery systems for more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcau, Jenica-Ileana; Dinca, Liviu; Grigorie, Teodor Lucian; Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    In this paper is presented the simulation and analysis of a Fuzzy Energy Management for Hybrid Fuel cell/Battery Systems used for More Electric Aircraft. The fuel cell hybrid system contains of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries along with associated dc to dc boost converters. In this configuration the battery has a dc to dc converter, because it is an active in the system. The energy management scheme includes the rule based fuzzy logic strategy. This scheme has a faster response to load change and is more robust to measurement imprecisions. Simulation will be provided using Matlab/Simulink based models. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance.

  3. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV

  4. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  5. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  6. Hybrid Forecasting Approach Based on GRNN Neural Network and SVR Machine for Electricity Demand Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weide Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate electric power demand forecasting plays a key role in electricity markets and power systems. The electric power demand is usually a non-linear problem due to various unknown reasons, which make it difficult to get accurate prediction by traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel hybrid forecasting method for managing and scheduling the electricity power. EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR, the proposed new method, combines ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, seasonal adjustment (S, cross validation (C, general regression neural network (GRNN and support vector regression machine optimized by the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSVR. The main idea of EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR is respectively to forecast waveform and trend component that hidden in demand series to substitute directly forecasting original electric demand. EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR is used to predict the one week ahead half-hour’s electricity demand in two data sets (New South Wales (NSW and Victorian State (VIC in Australia. Experimental results show that the new hybrid model outperforms the other three models in terms of forecasting accuracy and model robustness.

  7. Electrically and hybrid-induced muscle activations: effects of muscle size and fiber type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Stratton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three electrical stimulation (ES frequencies (10, 35, and 50 Hz on two muscle groups with different proportions of fast and slow twitch fibers (abductor pollicis brevis (APB and vastus lateralis (VL was explored. We evaluated the acute muscles’ responses individually and during hybrid activations (ES superimposed by voluntary activations. Surface electromyography (sEMG and force measurements were evaluated as outcomes. Ten healthy adults (mean age: 24.4 ± 2.5 years participated after signing an informed consent form approved by the university Institutional Review Board. Protocols were developed to: 1 compare EMG activities during each frequency for each muscle when generating 25% Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC force, and 2 compare EMG activities during each frequency when additional voluntary activation was superimposed over ES-induced 25% MVC to reach 50% and 75% MVC. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD was utilized to separate ES artifacts from voluntary muscle activation. For both muscles, higher stimulation frequency (35 and 50Hz induced higher electrical output detected at 25% of MVC, suggesting more recruitment with higher frequencies. Hybrid activation generated proportionally less electrical activity than ES alone. ES and voluntary activations appear to generate two different modes of muscle recruitment. ES may provoke muscle strength by activating more fatiguing fast acting fibers, but voluntary activation elicits more muscle coordination. Therefore, during the hybrid activation, less electrical activity may be detected due to recruitment of more fatigue-resistant deeper muscle fibers, not reachable by surface EMG.

  8. Energy-efficient microcontrollers for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowitz, Rainer; Gryska, Holger; Thanner, Manfred; Steinert, Frank [Freescale Halbleiter GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Electric vehicles with their limited supply of energy are accelerating the trend towards more energy-efficient electronics that has started with the discussion on reducing the production of greenhouse gas of vehicles. While electricifaction of functions in a car is a technique that will help reduce overall energy consumption, microcontrollers are playing an important role in energetically optimizing the resulting electronics. In this presentation we give an overview of operating strategies for embedded automotive systems that lead to a set of power modes for the microcontrollers. Examples will be shown how Freescale's microcontrollers are designet to optimize energy consumption in each of these modes. We will also outline what needs to be done in the overall vehicle communication network design and in software to effectively use these new features of microcontrollers. The major elements that would benefit from standardization (e.g. in Autosar) will be indicated. (orig.)

  9. A Hybrid Setarx Model for Spikes in Tight Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Lucheroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a simple looking but highly nonlinear regime-switching, self-excited threshold model for hourly electricity prices in continuous and discrete time. The regime structure of the model is linked to organizational features of the market. In continuous time, the model can include spikes without using jumps, by defining stochastic orbits. In passing from continuous time to discrete time, the stochastic orbits survive discretization and can be identified again as spikes. A calibration technique suitable for the discrete version of this model, which does not need deseasonalization or spike filtering, is developed, tested and applied to market data. The discussion of the properties of the model uses phase-space analysis, an approach uncommon in econometrics. (original abstract

  10. 电动执行机构总线控制器在广西石化的应用%The application of electric actuator bus controller in Guangxi Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾舒晨

    2013-01-01

    本文通过对ROTORK电动执行机构总线控制器与横河DCS之间串口通讯的具体实现方法的分析,结合实际工作中存在的问题,详细描述了基于串口通讯协议的冗余控制方式及组态方案。ROTORK总线控制器在广西石化储运罐区的的使用中,运行良好。%Based on analyzing the concrete realization method of serial communication between ROTORK electric actuator controller and DCS of Yokogawa, combined with the existing problems of actual implement, this paper describes the detailed redundant control method and configuration scheme based on serial communication protocol. And can approve that ROTORK bus control er runs wel in the operation of Guangxi petrochemical storage tank.

  11. Price forecasting of day-ahead electricity markets using a hybrid forecast method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A hybrid method is proposed to forecast the day-ahead prices in electricity market. → The method combines Wavelet-ARIMA and RBFN network models. → PSO method is applied to obtain optimum RBFN structure for avoiding over fitting. → One of the merits of the proposed method is lower need to the input data. → The proposed method has more accurate behavior in compare with previous methods. -- Abstract: Energy price forecasting in a competitive electricity market is crucial for the market participants in planning their operations and managing their risk, and it is also the key information in the economic optimization of the electric power industry. However, price series usually have a complex behavior due to their nonlinearity, nonstationarity, and time variancy. In this paper, a novel hybrid method to forecast day-ahead electricity price is proposed. This hybrid method is based on wavelet transform, Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFN). The wavelet transform provides a set of better-behaved constitutive series than price series for prediction. ARIMA model is used to generate a linear forecast, and then RBFN is developed as a tool for nonlinear pattern recognition to correct the estimation error in wavelet-ARIMA forecast. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to optimize the network structure which makes the RBFN be adapted to the specified training set, reducing computation complexity and avoiding overfitting. The proposed method is examined on the electricity market of mainland Spain and the results are compared with some of the most recent price forecast methods. The results show that the proposed hybrid method could provide a considerable improvement for the forecasting accuracy.

  12. Computational analysis of electrical conduction in hybrid nanomaterials with embedded non-penetrating conductive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jizhe; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a comprehensive multi-resolution two-dimensional (2D) resistor network model is proposed to analyze the electrical conductivity of hybrid nanomaterials made of insulating matrix with conductive particles such as CNT reinforced nanocomposites and thick film resistors. Unlike existing approaches, our model takes into account the impenetrability of the particles and their random placement within the matrix. Moreover, our model presents a detailed description of intra-particle conductivity via finite element analysis, which to the authors’ best knowledge has not been addressed before. The inter-particle conductivity is assumed to be primarily due to electron tunneling. The model is then used to predict the electrical conductivity of electrospun carbon nanofibers as a function of microstructural parameters such as turbostratic domain alignment and aspect ratio. To simulate the microstructure of single CNF, randomly positioned nucleation sites were seeded and grown as turbostratic particles with anisotropic growth rates. Particle growth was in steps and growth of each particle in each direction was stopped upon contact with other particles. The study points to the significant contribution of both intra-particle and inter-particle conductivity to the overall conductivity of hybrid composites. Influence of particle alignment and anisotropic growth rate ratio on electrical conductivity is also discussed. The results show that partial alignment in contrast to complete alignment can result in maximum electrical conductivity of whole CNF. High degrees of alignment can adversely affect conductivity by lowering the probability of the formation of a conductive path. The results demonstrate approaches to enhance electrical conductivity of hybrid materials through controlling their microstructure which is applicable not only to carbon nanofibers, but also many other types of hybrid composites such as thick film resistors.

  13. Price forecasting of day-ahead electricity markets using a hybrid forecast method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafie-khah, M., E-mail: miadreza@gmail.co [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghaddam, M. Parsa, E-mail: parsa@modares.ac.i [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K., E-mail: aleslam@modares.ac.i [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A hybrid method is proposed to forecast the day-ahead prices in electricity market. {yields} The method combines Wavelet-ARIMA and RBFN network models. {yields} PSO method is applied to obtain optimum RBFN structure for avoiding over fitting. {yields} One of the merits of the proposed method is lower need to the input data. {yields} The proposed method has more accurate behavior in compare with previous methods. -- Abstract: Energy price forecasting in a competitive electricity market is crucial for the market participants in planning their operations and managing their risk, and it is also the key information in the economic optimization of the electric power industry. However, price series usually have a complex behavior due to their nonlinearity, nonstationarity, and time variancy. In this paper, a novel hybrid method to forecast day-ahead electricity price is proposed. This hybrid method is based on wavelet transform, Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFN). The wavelet transform provides a set of better-behaved constitutive series than price series for prediction. ARIMA model is used to generate a linear forecast, and then RBFN is developed as a tool for nonlinear pattern recognition to correct the estimation error in wavelet-ARIMA forecast. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to optimize the network structure which makes the RBFN be adapted to the specified training set, reducing computation complexity and avoiding overfitting. The proposed method is examined on the electricity market of mainland Spain and the results are compared with some of the most recent price forecast methods. The results show that the proposed hybrid method could provide a considerable improvement for the forecasting accuracy.

  14. Hybrid ARIMAX quantile regression method for forecasting short term electricity consumption in east java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastuti, M.; Suhartono; Salehah, NA

    2018-04-01

    The need for energy supply, especially for electricity in Indonesia has been increasing in the last past years. Furthermore, the high electricity usage by people at different times leads to the occurrence of heteroscedasticity issue. Estimate the electricity supply that could fulfilled the community’s need is very important, but the heteroscedasticity issue often made electricity forecasting hard to be done. An accurate forecast of electricity consumptions is one of the key challenges for energy provider to make better resources and service planning and also take control actions in order to balance the electricity supply and demand for community. In this paper, hybrid ARIMAX Quantile Regression (ARIMAX-QR) approach was proposed to predict the short-term electricity consumption in East Java. This method will also be compared to time series regression using RMSE, MAPE, and MdAPE criteria. The data used in this research was the electricity consumption per half-an-hour data during the period of September 2015 to April 2016. The results show that the proposed approach can be a competitive alternative to forecast short-term electricity in East Java. ARIMAX-QR using lag values and dummy variables as predictors yield more accurate prediction in both in-sample and out-sample data. Moreover, both time series regression and ARIMAX-QR methods with addition of lag values as predictor could capture accurately the patterns in the data. Hence, it produces better predictions compared to the models that not use additional lag variables.

  15. Hybrid component specification optimization for a medium-duty hybrid electric truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling and simulation approach for determining the optimal degree-of-hybridisation for the drive train (engine, electric machine size) and the energy storage system (battery, ultra capacitor) for a medium-duty truck. The results show that the degree-of-hybridisation of known

  16. Bandwidth based methodology for designing a hybrid energy storage system for a series hybrid electric vehicle with limited all electric mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Masood

    The cost and fuel economy of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) are significantly dependent on the power-train energy storage system (ESS). A series HEV with a minimal all-electric mode (AEM) permits minimizing the size and cost of the ESS. This manuscript, pursuing the minimal size tactic, introduces a bandwidth based methodology for designing an efficient ESS. First, for a mid-size reference vehicle, a parametric study is carried out over various minimal-size ESSs, both hybrid (HESS) and non-hybrid (ESS), for finding the highest fuel economy. The results show that a specific type of high power battery with 4.5 kWh capacity can be selected as the winning candidate to study for further minimization. In a second study, following the twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance, a sports car class Series-HEV (SHEV) was considered as a potential application which requires even more ESS minimization. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size compared to 4.5 kWh, because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the allowed battery size in the mid-size study by volume. Therefore, an advanced bandwidth-based controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ model to be realized with a light ESS. The result allows a SHEV to be realized with 1.13 kWh ESS capacity. In a third study, the objective is to find optimum SHEV designs with minimal AEM assumption which cover the design space between the fuel economies in the mid-size car study and the sports car study. Maximizing FE while minimizing ESS cost is more aligned with customer acceptance in the current state of market. The techniques applied to manage the power flow between energy sources of the power-train significantly affect the results of this optimization. A Pareto Frontier, including ESS cost and FE, for a SHEV with limited AEM, is introduced using an advanced bandwidth-based control strategy teamed up with duty ratio control. This controller

  17. Optimal control strategy design for extending all-electric driving capability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, S.S [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, P.D Ziogas Power Electronics Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    The high voltage energy storage system in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is usually a rechargeable type that service a dual purpose, notably to supplement the power delivered by the internal combustion engine, and to provide partial propulsion energy from an off-board source of electricity. The energy storage devices in electric vehicles typically improve vehicle efficiency through engine downsizing and by recapturing braking energy. However, since PHEVs have the ability to recharge their energy storage systems directly from the power grid, the periods of all-electric operation can be extended, thereby reducing the dependence on the internal combustion engine. This is particularly useful in city driving conditions. Developers of PHEV technology are faced with the challenge of choosing the appropriate energy storage battery in order to improve the all-electric drive range. In this study, control strategies were modeled for specific driving load conditions using the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR) software. This paper presented specific control algorithms for PHEV operation for various city driving loads. The optimal design strategy considered the improvement of critical energy storage parameters, overall drive train efficiency, and vehicle performance characteristics. Future trends in the design and development of PHEV drive trains were also presented. 13 figs.

  18. Project survey for trolley-bus transport; Johdinautoliikenteen hankeselvitys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, T.; Eklund, P.; Airaksinen, S.; Maettoe, R.; Laehdetie, A.

    2011-04-15

    To investigate the feasibility and rationality of the revival of trolley bus traffic in Helsinki a full size project plan was conducted for a variety of alternatives. This included a survey on the latest developments of the trolley bus technology, three optional plans for route network, a budgetary level design for a fully functional depot in Koskela bus depot, examination of urban landscape structures, a study on organisational options, particular technical specifications applicable on suitable trolley buses and an examination of the impacts on the environment and on the future development of public transport. The basic concept of a trolley bus as a means of electric public transport vehicle has found its form over the years, but all the components of the system undergo at present intensive development. In context of this survey also the option of a fully autonomous electric bus powered by accumulators or fuel cells and the like was investigated. However, such technology is still totally inadequate for a heavy duty bus. There are no economically competitive and effective systems available as yet. The trolley bu is the far most reliable system and gives the best life cycle economy for a foreseeable future. Earliest estimates for alternative electric technologies in regular bus service are viable just after one investment cycle some time beyond 2030. Then it should be possible to run without the support of a comprehensive overhead line. The latest achievements in the development of trolley bus are auxiliary engine and accumulator systems allowing for more autonomous propulsion. Nowadays, trolley buses are equipped with an auxiliary power unit that alleviates the traditional restrictions of the overhead line. The modern trolley bus may run short distances without the trolley lines. Recuperation of the kinetic energy at deceleration (braking) either into the overhead line network or by storing it in the vehicle is one of the characteristics of modern trolley buses

  19. Aerodynamic resistance reduction of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducting full-scale wind tunnel tests on 16 vehicles. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current 4-passenger prototype automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Characteristic effects of aspect ratio or fineness ratio which might appear if electric vehicle shape proportions were to vary significantly from current automobiles were identified. Some preliminary results indicate a 5 to 10% variation in drag over the range of interest. Effective drag coefficient wind-weighting factors over J227a driving cycles in the presence of annual mean wind fields were identified. Such coefficients, when properly weighted, were found to be from 5 to 65% greater than the zero-yaw drag coefficient in the cases presented. A vehicle aerodynamics bibliography of over 160 entries, in six general categories is included.

  20. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Jing Junqing; Luo Yanling

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range.

  1. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Junqing Jing; Yanling Luo [Jiangsu Xuzhou Construction Machinery Research Institute, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-01-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range. (author)

  2. Lithium-ion Battery Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Prognostic activity deals with prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL of physical systems based on their actual health state and their usage conditions. RUL estimation gives operators a potent tool in decision making by quantifying how much time is left until functionality is lost. In addition, it can be used to improve the characterization of the material proprieties that govern damage propagation for the structure being monitored. RUL can be estimated by using three main approaches, namely model-based, data-driven and hybrid approaches. The prognostics methods used later in this paper are hybrid and data-driven approaches, which employ the Particle Filter in the first one and the autoregressive integrated moving average in the second. The performance of the suggested approaches is evaluated in a comparative study on data collected from lithium-ion battery of hybrid electric vehicle.

  3. Battery durability and longevity based power management for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with hybrid energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Xiong, Rui; Cao, Jiayi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel procedure for developing an optimal power management strategy was proposed. • Efficiency and durability were considered to improve the practical performance. • Three control rules were abstracted from the optimization results with DP algorithm. • The proposed control strategy was verified under different SoC and SoH conditions. • The proposed strategy could further improve the energy efficiency obviously. - Abstract: Efficiency and durability are becoming two key issues for the energy storage system in electric vehicles together with their associated power management strategies. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of a near-optimal power management strategy for the hybrid battery and ultracapacitor energy storage system (HESS) in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The design procedure starts by defining a cost function to minimize the electricity consumption of the HESS and to optimize the operating behavior of the battery. To determine the optimal control actions and power distribution between two power sources, a dynamic programming (DP)-based novel analysis method is proposed, and the optimization framework is presented accordingly. Through analysis of the DP control actions under different battery state-of-health (SoH) conditions, near-optimal rules are extracted. A rule based power management is proposed based on the abstracted rules and simulation results indicate that the new control strategy can improve system efficiency under different SoH and different SoC conditions. Ultimately, the performance of proposed strategy is further verified under different types of driving cycles including the MANHATTAN cycle, 1015 6PRIUS cycle and UDDSHDV cycle.

  4. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  5. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  6. Dynamic Modeling and Control Strategy Optimization for a Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid electric tracked bulldozer composed of an engine generator, two driving motors, and an ultracapacitor is put forward, which can provide high efficiencies and less fuel consumption comparing with traditional ones. This paper first presents the terramechanics of this hybrid electric tracked bulldozer. The driving dynamics for this tracked bulldozer is then analyzed. After that, based on analyzing the working characteristics of the engine, generator, and driving motors, the power train system model and control strategy optimization is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and OPTIMUS software. Simulation is performed under a representative working condition, and the results demonstrate that fuel economy of the HETV can be significantly improved.

  7. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid system in Tehran is 0.62 US$/kWh, which is 78% less expensive than a wind turbine system and 34% less expensive than a photovoltaic system.

  8. A comprehensive overview of hybrid electric vehicle: Powertrain configurations, powertrain control techniques and electronic control units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagatay Bayindir, Kamil; Goezuekuecuek, Mehmet Ali; Teke, Ahmet [Cukurova University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Balcali, Saricam, Adana (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The studies for hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) have attracted considerable attention because of the necessity of developing alternative methods to generate energy for vehicles due to limited fuel based energy, global warming and exhaust emission limits in the last century. HEV incorporates internal composition engine, electric machines and power electronic equipments. In this study, overview of HEVs with a focus on hybrid configurations, energy management strategies and electronic control units are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are clearly emphasized. The existing powertrain control techniques for HEVs are classified and comprehensively described. Electronic control units used in HEV configuration are also elaborated. The latest trends and technological challenges in the near future for HEVs are discussed. (author)

  9. Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: 15 years of development at the Ohio State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzoni Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to document 15 years of hybrid electric vehicle energy management research at The Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research (OSUCAR. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV technology encompasses many diverse aspects. In this paper we focus exclusively on the evolution of supervisory control strategies for on-board energy management in HEV. We present a series of control algorithms that have been developed in simulation and implemented in prototype vehicles for charge-sustaining HEVs at OSU-CAR. These solutions span from fuzzy-logic control algorithms to more sophisticated model-based optimal control methods. Finally, methods developed for plug-in HEVs energy management are also discussed

  10. On the performance of accelerated particle swarm optimization for charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation electrification has undergone major changes since the last decade. Success of smart grid with renewable energy integration solely depends upon the large-scale penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs for a sustainable and carbon-free transportation sector. One of the key performance indicators in hybrid electric vehicle is the State-of-Charge (SoC which needs to be optimized for the betterment of charging infrastructure using stochastic computational methods. In this paper, a newly emerged Accelerated particle swarm optimization (APSO technique was applied and compared with standard particle swarm optimization (PSO considering charging time and battery capacity. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function indicate that APSO achieves some improvements in terms of best fitness and computation time.

  11. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, D M; Kammen, D M; Farrell, A E

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream

  12. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, D. M.; Kammen, D. M.; Farrell, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream.

  13. An Approach for Designing Thermal Management Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Battery Packs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Keyser, Matthew; Burch, Steve

    1999-01-01

    If battery packs for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are to operate effectively in all climates, thermal management of the packs is essential. In this paper, we will review a systematic approach for designing and evaluating battery pack thermal management systems. A thermal management system using air as the heat transfer medium is less complicated than a system using liquid cooling/heating. Generally, for parallel HEVs, an air thermal management system is adequate, whereas for EVs and series HEVs, liquid-based systems may be required for optimum thermal performance. Further information on battery thermal management can be found on the Web site www.ctts.nrel.gov/BTM

  14. Characterization of hybrid lighting systems of the Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, D.; Exposito, C.; Osma, G.; Amado, L.; Ordóñez, G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of hybrid lighting systems of Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander, which is a pilot of green building for warm- tropical conditions. Analysis of lighting performance of inner spaces is based on lighting curves obtained from characterization of daylighting systems of these spaces. A computation tool was made in Excel-Visual Basic to simulate the behaviour of artificial lighting system considering artificial control system, user behaviour and solar condition. Also, this tool allows to estimate the electrical energy consumption of the lighting system for a day, a month and a year.

  15. THE ANALISYS OF THE PHOTOVOLTAIC AND ELECTRIC PARAMETERS OF A COOLING HYBRID SYSTEM. CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARE R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the interdependence between photovoltaic and electric parameters of a solar thermoelectric cooler. It emphasises the importance of the solar radiation during two experiments made in the same day, in different weather conditions. Also, it is shown that while the photovoltaic power is directly dependent on the photovoltaic current intensity, the electric power varies along with the voltage. All these have great influence upon the battery – the main component responsible for the operation of the cooling hybrid system.

  16. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoumah, Y; Yamegueu, D; Py, X

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy energy' concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  17. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

    2012-02-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  18. Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Günter

    In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

  19. Research and Application of a Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on Data Decomposition for Electrical Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate short-term electrical load forecasting plays a pivotal role in the national economy and people’s livelihood through providing effective future plans and ensuring a reliable supply of sustainable electricity. Although considerable work has been done to select suitable models and optimize the model parameters to forecast the short-term electrical load, few models are built based on the characteristics of time series, which will have a great impact on the forecasting accuracy. For that reason, this paper proposes a hybrid model based on data decomposition considering periodicity, trend and randomness of the original electrical load time series data. Through preprocessing and analyzing the original time series, the generalized regression neural network optimized by genetic algorithm is used to forecast the short-term electrical load. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid model can not only achieve a good fitting ability, but it can also approximate the actual values when dealing with non-linear time series data with periodicity, trend and randomness.

  20. Electricity market price spike analysis by a hybrid data model and feature selection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Keynia, Farshid

    2010-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, energy price forecasting is an important activity for both suppliers and consumers. For this reason, many techniques have been proposed to predict electricity market prices in the recent years. However, electricity price is a complex volatile signal owning many spikes. Most of electricity price forecast techniques focus on the normal price prediction, while price spike forecast is a different and more complex prediction process. Price spike forecasting has two main aspects: prediction of price spike occurrence and value. In this paper, a novel technique for price spike occurrence prediction is presented composed of a new hybrid data model, a novel feature selection technique and an efficient forecast engine. The hybrid data model includes both wavelet and time domain variables as well as calendar indicators, comprising a large candidate input set. The set is refined by the proposed feature selection technique evaluating both relevancy and redundancy of the candidate inputs. The forecast engine is a probabilistic neural network, which are fed by the selected candidate inputs of the feature selection technique and predict price spike occurrence. The efficiency of the whole proposed method for price spike occurrence forecasting is evaluated by means of real data from the Queensland and PJM electricity markets. (author)

  1. Switched causual modeling of transmission with clutch in hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    LHOMME, W; TRIGUI, R; DELARU, P; JEANNERET, B; BOUSCAUROL, A; BADIN, F

    2008-01-01

    Certain difficulties arise when attempting to model a clutch in a power train transmission due to its nonlinear behavior. Two different states have to be taken into account-the first being when the clutch is locked and the second being when the clutch is slipping. In this paper, a clutch model is developed using the Energetic Macroscopic Representation, which is, in turn, used in the modeling of complete hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Two different models are used, and a specific condition ...

  2. Control Demonstration of Multiple Doubly-Fed Induction Motors for Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Bodson, Marc; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Hunker, Keith R.; Theman, Casey J.; Taylor, Linda M.

    2017-01-01

    The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application.The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application. DFIMs are attractive for several reasons, including but not limited to the ability to self-start, ability to operate sub- and super-synchronously, and requiring only fractionally rated power converters on a per-unit basis depending on the required range of operation. The focus of this paper is based specifically on the presentation and analysis of a novel strategy which allows for independent operation of each of the aforementioned doubly-fed induction motors. This strategy includes synchronization, soft-start, and closed loop speed control of each motor as a means of controlling output thrust; be it concurrently or differentially. The demonstration of this strategy has recently been proven out on a low power test bed using fractional horsepower machines. Simulation and hardware test results are presented in the paper.

  3. Computer Modeling of Radiative Transfer in Hybrid-Stabilized Argon–Water Electric Arc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeništa, Jiří; Takana, H.; Nishiyama, H.; Křenek, Petr; Bartlová, M.; Aubrecht, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 11 (2011), s. 2892-2893 ISSN 0093-3813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Divergence of radiation flux * hybrid-stabilized electric arc * mass flow rate * partial characteristics * radiation flux Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.174, year: 2011 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=27

  4. Cooperative Control of Regenerative Braking and Antilock Braking for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Guodong; Jin, XianJian

    2013-01-01

    A new cooperative braking control strategy (CBCS) is proposed for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with both a regenerative braking system and an antilock braking system (ABS) to achieve improved braking performance and energy regeneration. The braking system of the vehicle is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the antilock braking system work together with the regenerative braking system harmoniously. In the cooperative braking control strategy, a sli...

  5. Particle number emissions of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles; Partikelanzahl-Emission bei Hybridfahrzeugen mit Ottomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Scott [Horiba Instruments Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are commonly reputed to be environmentally friendly. Different studies show that this assumption raises some questions in terms of particle number emissions. Against the background that upcoming emission standards will not only limit particle matter emissions but also particle number emissions for gasoline engines, the exhaust behaviour of downsized gasoline engines used in HEV should be investigated more extensively. A Horiba study compares the particle number emissions of a gasoline vehicle to those of a gasoline powered HEV. (orig.)

  6. A review of composite material applications in the automotive industry for the electric and hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A review is made of the state-of-the-art in regard to the use of composite materials for reducing the structural mass of automobiles. Reduction of mass provides, in addition to other engineering improvements, increased performance/range advantages that are particularly needed in the electric and hybrid vehicle field. Problems encountered include the attainment of mass production techniques and the prevention of environmental hazards.

  7. Torque Split Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles with an Integrated Starter Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Zhumu; Gao, Aiyun; Wang, Xiaohong; Song, Xiaona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a torque split strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles with an integrated starter generator (ISG-PHEV) by using fuzzy logic control. By combining the efficiency map and the optimum torque curve of the internal combustion engine (ICE) with the state of charge (SOC) of the batteries, the torque split strategy is designed, which manages the ICE within its peak efficiency region. Taking the quantified ICE torque, the quantified SOC of the batteries, and the quantified I...

  8. Energy Management Strategy for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Hu; Weimin Li; Kun Xu; Taimoor Zahid; Feiyan Qin; Chenming Li

    2018-01-01

    An energy management strategy (EMS) is important for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) since it plays a decisive role on the performance of the vehicle. However, the variation of future driving conditions deeply influences the effectiveness of the EMS. Most existing EMS methods simply follow predefined rules that are not adaptive to different driving conditions online. Therefore, it is useful that the EMS can learn from the environment or driving cycle. In this paper, a deep reinforcement learn...

  9. Journey predictive energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmaraj Ram Manohar, Ravi Shankar

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonisation of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, d...

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicle self-certification and verification procedures: Market Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The process by which a manufacturer of an electric or hybrid vehicle certifies that his vehicle meets the DOE Performance Standards for Demonstration is described. Such certification is required for any vehicles to be purchased under the Market Demonstration Program. It also explains the verification testing process followed by DOE for testing to verify compliance. Finally, the document outlines manufacturer responsibilities and presents procedures for recertification of vehicles that have failed verification testing.

  11. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric machine are coordinatively controlled to achieve AMT shifting control for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV without clutch is proposed. In the shifting process, the engine and electric machine are well controlled, and the shift jerk and power interruption and restoration time are reduced. Simulation and real car test results show that the proposed control strategy can more efficiently improve the shift quality for PHEVs equipped with AMTs.

  12. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  13. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER FTP AND US06 CYCLES AT HIGH, AMBIENT, AND LOW TEMPERATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, M.R.; Markel, T.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicle’s large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer at ambient (75°F) temperatures. Research was also completed using the US06 cycle. Furthermore, research was completed at high (95°F) and low (20°F) temperatures. Initial dynamometer testing was performed on a stock Toyota Prius under the standard FTP4 cycle, and the more demanding US06 cycle. Each cycle was run at 95°F, 75°F, and 20°F. The testing was repeated with the same Prius retrofi tted with an EnergyCS Plug-in Hybrid Electric system. The results of the testing confi rm that the stock Prius meets Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements under current testing procedures, while the PHEV Prius under current testing procedures were greater than Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements, but still met Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements. Research points to the catalyst temperature being a critical factor in meeting emission requirements. Initial engine emissions pass through with minimal conversion until the catalyst is heated to typical operating temperatures of 300–400°C. PHEVs also have trouble maintaining the minimum catalyst temperature throughout the entire test because the engine is turned off when the battery can support the load. It has been observed in both HEVs and PHEVs that the catalyst is intermittently unable to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, which causes further emission releases. Research needs to be done to combat the initial emission spikes caused by a cold catalyst. Research also needs to be done to improve the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the catalyst system.

  14. Development and Simulation of a Type of Four-Shaft ECVT for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In hybrid electric vehicles with power-split configurations, the engine can be decoupled from the wheel and operated with improved fuel economy, while the entire efficiency of the powertrain is affected by the circular electric power flow. Two planetary gear (2-PG sets with adding brakes/clutches, namely a type of four shaft elelctric continuously variable transmission (ECVT can provide multi-mode operation for the powertrain and extend the efficient area. First, a conventional 2-PG AT (Automatic Transmission architecture is investigated. By analyzing and comparing the connection and operating modes based on the kinematic relationship and lever analogy, a feasible four-shaft ECVT architecture with two brakes and two simplified versions are picked. To make a trade-off between fuel economy and configuration complexity, an instantaneous optimal control strategy based on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS concept is then developed and employed as the unified optimization method in the simulations of three different configurations. Finally, the simulation results show that the simplified versions are suboptimal sets and the fuel economy is sacrificed by the limits of different modes. From the viewpoint of concept design, a multi-mode power-split configuration is more suitable for hybrid electric vehicles. This research applied a systematic methodology from concept design to energy management optimization, which can provide the guidelines for researchers to select a suitable multi-mode power-split hybrid powertrain.

  15. Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) During Real World Driving Under Various Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) and pollutant gas (NOx) is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Mobile source emissions contribute to PM and NOx emissions significantly in urban areas. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)...

  16. Effect of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle adoption on gas tax revenue, local pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are likely to increase in popularity in the near future. However, the : environmental benefits of PHEVs involve tradeoffs between the benefits of reduced tailpipe emissions : against the drawbacks of increased ...

  17. Hybrid-Electric Rotorcraft Tool Development, Propulsion System Trade Space Exploration, and Demonstrator Conceptual Design, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-electric propulsion is becoming widely accepted as a potential disruptive technology for aircraft that can provide significant reduction in fuel consumption...

  18. Layout design and energetic analysis of a complex diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finesso, Roberto; Spessa, Ezio; Venditti, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Layout design, energetic and cost analysis of complex parallel hybrid vehicles. • Development of global and real-time optimizers for control strategy identification. • Rule-based control strategies to minimize fuel consumption and NO x . • Energy share across each working mode for battery and thermal engine. - Abstract: The present paper is focused on the design, optimization and analysis of a complex parallel hybrid electric vehicle, equipped with two electric machines on both the front and rear axles, and on the evaluation of its potential to reduce fuel consumption and NO x emissions over several driving missions. The vehicle has been compared with two conventional parallel hybrid vehicles, equipped with a single electric machine on the front axle or on the rear axle, as well as with a conventional vehicle. All the vehicles have been equipped with compression ignition engines. The optimal layout of each vehicle was identified on the basis of the minimization of the overall powertrain costs during the whole vehicle life. These costs include the initial investment due to the production of the components as well as the operating costs related to fuel consumption and to battery depletion. Identification of the optimal powertrain control strategy, in terms of the management of the power flows of the engine and electric machines, and of gear selection, is necessary in order to be able to fully exploit the potential of the hybrid architecture. To this end, two global optimizers, one of a deterministic nature and another of a stochastic type, and two real-time optimizers have been developed, applied and compared. A new mathematical technique has been developed and applied to the vehicle simulation model in order to decrease the computational time of the optimizers. First, the vehicle model equations were written in order to allow a coarse time grid to be used, then, the control variables (i.e., power flow and gear number) were discretized, and the

  19. 75 FR 49945 - In the Matter of Certain Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Toyota hybrid vehicles of claims of U.S. Patent No. 5,343,970. On July 19, 2010, Paice and Toyota moved... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [ Inv. No. 337-TA-688] In the Matter of Certain Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination...

  20. Hybrid Systems of Distributed Generation with Renewable Sources: Modeling and Analysis of Their Operational Modes in Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gashimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to modeling and simulation of operational hybrid system modes of the distributed generation comprising conventional sources – modular diesel generators, gas-turbine power units; and renewable sources – wind and solar power plants. Operational modes of the hybrid system have been investigated under conditions of electrical connection with electric power system and in case of its isolated operation. As a consequence

  1. Intragenus (Campylomormyrus) and intergenus hybrids in mormyrid fish: Physiological and histological investigations of the electric organ ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Frank; Nguyen, Linh; Baumgartner, Stephanie; Chi, Hiu Wan Linda; Wolfart, Rene; Elarbani, Khouloud; Eppenstein, Hari; Korniienko, Yevheniia; Guido-Böhm, Lilian; Mamonekene, Victor; Vater, Marianne; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2016-10-01

    African weakly electric mormyrid fish show a high diversity of their electric organ discharge (EOD) both across and within genera. Thanks to a recently developed technique of artificial reproduction in mormyrid fish, we were able to perform hybridizations between different genera and within one genus (Campylomormyrus). The hybrids of intergenus hybridizations exhibited different degrees of reduced survival related to the phylogenetic distance of the parent species: hybrids of the crosses between C. rhynchophorus and its sister genus Gnathonemus survived and developed normally. Hybrids between C. rhynchophorus and a Mormyrus species (a more basal clade compared to Campylomormyrus s) survived up to 42days and developed many malformations, e.g., at the level of the unpaired fins. Hybrids between C. numenius and Hippopotamyrus pictus (a derived clade, only distantly related to Campylomormyrus) only survived for two days during embryological development. Eight different hybrid combinations among five Campylomormyrus species (C. tamandua, C. compressirostris, C. tshokwe, C. rhynchophorus, C. numenius) were performed. The aim of the hybridizations was to combine species with (1) either caudal or rostral position of the main stalk innervating the electrocytes in the electric organ and (2) short, median or long duration of their EOD. The hybrids, though they are still juveniles, show very interesting features concerning electrocyte geometry as well as EOD form and duration: the caudal position of the stalk is prevailing over the rostral position, and the penetration of the stalk is dominant over the non-penetrating feature (in the Campylomormyrus hybrids); in the hybrid between C. rhynchophorus and Gnathonemus petersii it is the opposite. When crossing species with long and short EODs, it is always the long duration EOD that is expressed in the hybrids. The F1-Hybrids of the cross C. tamandua×C. compressirostris are fertile: viable F2-fish could be obtained with artificial

  2. Hybridizing DEMD and Quantum PSO with SVR in Electric Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Peng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric load forecasting is an important issue for a power utility, associated with the management of daily operations such as energy transfer scheduling, unit commitment, and load dispatch. Inspired by strong non-linear learning capability of support vector regression (SVR, this paper presents an SVR model hybridized with the differential empirical mode decomposition (DEMD method and quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm (QPSO for electric load forecasting. The DEMD method is employed to decompose the electric load to several detail parts associated with high frequencies (intrinsic mode function—IMF and an approximate part associated with low frequencies. Hybridized with quantum theory to enhance particle searching performance, the so-called QPSO is used to optimize the parameters of SVR. The electric load data of the New South Wales (Sydney, Australia market and the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO, New York, USA are used for comparing the forecasting performances of different forecasting models. The results illustrate the validity of the idea that the proposed model can simultaneously provide forecasting with good accuracy and interpretability.

  3. US Department of Energy Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The advanced vehicle testing activity (AVTA), part of the US Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modelling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full-size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and internal combustion engine vehicles powered by hydrogen. Currently, the AVTA is conducting a significant evaluation of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) produced by major automotive manufacturers. The results are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the 'real world' performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. The initial fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that determined by the manufacturer and also varies significantly with environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over the life of a given vehicle (160 000 miles).

  4. Acoustic Data for Hybrid and Electric Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Electric Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 requires NHTSA to conduct a rulemaking to establish a Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard requiring an alert sound for pedestrians to be emitted by all types of motor vehicles that are electric o...

  5. Departure Interval Optimization of Electric Bus Rapid Transit Considering Level of Service%考虑服务水平的纯电动快速公交发车间隔优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪然; 刘文峰; 李斌; 张沫

    2017-01-01

    With the electric vehicles applied in the field of bus rapid transit,due to the special operational needs of charging or battery swap for electric vehicles,the traditional methods of departure interval optimization are no longer applicable.Considering the level of service and charging time constraints,this paper studies the departure interval optimization of electric bus rapid transit.Firstly,the service level evaluation system associated with energy consumption is established by analyzing the correlation between service level indexes and energy consumption;secondly,considering the level of service and charging time constraints,the departure interval optimization model is established by setting energy consumption as the objective function;finally,taking line 1 of Jinhua E-BRT as an example to examine the effect of the optimization model,the optimization results demonstrate that compared with the current operation plans the energy consumption is saved by 6.21% under the premise of the same level of service.Therefore,the departure interval optimization method of electric bus rapid transit considering level of service established in this paper has certain practical significance and provides an important guidance for reducing the energy consumption under a certain service level.%随着电动汽车被引入城市快速公交领域,由于其充换电等特殊的运营调度需求,在发车间隔计划等制定过程中传统方法不再适用.本文在综合考虑服务水平和车辆充电时间约束条件下,对纯电动快速公交(E-BRT)发车间隔优化进行了研究.根据分析服务水平指标项与车辆能耗的相关性,建立了面向能耗评估的服务水平评价体系;综合考虑服务水平和充电时间约束条件,以车辆运营能耗为目标函数,建立了发车间隔优化模型;基于金华市E-BRT1号线运营数据进行实例验证,结果表明,在满足相同服务水平情况下,本文提出的优化模型可以节约能耗6.21%.

  6. Cyclic Parameter Refinement of 4S-10 Hybrid Flux-Switching Motor for Lightweight Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, J. Abd; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the reduction of lighting the vehicle because the lighter the vehicle the energy consumption is comparatively low. Hence, the lightweight electric vehicle was introduced for lower carbon footprint and the sizing of the vehicle itself. One of the components to reduce the weight of the vehicle is the propulsion system which comprised of electric motor functioning as the source of torque to drive the propulsion system of the machine. This paper presents the refinement methodology for the optimized design of the 4S-10P E-Core hybrid excitation flux switching motor. The purpose of the refinement methodology is to improve the torque production of the optimized motor. The result of the successful improvement of the torque production is justifiable for a lightweight electric vehicle to drive the propulsion system.

  7. Engine-start Control Strategy of P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangyang, Xu; Siqi, Zhao; Peng, Dong

    2017-12-01

    A smooth and fast engine-start process is important to parallel hybrid electric vehicles with an electric motor mounted in front of the transmission. However, there are some challenges during the engine-start control. Firstly, the electric motor must simultaneously provide a stable driving torque to ensure the drivability and a compensative torque to drag the engine before ignition. Secondly, engine-start time is a trade-off control objective because both fast start and smooth start have to be considered. To solve these problems, this paper first analyzed the resistance of the engine start process, and established a physic model in MATLAB/Simulink. Then a model-based coordinated control strategy among engine, motor and clutch was developed. Two basic control strategy during fast start and smooth start process were studied. Simulation results showed that the control objectives were realized by applying given control strategies, which can meet different requirement from the driver.

  8. Position error compensation via a variable reluctance sensor applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Ihsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

  9. Regenerative Braking Control Strategy of Electric-Hydraulic Hybrid (EHH Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel electric-hydraulic hybrid drivetrain incorporating a set of hydraulic systems is proposed for application in a pure electric vehicle. Models of the electric and hydraulic components are constructed. Two control strategies, which are based on two separate rules, are developed; the maximum energy recovery rate strategy adheres to the rule of the maximization of the braking energy recovery rate, while the minimum current impact strategy adheres to the rule of the minimization of the charge current to the battery. The simulation models were established to verify the effects of these two control strategies. An ABS (Anti-lock Braking System fuzzy control strategy is also developed and simulated. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed control strategy can effectively absorb the braking energy, suppress the current impact, and assure braking safety.

  10. Position Error Compensation via a Variable Reluctance Sensor Applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Ömür Bucak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

  11. Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Frederick G.

    2005-11-01

    Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid-electric

  12. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2018-01-30

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite\\'s conductivity based on these parameters.

  13. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, A.; Han, F.; Lubineau, G.

    2018-04-01

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in the remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite’s conductivity based on these parameters.

  14. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite's conductivity based on these parameters.

  15. Short-term electricity price forecast based on the improved hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yao; Wang Jianzhou; Jiang He; Wu Jie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The proposed models can detach high volatility and daily seasonality of electricity price. → The improved hybrid forecast models can make full use of the advantages of individual models. → The proposed models create commendable improvements that are relatively satisfactorily for current research. → The proposed models do not require making complicated decisions about the explicit form. - Abstract: Half-hourly electricity price in power system are volatile, electricity price forecast is significant information which can help market managers and participants involved in electricity market to prepare their corresponding bidding strategies to maximize their benefits and utilities. However, the fluctuation of electricity price depends on the common effect of many factors and there is a very complicated random in its evolution process. Therefore, it is difficult to forecast half-hourly prices with traditional only one model for different behaviors of half-hourly prices. This paper proposes the improved forecasting model that detaches high volatility and daily seasonality for electricity price of New South Wales in Australia based on Empirical Mode Decomposition, Seasonal Adjustment and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average. The prediction errors are analyzed and compared with the ones obtained from the traditional Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model. The comparisons demonstrate that the proposed model can improve the prediction accuracy noticeably.

  16. Water conservation implications for decarbonizing non-electric energy supply: A hybrid life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyuan; Wang, Can; Shi, Lei; Cai, Wenjia; Zhang, Lixiao

    2018-08-01

    Low-carbon transition in the non-electric energy sector, which includes transport and heating energy, is necessary for achieving the 2 °C target. Meanwhile, as non-electric energy accounts for over 60% of total water consumption in the energy supply sector, it is vital to understand future water trends in the context of decarbonization. However, few studies have focused on life-cycle water impacts for non-electric energy; besides, applying conventional LCA methodology to assess non-electric energy has limitations. In this paper, a Multi-Regional Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment (MRHLCA) model is built to assess total CO 2 emissions and water consumption of 6 non-electric energy technologies - transport energy from biofuel and gasoline, heat supply from natural gas, biogas, coal, and residual biomass, within 7 major emitting economies. We find that a shift to natural gas and residual biomass heating can help economies reduce 14-65% CO 2 and save more than 21% water. However, developed and developing economies should take differentiated technical strategies. Then we apply scenarios from IMAGE model to demonstrate that if economies take cost-effective 2 °C pathways, the water conservation synergy for the whole energy supply sector, including electricity, can also be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-term electricity price forecast based on the improved hybrid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yao, E-mail: dongyao20051987@yahoo.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Jianzhou, E-mail: wjz@lzu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jiang He; Wu Jie [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The proposed models can detach high volatility and daily seasonality of electricity price. {yields} The improved hybrid forecast models can make full use of the advantages of individual models. {yields} The proposed models create commendable improvements that are relatively satisfactorily for current research. {yields} The proposed models do not require making complicated decisions about the explicit form. - Abstract: Half-hourly electricity price in power system are volatile, electricity price forecast is significant information which can help market managers and participants involved in electricity market to prepare their corresponding bidding strategies to maximize their benefits and utilities. However, the fluctuation of electricity price depends on the common effect of many factors and there is a very complicated random in its evolution process. Therefore, it is difficult to forecast half-hourly prices with traditional only one model for different behaviors of half-hourly prices. This paper proposes the improved forecasting model that detaches high volatility and daily seasonality for electricity price of New South Wales in Australia based on Empirical Mode Decomposition, Seasonal Adjustment and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average. The prediction errors are analyzed and compared with the ones obtained from the traditional Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model. The comparisons demonstrate that the proposed model can improve the prediction accuracy noticeably.

  18. Optimizing and Diversifying the Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for U.S. Drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhenhong

    2012-01-01

    To provide useful information for automakers to design successful plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) products and for energy and environmental analysts to understand the social impact of PHEVs, this paper addresses the question of how many of the U.S. consumers, if buying a PHEV, would prefer what electric ranges. The Market-oriented Optimal Range for PHEV (MOR-PHEV) model is developed to optimize the PHEV electric range for each of 36,664 sampled individuals representing U.S. new vehicle drivers. The optimization objective is the minimization of the sum of costs on battery, gasoline, electricity and refueling hassle. Assuming no battery subsidy, the empirical results suggest that: 1) the optimal PHEV electric range approximates two thirds of one s typical daily driving distance in the near term, defined as $450/kWh battery delivered price and $4/gallon gasoline price. 2) PHEVs are not ready to directly compete with HEVs at today s situation, defined by the $600/kWh battery delivered price and the $3-$4/gallon gasoline price, but can do so in the near term. 3) PHEV10s will be favored by the market over longer-range PHEVs in the near term, but longer-range PHEVs can dominate the PHEV market if gasoline prices reach as high as $5-$6 per gallon and/or battery delivered prices reach as low as $150-$300/kWh. 4) PHEVs can become much more attractive against HEVs in the near term if the electric range can be extended by only 10% with multiple charges per day, possible with improved charging infrastructure or adapted charging behavior. 5) the impact of a $100/kWh decrease in battery delivered prices on the competiveness of PHEVs against HEVs can be offset by about $1.25/gallon decrease in gasoline prices, or about 7/kWh increase in electricity prices. This also means that the impact of a $1/gallon decrease in gasoline prices can be offset by about 5/kWh decrease in electricity prices.

  19. Super-capacitors fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle optimization and control strategy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, Vanessa; Donateo, Teresa; De Risi, Arturo; Laforgia, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, due to emissions reduction policies, research focused on alternative powertrains among which hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by fuel cells are becoming an attractive solution. One of the main issues of these vehicles is the energy management in order to improve the overall fuel economy. The present investigation aims at identifying the best hybrid vehicle configuration and control strategy to reduce fuel consumption. The study focuses on a car powered by a fuel cell and equipped with two secondary energy storage devices: batteries and super-capacitors. To model the powertrain behavior an on purpose simulation program called ECoS has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment. The fuel cell model is based on the Amphlett theory. The battery and the super-capacitor models account for charge/discharge efficiency. The analyzed powertrain is also equipped with an energy regeneration system to recover braking energy. The numerical optimization of vehicle configuration and control strategy of the hybrid electric vehicle has been carried out with a multi objective genetic algorithm. The goal of the optimization is the reduction of hydrogen consumption while sustaining the battery state of charge. By applying the algorithm to different driving cycles, several optimized configurations have been identified and discussed

  20. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.