WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid delivery system

  1. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system.

  2. Hybrid PET/CT for noninvasive pharmacokinetic evaluation of dynamic PolyConjugates, a synthetic siRNA delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sarah R; Trubetskoy, Vladimir S; Blokhin, Andrei V; Weichert, Jamey P; Wolff, Jon A

    2010-07-21

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid imaging can be used to gain insights into a synthetic siRNA delivery system targeted to the liver. Either siRNA or the delivery vehicle was labeled with (64)Cu via 1, 4, 7, 10- tetraazacyclododecane- 1, 4, 7, 10- tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelation. This study confirmed that the siRNA delivery system was successfully targeted to the liver. Incorporation of the siRNA into the delivery system protected the siRNA from renal filtration long enough so that the siRNA could be delivered to the liver. PET/CT imaging was important for confirming biodistribution and for determining differences in the distribution of labeled siRNA, siRNA incorporated into the delivery system, and the delivery system without siRNA.

  3. Cross-linked chitosan/liposome hybrid system for the intestinal delivery of quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddeo, Carla; Díez-Sales, Octavio; Pons, Ramon; Carbone, Claudia; Ennas, Guido; Puglisi, Giovanni; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid with antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, poorly absorbed when administered orally. To increase its bioavailability and optimize its release in the intestine, a hybrid system made of liposomes coated with cross-linked chitosan, named TPP-chitosomes, was developed and characterized by light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and Turbiscan® technology. The TPP-chitosomes were nanosized (∼180 nm), fairly spherical in shape and unilamellar. The actual coating of the surface of liposomes with the cross-linked chitosan was demonstrated by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering. The release of quercetin in simulated gastric and intestinal pH was investigated, the results showing that the system provided resistance to acidic conditions, and promoted the release in alkaline pH, mimicking the intestinal environment. The proposed hybrid system represents a promising combination of nanovesicles and chitosan for the delivery of quercetin to the intestine in the therapy of oxidative stress/inflammation related disorders.

  4. Hybrid liposomal PEGylated calix[4]arene systems as drug delivery platforms for curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakalska, Elena; Momekova, Denitsa; Manolova, Yana; Budurova, Dessislava; Momekov, Georgi; Genova, Margarita; Antonov, Liudmil; Lambov, Nikolay; Rangelov, Stanislav

    2014-09-10

    The tremendous therapeutic potential of curcumin as a chemopreventive, antineoplastic and chemosensitizing agent has failed to progress towards clinical development and commercialization due to its unfavorable physicochemical properties, low aqueous solubility, chemical instability, and pharmacokinetics. The present contribution is focused on the feasibility of using PEGylated calixarene, in particular polyoxyethylene-derivatized tert-butylcalix[4]arene, to prepare various platforms for delivery of curcumin such as inclusion complex, supramolecular aggregates, and hybrid liposomal systems. The inclusion complex is characterized by UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopy as well as thermal gravimetrical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. At concentrations exceeding the critical micellization concentration of PEGylated calixarene, the tremendous solubility enhancement of curcumin is attributed to additional solubilization and hydrophobic non-covalent interactions of the drug with supramolecular aggregates. A hybrid liposomal system is created via encapsulation of the inclusion complex in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine:cholesterol liposomes. Bare and liposomal curcumin:BEC-X inclusion complexes, as well as free curcumin were additionally investigated for cytotoxicity and apoptogenic activity against human tumor cell lines.

  5. A novel thermal and pH responsive drug delivery system based on ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Licheng; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Weihua [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Junchao, E-mail: weijunchao@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Peng, Zhiping [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2014-12-01

    A smart ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid was prepared by grafting thermal responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the grafting amount of PNIPAM was about 38%, and the SEM images show that the PNIPAM chains can prevent the aggregation of ZnO nanoparticles. The responsive properties of ZnO@PNIPAM were measured by photoluminescence spectra, and the results demonstrate that the PNIPAM chains grafted on ZnO surfaces can realize reversible thermal responsive and photoluminescence properties. An anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox), was used as a model drug and loaded into the hybrid nanoparticles, and an in vitro drug release test implied that ZnO@PNIPAM could work as a thermal responsive drug delivery system. Furthermore, pH sensitive drug releases were carried out in acetate buffer at pH 5.0 and pH 6.0 and in water at pH 7.0, and the results showed evident pH dependency, showing its pH responsive properties. - Graphical abstract: In this manuscript, thermal responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) was grafted on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. The obtained ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid showed reversible thermal responsive photoluminescent properties, and can also work as a thermal and pH responsive drug delivery system. - Highlights: • The ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid was prepared via ATRP. • The ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid showed thermal responsive properties. • The ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid can work as a thermal and pH responsive drug delivery system.

  6. Multi-drug delivery system based on alginate/calcium carbonate hybrid nanoparticles for combination chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Long; Wang, Chao-Qun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Cheng, Si-Xue

    2014-11-01

    A facile strategy to prepare nano-sized drug carriers for co-delivery of multiple types of drugs in combination chemotherapy was developed. Inorganic/organic hybrid alginate/CaCO3 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation in an aqueous solution under very mild conditions. A hydrophilic drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and a hydrophobic drug (paclitaxel, PTX) were co-encapsulated in the hybrid nanoparticles. For comparison, PTX loaded nanoparticles and DOX loaded nanoparticles were also prepared. The measurement based on dynamic light scattering indicated all nanoparticles had a mean size less than 200 nm with a relatively narrow size distribution. The morphology of the nanoparticles was observed by TEM. The in vitro drug release study showed that the release of DOX and PTX from the dual drug loaded nanoparticles could be effectively sustained. The tumor cell inhibitory effect of the drug loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in HeLa cells and MCF-7/ADR cells. The dual drug loaded nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced cell uptake and nuclear localization as compared with the single drug loaded nanoparticles. As a result, the dual drug loaded nanoparticles had a significantly enhanced cell inhibitory effect, especially for drug resistant tumor cells. These results indicated that alginate/CaCO3 hybrid nanoparticles have promising applications for the co-delivery of drugs with different physicochemical properties in combination chemotherapy to overcome multidrug resistance.

  7. Hybrid-modified poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanospheres for a novel cellular drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Kohei; Furukawa, Sahori; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2010-06-15

    We prepared surface-modified poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres (NS) for use as cellular drug and gene delivery systems using an emulsion solvent diffusion method. In this study, we screened for an appropriate surface modifier to improve NS cellular uptake. Poly-L-lysine (PLL)-modified PLGA NS were taken up by A549 cells in significantly higher amounts (17-fold) than unmodified NS. In order to provide a novel function, PLGA NS were hybrid-modified using both; a cationic polymer, PLL, and a nonionic surfactant, polysorbate 80, to improve cellular uptake in serum-containing medium (SCM). Hybrid modification abrogated the decreased PLGA NS cellular uptake in SCM as a result of better dispersion in serum compared to PLL-PLGA NS, which aggregated in SCM. Luciferase activity of Hybrid-NS/pCMV-Luc complexes in A549 cells in SCM was 122-fold higher than PLL-NS. Hybrid-PLGA NS were not cytotoxic for A549 cells. In conclusion, Hybrid-PLGA NS have great potential as effective cellular drug delivery carriers.

  8. Organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides with intercalated phacolysin as ocular delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Huibo; Cao, Feng, E-mail: cpufengc@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy (China)

    2015-12-15

    This study was mainly aimed to evaluate the potential use of a novel ocular drug delivery system, organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides (LDH). Organic polymers of chitosan–glutathione (CG) and pre-activated chitosan–glutathione (CG-2MNA) were successfully synthesized and characterized. LDH with intercalated phacolysin (PCL), including larger hexagonal LDH–PCL (Lh-LDH–PCL), larger spherical LDH–PCL (Ls-LDH–PCL), smaller hexagonal LDH–PCL (Sh-LDH–PCL), CG hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG), and CG-2MNA hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA), were prepared. The nanocomposites with particle size of 107.2–274.9 nm were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron micrographs, etc. In vivo precorneal retention studies showed that the detectable time of all nanocomposites was prolonged from 2 to 6 h in comparison to PCL saline. Accordingly, the AUC{sub 0–6h} values of Lh-LDH–PCL, Ls-LDH–PCL, Sh-LDH–PCL, LDH–PCL-CG, and LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA nanocomposites were increased by 2.27-, 2.08-, 3.08-, 4.67-, and 3.36-fold, respectively. The Draize test and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that modified LDH had no eye irritation after single and repeated administration. These results indicated that chitosan derivatives-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs.Graphical AbstractThiolated chitosan-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs and may facilitate penetration of drugs into tissues of the eyes.

  9. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  10. Curcumin loaded pH-sensitive hybrid lipid/block copolymer nanosized drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelezova, Ivelina; Drakalska, Elena; Momekova, Denitsa; Shalimova, Natalia; Momekov, Georgi; Konstantinov, Spiro; Rangelov, Stanislav; Pispas, Stergios

    2015-10-12

    Curcumin is a perspective drug candidate with pleiotropic antineoplastic activity, whose exceptionally low aqueous solubility and poor pharmacokinetic properties have hampered its development beyond the preclinical level. A possible approach to overcome these limitations is the encapsulation of curcumin into nano-carriers, incl. liposomes. The present contribution is focused on feasibility of using hybrid pH-sensitive liposomes, whereby curcumin is entrapped as a free drug and as a water soluble inclusion complex with PEGylated tert-butylcalix[4]arene, which allows the drug to occupy both the phospholipid membranes and the aqueous core of liposomes. The inclusion complexes were encapsulated in dipalmithoylphosphathydilcholine:cholesterol liposomes, whose membranes were grafted with a poly(isoprene-b-acrylic acid) diblock copolymer to confer pH-sensitivity. The liposomes were characterized by DLS, ζ-potential measurements, cryo-TEM, curcumin encapsulation efficacy, loading capacity, and in vitro release as a function of pH. Free and formulated curcumin were further investigated for cytotoxicity, apoptosis-induction and caspase-8, and 9 activation in chemosensitive HL-60 and its resistant sublines HL-60/Dox and HL-60/CDDP. Formulated curcumin was superior cytotoxic and apoptogenic agent vs. the free drug. The mechanistic assay demonstrated that the potent proapoptotic effects of pH-sensitive liposomal curcumin presumably mediated via recruitment of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in both HL-60 and HL-60/CDDP cells.

  11. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization.

  12. Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.

    2009-12-01

    Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

  13. Hybrids of Iron-Filled Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Anticancer Agents as Potential Magnetic Drug Delivery Systems: In Vitro Studies against Human Melanoma, Colon Carcinoma, and Colon Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Boncel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell type, morphology, and functioning are key variables in the construction of efficient “drug-vehicle” hybrids in magnetic drug delivery. Iron-encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotubes (Fe@MWCNTs appear as promising candidates for theranostics due to in situ chemical catalytic vapor deposition (c-CVD synthesis, straightforward organic functionalization, and nanoneedle (1D behavior. Here, model hybrids were synthesized by exploring C-sp2 chemistry ((1+2-cycloaddition of nitrenes and amidation of the outer MWCNT walls combined with anticancer agents, that is, 5-fluorouracil (5FU, purpurin (Purp, and 1,8-naphthalimide DNA intercalators (NIDIs, via linkers. Analyses of the Fe@MWCNT vehicles by SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy revealed their morphology while Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of encapsulated ferromagnetic iron-based nanodomains. Cytotoxicity of the hybrids was studied using a 24 h MTS assay combined with the apoptosis and life cycle assays against human melanoma (Me45, colon carcinoma (HCT116+, and colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2. The cells had different sensitivity to the vehicles themselves as well as to the hybrids. MWCNT-based covalent hybrids of 5FU and Purp emerged as the most promising systems against Me45 and HCT116+ cell lines with the highest in vitro cytotoxicity and proapoptotic activity. Furthermore, nanotubes bearing 4-nitro- and 4-(N-morpholinyl-1,8-naphthalimide DNA intercalators appear as a promising candidate for the treatment of Caco-2.

  14. Project delivery system (PDS)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.

  15. Hybrid protein-synthetic polymer nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseva, Neli S; Rydz, Joanna; Stoyanova, Ekaterina V; Mitova, Violeta A

    2015-01-01

    Among the most common nanoparticulate systems, the polymeric nanocarriers have a number of key benefits, which give a great choice of delivery platforms. Nevertheless, polymeric nanoparticles possess some limitations that include use of toxic solvents in the production process, polymer degradation, drug leakage outside the diseased tissue, and polymer cytotoxicity. The combination of polymers of biological and synthetic origin is an appealing modern strategy for the production of novel nanocarriers with unprecedented properties. Proteins' interface can play an important role in determining bioactivity and toxicity and gives perspective for future development of the polymer-based nanoparticles. The design of hybrid constructs composed of synthetic polymer and biological molecules such as proteins can be considered as a straightforward tool to integrate a broad spectrum of properties and biofunctions into a single device. This review discusses hybrid protein-synthetic polymer nanoparticles with different structures and levels in complexity and functionality, in view of their applications as drug delivery systems.

  16. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  17. MUCOSAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Madan Jyotsana; Banode Sagar; Dangi Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    The process of mucoadhesion involving a polymeric drug delivery system is a complex one that includes processes such as wetting, adsorption and interpenetration of polymer chains. The success and degree of mucoadhesion bonding is influenced by various polymer-based properties such as the degree of cross-linking, chain length and the presence of various functional groupings. The attractiveness of mucosal-targeted controlled drug delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients, has led formulatio...

  18. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  19. Biodegradable Hybrid Stomatocyte Nanomotors for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yingfeng; Peng, Fei; André, Alain A M; Men, Yongjun; Srinivas, Mangala; Wilson, Daniela A

    2017-02-28

    We report the self-assembly of a biodegradable platinum nanoparticle-loaded stomatocyte nanomotor containing both PEG-b-PCL and PEG-b-PS as a potential candidate for anticancer drug delivery. Well-defined stomatocyte structures could be formed even after incorporation of 50% PEG-b-PCL polymer. Demixing of the two polymers was expected at high percentage of semicrystalline poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), resulting in PCL domain formation onto the membrane due to different properties of two polymers. The biodegradable motor system was further shown to move directionally with speeds up to 39 μm/s by converting chemical fuel, hydrogen peroxide, into mechanical motion as well as rapidly delivering the drug to the targeted cancer cell. Uptake by cancer cells and fast doxorubicin drug release was demonstrated during the degradation of the motor system. Such biodegradable nanomotors provide a convenient and efficient platform for the delivery and controlled release of therapeutic drugs.

  20. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  1. A novel versatile Hybrid Infusion-MultiElectrode recording (HIME system for acute drug delivery and multisite acquisition of neuronal activity in freely moving mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg eSenkov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To characterize information transfer in defined brain circuits involving multiple brain regions and to evaluate underlying molecular mechanisms and their dysregulation in major brain diseases, a simple and reliable system is ultimately required for electrophysiologically recording of local field potentials (LFPs, or local EEG in combination with local delivery of drugs, enzymes and gene expression-controlling viruses near the place of recording. Here we provide a new design of a versatile reusable hybrid infusion-recording (HIME system which can be utilized in freely moving mice performing cognitive tasks. The HIME system allows monitoring neuronal activity in multiple layers in several brain structures. Here, we provide examples of bilateral injection and recordings of full spectrum of learning and memory related oscillations, i.e. theta (4-12 Hz, gamma (40-100 and ripple activity (130-150 Hz, in five hippocampal layers as well as in the CA1 and CA2 regions. Furthermore, the system is designed to be used for parallel recordings in the amygdala, cortex and other brain areas, before and after infusion of reagents of interest, either in or off a cognitive test. We anticipate that the HIME system can be particularly convenient to advance functional neuroglycobiological studies and molecular deciphering of mechanisms governing long-term memory consolidation.

  2. Alginate-based hybrid aerogel microparticles for mucosal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, V S S; Gurikov, P; Poejo, J; Matias, A A; Heinrich, S; Duarte, C M M; Smirnova, I

    2016-10-01

    The application of biopolymer aerogels as drug delivery systems (DDS) has gained increased interest during the last decade since these structures have large surface area and accessible pores allowing for high drug loadings. Being biocompatible, biodegradable and presenting low toxicity, polysaccharide-based aerogels are an attractive carrier to be applied in pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, some polysaccharides (e.g. alginate and chitosan) present mucoadhesive properties, an important feature for mucosal drug delivery. This feature allows to extend the contact of DDS with biological membranes, thereby increasing the absorption of drugs through the mucosa. Alginate-based hybrid aerogels in the form of microparticles (alginate and further dried with supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2). Spherical mesoporous aerogel microparticles were obtained for alginate, hybrid alginate/pectin and alginate/κ-carrageenan aerogels, presenting high specific surface area (370-548m(2)g(-1)) and mucoadhesive properties. The microparticles were loaded with ketoprofen via adsorption from its solution in sc-CO2, and with quercetin via supercritical anti-solvent precipitation. Loading of ketoprofen was in the range between 17 and 22wt% whereas quercetin demonstrated loadings of 3.1-5.4wt%. Both the drugs were present in amorphous state. Loading procedure allowed the preservation of antioxidant activity of quercetin. Release of both drugs from alginate/κ-carrageenan aerogel was slightly faster compared to alginate/pectin. The results indicate that alginate-based aerogel microparticles can be viewed as promising matrices for mucosal drug delivery applications.

  3. A Hybrid Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm to Solve Optimal Directional Over Current Relay Coordination Problem for Power Delivery System with DGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Payam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new approach for simultaneous coordinated tuning of over current relay for a Power Delivery System (PDS including Distribution Generations (DGs. In the proposed scheme, instead of changing in protection system structure or using new elements, solving of relay coordination problem is done with revising of relays setting in presence of DGs. For this, the relay coordination problem is formulated as the optimization problem by considering two strategies: minimizing the relays operation time and minimizing the number of changes in relays setting. Also, an efficient hybrid algorithm based on Shuffled Frog Leaping (SFL algorithm and Linear Programming (LP is introduced for solving complex and non-convex optimization problem. To investigate the ability of the proposed method, a 30-bus IEEE test system is considered. Three scenarios are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to solve the directional overcurrent relay coordination problem for a PDS with DGs. Simulation result show the efficiency of proposed method.

  4. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  5. Colloidal drug delivery systems in vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Sarwar; Samad, Abdus; Nazish, Iram; Sultana, Ruksar; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Ahmad, Md Zaki; Akbar, Md

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines play a vital role in the field of community medicine to combat against several diseases of human existence. Vaccines primarily trigger the acquired immune system to develop long-lasting immunity against pathogens. Conventional approaches for vaccine delivery lacks potential to target a particular antigen to develop acquired immunity by specific antibodies. Recent advancements in vaccine delivery showed that inclusion of adjuvants in vaccine formulations or delivery of them in a carrier helps in achieving desired targeting ability, reducing the immunogenicity and significant augmentation in the immune response. Colloidal carriers (liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, proteosomes, virosomes and virus like particles (VLPs), antigen cochleates, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) have been widely explored for vaccine delivery. Further, surface engineering of these carriers with ligands, functional moieties and monoclonal antibodies tend to enhance the immune recognition potential of vaccines by differentiation of antigen specific memory T-cells. The current review, therefore, provides an updated account on the recent advancements in various colloidal delivery systems in vaccine delivery, outlining the mechanism of immune response initiated by them along with potential applications and marketed instances in an explicit manner.

  6. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  7. Hybrid Nanomaterial Complexes for Advanced Phage-guided Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapong Yata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing nanomaterials that are effective, safe, and selective for gene transfer applications is challenging. Bacteriophages (phage, viruses that infect bacteria only, have shown promise for targeted gene transfer applications. Unfortunately, limited progress has been achieved in improving their potential to overcome mammalian cellular barriers. We hypothesized that chemical modification of the bacteriophage capsid could be applied to improve targeted gene delivery by phage vectors into mammalian cells. Here, we introduce a novel hybrid system consisting of two classes of nanomaterial systems, cationic polymers and M13 bacteriophage virus particles genetically engineered to display a tumor-targeting ligand and carry a transgene cassette. We demonstrate that the phage complex with cationic polymers generates positively charged phage and large aggregates that show enhanced cell surface attachment, buffering capacity, and improved transgene expression while retaining cell type specificity. Moreover, phage/polymer complexes carrying a therapeutic gene achieve greater cancer cell killing than phage alone. This new class of hybrid nanomaterial platform can advance targeted gene delivery applications by bacteriophage.

  8. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  9. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  10. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  11. MEMS: Enabled Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Angelica; Sheybani, Roya; Meng, Ellis

    2015-05-01

    Drug delivery systems play a crucial role in the treatment and management of medical conditions. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies have allowed the development of advanced miniaturized devices for medical and biological applications. This Review presents the use of MEMS technologies to produce drug delivery devices detailing the delivery mechanisms, device formats employed, and various biomedical applications. The integration of dosing control systems, examples of commercially available microtechnology-enabled drug delivery devices, remaining challenges, and future outlook are also discussed.

  12. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

  13. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  14. Hybrid polymeric hydrogels for ocular drug delivery: nanoparticulate systems from copolymers of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan and N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbu, Eugen; Tsibouklis, John [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth PO1 2DT (United Kingdom); Verestiuc, Liliana [Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ' Gr T Popa' , 9-13 Kogalniceanu Street, Iasi, 700454 (Romania); Iancu, Mihaela; Jatariu, Anca [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Technical University' Gh Asachi' , Boulevard Mangeron, 71A, 700100, Iasi (Romania); Lungu, Adriana [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Polizu Street 1-7, 011061, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: eugen@barbu@port.ac.uk

    2009-06-03

    Nanoparticulate hybrid polymeric hydrogels (10-70 nm) have been obtained via the radical-induced co-polymerization of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan with either N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and the materials have been investigated for their ability to act as controlled release vehicles in ophthalmic drug delivery. Studies on the effects of network structure upon swelling properties, adhesiveness to substrates that mimic mucosal surfaces and biodegradability, coupled with in vitro drug release investigations employing ophthalmic drugs with differing aqueous solubilities, have identified nanoparticle compositions for each of the candidate drug molecules. The hybrid nanoparticles combine the temperature sensitivity of N-isopropylacrylamide or the good swelling characteristics of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with the susceptibility of chitosan to lysozyme-induced biodegradation.

  15. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

  16. Lipid polymer hybrid as emerging tool in nanocarriers for oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallan, Supandeep Singh; Kaur, Prabhjot; Kaur, Veerpal; Mishra, Neeraj; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

    2016-01-01

    The oral route for drug delivery is a widely accepted route. For that reason, many researchers are currently working to develop efficient oral drug delivery systems. Use of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and lipid carrier systems, including liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), has limitations such as drug leakage and high water content of dispersions. Thus, lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) have been explored by the researchers to provide a better effect using properties of both polymers and lipids. The present review is focused on the challenges, possibilities, and future perspectives of LPNs for oral delivery.

  17. Multifunctional hybrid-carbon nanotubes: new horizon in drug delivery and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as an intriguing nanotechnological tool for numerous biomedical applications including biocompatible modules for the bioactives delivery ascribed to their unique properties, such as greater loading efficiency, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, high surface area and photoluminescence, that make them ideal candidate in pharmaceutical and biomedical science. The design of multifunctional hybrid-CNTs for drug delivery and targeting may differ from the conventional drug delivery system. The conventional nanocarriers have few limitations, such as inappropriate availability of surface-chemical functional groups for conjugation, low entrapment/loading efficiency as well as stability as per ICH guidelines with generally regarded as safe (GRAS) prominences. The multifunctional hybrid-CNTs will sparked and open a new door for researchers, scientist of the pharmaceutical and biomedical arena. This review summarizes the vivid aspects of CNTs like characterization, supramolecular chemistry of CNTs-dendrimer, CNTs-nanoparticles, CNTs-quantum dots conjugate for delivery of bioactives, not discussed so far.

  18. Carbon nanotubes hybrid hydrogels in drug delivery: a perspective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Giuseppe; Hampel, Silke; Spizzirri, Umile Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Picci, Nevio; Iemma, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability) with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior). The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites in drug delivery, with particular attention to the controlled release by composites hydrogel, is being extensively investigated in the present review.

  19. Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Hydrogels in Drug Delivery: A Perspective Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cirillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior. The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites in drug delivery, with particular attention to the controlled release by composites hydrogel, is being extensively investigated in the present review.

  20. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  1. Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Hydrogels in Drug Delivery: A Perspective Review

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Cirillo; Silke Hampel; Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri; Ortensia Ilaria Parisi; Nevio Picci; Francesca Iemma

    2014-01-01

    The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability) with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior). The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites i...

  2. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  3. Transcutaneous antigen delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous immunization refers to the topical applicationof antigens onto the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunizationtargeting the Langerhans cells of the skin has received muchattention due to its safe, needle-free, and noninvasive antigendelivery. The skin has important immunological functions withunique roles for antigen-presenting cells such as epidermalLangerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. In recent years,novel vaccine delivery strategies have continually beendeveloped; however, transcutaneous immunization has not yetbeen fully exploited due to the penetration barrier representedby the stratum corneum, which inhibits the transport ofantigens and adjuvants. Herein we review recent achievementsin transcutaneous immunization, focusing on the variousstrategies for the enhancement of antigen delivery andvaccination efficacy. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 17-24

  4. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  5. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  6. Lipoidal Soft Hybrid Biocarriers of Supramolecular Construction for Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Gurmeet; Singh, Mankaran; Rathore, Mahendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-based innovations have achieved new heights during the last few years as an essential component of drug development. The current challenge of drug delivery is liberation of drug agents at the right time in a safe and reproducible manner to a specific target site. A number of novel drug delivery systems has emerged encompassing various routes of administration, to achieve controlled and targeted drug delivery. Microparticulate lipoidal vesicular system represents a unique technology platform suitable for the oral and systemic administration of a wide variety of molecules with important therapeutic biological activities, including drugs, genes, and vaccine antigens. The success of liposomes as drug carriers has been reflected in a number of liposome-based formulations, which are commercially available or are currently undergoing clinical trials. Also, novel lipid carrier-mediated vesicular systems are originated. This paper has focused on the lipid-based supramolecular vesicular carriers that are used in various drug delivery and drug targeting systems. PMID:22888455

  7. Hybridity in Embedded Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强

    1996-01-01

    An embedded system is a system that computer is used as a component in a larger device.In this paper,we study hybridity in embedded systems and present an interval based temporal logic to express and reason about hybrid properties of such kind of systems.

  8. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems for oral insulin delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the combination of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) and enteric-coated capsules as a potential delivery strategy for oral delivery of insulin. The SNEDDS preconcentrates, loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex at different levels (0, 2.5 and 10% w...

  9. Layered Double Hydroxide Modified by PEGylated Hyaluronic Acid as a Hybrid Nanocarrier for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董岸杰; 李雪; 王伟伟; 韩尚聪; 刘鉴锋; 刘金剑; 赵军强; 许舒欣; 邓联东

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarriers are explored for effective drug delivery and pref-erable disease treatments. In this study, using 5-fluorouracil(5-FU)as electronegative model drug, a new type of organic-inorganic hybrid drug delivery system(LDH/HA-PEG/5-FU)was conceived and manufactured by the ad-sorption of PEGylated hyaluronic acid(HA-PEG)on the surface of layered double hydroxide(LDH, prepared via hydrothermal method)and the intercalation of 5-FU in the interlamination of LDH via ion exchange strategy. The drug loading amount of LDH/HA-PEG/5-FU achieved as high as 34.2%. LDH, LDH/5-FU and LDH/HA-PEG/5-FU were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, laser particle size analyzer and SEM. With the benefit of pH-degradable feature of LDH and enzyme-degradable feature of HA, LDH/HA-PEG/5-FU showed pH-degradable and enzyme-degradable capacity inin vitro drug release. Moreover, the drug carrier LDH/HA-PEG contained biocom-patible PEG and tumor-targeted HA, resulting in lower cytotoxicity and better endocytosis compared with LDHin vitro. It was suggested that the organic-inorganic hybrid drug delivery system, which was endowed with the proper-ties of controlled release, low toxicity and tumor-targeting delivery for ameliorative cancer therapy, was advisable and might be applied further to fulfill other treatments.

  10. Hybrid electrospun chitosan-phospholipids nanofibers for transdermal drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Gorzelanny, Christian; Halter, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (Ch) polysaccharide was mixed with phospholipids (P) to generate electrospun hybrid nanofibers intended to be used as platforms for transdermal drug delivery. Ch/P nanofibers exibithed average diameters ranging from 248 +/- 94 nm to 600 +/- 201 nm, depending on the amount of phospholipids...... used. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) data suggested the occurrence of electrostatic interactions between amine groups of chitosan with the phospholipid counterparts. The nanofibers were shown to be stable for at least 7 days in Phosphate Buffer...

  11. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  12. Chaotic Dynamics in Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  13. Chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  14. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  15. Generic Delivery of Payload of Nanoparticles Intracellularly via Hybrid Polymer Capsules for Bioimaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Haider; Maparu, Auhin K.; Kumar, Ashok; Sivakumar, Sri

    2012-01-01

    Towards the goal of development of a generic nanomaterial delivery system and delivery of the ‘as prepared’ nanoparticles without ‘further surface modification’ in a generic way, we have fabricated a hybrid polymer capsule as a delivery vehicle in which nanoparticles are loaded within their cavity. To this end, a generic approach to prepare nanomaterials-loaded polyelectrolyte multilayered (PEM) capsules has been reported, where polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)/polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) polymer capsules were employed as nano/microreactors to synthesize variety of nanomaterials (metal nanoparticles; lanthanide doped inorganic nanoparticles; gadolinium based nanoparticles, cadmium based nanoparticles; different shapes of nanoparticles; co-loading of two types of nanoparticles) in their hollow cavity. These nanoparticles-loaded capsules were employed to demonstrate generic delivery of payload of nanoparticles intracellularly (HeLa cells), without the need of individual nanoparticle surface modification. Validation of intracellular internalization of nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells was ascertained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The green emission from Tb3+ was observed after internalization of LaF3:Tb3+(5%) nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells, which suggests that nanoparticles in hybrid capsules retain their functionality within the cells. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of these nanoparticles-loaded capsules showed less/no cytotoxicity in comparison to blank capsules or untreated cells, thus offering a way of evading direct contact of nanoparticles with cells because of the presence of biocompatible polymeric shell of capsules. The proposed hybrid delivery system can be potentially developed to avoid a series of biological barriers and deliver multiple cargoes (both simultaneous and individual delivery) without the need of individual cargo design/modification. PMID:22649489

  16. Optimizing Consulting Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottswood, Curran

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes a study of several types of consulting groups in the Bell System and describes characteristics which are associated with high-impact consulting. A strategy which is designed for internal consulting organizations to maximize the likelihood of both initial success and long-term survival of the group is proposed. (Author/MER)

  17. Software Build and Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-10

    This presentation deals with the hierarchy of software build and delivery systems. One of the goals is to maximize the success rate of new users and developers when first trying your software. First impressions are important. Early successes are important. This also reduces critical documentation costs. This is a presentation focused on computer science and goes into detail about code documentation.

  18. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  19. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  20. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...... processes to be embedded into the logic. The semantics thus provides a secure link to hybrid system models based on a general theory of dynamical systems....

  1. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  2. Effectiveness of a Hybrid Classroom in the Delivery of Medical Terminology Course Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey S.; Kreiger, Joan E.; Apicerno, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses are emerging as a viable option for content delivery across college campuses. In an attempt to maximize learning outcomes while leveraging resources, one institution used several sections of a Medical Terminology course as a pilot. Traditional and hybrid course delivery were compared utilizing a quantitative research method to…

  3. A Hybrid Architecture for Delivery of Panoramic Video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.J.; Niamut, O.A.; Brandenburg, R. van; Macq, J.F.; Alface, P.R.; Verzijp, N.

    2013-01-01

    The media industry is being pulled in the often-opposing directions of increased realism (high resolution, stereoscopic, large screen) and personalisation (selection and control of content, availability on many devices). Within the EU FP7 project FascinatE, a capture, production and delivery system

  4. A hybrid architecture for delivery of panoramic video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.J.; Niamut, O.A.; Brandenburg, R. van; Macq, J.F.; Alface, P.R.; Verzijp, N.

    2013-01-01

    The media industry is being pulled in the often-opposing directions of increased realism (high resolution, stereoscopic, large screen) and personalisation (selection and control of content, availability on many devices). Within the EU FP7 project FascinatE, a capture, production and delivery system

  5. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  6. Preparing and evaluating delivery systems for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L; Moeller, E H; van de Weert, M

    2006-01-01

    From a formulation perspective proteins are complex and therefore challenging molecules to develop drug delivery systems for. The success of a formulation depends on the ability of the protein to maintain the native structure and activity during preparation and delivery as well as during shipping...... and long-term storage of the formulation. Therefore, the development and evaluation of successful and promising drug delivery systems is essential. In the present review, some of the particulate drug delivery systems for parenteral delivery of protein are presented and discussed. The challenge...... for incorporation of protein in particulate delivery systems is exemplified by water-in-oil emulsions....

  7. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  8. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  9. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  10. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  11. A REVIEW ON OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnish Patel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional oral drug delivery systems supply an instantaneous release of drug, which cannot control the release of the drug and effective concentration at the target site. This kind of dosing pattern may result in constantly changing, unpredictable plasma concentrations. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by the process of osmosis. Osmotic devices are the most promising strategy based systems for controlled drug delivery. They are the most reliable controlled drug delivery systems and could be employed as oral drug delivery systems. Various patents available for osmotic drug delivery system like Rose-Nelson pump, Higuchi leeper pump, Higuchi Theeuwes pump, Elementary Osmotic pump etc. ODDS are useful for poorly soluble drug, for pulsatile drug release, zero order release. Various techniques available for preparation of ODDS include push pull osmotic Pump, osmotic Brusting osmotic pump, liquid oral osmotic system, sandwiched osmotic tablets , delayed delivery osmotic device, monolithic osmotic System and controlled porosity osmotic Pump. Osmotically controlled oral drug delivery systems utilize osmotic pressure for controlled delivery of active agents. These systems can be utilized for systemic as well as targeted delivery of drugs. The release of drugs from osmotic systems is governed by various formulation factors such as solubility and osmotic pressure of the core components, size of the delivery orifice, and nature of the rate-controlling membrane. In this Paper mainly focused on the Osmotic System with example, the basic component of osmotic system and evaluation parameter of the osmotic drug delivery system.

  12. Beyond the photocopy machine: document delivery in a hybrid library environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Waaijers, L.

    2001-01-01

    Document delivery bridges the gap between where the customer is and where the document is. Libraries have to offer user-friendly access to hybrid collections, and design and implement document delivery mechanisms from paper originals to provide a seamless integration between delivery from electronic

  13. Integrating Internet Video Conferencing Techniques and Online Delivery Systems with Hybrid Classes to Enhance Student Interaction and Learning in Accelerated Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, E. George; Cunniff, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    Online course enrollment has increased dramatically over the past few years. The authors cite the reasons for this rapid growth and the opportunities open for enhancing teaching/learning techniques such as video conferencing and hybrid class combinations. The authors outlined an example of an accelerated learning, eight-class session course…

  14. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    systems are derived in this thesis. The results are used for output feedback control of switched nonlinear systems. Model reduction of piecewise affine systems is also studied in this thesis. The proposed method is based on the reduction of linear subsystems inside the polytopes. The methods which......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  15. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  16. Ion-atom hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Willitsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The study of interactions between simultaneously trapped cold ions and atoms has emerged as a new research direction in recent years. The development of ion-atom hybrid experiments has paved the way for investigating elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions between these species at very low temperatures, for exploring new cooling mechanisms of ions by atoms and for implementing new hybrid quantum systems. The present lecture reviews experimental methods, recent results and upcoming developments in this emerging field.

  17. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  18. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS are topically administered medicaments in the form of patches that deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. By this constant concentration of drug remain in blood for long time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers are the main components of TDDS; polymers includes Zein, Shellac (as a natural to synthetic ones (Polybutadiene, Polysiloxane, Polyvinyl chloride, Polyvinyl alcohol etc.. TDDS are of many types varying from single layer drug in adhesive to multi layer drug in adhesive and others are reservoir and the matrix systems. The market value of TDDS products are increasing with rapid rate, more than 35 products have now been approved for sale in US, and approximately 16 active ingredients are approved globally for use as a TDDS. Transdermal drug delivery is a recent technology which promises a great future it has a potential to limit the use of needles for administering wide variety of drugs but cost factor is a important thing to consider since developing nations like INDIA have second highest population, but due to higher cost TDDS are the hidden part of therapy used in general population.

  19. 32 tesla hybrid magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupold, M.J.; Iwasa, Y.; Weggel, R.J. (MIT Cambridge (U.S.A.))

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the design and construction of a hybrid magnet system to generate 32T with 9MW of electrical power. The system consist of an 11T niobium-titanium superconducting magnet, a 1.8K/4.2K cryostat, and a high-performance, water-cooled Bitter magnet, all of which are discussed in the paper.

  20. Hybrid aerogel preparations as drug delivery matrices for low water-solubility drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Peter; López-Periago, Ana M; Lázár, István; Saurina, Javier; Domingo, Concepción

    2015-12-30

    A comprehensive study of 14 hybrid aerogels of different composition with applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The overall objective was to modulate the release behavior of drug-impregnated aerogels, from an almost instantaneous release to a semi-retarded delivery prolonged during several hours, through internal surface functionalization. The designed hybrid aerogels were composed of silica and gelatin and functionalized with either phenyl, long (16) hydrocarbon chain or methyl moiety. As model systems, three class II active agents (pKaaerogels. The work relied on the use of supercritical fluid technology for both the synthesis and functionalization of the hybrid aerogels, as well as for the impregnation with an active agent using supercritical CO2 as a solvent. For the impregnated aerogels, in vitro release profiles were recorded under gastric and intestinal pH-conditions using HPLC techniques. The release behavior observed for the three studied drugs was explained considering the measured dissolution profiles of the crystalline drugs, the aerogel composition and its functionalization. Such features are considered of great interest to tailor the bioavailability of drugs with low water solubility.

  1. Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    elbow) and a pinned first joint (shoul- der) (see Figure 2); it is termed an underactuated system since it is a mechanical system with fewer...Montreal, PQ, Canada, 1998. [10] M. W. Spong. Partial feedback linearization of underactuated mechanical systems . In Proceedings, IROS󈨢, pages 314-321...control mechanism and search for optimal combinations of control variables. Besides the nonlinear and hybrid nature of powertrain systems , hardware

  2. Gantries and dose delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, David; Psoroulas, Serena

    2015-06-01

    Particle therapy is a field in remarkable development, with the goal of increasing the number of indications which could benefit from such treatments and the access to the therapy. The therapeutic usage of a particle beam defines the technical requirements of all the elements of the therapy chain: we summarize the main characteristics of accelerators, the beam line, the treatment room, the integrated therapy and imaging systems used in particle therapy. Aiming at a higher flexibility in the choice of treatments, an increasing number of centers around the world have chosen to equip their treatment rooms with gantries, rotating beam line structures that allow a complete flexibility in the choice of the treatment angle. We review the current designs. A particle therapy gantry though is a quite expensive structure, and future development will increasingly consider reducing the cost and the footprint. Increasing the number of indications also means development in the delivery techniques and solving some of the issues which traditionally affected particle therapy, for example the precision of the delivery in presence of motion and the large penumbras for low depths. We show the current strategies in these fields, focusing on pencil beam scanning (PBS), and give some hints about future developments.

  3. Advanced Hybrid Computer Systems. Software Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This software technology final report evaluates advances made in Advanced Hybrid Computer System software technology . The report describes what...automatic patching software is available as well as which analog/hybrid programming languages would be most feasible for the Advanced Hybrid Computer...compiler software . The problem of how software would interface with the hybrid system is also presented.

  4. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  5. Core-shell hybrid nanostructured delivery platforms for advanced RNAi therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeesh, S; Choe, Jeong Yong; Lee, Dong Ki

    2017-09-04

    Study was aimed at combining the advantages of nonclassical RNAi-triggering oligonucleotides with nanoparticle-based advanced delivery platforms for developing efficient therapeutic systems. We utilized a core-shell hybrid nanostructured platform for effectively delivering nonclassical RNAi triggers, namely long double stranded interfering RNA and tripodal interfering RNA. Core-shell structure was prepared by stably anchoring thiol-modified cationic polymer on the surface of growing crystal gold (Au) seeds, and the resulting particles were further complexed with nonclassical RNAi candidates via electrostatic interactions. Our studies clearly demonstrated that the unique combination of nonclassical RNAi structures with an advanced core-shell hybrid nanostructured platform is an effective module for advanced RNAi-based therapeutic development.

  6. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  7. Integrated delivery systems. Evolving oligopolies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T A

    1998-01-01

    The proliferation of Integrated Delivery Systems (IDSs) in regional health care markets has resulted in the movement of these markets from a monopolistic competitive model of behavior to an oligopoly. An oligopoly is synonymous with competition among the few, as a small number of firms supply a dominant share of an industry's total output. The basic characteristics of a market with competition among the few are: (1) A mutual interdependence among the actions and behaviors of competing firms; (2) competition tends to rely on the differentiation of products; (3) significant barriers to entering the market exist; (4) the demand curve for services may be kinked; and (5) firms can benefit from economies of scale. An understanding of these characteristics is essential to the survival of IDSs as regional managed care markets mature.

  8. Cell Delivery System for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-21

    REPORT Cell Delivery System for Traumatic Brain Injury 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We have met all of the milestones outlined in this...COVERED (From - To) 18-Sep-2006 Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 17-Mar-2008 Cell Delivery System for Traumatic Brain Injury Report...Manassero*, Justin Kim*, Maureen St Georges*, Nicole Esclamado* and Elizabeth Orwin. “Development of a Cell Delivery System for Traumatic Brain Injury Using

  9. Dynamical systems revisited : Hybrid systems with Zeno executions

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, JUN; Johansson, Karl Henrik; Lygeros, John; Sastry, Shankar

    2000-01-01

    Results from classical dynamical systems are generalized to hybrid dynamical systems. The concept of omega limit set is introduced for hybrid systems and is used to prove new results on invariant sets and stability, where Zeno and non-Zeno hybrid systems can be treated within the same framework. As an example, LaSalle's Invariance Principle is extended to hybrid systems. Zeno hybrid systems are discussed in detail. The omega limit set of a Zeno execution is characterized for classes of hybrid...

  10. Combinatorial Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    2008-01-01

    As initially suggested by E. Sontag, it is possible to approximate an arbitrary nonlinear system by a set of piecewise linear systems. In this work we concentrate on how to control a system given by a set of piecewise linear systems defined on simplices. By using the results of L. Habets and J. van...... Schuppen, it is possible to find a controller for the system on each of the simplices thus guaranteeing that the system flow on the simplex only will leave the simplex through a subset of its faces. Motivated by R. Forman, on the triangulated state space we define a combinatorial vector field, which...... indicates for a given face the future simplex. In the suggested definition we allow nondeterminacy in form of splitting and merging of solution trajectories. The combinatorial vector field gives rise to combinatorial counterparts of most concepts from dynamical systems, such as duals to vector fields, flow...

  11. Porous silicon-cell penetrating peptide hybrid nanocarrier for intracellular delivery of oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytkönen, Jussi; Arukuusk, Piret; Xu, Wujun; Kurrikoff, Kaido; Langel, Ulo; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Närvänen, Ale

    2014-02-01

    The largest obstacle to the use of oligonucleotides as therapeutic agents is the delivery of these large and negatively charged biomolecules through cell membranes into intracellular space. Mesoporous silicon (PSi) is widely recognized as a potential material for drug delivery purposes due to its several beneficial features like large surface area and pore volume, high loading capacity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In the present study, PSi nanoparticles stabilized by thermal oxidation or thermal carbonization and subsequently modified by grafting aminosilanes on the surface are utilized as an oligonucleotide carrier. Splice correcting oligonucleotides (SCOs), a model oligonucleotide drug, were loaded into the positively charged PSi nanoparticles with a loading degree as high as 14.3% (w/w). Rapid loading was achieved by electrostatic interactions, with the loading efficiencies reaching 100% within 5 min. The nanoparticles were shown to deliver and release SCOs, in its biologically active form, inside cells when formulated together with cell penetrating peptides (CPP). The biological effect was monitored with splice correction assay and confocal microscopy utilizing HeLa pLuc 705 cells. Furthermore, the use of PSi carrier platform in oligonucleotide delivery did not reduce the cell viability. Additionally, the SCO-CPP complexes formed in the pores of the carrier were stabilized against proteolytic digestion. The advantageous properties of protecting and releasing the cargo and the possibility to further functionalize the carrier surface make the hybrid nanoparticles a potential system for oligonucleotide delivery.

  12. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. A Best Practice Modular Design of a Hybrid Course Delivery Structure for an Executive Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy E.; Wright, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights a best practice approach that showcases the highly successful deployment of a hybrid course delivery structure for an Operations core course in an Executive MBA Program. A key design element of the approach was the modular design of both the course itself and the learning materials. While other hybrid deployments may stress…

  14. A Best Practice Modular Design of a Hybrid Course Delivery Structure for an Executive Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy E.; Wright, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights a best practice approach that showcases the highly successful deployment of a hybrid course delivery structure for an Operations core course in an Executive MBA Program. A key design element of the approach was the modular design of both the course itself and the learning materials. While other hybrid deployments may stress…

  15. Symbolic Algorithmic Analysis of Rectangular Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Zhen-Hua Duan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems. To deal with the symbolic reachability problem, a restricted constraint system called hybrid zone is formalized for the representation and manipulation of rectangular automata state-spaces. Hybrid zones are proved to be closed over symbolic reachability operations of rectangular hybrid systems. They are also applied to model-checking procedures for verifying some important classes of timed computation tree logic formulas. To represent hybrid zones, a data structure called difference constraint matrix is defined.These enable us to deal with the symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems in an efficient way.

  16. Formulation and Stability Aspects of Nanosized Solid Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Peter; Zelko, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Nano drug delivery systems are considered as useful means to remedy the problems of drugs of poor solubility, permeability and bioavailability, which became one of the most troublesome questions of the pharmaceutical industry. Different types of nanosized drug delivery systems have been developed and investigated for oral administration, providing auspicious solutions for drug development. In this paper nanosized drug delivery systems intended for oral administration are discussed based on the chemical nature of the carrier of drug molecules. Lipid nanoparticles comprising solid lipid nanoparticles, improved nanostructured lipid carriers and nanostructured silica- lipid hybrid particles have become popular in the formulation of lipophilic drugs of poor oral bioavailability. Polymeric nanoparticles including nanospheres and nanocapsules and polymeric fibrous systems have also emerged as potential drug delivery systems owing to their unique structure. The feasibility of surface functionalization of mesoporous materials and gold nanoparticles enables high level of control over particle characteristics making inorganic nanoparticles an exceptional formulation approach. The authors paid particular attention to the functionality-related stability of the reviewed delivery systems.

  17. Starch Applications for Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by α-(1,4) and α-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. The submission is based on research and development of Ingredion

  18. Organoclays for drug delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Canovas Creus, Alba

    2008-01-01

    Modified clays can be used as carriers of drugs due to their suitable properties and structure in order to achieve improvements in drug delivery. The study of this thesis starts with an introduction to mineral clays and its classification, properties and characterization, then deepens into modified clays (properties, comparison with mineral clays, applications and procedure of modification). Another chapter is focused in drug delivery: definition, its difficulties nowadays and the different w...

  19. Engineering the system of healthcare delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rouse, William B; Cortese, Denis A

    2010-01-01

    "As the United States continues to debate reform of its healthcare system, this book argues that providing health insurance for all without improving the delivery system will not improve the current...

  20. Azobenzene Polyesters Used as Gate‐Like Scaffolds in Nanoscopic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardos, Andrea; Mondragón, Laura; Javakhishvili, Irakli

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of new capped silica mesoporous nanoparticles for on‐command delivery applications is reported. Functional capped hybrid systems consist of MCM‐41 nanoparticles functionalised on the external surface with polyesters bearing azobenzene derivatives and rhodamine B...

  1. Engineered nanoscaled polyplex gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Christian A; Rice, Kevin G

    2009-01-01

    Improving the transfection efficiencies of nonviral gene delivery requires properly engineered nanoscaled delivery carriers that can overcome the multiple barriers associated with the delivery of oligonucleotides from the site of administration to the nucleus or cytoplasm of the target cell. This article reviews the current advantages and limitation of polyplex nonviral delivery systems, including the apparent barriers that limit gene expression efficiency compared to physical methods such as hydrodynamic dosing and electroporation. An emphasis is placed on engineered nanoscaled polyplexes (NSPs) of modular design that both self-assemble and systematically disassemble at the desired stage of delivery. It is suggested that NSPs of increasingly sophisticated designs are necessary to improve the efficiency of the rate limiting steps in gene delivery.

  2. New Delivery Systems and Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Dolovich

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC propellants from industrial and household products has been agreed to by over 165 countires of which more than 135 are developing countries. The timetable for this process is outlined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer document and in several subsequent amendments. Pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs for medical use have been granted temporary exemptions until replacement formulations, providing the same medication via the same route, and with the same efficacy and safety profiles, are approved for human use. Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs are the alternative propellants for CFCs-12 and -114. Their potential for damage to the ozone layer is nonexistent, and while they are greenhouse gases, their global warming potential is a fraction (one-tenth of that of CFCs. Replacement formulations for almost all inhalant respiratory medications have been or are being produced and tested; in Canada, it is anticipated that the transition to these HFA or CFC-free pMDIs will be complete by the year 2005. Initially, an HFA pMDI was to be equivalent to the CFC pMDI being replaced, in terms of aerosol properties and effective clinical dose. However, this will not necessarily be the situation, particularly for some corticosteroid products. Currently, only one CFC-free formulation is available in Canada – Airomir, a HFA salbutamol pMDI. This paper discusses the in vitro aerosol characteristics, in vivo deposition and clinical data for several HFA pMDIs for which there are data available in the literature. Alternative delivery systems to the pMDI, namely, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers, are briefly reviewed.

  3. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer [Fort Collins, CO; Willson, Bryan [Fort Collins, CO; Defoort, Morgan [Fort Collins, CO; Joshi, Sachin [Fort Collins, CO; Reynolds, Adam [Fort Collins, CO

    2008-03-04

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  4. Multi-channel gas-delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T.; Beese, Steven C.

    2016-09-13

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a gas-delivery system for delivering reaction gas to a reactor chamber. The gas-delivery system includes a main gas-inlet port for receiving reaction gases and a gas-delivery plate that includes a plurality of gas channels. A gas channel includes a plurality of gas holes for allowing the reaction gases to enter the reactor chamber from the gas channel. The gas-delivery system further includes a plurality of sub-gas lines coupling together the main gas-inlet port and the gas-delivery plate, and a respective sub-gas line is configured to deliver a portion of the received reaction gases to a corresponding gas channel.

  5. Lipid Based Vesicular Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vesicular drug delivery system can be defined as highly ordered assemblies consisting of one or more concentric bilayers formed as a result of self-assembling of amphiphilic building blocks in presence of water. Vesicular drug delivery systems are particularly important for targeted delivery of drugs because of their ability to localize the activity of drug at the site or organ of action thereby lowering its concentration at the other sites in body. Vesicular drug delivery system sustains drug action at a predetermined rate, relatively constant (zero order kinetics, efficient drug level in the body, and simultaneously minimizes the undesirable side effects. It can also localize drug action in the diseased tissue or organ by targeted drug delivery using carriers or chemical derivatization. Different types of pharmaceutical carriers such as polymeric micelles, particulate systems, and macro- and micromolecules are presented in the form of novel drug delivery system for targeted delivery of drugs. Particulate type carrier also known as colloidal carrier system, includes lipid particles, micro- and nanoparticles, micro- and nanospheres, polymeric micelles and vesicular systems like liposomes, sphingosomes, niosomes, transfersomes, aquasomes, ufasomes, and so forth.

  6. A RNA-DNA Hybrid Aptamer for Nanoparticle-Based Prostate Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Leach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of radio- and chemo-therapy pose long-term challenges on a cancer patient’s health. It is, therefore, highly desirable to develop more effective therapies that can specifically target carcinoma cells without damaging normal and healthy cells. Tremendous efforts have been made in the past to develop targeted drug delivery systems for solid cancer treatment. In this study, a new aptamer, A10-3-J1, which recognizes the extracellular domain of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA, was designed. A super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer-doxorubicin (SPIO-Apt-Dox was fabricated and employed as a targeted drug delivery platform for cancer therapy. This DNA RNA hybridized aptamer antitumor agent was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of targeted cells while minimizing collateral damage to non-targeted cells. This SPIO-Apt-Dox nanoparticle has specificity to PSMA+ prostate cancer cells. Aptamer inhibited nonspecific uptake of membrane-permeable doxorubic to the non-target cells, leading to reduced untargeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake while enhancing targeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake. The experimental results indicate that the drug delivery platform can yield statistically significant effectiveness being more cytotoxic to the targeted cells as opposed to the non-targeted cells.

  7. Bioinspired bioartifical polymer hybrid composites for propolis vaginal delivery II: formulation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Glavas-Dodov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our previous work Box-Behnken experimental design was applied for formulation optimization of the thermoreversible mucoadhesive in situ vaginal hydrogels with propolis and optimized batches were identified. Optimized batches of bioartificial polymer hybrid composites (chitosan, Lutrol® F-127 and Lutrol® F-68 mixture (CP1, CP2, CP3 were prepared using so-called cold method. Formulation P3 (chitosan free was prepared in order to evaluate the effect of chitosan on the physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical properties of the polymer hybrid composites (gels. The pH values of the gels were 4-4.5. The gelation temperature for all formulations was in a range of 29-33 o C. Total flavonoids content was above 95%. Increase in concentration of Lutrol® F-127 and Lutrol® F-68/Lutrol® F-127 ratio lead to a higher viscosity values and slower gel erosion/dissolution. The presence of chitosan increased gel viscosity and hence slow-down erossion/dissoluiton. Propolis release rate was the highest in P3 which released propolis within 5 h, corresponding to time of complete erosion. The same correlation between erosion process and drug release rate was observed in CP1-CP3, where prolonged propolis release for more than 10 h was achieved. Microbiological quality was in accordance with the requirements of Ph. Eur. 7. All formulations demonstrated adequate stability at 5 ± 3 °C during 6 months. Based on overall results it can be anticipated that bioartificial blended bioinspired polymer hybrid composites for propolis vaginal delivery could represent intelligent delivery systems with physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties in favor or efficacious and safe therapy of vaginal infections.

  8. Virosome, a hybrid vehicle for efficient and safe drug delivery and its emerging application in cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hanqing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A virosome is an innovative hybrid drug delivery system with advantages of both viral and non-viral vectors. Studies have shown that a virosome can carry various biologically active molecules, such as nucleic acids, peptides, proteins and small organic molecules. Targeted drug delivery using virosome-based systems can be achieved through surface modifications of virosomes. A number of virosome- -based prophylactic and therapeutic products with high safety profiles are currently available in the market. Cancer treatment is a big battlefield for virosome-based drug delivery systems. This review provides an overview of the general concept, preparation procedures, working mechanisms, preclinical studies and clinical applications of virosomes in cancer treatment.

  9. Drug delivery systems from nose to brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ambikanandan; Kher, Gitanjali

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of brain disorders is particularly challenging due to the presence of a variety of formidable obstacles to deliver drugs selectively and effectively to the brain. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) constitutes the major obstacle to the uptake of drugs into the brain following systemic administration. Intranasal delivery offers a non-invasive and convenient method to bypass the BBB and delivery of therapeutics directly to the brain. The review discusses the potential of intranasal route to deliver drugs to the brain, the mechanisms and pathways of direct nose to brain drug transport, the various factors influencing transnasal drug absorption, the conventional and novel intranasal drug delivery systems, the various intranasal drug delivery techniques and devices, and examples of brain drug transport that have been feasible in treating various brain disorders. Moreover, products on the market, investigational drugs, and the author's perceptions about the prospect of intranasal delivery for treating brain disorders are also been discussed.

  10. Radiation sterilization of new drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhanoğlu, Gürhan; Ozer, A Yekta

    2014-06-01

    Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (γ) and beta (β) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by γ irradiation.

  11. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  12. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Joseph W.; Carrano, Anthony V.; Davidson, James C.; Koo, Jackson C.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate.

  13. Characterisation of zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F. A; Gerrard, Stephen E; Kendall, Richard A; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K. H

    2017-01-01

      Zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS), a novel platform for administering medicines to infants during breastfeeding, was characterised using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus...

  14. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-31

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  15. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  16. Microneedles: an emerging transdermal drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariya, Shital H; Gohel, Mukesh C; Mehta, Tejal A; Sharma, Om Prakash

    2012-01-01

    One of the thrust areas in drug delivery research is transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) due to their characteristic advantages over oral and parenteral drug delivery systems. Researchers have focused their attention on the use of microneedles to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum. Microneedles deliver the drug into the epidermis without disruption of nerve endings. Recent advances in the development of microneedles are discussed in this review for the benefit of young scientists and to promote research in the area. Microneedles are fabricated using a microelectromechanical system employing silicon, metals, polymers or polysaccharides. Solid coated microneedles can be used to pierce the superficial skin layer followed by delivery of the drug. Advances in microneedle research led to development of dissolvable/degradable and hollow microneedles to deliver drugs at a higher dose and to engineer drug release. Iontophoresis, sonophoresis and electrophoresis can be used to modify drug delivery when used in concern with hollow microneedles. Microneedles can be used to deliver macromolecules such as insulin, growth hormones, immunobiologicals, proteins and peptides. Microneedles containing 'cosmeceuticals' are currently available to treat acne, pigmentation, scars and wrinkles, as well as for skin tone improvement. Literature survey and patents filled revealed that microneedle-based drug delivery system can be explored as a potential tool for the delivery of a variety of macromolecules that are not effectively delivered by conventional transdermal techniques. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Microemulsion Drug Delivery Systems for Radiopharmacy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ozgenc

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Microemulsions have been used increasingly for last year’s because of ideal properties like favorable drug delivery, ease of preparation and physical stability. They have been improved the solubility and efficacy of the drug and reduce the side effects. Use of radiolabeled microemulsions plays an alternative role in drug delivery systems by investigating the formation, stability and application of microemulsions in radiopharmacy. Gama scintigraphic method is well recognized for developing and detecting the biodistribution of newly developed drugs or formulation. This review will focus on how radionuclides are able to play role with characterization studies of microemulsion drug delivery systems.

  18. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sebastian Sudheer; M Sabir

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid synchronization between drive and response systems using the sum and difference of relevant variables of the chaotic systems. Numerical simulations are presented to evaluate the analysis and effectiveness of the controllers.

  19. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly complex hybrid system of social- and traditional-news media surrounds Nordic election campaigns as politically experienced incumbents favour traditional news media, and younger, lesser-known candidates’ social media. Despite little evidence for hybrid-media politicians, politicians......’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  20. Novel Alginate-Gelatin Hybrid Nanoparticle for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel alginate-gelatin hybrid nanoparticles were fabricated using single oil in water (O/W emulsification techniques. Physicochemical property of the particle was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier’s transmission infrared spectroscopy. Particle size was determined using zeta potential metastasize analyzer and was found to be in range of 400–600 nm. AGNPs were used for culturing human keratinocytes for two weeks to check biocompatibility of synthesized AGNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed increased metabolic activity of cells cultured on AGNPs in comparison to two-dimensional (2D system (control. Cellular attachment on nanoparticle was further confirmed using SEM and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. The drug release profile shows possible electrostatic bond between alginate and gelatin resulting in controlled release of drug from AGNPs. For the first time alginate-gelatin hybrid nanosystem has been fabricated and all results showed it can be used as potential system for delivery of drug and therapeutical agents to cells and can also be used for regenerative medicine applications.

  1. Control for a class of hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA hybrid control system is a control theoretic model for a computer controlled engineering system. A definition of a hybrid control system is formulated that consists of a product of a finite state automaton and of a family of continuous control systems. An example of a transportation

  2. Thirty-Six Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-03-01

    This evaluation compared six hybrids and six standard diesels in UPS facilities in Phoenix, Arizona. Dispatch and maintenance practices are the same at both facilities. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records are used to evaluate the performance of these step delivery vans. The hybrids' average monthly mileage rate was 18% less than the diesel vans. The hybrids consistently were driven a fewer number of miles throughout the evaluation period. The hybrids idled more and operating at slower speeds than the diesels, and the diesels spent slightly more time operating at greater speeds, accounting for much of the hybrids fewer monthly miles. The average fuel economy for the hybrid vans is 13.0 mpg, 23% greater than the diesel vans 10.6 mpg. Total hybrid maintenance cost/mile of $0.141 was 9% more than the $0.130 for the diesel vans. Propulsion-related maintenance cost/mile of $0.037 for the hybrid vans was 25% more than the $0.029 for the diesel vans. Neither difference was found to be statistically significant. The hybrid group had a cumulative average of 96.3% uptime, less than the diesel group's 99.0% uptime. The hybrids experienced troubleshooting and recalibration issues related to prototype components that were primarily responsible for the lower uptime figures.

  3. AN OVERVIEW ON VARIOUS APPROACHES TO ORAL CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM VIA GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla.Neetika

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of oral drug delivery system. Oral sustained drug delivery system is complicated by limited gastric residence times (GRTs. In order to understand various physiological difficulties to achieve gastric retention, we have summarized important factors controlling gastric retention. To overcome these limitations, various approaches have been proposed to increase gastric residence of drug delivery systems in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract includes floating drug dosage systems (FDDS, swelling or expanding systems , mucoadhesive systems , magnetic systems, modified-shape systems, high density system and other delayed gastric emptying devices.

  4. Emulsomes: An emerging vesicular drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawandeep Gill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the easiest, cost effective, and most vital method for drug administration. Therefore, improvement of dosage forms mainly for the prolonged release purpose has been a challenge for scientists. Vesicular drug delivery systems are developed with a purpose to overcome problems coupled with the drugs such a poor bioavailability, protection from harsh gastric environment, and from gastric enzymes, which degrade the drug. Vesicular drug delivery systems such as liposomes, emulsions, niosomes, proniosomes, solid lipid-nano particles, ethosomes, nanoparticles, and pharmacosomes, etc have gained much attention, but emulsomes have rouse as system, which bypasses many disadvantages associated with other systems, developed as novel lipoidal vesicular system with internal solid fat core surrounded by phospholipid bilayer. This technology is designed to act as vehicle for poorly soluble drugs. The drug is enclosed in the emulsomes and provide prolong existence of drug in systemic circulation. Furthermore, emulsomal-based formulations of genetic drugs such as antisense oligonucleotides and plasmids for gene therapy that have clear potential for systemic utility are increasingly available. This review addresses the concept of emulsomal drug delivery system, summarizes the success of emulsomes for the delivery of small molecules, and special attention has been paid to its formulation design, advantages, biopharmaceutical aspects, stability aspects, and various aspects related to drug delivery including future aspects.

  5. Solar-geothermal hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 12, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant is located in the northwest of Mexico, lat. 32{sup o}39', long. 115{sup o}21' in the northern hemisphere. A solar-geothermal hybrid system is proposed in order to increase the steam flow during the present geothermal cycle, adding a solar field of parabolic trough concentrators. Energy is supplied to the geothermal flow from wells in order to increase the steam generation rate. This configuration will increase the capacity factor of the system by generating additional steam during the peak demand hours. The parabolic trough solar field is evaluated in North-South and East-West orientation collector alignments. A proposal to obtain an increase of 10% in steam flow is evaluated, as the increase in flow is limited by the content of dissolved salts, so as to avoid a liquid phase with high salt concentrations. The size of the parabolic troughs field was obtained. (author)

  6. Consensus of Hybrid Multi-Agent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanshi; Ma, Jingying; Wang, Long

    2017-01-27

    In this brief, we consider the consensus problem of hybrid multiagent systems. First, the hybrid multiagent system is proposed, which is composed of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamic agents. Then, three kinds of consensus protocols are presented for the hybrid multiagent system. The analysis tool developed in this brief is based on the matrix theory and graph theory. With different restrictions of the sampling period, some necessary and sufficient conditions are established for solving the consensus of the hybrid multiagent system. The consensus states are also obtained under different protocols. Finally, simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  7. Hybrid Dynamical Systems Modeling, Stability, and Robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Rafal; Teel, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid dynamical systems exhibit continuous and instantaneous changes, having features of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamical systems. Filled with a wealth of examples to illustrate concepts, this book presents a complete theory of robust asymptotic stability for hybrid dynamical systems that is applicable to the design of hybrid control algorithms--algorithms that feature logic, timers, or combinations of digital and analog components. With the tools of modern mathematical analysis, Hybrid Dynamical Systems unifies and generalizes earlier developments in continuous-time and discret

  8. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  9. STRATEGIES AND PROSPECTS OF NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gannu Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems has increased enormously and is gaining significant importance. Intranasal therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. The non-invasive delivery of nasal drug delivery systems made to exploit for the development of successful treatment. The advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action and application of nasal drug delivery system in local delivery, systematic delivery, nasal vaccines and CNS...

  10. CURRENT TRENDS IN PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Tajane et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose for this review on pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS is to compile the recent literatures with special focus on the different types and approaches involved in the development of the formulation. Pulsatile drug delivery system is the most interesting time and site-specific system. This system is designed for chronopharmacotherapy. Thus, to mimic the function of living systems and in view of emerging chronotherapeutic approaches, pulsatile delivery, which is meant to release a drug following programmed lag phase, has increasing interest in the recent years. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcer, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, and attention deficit syndrome in children, cancer, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Pulsatile drug delivery system divided into 2 types’ preplanned systems and stimulus induced system, preplanned systems based on osmosis, rupturable layers, and erodible barrier coatings. Stimuli induced system based on electrical, temperature and chemically induced systems. This review also summarizes some current PDDS already available in the market. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form.

  11. Goals for Postsecondary Instructional Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Stuart E.; Valentine, Carol A.

    Extrapolating from the trends in postsecondary instructional delivery systems identified by Brown, Lewis and Harcleroad, this report attempts to identify how these trends might be implemented in Oregon. Separating the systems into technology-centered and people-centered, the report proposes future applications of dial access systems, self learning…

  12. Microemulsion: As Excellent Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathan Maksud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Today though the oral drug delivery system is dominant still it is found to be need of ideal transdermal drug delivery system. “A micro emulsion is a system of water, oil and an amphiphile which is a single optically isotropic and thermodynamically stable liquid solution”. Microemulsions offer several advantages as drug delivery systems as these are thermodynamically stable and stability allows for self emulsification of the system with microemulsion acting as supersolvent of the drugs which are poorly or insoluble in water. They are preferred more as compared to conventional emulsions due stability. The dispersed phase mainly acts as the solvent for the water insoluble drug. Microemulsions have been proved to increase the cutaneous absorption of both lipophilic and hydrophilic API’s when compared to conventional vehicles.

  13. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  14. RECENT TRENDS IN DENTAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Nishu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release local drug delivery systems offer advantages compared to systemic dosage forms for many dental diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis. The objective of this literature survey was to gain knowledge about various dental drug delivery systems for targeted delivery of the drug. The polymer ethyl cellulose was used in the formulation of dental films. The dental film was then evaluated for various parameters like thickness, folding endurance and weight variation and content uniformity, in vitro and in vivo study. There has been a great attention in using iontophoretic technique for the transdermal drug delivery of medications, both ionic and non ionic. This technique of facilitated movement of ions across a membrane under the influence of an externally applied electric potential difference is one of the most promising physical skin penetrations enhancing method. Another novel approach is the use of lasers in dentistry. Lasers can be used in both hard and soft tissue applications including laser bleaching, frenectomy, gingivectomy, caries removal etc. Drugs delivery via the buccal routs using bio adhesive dosage forms offers such a novel route of drugs administration. This route has been used successfully for the systematic delivery of number of drugs candidates. Problems such as high first pass metabolisms and drugs degradation in the gastrointestinal tract can be circumvented by administrating the drug buccal routes.

  15. Delivery systems for gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of DNA was unraveled by Watson and Crick in 1953, and two decades later Arber, Nathans and Smith discovered DNA restriction enzymes, which led to the rapid growth in the field of recombinant DNA technology. From expressing cloned genes in bacteria to expressing foreign DNA in transgenic animals, DNA is now slated to be used as a therapeutic agent to replace defective genes in patients suffering from genetic disorders or to kill tumor cells in cancer patients. Gene therapy provides modern medicine with new perspectives that were unthinkable two decades ago. Progress in molecular biology and especially, molecular medicine is now changing the basics of clinical medicine. A variety of viral and non-viral possibilities are available for basic and clinical research. This review summarizes the delivery routes and methods for gene transfer used in gene therapy.

  16. Pulsatile drug delivery systems: An approach for controlled drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Shweta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatile systems are gaining a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right site of action at the right time and in the right amount, thus providing spatial and temporal delivery and increasing patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body. The principle rationale for the use of pulsatile release is for the drugs where a constant drug release, i.e., a zero-order release is not desired. The release of the drug as a pulse after a lag time has to be designed in such a way that a complete and rapid drug release follows the lag time. Various systems like capsular systems, osmotic systems, single- and multiple-unit systems based on the use of soluble or erodible polymer coating and use of rupturable membranes have been dealt with in the article. It summarizes the latest technological developments, formulation parameters, and release profiles of these systems. Products available as once-a-daily formulation based on Pulsatile release like Pulsincap ®, Ritalin ®, and Pulsys ® are also covered in the review. These systems are beneficial for the drugs having chronopharmacological behaviour where night time dosing is required and for the drugs having high first-pass effect and having specific site of absorption in GIT. Drugs used in asthmatic patients and patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis are also discussed along with many other examples.

  17. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  18. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  19. PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: RECENT TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Sayeed*, Md. M. Hamed , Mohd. Rafiq and Nahid Ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pulsatile Drug Delivery Systems are gaining a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right place at the right time and in the right amount, thus providing spatial and temporal delivery and increasing patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body. The principle rationale for the use of pulsatile release of the drugs is where a constant drug release is not desired. A pulse has to be designed in such a way that a complete and rapid drug release is achieved after the lag time. Various systems like capsular systems, osmotic systems, single- and multiple-unit systems based on the use of soluble or erodible polymer coating and use of rupturable membranes have been dealt with in the article. It summarizes the latest technological developments, formulation parameters, and release profiles of these systems. These systems are beneficial for the drugs having chronopharmacological behavior where night time dosing is required, such as anti-arhythmic and anti-asthmatic. Current review article discussed the reasons for development of pulsatile drug delivery system, types of the disease in which pulsatile release is required, classification, advantages, limitation, and future aspects of pulsatile drug delivery system.

  20. Aerial Delivery Systems and Technologies (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Gupta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE was started at Kanpur during latter part of 1950's consisting of two Aerial Delivery Sections primarily for the indigenisation of Parachutes and related equipment for Para-dropping of men and materials. Today, the charter of ADRDE includes design & development of parachutes, Aerostat Systems, Aircraft Arrester Barrier Systems and Heavy-Drop Systems for both military and civilian applications. The technological competence built in Aeronautical, Textile, Mechanical and Electronics engineering has imparted ADRDE, a unique combination of know-how and capabilities to evolve new solutions in these fields, with emphasis on quality assurance. This paper highlights the design and development of technologies developed by ADRDE to stengthen the India's aerial delivery system and its future plans.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.124-136, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.326

  1. Pharmacosomes: A Potential Vesicular Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nagasamy Venkatesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipid based drug delivery systems have been examined in various studies and exhibited their potential in controlled and targeted drug delivery. Pharmacosomes, a novel vesicular drug delivery system, offering a unique advantage over liposomes and niosomes, and serve as potential alternative to these conventional vesicles. They constitute an amphiphilic phospholipid complex with drug bearing an active hydrogen atom covalently that bind to phospholipids. They provide an efficient delivery of drug required at the site of action, which ultimately reduces the drug toxicity with reduced adverse effects and also reduces the cost of therapy by imparting better biopharmaceutical properties to the drug, resulting in increases bioavailability, especially in case of poorly soluble drugs. As the system is formed by binding the drug (pharmakon to carrier (soma, they are termed as pharmacosomes. Depending upon the chemical structure of the drug lipid complex they may exist as ultrafine vesicular, micellar and hexagonal aggregate. Drug having active hydrogen group such as carboxyl, hydroxyl group can be esterified to lipids, resulting in amphiphilic compound. Pharmacosomes are widely used as carriers for various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins, cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs. The release of drug from pharmacosomes is generally governed by the process of enzymatic reaction and acid hydrolysis. Here, in the present review paper we have discussed the potential of pharmacosomes as a controlled and targeted drug delivery system and highlighted the method of preparation and characterization.

  2. FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM - CHRONOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kalal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of writing this review on the floating drug delivery systems (FDDS was to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. FDDS is one of the approaches in chronotherapeutic drug delivery. In the past reviews of FDDS the physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single-unit and multiple-unit floating systems, their classification and formulation aspects have been covered. This review summarizes the special focus on chronotherapeutics, diseases affected by biological rhythm, its importance, advantages, various approaches in Chronotherapeutic drug delivery and applications of FDDS. These systems are useful for several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  3. Symmetry reduction for stochastic hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. We first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA). Then, we genera

  4. Symmetry Reduction For Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. To that end, we first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA). Th

  5. Hybrid logics with infinitary proof systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2006-01-01

    We provide a strongly complete infinitary proof system for hybrid logic. This proof system can be extended with countably many sequents. Thus, although these logics may be non-compact, strong completeness proofs are provided for infinitary hybrid versions of non-compact logics like ancestral logic a

  6. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique ap...

  7. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  8. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Baljit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signalling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials. Quantom dots, chitosan, Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA and PLGA-based nanoparticles have also been used for in vitro RNAi delivery. Brain cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to detect and treat mainly because of the difficulty in getting imaging and therapeutic agents past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Anti-cancer drugs such as loperamide and doxorubicin bound to nanomaterials have been shown to cross the intact blood-brain barrier and released at therapeutic concentrations in the brain. The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor and cell adhesion molecules like integrins, cadherins and selectins, is a new approach to control disease progression.

  9. Bionanocomposites containing magnetic graphite as potential systems for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lígia N M; Alcântara, Ana C S; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Herrmann, Paulo S P; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M; García-Hernández, Mar; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2014-12-30

    New magnetic bio-hybrid matrices for potential application in drug delivery are developed from the assembly of the biopolymer alginate and magnetic graphite nanoparticles. Ibuprofen (IBU) intercalated in a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was chosen as a model drug delivery system (DDS) to be incorporated as third component of the magnetic bionanocomposite DDS. For comparative purposes DDS based on the incorporation of pure IBU in the magnetic bio-hybrid matrices were also studied. All the resulting magnetic bionanocomposites were processed as beads and films and characterized by different techniques with the aim to elucidate the role of the magnetic graphite on the systems, as well as that of the inorganic brucite-like layers in the drug-loaded LDH. In this way, the influence of both inorganic components on the mechanical properties, the water uptake ability, and the kinetics of the drug release from these magnetic systems were determined. In addition, the possibility of modulating the levels of IBU release by stimulating the bionanocomposites with an external magnetic field was also evaluated in in vitro assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanoengineered drug delivery systems for enhancing antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhapure, Rahul S; Suleman, Nadia; Mocktar, Chunderika; Seedat, Nasreen; Govender, Thirumala

    2015-03-01

    Formulation scientists are recognizing nanoengineered drug delivery systems as an effective strategy to overcome limitations associated with antibiotic drug therapy. Antibiotics encapsulated into nanodelivery systems will contribute to improved management of patients with various infectious diseases and to overcoming the serious global burden of antibiotic resistance. An extensive review of several antibiotic-loaded nanocarriers that have been formulated to target drugs to infectious sites, achieve controlled drug release profiles, and address formulation challenges, such as low-drug entrapment efficiencies, poor solubility and stability is presented in this paper. The physicochemical properties and the in vitro/in vivo performances of various antibiotic-loaded delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, nanohybirds, nanofibers/scaffolds, nanosheets, nanoplexes, and nanotubes/horn/rods and nanoemulsions, are highlighted and evaluated. Future studies that will be essential to optimize formulation and commercialization of these antibiotic-loaded nanosystems are also identified. The review presented emphasizes the significant formulation progress achieved and potential that novel nanoengineered antibiotic drug delivery systems have for enhancing the treatment of patients with a range of infections.

  11. RECENT ADVANCES IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivannan Rangasamy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivered can have significant effect on its efficacy. Some drugs have an optimum concentration range with in which maximum benefit is derived and concentrations above (or below the range can be toxic or produce no therapeutic effect. Various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. The main goal for developing such delivery systems is to minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase bioavailability. Targeting is the ability to direct the drug loaded system to the site of interest. Among drug carrier one can name soluble polymers, microparticles made of insoluble (or biodegradable natural and synthetic polymers, microcapsules, cells, cell ghosts, lipoproteins, liposomes and micelles. Two major mechanisms can be distinguished for addressing the desired sites for drug release, (a Passive and (b Active targeting. Controlled drug carrier systems such as micellar solutions, vescicles and liquid crystal dispersions, as well as nanoparticle dispersions consisting of small particles of 10 – 400 nm show great promise as drug delivery systems. Hydrogels are three dimensional, hydrophilic, polymer networks capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids. Buckyballs, a novel delivery system with 60 carbon atoms formed in the shape of hollow ball. They are other type’s namely bucky babies, fuzzy balls, gadofullereness, and giant fullerenes. Nanoparticles can be classified as nano tubes, nano wires, nano cantilever, nanoshells, quantum dots, nano pores. Researchers at north western university using gold particles to develop ultra sensitive detection systems for DNA and protein markers associated with many forms of cancer, including breast and prostrate cancer. Drug loaded erythrocytes is one of the growing and potential systems for delivery of drugs and enzymes.

  12. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  13. Synergistic effects in gene delivery-a structure-activity approach to the optimisation of hybrid dendritic-lipidic transfection agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon P; Gabrielson, Nathan P; Pack, Daniel W; Smith, David K

    2008-10-21

    Novel gene delivery agents based on combining cholesterol units with spermine-functionalised dendrons exhibit enhanced transfection ability-we report significant synergistic effects in mixed (hybrid) systems which combine aspects of both main classes of synthetic vectors, i.e., cationic polymers and lipids.

  14. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  15. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  16. Status of the CLIC Beam Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Resta López, J; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Schuler, P; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Brunetti, L; Geffroy, N; Jeremie, A; Seryi, A; Angal-Kalinin, D; Jackson, F

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Beam Delivery System (BDS) is experiencing the careful revision from a large number of world wide experts. This was particularly enhanced by the successful CLIC’08 workshop held at CERN. Numerous new ideas, improvements and critical points are arising, establishing the path towards the Conceptual Design Report by 2010.

  17. Auditing Information System : Delivery Product Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwoko Purwoko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research is to ensure the securities of information system asset and to ensure if informa-tion system support the operational and data collected was valid. Research method that used in this research were library studies and field studies. Field studies such an observation, questioner, and inter-view. the expected result are founding the weakness of security management control, operational man-agement control, input control, and output control of risk happened in the company. Conclusion of this research are the system on the company work good and there’s no potential risk happened and make an impact to the delivery process of information system.Index Terms - Auditing Information system, Delivery product process.

  18. Liposomes as a gene delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ropert

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is an active field that has progressed rapidly into clinical trials in a relatively short time. The key to success for any gene therapy strategy is to design a vector able to serve as a safe and efficient gene delivery vehicle. This has encouraged the development of nonviral DNA-mediated gene transfer techniques such as liposomes. Many liposome-based DNA delivery systems have been described, including molecular components for targeting given cell surface receptors or for escaping from the lysosomal compartment. Another recent technology using cationic lipids has been evaluated and has generated substantial interest in this approach to gene transfer.

  19. Ultra-small lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for tumor-penetrating drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaini, Diana; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Pang, Zhiqing; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Kroll, Ashley V.; Yu, Chun Lai; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2016-07-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, consisting of a polymeric core coated by a layer of lipids, are a class of highly scalable, biodegradable nanocarriers that have shown great promise in drug delivery applications. Here, we demonstrate the facile synthesis of ultra-small, sub-25 nm lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles using an adapted nanoprecipitation approach and explore their utility for targeted delivery of a model chemotherapeutic. The fabrication process is first optimized to produce a monodisperse population of particles that are stable under physiological conditions. It is shown that these ultra-small hybrid nanoparticles can be functionalized with a targeting ligand on the surface and loaded with drug inside the polymeric matrix. Further, the in vivo fate of the nanoparticles after intravenous injection is characterized by examining the blood circulation and biodistribution. In a final proof-of-concept study, targeted ultra-small hybrid nanoparticles loaded with the cancer drug docetaxel are used to treat a mouse tumor model and demonstrate improved efficacy compared to a clinically available formulation of the drug. The ability to synthesize a significantly smaller version of the established lipid-polymer hybrid platform can ultimately enhance its applicability across a wider range of applications.

  20. Hybrid robot climbing system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purna Irawan, Agustinus; Halim, Agus; Kurniawan, Hengky

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to develop a climbing hybrid robot, especially to design the structure of robot that quite strong and how to build an optimal mechanism for transmitting the motor’s rotation and torque to generate movement up the pole. In this research we use analytical methods using analysis software, simulation, a prototype, and robot trial. The result showed that robot could climb a pole by with maximum velocity 0.33m/s with a 20 kg load. Based on a weight diversity trial between 10 kg and 20 kg we obtained climb up load factor with value 0.970 ± 0.0223 and climb down load factor with value 0.910 ± 0.0163. Displacement of the frame structure was 7.58 mm. To minimize this displacement, the gate system was used so as to optimize the gripper while gripping the pole. The von Misses stress in the roller was 48.49 MPa, with 0.12 mm of displacement. This result could be a reference for robot development in further research.

  1. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  2. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems-without resorting to point...... of classical hybrid systems we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  3. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous dynamics deserves increased attention, especially in the context of wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variants of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems. Moreover, being based...... of classical hybrid systems, we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  4. NOVEL PARADIGMS IN MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is a field of current interest in the design of drug delivery systems. Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system may be designed to enable prolonged residence time of the dosage form at the site of application or absorption and facilitate an intimate contact of the dosage form with the underline absorption surface. Extending the residence time of a dosage form at a particular site and controlling the release of drug from the dosage form are useful especially for achieving controlled plasma level of the drug as well as improving bioavailability. Application of these dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The present review describes mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive polymers and use of these polymers in designing different types of mucoadhesive gastrointestinal, nasal, ocular, vaginal and rectal drug delivery systems. The research on mucoadhesives, however, is still in its early stage, and further advances need to be made for the successful translation of the concept into practical application in controlled drug delivery.

  5. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines

    OpenAIRE

    V Kusum Devi; Nimisha Jain; Valli, Kusum S.

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in...

  6. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique...... applied for implementing this semantics in the UPPAAL-SMC simulation engine. We report on two applications of the resulting tool-set coming from systems biology and energy aware buildings....

  7. Liposomal drug delivery systems--clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Parveen; Goyal, Kumud; Vijaya Kumar, Sengodan Gurusamy; Singh, Ajit; Katare, Om Prakash; Mishra, Dina Nath

    2005-03-01

    Liposomes have been widely investigated since 1970 as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents to specific sites in the body. As a result, numerous improvements have been made, thus making this technology potentially useful for the treatment of certain diseases in the clinics. The success of liposomes as drug carriers has been reflected in a number of liposome-based formulations, which are commercially available or are currently undergoing clinical trials. The current pharmaceutical preparations of liposome-based therapeutic systems mainly result from our understanding of lipid-drug interactions and liposome disposition mechanisms. The insight gained from clinical use of liposome drug delivery systems can now be integrated to design liposomes that can be targeted on tissues, cells or intracellular compartments with or without expression of target recognition molecules on liposome membranes. This review is mainly focused on the diseases that have attracted most attention with respect to liposomal drug delivery and have therefore yielded most progress, namely cancer, antibacterial and antifungal disorders. In addition, increased gene transfer efficiencies could be obtained by appropriate selection of the gene transfer vector and mode of delivery.

  8. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  9. An oral delivery system for indomethicin engineered from cationic lipid emulsions and silica nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovic, Spomenka; Hui, He; Song, Yunmei;

    2010-01-01

    We report on a porous silica-lipid hybrid microcapsule (SLH) oral delivery system for indomethacin fabricated from Pickering emulsion templates, where the drug forms an electrostatic complex with cationic lipid present in the oil phase. Dry SLH microcapsules prepared either by spray drying...

  10. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  11. Buffer Management and Hybrid Probability Choice Routing for Packet Delivery in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the features of long connection delays, frequent network partitions, and topology unsteadiness, the design of opportunistic networks faces the challenge of how to effectively deliver data based only on occasional encountering of nodes, where the conventional routing schemes do not work properly. This paper proposes a hybrid probability choice routing protocol with buffer management for opportunistic networks. A delivery probability function is set up based on continuous encounter duration time, which is used for selecting a better node to relay packets. By combining the buffer management utility and the delivery probability, a total utility is used to decide whether the packet should be kept in the buffer or be directly transmitted to the encountering node. Simulation results show that the proposed routing outperforms the existing one in terms of the delivery rate and the average delay.

  12. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  13. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  14. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2012-04-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

  15. Chitosan magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assa, Farnaz; Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hoda; Ajamein, Hossein; Vaghari, Hamideh; Anarjan, Navideh; Ahmadi, Omid; Berenjian, Aydin

    2016-06-01

    The potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in drug delivery systems (DDSs) is mainly related to its magnetic core and surface coating. These coatings can eliminate or minimize their aggregation under physiological conditions. Also, they can provide functional groups for bioconjugation to anticancer drugs and/or targeted ligands. Chitosan, as a derivative of chitin, is an attractive natural biopolymer from renewable resources with the presence of reactive amino and hydroxyl functional groups in its structure. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs), due to their huge surface to volume ratio as compared to the chitosan in its bulk form, have outstanding physico-chemical, antimicrobial and biological properties. These unique properties make chitosan NPs a promising biopolymer for the application of DDSs. In this review, the current state and challenges for the application magnetic chitosan NPs in drug delivery systems were investigated. The present review also revisits the limitations and commercial impediments to provide insight for future works.

  16. Recent Advances in Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Fujii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of drugs applied by traditional dosage forms is restricted to the eye, and therapeutic drug concentrations in the target tissues are not maintained for a long duration since the eyes are protected by a unique anatomy and physiology. For the treatment of the anterior segment of the eye, various droppable products to prolong the retention time on the ocular surface have been introduced in the market. On the other hand, direct intravitreal implants, using biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymer technology, have been widely investigated for the treatment of chronic vitreoretinal diseases. There is urgent need to develop ocular drug delivery systems which provide controlled release for the treatment of chronic diseases, and increase patient’s and doctor’s convenience to reduce the dosing frequency and invasive treatment. In this article, progress of ocular drug delivery systems under clinical trials and in late experimental stage is reviewed.

  17. ORGANOGELS: ADVANCED AND NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Tarun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organogel, is a non crystalline, non-glassy thermoreversible (thermoplastic solid material and viscoelastic system, can be regarded as a semi-solid preparation which has an immobilized external apolar phase. The apolar phase gets immobilized within spaces of the three-dimensional networked structure formed due to the physical interactions amongst the self assembled structures of compounds regarded as gelators. Often, these systems are based on self-assembly of the structurant molecules. In general, organogels are thermodynamically stable in nature and have been explored as matrices for the delivery of bioactive agents. Organogels have potential for use in a number of applications, such as in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, art conservation, and food. An example of formation of an undesired thermoreversible network is the occurrence of wax crystallization in petroleum. In the current manuscript, attempts have been made to understand the properties of organogels, various types of organogelators and some applications of the organogels in controlled delivery.

  18. Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems in clinical disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, JRBJ

    1996-01-01

    Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems are important for clinical disease management. In this review the most important new systems which have reached clinical application are highlighted. Microbiologically controlled drug delivery is important for gastrointestinal diseases like ulcerative co

  19. Drug delivery system and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colone, Marisa; Kaliappan, Subramanian; Calcabrini, Annarica; Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Stringaro, Annarita

    2016-06-01

    Recently, nanomedicine has received increasing attention for its ability to improve the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Nanosized polymer therapeutic agents offer the advantage of prolonged circulation in the blood stream, targeting to specific sites, improved efficacy and reduced side effects. In this way, local, controlled delivery of the drug will be achieved with the advantage of a high concentration of drug release at the target site while keeping the systemic concentration of the drug low, thus reducing side effects due to bioaccumulation. Various drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microparticles and implants have been demonstrated to significantly enhance the preventive/therapeutic efficacy of many drugs by increasing their bioavailability and targetability. As these carriers significantly increase the therapeutic effect of drugs, their administration would become less cost effective in the near future. The purpose of our research work is to develop a delivery system for breast cancer cells using a microvector of drugs. These results highlight the potential uses of these responsive platforms suited for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. At the request of all authors of the paper an updated version was published on 12 July 2016. The manuscript was prepared and submitted without Dr. Francesca Cavalieri's contribution and her name was added without her consent. Her name has been removed in the updated and re-published article.

  20. TRANSCUTANEOUS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Premjeet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drug delivery systems are often not suitable for new protein based and other Therapeutic compounds produced by modern technology. Therefore an alternative Approach to deliver these drugs can be achieved through the skin in the form of transcutaneous drug delivery system. Modern medicine has responded with the development of methods to deliver drug transcutanously (through the skin for therapeutic use as an alternative to traditional route including oral, intravascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous, and sublingual. Transcutaneous drug delivery has many theoretic and practical advantage and disadvantages, and such issues are often a concern for both clinicians and patients. Transcutaneous patches are flexible pharmaceutical preparations of varying sizes, containing one or more active ingredient, intended to be applied to the unbroken skin in order to deliver the active ingredient to the systemic circulation after passing through the skin barriers. A Transcutaneous patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. Often, this promotes healing to an injured area of the body. In this method, the drug enters the bloodstream directly through skin and it avoid first pass effect. Characterization of Transcutaneous patch are necessary because check it’s quality, size, time of onset & duration, adhesive property, thickness, weight of patch, moisture of content, uniformity & cutaneous toxicological studies. Their requirements for evaluation are HPLC, U.V. spectrophotometer, screw gauge, digital balance, desiccators, thin layer chromatography & K.C. Cell used.

  1. Uncertainty Quantification in Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Tuhin

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above method...

  2. Uncertainty quantification in hybrid dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Tuhin; Pasini, José Miguel

    2013-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above methods are demonstrated on example problems.

  3. Future prospects for gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuşcu, Lale; Sezer, Ali Demir

    2017-10-01

    Gene therapy is the challenging area of biotechnology. Despite its promise for critical diseases, it has serious safety and efficiency issues, particularly with regards to gene transfer systems. Areas covered: We examined the current situation with gene transfer systems and addressed problems this technology. We then searched patent applications about in the area from the Patentscope online system, the international patent database. We analyzed the data obtained to get a general idea about gene delivery systems designed for future use and assessed approaches for more efficient, safer and valid delivery systems. Expert opinion: When quality assurance terms are fulfilled, some of these issues (genetic changes, mutations) could be minimized during the production process. Modification of vectors for improving their efficiency and safety or development of alternative transfer systems could be the solutions for these problems. Gene transfer technologies are important for gene therapy and should demonstrate effective, target-specific and acceptable safety profiles. For this reason, searching for alternatives to current systems is a necessity.

  4. Transdermal drug delivery system: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS is one of the systems lying under the category of controlled drug delivery, in which the aim is to deliver the drug through the skin in a predetermined and controlled rate. It has various advantages, like prolonged therapeutic effect, reduced side-effects, improved bioavailability, better patient compliance and easy termination of drug therapy. The stratum corneum is considered as the rate limiting barrier in transdermal permeation of most molecules. There are three main routes of drug penetration, which include the appendageal, transcellular and intercellular routes. Skin age, condition, physicochemical factors and environmental factors are some factors that are to be considered while delivering drug through this route. Basic components of TDDS include polymer matrix, membrane, drug, penetration enhancers, pressure-sensitive adhesives, backing laminates, release liner, etc. Transdermal patches can be divided into various systems like reservoir system, matrix system and micro-reservoir system, which are used to incorporate the active ingredients into the circulatory system via the skin. After preparation of transdermal patches, consistent methodology are adopted to test the adhesion properties, physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release studies, in vitro skin permeation studies, skin irritation studies and stability studies. According to the duration of therapy, various drugs are commercially available in the form of transdermal patches.

  5. 42 CFR 457.490 - Delivery and utilization control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery and utilization control systems. 457.490... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.490 Delivery and utilization control systems. A... control systems. A State must— (a) Describe the methods of delivery of child health assistance...

  6. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  7. Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative.

  8. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Kumar Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole.

  9. Hypoxia Responsive Drug Delivery Systems in Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoradi, Houman; Matikonda, Siddharth S; Gamble, Allan B; Giles, Gregory I; Greish, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common characteristic of solid tumors. It is mainly determined by low levels of oxygen resulting from imperfect vascular networks supplying most tumors. In an attempt to improve the present chemotherapeutic treatment and reduce associated side effects, several prodrug strategies have been introduced to achieve hypoxia-specific delivery of cytotoxic anticancer agents. With the advances in nanotechnology, novel delivery systems activated by the consequent outcomes of hypoxia have been developed. However, developing hypoxia responsive drug delivery systems (which only depend on low oxygen levels) is currently naïve. This review discusses four main hypoxia responsive delivery systems: polymeric based drug delivery systems, oxygen delivery systems combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, anaerobic bacteria which are used for delivery of genes to express anticancer proteins such as tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) and hypoxia-inducible transcription factors 1 alpha (HIF1α) responsive gene delivery systems.

  10. Advanced drug delivery systems: Nanotechnology of health design A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Safari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has finally and firmly entered the realm of drug delivery. Performances of intelligent drug delivery systems are continuously improved with the purpose to maximize therapeutic activity and to minimize undesirable side-effects. This review describes the advanced drug delivery systems based on micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, and dendrimers. Polymeric carbon nanotubes and many others demonstrate a broad variety of useful properties. This review emphasizes the main requirements for developing new nanotech-nology-based drug delivery systems.

  11. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  12. GLIMPS sensor and taggant delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Scott C.; Coakley, Peter G.; Niederhaus, Gregory A.; Lum, Chris

    2001-02-01

    A system has been developed for delivering and attaching a sensor payload to a target using a standard 40-mm grenade launcher. The GLIMPS projectile is intended to be a general purpose delivery system for a variety of sensor payloads including visual, acoustic, and chemical sensors. The GLIMPS projectile flight characteristics are similar to existing 40-mm rounds, with a useful range of up to 300 m. The projectile incorporates an attachment mechanism, a shock mitigation system, a power source, and a telemetry system for transmission of sensor data at up to 1/4 mile range. A second design is also being considered. It is a small taggant projectile that uses an adhesive to attach a tracking transmitter or other small payload to a vehicle at up to 50 m range. While initially developed as a military system, both projectiles can be used to enhance law enforcement operations.

  13. A Review: Transdermal Drug Delivery System: A Tool For Novel Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKHIL SHARMA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The human skin is a readily accessible surface for drug delivery. Skin of an average adult body covers a surface of approximately 2 m2 and receives about one-third of the blood circulating through the body. Over the past decades, developing controlled drug delivery has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. The human skin surface is known to contain, on an average, 10- 70 hair follicles and 200-250 sweat ducts on every square centimeters of the skin area. It is one of the most readily accessible organs of the human body. There is considerable interest in the skin as a site of drug application both for local and systemic effect. However, the skin, in particular the stratum corneum, poses a formidable barrier to drug penetration thereby limiting topical and transdermal bioavailability. Skin penetration enhancement techniques have been developed to improve bioavailability and increase the range of drugs for which topical and transdermal delivery is a viable option. During the past decade, the number of drugs formulated in the patches has hardly increased, and there has been little change in the composition of the patch systems. Modifications have been mostly limited to refinements of the materials used. The present review article explores the overall study on transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS which leads to novel drug delivery system (NDDS.

  14. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due...... to discretization manageable and within bounds. A major advantage of our approach is not only that it avoids errors due to numerical computation, but it also gives a better optimal controller. In order to illustrate our approach, we use the real industrial example of an oil pump provided by the German company HYDAC...

  15. Liquid fuel utilization in SOFC hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Marco; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana [TPG-DIMSET, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The interest in solid oxide fuel cell systems comes from their capability of converting the chemical energy of traditional fuels into electricity, with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. In this paper, a study of the design space of solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine hybrids fed by methanol and kerosene is presented for stationary power generation in isolated areas (or transportation). A 500 kW class hybrid system was analysed using WTEMP original software developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa. The choice of fuel-processing strategy and the influence of the main design parameters on the thermoeconomic characteristics of hybrid systems were investigated. The low capital and fuel cost of methanol systems make them the most attractive solutions among those investigated here. (author)

  16. A Generic Hybrid Encryption System (HES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ali Shoukat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a Generic Hybrid Encryption System (HES under mutual committee of symmetric and asymmetric cryptosystems. Asymmetric (public key Cryptosystems associates several performance issues like computational incompetence, memory wastages, energy consumptions and employment limitations on bulky data sets but they are quite secure and reliable in key exchange over insecure remote communication channels. Symmetric (private key cryptosystems are 100 times out performed, having no such issues but they cannot fulfill non-repudiation, false modifications in secret key, fake modifications in cipher text and origin authentication of both parties while exchanging information. These contradictory issues can be omitted by utilizing hybrid encryption mechanisms (symmetric+asymmetric to get optimal benefits of both schemes. Several hybrid mechanisms are available with different logics but our logic differs in infrastructural design, simplicity, computational efficiency and security as compared to prior hybrid encryption schemes. Some prior schemes are either diversified in performance aspects, customer satisfaction, memory utilization or energy consumptions and some are vulnerable against forgery and password guessing (session key recovery attacks. We have done some functional and design related changes in existing Public Key Infrastructure (PKI to achieve simplicity, optimal privacy and more customer satisfaction by providing Hybrid Encryption System (HES that is able to fulfill all set of standardized security constraints. No such PKI based generic hybrid encryption scheme persists as we have provided in order to manage all these kinds of discussed issues.

  17. Combined photovoltaic and thermal hybrid collector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.; Russell, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Solar energy collectors that produce both electric and thermal energy are an attractive alternative to individual thermal and photovoltaic collectors for certain applications and climates. Economic results from a system analysis indicate that hybrid collector systems are attractive in small buildings that have substantial heating loads. Passively cooled photovoltaic panels are best suited for structures located in regions where year-round air conditioning and small, low-grade, thermal energy demands predominate. Hybrid collectors are to be tested according to ASHRAE standards and a full-system experiment incorporating a photovoltaic array installed at the Solar Energy Research Facility of the University of Texas will be conducted by Lincoln Laboratory.

  18. Control system for a hybrid powertrain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Ali K.; Demirovic, Besim; Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A.

    2014-09-09

    A vehicle includes a powertrain with an engine, first and second torque machines, and a hybrid transmission. A method for operating the vehicle includes operating the engine in an unfueled state, releasing an off-going clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a first continuously variable mode, and applying a friction braking torque to a wheel of the vehicle to compensate for an increase in an output torque of the hybrid transmission resulting from releasing the off-going clutch. Subsequent to releasing the off-going clutch, an oncoming clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a second continuously variable mode is synchronized. Subsequent to synchronization of the oncoming clutch, the oncoming clutch is engaged.

  19. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  20. Liposomes as delivery systems for antineoplastic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Luis Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Liposome drug formulations are defined as pharmaceutical products containing active drug substances encapsulated within the lipid bilayer or in the interior aqueous space of the liposomes. The main importance of this drug delivery system is based on its drastic reduction in systemic dose and concomitant systemic toxicity that in comparison with the free drug, results in an improvement of patient compliance and in a more effective treatment. There are several therapeutic drugs that are potential candidates to be encapsulated into liposomes; particular interest has been focused in therapeutic and antineoplastic drugs, which are characterized for its low therapeutic index and high systemic toxicity. The use of liposomes as drug carriers has been extensively justified and the importance of the development of different formulations or techniques to encapsulate therapeutic drugs has an enormous value in benefit of patients affected by neoplastic diseases.

  1. Hybrid singular systems of differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷刚; 张纪峰

    2002-01-01

    This work develops hybrid models for large-scale singular differential system and analyzestheir asymptotic properties. To take into consideration the discrete shifts in regime across whichthe behavior of the corresponding dynamic systems is markedly different, our goals are to develophybrid systems in which continuous dynamics are intertwined with discrete events under random-jumpdisturbances and to reduce complexity of large-scale singular systems via singularly perturbed Markovchains. To reduce the complexity of large-scale hybrid singular systems, two-time scale is used in theformulation. Under general assumptions, limit behavior of the underlying system is examined. Usingweak convergence methods, it is shown that the systems can be approximated by limit systems inwhich the coefficients are averaged out with respect to the quasi-stationary distributions. Since thelimit systems have fewer states, the complexity is much reduced.

  2. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu M Boddupalli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems interact with the mucus layer covering the mucosal epithelial surface, and mucin molecules and increase the residence time of the dosage form at the site of absorption. The drugs which have local action or those which have maximum absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT require increased duration of stay in GIT. Thus, mucoadhesive dosage forms are advantageous in increasing the drug plasma concentrations and also therapeutic activity. In this regard, this review covers the areas of mechanisms and theories of mucoadhesion, factors influencing the mucoadhesive devices and also various mucoadhesive dosage forms.

  4. [Drug delivery systems for intraocular applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, J-L; Touchard, E; Kowalczuk, L; Berdugo, M; Thomas-Doyle, A; Bochot, A; Gomez, A; Azan, F; Gurny, R; Behar-Cohen, F

    2007-12-01

    Numerous drug delivery systems (DDSs) can be used as intraocular tools to provide a sustained and calibrated release for a specific drug. Great progress has been made on the design, biocompatibility, bioavailability, and efficacy of DDSs. Although several of them are undergoing clinical trials, a few are already on the market and could be of a routine use in clinical practice. Moreover, miniaturization of the implants makes them less and less traumatic for the eye tissues and some DDSs are now able to target certain cells or tissues specifically. An overview of ocular implants with therapeutic application potentials is provided.

  5. Evolved Finite State Controller For Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate nite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been successfully obtained using the proposed evolutionary approach. Experimental results show...

  6. Multifunctional non-viral delivery systems based on conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gaomai; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Bing; Liu, Libing; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Multifunctional nanomaterials with simultaneous therapeutic and imaging functions explore new strategies for the treatment of various diseases. Conjugated polymers (CPs) are considered as novel candidates to serve as multifunctional delivery systems due to their high fluorescence quantum yield, good photostability, and low cytotoxicity. Highly sensitive sensing and imaging properties of CPs are well reviewed, while the applications of CPs as delivery systems are rarely covered. This feature article mainly focuses on CP-based multifunctional non-viral delivery systems for drug, protein, gene, and cell delivery. Promising directions for the further development of CP-based delivery systems are also discussed.

  7. Nanoporous metal organic frameworks as hybrid polymer-metal composites for drug delivery and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Sarwar; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Jain, Atul; Saini, Sumant; Midoux, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Akhter, Sohail

    2017-04-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs), porous hybrid polymer-metal composites at the nanoscale, are recent innovations in the field of chemistry; they are novel polymeric materials with diverse biomedical applications. MOFs are nanoporous materials, consisting of metal ions linked together by organic bridging ligands. The unique physical and chemical characteristics of MOFs have attracted wider attention from the scientific community, exploring their utility in the field of material science, biology, nanotechnology and drug delivery. The practical feasibility of MOFs is possible owing to their abilities for biodegradability, excellent porosity, high loading capacity, ease of surface modification, among others. In this regard, this review provides an account of various types of MOFs, their physiochemical characteristics and use in diverse disciplines of biomedical sciences - with special emphasis on drug delivery and theranostics. Moreover, this review also highlights the stability and toxicity issues of MOFs, along with their market potential for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem with Pickup and Delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Geng Zhao; Jiang-Sheng Sun; Su-Jian Li; Wei-Min Liu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,a hybrid genetic algorithm (CA) is proposed for the traveling salesman problem (TSP) with pickup and delivery (TSPPD).In our algorithm,a novel pheromone-based crossover operator is advanced that utilizes both local and global information to construct offspring.In addition,a local search procedure is integrated into the GA to accelerate convergence.The proposed GA has been tested on benchmark instances,and the computational results show that it gives better convergence than existing heuristics.

  9. Mechanistic profiling of the siRNA delivery dynamics of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Cun, Dongmei; Remaut, Katrien

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the delivery dynamics of nucleic acid nanocarriers is fundamental to improve their design for therapeutic applications. We investigated the carrier structure-function relationship of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) consisting of poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA......) nanocarriers modified with the cationic lipid dioleoyltrimethyl-ammoniumpropane (DOTAP). A library of siRNA-loaded LPNs was prepared by systematically varying the nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratio. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) combined with small angle X...

  10. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  11. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  12. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  13. Hybrid Battery Ultracapacitor System For Human Robotic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a hybrid battery-ultra capacitor storage system that powers human-robotic systems in space missions. Space missions...

  14. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    A new multiuser scheduling scheme is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The proposed system combines features of conventional full-feedback selection-based diversity systems and reduced-feedback switch-based diversity systems. The new hybrid system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users\\' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds are used and optimized to maximize the system overall achievable rate. The proposed hybrid system applies switched diversity criterion to choose one of the groups, and a selection criterion to decide the user to be scheduled from the chosen group. Numerical results demonstrate that the system capacity increases as the number of users per group increases, but at the cost of more required feedback messages. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the successful commercialization of several LBDDS products over the years, a large discrepancy exists between the number of poorly water-soluble drugs displaying suboptimal in vivo performances and the application of LBDDS to mitigate their various delivery challenges. Conventional LBDDS, including lipid solutions and suspensions, emulsions, and self-emulsifying formulations, suffer from various drawbacks limiting their widespread use and commercialization. Accordingly, solid-state LBDDS, fabricated by adsorbing LBDDS onto a chemically inert solid carrier material, have attracted substantial interest as a viable means of stabilizing LBDDS whilst eliminating some of the various limitations. This review describes the impact of solid carrier choice on LBDDS performance and highlights the importance of appropriate solid carrier material selection when designing hybrid solid-state LBDDS. Specifically, emphasis is placed on discussing the ability of the specific solid carrier to modulate drug release, control lipase action and lipid digestion, and enhance biopharmaceutical performance above the original liquid-state LBDDS. To encourage the interested reader to consider their solid carrier choice on a higher level, various novel materials with the potential for future use as solid carriers for LBDDS are described. This review is highly significant in guiding future research directions in the solid-state LBDDS field and fostering the translation of these delivery systems to the pharmaceutical marketplace.

  16. Nanoemulsion: A new concept of delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoemulsion has been identified as a promising delivery system for various drugs including biopharmaceuticals. Nanoemulsion is a heterogeneous system composed of one immiscible liquid dispersed as droplets within another liquid. The droplets size of nano emulsion is between 20 to 500 nm. Diameter and surface properties of droplets of nanoemulsion plays an important role in the biological behavior of the formulation. Small droplet sizes lead to transparent emulsions so that product appearance is not altered by the addition of an oil phase. In this paper various aspects of nanoemulsion have been discussed including advantages, disadvantages and methods of preparation. Furthermore new approaches of stability of formulation, effect of types and concentration of surfactant, process variables and method are also discussed to improve the stability of nanoemulsion formulation

  17. An Insight into Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore K. S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Promising management of eye ailments take off effective concentration of drug at the eye for sufficient period of time. Dosage forms are administered directly to eye for localized ophthalmic therapy. Most of the treatments call for the topical administration of ophthalmic active drugs to the tissues around the ocular cavity. Conventional ophthalmic drug delivery systems including eye drops, ophthalmic ointments, are no longer sufficient to encounter eye diseases. This article reviews the constraints with conventional ocular therapy and explores various novel approaches like in-situ gel, ocular films or ocuserts, nanosuspension, collagen shields, latex systems, nanoparticles, liposomes, niosomes, iontophorosis, eye implants, etc to improve the ophthalmic bioavailability of drugs to the anterior chamber of the eye.

  18. A telemedicine health care delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jay H.

    1991-01-01

    The Interactive Telemedicine Systems (ITS) system was specifically developed to address the ever widening gap between our medical care expertise and our medical care delivery system. The frustrating reality is that as our knowledge of how to diagnose and treat medical conditions has continued to advance, the system to deliver that care has remained in an embryonic stage. This has resulted in millions of people being denied their most basic health care needs. Telemedicine utilizes an interactive video system integrated with biomedical telemetry that allows a physician at a base station specialty medical complex or teaching hospital to examine and treat a patient at multiple satellite locations, such as rural hospitals, ambulatory health centers, correctional institutions, facilities caring for the elderly, community hospital emergency departments, or international health facilities. Based on the interactive nature of the system design, the consulting physician at the base station can do a complete history and physical examination, as if the patient at the satellite site was sitting in the physician's office. This system is described.

  19. Wind-solar Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fei

    2014-01-01

    In the development and utilization of new energy sources, the solar energy and wind energy are paid more attention by various countries, and have become a new field of energy development and utilization of the highest level, the most mature technology, the most widely used and commercial development conditions for new energy. But both the traditional wind power system and solar power system have the characteristic of energy instability. Therefore, wind-solar hybrid power system was proposed i...

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  1. A top-down approach for construction of hybrid polymer-virus gene delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Joshua D; Vu, Halong N; Pack, Daniel W

    2010-05-21

    Safe and efficient delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids remains the primary hurdle for human gene therapy. While many researchers have attempted to re-engineer viruses to be suited for gene delivery, others have sought to develop non-viral alternatives. We have developed a complementary approach in which viral and synthetic components are combined to form hybrid nanoparticulate vectors. In particular, we complexed non-infectious retrovirus-like particles lacking a viral envelope protein, from Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-VLP) or human immunodeficiency virus (H-VLP), with poly-L-lysine (PLL) or polyethylenimine (PEI) over a range of polymer/VLP ratios. At appropriate stoichiometry (75-250 microg polymer/10(6) VLP), the polymers replace the function of the viral envelope protein and interact with the target cell membrane, initiate cellular uptake and facilitate escape from endocytic vesicles. The viral particle, once in the cytosol, efficiently completes its normal infection process including integration of viral genes with the host genome as demonstrated by long-term (at least 5 weeks) transgene expression. In addition, hybrid vectors comprising H-VLP were shown to be capable of infecting non-dividing cells.

  2. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  3. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  4. Leadership Dynamics Promoting Systemic Reform for Inclusive Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a multicase study of two systems of schools striving to reform service delivery systems for students with special needs. Considering these systems as institutional actors, the study examines what promotes the understanding and implementation of special education service delivery within a system of schools in a manner that…

  5. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  6. Transdermal Patches: A Complete Review on Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel DS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today about 70% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improvesuch characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery system(TDDS provides a means to sustain drug release as well as reduce the intensity of action and thusreduce the side effects associated with its oral therapy and differs from traditional topical drug delivery.Transdermal Drug Delivery System is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of thedrug occurs by means of skin. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are limitationof hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steadyplasma level of the drug. Various types of transdermal patches are used to incorporate the activeingredients into the circulatory system via skin. This review article covers a brief outline of theprinciples of transdermal permeation, various components of transdermal patch, approaches oftransdermal patch, evaluation of transdermal system, its application with its limitation.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of insulin/zirconium phosphate@TiO2 hybrid composites for enhanced oral insulin delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mostafa; Kamari, Younes; Ghiaci, Mehran; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Mirian, Mina

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a series of composites of insulin (Ins)/zirconium phosphate (ZrP) were synthesized by intercalation method, then, these composites were coated with TiO2 by sol-gel method to prepare Ins/ZrP@TiO2 hybrid composites and the drug release of the composites was investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Ins/ZrP (10, 30, 60 wt%) composites were prepared by intercalation of insulin into the ZrP layers in water. Then Ins/ZrP composites were coated with different amounts of TiO2 (30, 50, 100 wt %) by using titanium tetra n-butoxide, as precursor. Formation of intercalated Ins/ZrP and Ins/ZrP@TiO2 hybrid composites was characterized by FT-IR, FE-SEM, BET and XRD analysis. Zeta potential of the optimized Ins/ZrP@TiO2 hybrid composite was determined -27.2 mV. Cytotoxic effects of the optimized Ins/ZrP@TiO2 hybrid composite against HeLa and Hek293T cell lines were evaluated using MTT assay and the results showed that designed drug delivery system was not toxic in biological environment. Compared to the Ins/ZrP composites, incorporation of TiO2 coating enhanced the drug entrapment considerably, and reduced the drug release. The Ins/ZrP composites without TiO2 coating released the whole drug after 30 min in pH 7.4 (phosphate buffer solution) while the TiO2-coated composites released the entrapped drug after 20 h. In addition to increasing the shelf life of hormone, this nanoencapsulation and nanocoating method can convert the insulin utilization from injection to oral and present a painless and more comfortable treatment for diabetics.

  8. Polymers for Pharmaceutical Packaging and Delivery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel

    -bromoisobutyrate initiating sites. Each modification step of PEEK as well as grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was followed and confirmed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, water contact angle (WCA) measurements, and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis....... X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of the poly(PEGMA) grafts on the PEEK surface by comparing the C/O ratio and the chemical composition after each modification step. The surface topography was evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Polypropylene (PP) is one of the polymeric...... materials of interest for pharmaceutical packaging and delivery systems. Confocal fluorescence microscopy studies and stability studies with insulin aspart (AspB28 insulin) were conducted to evaluate the impact of modified PP compared to unmodified PP. In contrast to PEEK, PP did not contain any functional...

  9. Printing technologies in fabrication of drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Viitala, Tapani; Ihalainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There has been increased activity in the field recently regarding the development and research on various printing techniques in fabrication of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. These technologies may offer benefits and flexibility in manufacturing, potentially paving the way...... recent literature where printing techniques are used in fabrication of drug delivery systems. The future perspectives and possible impacts on formulation strategies, flexible dosing and personalized medication of using printing techniques for fabrication of drug delivery systems are discussed.......\

  10. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  11. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-29

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices.

  12. Analysis of hybrid solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J.

    1980-10-01

    The TRNSYS simulation program was used to evaluate the performance of active charge/passive discharge solar systems with water as the working fluid. TRNSYS simulations are used to evaluate the heating performance and cooling augmentation provided by systems in several climates. The results of the simulations are used to develop a simplified analysis tool similar to the F-chart and Phi-bar procedures used for active systems. This tool, currently in a preliminary stage, should provide the designer with quantitative performance estimates for comparison with other passive, active, and nonsolar heating and cooling designs.

  13. New Tools for Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-02

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 2-17, January 2003. [4] A. Megretski, "Robustness...34Output stabilizability of discrete-event dynamic systems", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 36, no.8, pp. 925-935, August 1991. [6] K...Passino, A. Michel and P. Antsaklis, "Lyapunov stability of a class of discrete event systems", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 39, no.

  14. Optimised Hybrid Integrated Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arun Sandilya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid integrated renewable energy system for an isolated small community, where grid extension is considered uneconomical. This paper proposed cost optimization through dynamic matching between load and proper equipment sizing. The Matlab based computer program developed for determining the most cost effective energy source to supply required load any given time of the day. Integrated system based on green energy utilization and rural electricity development.

  15. Analysis of Synchronization for Coupled Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zheng; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    In the control systems with coupled multi-subsystem, the subsystems might be synchronized (i.e. all the subsystems have the same operation states), which results in negative influence to the whole system. For example, in the supermarket refrigeration systems, the synchronized switch of each...... subsystem will cause low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. This paper takes the supermarket refrigeration systems as an example to analyze the synchronization and its coupling strengths of coupled hybrid systems, which may provide a base for further research...

  16. Protein nanoparticle: A unique system as drug delivery vehicles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    . ... contributions in the field of protein nanoparticles used as drug delivery systems. .... tic guidance. ..... response of cytoskeletal organization and adhesion ..... Helicobacter Pylori Effect of Mucoadhesive Nanoparticles Bearing.

  17. Biomolecule/nanomaterial hybrid systems for nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Vered, Ran; Yehezkeli, Omer; Willner, Itamar

    2012-01-01

    The integration of biomolecules with metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes yields new hybrid nanostructures of unique features that combine the properties of the biomolecules and of the nano-elements. These unique features of the hybrid biomolecule/nanoparticle systems provide the basis for the rapid development of the area of nanobiotechnology. Recent advances in the implementation of hybrid materials consisting of biomolecules and metallic nanoparticles or semiconductor quantum dots will be discussed. The following topics will be exemplified: (i) The electrical wiring of redox enzymes with electrodes by means of metallic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes, and the application of the modified electrodes as amperometric biosensors or for the construction of biofuel cells. (ii) The biocatalytic growth of metallic nanoparticles as a means to construct optical or electrical sensors. (iii) The functionalization of semiconductor quantum dots with biomolecules and the application of the hybrid nanostructures for developing different optical sensors, including intracellular sensor systems. (iv) The use of biomolecule-metallic nanoparticle nanostructures as templates for growing metallic nanowires, and the construction of fuel-driven nano-transporters.

  18. Disease processes as hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of hybrid techniques in complex processes of infectious diseases. Since predictive disease models in biomedicine require a multiscale approach for understanding the molecule-cell-tissue-organ-body interactions, heterogeneous methodologies are often employed for describing the different biological scales. Hybrid models provide effective means for complex disease modelling where the action and dosage of a drug or a therapy could be meaningfully investigated: the infection dynamics can be classically described in a continuous fashion, while the scheduling of multiple treatment discretely. We define an algebraic language for specifying general disease processes and multiple treatments, from which a semantics in terms of hybrid dynamical system can be derived. Then, the application of control-theoretic tools is proposed in order to compute the optimal scheduling of multiple therapies. The potentialities of our approach are shown in the case study of the SIR epidemic model and we discuss its applicability on osteomyelitis, a bacterial infection affecting the bone remodelling system in a specific and multiscale manner. We report that formal languages are helpful in giving a general homogeneous formulation for the different scales involved in a multiscale disease process; and that the combination of hybrid modelling and control theory provides solid grounds for computational medicine.

  19. Dextran-based microspheres as controlled delivery systems for proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt-Wensink, K.D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Dextran-based microspheres as controlled delivery systems for proteins Dextran based microspheres are investigated as controlled delivery system for proteins. Microspheres were prepared by polymerization of dex-HEMA in an aqueous two-phase system of dex-HEMA and PEG. Protein loaded microspheres are

  20. STRATEGIES AND PROSPECTS OF NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannu Praveen Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems has increased enormously and is gaining significant importance. Intranasal therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. The non-invasive delivery of nasal drug delivery systems made to exploit for the development of successful treatment. The advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action and application of nasal drug delivery system in local delivery, systematic delivery, nasal vaccines and CNS delivery are explained lucidly. The relevant aspects of biological, physicochemical and pharmaceutical factors of nasal cavity that must be considered during the process of discovery and development of new drugs for nasal delivery as well as in their incorporation into appropriate nasal pharmaceutical formulations are also discussed. Nasal route is more suitable for those drugs which cannot be administered orally due to gastric degradation or hepatic first pass metabolism of the drug. Intranasal drug delivery is found much promising route for administration of peptides and protein drugs. Much has been investigated and much more are to be investigated for the recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems.

  1. Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.

  2. A hybrid decision support system for iron ore supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samolejová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many European metallurgical companies are forced to import iron ore from remote destinations. For these companies it is necessary to determine the amount of iron ore that will have to be ordered and to create such a delivery schedule so that the continuous operation of blast-furnace plant is not disrupted and there is no exceedingly large stock of this raw material. The objective of this article is to design the decision support system for iron ore supply which would effi ciently reduce uncertainty and risk of that decision-making. The article proposes a hybrid intelligent system which represents a combination of diff erent artifi cial intelligence methods with dynamic simulation technique for that purpose.

  3. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: jorgegabriel@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  4. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... are performed for a power system including the dispersed generation units connected into the system through power electronic converters and diode rectifier loads, which produce the distorted waveforms. The simulation results have demonstrated that good compensation effects can be achieved by using the combined...

  5. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.

  6. MICROENCAPSULATION: AN INDISPENSABLE TECHNOLOGY FOR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakar Jadupati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the various new and well established technologies relevant to the controlled and targeted drug delivery systems have been precisely discussed. A perfectly designed controlled drug delivery system can be of huge advantage towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue and controlling the rate of drug delivery at the target site. Novel drug delivery systems have various advantages over other conventional drug therapy. In which microencapsulation is one approach for achieving the novel drug delivery dosage forms such as sustained release and controlled release, though the development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and focus the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. Our objective is to take a closer look at microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the release profile and drug targeting. In order to elucidate the application of microcapsules in drug delivery, some fundamental aspects are briefly reviewed.

  7. Advanced drug delivery systems: Nanotechnology of health design A review

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Safari; Zohre Zarnegar

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has finally and firmly entered the realm of drug delivery. Performances of intelligent drug delivery systems are continuously improved with the purpose to maximize therapeutic activity and to minimize undesirable side-effects. This review describes the advanced drug delivery systems based on micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, and dendrimers. Polymeric carbon nanotubes and many others demonstrate a broad variety of useful properties. This review emphasizes the main requirements ...

  8. Recent development in novel drug delivery systems of herbal drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Mayank Chaturvedi; Manish Kumar; Amit Sinhal; Alimuddin Saifi

    2011-01-01

    Novel technologies have been developed recently for drug delivery systems. The use of herbal formulations for novel drug delivery systems is more advantageous and has more benefits compared to others. The use of liposome, ethosome, phytosomes, emulsion, microsphere, solid lipid nanoparticles of herbal formulation has enhanced the therapeutic effects of plant extracts. With the use of all these, targeted delivery of the formulation is achieved, due to which the formulation demonstrates effect ...

  9. REVIEW ON ADVANCES IN COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunena Sethi, SL Harikumar* and Nirmala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The colon is the terminal part of the GIT which has gained in recent years as a potential site for delivery of various novel therapeutic drugs, i.e. peptides. However, colon is rich in microflora which can be used to target the drug release in the colon. Colon is a site where both local and systemic drug delivery can take place. Local delivery allows the topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. If drug can be targeted directly into the colon, treatment can become more effective and side effects can be minimized. These systemic side effects can be minimized by primary approaches for CDDS (Colon specific drug delivery namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems and microbially triggered system which gained limited success and have limitations as compared with recently new CDDS namely pressure controlled colon delivery capsules (PCDCS, CODESTM (Novel colon targeted delivery system osmotic controlled drug delivery system, Pulsincap system, time clock system, chronotropic system. This review is to understand the pharmaceutical approaches to colon targeted drug delivery systems for better therapeutic action without compromising on drug degradation (or its low bioavailability.

  10. Effect of Orally Administered Glutathione-Montmorillonite Hybrid Systems on Tissue Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri Baek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An ubiquitous tripeptide, glutathione (GSH, is assigned a role in detoxification, activation of immune system, intermediary metabolism, transport, and protection of cells against free radicals or reactive oxygen species. However, instability of orally administered GSH in gastrointestinal (GI tract leads to low absorption and low bioavailability in tissues. In this study, we attempted to synthesize GSH-montmorillonite (MMT hybrid systems by intercalating GSH into the interlayers of a cationic clay delivery carrier, MMT, to improve GSH bioavailability at the systemic level. Polymer coating of the hybrid with polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA was further performed to obtain better stability. Synthetic condition of both GSH-MMT and AEA-GSH-MMT hybrids was optimized, and then GSH-delivery efficiency was evaluated in various organs after oral administration in normal as well as GSH-deficient mice. The present GSH-MMT hybrids remarkably enhanced GSH concentration in the plasma, heart, kidney, and liver, especially when AEA-GSH-MMT hybrid was administered under GSH-deficient condition. Moreover, both hybrids did not induce acute oral toxicity up to 2000 mg/kg, suggesting their great potential for pharmaceutical application.

  11. Synthesis and Applications of Multimodal Hybrid Albumin Nanoparticles for Chemotherapeutic Drug Delivery and Photothermal Therapy Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Donna V.

    cellular uptake of AuNR-HSAPs via fluorescence microscopy. Finally, camptothecin (CPT) an antineoplastic agent and BACPT (7-butyl-10-aminocamptothecin) were loaded into HSAPs to combat their aqueous insolubility. BACPT-HSAPs loaded up to 5.25 micrograms BACPT/ mg of HSA. CPT encapsulation could not be determined. BACPT-HSAPs and CPT-HSAPs showed cytotoxicity to human sarcoma cells in vitro. Key words: Hybrid Nanoparticles, Photothermal Therapy, Gold Nanomaterials, Drug Delivery, Combinational Cancer Therapies, Materials, Human Serum Albumin, Colloidal Carriers.

  12. Hybrid ventilation systems and high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzinger, D.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). School of Architecture and Urban Planning

    2009-07-01

    This paper described hybrid ventilation design strategies and their impact on 3 high performance buildings located in southern Wisconsin. The Hybrid ventilation systems combined occupant controlled natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation systems. Natural ventilation was shown to provide adequate ventilation when appropriately designed. Proper control integration of natural ventilation into hybrid systems was shown to reduce energy consumption in high performance buildings. This paper also described the lessons learned from the 3 buildings. The author served as energy consultant on all three projects and had the responsibility of designing and integrating the natural ventilation systems into the HVAC control strategy. A post occupancy evaluation of building energy performance has provided learning material for architecture students. The 3 buildings included the Schlitz Audubon Nature Center completed in 2003; the Urban Ecology Center completed in 2004; and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center completed in 2007. This paper included the size, measured energy utilization intensity and percentage of energy supplied by renewable solar power and bio-fuels on site for each building. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Viewing hybrid systems as products of control systems and automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, R. L.; Larson, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to show how hybrid systems may be modeled as products of nonlinear control systems and finite state automata. By a hybrid system, we mean a network of consisting of continuous, nonlinear control system connected to discrete, finite state automata. Our point of view is that the automata switches between the control systems, and that this switching is a function of the discrete input symbols or letters that it receives. We show how a nonlinear control system may be viewed as a pair consisting of a bialgebra of operators coding the dynamics, and an algebra of observations coding the state space. We also show that a finite automata has a similar representation. A hybrid system is then modeled by taking suitable products of the bialgebras coding the dynamics and the observation algebras coding the state spaces.

  14. Acrylated chitosan for mucoadhesive drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitrit, Yulia; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2017-01-30

    A new mucoadhesive polymer was synthesized by conjugating chitosan to poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA) via the Michael type reaction. The product was characterized using NMR. Higher PEGDA grafting efficacy was observed with low molecular weight PEGDA (0.7kDa), compared to long 10kDa PEGDA. The acrylation percentage was calculated based on the reaction of ninhydrin with chitosan, and supported the qualitative NMR findings. The adhesive properties were studied by tensile test and rotating system involving detachment of polymer tablets from a fresh intestine sample. Chitosan modified with high molecular weight PEGDA presented improvement in mucoadhesive properties compared to both non-modified and thiolated chitosan. On the molecular level, rheology measurements of polymer/mucin mixtures provided additional evidence of strong interaction between modified chitosan and mucin glycoproteins. This new polymer shows promise as a useful polymeric carrier matrix for delivery systems, which could provide prolonged residence time of the vehicle on the mucosa surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid-Modified Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles for Docetaxel Delivery in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kairong; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Qianyu; Gao, Huile; Liu, Yayuan; Zong, Taili; He, Qin

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid nanoparticles consisting of lipids and the biodegradable polymer, poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), were developed for the targeted delivery of the anticancer drug, docetaxel. Transmission electron microscopic observations confirmed the presence of a lipid coating over the polymeric core. Using coumarin-6 as a fluorescent probe, the uptake efficacy of RGD conjugated lipid coated nanoparticles (RGD-L-P) by C6 cells was increased significantly, compared with that of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (L-P; 2.5-fold higher) or PLGA-nanoparticles (PLGA-P; 1.76-fold higher). The superior tumor spheroid penetration of RGD-L-P indicated that RGD-L-P could target effectively and specifically to C6 cells overexpressing integrin α(v)β3. The anti-proliferative activity of docetaxel-loaded RGD-L-P against C6 cells was increased 2.69- and 4.13-fold compared with L-P and PLGA-P, respectively. Regarding biodistribution, the strongest brain-localized fluorescence signals were detected in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-bearing rats treated with 1,10-Dioctadecyl-3,3,30,30-tetramethylindotricarb-ocyanine iodide (DiR)-loaded RGD-L-P, compared to rats treated with DiR-loaded L-P or PLGA-P. The median survival time of GBM-bearing rats treated with docetaxel-loaded RGD-L-P was 57 days, a fold increase of 1.43, 1.78, 3.35, and 3.56 compared with animals given L-P (P < 0.05), PLGA-P (P < 0.05), Taxotere (P < 0.01) and saline (P < 0.01), respectively. Collectively, these results support RGD-L-P as a promising drug delivery system for the specific targeting and the treatment of GBM.

  16. Local sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid via hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers reduces adhesion of blood cells and promotes reendothelialization of the denuded artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Lin, Yu-Huang; Chang, Shang-Hung; Tai, Chun-Der; Liu, Shih-Jung; Chu, Yen; Wang, Chao-Jan; Hsu, Ming-Yi; Chang, Hung; Chang, Gwo-Jyh; Hung, Kuo-Chun; Hsieh, Ming-Jer; Lin, Fen-Chiung; Hsieh, I-Chang; Wen, Ming-Shien; Huang, Yenlin

    2014-01-01

    Incomplete endothelialization, blood cell adhesion to vascular stents, and inflammation of arteries can result in acute stent thromboses. The systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid decreases endothelial dysfunction, potentially reducing thrombus, enhancing vasodilatation, and inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis; but, this is weakened by upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study proposes a hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers, for the local, sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid to injured artery walls. Biodegradable nanofibers are prepared by first dissolving poly(D,L)-lactide-co-glycolide and acetylsalicylic acid in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The solution is then electrospun into nanofibrous tubes, which are then mounted onto commercially available bare-metal stents. In vitro release rates of pharmaceuticals from nanofibers are characterized using an elution method, and a highperformance liquid chromatography assay. The experimental results suggest that biodegradable nanofibers release high concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid for three weeks. The in vivo efficacy of local delivery of acetylsalicylic acid in reducing platelet and monocyte adhesion, and the minimum tissue inflammatory reaction caused by the hybrid stents in treating denuded rabbit arteries, are documented. The proposed hybrid stent, with biodegradable acetylsalicylic acid-loaded nanofibers, substantially contributed to local, sustained delivery of drugs to promote re-endothelialization and reduce thrombogenicity in the injured artery. The stents may have potential applications in the local delivery of cardiovascular drugs. Furthermore, the use of hybrid stents with acetylsalicylic acid-loaded nanofibers that have high drug loadings may provide insight into the treatment of patients with high risk of acute stent thromboses.

  17. Future hybrid systems: solar and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Broussard, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[NREL MURA Intern from Southern Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Future solar and hydrogen hybrid systems are discussed in terms of the evolving hydrogen economy. The focus is on distributed hydrogen, relying on the same distributed-energy strengths of solar-photovoltaic electricity in the built environment. Solar-hydrogen residences, as well as solar parks, are presented. Landarea issues are evaluated, and the economics and potential of these approaches are examined in terms of roadmap predictions on PV and hydrogen pathways. (orig.)

  18. Spectral Selectivity Applied To Hybrid Concentration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, M. A.; Luttmann, F.; Osborn, D. E.; Jacobson, M. R.; MacLeod, H. A.

    1985-12-01

    The efficiency of conversion of concentrated solar energy can be improved by separating the solar spectrum into portions matched to specific photoquantum processes and the balance used for photothermal conversion. The basic approaches of spectrally selective beam splitters are presented. A detailed simulation analysis using TRNSYS is developed for a spectrally selective hybrid photovoltaic/photothermal concentrating system. The analysis shows definite benefits to a spectrally selective approach.

  19. NASAL IN SITU GEL: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrupesh panchal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, advances in the in situ gel technologies have spurred development in manymedical and biomedical applications including controlled drug delivery. Many novel in situ gel baseddelivery matrices have been designed and fabricated to fulfill the ever increasing needs of thepharmaceutical and medical fields. In situ gelling systems are liquid at room temperature but undergogelation when in contact with body fluids or change in pH. In situ gel forming drug delivery is a type ofmucoadhesive drug delivery system. The formation of gel depends on factors like temperaturemodulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultraviolet irradiation from which the drug gets released ina sustained and controlled manner. Nasal delivery is a promising drug delivery option where commondrug administrations such as intravenous, intramuscular or oral are inapplicable. Recently, it has beenshown that many drugs have better bioavailability by nasal route than the oral route. This has beenattributed to rich vasculature and a highly permeable structure of the nasal mucosa coupled withavoidance of hepatic first-pass elimination, gut wall metabolism and/or destruction in thegastrointestinal tract. The physiology of the nose presents obstacles but offers a promising route for noninvasivesystemic delivery of numerous therapies and debatably drug delivery route to the brain. Thusthis review focuses on nasal drug delivery, various aspects of nasal anatomy and physiology, nasal drugabsorption mechanisms, various nasal drug delivery systems and their applications in drug delivery.

  20. Stuttering Intervention in Three Service Delivery Models (Direct, Hybrid, and Telepractice: Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. Valentine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed outcomes in stuttering intervention across three service delivery models: direct, hybrid, and telepractice for two 11-year old children who stutter. The goal of the study was to investigate whether short-term goals were maintained through the telepractice sessions. The Stuttering Severity Instrument, Fourth Edition (SSI-4 was administered to each child before and after each intervention period and weekly fluency samples (percentage of stuttered syllables in a monologue were obtained in each of the 10-week intervention periods. In addition, the Communication Attitudes Test-Revised was used to assess the children’s attitudes toward speaking. Following the telepractice period, parents and children completed a questionnaire concerning the therapy experience via telepractice. Both children continued to improve fluency as measured by the weekly fluency samples. SSI-4 severity ratings improved for one child and remained consistent for the other. These outcomes appear to demonstrate that telepractice is viable for improving and maintaining fluency.

  1. siRNA delivery with lipid-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    in vivo, toxicity and non-specific stimulation of the immune system. To optimally design and tailor the lipidic systems for siRNA delivery, better insight is needed into the mechanisms of cell delivery. More specifically, further clarification is need regarding the nature of cell surface interactions...

  2. Guidelines for Psychological Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…

  3. Micro- and nano-fabricated implantable drug-delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Ellis; Hoang, Tuan

    2012-01-01

    Implantable drug-delivery systems provide new means for achieving therapeutic drug concentrations over entire treatment durations in order to optimize drug action. This article focuses on new drug administration modalities achieved using implantable drug-delivery systems that are enabled by micro- and nano-fabrication technologies, and microfluidics. Recent advances in drug administration technologies are discussed and remaining challenges are highlighted.

  4. Bioavailability of phytochemicals and its enhancement by drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, Farrukh; Munagala, Radha; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Vadhanam, Manicka V

    2013-06-28

    Issues of poor oral bioavailability of cancer chemopreventives have hindered progress in cancer prevention. Novel delivery systems that modulate the pharmacokinetics of existing drugs, such as nanoparticles, cyclodextrins, niosomes, liposomes and implants, could be used to enhance the delivery of chemopreventive agents to target sites. The development of new approaches in prevention and treatment of cancer could encompass new delivery systems for approved and newly investigated compounds. In this review, we discuss some of the delivery approaches that have already made an impact by either delivering a drug to target tissue or increasing its bioavailability by many fold.

  5. Hybrid2: The hybrid system simulation model, Version 1.0, user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    In light of the large scale desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world, the need for a detailed long term performance prediction model for hybrid power systems was seen. To meet these ends, engineers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) have spent the last three years developing the Hybrid2 software. The Hybrid2 code provides a means to conduct long term, detailed simulations of the performance of a large array of hybrid power systems. This work acts as an introduction and users manual to the Hybrid2 software. The manual describes the Hybrid2 code, what is included with the software and instructs the user on the structure of the code. The manual also describes some of the major features of the Hybrid2 code as well as how to create projects and run hybrid system simulations. The Hybrid2 code test program is also discussed. Although every attempt has been made to make the Hybrid2 code easy to understand and use, this manual will allow many organizations to consider the long term advantages of using hybrid power systems instead of conventional petroleum based systems for remote power generation.

  6. Characterization of particulate drug delivery systems for oral delivery of Peptide and protein drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Fano, Mathias; Saaby, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is a preferred route because of good patient compliance. However, most peptide/ protein drugs are delivered via parenteral routes because of the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as enzymatic degradation by proteases and low permeability acrossthe...... biological membranes. To overcome these barriers, different formulation strategies for oral delivery of biomacromolecules have been proposed, including lipid based formulations and polymer-based particulate drug delivery systems (DDS). The aim of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge about oral...... delivery of peptide/protein drugs and to provide an overview of formulationand characterization strategies. For a better understanding of the challenges in oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs, the composition of GI fluids and the digestion processes of different kinds of excipients in the GI tract...

  7. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias J. Cardoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  8. Water delivery in the Early Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Süli, Áron; Sándor, Zsolt; Galiazzo, Mattia; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    As part of the national scientific network 'Pathways to Habitable Worlds' the delivery of water onto terrestrial planets is a key question since water is essential for the development of life as we know it. After summarizing the state of the art we show some first results of the transport of water in the early Solar System for scattered main belt objects. Hereby we investigate the questions whether planetesimals and planetesimal fragments which have gained considerable inclination due to the strong dynamical interactions in the main belt region around 2 AU can be efficient water transporting vessels. The Hungaria asteroid group is the best example that such scenarios are realistic. Assuming that the gas giants and the terrestrial planets are already formed, we monitor the collisions of scattered small bodies containing water (in the order of a few percent) with the terrestrial planets. Thus we are able to give a first estimate concerning the respective contribution of such bodies to the actual water content i...

  9. Biopolymers as transdermal drug delivery systems in dermatology therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraj, K H; Johnsy, George; Navya, M A; Rashmi, R; Siddaramaiah

    2010-01-01

    The skin is considered a complex organ for drug delivery because of its structure. Drug delivery systems are designed for the controlled release of drugs through the skin into the systemic circulation, maintaining consistent efficacy and reducing the dose of the drugs and their related side effects. Transdermal drug delivery represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of novel drug delivery. The excellent impervious nature of the skin is the greatest challenge that must be overcome for successful drug delivery. Today, polymers have been proven to be successful for long-term drug delivery applications as no single polymer can satisfy all of the requirements. Biopolymers in the field of dermal application are rare and the mechanisms that affect skin absorption are almost unknown. Biopolymers are widely used as drug delivery systems, but as such the use of biopolymers as drug delivery systems in dermatologic therapy is still in progress. Commonly used biopolymers include hydrocolloids, alginates, hydrogels, polyurethane, collagen, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), chitosan, proteins and peptides, pectin, siRNAs, and hyaluronic acid. These new and exciting methods for drug delivery are already increasing the number and quality of dermal and transdermal therapies. This article reviews current research on biopolymers and focuses on their potential as drug carriers, particularly in relation to the dermatologic aspects of their use.

  10. Controlled drug delivery systems: past forward and future back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kinam

    2014-09-28

    Controlled drug delivery technology has progressed over the last six decades. This progression began in 1952 with the introduction of the first sustained release formulation. The 1st generation of drug delivery (1950-1980) focused on developing oral and transdermal sustained release systems and establishing controlled drug release mechanisms. The 2nd generation (1980-2010) was dedicated to the development of zero-order release systems, self-regulated drug delivery systems, long-term depot formulations, and nanotechnology-based delivery systems. The latter part of the 2nd generation was largely focused on studying nanoparticle formulations. The Journal of Controlled Release (JCR) has played a pivotal role in the 2nd generation of drug delivery technologies, and it will continue playing a leading role in the next generation. The best path towards a productive 3rd generation of drug delivery technology requires an honest, open dialog without any preconceived ideas of the past. The drug delivery field needs to take a bold approach to designing future drug delivery formulations primarily based on today's necessities, to produce the necessary innovations. The JCR provides a forum for sharing the new ideas that will shape the 3rd generation of drug delivery technology.

  11. Application of Hybrid Encoding Genetic Algorithm on Pickup and Delivery Traveling Salesman Problem with Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patvichaichod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study deals with the pickup and delivery traveling salesman problem with traffic conditions (PDTSPTW, an extension of the pickup and delivery traveling salesman problem (PDTSP where each customer to be served is associated with two quantities of product to be collected and delivered. Almost PDTSP problems uses distance between each point of customers as Euclidean Distance and are not concerned with other parameters to find minimal cost. Approach: The PDTSPTC concerns more parameters, such as street network and vehicle speed, which results it closer to the real world condition. The study also proposes the developed genetic algorithm called “Hybrid Encoding Genetic Algorithm (HEGA”. The concept is to combine binary encoding and integer encoding together, causing the in complexity of the algorithm structure and the ease of implementation. Results: the HEGA can save the travel cost about 26-57%. It is obviously seen that HEGA in the PDTSPTC test problems result the fast convergence that is about 12-43% and in all, the computational time is under 6 seconds. Conclusion: The HEGA performs quite well when testing a test problem. Computation times are small in all case. The PDTSPTC is closer to real-world conditions than PDTSP. This problem can be applied in logistics immediately if the distance of streets, traffic conditions (average vehicle speed in each street and vehicle conditions (fuel consumption rate and vehicle capacity are known.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of formulated tenoxicam transdermal delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taekyung; Kang, Eunyoung; Chun, Inkoo; Gwak, Hyesun

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of developing a new tenoxicam transdermal delivery system (TDS), the pharmacokinetics of tenoxicam from various formulated TDS were evaluated and compared with values following oral administration of tenoxicam and with application of a piroxicam plaster (Trast) marketed in Korea. Based on previous in-vitro study results, a mixture of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME) and propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) (40:60) was used as a vehicle, and caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, oleic acid or linoleic acid (each at 3%) was added as an enhancer. Triethanolamine (5%) was used as a solubilizer, and Duro-Tak 87-2510 as a pressure-sensitive adhesive. Among these fatty acids used for the formulation of tenoxicam TDS, caprylic acid showed the greatest enhancing effect; the area under the plasma concentration-time profile (AUC) decreased in the order of caprylic acid>linoleic acid>or=oleic acid>lauric acid>capric acid. Compared with oral administration, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was significantly lower, and time to reach Cmax (Tmax) delayed with all formulated tenoxicam TDS. All formulated TDS resulted in a lower AUC than with the oral formulation, except for TDS containing caprylic acid, although the difference was statistically significant only with capric acid. The AUC for all the formulated tenoxicam TDS was significantly higher than that of the piroxicam plaster; TDS with caprylic acid increased AUC 8.53-fold compared with the piroxicam plaster. Even though the Tmax of tenoxicam TDS was not significantly different from that of the piroxicam plaster, Cmax was higher; formulations containing caprylic acid and linoleic acid increased Cmax by 7.39- and 8.76-fold, respectively. In conclusion, a formulation containing 1.5 mL DGME-PGML (40:60) with 3% caprylic acid and 5% triethanolamine mixed with 6 g Duro-Tak 87-2510 could be a good candidate for developing a new tenoxicam TDS to maintain a comparable extent of absorption

  13. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  14. A general purpose characterization system for rooftop hybrid microconcentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Robert; Jones, Christopher; Thomsen, Elizabeth; Diez, Vicente Munoz; Harvey, J.; Everett, Vernie; Blakers, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    A versatile characterization system for hybrid thermal and photovoltaic solar receivers is presented and demonstrated. The characterization of the thermal loss and effective area of a novel hybrid receiver is presented.

  15. Cultural Change, the Hybrid Administrative System and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-17

    Jan 17, 2013 ... crackdown on corruption, this article explores the view that it is the hybrid .... decentralization and public participation in governance creates new demands. ..... The Hybrid Administrative System and Corporate Culture.

  16. Hybrid modeling and prediction of dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alun L.; Flores, Kevin B.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific analysis often relies on the ability to make accurate predictions of a system’s dynamics. Mechanistic models, parameterized by a number of unknown parameters, are often used for this purpose. Accurate estimation of the model state and parameters prior to prediction is necessary, but may be complicated by issues such as noisy data and uncertainty in parameters and initial conditions. At the other end of the spectrum exist nonparametric methods, which rely solely on data to build their predictions. While these nonparametric methods do not require a model of the system, their performance is strongly influenced by the amount and noisiness of the data. In this article, we consider a hybrid approach to modeling and prediction which merges recent advancements in nonparametric analysis with standard parametric methods. The general idea is to replace a subset of a mechanistic model’s equations with their corresponding nonparametric representations, resulting in a hybrid modeling and prediction scheme. Overall, we find that this hybrid approach allows for more robust parameter estimation and improved short-term prediction in situations where there is a large uncertainty in model parameters. We demonstrate these advantages in the classical Lorenz-63 chaotic system and in networks of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons before application to experimentally collected structured population data. PMID:28692642

  17. Emulgel Formulation: Novel Approach for Topical Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Habeeba Basheer; Krishnakumar, K.; Dineshkumar B.

    2016-01-01

    Topical drug delivery has been used for centuries for the treatment of local skin disorders. Drugs applied to the skin for their local action include antiseptics, antifungal agents, skin emollients, and protectants. On the other hand, topical delivery system increases the contact time and mean resident time of drug. Many advantages of gels a major limitation is in the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. So to overcome this limitation an emulsion based approach is being used. When gels and emulsion...

  18. Differential dynamic logics - automated theorem proving for hybrid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer, André

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid systems are models for complex physical systems and are defined as dynamical systems with interacting discrete transitions and continuous evolutions along differential equations. With the goal of developing a theoretical and practical foundation for deductive verification of hybrid systems, we introduce differential dynamic logic as a new logic with which correctness properties of hybrid systems with parameterized system dynamics can be specified and verified naturally. As a verificati...

  19. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  20. A Dynamical Simulation Facility for Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Back, A; Myers, M; Back, Allen; Guckenheimer, John; Myers, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: This paper establishes a general framework for describing hybrid dynamical systems which is particularly suitable for numerical simulation. In this context, the data structures used to describe the sets and functions which comprise the dynamical system are crucial since they provide the link between a natural mathematical formulation of a problem and the correct application of standard numerical algorithms. We describe a partial implementation of the design methodology and use this simulation tool for a specific control problem in robotics as an illustration of the utility of the approach for practical applications.

  1. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  2. Recent advancements in erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin as delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peipei; Wang, Ruju; Wang, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems have been applied to enhance the efficacy of therapeutics and to alleviate negative effects through the controlled delivery of targeting and releasing agents. However, few drug carriers can achieve high targeting efficacy, even when targeting modalities and surface markers are introduced. Immunological problems have also limited their wide applications. Biological drug delivery systems, such as erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin, have been extensively investigated because of their unique properties. In this review, erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin are described as efficient drug delivery systems. Their properties, applications, advantages, and limitations in disease treatment are explained. This review confirms that these systems can be used to facilitate a specific, biocompatible, and smart drug delivery.

  3. Controlled drug delivery systems towards new frontiers in patient care

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Filippo; Masi, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of controlled drug delivery systems, covering the most important innovative applications. The principles of controlled drug release and the mechanisms involved in controlled release are clearly explained. The various existing polymeric drug delivery systems are reviewed, and new frontiers in material design are examined in detail, covering a wide range of polymer modification techniques. The concluding chapter is a case study focusing on use of a drug-eluting stent. The book is designed to provide the reader with a complete understanding of the mechanisms and design of controlled drug delivery systems, and to this end includes numerous step-by-step tutorials. It illustrates how chemical engineers can advance medical care by designing polymeric delivery systems that achieve either temporal or spatial control of drug delivery and thus ensure more effective therapy that eliminates the potential for both under-and overdosing.

  4. Mucoadhesive and thermogelling systems for vaginal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramella, Carla M; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sandri, Giuseppina

    2015-09-15

    This review focuses on two formulation approaches, mucoadhesion and thermogelling, intended for prolonging residence time on vaginal mucosa of medical devices or drug delivery systems, thus improving their efficacy. The review, after a brief description of the vaginal environment and, in particular, of the vaginal secretions that strongly affect in vivo performance of vaginal formulations, deals with the above delivery systems. As for mucoadhesive systems, conventional formulations (gels, tablets, suppositories and emulsions) and novel drug delivery systems (micro-, nano-particles) intended for vaginal administration to achieve either local or systemic effect are reviewed. As for thermogelling systems, poly(ethylene oxide-propylene oxide-ethylene oxide) copolymer-based and chitosan-based formulations are discussed as thermogelling systems. The methods employed for functional characterization of both mucoadhesive and thermogelling drug delivery systems are also briefly described.

  5. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  6. Research of IDSS Architecture Based on Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Biao; YANG Bao-an

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the necessity of building IDSS on hybrid systems, and adopts XML technology to manage isomeric knowledge in hybrid systems. The paper proposes a new architecture of hybrid systems based IDSS whose core system is isomeric knowledge system. The architecture is composed of knowledge component, problems processing system, data component and intelligent user interface. This new architecture aims to enhance the capability of integrating hybrid systems, to improve the supporting effectiveness of decision-making and the intelligent level of IDSS, and tries a new way to elevate the system's ability of handling and learning knowledge.

  7. GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: STOMACH SPECIFIC MUCOADHESIVE TABLET

    OpenAIRE

    Siddhapara Mihir; Tikare Vijay; Ramana MV; Sutariya Bhavesh; Vaghasiya Bhavesh

    2011-01-01

    The current article focuses on the principles of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems based on adhesion to biological surfaces that are covered by mucus. Bioadhesion can be defined as the process by which a natural or a synthetic polymer can adhere to a biological substrate. When the biological substrate is a mucosal layer then the phenomena is known as mucoadhesion. Drug actions can be improved by developing new drug delivery systems, such as the mucoadhesive system. These systems remain in cl...

  8. Utilization of hybrid systems in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Mercedes Menendez; Figueredo, Conrado Moreno [Renewable Energy Technologies Study Center (CETER), Marianao (Cuba)

    1996-12-31

    This work deals with the possibility of the wind-photovoltaic hybrid system uses for the electricity generation in Cuba. A design of energy installation is made to satisfy the tourism facilities demands located in Cayo Sabinal, in the north of the province Camaguey. The design is based on the data base of the available wind and solar resources. A group of existing wind-generators in the market is analyzed and the best is selected taking into account a set of energy parameters, the monthly energy supply is function of the turbines numbers and the quantity of necessary solar energy to guarantee the system requirements. An economical evaluation is carried out in order to select the best wind-solar combination and a comparison with other forms of electricity generation (Diesel Plant and a stand alone wind system). In the work is showed the best combination in the critical month is when a 62% of energy is supplied by wind energy and 38% of solar energy. Otherwise in the work is showed hybrid system is more economical than a stand alone wind system and a Diesel Plant. (Author)

  9. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H, E-mail: enriquem@univalle.edu.c, E-mail: j.reina-estupinan@physics.ox.ac.u [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a sigma{sub x} x sigma{sub z} interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  10. Methods and metrics challenges of delivery-system research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jeffrey A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many delivery-system interventions are fundamentally about change in social systems (both planned and unplanned. This systems perspective raises a number of methodological challenges for studying the effects of delivery-system change--particularly for answering questions related to whether the change will work under different conditions and how the change is integrated (or not into the operating context of the delivery system. Methods The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodological and measurement challenges posed by five key issues in delivery-system research: (1 modeling intervention context; (2 measuring readiness for change; (3 assessing intervention fidelity and sustainability; (4 assessing complex, multicomponent interventions; and (5 incorporating time in delivery-system models to discuss recommendations for addressing these issues. For each issue, we provide recommendations for how research may be designed and implemented to overcome these challenges. Results and conclusions We suggest that a more refined understanding of the mechanisms underlying delivery-system interventions (treatment theory and the ways in which outcomes for different classes of individuals change over time are fundamental starting points for capturing the heterogeneity in samples of individuals exposed to delivery-system interventions. To support the research recommendations outlined in this paper and to advance understanding of the "why" and "how" questions of delivery-system change and their effects, funding agencies should consider supporting studies with larger organizational sample sizes; longer duration; and nontraditional, mixed-methods designs. A version of this paper was prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ, US Department of Health and Human Services for presentation and discussion at a meeting on "The Challenge and Promise of Delivery System Research," held in Sterling, VA, on

  11. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  12. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  13. A Molecular Communication System Model for Particulate Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahibi, Youssef; Pierobon, Massimiliano; Song, Sang Ok; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2013-12-01

    The goal of a drug delivery system (DDS) is to convey a drug where the medication is needed, while, at the same time, preventing the drug from affecting other healthy parts of the body. Drugs composed of micro- or nano-sized particles (particulate DDS) that are able to cross barriers which prevent large particles from escaping the bloodstream are used in the most advanced solutions. Molecular communication (MC) is used as an abstraction of the propagation of drug particles in the body. MC is a new paradigm in communication research where the exchange of information is achieved through the propagation of molecules. Here, the transmitter is the drug injection, the receiver is the drug delivery, and the channel is realized by the transport of drug particles, thus enabling the analysis and design of a particulate DDS using communication tools. This is achieved by modeling the MC channel as two separate contributions, namely, the cardiovascular network model and the drug propagation network. The cardiovascular network model allows to analytically compute the blood velocity profile in every location of the cardiovascular system given the flow input by the heart. The drug propagation network model allows the analytical expression of the drug delivery rate at the targeted site given the drug injection rate. Numerical results are also presented to assess the flexibility and accuracy of the developed model. The study of novel optimization techniques for a more effective and less invasive drug delivery will be aided by this model, while paving the way for novel communication techniques for Intrabody communication networks.

  14. Optical diagnostics integrated with laser spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-09-02

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  15. An Overview on Osmotic Controlled Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thummar A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews constructed drug delivery systems applying osmotic principles for controlled drugrelease from the formulation. Osmotic devices which are tablets coated with walls of controlled porosityare the most promising strategy based systems for controlled drug delivery. In contrast to commontablets, these pumps provide constant (zero order drug release rate. When these systems are exposed towater, low levels of water soluble additive is leached from polymeric material i.e. semipermeablemembrane and drug releases in a controlled manner over an extended period of time. The main clinicalbenefits of oral osmotic drug delivery system are their ability to improve treatment tolerability andpatient compliance. These advantages are mainly driven by the capacity to deliver drugs in a sustainedmanner, independent of the drug chemical properties, of the patient’s physiological factors or followingfood intake. This review brings out the theoretical concept of drug delivery, history, advantages anddisadvantages of the delivery systems, types of oral osmotic drug delivery systems, factors affecting thedrug delivery system and marketed products.

  16. Thiolated polymers as mucoadhesive drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Sarah; Cummins, Wayne; O' Donovan, Orla; Hughes, Helen; Owens, Eleanor

    2017-03-30

    Mucoadhesion is the process of binding a material to the mucosal layer of the body. Utilising both natural and synthetic polymers, mucoadhesive drug delivery is a method of controlled drug release which allows for intimate contact between the polymer and a target tissue. It has the potential to increase bioavailability, decrease potential side effects and offer protection to more sensitive drugs such as proteins and peptide based drugs. The thiolation of polymers has, in the last number of years, come to the fore of mucoadhesive drug delivery, markedly improving mucoadhesion due to the introduction of free thiol groups onto the polymer backbone while also offering a more cohesive polymeric matrix for the slower and more controlled release of drug. This review explores the concept of mucoadhesion and the recent advances in both the polymers and the methods of thiolation used in the synthesis of mucoadhesive drug delivery devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); O' Sullivan, G. (Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  18. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  19. Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions

    CERN Document Server

    Zipkes, Christoph; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ...

  20. Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipkes, Christoph; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Koehl, Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-10

    In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ.

  1. Hybrid high power femtosecond laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Petrov, V. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a high-power femtosecond laser system based on hybrid chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique developed by us is presented. The goal of the hybrid principle is the use of the parametric and laser amplification methods in chirped pulse amplifiers. It makes it possible to amplify the low-cycle pulses with a duration of <= fs to terawatt power with a high contrast and high conversion efficiency of the pump radiation. In a created system the Ti:Sapphire laser with 10 fs pulses at 810 nm and output energy about 1-3 nJ will be used like seed source. The oscillator pulses were stretched to duration of about 500 ps by an all-reflective grating stretcher. Then the stretched pulses are injected into a nondegenerate noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) on the two BBO crystals. After amplification in NOPA the residual pump was used in a bow-tie four pass amplifier with hybrid active medium (based on Al II0 3:Ti 3+ and BeAl IIO 4:Ti 3+ crystals). The final stage of the amplification system consists of two channels, namely NIR (820 nm) and short-VIS (410 nm). Numerical simulation has shown that the terawatt level of output power can be achieved also in a short-VIS channel at the pumping of the double-crystal BBO NOPA by the radiation of the fourth harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. Experimentally parametric amplification in BBO crystals of 30-50 fs pulses were investigated and optimized using SPIDER technique and single-shot autocomelator for the realization of shortest duration 40 fs.

  2. Spontaneously Igniting Hybrid Fuel-Oxidiser Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Jain

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available After briefly outlining the recent developments in hybrid rockets, the work carried out by the author on self-igniting (hypergolic solid fuel-liquid oxidiser systems has been reviewed. A major aspect relates to the solid derivatives of hydrazines, which have been conceived as fuels for hybrid rockets. Many of these N-N bonded compounds ignite readily, with very short ignition delays, on coming into contact with liquid oxidisers, like HNO/sub 3/ and N/sub 2/ O/sub 4/. The ignition characteristics have been examined as a function of the nature of the functional group in the fuel molecule, in an attempt to establish a basis for the hypergolic ignition in terms of chemical reactivity of the fuel-oxidiser combination. Important chemical reactions occurring in the pre-ignition stage have been identified by examining the quenched reaction products. Hybrid systems exhibiting synergistic hypergolicity in the presence of metal powders have investigated. An estimation of the rocket performance parameters, experimental determination of the heats of combustion in HNO/sub 3/, thermal decomposition characteristics, temperature profile by thin film thermometry and product identification by the rapid scan FT-IR, are among the other relevant studies made on these systems. A significant recent development has been the synthesis of new N-N bonded viscous binders, capable of rataining the hypergolicity of the fuel powders embedded therein as well as providing the required mechanical strength to the grain. Several of these resins have been characterised. Metallised fuel composites of these resins having high loading of magnesium are found to have short ignition delays and high performance parameters.

  3. Superconducting qubit-resonator-atom hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2017-09-01

    We propose a hybrid quantum system where an LC resonator inductively interacts with a flux qubit and is capacitively coupled to a Rydberg atom. Varying the external magnetic flux bias controls the flux qubit flipping and the flux qubit-resonator interface. The atomic spectrum is tuned via an electrostatic field, manipulating the qubit-state transition of atom and the atom-resonator coupling. Different types of entanglement of superconducting, photonic and atomic qubits can be prepared via simply tuning the flux bias and electrostatic field, leading to the implementation of three-qubit Toffoli logic gate.

  4. NIOSOMES: A ROLE IN TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Singh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles inclosing an aqueous phase and a wide range of molecules could be encapsulated within aqueous spaces of lipid membrane vesicles. They are microscopic lamellar structures formed on the admixture of a non-ionic surfactant, cholesterol and phosphate with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. Niosomes belongs to novel drug delivery system which offers a large number of advantages over other conventional and vesicular delivery systems. Namely they are the targeted drug delivery system which showing reduction of dose, stability and compatibility of non-ionic surfactants, easy modification, delayed clearance, suitability for a wide range of Active Pharmaceutical Agents.

  5. Thermoresponsive copolymer-grafted SBA-15 porous silica particles for temperature-triggered topical delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Jadhav

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide thermoresponsive random copolymers with different molecular weights and composition were synthesized and characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, size exclusion chromatography (SEC and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The lower critical solution temperatures (LCST of the copolymers were tuned by changing the mole ratios of monomers. Copolymer with highest molecular weight and LCST (41.2 °C was grafted on SBA-15 type mesoporous silica particles by a two-step polymer grafting procedure. Bare SBA-15 and the thermoresponsive copolymergrafted (hybrid SBA-15 particles were fully characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, ATR-FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET analyses. The hybrid particles were tested for their efficiency as temperature-sensitive systems for dermal delivery of the antioxidant rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside. Improved control over rutin release by hybrid particles was obtained which makes them attractive hybrid materials for drug delivery.

  6. Mechanical valve assembly for xenon 133 gas delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, W.H. (Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston (Australia))

    Some gas delivery systems used in pulmonary ventilation scanning are unable to satisfactorily supply /sup 133/Xe gas to bed-ridden patients. A mechanical gas valve assembly to control the flow of gas in such systems was constructed. A commercially produced /sup 133/Xe gas delivery system when fitted with the new assembly was able to ventilate almost all patients whereas previously this could be achieved with approximately only 50% of patients.

  7. Parameter Design for the Energy-Regeneration System of Series Hydraulic-Hybrid Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yunpu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper simplifies the energy recovery process in the series hydraulic hybrid bus’ energy regeneration system into a process in which the main axle’s moment of inertia drives the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor and brings hydraulic oil from the oil tank to the accumulator. This process enables braking of the vehicle and also allows recovery of energy to the accumulator. Based on the flow equation for the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor and the torque equilibrium equation for its axle, the force equilibrium equation for vehicle braking and the pressure variation and flow continuity equations for the accumulator, simulation studies are conducted to analyze the effects of various system parameters, such as accumulator capacity, displacement of the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor, initial operating pressure of the system, etc. on system performance during regenerative braking.  

  8. Improvement of different vaccine delivery systems for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaiyan Shima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer vaccines are the promising tools in the hands of the clinical oncologist. Many tumor-associated antigens are excellent targets for immune therapy and vaccine design. Optimally designed cancer vaccines should combine the best tumor antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents and/or delivery strategies to achieve positive clinical results. Various vaccine delivery systems such as different routes of immunization and physical/chemical delivery methods have been used in cancer therapy with the goal to induce immunity against tumor-associated antigens. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs have demonstrated to be effective in animal models. New developments in vaccine delivery systems will improve the efficiency of clinical trials in the near future. Among them, nanoparticles (NPs such as dendrimers, polymeric NPs, metallic NPs, magnetic NPs and quantum dots have emerged as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases and cancer therapy. Furthermore, cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been known as attractive carrier having applications in drug delivery, gene transfer and DNA vaccination. This review will focus on the utilization of different vaccine delivery systems for prevention or treatment of cancer. We will discuss their clinical applications and the future prospects for cancer vaccine development.

  9. THE USE OF GENETIC ALGORITHM IN DIMENSIONING HYBRID AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUS T.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the working principle of genetic algorithms used to dimension autonomous hybrid systems. It is presented a study case in which is dimensioned and optimized an autonomous hybrid system for a residential house located in Cluj-Napoca. After the autonomous hybrid system optimization is performed, it is achieved a reduction of the total cost of system investment, a reduction of energy produced in excess and a reduction of CO2 emissions.

  10. Hybrid Dislocated Control and General Hybrid Projective Dislocated Synchronization for Memristor Chaotic Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some important dynamical properties of the memristor chaotic oscillator system have been studied in the paper. A novel hybrid dislocated control method and a general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization scheme have been realized for memristor chaotic oscillator system. The paper firstly presents hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to the unstable equilibrium point. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization has been studied for the drive memristor chaotic oscillator system and the same response memristor chaotic oscillator system. For the different dimensions, the memristor chaotic oscillator system and the other chaotic system have realized general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  11. The Research Progress of Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiayin; Ting, Xizi Liang; Zhu, Junjie

    2017-06-01

    Targeted drug delivery system (DDS) means to selectively transport drugs to targeted tissues, organs, and cells through a variety of drugs carrier. It is usually designed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and to overcome problems such as limited solubility, drug aggregation, poor bio distribution and lack of selectivity, controlling drug release carrier and to reduce normal tissue damage. With the characteristics of nontoxic and biodegradable, it can increase the retention of drug in lesion site and the permeability, improve the concentration of the drug in lesion site. at present, there are some kinds of DDS using at test phase, such as slow controlled release drug delivery system, targeted drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery system, adhesion dosing system and so on. This paper makes a review for DDS.

  12. Dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticles for the delivery of SN38 to Her2 and CD44 overexpressed human gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Luo, Huiyan; Cao, Zhong; Chen, Ya; Gao, Jinbiao; Li, Yingqin; Jiang, Qing; Xu, Ruihua; Liu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), particularly of the type with high expression of both human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) and cluster determinant 44 (CD44), is one of the most malignant human tumors which causes a high mortality rate due to rapid tumor growth and metastasis. To develop effective therapeutic treatments, a dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticle (NP) system was designed and constructed to deliver the SN38 agent specifically to human solid gastric tumors bearing excessive Her2 and CD44. The hybrid NPs consist of a particle core made of the biodegradable polymer PLGA and a lipoid shell prepared by conjugating the AHNP peptides and n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to the carboxyl groups of hyaluronic acid (HA). Upon encapsulation of the SN38 agent in the NPs, the AHNP peptides and HA on the NP surface allow preferential delivery of the drug to gastric cancer cells (e.g., HGC27 cells) by targeting Her2 and CD44. Cellular uptake and in vivo biodistribution experiments verified the active targeting and prolonged in vivo circulation properties of the dual-targeting hybrid NPs, leading to enhanced accumulation of the drug in tumors. Furthermore, the anti-proliferation mechanism studies revealed that the inhibition of the growth and invasive activity of HGC27 cells was not only attributed to the enhanced cellular uptake of dual-targeting NPs, but also benefited from the suppression of CD44 and Her2 expression by HA and AHNP moieties. Finally, intravenous administration of the SN38-loaded dual-targeting hybrid NPs induced significant growth inhibition of HGC27 tumor xenografted in nude mice compared with a clinical antitumor agent, Irinotecan (CPT-11), and the other NP formulations. These results demonstrate that the designed dual-targeting hybrid NPs are promising for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery to treat human gastric tumors over-expressing Her2 and CD44.Gastric cancer (GC), particularly of the type with high expression of both human epidermal growth factor receptor

  13. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  14. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  15. Elastin-like recombinamers as smart drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier Arias, F; Santos, Mercedes; Ibáñez-Fonseca, Arturo; Piña, Maria Jesús; Serrano, Sofía

    2016-01-31

    Drug delivery systems that are able to control site and rate release of bioactive molecules are of particular interest for tissue therapy. Systems comprising biocompatible materials that can respond to environmental stimuli include elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), a class of proteinaceous polymers bioinspired by natural elastin, which are especially useful as advanced drug delivery systems in the biomedical field. This review brings together information concerning different versions of ELR-based delivery systems that allow targeted delivery. ELR-drug systems in their monomeric form as well as drug encapsulation by nanoparticle-forming ELRs will be reviewed, focusing later on these drug carriers in which smart release is triggered by pH or temperature with a particular interest on cancer treatments. Systems for controlled drug release based on depots and hydrogels that act both as a support and reservoir in which drugs can be stored will be described, and their applications in drug delivery discussed. Finally, smart drug-delivery systems not based on ELRs, including those comprising proteins, synthetic polymers and non-polymeric systems, will also be briefly discussed.

  16. Microneedles as a Delivery System for Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eChen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gene delivery systems can be divided to two major types: vector-based (either viral vector or non-viral vector and physical delivery technologies. Many physical carriers, such as electroporation, gene gun, ultrasound start to be proved to have the potential to enable gene therapy. A relatively new physical delivery technology for gene delivery consists of microneedles (MNs, which has been studied in many fields and for many molecule types and indications. Microneedles can penetrate the stratum corneum, which is the main barrier for drug delivery through the skin with ease of administration and without significant pain. Many different kinds of MNs, such as metal MNs, coated MNs, dissolving MNs have turned out to be promising in gene delivery. In this review, we discussed the potential as well as the challenges of utilizing MNs to deliver nucleic acids for gene therapy. We also proposed that a combination of MNs and other gene delivery approaches may lead to a better delivery system for gene therapy.

  17. Intelligent Control Scheme of Engineering Machinery of Cluster Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.

  18. Educational and Career Guidance for Adults: Delivery System Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkenwald, Gordon G.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the need for guidance and information services to help adults make educational and career choices, from an organizational and administrative perspective. Major innovations are needed in educational delivery systems for the adult public. Federal legislation can help. (JAC)

  19. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Transmucosal drug delivery systems of enalapril maleate were formulated as buccal films by solvent casting .... Table1: Composition of transmucosal buccal films of enalapril maleate ... was fixed to the central shaft using an adhesive.

  20. Optical Systems For High Power Laser Beam Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durville, Frederic M.; Cilia, D.

    1989-03-01

    During the pst fifteen years, pwerful lasers have been developed for industrial applications such as cutting, piercing, welding, engraving, etc... Convenient and reliable delivery systems are still needed to widen their field of application.

  1. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs...

  2. Automation Comparison Procedure for Verification of Hybrid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 999, Springer-Verlag, (1995). [2] Bowler, 0., Grotzky, J., Nielson, M., Nilson.S., and Van Buren, J...Remmel, J.B., "Feedback Derivations: Near Optimal Controls for Hybrid Systems", to appear in Hybrid Systems III, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science . [6...Grossman, R.L., Nerode, A., Ravn, A. and Rischel, H. eds., Hybrid Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer

  3. Customer participation in service production and delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Highlights significance of designing service delivery system, explains the integral role of customer in service production process, stresses the importance of customer-organisation interface, lists important ingredients of service package to be considered while designing customer interface, enumerates various dimensions of customer interface which can be positively made use of in design of service production and delivery system, discusses various ways and means of inducing and enhancing custo...

  4. MULTIPARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: PELLETIZATION THROUGH EXTRUSION AND SPHERONIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anshuli Sharma; Sandhya Chaurasia

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical invention and research are increasingly focusing on delivery systems which enhance desirable therapeutic objectives while minimising side effects. Recent trends indicate that multiparticulate drug delivery systems are especially suitable for achieving controlled or delayed release oral formulations with low risk of dose dumping, flexibility of blending to attain different release patterns as well as reproducible and short gastric residence time. Pelletization is a technique use...

  5. DISPATCHING OF HYBRID WINDPHOTOVOLTAIC- MICROTURBINESSTORAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. BRINI SAOUSSEN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents model for Economic Environmental Dispatching (EED of Hybrid power system including wind and photovoltaic energies. The model combines the stochastic data of the climate such as the wind speed for wind energy, solar radiation and the temperature for photovoltaic energy. The penetration of wind andphotovoltaic powers into traditional network will cause some implications such as security concerns due to its unpredictable nature. The production systems of renewable energy are generally coupled with the network with energy storage devices and micro sources. In this paper, a bi-objective economic environmental dispatchproblem considering wind and photovoltaic penetration is formulated, which treats economic and environmental impacts as conflicting objectives. It applied multiobjective optimization by approach SPEA to solve (EED problem.

  6. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  7. Model for determining and optimizing delivery performance in industrial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fechete Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance means achieving organizational objectives regardless of their nature and variety, and even overcoming them. Improving performance is one of the major goals of any company. Achieving the global performance means not only obtaining the economic performance, it is a must to take into account other functions like: function of quality, delivery, costs and even the employees satisfaction. This paper aims to improve the delivery performance of an industrial system due to their very low results. The delivery performance took into account all categories of performance indicators, such as on time delivery, backlog efficiency or transport efficiency. The research was focused on optimizing the delivery performance of the industrial system, using linear programming. Modeling the delivery function using linear programming led to obtaining precise quantities to be produced and delivered each month by the industrial system in order to minimize their transport cost, satisfying their customers orders and to control their stock. The optimization led to a substantial improvement in all four performance indicators that concern deliveries.

  8. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  9. Biological studies of matrix metalloproteinase sensitive drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Thermann

    due to severe side effects as a result of drug distribution to healthy tissues. To enhance ecacy of treatment and improve life quality of patients, tumor specific drug delivery strategies, such as liposome encapsulated drugs, which accumulate in tumor tissue, has gained increased attention. Several...... for delivery of drugs to specific tissues or cells utilizing biological knowledge of cancer tissue is getting increased attention. In this thesis a novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) sensitive poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) coated liposomal drug delivery system for treatment of cancer was developed...... the use of MMP- 2 as a trigger for liposomal activation in tumor tissue. Thus, this new strategy provides a promising system for specific delivery of encapsulated drugs and controlled release in tumor tissues, resulting in enhanced drug bioavailability and decreased systemic side effects. In addition, we...

  10. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  11. A Secure & Hybrid Authentication Protocol of Intrusion Detection System for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.CHARLES AROCKIARAJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In MANET, security is the toughest and very challenging area, because nodes are without any predefined framework. This is due to the high mobility of outstanding vulnerabilities and attacks of the malicious nodes in the intrusion detection system of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET. A secure & hybrid protocol design has been proposed, in order to improve the detection efficiency and also to improvise the performance of Intrusion Detection Systems for MANET. Based on the hybrid techniques with the aid of key management authentication and combining with a fuzzy based decision model for detecting the misbehaving attacks. Identifying group of physical attacker and finding its probabilities and its side effects are evaluated. To discover the misbehaving attackers and predicting it effects by using Fuzzy based model. In the proposed hybrid authentication protocol for malicious node detection system and for avoiding problems related to missing packet, delay in the nodes and false misbehavior reports. Secure hybrid authentication protocol is used to detect various attacks in MANETs by incorporating hybrid techniques such as fuzzy schemes and key organization method. Hence the different ratio of all the parameter were experimented and analyzed, in terms of the attack prediction rate, attack precision, packet drop ratio and end to end delivery ratio. The schemes were compared with the existing mechanisms and results show that proposed hybrid authentication has superior improvement in the performance.

  12. Gelatin coated hybrid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of amphotericin B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sanyog; Valvi, Pankaj U; Swarnakar, Nitin K

    2012-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) loaded polymer lipid hybrid nanoparticles (AmB-PLNs) comprised of lecithin (anionic lipid) and gelatin (Type A, cationic below its isoelectric point 7.0-9.0) were prepared by a two-step desolvation method to improve the oral bioavailability of AmB. The optimized AmB-PLNs were......) and fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis confirmed the orientation of the lecithin (located in the core) and gelatin (exterior coat) within the system. The developed formulation exhibited a sustained drug release profile with a release pattern best fitted to Higuchi kinetics. Experiments on Caco...

  13. Limit Cycle Analysis in a Class of Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Favela-Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems are those that inherently combine discrete and continuous dynamics. This paper considers the hybrid system model to be an extension of the discrete automata associating a continuous evolution with each discrete state. This model is called the hybrid automaton. In this work, we achieve a mathematical formulation of the steady state and we show a way to obtain the initial conditions region to reach a specific limit cycle for a class of uncoupled and coupled continuous-linear hybrid systems. The continuous-linear term is used in the sense of the system theory and, in this sense, continuous-linear hybrid automata will be defined. Thus, some properties and theorems that govern the hybrid automata dynamic behavior to evaluate a limit cycle existence have been established; this content is explained under a theoretical framework.

  14. Nanostructured biointerfacing of metals with carbon nanotube/chitosan hybrids by electrodeposition for cell stimulation and therapeutics delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kapil D; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Han, Cheol-Min; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Singh, Rajendra K; Kim, Hae-Won

    2014-11-26

    Exploring the biological interfaces of metallic implants has been an important issue in achieving biofunctional success. Here we develop a biointerface with nanotopological features and bioactive composition, comprising a carbon nanotube (CNT) and chitosan (Chi) hybrid, via an electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The physicochemical properties, in vitro biocompatibility, and protein delivering capacity of the decorated nanohybrid layer were investigated, to address its potential usefulness as bone regenerating implants. Over a wide compositional range, the nanostructured hybrid interfaces were successfully formed with varying thicknesses, depending on the electrodeposition parameters. CNT-Chi hybrid interfaces showed a time-sequenced degradation in saline water, and a rapid induction of hydroxyapatite mineral in a simulated body fluid. The nanostructured hybrid substrates stimulated the initial adhesion events of the osteoblastic cells, including cell adhesion rate, spreading behaviors, and expression of adhesive proteins. The nanostructured hybrid interfaces significantly improved the adsorption of protein molecules, which was enabled by the surface charge interaction, and increased surface area of the nanotopology. Furthermore, the incorporated protein was released at a highly sustained rate, profiling a diffusion-controlled pattern over a couple of weeks, suggesting the possible usefulness as a protein delivery device. Collectively, the nanostructured hybrid CNT-Chi layer, implemented by an electrodeposition, is considered a biocompatible, cell-stimulating, and protein-delivering biointerface of metallic implants.

  15. Grid-Connected Pv-Fc Hybrid System Power Control Using Mppt And Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.HARIKA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for operating a grid connected hybrid system. This system composed of a Photovoltaic (PV array and a Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is considered. As the variations occur in temperature and irradiation during power delivery to load, Photo voltaic (PV system becomes uncontrollable. In coordination with PEMFC, the hybrid system output power becomes controllable. Two operation modes are the unit-power control (UPC mode and the feeder-flow control (FFC mode, can be applied to the hybrid system. All MPPT methods follow the same goal that is maximizing the PV system output power by tracking the maximum power on every operating condition. Maximum power point tracking technique (Incremental conductance for photovoltaic systems was introduced to maximize the produced energy. The coordination of two control modes, coordination of the PV array and the PEMFC in the hybrid system, and determination of reference parameters are presented. The proposed operating strategy systems with a flexible operation mode change always operate the PV array at maximum output power and the PEMFC in its high efficiency performance band. Also thus improving the performance of system operation, enhancing system stability, and reducing the number of operating mode changes.

  16. On a Variational Approach to Optimization of Hybrid Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with multiobjective optimization techniques for a class of hybrid optimal control problems in mechanical systems. We deal with general nonlinear hybrid control systems described by boundary-value problems associated with hybrid-type Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. The variational structure of the corresponding solutions makes it possible to reduce the original “mechanical” problem to an auxiliary multiobjective programming reformulation. This approach motivates possible applications of theoretical and computational results from multiobjective optimization related to the original dynamical optimization problem. We consider first order optimality conditions for optimal control problems governed by hybrid mechanical systems and also discuss some conceptual algorithms.

  17. The Gwaii Haanas PV hybrid system : analysis of system operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. [GPCo Inc., Varennes, PQ (Canada); Turcotte, D.; Sheriff, F. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2003-05-01

    The operation of the photovoltaic/battery/genset hybrid power system at the Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve warden station in British Columbia has been monitored since July 2001 as part of the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) Energy Technology Centre-Varennes Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Systems Program. The data collected has been used to validate hybrid system simulation tools being developed under the sponsorship of the Program. The analyzed data, along with the simulation tools, provided insight into the operation of the Gwaii Haanas power system. It also assisted in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the system. Data indicates that the system functions well and is appropriately dimensioned and configured. The modules are arranged in two sub-arrays, with modules connected in parallel, showing remarkable tolerance to shading of part of the array. Almost complete discharge of the batteries occurs during the winter, when the Park residence is unoccupied. During the summer, users should keep track of the battery state-of-charge. Some recommendations were made to prolong the battery life. 1 ref., 1 tab., 16 figs.

  18. A REVIEW ON FLOATING TYPE GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Pal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral controlled release delivery systems are programmed to deliver the drug in predictable time frame that will increase the efficacy and minimize the adverse effects and increase the bioavailability of drugs. Oral route is considered mostnatural, uncomplicated, convenient and safe due to its ease of administration, patient acceptance, and cost-effective manufacturing process.Floating Drug delivery system are designed to prolong the gastric residence time after oral administration, at particular site and controlling the release of drug especially useful for achieving controlled plasma level a swell as improving bioavailability Several approaches are currently being used to prolong the GRT, including floating drug delivery systems (FDDS, also known as hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBS, swelling and expanding systems, high-density systems, and other delayed gastric emptying devices.

  19. Colloidal drug delivery systems: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview an extensive range of colloidal drug delivery systems with special focus on vesicular and particulates systems that are being used in research or might be potentially useful as carriers systems for drug or active biomolecules or as cell carriers with application in the therapeutic field. We present some important examples of commercially available drug delivery systems with applications in research or in clinical fields. This class of systems is widely used due to excellent drug targeting, sustained and controlled release behavior, higher entrapment efficiency of drug molecules, prevention of drug hydrolysis or enzymatic degradation, and improvement of therapeutic efficacy. These characteristics help in the selection of suitable carrier systems for drug, cell, and gene delivery in different fields.

  20. Emerging integrated nanohybrid drug delivery systems to facilitate the intravenous-to-oral switch in cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Sun, Jin; Du, Yuqian; He, Zhonggui

    2014-02-28

    Nanohybrid drug delivery systems have presented lots of characteristic advantages as an efficient strategy to facilitate oral drug delivery. Nonetheless, oral administration of chemotherapy agents by nanoparticulate delivery technology still faces great challenges owing to the multiple biobarriers ranging from poorly physicochemical properties of drugs, to complex gastrointestinal disposition and to presystemic metabolism. This review briefly analyzes a series of biobarriers hindering oral absorption and describes the multiple aspects for facilitating the intravenous-to-oral switch in cancer therapy. Moreover, the developed nanoparticulate drug delivery strategies to overcome the above obstacles are provided, including metabolic enzyme inhibition, enteric-coated nanocarriers, bioadhesive and mucus-penetrating strategies, P-gp inhibition and active targeting. On these foundations, the emerging trends of integrated hybrid nanosystems in response to the present low-efficiency drug delivery of any single approach are summarized, such as mixed polymeric micelles and nanocomposite particulate systems. Finally, the recent advances of high-efficiency hybrid nanoparticles in oral chemotherapy are highlighted, with special attention on integrated approach to design drug delivery nanosystems.

  1. Strategies For Assessing Delivery System Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Elizabeth A; McClellan, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Driven by evidence of continuing gaps in health care quality and efficiency and inspired by the emergence of new value-based payment models, both large and small health care organizations are developing and deploying a wide range of care delivery innovations. But how can decision makers in these organizations determine if the innovations really improve service delivery, patient experience, clinical outcomes, or costs? Organization leaders need appropriate, timely evidence to inform their decision making. In this article we describe a range of approaches to evaluating innovations and pose key questions about the validity of the results. We highlight a specific type of evaluation approach-the stepped wedge design-because it can balance the need for internal and external validity with the ability to generate timely results. We elaborate on three key steps in the innovation assessment phase (identifying the target population, describing baseline performance, and documenting the components of the innovation) that are useful for both organizations that will generate new evidence and those using evidence generated by others. We conclude with a discussion of payer approaches for supporting health care organizations in their efforts to develop new evidence on innovations. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. PROBIOTIC DELIVERY SYSTEMS: APPLICATIONS, CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Nisha R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic are bacteria that help to maintain the natural balance of the microorganism in the intestine. Probiotic is gaining its popularity as an alternate approach for the healthcare management and till now has proofed its therapeutic indication in many simple to complex diseases. Diverse mechanism of action and being a living organism are two main advantages. However there are several drawbacks also associated with this new emerging therapeutic area. Probiotic strain identification, characterization, screening, understanding its mechanism of action for particular disease which is seeking much attention. The primary aim associated with the probiotic delivery is maintaining bacteria viability during product manufacturing and during storage. Several approaches such as microencapsulation and use of suitable biocompatible material have been studied and still under continuous exploration. Along with the regulatory aspect associated with the probiotics in this review details on current research in the area of exploring indication and advancement in delivery technologies has been covered. Review concluded with rational recommendations of each aspect of probiotics.

  3. A REVIEW ON PARENTERAL CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Agrawal et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The parenteral administration route is the most effective and common form of delivery for active drug substances with poor bioavailability and the drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Drug delivery technology that can reduce the total number of injection throughout the drug therapy period will be truly advantageous not only in terms of compliance, but also to improve the quality of the therapy and also may reduce the dosage frequency. Such reduction in frequency of drug dosing is achieved by the use of specific formulation technologies that guarantee the release of the active drug substance in a slow and predictable manner. The development of new injectable drug delivery system has received considerable attention over the past few years. A number of technological advances have been made in the area of parenteral drug delivery leading to the development of sophisticated systems that allow drug targeting and the sustained or controlled release of parenteral medicines.

  4. Drug delivery system based on chronobiology--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Asim Sattwa; Biswas, Nikhil; Karim, Kazi Masud; Guha, Arijit; Chatterjee, Sugata; Behera, Mamata; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo

    2010-11-01

    With the advancement in the field of chronobiology, modern drug delivery approaches have been elevated to a new concept of chronopharmacology i.e. the ability to deliver the therapeutic agent to a patient in a staggered profile. However the major drawback in the development of such delivery system that matches the circadian rhythm requires the availability of precise technology (pulsatile drug delivery). The increasing research interest surrounding this delivery system has widened the areas of pharmaceutics in particular with many more sub-disciplines expected to coexist in the near future. This review on chronopharmaceutics gives a comprehensive emphasis on potential disease targets, revisits the existing technologies in hand and also addresses the theoretical approaches to emerging discipline such as genetic engineering and target based specific molecules. With the biological prospective approaches in delivering drugs it is well understood that safer and more realistic approaches in the therapy of diseases will be achieved in the days to come.

  5. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  6. SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES: AN ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raghu Nandan Reddy* and Arshia Shariff

    2013-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery, research and clinical medicine, as well as in other varied sciences. Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) dispersions have been proposed as a new type of colloidal drug carrier system suitable for intravenous administration. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) technology represents a promising new approach to lipophilic drug delivery. Solid lipid nanopa...

  7. Characterization of particulate drug delivery systems for oral delivery of Peptide and protein drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Fano, Mathias; Saaby, Lasse;

    2015-01-01

    are summarized. Additionally, the paper provides an overview of recent studies on characterization of solid drug carriers for peptide/protein drugs, drug distribution in particles, drug release and stability in simulated GI fluids, as well as the absorption of peptide/protein drugs in cell-based models. The use......Oral drug delivery is a preferred route because of good patient compliance. However, most peptide/ protein drugs are delivered via parenteral routes because of the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as enzymatic degradation by proteases and low permeability acrossthe...... biological membranes. To overcome these barriers, different formulation strategies for oral delivery of biomacromolecules have been proposed, including lipid based formulations and polymer-based particulate drug delivery systems (DDS). The aim of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge about oral...

  8. Recent trends in protein and peptide drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Himanshu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of insulin in 1922, identification and commercialization of potential protein and peptide drugs have been increased. Since then, research and development to improve the means of delivering protein therapeutics to patients has begun. The research efforts have followed two basic pathways: One path focused on noninvasive means of delivering proteins to the body and the second path has been primarily aimed at increasing the biological half-life of the therapeutic molecules. The search for approaches that provide formulations that are stable, bioavailable, readily manufacturable, and acceptable to the patient, has led to major advances in the development of nasal and controlled release technology, applicable to every protein or peptide. In several limited cases, sustained delivery of peptides and proteins has employed the use of polymeric carriers. More successes have been achieved by chemical modification using amino acid substitutions, protein pegylation or glycosylation to improve the pharmacodynamic properties of certain macromolecules and various delivery systems have been developed like the prolease technology, nano-particulate and microparticulate delivery systems, and the mucoadhesive delivery of peptides. The needle and syringe remain the primary means of protein delivery. Major hurdles remain in order to overcome the combined natural barriers of drug permeability, drug stability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of protein therapeutics. In our present review we have tried to compile some recent advances in protein and peptide drug delivery systems.

  9. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  10. MAST Propellant and Delivery System Design Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Uzair; Mc Cleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    A Mars Aerospace Taxi (MAST) concept and propellant storage and delivery case study is undergoing investigation by NASA's Element Design and Architectural Impact (EDAI) design and analysis forum. The MAST lander concept envisions landing with its ascent propellant storage tanks empty and supplying these reusable Mars landers with propellant that is generated and transferred while on the Mars surface. The report provides an overview of the data derived from modeling between different methods of propellant line routing (or "lining") and differentiate the resulting design and operations complexity of fluid and gaseous paths based on a given set of fluid sources and destinations. The EDAI team desires a rough-order-magnitude algorithm for estimating the lining characteristics (i.e., the plumbing mass and complexity) associated different numbers of vehicle propellant sources and destinations. This paper explored the feasibility of preparing a mathematically sound algorithm for this purpose, and offers a method for the EDAI team to implement.

  11. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R. (Purdue)

    2012-07-11

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Iota-carrageenan and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compounds, respectively. The iota-carrageenan network maintains a stable organization after encapsulating curcumin molecules, protects them from melting and then releases them in a sustained manner. These findings lay a strong foundation for developing value-added functional and medicinal foods.

  12. Supramolecular hydrogels as drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboktakin, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaei, Roya Mahdavi

    2015-04-01

    Drug delivery from a hydrogel carrier implanted under the kidney capsule is an innovative way to induce kidney tissue regeneration and/or prevent kidney inflammation or fibrosis. We report here on the development of supramolecular hydrogels for this application. Chain-extended hydrogelators containing hydrogen bonding units in the main chain, and bifunctional hydrogelators end-functionalized with hydrogen bonding moieties, were made. The influence of these hydrogels on the renal cortex when implanted under the kidney capsule was studied. The overall tissue response to these hydrogels was found to be mild, and minimal damage to the cortex was observed, using the infiltration of macrophages, formation of myofibroblasts, and the deposition of collagen III as relevant read-out parameters. Differences in tissue response to these hydrogels could be related to the different physico-chemical properties of the three hydrogels.

  13. Recent trends in challenges and opportunities of Transdermal drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.Patil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery system relates to the production of a drug, its delivery medium, and the way of administration. Drug delivery systems are even used for administering nitroglycerin. Transdermal drug delivery system is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of the drug occurs by the means of skin. Various types of transdermal patches are used. There are various methods to enhance the transdermal drug delivery system. But using microfabricated microneedles drugs are delivered very effectively to skin patch. There has been great progress in the Transdermal drug delivery system for the delivery of different forms and our aim is to collect the information about what progressed have done in Transdermal drug delivery system and developments in Transdermal drug delivery systems in theoretical form. Also, to collect the information about the advantages and application of the Transdermal drug delivery systems.

  14. HOPIS: hybrid omnidirectional and perspective imaging system for mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huei-Yung; Wang, Min-Liang

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present a framework for the hybrid omnidirectional and perspective robot vision system. Based on the hybrid imaging geometry, a generalized stereo approach is developed via the construction of virtual cameras. It is then used to rectify the hybrid image pair using the perspective projection model. The proposed method not only simplifies the computation of epipolar geometry for the hybrid imaging system, but also facilitates the stereo matching between the heterogeneous image formation. Experimental results for both the synthetic data and real scene images have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.

  15. A DETAILED REVIEW ON ORAL MUCOSAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Bhati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosal drug delivery system is widely applicable as novel site for administration of drug for immediate and controlled release action by preventing first pass metabolism and enzymatic degradation due to GI microbial flora. Oral mucosal drug delivery system provides local and systemic action. In this review, attention is focused to give regarding physiology of oral mucosal including tissue permeability, barriers to permeation and route of permeation, biopharmaceutics of buccal and sublingual absorption, factors affecting drug absorption, detailed information of penetration enhancers, design of oral mucosal drug delivery system and role of mucoadhesion and various theories of bioadhesion. Evaluation techniques and selection of animal model for in-vivo studies are also discussed.

  16. ORAL MULTIPARTICULATE PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaji Jessy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatile drug delivery aims to release drugs in a planned pattern i.e. at appropriate time and/or at a suitable site of action. Pharmaceutical invention and research are increasingly focusing on delivery systems which enhance desirable therapeutic objectives while minimising side effects. However, in recent pharmaceutical applications involving pulsatile delivery, multiparticulate dosage forms are gaining much favour over single-unit dosage forms because of their potential benefits like predictable gastric emptying, no risk of dose dumping, flexible release patterns and increased bioavailability with less inter- and intra-subject variability. Based on these, the present review aims to study multiparticulate pulsatile delivery systems, for which the Reservoir systems with rupturable polymeric coatings and Reservoir systems with erodible polymer coatings are primarily involved in the control of release. Multiparticulate drug delivery systems provide tremendous opportunities for designing new controlled and delayed release oral formulations, thus extending the frontier of future pharmaceutical development. The development of low density floating multiparticulate pulsed-release dosage forms possessing gastric retention capabilities has also been addressed with increasing focus on the upcoming multiparticulate-pulsatile technologies being exploited on an industrial scale.

  17. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  18. Coacervate delivery systems for proteins and small molecule drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Yadong

    2014-12-01

    Coacervates represent an exciting new class of drug delivery vehicles, developed in the past decade as carriers of small molecule drugs and proteins. This review summarizes several well-described coacervate systems, including: i) elastin-like peptides for delivery of anticancer therapeutics; ii) heparin-based coacervates with synthetic polycations for controlled growth factor delivery; iii) carboxymethyl chitosan aggregates for oral drug delivery; iv) Mussel adhesive protein and hyaluronic acid coacervates. Coacervates present advantages in their simple assembly and easy incorporation into tissue engineering scaffolds or as adjuncts to cell therapies. They are also amenable to functionalization such as for targeting or for enhancing the bioactivity of their cargo. These new drug carriers are anticipated to have broad applications and noteworthy impact in the near future.

  19. Recent advances of cocktail chemotherapy by combination drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Quanyin; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Gu, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Combination chemotherapy is widely exploited for enhanced cancer treatment in the clinic. However, the traditional cocktail administration of combination regimens often suffers from varying pharmacokinetics among different drugs. The emergence of nanotechnology offers an unparalleled opportunity for developing advanced combination drug delivery strategies with the ability to encapsulate various drugs simultaneously and unify the pharmacokinetics of each drug. This review surveys the most recent advances in combination delivery of multiple small molecule chemotherapeutics using nanocarriers. The mechanisms underlying combination chemotherapy, including the synergistic, additive and potentiation effects, are also discussed with typical examples. We further highlight the sequential and site-specific co-delivery strategies, which provide new guidelines for development of programmable combination drug delivery systems. Clinical outlook and challenges are also discussed in the end.

  20. Dendrimeric Systems and Their Applications in Ocular Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most attractive and challenging research area for pharmaceutical scientists and ophthalmologists. Absorption of an ophthalmic drug in conventional dosage forms is seriously limited by physiological conditions. The use of nonionic or ionic biodegradable polymers in aqueous solutions and colloidal dosage forms such as liposomes, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, microspheres, microcapsules, microemulsions, and dendrimers has been studied to overcome the problems mentioned above. Dendrimers are a new class of polymeric materials. The unique nanostructured architecture of dendrimers has been studied to examine their role in delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Dendrimers can enhance drug’s water solubility, bioavailability, and biocompatibility and can be applied for different routes of drug administration successfully. Permeability enhancer properties of dendrimers were also reported. The use of dendrimers can also reduce toxicity versus activity and following an appropriate application route they allow the delivery of the drug to the targeted site and provide desired pharmacokinetic parameters. Therefore, dendrimeric drug delivery systems are of interest in ocular drug delivery. In this review, the limitations related to eye’s unique structure, the advantages of dendrimers, and the potential applications of dendrimeric systems to ophthalmology including imaging, drug, peptide, and gene delivery will be discussed.

  1. Local sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid via hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers reduces adhesion of blood cells and promotes reendothelialization of the denuded artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hung Lee,1,2 Yu-Huang Lin,3 Shang-Hung Chang,1 Chun-Der Tai,3 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Yen Chu,4 Chao-Jan Wang,5 Ming-Yi Hsu,5 Hung Chang,6 Gwo-Jyh Chang,7 Kuo-Chun Hung,1 Ming-Jer Hsieh,1 Fen-Chiung Lin,1 I-Chang Hsieh,1 Ming-Shien Wen,1 Yenlin Huang81Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, 4Laboratory of Cardiovascular Physiology, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, 6Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicinal Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 8Department of Anatomical Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, TaiwanAbstract: Incomplete endothelialization, blood cell adhesion to vascular stents, and inflammation of arteries can result in acute stent thromboses. The systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid decreases endothelial dysfunction, potentially reducing thrombus, enhancing vasodilatation, and inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis; but, this is weakened by upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study proposes a hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers, for the local, sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid to injured artery walls. Biodegradable nanofibers are prepared by first dissolving poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide and acetylsalicylic acid in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The solution is then electrospun into nanofibrous tubes, which are then mounted onto commercially available bare-metal stents. In vitro release rates of pharmaceuticals from nanofibers are characterized using an elution method, and a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The experimental results suggest that biodegradable nanofibers

  2. Hybrid dislocated control and general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization for the modified Lue chaotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teacher' s College, Hubei 442000 (China)], E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.com; Zhou Wuneng [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)], E-mail: wnzhou@163.com; Fang Jianan [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  3. Filtering and control of stochastic jump hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xiuming; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research work on stochastic jump hybrid systems. Specifically, the considered stochastic jump hybrid systems include Markovian jump Ito stochastic systems, Markovian jump linear-parameter-varying (LPV) systems, Markovian jump singular systems, Markovian jump two-dimensional (2-D) systems, and Markovian jump repeated scalar nonlinear systems. Some sufficient conditions are first established respectively for the stability and performances of those kinds of stochastic jump hybrid systems in terms of solution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the derived analysis conditions, the filtering and control problems are addressed. The book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on stochastic jump hybrid systems. The contents can be divided into two parts: the first part is focused on robust filter design problem, while the second part is put the emphasis on robust control problem. These methodologies provide a framework for stability and performance analy...

  4. Nuclear Hybrid energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Sabharwall, P.; Yoon, S. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. B.; Stoot, C.

    2014-07-01

    Without growing concerns in reliable energy supply, the next generation in reliable power generation via hybrid energy systems is being developed. A hybrid energy system incorporates multiple energy input source sand multiple energy outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these combined systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilization because stored excess energy is used later to meet peak energy demands. With high thermal energy production the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct thermal properties. This paper discusses the criteria for efficient energy storage and molten salt energy storage system options for hybrid systems. (Author)

  5. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Dynamic Systems Using Hybrid Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    GHOMRI Latefa; Alla, Hassane

    2008-01-01

    Some extensions of PNs permitting HDS modeling were presented here. The first models to be presented are continuous PNs. This model may be used for modeling either a continuous system or a discrete system. In this case, it is an approximation that is often satisfactory. Hybrid PNs combine in the same formalism a discrete PN and a continuous PN. Two hybrid PN models were considered in this chapter. The first, called the hybrid PN, has a deterministic behavior; this means that we can predict th...

  6. Structure analysis and performance measurement of Chinese health delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although evidence has already demonstrated that the performance of Health Delivery System (HDS) varies widely across nations, relatively little is known about the factors that give rise to these variations and the key point to improve the performance besides adjusting system structure. By setup of HDS performance measurement system on the base of association of financial, social, and environmental characteristics, we construct system dynamic model of HDS to simulate the invention policies. Methods:Performance measures were collected from HDS in 31 regions of China and combined with secondary data sources. Multivariate, linear, nonlinear regression and factor analysis models were used to estimate associations between system characteristics and the performance. Results: Performance varied significantly with the size, financial resources and organizational structure of HDS. Performance measurement system of health delivery system was developed to give the rank of all Chinese regions. Conclusion: Performance measurement system of HDS is the basic of HDS modeling by system dynamic.

  7. Delivery systems and cost recovery in Mectizan treatment for onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amazigo, U; Noma, M; Boatin, B A; Etya'alé, D E; Sékétéli, A; Dadzie, K Y

    1998-04-01

    The efficiency of on-going delivery systems and cost recovery in Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) treatment for onchocerciasis are reviewed. The search is on for an effective system of Mectizan delivery, involving drug procurement, delivery from port to districts and distribution to eligible persons, which can be sustained by the endemic countries for many years. The mechanisms for procuring and clearing the drug at the ports, and the drug's integration into the existing delivery systems of each national health service, need to be improved. Although large-scale treatments by mobile teams or community-based methods evidently achieve high and satisfactory rates of coverage, they also incur high recurrent costs which have to be covered by external partners and are not sustainable by national health services. Cost-sharing is considered an important factor in a sustainable delivery system and community-directed treatment, in which the community shares the cost and ownership of local distribution and is empowered to design and implement it, is likely to be more cost-effective and sustainable.

  8. Niosomes: a controlled and novel drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajera, Rampal; Nagpal, Kalpana; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Mishra, Dina Nath

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade formulation of vesicles as a tool to improve drug delivery, has created a lot of interest amongst the scientist working in the area of drug delivery systems. Vesicular system such as liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, pharmacosomes and ethosomes provide an alternative to improve the drug delivery. Niosomes play an important role owing to their nonionic properties, in such drug delivery system. Design and development of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) has two prerequisites. First, it should deliver the drug in accordance with a predetermined rate and second it should release therapeutically effective amount of drug at the site of action. Conventional dosage forms are unable to meet these requisites. Niosomes are essentially non-ionic surfactant based multilamellar or unilamellar vesicles in which an aqueous solution of solute is entirely enclosed by a membrane resulting from the organization of surfactant macromolecules as bilayer. Niosomes are formed on hydration of non-ionic surfactant film which eventually hydrates imbibing or encapsulating the hydrating aqueous solution. The main aim of development of niosomes is to control the release of drug in a sustained way, modification of distribution profile of drug and for targeting the drug to the specific body site. This paper deals with composition, characterization/evaluation, merits, demerits and applications of niosomes.

  9. Advantages of Hybrid Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Bilajbegović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a decision-making situation, what kind of GPS equipment to purchase, one always has a dilemma, tobuy hybrid (GPS+GLONASS or only GPS receivers? In the case of completeness of the GLONASS satellite system, this dilemma probably would not have existed. The answer to this dilemma is given in the present paper, but for the constellation of the GLONASS satellites in summer 2006 (14 satellites operational. Due to the short operational period of these satellites (for example GLONASS-M, 5 years, and not launching new ones, at this moment (February 25, 2007, only 10 satellites are operational. For the sake of research and giving answers to these questions, about 252 RTK measurements have been done using (GPS and GNSS receivers, on points with different obstructions of horizon. Besides that, initialisation time has been investigated for both systems from about 480 measurements, using rover's antenna with metal cover, during a time interval of 0.5, 2 and 5 seconds. Moreover, accuracy, firmware declared accuracy and redundancy of GPS and GNSS RTK measurements have been investigating.  

  10. Review of hybrid laminar flow control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K. S. G.; Bertram, O.; Seibel, O.

    2017-08-01

    The aeronautic community always strived for fuel efficient aircraft and presently, the need for ecofriendly aircraft is even more, especially with the tremendous growth of air traffic and growing environmental concerns. Some of the important drivers for such interests include high fuel prices, less emissions requirements, need for more environment friendly aircraft to lessen the global warming effects. Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) technology is promising and offers possibility to achieve these goals. This technology was researched for decades for its application in transport aircraft, and it has achieved a new level of maturity towards integration and safety and maintenance aspects. This paper aims to give an overview of HLFC systems research and associated flight tests in the past years both in the US and in Europe. The review makes it possible to distinguish between the successful approaches and the less successful or outdated approaches in HLFC research. Furthermore, the technology status shall try to produce first estimations regarding the mass, power consumption and performance of HLFC systems as well as estimations regarding maintenance requirements and possible subsystem definitions.

  11. An epitope delivery system for use with recombinant mycobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetzel, C.; Janssen, R.; Ely, S.J.; Kristensen, N.M.; Bunting, K.; Cooper, J.B.; Lamb, J.R.; Young, D.B.; Thole, J.E.R.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a novel epitope delivery system based on the insertion of peptides within a permissive loop of a bacterial superoxide dismutase molecule. This system allowed high-level expression of heterologous peptides in two mycobacterial vaccine strains, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette- G

  12. FORMATION OF POROUS MEMBRANES FOR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDEWITTE, P; ESSELBRUGGE, H; PETERS, AMP; DIJKSTRA, PJ; FEIJEN, J; GROENEWEGEN, RJJ; SMID, J; OLIJSLAGER, J; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; EENINK, MJD; SAM, AP

    1993-01-01

    Highly crystalline porous hollow poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) fibres suitable for the delivery of various drugs were obtained using a dry-wet spinning process. The pore structure of the fibres could be regulated by changing the spinning systems and spinning conditions. Using the spinning system PLLA-diox

  13. An epitope delivery system for use with recombinant mycobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetzel, C.; Janssen, R.; Ely, S.J.; Kristensen, N.M.; Bunting, K.; Cooper, J.B.; Lamb, J.R.; Young, D.B.; Thole, J.E.R.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a novel epitope delivery system based on the insertion of peptides within a permissive loop of a bacterial superoxide dismutase molecule. This system allowed high-level expression of heterologous peptides in two mycobacterial vaccine strains, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette- G

  14. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.

    1979-09-30

    The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop the hybrid vehicles and to determine R and D priorities. It was concluded that by the year 2010 hybrid vehicles could replace 80% of the automotive power that would otherwise be produced from petroleum fuels; the public should not suffer any mobility loss through the use of hybrid vehicles; high initial and life-cycle costs are a limiting factor; and R and D funds should be spent for systems design and the development of low-cost batteries and controllers. (LCL)

  15. Improving Diagnosability of Hybrid Systems through Active Diagnosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fault diagnosis is key to ensuring system safety through fault-adaptive control. This task is diffcult in hybrid systems with combined continuous and discrete...

  16. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.

    1980-08-01

    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  17. The influence of microwave radiation on transdermal delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, H; Johnston, S; Allen, A

    1990-03-01

    It has been alleged that the exposure of a transdermal delivery system to leakage of microwave radiation from a domestic microwave oven can result in the user receiving a second-degree burn in the area of the patch. Several transdermal delivery systems were exposed to microwave radiation from an Electro Medical Supplies Microtron 200 microwave diathermy unit. Temperature rises of up to 2.2 degrees C were recorded at a maximum power density of 800 W/m2. These temperature rises were considered insignificant compared to that required to produce a burn. The exposure of transdermal delivery systems to a microwave diathermy field or lower level leakage radiation from a microwave oven is unlikely to cause direct thermal injury to the wearer.

  18. Microscale Symmetrical Electroporator Array as a Versatile Molecular Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Mengxing; Hill, Winfield; Lee, Jung Hyun; Hur, Soojung Claire

    2017-03-01

    Successful developments of new therapeutic strategies often rely on the ability to deliver exogenous molecules into cytosol. We have developed a versatile on-chip vortex-assisted electroporation system, engineered to conduct sequential intracellular delivery of multiple molecules into various cell types at low voltage in a dosage-controlled manner. Micro-patterned planar electrodes permit substantial reduction in operational voltages and seamless integration with an existing microfluidic technology. Equipped with real-time process visualization functionality, the system enables on-chip optimization of electroporation parameters for cells with varying properties. Moreover, the system’s dosage control and multi-molecular delivery capabilities facilitate intracellular delivery of various molecules as a single agent or in combination and its utility in biological research has been demonstrated by conducting RNA interference assays. We envision the system to be a powerful tool, aiding a wide range of applications, requiring single-cell level co-administrations of multiple molecules with controlled dosages.

  19. MULTIPARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: PELLETIZATION THROUGH EXTRUSION AND SPHERONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuli Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical invention and research are increasingly focusing on delivery systems which enhance desirable therapeutic objectives while minimising side effects. Recent trends indicate that multiparticulate drug delivery systems are especially suitable for achieving controlled or delayed release oral formulations with low risk of dose dumping, flexibility of blending to attain different release patterns as well as reproducible and short gastric residence time. Pelletization is a technique used to prepare fine powders into pellets used as multiparticulate drug delivery systems. There are different pelletization techniques used to prepare pellets. Extrusion and spheronization is one of them used to prepare pellets drug loaded beads/pellets for extended release or sustained release oral formulations such as tablets and capsules.

  20. Information Delivery System through Bluetooth in Ubiquitous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Asha Devi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous and pervasive computing (UPC is a popular paradigm whose purpose is to emerge computers into the real world, to serve humans where the ubiquitous network is the underneath infrastructure. In order to provide ubiquitous services (u-Service which deliver useful information to service users without human intervention, this paper implements a proactive information delivery system using Bluetooth technology. Bluetooth is a lowpowered networking service that supports several protocol profiles, most importantly file transfer.Combined together, ubiquitous computing and Bluetooth have the potential to furnish ubiquitous solutions (u-Solutions that are efficient, employ simplified design characteristics, and collaboratively perform functions they are otherwise not capable. Thus, this paper first addresses the current Bluetooth technology. Then, it suggests and develops the proactive information delivery system utilizing Bluetooth and ubiquitous computing network concepts. The proactive information delivery system can be used in many ubiquitous applications such as ubiquitous commerce (u-Commerce and ubiquitous education (u- Education.

  1. Preparation of drug delivery systems using supercritical fluid technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompella, U B; Koushik, K

    2001-01-01

    Small changes in temperature and pressure near the critical region induce dramatic changes in the density and solubility of supercritical fluids, thereby facilitating the use of environmentally benign agents such as CO2 for their solvent and antisolvent properties in processing a wide variety of materials. While supercritical fluid technologies have been in commercial use in the food and chromatography industries for several years, only recently has this technology made inroads in the formulation of drug delivery systems. This review summarizes some of the recent applications of supercritical fluid technology in the preparation of drug delivery systems. Drugs containing polymeric particles, plain drug particles, solute-containing liposomes, and inclusion complexes of drug and carrier have been formulated using this technology. Also, polymer separation using this technology is enabling the selection of a pure fraction of a polymer, thereby allowing a more precise control of drug release from polymeric delivery systems.

  2. Pulsatile Drug Delivery System Based on Electrohydrodynamic Method

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yi; Hu, Junqiang; Gao, Wenle

    2012-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) generation, a commonly used method in BioMEMS, plays a significant role in the pulsatile drug delivery system for a decade. In this paper, an EHD based drug delivery system is well designed, which can be used to generate a single drug droplet as small as 2.83 nL in 8.5 ms with a total device of 2\\times2\\times3 mm^3, and an external supplied voltage of 1500 V. Theoretically, we derive the expressions for the size and the formation time of a droplet generated by EHD method, while taking into account the drug supply rate, properties of liquid, gap between two electrodes, nozzle size, and charged droplet neutralization. This work proves a repeatable, stable and controllable droplet generation and delivery system based on EHD method experimentally as well as theoretically.

  3. Information Delivery System through Bluetooth in Ubiquitous Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Devi, D Asha; Pavani, V L; Geethanjali, N

    2010-01-01

    computers into the real world, to serve humans where the ubiquitous network is the underneath infrastructure. In order to provide ubiquitous services (u-Service) which deliver useful information to service users without human intervention, this paper implements a proactive information delivery system using Bluetooth technology. Bluetooth is a lowpowered networking service that supports several protocol profiles, most importantly file transfer.Combined together, ubiquitous computing and Bluetooth ha e the potential to furnish ubiquitous solutions (u-Solutions) that are efficient, employ simplified design characteristics, and collaboratively perform functions they are otherwise not capable. Thus, this paper first addresses the current Bluetooth technology. Then, it suggests and develops the proactive information delivery system utilizing Bluetooth and ubiquitous computing network concepts. The proactive information delivery system can be used in many ubiquitous applications such as ubiquitous commerce (u-Commer...

  4. Efficiency performance of China's health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyu; Cheng, Gang; Song, Suhang; Yuan, Beibei; Zhu, Weiming; He, Li; Ma, Xiaochen; Meng, Qingyue

    2017-07-01

    Improving efficiency performance of the health care delivery system has been on the agenda for the health system reform that China initiated in 2009. This study examines the changes in efficiency performance and determinants of efficiency after the reform to provide evidence to assess the progress of the reform from the perspective of efficiency. Descriptive analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis, the Malmquist Index, and multilevel regressions are used with data from multiple sources, including the World Bank, the China Health Statistical Yearbook, and routine reports. The results indicate that over the last decade, health outcomes compared with health investment were relatively higher in China than in most other countries worldwide, and the trend was stable. The overall efficiency and total factor productivity increased after the reform, indicating that the reform was likely to have had a positive impact on the efficiency performance of the health care delivery system. However, the health care delivery structure showed low system efficiency, mainly attributed to the weakened primary health care system. Strengthening the primary health care system is central to enhancing the future performance of China's health care delivery system. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Engineering Stent Based Delivery System for Esophageal Cancer Using Docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Mohsin; Choudhury, Namita Roy; Knott, Robert; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Esophageal cancer patients are often diagnosed as "advanced" cases. These patients are subjected to palliative stenting using self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) to maintain oral alimentation. Unfortunately, SEMS get reoccluded due to tumor growth, in and over the stent struts. To investigate potential solutions to this problem, docetaxel (DTX) delivery films were prepared using PurSil AL 20 (PUS), which can be used as a covering material for the SEMS. Drug-polymer miscibility and interactions were studied. Bilayer films were prepared by adhering the blank film to the DTX loaded film in order to maintain the unidirectional delivery to the esophagus. In vitro release and the local DTX delivery were studied using in vitro permeation experiments. It was found that DTX and PUS were physically and chemically compatible. The bilayer films exhibited sustained release (>30 days) and minimal DTX permeation through esophageal tissues in vitro. The rate-determining step for the DTX delivery was calculated. It was found that >0.9 fraction of rate control lies with the esophageal tissues, suggesting that DTX delivery can be sustained for longer periods compared to the in vitro release observed. Thus, the bilayer films can be developed as a localized sustained delivery system in combination with the stent.

  6. Oral Drug Delivery Systems Comprising Altered Geometric Configurations for Controlled Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Bawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments.

  7. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  8. [Development of drug delivery systems for targeting to macrophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Sumio

    2007-09-01

    Drug delivery systems (DDS) using liposomes as drug carriers for targeting to macrophages have been developed for the treatment of diseases that macrophages are related to their progress. Initially, DDS for the treatment of atherosclerosis are described. The influence of particle size on the drug delivery to atherosclerotic lesions that macrophages are richly present and antiatherosclerotic effects following intravenous administration of liposomes containing dexamethasone (DXM-liposomes) was investigated in atherogenic mice. Both the drug delivery efficacy of DXM-liposomes (particle size, 200 nm) to atherosclerotic lesions and their antiatherosclerotic effects were greater than those of 70 and 500 nm. These results indicate that there is an optimal particle size for drug delivery to atherosclerotic lesions. DDS for the treatment of respiratory infections are then described. The influence of particle size and surface mannosylation on the drug delivery to alveolar macrophages (AMs) and antibacterial effects following pulmonary administration of liposomes containing ciprofloxacin (CPFX-liposomes) was investigated in rats. The drug delivery efficacy of CPFX-liposomes to AMs was particle size-dependent over the range 100-1000 nm and then became constant at over 1000 nm. These results indicate that the most effective size is 1000 nm. Both the drug delivery efficacy of mannosylated CPFX-liposomes (particle size, 1000 nm) to AMs and their antibacterial effects were significantly greater than those of unmodified CPFX-liposomes. These results indicate that the surface mannosylation is useful method for drug delivery to AMs. This review provides useful information to help in the development of novel pharmaceutical formulations aimed at drug targeting to macrophages.

  9. Liposomal drug delivery systems: from concept to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Theresa M; Cullis, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The first closed bilayer phospholipid systems, called liposomes, were described in 1965 and soon were proposed as drug delivery systems. The pioneering work of countless liposome researchers over almost 5 decades led to the development of important technical advances such as remote drug loading, extrusion for homogeneous size, long-circulating (PEGylated) liposomes, triggered release liposomes, liposomes containing nucleic acid polymers, ligand-targeted liposomes and liposomes containing combinations of drugs. These advances have led to numerous clinical trials in such diverse areas as the delivery of anti-cancer, anti-fungal and antibiotic drugs, the delivery of gene medicines, and the delivery of anesthetics and anti-inflammatory drugs. A number of liposomes (lipidic nanoparticles) are on the market, and many more are in the pipeline. Lipidic nanoparticles are the first nanomedicine delivery system to make the transition from concept to clinical application, and they are now an established technology platform with considerable clinical acceptance. We can look forward to many more clinical products in the future.

  10. Ultrafast fiber beam delivery: system technology and industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck, Max C.; Eilzer, Sebastian; Wedel, Björn

    2017-02-01

    Flexible beam delivery of high power pico- and femtosecond pulses offers great advantages in industrial applications. Complex free space beam delivery as found in robot or gantry systems can be replaced, laser safety and uptime increased and system integration in production environment simplified. Only recently fiber beam delivery has become available for ultrafast lasers while it has been an established standard for cw and pulsed laser sources for many years. Using special kinds of fiber that guide the laser beam mostly inside a hollow core, nonlinear effects and catastrophic damage that would arise in conventional glass fibers can be avoided. Today, ultrafast pulses with several 100 μJ and hundreds of MW can be transmitted in quasi single mode fashion with micro-structured hollow core fibers. During the last years we have developed a modular beam delivery system that suits industrial ultrafast lasers and can be integrated into existing processing machines. Micro-structured hollow core fibers inside the sealed laser light cable efficiently guide high-power laser pulses over distances of several meters with excellent beam quality, while power, pulse duration and polarization are maintained. We report on the technology required for fiber beam delivery of ultrafast laser pulses and discuss requirements for successful integration into industrial production as well as achievable performance under realistic operation and show examples of micromachining applications.

  11. Process development work plan for waste feed delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-04-02

    This work plan defines the process used to develop project definition for Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). Project definition provides the direction for development of definitive design media required for the ultimate implementation of operational processing hardware and software. Outlines for the major deliverables are attached as appendices. The implementation of hardware and software will accommodate requirements for safe retrieval and delivery of waste currently stored in Hanford`s underground storage tanks. Operations and maintenance ensure the availability of systems, structures, and components for current and future planned operations within the boundary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) authorization basis.

  12. Bond graph model-based fault diagnosis of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a bond graph model-based approach to fault diagnosis in mechatronic systems appropriately represented by a hybrid model. The book begins by giving a survey of the fundamentals of fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, then recalls state-of-art developments referring to latest publications, and goes on to discuss various bond graph representations of hybrid system models, equations formulation for switched systems, and simulation of their dynamic behavior. The structured text: • focuses on bond graph model-based fault detection and isolation in hybrid systems; • addresses isolation of multiple parametric faults in hybrid systems; • considers system mode identification; • provides a number of elaborated case studies that consider fault scenarios for switched power electronic systems commonly used in a variety of applications; and • indicates that bond graph modelling can also be used for failure prognosis. In order to facilitate the understanding of fault diagnosis and the presented...

  13. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC method.Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM is calculated based. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an in-house developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the dose calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes in color wash overlaid on the CT image. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time.Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The update frequency is >10Hz and the relative uncertainty level is 2%.Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process.------------------------------Cite this article as: Shi F, Gu X, Graves YJ, Jiang S, Jia X. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery

  14. Hybrid Recommender System for Joining Virtual Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Esmaeili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of social networks and virtual communities has created problematic for users of different ages and preferences; in addition, since the true nature of groups is not clearly outlined, users are uncertain about joining various virtual groups and usually face the trouble of joining the undesired ones. As a solution, in this study, we introduced the hybrid community recommender system which offers customized recommendations based on user preferences. Although techniques such as content based filtering and collaborative filtering methods are available, these techniques are not enough efficient and in some cases make problems and bring limitations to users. Our method is based on a combination of content based filtering and collaborative filtering methods. It is created by selecting related features of users based on supervised entropy as well as using association rules and classification method. Supposing users in each community or group share similar characteristics, by hierarchical clustering, heterogeneous members are identified and removed. Unlike other methods, this is also applicable for users who have just joined the social network where they do not have any connections or group memberships. In such situations, this method could still offer recommendations.

  15. Polymer hybrid materials for planar optronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Martin; Prucker, Oswald; Rühe, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Planar optronic systems made entirely from polymeric functional materials on polymeric foils are interesting architectures for monitoring and sensing applications. Key components in this regard are polymer hybrid materials with adjustable optical properties. These materials can then be processed into optical components such as waveguides for example by using embossing techniques. However, the resulting microstructures have often low mechanical or thermal stability which quickly leads to a degradation of the microstructures accompanied often by a complete loss of function. A simple and versatile way to increase the thermal and mechanical stability of polymers is to connect the individual chains to a polymer network by using thermally or photochemically reactive groups. Upon excitation, these groups form reactive intermediates such as radicals or nitrenes which then crosslink with adjacent C-H-groups through a C,H insertion reaction (CHic = C,H insertion based crosslinking). To generate waveguide structures a PDMS stamp is filled with the waveguide core material e.g. poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), which is modified with a few mol% of the thermal crosslinker and hot embossed onto a foil substrate e.g. PMMA. In this one-step hot embossing process polymer ridge waveguides are formed and simultaneously the polymer becomes crosslinked. Due to the reaction across the boundary between waveguide and substrate it is also possible to combine initially incompatible polymers for the waveguide and the substrate foil. The thermomechanical properties of the obtained materials are studied.

  16. Mitomycin C-soybean phosphatidylcholine complex-loaded self-assembled PEG-lipid-PLA hybrid nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and dual-controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Hongjie; Yang, Xiangrui; Jia, Mengmeng; Li, Yanxiu; Huang, Yu; Lin, Jinyan; Wu, Shichao; Hou, Zhenqing

    2014-08-04

    Most present drug-phospholipid delivery systems were based on a water-insoluble drug-phospholipid complex but rarely water-soluble drug-phospholipid complex. Mitomycin C (MMC) is a water-soluble anticancer drug extensively used in first-line chemotherapy but is limited by its poor aqueous stability in vitro, rapid elimination from the body, and lack of target specificity. In this article, we report the MMC-soybean phosphatidylcholine complex-loaded PEG-lipid-PLA hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) with Folate (FA) functionalization (FA-PEG-PE-PLA NPs@MMC-SPC) for targeted drug delivery and dual-controlled drug release. FA-PEG-PE-PLA NPs@MMC-SPC comprise a hydrophobic core (PLA) loaded with MMC-SPC, an amphiphilic lipid interface layer (PE), a hydrophilic shell (PEG), and a targeting ligand (FA) on the surface, with a spherical shape, a nanoscaled particle size, and high drug encapsulation efficiency of almost 95%. The advantage of the new drug delivery systems is the early phase controlled drug release by the drug-phospholipid complex and the late-phase controlled drug release by the pH-sensitive polymer-lipid hybrid NPs. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolysis assays demonstrated that the drug carriers were cytocompatible and hemocompatible. The pharmacokinetics study in rats showed that FA-PEG-PE-PLA NPs@MMC-SPC significantly prolonged the blood circulation time compared to that of the free MMC. More importantly, FA-PEG-PE-PLA NPs@MMC-SPC presented the enhanced cell uptake/cytotoxicity in vitro and superior tumor accumulation/therapeutic efficacy in vivo while reducing the systemic toxicity. A significant accumulation of MMC in the nuclei as the site of MMC action achieved in FA-PEG-PE-PLA NPs@MMC-SPC made them ideal for MMC drug delivery. This study may provide an effective strategy for the design and development of the water-soluble drug-phospholipid complex-based targeted drug delivery and sustained/controlled drug release.

  17. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rompicharla Bhargavi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatile drug delivery systems are gaining popularity in the field of pharmaceutical formulation, research and development. The prime advantage in this drug delivery is that the drug is released as per the pathophysiological need of the disease. As a result the change of development of drug resistance which is seen in conventional and sustained released formulations can be reduced. This therapy is mainly applicable where sustained action is not required and the drugs are toxic. Basic point of development of this formulation is to find out the circadian rhythms that is a suitable indicator that will trigger the release of drug from the device. Clock genes are the genes that control the circadian rhythms in human physiology. Pulsatile drug delivery systems are promising incase of asthma, cardiovascular diseases, peptic ulcers, arthritis, and hypercholesterolemic conditions.

  18. Novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hairui; Yu, Yuan; Faraji Dana, Sara; Li, Bo; Lee, Chi-Ying; Kang, Lifeng

    2013-08-01

    Technological advances in drug discovery have resulted in increasing number of molecules including proteins and peptides as drug candidates. However, how to deliver drugs with satisfactory therapeutic effect, minimal side effects and increased patient compliance is a question posted before researchers, especially for those drugs with poor solubility, large molecular weight or instability. Microfabrication technology, polymer science and bioconjugate chemistry combine to address these problems and generate a number of novel engineered drug delivery systems. Injection routes usually have poor patient compliance due to their invasive nature and potential safety concerns over needle reuse. The alternative non-invasive routes, such as oral, mucosal (pulmonary, nasal, ocular, buccal, rectal, vaginal), and transdermal drug delivery have thus attracted many attentions. Here, we review the applications of the novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

  19. Smart surface-enhanced Raman scattering traceable drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Tang, Yonghong; Dai, Sheng; Kleitz, Freddy; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2016-07-07

    A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells.

  20. Advanced Drug Delivery Systems - a Synthetic and Biological Applied Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lise Nørkjær

    Specific delivery of drugs to diseased sites in the body is a major topic in the development of drug delivery system today. Especially, the field of cancer treatment needs improved drug delivery systems as the strong dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy today often present a barrier...... unloading of the encapsulated drug have been tried optimized in a variety of ways. Many propose the use of small molecules, such as vitamins and peptides, for active targeting of the liposomes to overexpressed receptors on the cancerous tissue. Once located close to the diseased site a trigger mechanism...... for releasing the drug from the liposome interior is often needed. Several approaches have been suggested to work as release mechanisms such a pH changes, the presence of enzymes or external applied stimulus as heat or light. Chapter two deals with the synthesis of the functionalized phospholipids, which...

  1. Limited Efficiency of Drug Delivery to Specific Intracellular Organelles Using Subcellularly "Targeted" Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Stepensky, David

    2016-01-01

    Many drugs have been designed to act on intracellular targets and to affect intracellular processes inside target cells. For the desired effects to be exerted, these drugs should permeate target cells and reach specific intracellular organelles. This subcellular drug targeting approach has been proposed for enhancement of accumulation of these drugs in target organelles and improved efficiency. This approach is based on drug encapsulation in drug delivery systems (DDSs) and/or their decoration with specific targeting moieties that are intended to enhance the drug/DDS accumulation in the intracellular organelle of interest. During recent years, there has been a constant increase in interest in DDSs targeted to specific intracellular organelles, and many different approaches have been proposed for attaining efficient drug delivery to specific organelles of interest. However, it appears that in many studies insufficient efforts have been devoted to quantitative analysis of the major formulation parameters of the DDSs disposition (efficiency of DDS endocytosis and endosomal escape, intracellular trafficking, and efficiency of DDS delivery to the target organelle) and of the resulting pharmacological effects. Thus, in many cases, claims regarding efficient delivery of drug/DDS to a specific organelle and efficient subcellular targeting appear to be exaggerated. On the basis of the available experimental data, it appears that drugs/DDS decoration with specific targeting residues can affect their intracellular fate and result in preferential drug accumulation within an organelle of interest. However, it is not clear whether these approaches will be efficient in in vivo settings and be translated into preclinical and clinical applications. Studies that quantitatively assess the mechanisms, barriers, and efficiencies of subcellular drug delivery and of the associated toxic effects are required to determine the therapeutic potential of subcellular DDS targeting.

  2. Smart surface-enhanced Raman scattering traceable drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Tang, Yonghong; Dai, Sheng; Kleitz, Freddy; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2016-06-01

    A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells.A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03869g

  3. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder; ,Edgar B.

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  4. The NCI Delivery System for PDQ

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The Physician Data Query System (PDQ) represents a major effort by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to communicate advances in cancer treatment using computer technology. It utilizes a modern large scale computer mainframe to provide processing speed, a general purpose database management system to provide retrieval and display functions and flexibility, and commercial communications networks to provide access to an audience of physicians and other health care professionals seeking up-to-d...

  5. Review of Innovative Sediment Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    analyzing site-specific hydrodynamics. The system employs numerical wave, current, and morphology models to optimize an offshore stockpile...refraction, and many other wave behaviors. TRANSPOR2004 is a sed- iment morphology model used for computation of sand transport under current and...CON World Systems, http://www.all-con.com/ newsletter /newsletter1.html. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS. Term Definition CAS Conveyor Application

  6. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  7. Current Multistage Drug Delivery Systems Based on the Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binlong; Dai, Wenbing; He, Bing; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Yiguang; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The development of traditional tumor-targeted drug delivery systems based on EPR effect and receptor-mediated endocytosis is very challenging probably because of the biological complexity of tumors as well as the limitations in the design of the functional nano-sized delivery systems. Recently, multistage drug delivery systems (Ms-DDS) triggered by various specific tumor microenvironment stimuli have emerged for tumor therapy and imaging. In response to the differences in the physiological blood circulation, tumor microenvironment, and intracellular environment, Ms-DDS can change their physicochemical properties (such as size, hydrophobicity, or zeta potential) to achieve deeper tumor penetration, enhanced cellular uptake, timely drug release, as well as effective endosomal escape. Based on these mechanisms, Ms-DDS could deliver maximum quantity of drugs to the therapeutic targets including tumor tissues, cells, and subcellular organelles and eventually exhibit the highest therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we expatiate on various responsive modes triggered by the tumor microenvironment stimuli, introduce recent advances in multistage nanoparticle systems, especially the multi-stimuli responsive delivery systems, and discuss their functions, effects, and prospects. PMID:28255348

  8. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmy Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.

  9. Nanostructured lipid carriers system: recent advances in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Md Asif; Md, Shadab; Sahni, Jasjeet Kaur; Baboota, Sanjula; Dang, Shweta; Ali, Javed

    2012-12-01

    Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) is second generation smarter drug carrier system having solid matrix at room temperature. This carrier system is made up of physiological, biodegradable and biocompatible lipid materials and surfactants and is accepted by regulatory authorities for application in different drug delivery systems. The availability of many products in the market in short span of time reveals the success story of this delivery system. Since the introduction of the first product, around 30 NLC preparations are commercially available. NLC exhibit superior advantages over other colloidal carriers viz., nanoemulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, SLN etc. and thus, have been explored to more extent in pharmaceutical technology. The whole set of unique advantages such as enhanced drug loading capacity, prevention of drug expulsion, leads to more flexibility for modulation of drug release and makes NLC versatile delivery system for various routes of administration. The present review gives insights on the definitions and characterization of NLC as colloidal carriers including the production techniques and suitable formulations. This review paper also highlights the importance of NLC in pharmaceutical applications for the various routes of drug delivery viz., topical, oral, pulmonary, ocular and parenteral administration and its future perspective as a pharmaceutical carrier.

  10. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  11. A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. A.

    1983-12-01

    A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems provides a combination of components to realize zero downtime and minimum initial or life-cycle cost. Using Dayton, OH as a test site for weather data, cost advantages in the neighborhood of four are predicted for a hybrid system with battery storage when compared to a wind-energy-only system for the same electrical load.

  12. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during t...

  13. Hybrid polymer-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes for in vitro gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Antonio; Amsharov, Nadja; Guo, Chang; Van den Bossche, Jeroen; Santhosh, Padmanabhan; Karachalios, Theodoros K; Nitodas, Stephanos F; Burghard, Marko; Kostarelos, Kostas; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2010-10-18

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) consist of carbon atoms arranged in sheets of graphene rolled up into cylindrical shapes. This class of nanomaterials has attracted attention because of their extraordinary properties, such as high electrical and thermal conductivity. In addition, development in CNT functionalization chemistry has led to an enhanced dispersibility in aqueous physiological media which indeed broadens the spectrum for their potential biological applications including gene delivery. The aim of this study is to determine the capability of different cationic polymer-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) (polymer-g-MWNTs) to efficiently complex and transfer plasmid DNA (pCMV-βGal) in vitro without promoting cytotoxicity. Carboxylated MWNT is chemically conjugated to the cationic polymers polyethylenimine (PEI), polyallylamine (PAA), or a mixture of the two polymers. In order to explore the potential of these polymer-g-MWNTs as gene delivery systems, we first study their capacity to complex plasmid DNA (pDNA) using agarose gel electrophoresis. Gel migration studies confirm pDNA binding to polymer-g-MWNT with different affinities, highest for PEI-g-MWNT and PEI/PAA-g-CNT constructs. β-galactosidase expression is assessed in human lung epithelial (A549) cells, and the cytotoxicity is determined by modified LDH assay after 24 h incubation period. Additionally, PEI-g-MWNT and/or PEI/PAA-g-MWNT reveal an improvement in gene expression when compared to the naked pDNA or to the equivalent amounts of PEI polymer alone. Mechanistically, pDNA was delivered by the polymer-g-MWNT constructs via a different pathway compared to those used by polyplexes. In conclusion, polymer-g-MWNTs may be considered in the future as a versatile tool for efficient gene transfer in cancer cells in vitro, provided their toxicological profile is established.

  14. A Hybrid Algorithm for Solving the Economic Lot and Delivery Scheduling Problem in the Common Cycle Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ju, Suquan; Clausen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The ELDSP problem is a combined lot sizing and sequencing problem. A supplier produces and delivers components of different component types to a consumer in batches. The task is to determine the cycle time, i.e. that time between deliveries, which minimizes the total cost per time unit. This incl......The ELDSP problem is a combined lot sizing and sequencing problem. A supplier produces and delivers components of different component types to a consumer in batches. The task is to determine the cycle time, i.e. that time between deliveries, which minimizes the total cost per time unit....... This includes the determination of the production sequence of the component types within each cycle. We investigate the computational behavior of two published algorithms, a heuristic and an optimal algorithm. With large number of component types, the optimal algorithm has long running times. We devise a hybrid...

  15. Evolution of implantable and insertable drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Lothar W; Wright, Jeremy C; Wang, Yunbing

    2014-05-10

    The paper describes the development of implantable and insertable drug delivery systems (IDDS) from their early stage in the 1960s until the current stage in the 2010s. It gives a detailed summary of non-degradable and biodegradable systems and their applications in different areas such as vascular disease treatment, birth control, cancer treatment, and eye disease treatment. It also describes the development of various implantable pump systems and some other atypical IDDS, the challenges and the future of IDDS.

  16. New perspectives on lipid and surfactant based drug delivery systems for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllertz, Anette; Ogbonna, Anayo; Ren, Shan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight relevant considerations when implementing a rational strategy for the development of lipid and surfactant based drug delivery system and to discuss shortcomings and challenges to the current classification of these delivery systems. We also aim to offer...

  17. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  18. Exact Verification of Hybrid Systems Based on Bilinear SOS Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of safety verification of nonlinear hybrid systems and stability analysis of nonlinear autonomous systems. A hybrid symbolic-numeric method is presented to compute exact inequality invariants of hybrid systems and exact estimates of regions of attraction of autonomous systems efficiently. Some numerical invariants of a hybrid system or an estimate of region of attraction can be obtained by solving a bilinear SOS program via PENBMI solver or iterative method, then the modified Newton refinement and rational vector recovery techniques are applied to obtain exact polynomial invariants and estimates of regions of attraction with rational coefficients. Experiments on some benchmarks are given to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithm.

  19. MICROEMULSIONS AS ANTIDIABETIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Sarhan, Mahmoud M. Ibrahim* and Mahmoud Mahdy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Glibenclamide is practically insoluble in water and its gastrointestinal absorption is limited by its dissolution rate. Therefore, to enhance the drug dissolution and its hypoglycemic effects, the drug was formulated in different microemulsion systems and in vitro/in vivo evaluated. Microemulsion systems were prepared by Water titration method in which surfactants and cosurfactants (S/CoS were mixed at different weight ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. They were subjected to transmission electron microscopical examination, pH determination and viscosity tests. The solubility of Glibenclamide in different microemulsion systems was determined. Forms 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 18 were found to have high Glibenclamide solubility using different oils. Form 11 and 9 showed the highest Glibenclamide release rates of 59.72% and 52.35%, respectively after 6 hours. In-vivo studies were tested using diabetic rats by application of form 11 with n-butanol as cosurfactant transdermally and form 8 with propylene glycol cosurfactant orally and transdermally. The results were compared to the drug suspension as a positive control. It was shown that microemulsion systems gave an effective tool of increasing drug dissolution probably due to enhanced wettability and reduced drug particle size, which in turn led to enhance its hypoglycemic effects.

  20. The new organization of the health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortell, S M; Hull, K E

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is restructuring at a dizzying pace. In many parts of the country, managed care has moved into third-generation models emphasizing capitated payment for enrolled lives and, in the process, turning most providers and institutions into cost centers to be managed rather than generators of revenue. While the full impact of the new managed care models remains to be seen, most evidence to date suggests that it tends to reduce inpatient use, may be associated with greater use of physician services and preventive care, and appears to result in no net differences either positive or negative with regard to quality or outcomes of care in comparison with fee-for-service plans. Some patients, however, tend to be somewhat less satisfied with scheduling of appointments and the amount of time spent with providers. There is no persuasive evidence that managed care lowers the rate of growth in overall health care costs within a given market. Further, managed care performance varies considerably across the country, and the factors influencing managed care performance are not well understood. Organized delivery systems are a somewhat more recent phenomenon representing various forms of ownership and strategic alliances among hospitals, physicians, and insurers designed to provide more cost-effective care to defined populations by achieving desired levels of functional, physician-system, and clinical integration. Early evidence suggests that organized delivery systems that are more integrated have the potential to provide more accessible coordinated care across the continuum, and appear to be associated with higher levels of inpatient productivity, greater total system revenue, greater total system cash flow, and greater total system operating margin than less integrated delivery forms. Some key success factors for developing organized delivery systems have been identified. Important roles are played by organizational culture, information systems, internal

  1. Modification of microbial polyacids for drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz Landázuri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are becoming preferred materials in biomedical applications because of their vast diversity of properties, functionalities and applications. Properties as mechanical strength, stability against degradation, biocompatibility and biodegradability, among others, have been attractive for different medical applications. One of the most interesting applications of these materials is drug delivery systems. Biodegradable polymers and copolymers are the preferred materials for the manufacture...

  2. Novel targeted bladder drug-delivery systems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacchè MM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Martino Maria Zacchè, Sushma Srikrishna, Linda Cardozo Department of Urogynaecology, King's College Hospital, London, UK Abstract: The objective of pharmaceutics is the development of drugs with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. Prolonged exposure of the diseased tissue to the drug is of crucial importance. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs have been introduced to control rate, time, and place of release. Drugs can easily reach the bladder through a catheter, while systemically administered agents may undergo extensive metabolism. Continuous urine filling and subsequent washout hinder intravesical drug delivery (IDD. Moreover, the low permeability of the urothelium, also described as the bladder permeability barrier, poses a major challenge in the development of the IDD. DDSs increase bioavailability of drugs, therefore improving therapeutic effect and patient compliance. This review focuses on novel DDSs to treat bladder conditions such as overactive bladder, interstitial cystitis, bladder cancer, and recurrent urinary tract infections. The rationale and strategies for both systemic and local delivery methods are discussed, with emphasis on new formulations of well-known drugs (oxybutynin, nanocarriers, polymeric hydrogels, intravesical devices, encapsulated DDSs, and gene therapy. We give an overview of current and future prospects of DDSs for bladder disorders, including nanotechnology and gene therapy. Keywords: drug targeting, drug-delivery system, bladder disorders

  3. Magnetic microspheres as magical novel drug delivery system: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinder Kakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic microspheres hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery. Magnetic microspheres as an alternative to traditional radiation methods which uses highly penetrating radiations that is absorbed throughout the body. Its use is limited by toxicity and side effects. Now days, several targeted treatment systems including magnetic field, electric field, ultrasound, temperature, UV light and mechanical force are being used in many disease treatments (e.g. cancer, nerve damage, heart and artery, anti-diabetic, eye and other medical treatments. Among them, the magnetic targeted drug delivery system is one of the most attractive and promising strategy for delivering the drug to the specified site. Magnetically controlled drug targeting is one of the various possible ways of drug targeting. This technology is based on binding establish anticancer drug with ferrofluid that concentrate the drug in the area of interest (tumor site by means of magnetic fields. There has been keen interest in the development of a magnetically target drug delivery system. These drug delivery systems aim to deliver the drug at a rate directed by the needs of the body during the period of treatment, and target the activity entity to the site of action. Magnetic microspheres were developed to overcome two major problems encountered in drug targeting namely: RES clearance and target site specificity.

  4. Nanoparticulate Adjuvants and Delivery Systems for Allergen Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana De Souza Rebouças

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, significant progress in research and clinics has been made to offer possible innovative therapeutics for the management of allergic diseases. However, current allergen immunotherapy shows limitations concerning the long-term efficacy and safety due to local side effects and risk of anaphylaxis. Thus, effective and safe vaccines with reduced dose of allergen have been developed using adjuvants. Nevertheless, the use of adjuvants still has several disadvantages, which limits its use in human vaccines. In this context, several novel adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy are currently being investigated and developed. Currently, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems have received much interest as potential adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy. It has been demonstrated that the incorporation of allergens into a delivery system plays an important role in the efficacy of allergy vaccines. Several nanoparticles-based delivery systems have been described, including biodegradable and nondegradable polymeric carriers. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the current adjuvants used for allergen immunotherapy. Furthermore, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems are focused as a novel and promising strategy for allergy vaccines.

  5. Nanocarriers for systemic siRNA delivery to tumor vasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a high need for efficacious medicines in cancer therapy. The use of conventional medicines to treat cancer is often hampered by their unfavorable safety profile which limits their dosing. By using targeted delivery systems, toxicity in non-target tissues can be reduced. An

  6. Orally disintegrating films: A modern expansion in drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, tendency toward innovative drug delivery systems has majorly increased attempts to ensure efficacy, safety and patient acceptability. As discovery and development of new chemical agents is a complex, expensive and time consuming process, so recent trends are shifting toward designing and developing innovative drug delivery systems for existing drugs. Out of those, drug delivery system being very eminent among pediatrics and geriatrics is orally disintegrating films (ODFs. These fast disintegrating films have superiority over fast disintegrating tablets as the latter are associated with the risks of choking and friability. This drug delivery system has numerous advantages over conventional fast disintegrating tablets as they can be used for dysphasic and schizophrenic patients and are taken without water due to their ability to disintegrate within a few seconds releasing medication in mouth. Various approaches are employed for formulating ODFs and among which solvent casting and spraying methods are frequently used. Generally, hydrophilic polymers along with other excipients are used for preparing ODFs which allow films to disintegrate quickly releasing incorporated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API within seconds. Orally disintegrating films have potential for business and market exploitation because of their myriad of benefits over orally disintegrating tablets. This present review attempts to focus on benefits, composition, approaches for formulation and evaluation of ODFs. Additionally, the market prospect of this innovative dosage form is also targeted.

  7. Nanoparticulate adjuvants and delivery systems for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza Rebouças, Juliana; Esparza, Irene; Ferrer, Marta; Sanz, María Luisa; Irache, Juan Manuel; Gamazo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, significant progress in research and clinics has been made to offer possible innovative therapeutics for the management of allergic diseases. However, current allergen immunotherapy shows limitations concerning the long-term efficacy and safety due to local side effects and risk of anaphylaxis. Thus, effective and safe vaccines with reduced dose of allergen have been developed using adjuvants. Nevertheless, the use of adjuvants still has several disadvantages, which limits its use in human vaccines. In this context, several novel adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy are currently being investigated and developed. Currently, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems have received much interest as potential adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy. It has been demonstrated that the incorporation of allergens into a delivery system plays an important role in the efficacy of allergy vaccines. Several nanoparticles-based delivery systems have been described, including biodegradable and nondegradable polymeric carriers. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the current adjuvants used for allergen immunotherapy. Furthermore, nanoparticles-based allergen-delivery systems are focused as a novel and promising strategy for allergy vaccines.

  8. Targeted nanodrug delivery systems for the treatment of Tuberculosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemmer, Yolandy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available patient treatment compliance and drug resistance pose a great challenge to TB treatment programs worldwide. To improve the current inadequate therapeutic management of TB, a polymeric anti-TB nanodrug delivery system for anti-TB drugs was developed...

  9. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  10. Application of Various Types of Liposomes in Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Alavi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes, due to their various forms, require further exploration. These structures can deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs for cancer, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulation, diagnostics, ophtalmica, vaccines, enzymes and genetic elements. Preparation of liposomes results in different properties for these systems. In addition, based on preparation methods, liposomes types can be unilamellar, multilamellar and giant unilamellar; however, there are many factors and difficulties that affect the development of liposome drug delivery structure. In the present review, we discuss some problems that impact drug delivery by liposomes. In addition, we discuss a new generation of liposomes, which is utilized for decreasing the limitation of the conventional liposomes.

  11. Application of Various Types of Liposomes in Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Mehran; Karimi, Naser; Safaei, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    Liposomes, due to their various forms, require further exploration. These structures can deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs for cancer, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulation, diagnostics, ophtalmica, vaccines, enzymes and genetic elements. Preparation of liposomes results in different properties for these systems. In addition, based on preparation methods, liposomes types can be unilamellar, multilamellar and giant unilamellar; however, there are many factors and difficulties that affect the development of liposome drug delivery structure. In the present review, we discuss some problems that impact drug delivery by liposomes. In addition, we discuss a new generation of liposomes, which is utilized for decreasing the limitation of the conventional liposomes.

  12. REVIEW ON FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: AN APPROACH TO ORAL CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY VIA GASTRIC RETENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Shashikant M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release (CR dosage forms have been extensively used to improve therapy with many important drugs. Several approaches are currently utilized in prolongation of gastric residence time, including floating drug delivery system, swelling and expanding system, polymeric bioadhesive system, modified shape system, high density system and other delayed gastric emptying devices. However, the development processes are faced with several physiological difficulties such as the inability to restrain and localize the system within the desired region of the gastrointestinal tract and the highly variable nature of the gastric emptying process. On the other hand, incorporation of the drug in a controlled release gastroretentive dosage forms (CR-GRDF which can remain in the gastric region for several hours would significantly prolong the gastric residence time of drugs and improve bioavailability, reduce drug waste, and enhance the solubility of drugs that are less soluble in high pH environment. Gastroretention would also facilitate local drug delivery to the stomach and proximal small intestine. Thus, gastroretention could help to provide greater availability of new products and consequently improved therapeutic activity and substantial benefits to patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature and current technology used in the development of gastroretentive dosage forms.

  13. Steerable/distance enhanced penetrometer delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, A.; Boyd, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    Characterization, monitoring, and remediation of many of the nation`s highly contaminated sites are high priority at DOE. Penetrometers are often used for rapid characterization of underground contamination (plumes). Because of their heavy weight, use of penetrometer trucks over shallow buried storage tanks is restricted and risky. To close this gap, UTD developed a new position location device for penetrometers, called POLO (POsition LOcator), which provides real- time position location without blocking downhole access for environmental sensors. UTD also developed a system to make penetrometers steerable and capable of deeper penetration. Products of this work is a Steerable Vibratory System, which a relatively lightweight rig capable of greater penetration than traditional penetrometers of the same weight.

  14. Direct current power delivery system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Garces, Luis Jose; Dai, Jian; Lai, Rixin

    2016-09-06

    A power transmission system includes a first unit for carrying out the steps of receiving high voltage direct current (HVDC) power from an HVDC power line, generating an alternating current (AC) component indicative of a status of the first unit, and adding the AC component to the HVDC power line. Further, the power transmission system includes a second unit for carrying out the steps of generating a direct current (DC) voltage to transfer the HVDC power on the HVDC power line, wherein the HVDC power line is coupled between the first unit and the second unit, detecting a presence or an absence of the added AC component in the HVDC power line, and determining the status of the first unit based on the added AC component.

  15. Fluid delivery manifolds and microfluidic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renzi, Ronald F.; Sommer, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.; Hatch, Anson V.; Claudnic, Mark R.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Van de Vreugde, James L.

    2017-02-28

    Embodiments of fluid distribution manifolds, cartridges, and microfluidic systems are described herein. Fluid distribution manifolds may include an insert member and a manifold base and may define a substantially closed channel within the manifold when the insert member is press-fit into the base. Cartridges described herein may allow for simultaneous electrical and fluidic interconnection with an electrical multiplex board and may be held in place using magnetic attraction.

  16. Wind Solar Hybrid System Rectifier Stage Topology Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup M. Gakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents power-control strategies of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer. The hybrid system allows maximum utilization of freely available renewable sources like wind and photovoltaic energies. This paper presents a new system configuration of the multi input rectifier stage for a hybrid wind and photovoltaic energy system. This configuration allows the two sources to supply the load simultaneously depending on the availability of the energy sources maximum power from the sun when it is available. An adaptive MPPT algorithm with a standard perturbs and observed method will be used for the Photo Voltaic system. The main advantage of the hybrid system is to give continuous power supply to the load. The gating pulses to the inverter switches are implemented with conventional and fuzzy controller. This hybrid wind-photo voltaic system is modeled in MATLAB/ SIMULINK environment. Simulation circuit is analyzed and results are presented for this hybrid wind and solar energy system.

  17. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guler Yigitoglu, Askin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  18. Novel drug-delivery systems for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albu S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Silviu AlbuDepartment of Otolaryngology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaAbstract: Chronic rhinosinusitis, one of the most common chronic medical complaints in the United States, seems to be increasing in incidence and prevalence, and has a significant impact on quality of life. Topical forms of medical therapy represent an attractive alternative for drug delivery to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Topical drug delivery has the advantage of directly acting on the site of inflammation, producing a higher concentration at the target site while avoiding systemic side effects. Although considerable research has been undertaken into improving nasal formulations in order to enhance absorption, little attention has so far been directed to upgrading the delivery devices. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge on the novel drug-delivery devices in use in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis patients, and to present the current available knowledge on topical drug penetration into the sinuses using various delivery devices. Additionally, methods used to enhance fluid sinus deposition are presented and the published clinical studies on the results of nebulized antibiotics in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis patients are discussed.Keywords: paranasal sinuses, topical therapy, nebulized antibiotics, clinical trials

  19. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  20. Multifunctional organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets based on chitosan derivative and layered double hydroxide: cellular uptake mechanism and application for topical ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Huibo Chi,1,2,* Yan Gu,1,* Tingting Xu,1 Feng Cao1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 2State Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology and Pharmacokinetics, Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research Co., Ltd., Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: To study the cellular uptake mechanism of multifunctional organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets, new chitosan–glutathione–valine–valine-layered double hydroxide (CG-VV-LDH nanosheets with active targeting to peptide transporter-1 (PepT-1 were prepared, characterized and further compared with CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles. Both organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets showed a sustained release in vitro and prolonged precorneal retention time in vivo, but CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles showed superior permeability in the isolated cornea of rabbits than CG-VV-LDH nanosheets. Furthermore, results of cellular uptake on human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEpiC and retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19 cells indicated that both clathrin-mediated endocytosis and active transport of PepT-1 are involved in the internalization of CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles and CG-VV-LDH nanosheets. In summary, the CG-VV-LDH nanoparticle may be a promising carrier as a topical ocular drug delivery system for the treatment of ocular diseases of mid-posterior segments, while the CG-VV-LDH nanosheet may be suitable for the treatment of ocular surface diseases. Keywords: LDH nanoparticles, LDH nanosheets, ocular drug delivery, human corneal epithelial primary cell, retinal pigment cell, ARPE-19, active targeting

  1. Unsteady jet in designing innovative drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Mazur, Paul; Cosse, Julia; Rider, Stephanie; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    Micro-needle injections, a promising pain-free drug delivery method, is constrained by its limited penetration depth. This deficiency can be overcome by implementing fast unsteady jet that can penetrate sub-dermally. The development of a faster liquid jet would increase the penetration depth and delivery volume of micro-needles. In this preliminary work, the nonlinear transient behavior of an elastic tube balloon in providing fast discharge is analyzed. A physical model that combines the Mooney Rivlin Material model and Young-Lapalce's Law was developed and used to investigate the fast discharging dynamic phenomenon. A proof of concept prototype was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of a simple thumb-sized delivery system to generate liquid jet with desired speed in the range of 5-10 m/s. This work is supported by ZCUBE Corporation.

  2. Crystallization Methods for Preparation of Nanocrystals for Drug Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Jingkang; Wang, Yongli; Yin, Qiuxiang; Glennon, Brian; Zhong, Jian; Ouyang, Jinbo; Huang, Xin; Hao, Hongxun

    2015-01-01

    Low water solubility of drug products causes delivery problems such as low bioavailability. The reduced particle size and increased surface area of nanocrystals lead to the increasing of the dissolution rate. The formulation of drug nanocrystals is a robust approach and has been widely applied to drug delivery system (DDS) due to the significant development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It can be used to improve drug efficacy, provide targeted delivery and minimize side-effects. Crystallization is the main and efficient unit operation to produce nanocrystals. Both traditional crystallization methods such as reactive crystallization, anti-solvent crystallization and new crystallization methods such as supercritical fluid crystallization, high-gravity controlled precipitation can be used to produce nanocrystals. The current mini-review outlines the main crystallization methods addressed in literature. The advantages and disadvantages of each method were summarized and compared.

  3. Design of Magnetic Flux Feedback Controller in Hybrid Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid suspension system with permanent magnet and electromagnet consumes little power consumption and can realize larger suspension gap. But realizing stable suspension of hybrid magnet is a tricky problem in the suspension control sphere. Considering from this point, we take magnetic flux signal as a state variable and put this signal back to suspension control system. So we can get the hybrid suspension mathematical model based on magnetic flux signal feedback. By application of MIMO feedback linearization theory, we can further realize linearization of the hybrid suspension system. And then proportion, integral, differentiation, magnetic flux density B (PIDB controller is designed. Some hybrid suspension experiments have been done on CMS04 magnetic suspension bogie of National University of Defense Technology (NUDT in China. The experiments denote that the new hybrid suspension control algorithm based on magnetic flux signal feedback designed in this paper has more advantages than traditional position-current double cascade control algorithm. Obviously, the robustness and stability of hybrid suspension system have been enhanced.

  4. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of practical systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete modes of behavior, each defined by a set of continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task very challenging. In this work, we present a new modeling and diagnosis framework for hybrid systems. Models are composed from sets of user-defined components using a compositional modeling approach. Submodels for residual generation are then generated for a given mode, and reconfigured efficiently when the mode changes. Efficient reconfiguration is established by exploiting causality information within the hybrid system models. The submodels can then be used for fault diagnosis based on residual generation and analysis. We demonstrate the efficient causality reassignment, submodel reconfiguration, and residual generation for fault diagnosis using an electrical circuit case study.

  5. DESIGNING A HYBRID INTELLIGENT MINING SYSTEM FOR CREDIT RISK EVALUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study,a novel hybrid intelligent mining system integrating rough sets theory and support vector machines is developed to extract efficiently association rules from original information table for credit risk evaluation and analysis.In the proposed hybrid intelligent system,support vector machines are used as a tool to extract typical features and filter its noise,which are different from the previous studies where rough sets were only used as a preprocessor for support vector machines.Such an approach could reduce the information table and generate the final knowledge from the reduced information table by rough sets.Therefore,the proposed hybrid intelligent system overcomes the diffi-culty of extracting rules from a trained support vector machine classifier and possesses the robustness which is lacking for rough-set-based approaches.In addition,the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid intelligent system is illustrated with two real-world credit datasets.

  6. Asymptotic Stabilizability of a Class of Stochastic Nonlinear Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Seroka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the asymptotic stabilizability in probability of a class of stochastic nonlinear control hybrid systems (with a linear dependence of the control with state dependent, Markovian, and any switching rule is considered in the paper. To solve the issue, the Lyapunov technique, including a common, single, and multiple Lyapunov function, the hybrid control theory, and some results for stochastic nonhybrid systems are used. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stabilizability in probability for a considered class of hybrid systems are formulated. Also the stabilizing control in a feedback form is considered. Furthermore, in the case of hybrid systems with the state dependent switching rule, a method for a construction of stabilizing switching rules is proposed. Obtained results are illustrated by examples and numerical simulations.

  7. Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very...... popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller...... of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research....

  8. Self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for phytoconstituents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Neeraj; Mittal, Vineet; Kaushik, Deepak; Khatkar, Anurag; Raina, Mitali

    2015-01-01

    The self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) is considered to be the novel technique for the delivery of lipophillic plant actives. The self emulsifying (SE) formulation significantly enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble phytoconstituents. The self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) can be developed for such plant actives to enhance the oral bioavailability using different excipients (lipid, surfactant, co solvent etc.) and their concentration is selected on the basis of pre formulation studies like phase equilibrium studies, solvent capacity of oil for drug and mutual miscibility of excipients. The present review focuses mainly on the development of SEDDS and effect of excipients on oral bioavailability and aqueous solubility of poorly water soluble phytoconstituents/ derived products. A recent list of patents issued for self emulsifying herbal formulation has also been included. The research data for various self emulsifying herbal formulation and patents issued were reviewed using different databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Google patents, Scopus and Web of Science. In a nutshell, we can say that SEDDS was established as a novel drug delivery system for herbals and with the advances in this technique, lots of patents on herbal SEDDS can be translated into the commercial products.

  9. Chitosan nanoparticle based delivery systems for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Xiang, Xu; Heiden, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Development of technologies that improve food productivity without any adverse impact on the ecosystem is the need of hour. In this context, development of controlled delivery systems for slow and sustained release of agrochemicals or genetic materials is crucial. Chitosan has emerged as a valuable carrier for controlled delivery of agrochemicals and genetic materials because of its proven biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and adsorption abilities. The major advantages of encapsulating agrochemicals and genetic material in a chitosan matrix include its ability to function as a protective reservoir for the active ingredients, protecting the ingredients from the surrounding environment while they are in the chitosan domain, and then controlling their release, allowing them to serve as efficient gene delivery systems for plant transformation or controlled release of pesticides. Despite the great progress in the use of chitosan in the area of medical and pharmaceutical sciences, there is still a wide knowledge gap regarding the potential application of chitosan for encapsulation of active ingredients in agriculture. Hence, the present article describes the current status of chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery systems in agriculture, and to highlight challenges that need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Innovative Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Lohani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have always been valuable excipients in conventional dosage forms, also have shown excellent performance into the parenteral arena, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions such as controlled drug release and drug targeting. Advances in polymer science have led to the development of several novel drug delivery systems. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs have shown superior performances over the conventional individual polymers and, consequently, the ranges of applications have grown rapidly for such class of materials. The advanced properties of IPNs like swelling capacity, stability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity and biodegradability have attracted considerable attention in pharmaceutical field especially in delivering bioactive molecules to the target site. In the past few years various research reports on the IPN based delivery systems showed that these carriers have emerged as a novel carrier in controlled drug delivery. The present review encompasses IPNs, their types, method of synthesis, factors which affects the morphology of IPNs, extensively studied IPN based drug delivery systems, and some natural polymers widely used for IPNs.

  11. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul [Department of Applied Mechanics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India); Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu, E-mail: vishnu_agarwal02@rediffmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India)

    2014-03-15

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  12. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve t...... SRM reduce the negative torque before zero-crossing point of torque curve, and build desired phase current to generate more power. Some experimental results are done to verify the performance of proposed hybrid SRM drive system....

  13. Hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems on complex network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NIAN FUZHONG; LIU WEILONG

    2016-06-01

    The real network nodes are always interfered by other messages. So, how to realize the hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems based on the complex network is very important. To solve this problem, two other problems should be considered. One is how the same network node of the complex network was affected by different information sources. Another is how to achieve hybrid synchronization on the network. In this paper, the theoretical analysis andnumerical simulation on various complex networks are implemented. The results indicate that the hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems is feasible.

  14. Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes as antigen delivery system to promote superior CD8(+) T cell response and protection against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Paula Cristina Batista; dos Santos, Luara Isabela; Coelho, João Paulo; Ribeiro, Henrique Bücker; Pimenta, Marcos Assunção; Ladeira, Luiz Orlando; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Furtado, Clascídia Aparecida; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes

    2014-09-10

    Properties like high interfacial area with cellular membranes, unique ability to incorporate multiple functionalization, as well as compatibility and transport in biological fluids make carbon nanotubes (CNTs) useful for a variety of therapeutic and drug-delivery applications. Here we used a totally synthetic hybrid supramolecule as an anticancer vaccine formulation. This complex structure comprises CNTs as delivery system for the Cancer Testis Antigen named NY-ESO-1, allied to a synthetic Toll-Like Receptor agonist. The CNT constructs were rapidly internalized into dendritic cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and served as an intracellular antigen depot. This property favored the induction of strong CD4(+) T as well as CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune responses against the NY-ESO-1. Importantly, the vaccination significantly delayed the tumor development and prolonged the mice survival, highlighting the potential application of CNTs as a vaccine delivery system to provide superior immunogenicity and strong protection against cancer.

  15. Development and in vitro evaluation of core-shell type lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for the delivery of erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bivash; Mittal, Nivesh K; Balabathula, Pavan; Thoma, Laura A; Wood, George C

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell type lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (CSLPHNPs) have emerged as a multifunctional drug delivery platform. The delivery system combines mechanical advantages of polymeric core and biomimetic advantages of the phospholipid shell into a single platform. We report the development of CSLPHNPs composed of the lipid monolayer shell and the biodegradable polymeric core for the delivery of erlotinib, an anticancer drug, clinically used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs were prepared by previously reported single-step sonication method using polycaprolactone (PCL) as the biodegradable polymeric core and phospholipid-shell composed of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000 (DSPE-PEG2000). Erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs were characterized for physicochemical properties including mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, morphology, thermal and infrared spectral analysis, drug loading, in vitro drug release, in vitro serum stability, and storage stability. The effect of critical formulation and process variables on two critical quality attributes (mean particle size and drug entrapment efficiency) of erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs was studied and optimized. In addition, in vitro cellular uptake, luminescent cell viability assay and colony formation assay were performed to evaluate efficacy of erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs in A549 cells, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Optimized erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs were prepared with mean particle size of about 170nm, PDI<0.2, drug entrapment efficiency of about 66% with good serum and storage stability. The evaluation of in vitro cellular efficacy results indicated enhanced uptake and efficacy of erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs compared to erlotinib solution in A549 cells. Therefore, CSLPHNPs could be a potential delivery system for erlotinib in the therapy of NSCLC.

  16. User-interfaces for hybrid systems: Analysis and design through hybrid reachability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Meeko Mitsuko Karen

    Hybrid systems combine discrete state dynamics, which model mode switching, with continuous state dynamics, which model the physical processes themselves. Applications of hybrid system theory to automated systems have traditionally assumed that the controller itself is an automaton which runs in parallel with the system under control. We model human interaction with hybrid systems, which involves the user; the automation's discrete mode-logic, and the underlying continuous dynamics of the physical system. Often in safety-critical systems, user-interfaces display a reduced set of information about the entire system, however must still provide adequate information and must not confuse the user. We present (1) a method of designing a discrete event system abstraction of the hybrid system, in order to verify or design user-interfaces for hybrid human-automation systems, and (2) the relationship between user-interfaces and discrete observability properties. Using a hybrid computational tool for reachability, we find the largest region in which the system can always remain---this is the safe region of operation. By implementing a controller which arises from this computation, we mathematically guarantee that this safe region is invariant. Assigning discrete states to the computed invariant regions, we create a discrete event system from this hybrid system with safety restrictions. This abstraction can then be used in existing interface verification and design methods. A user-interface, modeled as a discrete system, must, not only be reduced (extraneous information has been eliminated), but also "immediately observable". We derive conditions for immediate observability, in which the current state can be constructed from the current output and last occurring event. Based on finite state machine state-reduction techniques, we synthesize an output for remote user-interfaces which fulfills this property. Aircraft are prime examples of complex, safety-critical systems. In

  17. ON THE STABILIZATION OF THE LINEAR HYBRID SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The linear control hybrid system, consisting of a fi- nite set of subsystems (modes having different dimensions, is considered. The moments of reset time are determined by some complementary function – evolutionary time. This function satisfies the special complementary ordinary differential equation. The mode stabilization problem is solved for some class of piecewise linear controls. The method of stabilization relies on the set of invariant planes, the existence of which is due to the special form of the hybrid system.

  18. Hybrid architecture active wavefront sensing and control system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D. (Inventor); Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor); Hyde, Tristram T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    According to various embodiments, provided herein is an optical system and method that can be configured to perform image analysis. The optical system can comprise a telescope assembly and one or more hybrid instruments. The one or more hybrid instruments can be configured to receive image data from the telescope assembly and perform a fine guidance operation and a wavefront sensing operation, simultaneously, on the image data received from the telescope assembly.

  19. EXPONENTIAL ESTIMATES FOR STOCHASTIC DELAY HYBRID SYSTEMS WITH MARKOVIAN SWITCHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of norm bounds for the solutions of stochastic hybrid systems with Markovian switching and time delay. Based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii theory for functional differential equations and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, mean square exponential estimates for the solutions of this class of linear stochastic hybrid systems are derived. Finally, An example is illustrated to show the applicability and effectiveness of our method.

  20. Polyionic hybrid nano-engineered systems comprising alginate and chitosan for antihypertensive therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Taskeen; Nasir, Habib; Shabbir, Saima; Rehman, Asma; Imran, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    Hydrophobic nature of virtually all antihypertensive (AHT) drugs is the major hindrance towards their oral administration. Current study focuses on the development of polyionic hybrid nano drug delivery systems comprising sodium alginate and chitosan, loaded with distinct AHT drugs (captopril, amlodipine and valsartan). Encapsulation efficiency of hybrid NCS increased in the order of amlodipine>valsartan>captopril with average value of 42±0.9%, 91±1.5% and 96±1.9%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed hybrid NCS with smooth topography and round appearance in case of captopril. FTIR analysis confirmed the cross-linking between amino and carboxylate group of chitosan and alginate to form polyionic structures at nano-scale. Zeta-sizer experiments revealed that particle size distribution had increased from 197±12nm to 341±15nm for void and captopril loaded NCS. However, highly positive zeta potential of +32±1.6mV was not decreased significantly. In vitro sustained release assays reflected excellent retention of AHT drug in hybrid nanoparticles at 4°C and 37°C in physiological buffer, as less than 8% of the total drug was released in first 24h. Thus, carbohydrate-based hybrid NCS offering high loading capacity, stability and sustained release of hydrophobic drugs can be excellent alternative to current AHT therapeutics.

  1. Applications of polymers in intraocular drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhalafi, Ali Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    We are entering a new era of ophthalmic pharmacology where new drugs are rapidly being developed for the treatment of anterior and posterior segment of the eye disease. The pharmacokinetics of drug delivery to the eye remains a very active area of ophthalmic research. Intraocular drug delivery systems allow the release of the drug, bypassing the blood-ocular barrier. The main advantage of these preparations is that they can release the drug over a long time with one single administration. These pharmaceutical systems are of great important in the treatment of the posterior segment diseases, and they can be prepared from biodegradable or nonbiodegradable polymers. Biodegradable polymers have the advantage of disappearing from the site of action after releasing the drug. The majority of intraocular devices are prepared from nonbiodegradable polymers, and they can release controlled amounts of drugs for months. Nonbiodegradable polymers include silicone, polyvinyl alcohol, and ethylene-vinyl acetate. The polymers usually employed to prepare nanoparticles for the topical ophthalmic route are poly (acrylic acid) derivatives (polyalquilcyanocrylates), albumin, poly-ε-caprolactone, and chitosan. Dendrimers are a recent class of polymeric materials with unique nanostructure which has been studied to discover their role in the delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Hydrogels are polymers that can swell in aqueous solvent system, and they hold the solvents in a swollen cross-linked gel for delivery. This review exhibits the current literature regarding applications of polymers in ophthalmic drug delivery systems including pharmacokinetics, advantages, disadvantages, and indications aimed to obtain successful eye therapy. Method of Literature Search: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases into two steps. The first step was oriented to classification of intraocular polymers implants focusing on their advantages and disadvantages. The second

  2. Applications of polymers in intraocular drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed Alhalafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are entering a new era of ophthalmic pharmacology where new drugs are rapidly being developed for the treatment of anterior and posterior segment of the eye disease. The pharmacokinetics of drug delivery to the eye remains a very active area of ophthalmic research. Intraocular drug delivery systems allow the release of the drug, bypassing the blood–ocular barrier. The main advantage of these preparations is that they can release the drug over a long time with one single administration. These pharmaceutical systems are of great important in the treatment of the posterior segment diseases, and they can be prepared from biodegradable or nonbiodegradable polymers. Biodegradable polymers have the advantage of disappearing from the site of action after releasing the drug. The majority of intraocular devices are prepared from nonbiodegradable polymers, and they can release controlled amounts of drugs for months. Nonbiodegradable polymers include silicone, polyvinyl alcohol, and ethylene-vinyl acetate. The polymers usually employed to prepare nanoparticles for the topical ophthalmic route are poly (acrylic acid derivatives (polyalquilcyanocrylates, albumin, poly-μ-caprolactone, and chitosan. Dendrimers are a recent class of polymeric materials with unique nanostructure which has been studied to discover their role in the delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Hydrogels are polymers that can swell in aqueous solvent system, and they hold the solvents in a swollen cross-linked gel for delivery. This review exhibits the current literature regarding applications of polymers in ophthalmic drug delivery systems including pharmacokinetics, advantages, disadvantages, and indications aimed to obtain successful eye therapy. Method of Literature Search: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases into two steps. The first step was oriented to classification of intraocular polymers implants focusing on their advantages and

  3. Microparticulate Based Topical Delivery System of Clobetasol Propionate

    OpenAIRE

    Badıllı, Ulya; Şen, Tangül; Tarımcı, Nilüfer

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Clobetasol propionate which is a superpotent topical corticosteroid is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. Conventional dosage forms like creams and ointments are commonly prefered for the therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new topical delivery system in order to provide the prolonged release of clobetasol propionate and to reduce systemic absorption and side effe...

  4. The Application Model of Moving Objects in Cargo Delivery System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng-li; ZHOU Ming-tian; XU Bo

    2004-01-01

    The development of spatio-temporal database systems is primarily motivated by applications which track and present mobile objects. In this paper, solutions for establishing the moving object database based on GPS/GIS environment are presented, and a data modeling of moving object is given by using Temporal logical to extent the query language, finally the application model in cargo delivery system is shown.

  5. Integrated delivery systems: mergers and acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, S

    1999-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are usually the way an IDS is built. The CNO and/or CNOs/DONs have an integral role in the resolution of the M/A process. During this time of significant change, during which there may even be chaos, the CNOs work to maintain stability so there is as little impact as possible on patient outcomes, a core responsibility of the CNOs. The CNOs should focus on identifying and working with the highly skilled individuals in the organization to get to the recovery stage of the M/A process, at which time a high-performing organization is achieved. To build this new organization or IDS, the old organizations of the M/A must be changed (Moss Kanter, 1994). The successful CNOs will manage the trade-offs and will become experts in collaboration. The CNO's goals are to maximize the quality of patient care, the professional satisfaction of the nurse, and the goals of achieving cost effectiveness for the system (Clifford, 1998), and keeping this focus through the M/A process will yield success.

  6. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  7. Note on the Lax Pair of a Coupled Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping; FU Pei-Kai

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid lattice,known as a discrete Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation,is found to be a discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation.The coupled hybrid lattice,which is pointed out to be a discrete coupled KdV system,is also found to be a discrete form of a coupled mKdV system.New lax pairs for the single and coupled discrete hybrid systems are proposed as a different study from previous ones.%The hybrid lattice, known as a discrete Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, is found to be a discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. The coupled hybrid lattice, which is pointed out to be a discrete coupled KdV system, is also found to be a discrete form of a coupled mKdV system. New lax pairs for the single and coupled discrete hybrid systems are proposed as a different study from previous ones.

  8. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  9. Reachability computation for hybrid systems with Ariadne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Benvenuti; D. Bresolin; A. Casagrande; P.J. Collins (Pieter); A. Ferrari; E. Mazzi; T. Villa; A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractAriadne is an in-progress open environment to design algorithms for computing with hybrid automata, that relies on a rigorous computable analysis theory to represent geometric objects, in order to achieve provable approximation bounds along the computations. In this paper we discuss the

  10. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  11. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  12. Emulsion forming drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Jyoti; Nair, Anroop; Kumria, Rachna

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, there is a growing interest in the lipid-based formulations for delivery of lipophilic drugs. Due to their potential as therapeutic agents, preferably these lipid soluble drugs are incorporated into inert lipid carriers such as oils, surfactant dispersions, emulsions, liposomes etc. Among them, emulsion forming drug delivery systems appear to be a unique and industrially feasible approach to overcome the problem of low oral bioavailability associated with the BCS class II drugs. Self-emulsifying formulations are ideally isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants and co-solvents that emulsify to form fine oil in water emulsions when introduced in aqueous media. Fine oil droplets would pass rapidly from stomach and promote wide distribution of drug throughout the GI tract, thereby overcome the slow dissolution step typically observed with solid dosage forms. Recent advances in drug carrier technologies have promulgated the development of novel drug carriers such as control release self-emulsifying pellets, microspheres, tablets, capsules etc. that have boosted the use of "self-emulsification" in drug delivery. This article reviews the different types of formulations and excipients used in emulsion forming drug delivery system to enhance the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs.

  13. A REVIEW ON ADVANCES OF SUSTAINED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Bose

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustained release matrix tablets facilitate prolonged and continuous drug release and improve the bioavailability of drugs while avoiding unwanted side effects. Ofloxacin is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent used for treating wide range of gram positive and gram negative infections. The goal in designing sustained or controlled delivery systems is to reduce frequency of dosing or to increase the effectiveness of the drug by localization at the site of action, reducing the dose required, providing uniform drug delivery. Sustained release drug administration means not only prolongation of duration of drug delivery, but the term also implies the predictability and reproducibility of drug release kinetics. The controlled release of drug substances and their effective transport to sites of action can be exploited to maximize the beneficial clinical response and to minimize the incidence of unbeneficial adverse reactions and side effects. Oral ingestion has long been the most convenient and commonly employed route of drug delivery. Indeed, for sustained release systems, oral route of administration has received most of the attention with respect to research on physiological and drug constraints as well as design and testing of products.

  14. An emerging platform for drug delivery: aerogel based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Zeynep; Erkey, Can

    2014-03-10

    Over the past few decades, advances in "aerogel science" have provoked an increasing interest for these materials in pharmaceutical sciences for drug delivery applications. Because of their high surface areas, high porosities and open pore structures which can be tuned and controlled by manipulation of synthesis conditions, nanostructured aerogels represent a promising class of materials for delivery of various drugs as well as enzymes and proteins. Along with biocompatible inorganic aerogels and biodegradable organic aerogels, more complex systems such as surface functionalized aerogels, composite aerogels and layered aerogels have also been under development and possess huge potential. Emphasis is given to the details of the aerogel synthesis and drug loading methods as well as the influence of synthesis parameters and loading methods on the adsorption and release of the drugs. Owing to their ability to increase the bioavailability of low solubility drugs, to improve both their stability and their release kinetics, there are an increasing number of research articles concerning aerogels in different drug delivery applications. This review presents an up to date overview of the advances in all kinds of aerogel based drug delivery systems which are currently under investigation.

  15. Exosome mimetics: a novel class of drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, Sander A A; Vader, Pieter; van Dommelen, Susan M; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schiffelers, Raymond M

    2012-01-01

    The identification of extracellular phospholipid vesicles as conveyors of cellular information has created excitement in the field of drug delivery. Biological therapeutics, including short interfering RNA and recombinant proteins, are prone to degradation, have limited ability to cross biological membranes, and may elicit immune responses. Therefore, delivery systems for such drugs are under intensive investigation. Exploiting extracellular vesicles as carriers for biological therapeutics is a promising strategy to overcome these issues and to achieve efficient delivery to the cytosol of target cells. Exosomes are a well studied class of extracellular vesicles known to carry proteins and nucleic acids, making them especially suitable for such strategies. However, the considerable complexity and the related high chance of off-target effects of these carriers are major barriers for translation to the clinic. Given that it is well possible that not all components of exosomes are required for their proper functioning, an alternative strategy would be to mimic these vesicles synthetically. By assembly of liposomes harboring only crucial components of natural exosomes, functional exosome mimetics may be created. The low complexity and use of well characterized components strongly increase the pharmaceutical acceptability of such systems. However, exosomal components that would be required for the assembly of functional exosome mimetics remain to be identified. This review provides insights into the composition and functional properties of exosomes, and focuses on components which could be used to enhance the drug delivery properties of exosome mimetics.

  16. Targeted multidrug delivery system to overcome chemoresistance in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Tang,1 Fariborz Soroush,1 Zhaohui Tong,2 Mohammad F Kiani,1 Bin Wang1,3 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Widener University, Chester, PA, USA Abstract: Chemotherapy has been widely used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size. However, most anticancer agents cannot differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, resulting in severe systemic toxicity. In addition, acquired drug resistance during the chemotherapy treatment further decreases treatment efficacy. With the proper treatment strategy, nanodrug carriers, such as liposomes/immunoliposomes, may be able to reduce undesired side effects of chemotherapy, to overcome the acquired multidrug resistance, and to further improve the treatment efficacy. In this study, a novel combinational targeted drug delivery system was developed by encapsulating antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab into liposomes and encapsulating chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX into immunoliposomes where the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 antibody was used as a targeting ligand. This novel combinational system was tested in vitro using a HER2 positive and multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line (BT-474/MDR, and in vivo using a xenograft mouse tumor model. In vitro cell culture experiments show that immunoliposome delivery led to a high cell nucleus accumulation of DOX, whereas free DOX was observed mostly near the cell membrane and in cytoplasm due to the action of P-gp. Combining liposomal bevacizumab with immunoliposomal DOX achieved the best tumor growth inhibition and the lowest toxicity. Tumor size decreased steadily within a 60-day observation period indicating a potential synergistic effect between DOX and bevacizumab through the targeted delivery. Our findings clearly indicate that tumor growth was significantly

  17. Exosome mimetics: a novel class of drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooijmans SAA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sander AA Kooijmans, Pieter Vader, Susan M van Dommelen, Wouter W van Solinge, Raymond M SchiffelersDepartment of Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: The identification of extracellular phospholipid vesicles as conveyors of cellular information has created excitement in the field of drug delivery. Biological therapeutics, including short interfering RNA and recombinant proteins, are prone to degradation, have limited ability to cross biological membranes, and may elicit immune responses. Therefore, delivery systems for such drugs are under intensive investigation. Exploiting extracellular vesicles as carriers for biological therapeutics is a promising strategy to overcome these issues and to achieve efficient delivery to the cytosol of target cells. Exosomes are a well studied class of extracellular vesicles known to carry proteins and nucleic acids, making them especially suitable for such strategies. However, the considerable complexity and the related high chance of off-target effects of these carriers are major barriers for translation to the clinic. Given that it is well possible that not all components of exosomes are required for their proper functioning, an alternative strategy would be to mimic these vesicles synthetically. By assembly of liposomes harboring only crucial components of natural exosomes, functional exosome mimetics may be created. The low complexity and use of well characterized components strongly increase the pharmaceutical acceptability of such systems. However, exosomal components that would be required for the assembly of functional exosome mimetics remain to be identified. This review provides insights into the composition and functional properties of exosomes, and focuses on components which could be used to enhance the drug delivery properties of exosome mimetics.Keywords: exosomes, extracellular vesicles, liposomes, drug delivery systems

  18. THE ROLE OF HOSPITAL IN OVERALL HEALTH DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nozadi

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Since hospitals are an important and integral part of the overall health delivery system, this study was carried out to measure the effectiveness of this institution within the system. The records of 633 hospitalized patients in the pediatrics ward of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad during 1357 (21 March 1978-20 March 1979 has been consulted. More than half of the patients were hospitalized with the following diagnoses: Bronchopneumonia, Gastroentritis, Septicemia, and Malnutrition. Bronchopneumonia peaked in winter, whereas Gastroentritis and Malnutrition peaked in summer. Most of the hospitalized patients were male and the malnutrition was limited to the pre-school children of 1-6 years of age. The importance of these findings in development and utilization of the health delivery system has been discussed and considering the preventable nature of the above mentioned diseases, development and expansion of primary health care activities has been stressed.

  19. Mental health care delivery system in Greece: a critical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanis, C N; Madianos, M G

    1981-01-01

    The organizational profile of the mental health care delivery system in Greece is mainly characterized by centralization which is reflected in various functional parts of the system (uneven distribution of psychiatric beds and manpower, absence of psychiatric units in general hospitals serving a certain catchment area, lack of community-based psychiatric services, etc.) As a result of this centralized structure there is a centrifugal flow of the mentally ill patients toward Athens and Thessaloniki and consequently the existing possibilities for community-based care as an alternative to inpatient treatment are rather limited. Future immediate objectives of the national social policy planning should be based on decentralization and reorganization of the psychiatric services in order for the mental health delivery system to respond more effectively to the mental health needs of the Greek population.

  20. Hybrid Ventilation with Innovative Heat Recovery—A System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Hellström

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors when low energy houses are built is to have good heat recovery on the ventilation system. However, standard ventilation units use a considerable amount of electricity. This article discusses the consequences on a system level of using hybrid ventilation with heat recovery. The simulation program TRNSYS was used in order to investigate a ventilation system with heat recovery. The system also includes a ground source storage and waste water heat recovery system. The result of the analysis shows that the annual energy gain from ground source storage is limited. However, this is partly a consequence of the fact that the well functioning hybrid ventilation system leaves little room for improvements. The analysis shows that the hybrid ventilation system has potential to be an attractive solution for low energy buildings with a very low need for electrical energy.

  1. DIAGNOSIS WINDOWS PROBLEMS BASED ON HYBRID INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFWAN O. HASOON

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the artificial intelligence technologies by integrating Radial Basis Function networks with expert systems to construct a robust hybrid system. The purpose of building the hybrid system is to give recommendations to repair the operating system (Windows problems and troubleshoot the problems that can be repaired. The neural network has unique characteristics which it can complete the uncompleted data, the expert system can't deal with data that is incomplete, but using the neural network individually has some disadvantages which it can't give explanations and recommendations to the problems. The expert system has the ability to explain and give recommendations by using the rules and the human expert in some conditions. Therefore, we have combined the two technologies. The paper will explain the integration methods between the two technologies and which method is suitable to be used in the proposed hybrid system.

  2. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  3. Thermal simulation of a cooling system of hybrid commercial vehicles; Thermalsimulation eine Hybrid-LKW-Kuehlsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, Christoph; Schnoerch, Stefan; Rathberger, Christian [Magna Powertrain Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co. KG, St. Valentin (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    In the past few years hybrid vehicles have been in the center of automotive engineering efforts, in particular in the field of passenger cars. But hybrid powertrains will also be important for commercial trucks. This focus on hybrid vehicles leads to high demands on thermal management since the additional components in a hybrid vehicle need appropriate cooling or even heating. In the given paper the simulation of a complete cooling system of a hybrid commercial vehicle will be explained. For this virtual examination the commercial 1D thermal management software KULI will be used, a co-simulation with several programs will not be done deliberately. Yet all aspects which are relevant for a global assessment of the thermal management are considered. The main focus is put on the investigation of appropriate concepts for the fluid circuits, including low and high temperature circuits, electric water pumps, etc. Moreover, also a refrigerant circuit with a chiller for active battery cooling will be used, the appropriate control strategy is implemented as well. For simulating transient profiles a simple driving simulation model is included, using road profile, ambient conditions, and various vehicle parameters as input. In addition an engine model is included which enables the investigation of fuel consumption potentials. This simulation model shows how the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle can be investigated with a single program and with reasonable effort. (orig.)

  4. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyautdin, Renad; Khalin, Igor; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail; Haron, Muhammad Huzaimi; Kuznetsov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The protective properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS.

  5. Analysis of advanced solar hybrid desiccant cooling systems for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlepp, D.; Schultz, K.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an assessment of the energy savings possible from developing hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression air conditioning systems. Recent advances in dehumidifier design for solar desiccant cooling systems have resulted in a dehumidifier with a low pressure drop and high efficiency in heat and mass transfer. A recent study on hybrid desiccant/vapor compression systems showed a 30%-80% savings in resource energy when compared with the best conventional systems with vapor compression. A system consisting of a dehumidifier with vapor compression subsystems in series was found to be the simplest and best overall performer.

  6. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil, E-mail: simina.dreve@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610{sup 0}C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  7. Intracellular siRNA delivery dynamics of integrin-targeted, PEGylated chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles: A mechanistic insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Colombo, Stefano; Pourcelle, Vincent; Vanvarenberg, Kevin; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Bouzin, Caroline; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Feron, Olivier; Foged, Camilla; Préat, Véronique

    2015-08-10

    Integrin-targeted nanoparticles are promising for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to tumor cells or tumor endothelium in cancer therapy aiming at silencing genes essential for tumor growth. However, during the process of optimizing and realizing their full potential, it is pertinent to gain a basic mechanistic understanding of the bottlenecks existing for nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery. We designed αvβ3 integrin-targeted nanoparticles by coupling arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) or RGD peptidomimetic (RGDp) ligands to the surface of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles. The amount of intracellular siRNA delivered by αvβ3-targeted versus non-targeted nanoparticles was quantified in the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line H1299 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using a stem-loop reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) approach. Data demonstrated that the internalization of αvβ3-targeted nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface concentration of the ligand. Above a certain threshold concentration, the use of targeted nanoparticles provided a two-fold increase in the number of siRNA copies/cell, subsequently resulting in as much as 90% silencing of EGFP at well-tolerated carrier concentrations. In contrast, non-targeted nanoparticles mediated low levels of gene silencing, despite relatively high intracellular siRNA concentrations, indicating that these nanoparticles might end up in late endosomes or lysosomes without releasing their cargo to the cell cytoplasm. Thus, the silencing efficiency of the chitosan-based nanoparticles is strongly dependent on the uptake and the intracellular trafficking in H1299 EGFP cells, which is critical information towards a more complete understanding of the delivery mechanism that can facilitate the future design of efficient siRNA delivery systems.

  8. A PRODUCT HYBRID GMRES ALGORITHM FOR NONSYMMETRIC LINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-jiang Zhong

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that the residual polynomials resulted from successive restarting cycles of GMRES(m) may differ from one another meaningfully. In this paper, it is further shown that the polynomials can complement one another harmoniously in reducing the iterative residual. This characterization of GMRES(m) is exploited to formulate an efficient hybrid iterative scheme, which can be widely applied to existing hybrid algorithms for solving large nonsymmetric systems of linear equations. In particular, a variant of the hybrid GMRES algorithm of Nachtigal, Reichel and Trefethen (1992) is presented. It is described how the new algorithm may offer significant performance improvements over the original one.

  9. Hybrid pulmonary surfactant-coated nanogels mediate efficient in vivo delivery of siRNA to murine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Lynn; Naessens, Thomas; De Koker, Stefaan; Zagato, Elisa; Demeester, Jo; Grooten, Johan; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Raemdonck, Koen

    2015-11-10

    The local delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the lungs may provide a therapeutic solution to a range of pulmonary disorders. Resident alveolar macrophages (rAM) in the bronchoalveolar lumen play a critical role in lung inflammatory responses and therefore constitute a particularly attractive target for siRNA therapeutics. However, achieving efficient gene silencing in the lung while avoiding pulmonary toxicity requires appropriate formulation of siRNA in functional nanocarriers. In this study, we evaluated pulmonary surfactant-coated dextran nanogels for the delivery of siRNA to rAM upon pharyngeal aspiration in BALB/c mice. Both the surfactant-coated and uncoated nanogels achieved high levels of siRNA uptake in rAM, yet only the surfactant-coated formulation could significantly reduce gene expression on the protein level. Surfactant-coated nanogels induced a profound downregulation of target mRNA levels, reaching 70% knockdown with ~1mgkg(-1) siRNA dose. In addition, only mild acute pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses were detected one day after nanoparticle aspiration, accompanied by a moderate neutrophil infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lumen. The latter could be substantially reduced by removal of excess surfactant from the formulation. Overall, our hybrid core-shell nanoparticles have demonstrated safe and effective siRNA delivery to rAM, providing a new therapeutic approach for treatment of inflammatory pathologies in the lung.

  10. A novel system for automated propofol sedation: hybrid sedation system (HSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaouter, Cedrick; Taddei, Riccardo; Wehbe, Mohamad; Arbeid, Erik; Cyr, Shantale; Giunta, Francesco; Hemmerling, Thomas M

    2017-04-01

    Closed-loop systems for propofol have been demonstrated to be safe and reliable for general anesthesia. However, no study has been conducted using a closed-loop system specifically designed for sedation in patients under spinal anesthesia. We developed an automatic anesthesia sedation system that allows for closed-loop delivery of propofol for sedation integrating a decision support system, called the hybrid sedation system (HSS). The objective of this study is to compare this system with standard practice. One hundred fifty patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to two groups: HSS-Group (N = 75), in which propofol was administered using a closed-loop system; Control Group (N = 75), in which propofol was delivered manually. The clinical performance of the propofol sedation control is defined as efficacy to maintain bispectral index (BIS) near 65. The clinical control was called 'Excellent', 'Good', 'Poor' and 'Inadequate' with BIS values within 10 %, from 11 to 20 %, 21 to 30 %, or greater than 30 % of the BIS target of 65, respectively. The controller performance was evaluated using Varvel's parameters. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, groups were compared using t test or Chi square test, P propofol sedation showed better maintenance of the target BIS value compared to manual administration.

  11. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids: System Architectures and Energy Management Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    such as renewables (e.g., solar PV, wind power) and conventionals (e.g., diesel engines) as well as energy storage systems (ESSs) such as batteries, fuel cells and flywheels. To optimally manage different energy sources in a shipboard microgrid while meeting different technical/environmental constraints......Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation......, it is necessary to set up an energy management system. This paper provides an overview of hybrid shipboard microgrids and discusses different methods of power and energy management in such systems which are essential for control, monitoring and optimizing the overall system performance in various mission profiles....

  12. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  13. Energy-Efficient Building HVAC Control Using Hybrid System LBMPC

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Taneja, Jay; Krioukov, Andrew; Culler, David; Tomlin, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Improving the energy-efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has the potential to realize large economic and societal benefits. This paper concerns the system identification of a hybrid system model of a building-wide HVAC system and its subsequent control using a hybrid system formulation of learning-based model predictive control (LBMPC). Here, the learning refers to model updates to the hybrid system model that incorporate the heating effects due to occupancy, solar effects, outside air temperature (OAT), and equipment, in addition to integrator dynamics inherently present in low-level control. Though we make significant modeling simplifications, our corresponding controller that uses this model is able to experimentally achieve a large reduction in energy usage without any degradations in occupant comfort. It is in this way that we justify the modeling simplifications that we have made. We conclude by presenting results from experiments on our building HVAC testbed, which s...

  14. Use of hybrid renewable energy systems for small communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandoc Georgeta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present how the sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system is done for a community of three hundred and five households located in a Delta, starting from the optimization of hybrid energy system for a single household. The methodology used in solving this problem is based on multiple options. The first option consists in determined energy needs, maximum power consumption in cold season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity by a hybrid plant. The second option consists of energy needs resulted in average consumption of electricity in warm season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity from a hybrid plant. In conjunction with the demand for electricity for the entire community one will get energy demand by aggregating household level (kWh/household. The novelty of this approach lies in the method used by these hybrid systems for obtaining electricity in small communities, isolated from this case study. Based on the results obtained the method can be expanded the implementation of these projects that use hybrid renewable energy systems.

  15. Food Delivery System with the Utilization of Vehicle Using Geographical Information System (GIS) and A Star Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Gunawan, D.; Andayani, U.; Sari Lubis, Elita; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Food delivery system is one kind of geographical information systems (GIS) that can be applied through digitation process. The main case in food delivery system is the way to determine the shortest path and food delivery vehicle movement tracking. Therefore, to make sure that the digitation process of food delivery system can be applied efficiently, it is needed to add shortest path determination facility and food delivery vehicle tracking. This research uses A Star (A*) algorithm for determining shortest path and location-based system (LBS) programming for moving food delivery vehicle object tracking. According to this research, it is generated the integrated system that can be used by food delivery driver, customer, and administrator in terms of simplifying the food delivery system. Through the application of shortest path and the tracking of moving vehicle, thus the application of food delivery system in the scope of geographical information system (GIS) can be executed.

  16. Use of liposomes as injectable-drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, M J; Cullis, P R

    1989-08-01

    The formation of liposomes and their application as delivery systems for injectable drugs are described. Liposomes are microscopic vesicles composed of one or more lipid membranes surrounding discrete aqueous compartments. These vesicles can encapsulate water-soluble drugs in their aqueous spaces and lipid-soluble drugs within the membrane itself. Liposomes release their contents by interacting with cells in one of four ways: adsorption, endocytosis, lipid exchange, or fusion. Liposome-entrapped drugs are distributed within the body much differently than free drugs; when administered intravenously to healthy animals and humans, most of the injected vesicles accumulate in the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. Liposomes also accumulate preferentially at the sites of inflammation and infection and in some solid tumors; however, the reason for this accumulation is not clear. Four major factors influence liposomes' in vivo behavior and biodistribution: (1) liposomes tend to leak if cholesterol is not included in the vesicle membrane, (2) small liposomes are cleared more slowly than large liposomes, (3) the half-life of a liposome increases as the lipid dose increases, and (4) charged liposomal systems are cleared more rapidly than uncharged systems. The most advanced application of liposome-based therapy is in the treatment of systemic fungal infections, especially with amphotericin B. Liposomes are also under investigation for treatment of neoplastic disorders. Liposomes' uses in cancer therapy include encapsulation of known antineoplastic agents such as doxorubicin and methotrexate, delivery of immune modulators such as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine, and encapsulation of new chemical entities that are synthesized with lipophilic segments tailored for insertion into lipid bilayers. Liposomal formulations of injectable antimicrobial agents and antineoplastic agents already are undergoing clinical testing, and most probably will receive

  17. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  18. Hybrid Communication System Based on OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Hybrid architecture between terrestrial and satellite networks based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is employed here. In hybrid architecture, the users will be able to avail the services through the terrestrial networks as well as the satellite networks. The users located in urban areas will be served by the existing terrestrial mobile networks and similarly the one located in rural areas will be provided services through the satellite networks. The technique which is used to achieve this objective is called Pre-FFT adaptive beamforming also called time domain beamforming. When the data is received at the satellite end, the Pre-FFT adaptive beamforming extracts the desired user data from the interferer user by applying the complex weights to the received symbol. The weight for the next symbol is then updated by Least Mean Square (LMS algorithm and then is applied to it. This process is carried out till all the desired user data is extracted.

  19. LIPOSOME AS A POTENTIAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash Tapaswi Rani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes are microscopic phospholipid vescicles made of lipid bilayer which are the drug carrier for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles (“first-generation liposomes” to “second-generation liposomes”, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. A significant step in the development of long-circulating liposomes came with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol (PEG in liposome composition. Due to advancement in liposomal technology a number of liposomal formulations are available in market for clinical use, with gene delivery and cancer therapy and some formulations are under clinical trial. Reformulation of drugs in liposomes has provided an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic indices of various agents mainly through alteration in their biodistribution. This review discusses the basic principles of liposome structures and preparations, evaluation parameters of liposomal formulation, pharmacokinetics of liposomes and liposome-encapsulated drugs, the potential applications of liposomes in drug delivery with examples of formulations approved for clinical use, and the problems associated with further exploitation of this drug delivery system.

  20. Oral pulsatile delivery systems based on swellable hydrophilic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Andrea; Palugan, Luca; Foppoli, Anastasia; Sangalli, Maria Edvige

    2008-01-01

    Upon contact with aqueous fluids, swellable hydrophilic polymers undergo typical chain relaxation phenomena that coincide with a glassy-rubbery transition. In the rubbery phase, these polymers may be subject to swelling, dissolution and erosion processes or, alternatively, form an enduring gel barrier when cross-linked networks (hydrogels) are dealt with. Because of the peculiar hydration and biocompatibility properties, such materials are widely exploited in the pharmaceutical field, particularly as far as hydrophilic cellulose derivatives are concerned. In oral delivery, they have for long been employed in the manufacturing of prolonged release matrices and, more recently, for pulsatile (delayed) release devices as well. Pulsatile delivery, which is meant as the liberation of drugs following programmed lag phases, has drawn increasing interest especially in view of emerging chronotherapeutic approaches. In pursuit of pulsatile release, various design strategies have been proposed, chiefly including reservoir, capsular and osmotic formulations. In most cases, water-swellable polymers play a key role in the overall delivery mechanism after being activated by physiological media. Based on these premises, the aim of the present review is to survey the main oral pulsatile delivery systems, for which swelling, dissolution and/or erosion of hydrophilic polymers are primarily involved in the control of release.