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Sample records for hybrid charging system

  1. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  2. Higher-order spin and charge dynamics in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Stano, Peter; Noiri, Akito; Ito, Takumi; Loss, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2017-09-22

    Understanding the dynamics of open quantum systems is important and challenging in basic physics and applications for quantum devices and quantum computing. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a good platform to explore the physics of open quantum systems because we can tune parameters including the coupling to the environment or leads. Here, we apply the fast single-shot measurement techniques from spin qubit experiments to explore the spin and charge dynamics due to tunnel coupling to a lead in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system. We experimentally observe both spin and charge time evolution via first- and second-order tunneling processes, and reveal the dynamics of the spin-flip through the intermediate state. These results enable and stimulate the exploration of spin dynamics in dot-lead hybrid systems, and may offer useful resources for spin manipulation and simulation of open quantum systems.

  3. Optimal planning of electric vehicle charging station at the distribution system using hybrid optimization algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awasthi, Abhishek; Venkitusamy, Karthikeyan; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    India's ever increasing population has made it necessary to develop alternative modes of transportation with electric vehicles being the most preferred option. The major obstacle is the deteriorating impact on the utility distribution system brought about by improper setup of these charging...... stations. This paper deals with the optimal planning (siting and sizing) of charging station infrastructure in the city of Allahabad, India. This city is one of the upcoming smart cities, where electric vehicle transportation pilot project is going on under Government of India initiative. In this context......, a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithm and improved version of conventional particle swarm optimization is utilized for finding optimal placement of charging station in the Allahabad distribution system. The particle swarm optimization algorithm re-optimizes the received sub-optimal solution (site...

  4. Hybrid fuzzy charged system search algorithm based state estimation in distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidananda Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new hybrid charged system search (CSS algorithm based state estimation in radial distribution networks in fuzzy framework. The objective of the optimization problem is to minimize the weighted square of the difference between the measured and the estimated quantity. The proposed method of state estimation considers bus voltage magnitude and phase angle as state variable along with some equality and inequality constraints for state estimation in distribution networks. A rule based fuzzy inference system has been designed to control the parameters of the CSS algorithm to achieve better balance between the exploration and exploitation capability of the algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed fuzzy adaptive charged system search (FACSS algorithm has been tested on standard IEEE 33-bus system and Indian 85-bus practical radial distribution system. The obtained results have been compared with the conventional CSS algorithm, weighted least square (WLS algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO for feasibility of the algorithm.

  5. Layer-dependent surface potential of phosphorene and anisotropic/layer-dependent charge transfer in phosphorene-gold hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhu, Yi; Yan, Han; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui

    2016-01-07

    The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer.

  6. Energy Management and Control of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in a Grid-Connected Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Mumtaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The charging infrastructure plays a key role in the healthy and rapid development of the electric vehicle industry. This paper presents an energy management and control system of an electric vehicle charging station. The charging station (CS is integrated to a grid-connected hybrid power system having a wind turbine maximum power point tracking (MPPT controlled subsystem, photovoltaic (PV MPPT controlled subsystem and a controlled solid oxide fuel cell with electrolyzer subsystem which are characterized as renewable energy sources. In this article, an energy management system is designed for charging and discharging of five different plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs simultaneously to fulfil the grid-to-vehicle (G2V, vehicle-to-grid (V2G, grid-to-battery storage system (G2BSS, battery storage system-to-grid (BSS2G, battery storage system-to-vehicle (BSS2V, vehicle-to-battery storage system (V2BSS and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V charging and discharging requirements of the charging station. A simulation test-bed in Matlab/Simulink is developed to evaluate and control adaptively the AC-DC-AC converter of non-renewable energy source, DC-DC converters of the storage system, DC-AC grid side inverter and the converters of the CS using adaptive proportional-integral-derivate (AdapPID control paradigm. The effectiveness of the AdapPID control strategy is validated through simulation results by comparing with conventional PID control scheme.

  7. Power system operation risk analysis considering charging load self-management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhe; Wang, Dan; Jia, Hongjie; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The interactive mechanism between system and PHEVs is presented. • The charging load self-management without sacrificing user requirements is proposed. • The charging load self-management is coupled to system operation risk analysis. • The charging load self-management can reduce the extra risk brought by PHEVs. • The charging load self-management can shift charging power to the time with low risk. - Abstract: Many jurisdictions around the world are supporting the adoption of electric vehicles through incentives and the deployment of a charging infrastructure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), with offer mature technology and stable performance, are expected to gain an increasingly larger share of the consumer market. The aggregated effect on power grid due to large-scale penetration of PHEVs needs to be analyzed. Nighttime-charging which typically characterizes PHEVs is helpful in filling the nocturnal load valley, but random charging of large PHEV fleets at night may result in new load peaks and valleys. Active response strategy is a potentially effective solution to mitigate the additional risks brought by the integration of PHEVs. This paper proposes a power system operation risk analysis framework in which charging load self-management is used to control system operation risk. We describe an interactive mechanism between the system and PHEVs in conjunction with a smart charging model is to simulate the time series power consumption of PHEVs. The charging load is managed with adjusting the state transition boundaries and without violating the users’ desired charging constraints. The load curtailment caused by voltage or power flow violation after outages is determined by controlling charging power. At the same time, the system risk is maintained under an acceptable level through charging load self-management. The proposed method is implemented using the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and

  8. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Daniels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further reduces the generator run hours and saves fuel. The generator is oblivious to the current wind conditions, which leads to simultaneous generator-wind power production. As the batteries become charged by the generator, the wind turbine controller is forced to dump surplus power as heat through a resistive load. This paper details how the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed can be used to add intelligence to the battery charger. A Simulink model of the system is developed to test the different battery charging configurations. This paper demonstrates that if the battery charger is aware of upcoming wind conditions, it will provide modest fuel savings and reduce generator run hours in small-scale hybrid energy systems.

  9. Concept of intellectual charging system for electrical and plug-in hybrid vehicles in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, A.; Karpukhin, K.; Terenchenko, A.; Kavalchuk, I.

    2018-02-01

    Electric vehicles have become the most common solution to improve sustainability of the transportation systems all around the world. Despite all benefits, wide adaptation of electric vehicles requires major changes in the infrastructure, including grid adaptation to the rapidly increased power demand and development of the Connected Car concept. This paper discusses the approaches to improve usability of electric vehicles, by creating suitable web-services, with possible connections vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure, and vehicle-to-grid. Developed concept combines information about electrical loads on the grid in specific direction, navigation information from the on-board system, existing and empty charging slots and power availability. In addition, this paper presents the universal concept of the photovoltaic integrated charging stations, which are connected to the developed information systems. It helps to achieve rapid adaptation of the overall infrastructure to the needs of the electric vehicles users with minor changes in the existing grid and loads.

  10. A Novel Supercapacitor/Lithium-Ion Hybrid Energy System with a Fuzzy Logic-Controlled Fast Charging and Intelligent Energy Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric powered wheelchair (EPW is an essential assistive tool for people with serious injuries or disability. This manuscript describes the validation of applied research for reducing the charging time of an electric wheelchair using a hybrid electric system (HES composed of a supercapacitor (SC bank and a lithium-ion battery with a fuzzy logic controller (FLC-based fast charging system for Li-ion batteries and a fuzzy logic-based intelligent energy management system (FLIEMS for controlling the power flow within the HES. The fast charging FLC was designed to drive the voltage difference (Vd among the different cells of a multi-cell battery and the cell voltage (Vc of an individual cell. These parameters (voltage difference and cell voltage were used as input voltages to reduce the charge time and activate a bypass equalization (BPE scheme. BPE was introduced in this paper so that the battery operates within the safe voltage range. For SC/Li-ion HES, the FLIEMS presented in this paper controls the bi-directional power flow to smooth the power extracted from Li-ion batteries. Moreover, a dual active bridge isolated bidirectional DC converter (DAB-IBDC was used for power conversion. The DAB-IBDC presented in this paper has the characteristics of galvanic isolation, and high power conversion efficiency compared to the conventional converter circuits due to the reduced reverse power flow and current stresses.

  11. IrOx-carbon nanotube hybrids: a nanostructured material for electrodes with increased charge capacity in neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Nina M; Lichtenstein, Mathieu P; Pérez, Estela; Cabana, Laura; Suñol, Cristina; Casañ-Pastor, Nieves

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructured iridium oxide-carbon nanotube hybrids (IrOx-CNT) deposited as thin films by dynamic electrochemical methods are suggested as novel materials for neural electrodes. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) serve as scaffolds for growing the oxide, yielding a tridimensional structure with improved physical, chemical and electrical properties, in addition to high biocompatibility. In biological environments, SWCNT encapsulation by IrOx makes more resistant electrodes and prevents the nanotube release to the media, preventing cellular toxicity. Chemical, electrochemical, structural and surface characterization of the hybrids has been accomplished. The high performance of the material in electrochemical measurements and the significant increase in cathodal charge storage capacity obtained for the hybrid in comparison with bare IrOx represent a significant advance in electric field application in biosystems, while its cyclability is also an order of magnitude greater than pure IrOx. Moreover, experiments using in vitro neuronal cultures suggest high biocompatibility for IrOx-CNT coatings and full functionality of neurons, validating this material for use in neural electrodes. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Mumtaz

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG. A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms.

  13. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms.

  14. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms. PMID:28877191

  15. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system....... The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and parallel transient circuit at different charge/discharge currents and cell temperature. An equivalent...... circuit model, based on the runtime battery model and the Thevenin circuit model, with parameters obtained from the tests and depending on SOC, current and temperature has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink and Power Factory. A good alignment between simulations and measurements has been found....

  16. Hybrid finite element and Brownian dynamics method for charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Gary A., E-mail: ghuber@ucsd.edu; Miao, Yinglong [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Zhou, Shenggao [Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Center for Interdiscipline Research, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006 Jiangsu (China); Li, Bo [Department of Mathematics and Quantitative Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); McCammon, J. Andrew [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0636 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Diffusion is often the rate-determining step in many biological processes. Currently, the two main computational methods for studying diffusion are stochastic methods, such as Brownian dynamics, and continuum methods, such as the finite element method. A previous study introduced a new hybrid diffusion method that couples the strengths of each of these two methods, but was limited by the lack of interactions among the particles; the force on each particle had to be from an external field. This study further develops the method to allow charged particles. The method is derived for a general multidimensional system and is presented using a basic test case for a one-dimensional linear system with one charged species and a radially symmetric system with three charged species.

  17. A hybrid charged-particle guide for studying (n, charged particle) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; White, R.M.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Charged-particle transport systems consisting of magnetic quadrupole lenses have been employed in recent years in the study of (n, charged particle) reactions. A new transport system was completed at the laboratory that is based both on magnetic lenses as well as electrostatic fields. The magnetic focusing of the charged-particle guide is provided by six magnetic quadrupole lenses arranged in a CDCCDC sequence (in the vertical plane). The electrostatic field is produced by a wire at high voltage which stretches the length of the guide and is physically at the centre of the magnetic axis. The magnetic lenses are used for charged particles above 5 MeV; the electrostatic guide is used for lower energies. This hybrid system possesses the excellent focusing and background rejection properties of other magnetic systems. For low energy charged-particles, the electrostatic transport avoids the narrow band-passes in charged-particle energy which are a problem with purely magnetic transport systems. This system is installed at the LLNL Cyclograaff facility for the study of (n, charged particle) reactions at neutron energies up to 35 MeV. (Auth.)

  18. Development, modeling and research of the system of automatic control and equalization of the charge state of a battery pack of a hybrid engine of a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, S.; Sizov, Y.; Kim, M.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to the topical problem of developing effective means of monitoring and leveling the charge state of batteries in a power unit of hybrid and electric cars. A system for automatic control and equalization of the charge state of a battery pack of a combined power plant, the originality of which is protected by the Russian Federation patent, is developed and described. A distinctive feature of the device is the possibility of using it both in conditions of charging (power consumption) and in operating conditions (energy recovery). The device is characterized by high reliability, simplicity of the circuit-making solution, low self-consumption and low cost. To test the efficiency of the proposed device, its computer simulation and experimental research were carried out. As a result of multi factorial experiment, a regression equation has been obtained which makes it possible to judge the high efficiency of detecting the degree of inhomogeneity of controlled batteries with respect to the parameters of an equivalent replacement circuit: voltage, internal resistance and capacitance in the magnitude of the obtained coefficients of influence of each of these factors, and also take into account the effects of their pair interactions.

  19. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  20. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  1. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  2. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  4. ATLAS ABCD Hybrid Fatal Charge Dosage Test

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhl, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Grillo, AA; Martinez-McKinney, F; Nielsen, J; Spencer, E; Wilder, M

    2011-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could be subject to various beam loss scenarios. If a severe beam loss event were to occur, it would be beneficial to know how SCT components would be affected. In the SCT detector modules, a key component is the ABCD application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the onboard readout electronics of the system. This ASIC has design specifications that it should withstand a 5nC charge injection within 25 ns, which is the period of the LHC bunch crossing. The first test performed is designed to test this limit, reaching a maximum of 10nC deposited in 25 ns. One model for beam loss predicts that a large charge, of the order of 10^6 MIPS, could be incident on the detector. According to detector studies, this causes a local field breakdown between the backplane of the sensor, held at 450V, and the strips. In this case the signal seen on the readout strip has a rise time of about 1μs due to a charge screening effect. A seco...

  5. ATLAS ABCD Hybrid Fatal Charge Dosage Test

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhl, A; Grillo, A A; Martinez-McKinney, F; Nielsen, J; Spencer, E; Wilder, M

    2011-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could be subject to various beam loss scenarios. If a severe beam loss event were to occur, it would be beneficial to know how SCT components would be affected. In the SCT detector modules, a key component is the ABCD application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the onboard readout electronics of the system. This ASIC has design specifications that it should withstand a 5 nC charge application within 25 ns, which is the period of the LHC bunch crossing. The first test performed is designed to test this limit, reaching a maximum of 10 nC deposited in 25 ns. One model for beam loss predicts that a large charge, of the order of 106 MIPS, could be incident on the detector. According to detector studies, this causes a local field breakdown between the backplane of the sensor, held at 450 V, and the strips. In this case the signal seen on the readout strip has a rise time of about 1 μs due to a charge screening effect. A...

  6. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  7. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  8. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  9. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  10. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  11. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Rolland, J.; Melinte, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; Gohy, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles - bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents. PMID:24603843

  12. Hybrid Techniques for Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krilavicius, T.

    2006-01-01

    Computer controlled systems are almost omnipresent nowadays. We expect such systems to function properly at any time we need them. The malfunctioning of home electronics just irritates us, but glitches in a car, power plant or medical support system may threaten life, and faults in nuclear missile

  13. Charge-transfer channel in quantum dot-graphene hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo; Wang, Jingang; Ma, Fengcai; Sun, Mengtao

    2018-04-01

    The energy band theory of a classical semiconductor can qualitatively explain the charge-transfer process in low-dimensional hybrid colloidal quantum dot (QD)-graphene (GR) materials; however, the definite charge-transfer channels are not clear. Using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT, we simulate the hybrid QD-GR nanostructure, and by constructing its orbital interaction diagram, we show the quantitative coupling characteristics of the molecular orbitals (MOs) of the hybrid structure. The main MOs are derived from the fragment MOs (FOs) of GR, and the Cd13Se13 QD FOs merge with the GR FOs in a certain proportion to afford the hybrid system. Upon photoexcitation, electrons in the GR FOs jump to the QD FOs, leaving holes in the GR FOs, and the definite charge-transfer channels can be found by analyzing the complex MOs coupling. The excited electrons and remaining holes can also be localized in the GR or the QD or transfer between the QD and GR with different absorption energies. The charge-transfer process for the selected excited states of the hybrid QD-GR structure are testified by the charge difference density isosurface. The natural transition orbitals, charge-transfer length analysis and 2D site representation of the transition density matrix also verify the electron-hole delocalization, localization, or coherence chacracteristics of the selected excited states. Therefore, our research enhances understanding of the coupling mechanism of low-dimensional hybrid materials and will aid in the design and manipulation of hybrid photoelectric devices for practical application in many fields.

  14. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  15. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  16. Hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to-time interval conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Dotsenko, Yu.Yu.; Man' yakov, P.K.; Fedorchenko, S.N. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))

    The hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to time interval conversion with nanosecond input fast response is described. The circuit can be used in energy measuring channels, time-to-digital converters and in the modified variant in amplitude-to-digital converters. The converter described consists of a buffer amplifier, a linear transmission circuit, a direct current source and a unit of time interval separation. The buffer amplifier represents a current follower providing low input and high output resistances by the current feedback. It is concluded that the described converter excelled the QT100B circuit analogous to it in a number of parameters especially, in thermostability.

  17. Photoconductivity enhancement and charge transport properties in ruthenium-containing block copolymer/carbon nanotube hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kin Cheung; Hau, King In; Chan, Wai Kin

    2018-04-05

    Functional polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid materials can serve as a good model for light harvesting systems based on CNTs. This paper presents the synthesis of block copolymer/CNT hybrids and the characterization of their photocurrent responses by both experimental and computational approaches. A series of functional diblock copolymers was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerizations for the dispersion and functionalization of CNTs. The block copolymers contain photosensitizing ruthenium complexes and modified pyrene-based anchoring units. The photocurrent responses of the polymer/CNT hybrids were measured by photoconductive atomic force microscopy (PCAFM), from which the experimental data were analyzed by vigorous statistical models. The difference in photocurrent response among different hybrids was correlated to the conformations of the hybrids, which were elucidated by molecular dynamics simulations, and the electronic properties of polymers. The photoresponse of the block copolymer/CNT hybrids can be enhanced by introducing an electron-accepting block between the photosensitizing block and the CNT. We have demonstrated that the application of a rigorous statistical methodology can unravel the charge transport properties of these hybrid materials and provide general guidelines for the design of molecular light harvesting systems.

  18. A hybrid, coupled approach for modeling charged fluids from the nano to the mesoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, James; Frischknecht, Amalie L.; Perego, Mauro; Bochev, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    We develop and demonstrate a new, hybrid simulation approach for charged fluids, which combines the accuracy of the nonlocal, classical density functional theory (cDFT) with the efficiency of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations. The approach is motivated by the fact that the more accurate description of the physics in the cDFT model is required only near the charged surfaces, while away from these regions the PNP equations provide an acceptable representation of the ionic system. We formulate the hybrid approach in two stages. The first stage defines a coupled hybrid model in which the PNP and cDFT equations act independently on two overlapping domains, subject to suitable interface coupling conditions. At the second stage we apply the principles of the alternating Schwarz method to the hybrid model by using the interface conditions to define the appropriate boundary conditions and volume constraints exchanged between the PNP and the cDFT subdomains. Numerical examples with two representative examples of ionic systems demonstrate the numerical properties of the method and its potential to reduce the computational cost of a full cDFT calculation, while retaining the accuracy of the latter near the charged surfaces.

  19. Hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Ricardo C.; O'Neil, Walter K.; Preston, David M.

    2005-09-20

    A hybrid powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover having a rotational output, a second prime mover having a rotational output, and a transmission having a main shaft supporting at least two main shaft gears thereon. The transmission includes a first independent countershaft drivingly connected to the first prime mover and including at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. A second independent countershaft is drivingly connected to the second prime mover and includes at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. The ratio gears on the first and second countershafts cooperate with the main shaft gears to provide at least one gear ratio between the first and second countershafts and the main shaft. A shift control mechanism selectively engages and disengages the first and second countershafts for rotation with the main shaft.

  20. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  1. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  2. Graphene-ferromagnet interfaces: hybridization, magnetization and charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtew, Tesfaye; Shih, Bi-Ching; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Zhang, Peihong

    2013-03-07

    Electronic and magnetic properties of graphene-ferromagnet interfaces are investigated using first-principles electronic structure methods in which a single layer graphene is adsorbed on Ni(111) and Co(111) surfaces. Due to the symmetry matching and orbital overlap, the hybridization between graphene pπ and Ni (or Co) d(z(2)) states is very strong. This pd hybridization, which is both spin and k dependent, greatly affects the electronic and magnetic properties of the interface, resulting in a significantly reduced (by about 20% for Ni and 10% for Co) local magnetic moment of the top ferromagnetic layer at the interface and an induced spin polarization on the graphene layer. The calculated induced magnetic moment on the graphene layer agrees well with a recent experiment. In addition, a substantial charge transfer across the graphene-ferromagnet interfaces is observed. We also investigate the effects of thickness of the ferromagnet slab on the calculated electronic and magnetic properties of the interface. The strength of the pd hybridization and the thickness-dependent interfacial properties may be exploited to design structures with desirable magnetic and transport properties for spintronic applications.

  3. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging strategies on charging and battery degradation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Benedikt; Yan, Zexiong; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The profitability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is significantly influenced by battery aging and electricity costs. Therefore a simulation model for PHEVs in the distribution grid is presented which allows to compare the influence of different charging strategies on these costs. The simulation is based on real-world driving behavior and European Energy Exchange (EEX) intraday prices for obtaining representative results. The analysis of comprehensive lithium-ion battery aging tests performed within this study shows that especially high battery states of charge (SOCs) decrease battery lifetime, whereas the cycling of batteries at medium SOCs only has a minor contribution to aging. Charging strategies that take into account the previously mentioned effects are introduced, and the SOC distributions and cycle loads of the vehicle battery are investigated. It can be shown that appropriate charging strategies significantly increase battery lifetime and reduce charging costs at the same time. Possible savings due to lifetime extension of the vehicle battery are approximately two times higher than revenues due to energy trading. The findings of this work indicate that car manufacturers and energy/mobility providers have to make efforts for developing intelligent charging strategies to reduce mobility costs and thus foster the introduction of electric mobility. - Highlights: ► Modeling of PHEVs based on real-world driving behavior and electricity prices. ► Consideration of battery degradation for the calculation of mobility costs. ► Smart charging decreases battery degradation and electricity costs simultaneously. ► Reduction of battery degradation costs is around two times higher than reduction of electricity costs.

  4. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  5. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    OpenAIRE

    Renuganth Varatharajoo; Ramly Ajir; Tamizi Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS) consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl...

  6. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  7. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H

    2009-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a σ x x σ z interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  8. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  9. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...

  10. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  11. Optically active charge transfer in hybrids of Alq3 nanoparticles and MoS2 monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Ganesh; Dhakal, Krishna P.; Neupane, Guru P.; Jo, Seong Gi; Kim, Hyun; Seo, Changwon; Lee, Young Hee; Joo, Jinsoo; Kim, Jeongyong

    2017-05-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid structures have been widely studied because of their enhanced physical and chemical properties. Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (1L-TMDs) and organic nanoparticles can provide a hybridization configuration between zero- and two-dimensional systems with the advantages of convenient preparation and strong interface interaction. Here, we present such a hybrid system made by dispersing π-conjugated organic (tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(III)) (Alq3) nanoparticles (NPs) on 1L-MoS2. Hybrids of Alq3 NP/1L-MoS2 exhibited a two-fold increase in the photoluminescence of Alq3 NPs on 1L-MoS2 and the n-doping effect of 1L-MoS2, and these spectral and electronic modifications were attributed to the charge transfer between Alq3 NPs and 1L-MoS2. Our results suggested that a hybrid of organic NPs/1L-TMD can offer a convenient platform to study the interface interactions between organic and inorganic nano objects and to engineer optoelectronic devices with enhanced performance.

  12. Components and systems for hybrid- and electromobiles; Komponenten und Systeme fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immle, Michael; Burgmayr, Thomas [Panasonic Electric Works Europe AG, Holzkirchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    On the Hybrid and Electric Vehicle sector Panasonic Electric Works is working among others on electro-mechanical products, such as contactors for battery disconnection or battery charging, on semi-conductor relays for battery monitoring and on complex systems as battery disconnect units. This paper will show experience on the hybrid vehicle sector. Further on different switching components and their usage will be introduced. As a main topic battery disconnected units will be discussed. Based on an actual example basic development items and system features will be touched and important development stages will be shown. As a general topic a future view on vehicles and batteries, as well as on charging systems and infrastructural necessities will be introduced. (orig.)

  13. Development of a Microcontroller-based Battery Charge Controller for an Off-grid Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rina, Z. S.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Majid, M. S. A.; Rojan, M. A.; Zaman, I.

    2017-08-01

    A development of a microcontroller-based charge controller for a 12V battery has been explained in this paper. The system is designed based on a novel algorithm to couple existing solar photovoltaic (PV) charging and main grid supply charging power source. One of the main purposes of the hybrid charge controller is to supply a continuous charging power source to the battery. Furthermore, the hybrid charge controller was developed to shorten the battery charging time taken. The algorithm is programmed in an Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller that monitors the battery voltage and generates appropriate commands for the charging power source selection. The solar energy is utilized whenever the solar irradiation is high. The main grid supply will be only consumed whenever the solar irradiation is low. This system ensures continuous charging power supply and faster charging of the battery.

  14. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  15. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  16. Compositional Modelling of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we present a modelling framework for compositional modelling of stochastic hybrid systems. Hybrid systems consist of a combination of continuous and discrete dynamics. The state space of a hybrid system is hybrid in the sense that it consists of a continuous component and a discrete

  17. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  18. Charge migration and charge transfer in molecular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Wörner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of charge at the molecular level plays a fundamental role in many areas of chemistry, physics, biology and materials science. Today, more than 60 years after the seminal work of R. A. Marcus, charge transfer is still a very active field of research. An important recent impetus comes from the ability to resolve ever faster temporal events, down to the attosecond time scale. Such a high temporal resolution now offers the possibility to unravel the most elementary quantum dynamics of both electrons and nuclei that participate in the complex process of charge transfer. This review covers recent research that addresses the following questions. Can we reconstruct the migration of charge across a molecule on the atomic length and electronic time scales? Can we use strong laser fields to control charge migration? Can we temporally resolve and understand intramolecular charge transfer in dissociative ionization of small molecules, in transition-metal complexes and in conjugated polymers? Can we tailor molecular systems towards specific charge-transfer processes? What are the time scales of the elementary steps of charge transfer in liquids and nanoparticles? Important new insights into each of these topics, obtained from state-of-the-art ultrafast spectroscopy and/or theoretical methods, are summarized in this review.

  19. An Improved Wireless Battery Charging System

    OpenAIRE

    Woo-Seok Lee; Jin-Hak Kim; Shin-Young Cho; Il-Oun Lee

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a direct wireless battery charging system. The output current of the series-series compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT) system is used as a current source, and the output voltage of AC-DC converter controls the current source. Therefore, the proposed wireless battery charging system needs no battery charging circuit to carry out charging profiles, and can solve space constraints and thermal problems in many battery applications. In addition, the proposed wireless b...

  20. Correlations in charged bosons systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Caparica, A. de.

    1985-02-01

    The two and three-dimensional charge Bose gas have been studied. In the bidimensional case two different types of interaction were considered: l/r and l n(r). The method of self-consistent-field was applied to these systems, which takes into account the short range correlations between the bosons through a local-field correction. By using self-consistent numerical calculations, the structure factor S(k → ) was determined. The pair-correlation function, the ground-state energy, the pressure of the gas and the spectrum of elementary excitations were obtained from S (k → ). The screening density induced by a fixed charged impurity was calculated. In the high-density limit our calculations reproduce the results given by Bogoliubov's perturbation theory. In the intermediate-density region, corresponding to the strongly coupled systems, the results are in very good agreement with calculations based on HNC approximation as well as Monte Carlo method. The results are compared in several situations with RPA results showing that the self-consistent method is much more accurate. The two-dimensional systems showed to be more correlated than the three-dimensional systems showed to be more correlated than the three-dimensional one; the gas with interaction l/r is also more correlated than the logarithmic one at high densities, but it begins to be less correlated than this one in the low-density region. The thermodynamic functions of the two and three-dimensional systems at finite temperatures near absolute zero are calculated based upon the gas excitation spectra at zero temperature. (author)

  1. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...

  2. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Beaty, Kevin D [Kalamazoo, MI; Zou, Zhanijang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-07-21

    A battery control system for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery includes a detecting arrangement for determining a vehicle operating state or an intended vehicle operating state and a controller for setting a target state of charge level of the battery based on the vehicle operating state or the intended vehicle operating state. The controller is operable to set a target state of charge level at a first level during a mobile vehicle operating state and at a second level during a stationary vehicle operating state or in anticipation of the vehicle operating in the stationary vehicle operating state. The invention further includes a method for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery.

  3. Portable refrigerant charge meter and method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; LaClair, Tim L.

    2017-08-08

    A refrigerant charge meter and a method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems are described. The meter includes means for determining an optimum refrigerant charge from system subcooling and system component parameters. The meter also includes means for determining the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge. Finally, the meter includes means for determining the actual refrigerant charge from the optimum refrigerant charge and the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge.

  4. Charge Dynamics and Spin Blockade in a Hybrid Double Quantum Dot in Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Urdampilleta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electron spin qubits in silicon, whether in quantum dots or in donor atoms, have long been considered attractive qubits for the implementation of a quantum computer because of silicon’s “semiconductor vacuum” character and its compatibility with the microelectronics industry. While donor electron spins in silicon provide extremely long coherence times and access to the nuclear spin via the hyperfine interaction, quantum dots have the complementary advantages of fast electrical operations, tunability, and scalability. Here, we present an approach to a novel hybrid double quantum dot by coupling a donor to a lithographically patterned artificial atom. Using gate-based rf reflectometry, we probe the charge stability of this double quantum-dot system and the variation of quantum capacitance at the interdot charge transition. Using microwave spectroscopy, we find a tunnel coupling of 2.7 GHz and characterize the charge dynamics, which reveals a charge T_{2}^{*} of 200 ps and a relaxation time T_{1} of 100 ns. Additionally, we demonstrate a spin blockade at the inderdot transition, opening up the possibility to operate this coupled system as a singlet-triplet qubit or to transfer a coherent spin state between the quantum dot and the donor electron and nucleus.

  5. Peptide Dendrimer/Lipid Hybrid Systems Are Efficient DNA Transfection Reagents: Structure–Activity Relationships Highlight the Role of Charge Distribution Across Dendrimer Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Efficient DNA delivery into cells is the prerequisite of the genetic manipulation of organisms in molecular and cellular biology as well as, ultimately, in nonviral gene therapy. Current reagents, however, are relatively inefficient, and structure–activity relationships to guide their improvement are hard to come by. We now explore peptide dendrimers as a new type of transfection reagent and provide a quantitative framework for their evaluation. A collection of dendrimers with cationic and hydrophobic amino acid motifs (such as KK, KA, KH, KL, and LL) distributed across three dendrimer generations was synthesized by a solid-phase protocol that provides ready access to dendrimers in milligram quantities. In conjunction with a lipid component (DOTMA/DOPE), the best reagent, G1,2,3-KL ((LysLeu)8(LysLysLeu)4(LysLysLeu)2LysGlySerCys-NH2), improves transfection by 6–10-fold over commercial reagents under their respective optimal conditions. Emerging structure–activity relationships show that dendrimers with cationic and hydrophobic residues distributed in each generation are transfecting most efficiently. The trigenerational dendritic structure has an advantage over a linear analogue worth up to an order of magnitude. The success of placing the decisive cationic charge patterns in inner shells rather than previously on the surface of macromolecules suggests that this class of dendrimers significantly differs from existing transfection reagents. In the future, this platform may be tuned further and coupled to cell-targeting moieties to enhance transfection and cell specificity. PMID:23682947

  6. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Constructing decidable hybrid systems with velocity bounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belta, C.; Habets, L.C.G.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the question of bi-similarity between hybrid systems and their discrete quotients is studied from a new point of view. We consider two classes of hybrid systems: piecewise affine hybrid systems on simplices and piecewise multi-affine systems on multi-dimensional rectangles. Given a

  8. Hybrid expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.; Ikonomopoulos, A.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology that couples rule-based expert systems using fuzzy logic, to pre-trained artificial neutral networks (ANN) for the purpose of transient identification in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). In order to provide timely concise, and task-specific information about the may aspects of the transient and to determine the state of the system based on the interpretation of potentially noisy data a model-referenced approach is utilized. In it, the expert system performs the basic interpretation and processing of the model data, and pre-trained ANNs provide the model. having access to a set of neural networks that typify general categories of transients, the rule based system is able to perform identification functions. Membership functions - condensing information about a transient in a form convenient for a rule-based identification system characterizing a transient - are the output of neural computations. This allows the identification function to be performed with a speed comparable to or faster than that of the temporal evolution of the system. Simulator data form major secondary system pipe rupture is used to demonstrate the methodology. The results indicate excellent noise-tolerance for ANN's and suggest a new method for transient identification within the framework of Fuzzy Logic

  9. Charge transfer through DNA/DNA duplexes and DNA/RNA hybrids: complex theoretical and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Vala, Martin; Weiter, Martin; Špérová, Miroslava; Schneider, Bohdan; Páv, Ondřej; Šebera, Jakub; Rosenberg, Ivan; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Oligonucleotides conduct electric charge via various mechanisms and their characterization and understanding is a very important and complicated task. In this work, experimental (temperature dependent steady state fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy) and theoretical (Density Functional Theory) approaches were combined to study charge transfer processes in short DNA/DNA and RNA/DNA duplexes with virtually equivalent sequences. The experimental results were consistent with the theoretical model - the delocalized nature of HOMO orbitals and holes, base stacking, electronic coupling and conformational flexibility formed the conditions for more effective short distance charge transfer processes in RNA/DNA hybrids. RNA/DNA and DNA/DNA charge transfer properties were strongly connected with temperature affected structural changes of molecular systems - charge transfer could be used as a probe of even tiny changes of molecular structures and settings. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Combinatorial Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    2008-01-01

    indicates for a given face the future simplex. In the suggested definition we allow nondeterminacy in form of splitting and merging of solution trajectories. The combinatorial vector field gives rise to combinatorial counterparts of most concepts from dynamical systems, such as duals to vector fields, flow......, flow lines, fixed points and Lyapunov functions. Finally it will be shown how this theory extends to switched dynamical systems and an algorithmic overview of how to do supervisory control will be shown towards the end....

  11. Charge transfer in ionic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchus-Montabonel, M.C.; Tergiman, Y.S.; Vaeck, N.; Baloitcha, E.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2002-01-01

    Charge transfer involving multiply charged ions in collision with atomic or molecular targets are determinant processes in controlled thermonuclear fusion research and astrophysical plasma. In such processes, an electron is generally captured in a excited state of the ion, followed by line emission. The observation of line intensities provides important information on the electron temperature, density and spacial distributions in the emitting region of the plasma. From a theoretical point of view, different approaches may be used with regard to the collisional energy range of the process. A semi-classical method is currently used at keV energies, but the description of very low-velocity processes requires a complete quantum mechanical treatment of the dynamics of both electrons and nuclei. The first approach extensively used is the resolution of the stationary close-coupling equations, but we have analyzed recently the efficiency of a time-dependent wave packet method which provides a clear and physical insight into the dynamics of the processes and may be particularly interesting for polyatomic systems since it allows the possibility of developing a fully quantal mechanical treatment for some degrees of freedom, the other ones being treated classically. The keV energy range treatment is presented on two examples pointing out the case of complex ion-atom collision systems, as well as the differences between ion-atom and ion-molecule mechanisms. In connection with translation energy spectroscopy experiments of McLaughlin et al in the 4-28 keV impact energy range, we present a complete ab-initio theoretical approach of the N 4+ (2s) 2 S + He system taking into account both single and double electron capture channels. This is an extremely complex collisional system which involves numerous channels with short range interactions and a very intricate interaction region may be observed for interatomic distances around R = 3.5 a.u.. In agreement with experimental data, the

  12. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    gramians. Generalized gramians are the solutions to the observability and controllability Lyapunov inequalities. In the first framework the projection matrices are found based on the common generalized gramians. This framework preserves the stability of the original switched system for all switching...... is guaranteed to be preserved for arbitrary switching signal. To compute the common generalized gramians linear matrix inequalities (LMI’s) need to be solved. These LMI’s are not always feasible. In order to solve the problem of conservatism, the second framework is presented. In this method the projection......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...

  13. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  14. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H, E-mail: enriquem@univalle.edu.c, E-mail: j.reina-estupinan@physics.ox.ac.u [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a sigma{sub x} x sigma{sub z} interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  15. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid ...

  16. Sunlight-charged electrochromic battery based on hybrid film of tungsten oxide and polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xueting; Hu, Ruirui; Sun, Shibin; Liu, Jingrong; Lei, Yanhua; Liu, Tao; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng

    2018-05-01

    Electrochromic (EC) energy storage devices that could realize the multifunctional integration of energy storage and electrochromism have gained much recent attention. Herein, an EC battery based on the hybrid film of W18O49 and polyaniline (PANI) is developed and assembled, which integrates energy storage and EC functions in one device. The W18O49/PANI-EC battery delivers a discharging capacity of 52.96 mA h g-1, which is about two times higher than that of the W18O49-EC battery. Sunlight irradiation could greatly promote the oxidation reactions of both W18O49 and PANI during the charging process of the W18O49/PANI-EC battery, thus effectively accelerating the charging rate. This work provides a green, convenient, environmentally friendly, and cost-free charging strategy for the EC energy systems and could further advance the development of the multifunctional EC devices based on the organic/inorganic composites.

  17. Experimental studies of the air hybrid engine charging operation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, H; Ma, T; Lee, CY

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, theoretical and modelling studies have been carried out on the feasibility and potential of novel mild air hybrid engine concepts based on production components. These mild air hybrid concepts are able to convert vehicle brake energy into pneumatic energy in the form of compressed air stored in the air tank. The compressed air can then be used to crank-start the engine by either injecting and expanding in the cylinder or driving a production air starter. Thus, the reg...

  18. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  19. A hybrid power system for unmanned aerial vehicle electromagnetic launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiren; Wu, Jun; Huang, Shengjun

    2018-06-01

    According to the UAV electromagnetic catapult with fixed timing, a hybrid energy storage system consist with battery and super capacitor is designed, in order to reduce the volume and weight of the energy storage system. The battery is regarded as the energy storage device and the super capacitor as power release device. Firstly, the battery charges the super capacitor, and then the super capacitor supplies power to electromagnetic catapult separately. The strategy is using the Buck circuit to charge the super capacitor with constant current and using the Boost circuit to make super capacitor provide a stable voltage circuit for electromagnetic catapult. The Simulink simulation results show that the designed hybrid energy storage system can meet the requirements of electromagnetic catapult. Compared with the system powered by the battery alone, the proposed scheme can reduce the number of batteries, and greatly reduce the volume and weight of the energy storage system.

  20. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  1. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  2. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-31

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  3. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  4. Integer Charge Transfer and Hybridization at an Organic Semiconductor/Conductive Oxide Interface

    KAUST Repository

    Gruenewald, Marco

    2015-02-11

    We investigate the prototypical hybrid interface formed between PTCDA and conductive n-doped ZnO films by means of complementary optical and electronic spectroscopic techniques. We demonstrate that shallow donors in the vicinity of the ZnO surface cause an integer charge transfer to PTCDA, which is clearly restricted to the first monolayer. By means of DFT calculations, we show that the experimental signatures of the anionic PTCDA species can be understood in terms of strong hybridization with localized states (the shallow donors) in the substrate and charge back-donation, resulting in an effectively integer charge transfer across the interface. Charge transfer is thus not merely a question of locating the Fermi level above the PTCDA electron-transport level but requires rather an atomistic understanding of the interfacial interactions. The study reveals that defect sites and dopants can have a significant influence on the specifics of interfacial coupling and thus on carrier injection or extraction.

  5. New hybrid systems: strategy and research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    This short article gives a status of research and experimental programs concerning new hybrid systems. A hybrid system is made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and of a particle accelerator that delivers a proton beam. The main asset of hybrid systems is to provide a large reactivity margin that would be very valuable to transmute actinide nuclei efficiently. As a consequence hybrid systems could be considered as actinide burner reactors integrated to a large population of classical nuclear reactors dedicated to electricity production. (A.C.)

  6. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  7. Hybrid unscented particle filter based state-of-charge determination for lead-acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cell SOC (state of charge) is important for the safety and functional capabilities of the battery energy storage application system. This paper presents a hybrid UPF (unscented particle filter) based SOC determination combined model for batteries. To simulate the entire dynamic electrical characteristics of batteries, a novel combined state space model, which takes current as a control input and let SOC and two constructed parameters as state variables, is advanced to represent cell behavior. Besides that, an improved UPF method is used to evaluate cell SOC. Taking lead-acid batteries for example, we apply the established model for test. Results show that the evolved combined state space cell model simulates battery dynamics robustly with high accuracy and the prediction value based on the improved UPF method converges to the real SOC very quickly within the error of±2%. - Highlights: • This paper introduces a hybrid UPF based SOC determination model for batteries. • The evolved model takes SOC and two constructed parameters as state variables. • The combined state space cell model simulates battery dynamics robustly. • NLMS based method is employed to lessen search space and fasten convergence process. • Novel model converges to the real SOC robustly and quickly with fewer particles

  8. Functional Abstraction of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Blom, Henk A.P.; Hermanns, H.

    2006-01-01

    The verification problem for stochastic hybrid systems is quite difficult. One method to verify these systems is stochastic reachability analysis. Concepts of abstractions for stochastic hybrid systems are needed to ease the stochastic reachability analysis. In this paper, we set up different ways

  9. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  10. Parametric systems analysis for ICF hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Maniscalco, J.A.; Chapin, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric design and systems analysis for inertial confinement fusion-fission hybrids are presented. These results were generated as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids, using an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hybrid power plant design code developed in conjunction with the feasibility assessment. The SYMECON systems analysis code, developed by Westinghouse, was used to generate economic results for symbiotic electricity generation systems consisting of the hybrid and its client Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These results explore the entire fusion parameter space for uranium fast fission blanket hybrids, thorium fast fission blanket hybrids, and thorium suppressed fission blanket types are discussed, and system sensitivities to design uncertainties are explored

  11. On the performance of accelerated particle swarm optimization for charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation electrification has undergone major changes since the last decade. Success of smart grid with renewable energy integration solely depends upon the large-scale penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs for a sustainable and carbon-free transportation sector. One of the key performance indicators in hybrid electric vehicle is the State-of-Charge (SoC which needs to be optimized for the betterment of charging infrastructure using stochastic computational methods. In this paper, a newly emerged Accelerated particle swarm optimization (APSO technique was applied and compared with standard particle swarm optimization (PSO considering charging time and battery capacity. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function indicate that APSO achieves some improvements in terms of best fitness and computation time.

  12. Formal Engineering Hybrid Systems: Semantic Underpinnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate some issues in applying formal methods to hybrid system development and develop a categorical framework. We study the themes of stochastic reasoning, heterogeneous formal specification and retrenchment. Hybrid systems raise a rich pallets of aspects that need to be

  13. Dynamics and control of hybrid mechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, G.A.; Nijmeijer, H.; Pogromski, A.Y.; Fradkov, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The papers in this edited volume aim to provide a better understanding of the dynamics and control of a large class of hybrid dynamical systems that are described by different models in different state space domains. They not only cover important aspects and tools for hybrid systems analysis and

  14. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  15. Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This project is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHVs). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO x and CO 2 emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NO x and CO 2 emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO 2 increases with EHV use although the amount is small-less than 1% of total utility emissions even vath the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO 2 totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO 2 emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles

  16. Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaics: Charge-Carrier Recombination, Diffusion, and Radiative Efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2016-01-19

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices that harvest the energy provided by the sun have great potential as renewable energy sources, yet uptake has been hampered by the increased cost of solar electricity compared with fossil fuels. Hybrid metal halide perovskites have recently emerged as low-cost active materials in PV cells with power conversion efficiencies now exceeding 20%. Rapid progress has been achieved over only a few years through improvements in materials processing and device design. In addition, hybrid perovskites appear to be good light emitters under certain conditions, raising the prospect of applications in low-cost light-emitting diodes and lasers. Further optimization of such hybrid perovskite devices now needs to be supported by a better understanding of how light is converted into electrical currents and vice versa. This Account provides an overview of charge-carrier recombination and mobility mechanisms encountered in such materials. Optical-pump-terahertz-probe (OPTP) photoconductivity spectroscopy is an ideal tool here, because it allows the dynamics of mobile charge carriers inside the perovskite to be monitored following excitation with a short laser pulse whose photon energy falls into the range of the solar spectrum. We first review our insights gained from transient OPTP and photoluminescence spectroscopy on the mechanisms dominating charge-carrier recombination in these materials. We discuss that mono-molecular charge-recombination predominantly originates from trapping of charges, with trap depths being relatively shallow (tens of millielectronvolts) for hybrid lead iodide perovskites. Bimolecular recombination arises from direct band-to-band electron-hole recombination and is found to be in significant violation of the simple Langevin model. Auger recombination exhibits links with electronic band structure, in accordance with its requirement for energy and momentum conservation for all charges involved. We further discuss charge-carrier mobility

  17. Distributed Coordination Control Based on State-of-Charge for Bidirectional Power Converters in a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyan Lv

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed coordination control for multiple bidirectional power converters (BPCs in a hybrid AC/DC microgrid with consideration of state-of-charge (SOC of storages. The researched hybrid AC/DC microgrid is composed of both AC and DC subgrids connected by multiple parallel BPCs. In the literature, the storages of a hybrid microgrid are considered to allocate in only the AC subgrid or DC subgrid, which reduces the reliability of the whole system, especially during the islanded mode. Besides, the SOC management has not been considered in BPCs’ operating strategy. This paper considers a hybrid microgrid topology which has energy storages in both AC side and DC side. This ensures the reliability while increasing the complexity of the control strategy at the same time. Further, a distributed coordination control method for multiple BPCs based on SOC was proposed to enhance the reliability of hybrid microgrid. Finally, the performance of the proposed control methods was verified by real-time hardware-in-loop (HIL tests.

  18. Designing your boron-charging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1979-01-01

    High-pressure positive-displacement pumps used in the boron-charging setups of pressurized-water (PWR) nuclear plants because of their inherently high efficiencies over a wide range of pressures and speeds are described. Hydrogen-saturated water containing 4-12% boric acid is fed to the pump from a volume-control tank under a gas blanket. Complicated piping and the pulsation difficulties associated with reciprocating pumps make hydrogen-saturated boron-charging systems a challenge to the designer. The article describes the unusual hydraulics of the systems to help assure a trouble-free design

  19. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  20. Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-08-01

    This factsheet describes a project that developed and demonstrated a new hybrid system for industrial wastewater treatment that synergistically combines a forward osmosis system with a membrane distillation technology and is powered by waste heat.

  1. Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ... from Hybrid System, power delivered to or from grid and phase voltage of the inverter leg. ... Renewable Energy, Electrical Network 220 kV, Hybrid System, Solar, MPPT.

  2. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  3. In Pipe Robot with Hybrid Locomotion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Miclauş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper covers aspects concerning in pipe robots and their components, such as hybrid locomotion systems and the adapting mechanisms used. The second part describes the inspection robot that was developed, which combines tracked and wheeled locomotion (hybrid locomotion. The end of the paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed robot.

  4. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  5. Magnetic confinement system using charged ammonia targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.; Bogdanoff, A.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory

  6. Charge transfer properties and photoelectrocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Liaochuan [Nano Science Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Weide, E-mail: zhangwd@scut.edu.c [Nano Science Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays on tantalum foils were successfully coated with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by a hydrothermal process. The prepared TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT hybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The charge transfer properties and photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B with and without bias potential under UV irradiation were investigated. The MWCNTs promoted the separation of photoinduced carriers in the TiO{sub 2}, thus enhanced photocatalytic activity. Applying bias potential on the photoanode further enhanced its catalytic activity. The efficient charge transportation and high photoelectrocatalytic activity towards degradation of rhodamine B made this hybrid material promising for photocatalyst and for the development of photoelectrical devices.

  7. Quantum State Transmission in a Superconducting Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Hybrids consisting of macroscopic superconducting circuits and microscopic components, such as atoms and spins, have the potential of transmitting an arbitrary state between different quantum species, leading to the prospective of high-speed operation and long-time storage of quantum information. Here we propose a novel hybrid structure, where a neutral-atom qubit directly interfaces with a superconducting charge qubit, to implement the qubit-state transmission. The highly-excited Rydberg atom located inside the gate capacitor strongly affects the behavior of Cooper pairs in the box while the atom in the ground state hardly interferes with the superconducting device. In addition, the DC Stark shift of the atomic states significantly depends on the charge-qubit states. By means of the standard spectroscopic techniques and sweeping the gate voltage bias, we show how to transfer an arbitrary quantum state from the superconducting device to the atom and vice versa. PMID:27922087

  8. Automatic charge control system for satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, B. M.; Cohen, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    The SCATHA and the ATS-5 and 6 spacecraft provided insights to the problem of spacecraft charging at geosychronous altitudes. Reduction of the levels of both absolute and differential charging was indicated, by the emission of low energy neutral plasma. It is appropriate to complete the transition from experimental results to the development of a system that will sense the state-of-charge of a spacecraft, and, when a predetermined threshold is reached, will respond automatically to reduce it. A development program was initiated utilizing sensors comparable to the proton electrostatic analyzer, the surface potential monitor, and the transient pulse monitor that flew in SCATHA, and combine these outputs through a microprocessor controller to operate a rapid-start, low energy plasma source.

  9. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Clark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.

  10. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  11. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  12. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  13. Hybrid cognitive engine for radio systems adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2017-01-01

    of our hybrid engine is validated using software defined radios implementation and simulation in multi-carrier environment. The system throughput, signal to noise and interference ratio, and packet error rate are obtained and compared with other schemes

  14. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological

  15. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  16. Hybrid quantum systems of ions and atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we review the progress in experiments with hybrid systems of trapped ions and ultracold neutral atoms. We give a theoretical overview over the atom-ion interactions in the cold regime and give a summary of the most important experimental results. We conclude with an overview of remaining open challenges and possible applications in hybrid quantum systems of ions and neutral atoms.

  17. Analysis of Synchronization for Coupled Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zheng; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    In the control systems with coupled multi-subsystem, the subsystems might be synchronized (i.e. all the subsystems have the same operation states), which results in negative influence to the whole system. For example, in the supermarket refrigeration systems, the synchronized switch of each...... subsystem will cause low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. This paper takes the supermarket refrigeration systems as an example to analyze the synchronization and its coupling strengths of coupled hybrid systems, which may provide a base for further research...... of control strategies. This paper combines topology and section mapping theories together to show a new way of analyzing hybrid systems...

  18. Experimental investigation on the use of highly charged nanoparticles to improve the stability of weakly charged colloidal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd; Badarudin, A; Kazi, S N; Misran, Misni; Amiri, Ahmad; Sadri, Rad; Khalid, Solangi

    2015-09-15

    The present work highlighted on the implementation of a unique concept for stabilizing colloids at their incipiently low charge potential. A highly charged nanoparticle was introduced within a coagulated prone colloidal system, serving as stabilizer to resist otherwise rapid flocculation and sedimentation process. A low size asymmetry of nanoparticle/colloid serves as the new topic of investigation in addition to the well-established large size ratio nanoparticle/microparticle study. Highly charged Al2O3 nanoparticles were used within the present research context to stabilize TiO2 and Fe3O4 based colloids via the formation of composite structures. It was believed, based on the experimental evidence, that Al2O3 nanoparticle interact with the weakly charged TiO2 and Fe3O4 colloids within the binary system via absorption and/or haloing modes to increase the overall charge potential of the respective colloids, thus preventing further surface contact via van der Waal's attraction. Series of experimental results strongly suggest the presence of weakly charged colloids in the studied bimodal system where, in the absence of highly charged nanoparticle, experience rapid instability. Absorbance measurement indicated that the colloidal stability drops in accordance to the highly charged nanoparticle sedimentation rate, suggesting the dominant influence of nanoparticles to attain a well-dispersed binary system. Further, it was found that the level of colloidal stability was enhanced with increasing nanoparticle fraction within the mixture. Rheological observation revealed that each hybrid complexes demonstrated behavior reminiscence to water with negligible increase in viscosity which serves as highly favorable condition particularly in thermal transport applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yuan-Yong; Lu, Shao-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a successful design and implement of a shunt-winding hybrid electric motorcycle management system which utilizes an electronic control unit (ECU) to integrate two major subsystems together, one being the traditional system of 125 c.c. internal combustion engine and the other an electric power motor. The hybrid electric motorcycle is assembled together robustly by these two major subsystems and eventually leads to successful road tests. The hybrid power system thus implemented can recharge its own batteries with electricity provided by the electrical recharge system and thus increasing the cruising mileages largely. The testing results obtained by using the proposed experimental platform indicate that lead-acid cells can boost their state of charge (SOC) by approximately 4% when it is operated under the hybrid mode for four driving cycles (about 1600 s) with the recharger on in a standard ECE-40 testing procedure. The results of road tests also clearly show that the pollutant emissions of the engine can be reduced at a lower speed or idling condition, and the problem of insufficient cruising range for electric motorcycles can also be greatly enhanced.

  20. Design of Smart Charging Infrastructure Hardware and Firmware Design of the Various Current Multiplexing Charging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-07

    Currently, when Electric Vehicles (EVs) are charging, they only have the option to charge at a selected current or not charge. When during the day there is a power shortage, the charging infrastructure should have the options to either shut off the power to the charging stations or to lower the power to the EVs in order to satisfy the needs of the grid. There is a need for technology that controls the current being disbursed to these electric vehicles. This paper proposes a design for a smart charging infrastructure capable of providing power to several EVs from one circuit by multiplexing power and providing charge control. The smart charging infrastructure includes the server and the smart charging station. With this smart charging infrastructure, the shortage of energy in a local grid could be solved by our EV management system

  1. Charge and energy transfer interplay in hybrid sensitized solar cells mediated by graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, Iuliana; Radoi, Antonio; Mihaila, Mihai; Munteanu, Cornel; Marin, Alexandru; Danila, Mihai; Kusko, Mihaela; Kusko, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a one pot synthesis metod of GQD with controlled size and optoelectronic properties. • An improvement of common N3-DSSC characteristics is achieved when GQDs are used as co-sensitiser. • The role of GQD as cosensitisers in hybrid DSSC was investigated and the interplay between charge and energy transfer phenomena mediated by GQDs was demonstrated. • The GQDs presence determines an inhibition of the recombination processes at the TiO 2 /electrolyte interface. - Abstract: We explored the role of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as co-sensitizers in hybrid dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) architectures, focusing on various concurring mechanisms, such as: charge transfer, energy transfer and recombination rate, towards light harvesting improvement. GQDs were prepared by the hydrothermal method that allows the tuning of electronic levels and optical properties by employing appropriate precursors and synthesis conditions. The aim was to realize a type II alignment for TiO 2 /GQD/dye hybrid configuration, using standard N3 Ru-dye in order to improve charge transfer. When GQDs were used as co-sensitizers together with N3 Ru-dye, an improvement in power conversion efficiency was achieved, as shown by electrical measurements. The experimental analysis indicates that this improvement arises from the interplay of various mechanisms mediated by GQDs: (i) enhancement of charge separation and collection due to the cascaded alignment of the energy levels; (ii) energy transfer from GQDs to N3 Ru-dye due to the overlap between GQD photoluminescence and N3 Ru-dye absorption spectra; and (iii) reduction of the electron recombination to the redox couple due to the inhibition of the back electron transfer to the electrolyte by the GQDs

  2. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  3. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Larrain, Diego; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The wast...

  4. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Favrat, Daniel; Larrain, Diego; Allani, Yassine

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The waste heat from both...

  5. Swarm Intelligence-Based Smart Energy Allocation Strategy for Charging Stations of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches towards the use of green technologies to reduce pollution and higher penetration of renewable energy sources in the transportation sector have been gaining popularity. In this wake, extensive participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs requires adequate charging allocation strategy using a combination of smart grid systems and smart charging infrastructures. Daytime charging stations will be needed for daily usage of PHEVs due to the limited all-electric range. Intelligent energy management is an important issue which has already drawn much attention of researchers. Most of these works require formulation of mathematical models with extensive use of computational intelligence-based optimization techniques to solve many technical problems. In this paper, gravitational search algorithm (GSA has been applied and compared with another member of swarm family, particle swarm optimization (PSO, considering constraints such as energy price, remaining battery capacity, and remaining charging time. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function evaluate the performance of both techniques in terms of best fitness.

  6. Hybrid optimal online-overnight charging coordination of plug-in electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Nabavi, Seyed M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optimal coordinated charging of plugged-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart grid (SG) can be beneficial for both consumers and utilities. This paper proposes a hybrid optimal online followed by overnight charging coordination of high and low priority PEVs using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) that considers the benefits of both consumers and electric utilities. Objective functions are online minimization of total cost (associated with grid losses and energy generation) and overnight valley filling through minimization of the total load levels. The constraints include substation transformer loading, node voltage regulations and the requested final battery state of charge levels (SOCreq). The main challenge is optimal selection of the overnight starting time (toptimal-overnight,start) to guarantee charging of all vehicle batteries to the SOCreq levels before the requested plug-out times (treq) which is done by simultaneously solving the online and overnight objective functions. The online-overnight PEV coordination approach is implemented on a 449-node SG; results are compared for uncoordinated and coordinated battery charging as well as a modified strategy using cost minimizations for both online and overnight coordination. The impact of toptimal-overnight,start on performance of the proposed PEV coordination is investigated.

  7. PV Charging System for Remote Area Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilsemann, Frederick [Coherent Systems International, Doylestown, PA (United States); Thompson, Roger [Coherent Systems International, Doylestown, PA (United States)

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project is to provide the public with a study of new as well existing technology to recharge batteries used in the field. A new product(s) will also be built based upon the information ascertained. American Electric Vehicles, Inc. (AEV) developed systems and methods suitable for charging state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries in remote locations under both ideal and cloudy weather conditions. Conceptual designs are described for existing and next generation technology, particularly as regards solar cells, peak power trackers and batteries. Prototype system tests are reported.

  8. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  9. Multifunctional hybrid diode: Study of photoresponse, high responsivity, and charge injection mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitendra; Singh, R. G.; Gautam, Subodh K.; Singh, Fouran

    2018-05-01

    A multifunctional hybrid heterojunction diode is developed on porous silicon and its current density-voltage characteristics reveal a good rectification ratio along with other superior parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance. The diode also functions as an efficient photodiode to manifest high photosensitivity with high responsivity under illumination with broadband solar light, UV light, and green light. The diode is also carefully scrutinized for its sensitivity and repeatability over many cycles under UV and green light and is found to have a quick response and extremely fast recovery times. The notable responsivity is attributed to the generation of high density of excitons in the depletion region by the absorption of incident photons and their separation by an internal electric field besides an additional photocurrent due to the charging of polymer chains. The mechanisms of generation, injection and transport of charge carriers are explained by developing a schematic energy band diagram. The transport phenomenon of carriers is further investigated from room temperature down to a very low temperature of 10 K. An Arrhenius plot is made to determine the Richardson constant. Various diode parameters as mentioned above are also determined and the dominance of the transport mechanism of charge carriers in different temperature regimes such as diffusion across the junction and/or quantum tunneling through the barriers are explained. The developed multifunction heterojunction hybrid diodes have implications for highly sensitive photodiodes in the UV and visible range of electromagnetic spectrum that can be very promising for efficient optoelectronic devices.

  10. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  11. Determination of nonlinear nanomechanical resonator-qubit coupling coefficient in a hybrid quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qi; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2016-07-10

    We have theoretically investigated a hybrid system that is composed of a traditional optomechanical component and an additional charge qubit (Cooper pair box) that induces a new nonlinear interaction. It is shown that the peak in optomechanically induced transparency has been split by the new nonlinear interaction, and the width of the splitting is proportional to the coupling coefficient of this nonlinear interaction. This may give a way to measure the nanomechanical oscillator-qubit coupling coefficient in hybrid quantum systems.

  12. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  13. Hybrid Propulsion Systems for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Abdul Sathar Eqbal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of more efficient propulsion systems for aerospace vehicles is essential to achieve key objectives. These objectives are to increase efficiency while reducing the amount of carbon-based emissions. Hybrid electric propulsion (HEP is an ideal means to maintain the energy density of hydrocarbon-based fuels and utilize energy-efficient electric machines. A system that integrates different propulsion systems into a single system, with one being electric, is termed an HEP system. HEP systems have been studied previously and introduced into Land, Water, and Aerial Vehicles. This work presents research into the use of HEP systems in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS. The systems discussed in this paper are Internal Combustion Engine (ICE–Electric Hybrid systems, ICE–Photovoltaic (PV Hybrid systems, and Fuel-Cell Hybrid systems. The improved performance characteristics in terms of fuel consumption and endurance are discussed.

  14. Lifetime prognostics of hybrid backup power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Simon Dyhr; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Modern telecommunication power supplies are based on renewable solutions, e.g. fuel cell/battery hybrid systems, for immediate and prolonged load support during grid faults. The high demand for power continuity increases the emphasis on power supply reliability and availability which raises...... the need for monitoring the system condition for timely maintenance and prevention of downtime. Although present on component level, no current literature addresses the condition monitoring from the perspective of a fuel cell/battery hybrid system such as the telecommunication power supply. This paper...... components: fuel cell, battery, and converters, is given. Finally, the paper presents a discussion on the available monitoring techniques from a commercial hybrid system point view....

  15. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  16. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  17. Control system for a hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ali K.; Demirovic, Besim; Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A.

    2014-09-09

    A vehicle includes a powertrain with an engine, first and second torque machines, and a hybrid transmission. A method for operating the vehicle includes operating the engine in an unfueled state, releasing an off-going clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a first continuously variable mode, and applying a friction braking torque to a wheel of the vehicle to compensate for an increase in an output torque of the hybrid transmission resulting from releasing the off-going clutch. Subsequent to releasing the off-going clutch, an oncoming clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a second continuously variable mode is synchronized. Subsequent to synchronization of the oncoming clutch, the oncoming clutch is engaged.

  18. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  19. DNA Immobilization and Hybridization Detection by the Intrinsic Molecular Charge Using Capacitive Field-Effect Sensors Modified with a Charged Weak Polyelectrolyte Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronder, Thomas S; Poghossian, Arshak; Scheja, Sabrina; Wu, Chunsheng; Keusgen, Michael; Mewes, Dieter; Schöning, Michael J

    2015-09-16

    Miniaturized setup, compatibility with advanced micro- and nanotechnologies, and ability to detect biomolecules by their intrinsic molecular charge favor the semiconductor field-effect platform as one of the most attractive approaches for the development of label-free DNA chips. In this work, a capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensor covered with a layer-by-layer prepared, positively charged weak polyelectrolyte layer of PAH (poly(allylamine hydrochloride)) was used for the label-free electrical detection of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) immobilization and hybridization. The negatively charged probe single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules were electrostatically adsorbed onto the positively charged PAH layer, resulting in a preferentially flat orientation of the ssDNA molecules within the Debye length, thus yielding a reduced charge-screening effect and a higher sensor signal. Each sensor-surface modification step (PAH adsorption, probe ssDNA immobilization, hybridization with complementary target DNA (cDNA), reducing an unspecific adsorption by a blocking agent, incubation with noncomplementary DNA (ncDNA) solution) was monitored by means of capacitance-voltage and constant-capacitance measurements. In addition, the surface morphology of the PAH layer was studied by atomic force microscopy and contact-angle measurements. High hybridization signals of 34 and 43 mV were recorded in low-ionic strength solutions of 10 and 1 mM, respectively. In contrast, a small signal of 4 mV was recorded in the case of unspecific adsorption of fully mismatched ncDNA. The density of probe ssDNA and dsDNA molecules as well as the hybridization efficiency was estimated using the experimentally measured DNA immobilization and hybridization signals and a simplified double-layer capacitor model. The results of field-effect experiments were supported by fluorescence measurements, verifying the DNA-immobilization and hybridization event.

  20. Interconversion between Free Charges and Bound Excitons in 2D Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélvez-Rueda, María C; Hutter, Eline M; Cao, Duyen H; Renaud, Nicolas; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Hupp, Joseph T; Savenije, Tom J; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Grozema, Ferdinand C

    2017-11-30

    The optoelectronic properties of hybrid perovskites can be easily tailored by varying their components. Specifically, mixing the common short organic cation (methylammonium (MA)) with a larger one (e.g., butyl ammonium (BA)) results in 2-dimensional perovskites with varying thicknesses of inorganic layers separated by the large organic cation. In both of these applications, a detailed understanding of the dissociation and recombination of electron-hole pairs is of prime importance. In this work, we give a clear experimental demonstration of the interconversion between bound excitons and free charges as a function of temperature by combining microwave conductivity techniques with photoluminescence measurements. We demonstrate that the exciton binding energy varies strongly (between 80 and 370 meV) with the thickness of the inorganic layers. Additionally, we show that the mobility of charges increases with the layer thickness, in agreement with calculated effective masses from electronic structure calculations.

  1. Interconversion between Free Charges and Bound Excitons in 2D Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gélvez-Rueda, María C.; Hutter, Eline M.; Cao, Duyen H.; Renaud, Nicolas; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.

    2017-01-01

    The optoelectronic properties of hybrid perovskites can be easily tailored by varying their components. Specifically, mixing the common short organic cation (methylammonium (MA)) with a larger one (e.g., butyl ammonium (BA)) results in 2-dimensional perovskites with varying thicknesses of inorganic layers separated by the large organic cation. In both of these applications, a detailed understanding of the dissociation and recombination of electron–hole pairs is of prime importance. Here in this work, we give a clear experimental demonstration of the interconversion between bound excitons and free charges as a function of temperature by combining microwave conductivity techniques with photoluminescence measurements. We demonstrate that the exciton binding energy varies strongly (between 80 and 370 meV) with the thickness of the inorganic layers. Additionally, we show that the mobility of charges increases with the layer thickness, in agreement with calculated effective masses from electronic structure calculations.

  2. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification o...... on a number of case studies, tackled using a prototypical implementation....

  3. Stochastic hybrid systems with renewal transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro Tome Antunes, D.J.; Hespanha, J.P.; Silvestre, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider Stochastic Hybrid Systems (SHSs) for which the lengths of times that the system stays in each mode are independent random variables with given distributions. We propose an analysis framework based on a set of Volterra renewal-type equations, which allows us to compute any statistical

  4. Modelling dependable systems using hybrid Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, Martin; Tailor, Manesh; Marquez, David; Fenton, Norman; Hearty, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid Bayesian network (BN) is one that incorporates both discrete and continuous nodes. In our extensive applications of BNs for system dependability assessment, the models are invariably hybrid and the need for efficient and accurate computation is paramount. We apply a new iterative algorithm that efficiently combines dynamic discretisation with robust propagation algorithms on junction tree structures to perform inference in hybrid BNs. We illustrate its use in the field of dependability with two example of reliability estimation. Firstly we estimate the reliability of a simple single system and next we implement a hierarchical Bayesian model. In the hierarchical model we compute the reliability of two unknown subsystems from data collected on historically similar subsystems and then input the result into a reliability block model to compute system level reliability. We conclude that dynamic discretisation can be used as an alternative to analytical or Monte Carlo methods with high precision and can be applied to a wide range of dependability problems

  5. Analysis and evaluation of hybrid scooter transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, Kuen-Bao [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Formosa University, 64 Wunhua Road, Huwei, Yuenlin 63208 (China)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents a new design concept of transmissions for the hybrid scooters. These transmissions consist of a one-degree-of-freedom planetary gear train and a two-degree-of-freedom planetary gear train to from a split power system and to combine the power of two power sources, a gasoline engine and an electric motor. In order to maximize the performance and reduce emissions, the transmissions can provide a hybrid scooter to run five operating modes: electric motor mode; engine mode; engine/charging mode; power mode, and regenerative braking mode. The main advantages of the transmissions proposed in this paper include the use of only one electric motor/generator, need not use clutch/brake for the shift of the operating modes, and high efficiency. The kinematics, power flow, and mechanical efficiency analyzes are performed; and according to these results, the evaluation of transmission power performances are accomplished. (author)

  6. Silicon Nanowire/Polymer Hybrid Solar Cell-Supercapacitor: A Self-Charging Power Unit with a Total Efficiency of 10.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiyuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Teng; Wang, Mingjun; Wu, Changsheng; Zou, Haiyang; Song, Tao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Sun, Baoquan

    2017-07-12

    An integrated self-charging power unit, combining a hybrid silicon nanowire/polymer heterojunction solar cell with a polypyrrole-based supercapacitor, has been demonstrated to simultaneously harvest solar energy and store it. By efficiency enhancement of the hybrid nanowire solar cells and a dual-functional titanium film serving as conjunct electrode of the solar cell and supercapacitor, the integrated system is able to yield a total photoelectric conversion to storage efficiency of 10.5%, which is the record value in all the integrated solar energy conversion and storage system. This system may not only serve as a buffer that diminishes the solar power fluctuations from light intensity, but also pave its way toward cost-effective high efficiency self-charging power unit. Finally, an integrated device based on ultrathin Si substrate is demonstrated to expand its feasibility and potential application in flexible energy conversion and storage devices.

  7. Deflection system for charged-particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, T

    1982-01-13

    A system is described for achromatically deflecting a beam of charged particles without producing net divergence of the beam comprising three successive magnetic deflection means which deflect the beam alternately in opposite directions; the first and second deflect by angles of less than 50/sup 0/ and the third by an angle of at least 90/sup 0/. Particles with different respective energies are transversely spaced as they enter the third deflection means, but emerge completely superimposed in both position and direction and may be brought to a focus in each of two mutually perpendicular planes, a short distance thereafter. Such a system may be particularly compact, especially in the direction in which the beam leaves the system. It is suitable for deflecting a beam of electrons from a linear accelerator so producing a vertical beam of electron (or with an X-ray target, of X-rays) which can be rotated about a horizontal patient for radiation therapy.

  8. Generalised Computability and Applications to Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita V.; Kudinov, Oleg V.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the concept of generalised computability of operators and functionals defined on the set of continuous functions, firstly introduced in [9]. By working in the reals, with equality and without equality, we study properties of generalised computable operators and functionals. Also we...... propose an interesting application to formalisation of hybrid systems. We obtain some class of hybrid systems, which trajectories are computable in the sense of computable analysis. This research was supported in part by the RFBR (grants N 99-01-00485, N 00-01- 00810) and by the Siberian Branch of RAS (a...... grant for young researchers, 2000)...

  9. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  10. Weighted hybrid technique for recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriati, S.; Dwiastuti, Meisyarah; Tulus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recommender system becomes very popular and has important role in an information system or webpages nowadays. A recommender system tries to make a prediction of which item a user may like based on his activity on the system. There are some familiar techniques to build a recommender system, such as content-based filtering and collaborative filtering. Content-based filtering does not involve opinions from human to make the prediction, while collaborative filtering does, so collaborative filtering can predict more accurately. However, collaborative filtering cannot give prediction to items which have never been rated by any user. In order to cover the drawbacks of each approach with the advantages of other approach, both approaches can be combined with an approach known as hybrid technique. Hybrid technique used in this work is weighted technique in which the prediction score is combination linear of scores gained by techniques that are combined.The purpose of this work is to show how an approach of weighted hybrid technique combining content-based filtering and item-based collaborative filtering can work in a movie recommender system and to show the performance comparison when both approachare combined and when each approach works alone. There are three experiments done in this work, combining both techniques with different parameters. The result shows that the weighted hybrid technique that is done in this work does not really boost the performance up, but it helps to give prediction score for unrated movies that are impossible to be recommended by only using collaborative filtering.

  11. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    A new multiuser scheduling scheme is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The proposed system combines features of conventional full-feedback selection-based diversity systems and reduced-feedback switch-based diversity systems. The new hybrid system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users\\' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds are used and optimized to maximize the system overall achievable rate. The proposed hybrid system applies switched diversity criterion to choose one of the groups, and a selection criterion to decide the user to be scheduled from the chosen group. Numerical results demonstrate that the system capacity increases as the number of users per group increases, but at the cost of more required feedback messages. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. High speed auto-charging system for condenser bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Yasunori; Bito, Fumio; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Sometani, Taro

    1987-01-01

    A current-control type high-speed charging system, which is intended for auto-charging of the condenser bank, is developed. Moreover, the system can also serve to compensate the current leakage from the condenser bank so that the charged voltage can be kept constant. The system consists of a sequence circuit, a charging current control circuit (or auto-charging circuit) and a charging circuit. The auto-charging circuit is characterized by the use of a triac to control the current. The current, controlled by the circuit, is supplied to the condenser bank through a step-up transformer and voltage doubler rectifier circuit. It is demonstrated that the use of the high-speed auto-charging circuit can largely decrease the required charging time, compared to constant voltage charging. In addition, the compensation function is shown to serve effectively for maintaining a constant voltage after the completion of charging. The required charging time is decreases as the charging current increases. The maximum charging current is decided by the rating of the traic and the current rating of the rectifier diode in the secondary circuit. Major components of these circuits have decreased impedances to minimize the effect of noise, so that the possibility of an accident can be eliminated. Other various improvements are made in the grounding circuit and the charging protection circuit in order to ensure safety. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pecht

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The battery management system (BMS is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well.

  14. Specification and Verification of Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, Belawati H.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid systems are reactive systems which intermix between two components, discrete components and continuous components. The continuous components are usually called plants, subject to disturbances which cause the state variables of the systems changing continuously by physical laws and/or by the control laws. The discrete components can be digital computers, sensor and actuators controlled by programs. These programs are designed to select, control and supervise the behavior of the continuous components. Specification and verification of hybrid systems has recently become an active area of research in both computer science and control engineering, many papers concerning hybrid system have been published. This paper gives a design methodology for hybrid systems as an example to the specification and verification of hybrid systems. The design methodology is based on the cooperation between two disciplines, control engineering and computer science. The methodology brings into the design of control loops and decision loops. The external behavior of control loops are specified in a notation which is understandable by the two disciplines. The design of control loops which employed theory of differential equation is done by control engineers, and its correctness is also guaranteed analytically or experimentally by control engineers. The decision loops are designed in computing science based on the specifications of control loops. The verification of systems requirements can be done by computing scientists using a formal reasoning mechanism. For illustrating the proposed design, a problem of balancing an inverted pendulum which is a popular experiment device in control theory is considered, and the Mean Value Calculus is chosen as a formal notation for specifying the control loops and designing the decision loops

  15. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-01-01

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  16. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-11-08

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  17. Diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectrics are increasingly being studied as promising electrical generators in the ongoing search for alternative energy sources. In particular, recent experimental work has examined thermoelectric materials containing ionic charge carriers; however, the majority of mathematical modeling has been focused on their steady-state behavior. Here, we determine the time scales over which the diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems occur by analyzing the simplest model thermoelectric cell: a binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes. We consider the application of a temperature gradient across the device while the electrodes remain electrically isolated from each other. This results in a net voltage, called the thermovoltage, via the Seebeck effect. At the same time, the Soret effect results in migration of the ions toward the cold electrode. The charge dynamics are described mathematically by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for dilute solutions, in which the ion flux is driven by electromigration, Brownian diffusion, and thermal diffusion under a temperature gradient. The temperature evolves according to the heat equation. This nonlinear set of equations is linearized in the (experimentally relevant) limit of a "weak" temperature gradient. From this, we show that the time scale on which the thermovoltage develops is the Debye time, 1 /D κ2 , where D is the Brownian diffusion coefficient of both ion species, and κ-1 is the Debye length. However, the concentration gradient due to the Soret effect develops on the bulk diffusion time, L2/D , where L is the distance between the electrodes. For thin diffuse layers, which is the condition under which most real devices operate, the Debye time is orders of magnitude less than the diffusion time. Therefore, rather surprisingly, the majority of ion motion occurs after the steady thermovoltage has developed. Moreover, the dynamics are independent of the thermal diffusion

  18. Diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F; Khair, Aditya S

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectrics are increasingly being studied as promising electrical generators in the ongoing search for alternative energy sources. In particular, recent experimental work has examined thermoelectric materials containing ionic charge carriers; however, the majority of mathematical modeling has been focused on their steady-state behavior. Here, we determine the time scales over which the diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems occur by analyzing the simplest model thermoelectric cell: a binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes. We consider the application of a temperature gradient across the device while the electrodes remain electrically isolated from each other. This results in a net voltage, called the thermovoltage, via the Seebeck effect. At the same time, the Soret effect results in migration of the ions toward the cold electrode. The charge dynamics are described mathematically by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for dilute solutions, in which the ion flux is driven by electromigration, Brownian diffusion, and thermal diffusion under a temperature gradient. The temperature evolves according to the heat equation. This nonlinear set of equations is linearized in the (experimentally relevant) limit of a "weak" temperature gradient. From this, we show that the time scale on which the thermovoltage develops is the Debye time, 1/Dκ^{2}, where D is the Brownian diffusion coefficient of both ion species, and κ^{-1} is the Debye length. However, the concentration gradient due to the Soret effect develops on the bulk diffusion time, L^{2}/D, where L is the distance between the electrodes. For thin diffuse layers, which is the condition under which most real devices operate, the Debye time is orders of magnitude less than the diffusion time. Therefore, rather surprisingly, the majority of ion motion occurs after the steady thermovoltage has developed. Moreover, the dynamics are independent of the thermal diffusion

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  20. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  1. Parametric systems analysis for tandem mirror hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1980-09-01

    Fusion fission systems, consisting of fissile producing fusion hybrids combining a tandem mirror fusion driver with various blanket types and net fissile consuming LWR's, have been modeled and analyzed parametrically. Analysis to date indicates that hybrids can be competitive with mined uranium when U 3 O 8 cost is about 100 $/lb., adding less than 25% to present day cost of power from LWR's. Of the three blanket types considered, uranium fast fission (UFF), thorium fast fission (ThFF), and thorium fission supressed (ThFS), the ThFS blanket has a modest economic advantage under most conditions but has higher support ratios and potential safety advantages under all conditions

  2. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  3. Analysis of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System Designs for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    small EM to provide extra power during acceleration and recharge during deceleration through regenerative braking . Power assist systems are similar...climbing (Fig. 4).18 Like automotive hybrids, the aircraft utilizes a form of regenerative braking by charging its battery pack through propeller...desirable.”5 The inherent risks of all three ISR mission categories lead towards small UAS being the best option in many cases to meet the military’s

  4. A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur; Wang, Wen Chung

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO 2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

  5. Process algebras for hybrid systems : comparison and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khadim, U.

    2008-01-01

    Our research is about formal speci¯cation and analysis of hybrid systems. The formalism used is process algebra. Hybrid systems are systems that exhibit both discrete and continuous behaviour. An example of a hybrid system is a digital controller controlling a physical device such as present in

  6. Effect of Cation Rotation on Charge Dynamics in Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gélvez-Rueda, María C.; Cao, Duyen H.; Patwardhan, Sameer; Renaud, Nicolas; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Schatz, George C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Savenije, Tom J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Grozema, Ferdinand C.

    2016-08-04

    Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites are a promising class of materials for photovoltaic application with reported power efficiencies over similar to 22%. However, not much is known about the influence of the organic dipole rotation and phase transitions on charge carrier dynamics. Here, we report substantial changes in mobility and lifetime of charge carriers in CH3NH3PbI3 after the low-temperature tetragonal (beta) to orthorhombic (gamma) phase transition. By using microwave conductivity measurements, we observed that the mobility and lifetime of ionized charge carriers increase as the temperature decreases and a sudden increment is seen after the beta-gamma phase transition. For CH3NH3PbI3, the mobility and the half-lifetime increase by a factor of 36 compared with the values before the beta-gamma phase transition. We attribute the considerable change in the dynamics at low temperature to the decrease of the inherent dynamic disorder of the organic cation (CH3NH3+) inside the perovskite crystal structure.

  7. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... filter system consisting of distributed passive filters and an active filter....... the active filter is responsible for the correction of the system unbalance and the cancellation of the remaining harmonics. The paper also analyzes the effects of the circuit configuration on the system impedance characteristics and consequently the effectiveness of the filter system. Simulation studies...

  8. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  9. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices. (topical reviews)

  10. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  11. Carbon nanotube charge collectors for nanoimprinted hybrid perovskite photovoltaics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Haroldson, Ross; Saranin, Danila; Martinez, Patricia; Ishteev, Artur

    2017-06-01

    The hybrid (organo-inorganic) lead-halide perovskites revolutionized the field of solar cell research due to the impressive power conversion efficiencies of up to 21% recently reported in perovskite based solar cells. This talk will present first the general concepts of excitonic photovoltaics, as compared to conventional Si-type solar cells, asking a question: is hybrid perovskite PV an excitonic solar cell or not? Do we need excitons dissociation at D-A interfaces or CNT charge collectors? Then I will show our recent experimental results on the fast spectroscopy of excitons, magnetic field effect on generation of correlated (e-h) pairs. Also will discuss our Hall effect results, that allows to evaluate intrinsic charge carrier transport and direct measurements of mobility in these materials performed for the first time in steady-state dc transport regime. From these measurements, we have obtained the electron-hole recombination coefficient, the carrier diffusion length and lifetime. Our main results include the intrinsic Hall carrier mobility reaching up to 60 cm2V-1s-1 in perovskite single crystals, carrier lifetimes of up to 3 ms (surprisingly too long!), and carrier diffusion lengths as long as 650 μm (huge if compared to organic and even best inorganic materials). Our results also demonstrate that photocarrier recombination in these disordered solution-processed perovskites is as weak as in the best (high-purity single crystals) of conventional direct-band inorganic semiconductors. Moreover, as we show in our experiment, carrier trapping in perovskites is also strongly suppressed, which accounts for such long carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths, significantly longer than similar parameters in the best inorganic semiconductors, such e.g. as GaAs. All these remarkable transport properties of hybrid perovskites need to be understood from fundamental physics point of view. Looks like we need some new concepts to explain the mysterious properties of

  12. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  13. A hybrid, broadband, low noise charge preamplifier for simultaneous high resolution energy and time information with large capacitance semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyot, M.

    1975-05-01

    A broadband and low noise charge preamplifier was developed in hybrid form, for a recoil spectrometer requiring large capacitance semiconductor detectors. This new hybrid and low cost preamplifier permits good timing information without compromising energy resolution. With a 500 pF external input capacity, it provides two simultaneous outputs: (i) the faster, current sensitive, with a rise time of 9 nsec and 2 mV/MeV on 50 ohms load, (ii) the lower, charge sensitive, with an energy resolution of 14 keV (FWHM Si) using a RC-CR ungated filter of 2 μsec and a FET input protection [fr

  14. Disease processes as hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of hybrid techniques in complex processes of infectious diseases. Since predictive disease models in biomedicine require a multiscale approach for understanding the molecule-cell-tissue-organ-body interactions, heterogeneous methodologies are often employed for describing the different biological scales. Hybrid models provide effective means for complex disease modelling where the action and dosage of a drug or a therapy could be meaningfully investigated: the infection dynamics can be classically described in a continuous fashion, while the scheduling of multiple treatment discretely. We define an algebraic language for specifying general disease processes and multiple treatments, from which a semantics in terms of hybrid dynamical system can be derived. Then, the application of control-theoretic tools is proposed in order to compute the optimal scheduling of multiple therapies. The potentialities of our approach are shown in the case study of the SIR epidemic model and we discuss its applicability on osteomyelitis, a bacterial infection affecting the bone remodelling system in a specific and multiscale manner. We report that formal languages are helpful in giving a general homogeneous formulation for the different scales involved in a multiscale disease process; and that the combination of hybrid modelling and control theory provides solid grounds for computational medicine.

  15. Modeling and state-of-charge prediction of lithium-ion battery and ultracapacitor hybrids with a co-estimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Pan, Rui; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-01-01

    The modeling and state-of-charge estimation of the batteries and ultracapacitors are crucial to the battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system. In recent years, the model based state estimators are welcomed widely, since they can adjust the gain according to the error between the model predictions and measurements timely. In most of the existing algorithms, the model parameters are either configured by theoretical values or identified off-line without adaption. But in fact, the model parameters always change continuously with loading wave or self-aging, and the lack of adaption will reduce the estimation accuracy significantly. To overcome this drawback, a novel co-estimator is proposed to estimate the model parameters and state-of-charge simultaneously. The extended Kalman filter is employed for parameter updating. To reduce the convergence time, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide initial values with small deviation. The unscented Kalman filter is employed for the state-of-charge estimation. Because the unscented Kalman filter takes not only the measurement uncertainties but also the process uncertainties into account, it is robust to the noise. Experiments are executed to explore the robustness, stability and precision of the proposed method. - Highlights: • A co-estimator is proposed to estimate the model parameters and state-of-charge. • The extended Kalman filter is used for model parameter adaption. • The unscented Kalman filter is designed for state estimation with strong robust. • The dynamic profiles are employed to verify the proposed co-estimator.

  16. Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.

  17. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Nandar Oo; Kyaw Soe Lwin; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart...

  18. Charging electric vehicles from solar energy : Power converter, charging algorithm and system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra Mouli, G.R.

    2018-01-01

    Electric vehicles are only sustainable if the electricity used to charge them comes from renewable sources and not from fossil fuel based power plants. The goal of this PhD thesis is to develop a highly efficient, V2G-enabled smart charging system for electric vehicles at

  19. Pure crystal orientation and anisotropic charge transport in large-area hybrid perovskite films

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-11-10

    Controlling crystal orientations and macroscopic morphology is vital to develop the electronic properties of hybrid perovskites. Here we show that a large-area, orientationally pure crystalline (OPC) methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid perovskite film can be fabricated using a thermal-gradient-assisted directional crystallization method that relies on the sharp liquid-to-solid transition of MAPbI3 from ionic liquid solution. We find that the OPC films spontaneously form periodic microarrays that are distinguishable from general polycrystalline perovskite materials in terms of their crystal orientation, film morphology and electronic properties. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the film is strongly oriented in the (112) and (200) planes parallel to the substrate. This film is structurally confined by directional crystal growth, inducing intense anisotropy in charge transport. In addition, the low trap-state density (7.9 × 1013 cm−3) leads to strong amplified stimulated emission. This ability to control crystal orientation and morphology could be widely adopted in optoelectronic devices.

  20. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, J.; She, Z.; Ratschan, Stefan; Hermanns, H.; Hahn, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2012), s. 572-587 ISSN 0947-3580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10048; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : model checking * hybrid system s * formal verification Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.250, year: 2012

  1. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-11-08

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  2. A Hybrid System for Subjectivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Rustamov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggested different structured hybrid systems for the sentence-level subjectivity analysis based on three supervised machine learning algorithms, namely, Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy Control System, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. The suggested feature extraction algorithm in our experiment computes a feature vector using statistical textual terms frequencies in a training dataset not having the use of any lexical knowledge except tokenization. Taking into consideration this fact, the above-mentioned methods may be employed in other languages as these methods do not utilize the morphological, syntactical, and lexical analysis in the classification problems.

  3. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm 3 GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a 22 Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that 18 F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging

  4. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  5. Hybrid cognitive engine for radio systems adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2017-07-20

    Network efficiency and proper utilization of its resources are essential requirements to operate wireless networks in an optimal fashion. Cognitive radio aims to fulfill these requirements by exploiting artificial intelligence techniques to create an entity called cognitive engine. Cognitive engine exploits awareness about the surrounding radio environment to optimize the use of radio resources and adapt relevant transmission parameters. In this paper, we propose a hybrid cognitive engine that employs Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and Decision Trees (DTs) to perform radio adaptation in multi-carriers wireless networks. The engine complexity is reduced by employing DTs to improve the indexing methodology used in CBR cases retrieval. The performance of our hybrid engine is validated using software defined radios implementation and simulation in multi-carrier environment. The system throughput, signal to noise and interference ratio, and packet error rate are obtained and compared with other schemes in different scenarios.

  6. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  7. Monitoring and control of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raceanu, M.; Culcer, M.; Patularu, L.; Enache, A.; Balan, M.; Varlam, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This article presents monitoring and control of a Hybrid Energy System (HES). The HES is composed of six main components: solar panels, electrolyzer, fuel cells stack, charge controller, DC-AC inverter and lead acid batteries. Solar panels function as the primary source of energy, converting the energy from the sun into electricity that is given to a DC bus. Electrolyzer is a device that produces hydrogen and oxygen from the water following a process electrochemical. When there is excess energy from solar panels, electrolyzer is switched to produce hydrogen which is stored in hydrogen tank. Hydrogen produced is used by an assembly of fuel cell; this produces electricity that is transmitted on the DC bus, using hydrogen produced by electrolysis. Can be measured and displayed in real time data including, voltage, current, flow of hydrogen from the fuel cell, voltage, current, temperature of the photovoltaic panels, pressure hydrogen from electrolysis, pressure hydrogen tank and battery voltage. The control system is designed according to state of charge (SoC) of the battery. Are presented control strategy which ensures the On/Off control of the electrolyzer, to consume electricity from the battery and to generate electricity from fuel cells. The system hardware consists of an acquisition board, communication system of type CAN, sensors and interface devices. Monitoring and control software was developed in LabView 9.0. (authors)

  8. Modelling of an advanced charging system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Jaafar, Abdul; Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-03-01

    Climate Change is recognized as one of the greatest environmental problem facing the World today and it has long been appreciated by governments that reducing the impact of the internal combustion (IC) engine powered motor vehicle has an important part to play in addressing this threat. In Malaysia, IC engine powered motor vehicle accounts almost 90% of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the emission is paramount, as Malaysia has pledged to reduce 40% of CO2 intensity by 2020 from 2005 level by 25% of improvement in average fuel consumption. The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) is one of the initiatives. However in terms of percentage, the electric vehicles have not been commonly used by people nowadays and one of the reasons is lack in charging infrastructure especially when cars are on the road. The aim of this study is to simulate and model an advanced charging system for the charging infrastructure of EVs/HEVs all over the nation with slow charging mode with charging current 25 A, medium charging mode with charging current 50 A and fast charging mode with charging current 100 A. The slow charging mode is proposed for residence, medium charging mode for office parking lots, and fast charging mode is called fast charging track for charging station on road. With three modes charger topology, consumers could choose a suitable mode for their car based on their need. The simulation and experiment of advanced charging system has been conducted on a scale down battery pack of nominal voltage of 3.75 V and capacity of 1020 mAh. Result shows that the battery could be charging less than 1 hour with fast charging mode. However, due to limitation of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) power grid, the maximum 50 A current is considered to be the optimized passive mode for the EV’s battery charging system. The developed advanced charger prototype performance has been compared with the simulation result and conventional charger performance, the

  9. Comments On Clock Models In Hybrid Automata And Hybrid Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ecaterina OLTEAN

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems have received a lot of attention in the past decade and a number of different models have been proposed in order to establish mathematical framework that is able to handle both continuous and discrete aspects. This contribution is focused on two models: hybrid automata and hybrid control systems with continuous-discrete interface and the importance of clock models is emphasized. Simple and relevant examples, some taken from the literature, accompany the presentation.

  10. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A; Bindner, H; Lundsager, P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  11. Gravitational instantons as models for charged particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Guido; Manton, Nicholas S.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we propose ALF gravitational instantons of types A k and D k as models for charged particle systems. We calculate the charges of the two families. These are -( k + 1) for A k , which is proposed as a model for k + 1 electrons, and 2 - k for D k , which is proposed as a model for either a particle of charge +2 and k electrons or a proton and k - 1 electrons. Making use of preferred topological and metrical structures of the manifolds, namely metrically preferred representatives of middle dimension homology classes, we construct two different energy functionals which reproduce the Coulomb interaction energy for a system of charged particles.

  12. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    ’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  13. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  14. Charge-transfer modified embedded atom method dynamic charge potential for Li-Co-O system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fantai; Longo, Roberto C; Liang, Chaoping; Nie, Yifan; Zheng, Yongping; Zhang, Chenxi; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2017-11-29

    To overcome the limitation of conventional fixed charge potential methods for the study of Li-ion battery cathode materials, a dynamic charge potential method, charge-transfer modified embedded atom method (CT-MEAM), has been developed and applied to the Li-Co-O ternary system. The accuracy of the potential has been tested and validated by reproducing a variety of structural and electrochemical properties of LiCoO 2 . A detailed analysis on the local charge distribution confirmed the capability of this potential for dynamic charge modeling. The transferability of the potential is also demonstrated by its reliability in describing Li-rich Li 2 CoO 2 and Li-deficient LiCo 2 O 4 compounds, including their phase stability, equilibrium volume, charge states and cathode voltages. These results demonstrate that the CT-MEAM dynamic charge potential could help to overcome the challenge of modeling complex ternary transition metal oxides. This work can promote molecular dynamics studies of Li ion cathode materials and other important transition metal oxides systems that involve complex electrochemical and catalytic reactions.

  15. Hybrid quantum systems: Outsourcing superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Andrew

    Superconducting qubits offer excellent prospects for manipulating quantum information, with good qubit lifetimes, high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates, and straightforward scalability (admittedly with multi-dimensional interconnect challenges). One interesting route for experimental development is the exploration of hybrid systems, i.e. coupling superconducting qubits to other systems. I will report on our group's efforts to develop approaches that will allow interfacing superconducting qubits in a quantum-coherent fashion to spin defects in solids, to optomechanical devices, and to resonant nanomechanical structures. The longer term goals of these efforts include transferring quantum states between different qubit systems; generating and receiving ``flying'' acoustic phonon-based as well as optical photon-based qubits; and ultimately developing systems that can be used for quantum memory, quantum computation and quantum communication, the last in both the microwave and fiber telecommunications bands. Work is supported by Grants from AFOSR, ARO, DOE and NSF.

  16. Optical tristability in a hybrid optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Nejad, A.; Askari, H. R.; Baghshahi, H. R.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of two cavities, which one of them is an optomechanical cavity that includes an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and the other is a traditional cavity which contains an atomic medium. Hamiltonian of the system is written in a rotating frame with a rotation frequency of the frequency of input field to the system. Using Heisenberg-Langevin equations of motion, the dynamics of the system is described. Applying the steady-state conditions leads to a system of equations of the mean values of the operators of the system. The stability condition of the system is satisfied numerically and behavior of optomechanical cavity is investigated in different situations to find the effect of changing of the parameters of the system on the type of its stability. We show proposed system has the capability of tristable behavior, where, the gain coefficient of OPA acts as a switch in changing the bistability of the system to a tristable manner. The building block of the tristability in this system can be figured out as the enhanced nonlinearity of the system due to the presence of OPA.

  17. Wind Solar Hybrid System Rectifier Stage Topology Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Anup M. Gakare; Subhash Kamdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents power-control strategies of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer. The hybrid system allows maximum utilization of freely available renewable sources like wind and photovoltaic energies. This paper presents a new system configuration of the multi input rectifier stage for a hybrid wind and photovoltaic energy system. This configuration allows the two sources to supply the load simultaneously depending on the availability of...

  18. Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Cordero, Francisco Jose

    Use of diesel generators in remote communities is economically and environmentally unsustainable. Consequently, researchers have focussed on designing hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) for distributed electricity generation in remote communities. However, the cost-effectiveness of interconnecting multiple remote communities (microgrids) has not been explored. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a methodology for optimal design of HRES and microgrids for remote communities. A set of case studies was developed to test this methodology and it was determined that a combination of stand-alone decentralized HRES and microgrids is the most cost-effective power generation scheme when studying a group of remote communities.

  19. Modification to the lower hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1989-01-01

    The main modifications which have to be done to the Lower Hybrid system are related in the change of the plasma shape in front of the grill mouth. In effect, the theoretical coupling efficiency of the LHCD grill depends only upon the density at the grill mouth and upon the launched wave index. In order to minimize the number of modifications to the launcher it is proposed to modify the length of the vacuum waveguides connecting the multijunctions to the vacuum windows. To obtain the new poloidal contour, it is proposed to recover the L1 multijunctions and to remachine their mouth. (U.K.)

  20. Event tree analysis for the system of hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongwei; Qiu Lijian

    1993-01-01

    The application of probabilistic risk assessment for fusion-fission hybrid reactor is introduced. A hybrid reactor system has been analysed using event trees. According to the character of the conceptual design of Hefei Fusion-fission Experimental Hybrid Breeding Reactor, the probabilities of the event tree series induced by 4 typical initiating events were calculated. The results showed that the conceptual design is safe and reasonable. through this paper, the safety character of hybrid reactor system has been understood more deeply. Some suggestions valuable to safety design for hybrid reactor have been proposed

  1. Study on Drive System of Hybrid Tree Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Rong-feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid tree harvester with a 60 kW diesel engine combined with a battery pile could be a “green” forest harvesting and transportation system. With the new design, the diesel engine maintains a constant engine speed, keeping fuel consumption low while charging the batteries that drive the forwarder. As an additional energy saving method, the electric motors work as generators to charge the battery pile when the vehicle moves downhill. The vehicle is equipped with six large wheels providing high clearance over uneven terrain while reducing ground pressure. Each wheel is driven via a hub gear by its own alternating current motor, and each of the three wheel pairs can be steered independently. The combination of the diesel engine and six electric motors provides plenty of power for heavy lifting and pulling. The main component parameters of the drive system are calculated and optimized with a set of dynamics and simulated with AVL Cruise software. The results provide practical insights for the fuel tree harvester and are helpful to reduce the structure and size of the tree harvester. Advantage Environment provides information about existing and future products designed to reduce environmental impacts.

  2. Charge transfer processes in hybrid solar cells composed of amorphous silicon and organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Sebastian; Neher, Dieter [Universitaet Potsdam, Inst. Physik u. Astronomie, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, 14467 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Schulze, Tim; Korte, Lars [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Inst. fuer Silizium Photovoltaik, Kekulestrasse 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of hybrid solar cells composed of organic materials and amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) strongly depends upon the efficiency of charge transfer processes at the inorganic-organic interface. We investigated the performance of devices comprising an ITO/a-Si:H(n-type)/a-Si:H(intrinsic)/organic/metal multilayer structure and using two different organic components: zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The results show higher power conversion- and quantum efficiencies for the P3HT based cells, compared to ZnPc. This can be explained by larger energy-level offset at the interface between the organic layer and a-Si:H, which facilitates hole transfer from occupied states in the valence band tail to the HOMO of the organic material and additionally promotes exciton splitting. The performance of the a-Si:H/P3HT cells can be further improved by treatment of the amorphous silicon surface with hydrofluoric acid (HF) and p-type doping of P3HT with F4TCNQ. The improved cells reached maximum power conversion efficiencies of 1%.

  3. Develop of a quantum electromechanical hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu; Rouxinol, Francisco; Brito, Frederico; Caldeira, Amir; Irish, Elinor; Lahaye, Matthew

    In this poster, we will show our results from measurements of a hybrid quantum system composed of a superconducting transmon qubit-coupled and ultra-high frequency nano-mechanical resonator, embedded in a superconducting cavity. The transmon is capacitively coupled to a 3.4GHz nanoresonator and a T-filter-biased high-Q transmission line cavity. Single-tone and two-tone transmission spectroscopy measurements are used to probe the interactions between the cavity, qubit and mechanical resonator. These measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations based upon a master equation for the tripartite system including dissipation. The results indicate that this system may be developed to serve as a platform for more advanced measurements with nanoresonators, including quantum state measurement, the exploration of nanoresonator quantum noise, and reservoir engineering.

  4. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  5. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandar Oo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart is also provided.

  6. Development of quick charging system for electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anegawa, Takafumi

    2010-09-15

    Despite low environmental impact and high energy efficiency, electric vehicles (EV) have not been widely accepted. The lack of charging infrastructure is one reason. Since lithium-ion battery has high energy density and low internal resistance that allows quick charging, the convenience of EV may be greatly improved if charging infrastructure is prepared adequately. TEPCO aims for EV spread to reduce CO2 emissions and to increase demand for electric power, and has developed quick charging system for fleet-use EV to improve the convenience of EV. And based on research results, we will propose desirable characteristics of quick charger for public use.

  7. Multi-timescale power and energy assessment of lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor hybrid system using extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Chang; Pan, Rui; Chen, Zonghai

    2018-06-01

    The power capability and maximum charge and discharge energy are key indicators for energy management systems, which can help the energy storage devices work in a suitable area and prevent them from over-charging and over-discharging. In this work, a model based power and energy assessment approach is proposed for the lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor hybrid system. The model framework of the lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor hybrid system is developed based on the equivalent circuit model, and the model parameters are identified by regression method. Explicit analyses of the power capability and maximum charge and discharge energy prediction with multiple constraints are elaborated. Subsequently, the extended Kalman filter is employed for on-board power capability and maximum charge and discharge energy prediction to overcome estimation error caused by system disturbance and sensor noise. The charge and discharge power capability, and the maximum charge and discharge energy are quantitatively assessed under both the dynamic stress test and the urban dynamometer driving schedule. The maximum charge and discharge energy prediction of the lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor hybrid system with different time scales are explored and discussed.

  8. Charging system and method for multicell storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jay A.

    1978-01-01

    A battery-charging system includes a first charging circuit connected in series with a plurality of battery cells for controlled current charging. A second charging circuit applies a controlled voltage across each individual cell for equalization of the cells to the fully charged condition. This controlled voltage is determined at a level above the fully charged open-circuit voltage but at a sufficiently low level to prevent corrosion of cell components by electrochemical reaction. In this second circuit for cell equalization, a transformer primary receives closely regulated, square-wave voltage which is coupled to a plurality of equal secondary coil windings. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel to each cell of a series-connected pair of cells through half-wave rectifiers and a shared, intermediate conductor.

  9. Inertial effects in systems with magnetic charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, N. P.

    2018-05-01

    This short article sets out some of the basic considerations that go into detecting the mass of quasiparticles with effective magnetic charge in solids. Effective magnetic charges may be appear as defects in particular magnetic textures. A magnetic monopole is a defect in this texture and as such these are not monopoles in the actual magnetic field B, but instead in the auxiliary field H. They may have particular properties expected for such quasiparticles such as magnetic charge and mass. This effective mass may-in principle-be detected in the same fashion that the mass is detected of other particles classically e.g. through their inertial response to time-dependent electromagnetic fields. I discuss this physics in the context of the "simple" case of the quantum spin ices, but aspects are broadly applicable. Based on extensions to Ryzkhin's model for classical spin ice, a hydrodynamic formulation can be given that takes into account inertial and entropic forces. Ultimately, a form for the susceptibility is obtained that is equivalent to the Rocard equation, which is a classic form used to account for inertial effects in the context of Debye-like relaxation.

  10. Dynamics of electrically charged extended bodies: classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberge, T.

    1987-01-01

    The author present generalizations of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics that make it possible to describe N charged extended bodies.In particular, we are able to write down a set of coupled equations for the system of N bodies plus field. The theory is based on a theory for the description of N charged chemical fluid components

  11. Development of a test facility for PV-Wind hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Mustafa [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Ege Tech., Electronics Technolgy; Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

    2010-07-01

    To quantify the potential for performance improvements of photovoltaic-wind hybrid energy systems, a test facility has been installed at the Solar Energy Institute, Ege University. Hybrid system consist of a wind turbine, PV array, battery, AC and DC loads, inverters, charge regulators and a data logging and control unit. The collected data are first conditioned using precision electronic circuits and then interfaced to a PC using a data logging unit. The LABVIEW program is used to further process, display and store the collected data in the PC disk. The proposed data logging and control unit permits the rapid system development and has the advantage of flexibility in the case of changes, while it can be easily extended for controlling the of photovoltaic-wind hybrid energy system operation. (orig.)

  12. Pure crystal orientation and anisotropic charge transport in large-area hybrid perovskite films

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul; Li, Feng; Turedi, Bekir; Sinatra, Lutfan; Sarmah, Smritakshi P.; Parida, Manas R.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Banavoth, Murali; Burlakov, Victor M.; Goriely, Alain; Mohammed, Omar F.; Wu, Tao; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Controlling crystal orientations and macroscopic morphology is vital to develop the electronic properties of hybrid perovskites. Here we show that a large-area, orientationally pure crystalline (OPC) methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid

  13. Deep Charging Evaluation of Satellite Power and Communication System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Chu, B.; Wong, F.; Gardiner, G.; Wright, K. H.; Phillips, B.

    2016-01-01

    Deep charging, in contrast to surface charging, focuses on electron penetration deep into insulating materials applied over conductors. A classic example of this scenario is an insulated wire. Deep charging can pose a threat to material integrity, and to sensitive electronics, when it gives rise to an electrostatic discharge or arc. With the advent of Electric Orbit Raising, which requires spiraling through Earth's radiation belts, satellites are subjected to high energy electron environments which they normally would not encounter. Beyond Earth orbit, missions to Jupiter and Saturn face deep charging concerns due to the high energy radiation environments. While predictions can be made about charging in insulating materials, it is difficult to extend those predictions to complicated geometries, such as the case of an insulating coating around a small wire, or a non-uniform silicone grouting on a bus bar. Therefore, to conclusively determine the susceptibility of a system to arcs from deep charging, experimental investigations must be carried out. This paper will describe the evaluation carried out by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center on subscale flight-like samples developed by Space Systems/Loral, LLC. Specifically, deep charging evaluations of solar array wire coupons, a photovoltaic cell coupon, and a coaxial microwave transmission cable, will be discussed. The results of each evaluation will be benchmarked against control sample tests, as well as typical power system levels, to show no significant deep charging threat existed for this set of samples under the conditions tested.

  14. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  15. Contribution to the optimal sizing of the hybrid photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, hybrid photovoltaic (HPV) systems are considered, in which the electricity is generated by a photovoltaic generator, and additionally by a diesel genset. Within this, a software tool for optimal sizing and designing was developed, which was used for optimization of HPV systems, aimed for supplying a small rural village. For optimization, genetic algorithms were used, optimizing 10 HPV system parameters (rated power of the components, battery capacity, dispatching strategy parameters etc.). The optimization objective is to size and design systems that continuously supply the load, with the lowest net electricity cost. In order to speed up the optimization process, the most suitable genetic algorithm settings were chosen by an in-depth previous analysis. Using measurements, the characteristics of PV generator working in real conditions were obtained. According to this, input values for the PV generator simulation model were adapted. It is introduced a quasi-steady battery simulation model, which avoid the voltage and state-of-the-charge value variation problems, when constant current charging/discharging, within a time step interval, is used. This model takes into account the influence of the battery temperature to its operational characteristics. There were also introduced simulation model improvements to the other components in the HPV systems. Using long-term measurement records, validity of solar radiation and air temperature data was checked. It was also analyzed the sensitivity of the obtained optimized HPV systems to the variation of the prices of the: components, fuel and economic rates. Based on the values of multi-decade records for more locations in the Balkan region, it was estimated the occurrence probability of the solar radiation values. This was used for analysing the sensitivity of some HPV performances to the expected stochastic variations of the solar radiation values. (Author)

  16. Charge state of finely divided conducting systems in dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Yu.V.; Grishin, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of the high statistic sum Z of the charged metal granules in the dielectric matrix is carried out with an account of the excess number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the granules. Application of a microscopic Hamiltonian for the energy of electrostatic interaction between the charge densities in the system makes it possible to accomplish these calculations in the average field approximation. The effect of the number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the charge state of the finely divided granules in the dielectric matrix is studied. It is supposed that the charge exchange between the composite metal elements occurs on the account of the electron overbarrier heat transfer. It is followed from the system high statistic sum calculation results that the i-granule medium charge is connected by the nonlinear ratio with the conductors V i potentials [ru

  17. Simulation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. F.; Cole, G. H.

    Computer programs for the simulation of the operation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems are described. These programs treat cases in which high energy density ultracapacitors or high power density pulse batteries are used to load level the main energy storage battery in the vehicle. A generalized control strategy for splitting the power between the main battery and the pulse power devices is implemented such that the user can specify the nominal battery power as a function of the state-of-charge of the ultracapacitor or pulse power battery. The programs display graphically on the screen, as they run, the power from both the main battery and the pulse power device and the state-of-charge of the pulse power device. After each run is completed, a summary is printed out from which the effect of load leveling the battery on vehicle range and energy consumption can be determined. Default input files are provided with the programs so various combinations of vehicles, driveline components, and batteries of special current interest to the EV community can be run with either type of pulse power device. Typical simulation results are shown including cases in which the pulse power devices are connected in parallel with the main battery without interface electronics.

  18. Charging valve of the full hydraulic braking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshi Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the full hydraulic braking system has excellent braking performance. As the key component of the full hydraulic braking system, the parameters of the accumulator charging valve have a significant effect on the braking performance. In this article, the key parameters of the charging valve are analyzed through the static theoretical and an Advanced Modeling Environment for performing Simulation of engineering systems (AMESim simulation model of the dual-circuit accumulator charging valve is established based on the real structure parameters first. Second, according to the results of the dynamic simulation, the dynamic characteristics of the charging pressure, the flow rate, and the frequency of the charging valve are studied. The key parameters affecting the serial production are proposed and some technical advices for improving the performance of the full hydraulic system are provided. Finally, the theoretical analysis is validated by the simulation results. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental results indicates that the simulated AMESim model of the charging valve is accurate and credible with the error rate inside 0.5% compared with the experimental result. Hence, the performance of the charging valve meets the request of the full hydraulic braking system exactly.

  19. Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power systems with demand response and wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhui; Liu Cong; Ton, Dan; Zhou Yan; Kim, Jinho; Vyas, Anantray

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a new unit commitment model which can simulate the interactions among plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), wind power, and demand response (DR). Four PHEV charging scenarios are simulated for the Illinois power system: (1) unconstrained charging, (2) 3-hour delayed constrained charging, (3) smart charging, and (4) smart charging with DR. The PHEV charging is assumed to be optimally controlled by the system operator in the latter two scenarios, along with load shifting and shaving enabled by DR programs. The simulation results show that optimally dispatching the PHEV charging load can significantly reduce the total operating cost of the system. With DR programs in place, the operating cost can be further reduced. - Research highlights: → A unit commitment model is used to simulate the interactions among plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), wind power, and demand response (DR). → Different PHEV charging scenarios are simulated on the Illinois power system → Load shifting and shaving enabled by DR programs are also modeled. → The simulation results show that the operating cost can be reduced with DR and optimal PHEV charging.

  20. Feasibility Study and Optimization of An Hybrid System (Eolian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feasibility Study and Optimization of An Hybrid System (Eolian- Photovoltaic - Diesel) With Provision of Electric Energy Completely Independent. ... reducing emissions of greenhouse gas (CO2 rate = 16086 kg / year for a system using only the generator diesel and is 599 kg / year for the stand alone hybrid system studied).

  1. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  2. Model predictive control of hybrid systems : stability and robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis considers the stabilization and the robust stabilization of certain classes of hybrid systems using model predictive control. Hybrid systems represent a broad class of dynamical systems in which discrete behavior (usually described by a finite state machine) and continuous behavior

  3. Limit Cycle Analysis in a Class of Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Favela-Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems are those that inherently combine discrete and continuous dynamics. This paper considers the hybrid system model to be an extension of the discrete automata associating a continuous evolution with each discrete state. This model is called the hybrid automaton. In this work, we achieve a mathematical formulation of the steady state and we show a way to obtain the initial conditions region to reach a specific limit cycle for a class of uncoupled and coupled continuous-linear hybrid systems. The continuous-linear term is used in the sense of the system theory and, in this sense, continuous-linear hybrid automata will be defined. Thus, some properties and theorems that govern the hybrid automata dynamic behavior to evaluate a limit cycle existence have been established; this content is explained under a theoretical framework.

  4. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  5. Radiation hardness assessment of the charge-integrating hybrid pixel detector JUNGFRAU 1.0 for photon science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmann-Smith, J. H., E-mail: jsmith@magnet.fsu.edu; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jaggi, A.; Maliakal, D.; Mayilyan, D.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, Ch.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Cartier, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETHZ, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Medjoubi, K. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin–BP 48, 91192 GIF-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2015-12-15

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications in free electron lasers, particularly SwissFEL, and synchrotron light sources. JUNGFRAU is an automatic gain switching, charge-integrating detector which covers a dynamic range of more than 10{sup 4} photons of an energy of 12 keV with a good linearity, uniformity of response, and spatial resolving power. The JUNGFRAU 1.0 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) features a 256 × 256 pixel matrix of 75 × 75 μm{sup 2} pixels and is bump-bonded to a 320 μm thick Si sensor. Modules of 2 × 4 chips cover an area of about 4 × 8 cm{sup 2}. Readout rates in excess of 2 kHz enable linear count rate capabilities of 20 MHz (at 12 keV) and 50 MHz (at 5 keV). The tolerance of JUNGFRAU to radiation is a key issue to guarantee several years of operation at free electron lasers and synchrotrons. The radiation hardness of JUNGFRAU 1.0 is tested with synchrotron radiation up to 10 MGy of delivered dose. The effect of radiation-induced changes on the noise, baseline, gain, and gain switching is evaluated post-irradiation for both the ASIC and the hybridized assembly. The bare JUNGFRAU 1.0 chip can withstand doses as high as 10 MGy with minor changes to its noise and a reduction in the preamplifier gain. The hybridized assembly, in particular the sensor, is affected by the photon irradiation which mainly shows as an increase in the leakage current. Self-healing of the system is investigated during a period of 11 weeks after the delivery of the radiation dose. Annealing radiation-induced changes by bake-out at 100 °C is investigated. It is concluded that the JUNGFRAU 1.0 pixel is sufficiently radiation-hard for its envisioned applications at SwissFEL and synchrotron beam lines.

  6. WSN-Based Space Charge Density Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dawei; Yuan, Haiwen; Lv, Jianxun; Ju, Yong

    2017-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line endures the drawback of large area, because of which the utilization of cable for space charge density monitoring system is of inconvenience. Compared with the traditional communication network, wireless sensor network (WSN) shows advantages in small volume, high flexibility and strong self-organization, thereby presenting great potential in solving the problem. Additionally, WSN is more suitable for the construction of distributed space charge density monitoring system as it has longer distance and higher mobility. A distributed wireless system is designed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density under HVDC transmission lines, which has been widely applied in both Chinese state grid HVDC test base and power transmission projects. Experimental results of the measuring system demonstrated its adaptability in the complex electromagnetic environment under the transmission lines and the ability in realizing accurate, flexible, and stable demands for the measurement of space charge density.

  7. Selective adsorption of ions in charged slit-systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Valiskó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the selective adsorption of various cations into a layered slit system using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The slit system is formed by a series of negatively charged membranes. The electrolyte contains two kinds of cations with different sizes and valences modeled by charged hard spheres immersed in a continuum dielectric solvent. We present results for various cases depending on the combinations of the properties of the competing cations. We concentrate to the case when the divalent cations are larger than the monovalent cations. In this case, size and charge have counterbalancing effects, which results in interesting selectivity phenomena.

  8. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  9. A 10 MS/s 8-bit charge-redistribution ADC for hybrid pixel applications in 65 m CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Hemperek, Tomasz; Krüger, Hans; Koch, Manuel; Germic, Leonard; Wermes, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The design and measurement results of an 8-bit SAR ADC, based on a charge-redistribution DAC, are presented. This ADC is characterized by superior power efficiency and small area, realized by employing a lateral metal–metal capacitor array and a dynamic two-stage comparator. To avoid the need for a high-speed clock and its associated power consumption, an asynchronous logic was implemented in a logic control cell. A test chip has been developed in a 65 nm CMOS technology, including eight ADC channels with different layout flavors of the capacitor array, a transimpedance amplifier as a signal input structure, a serializer, and a custom-made LVDS driver for data transmission. The integral (INL) and differential (DNL) nonlinearities are measured below 0.5 LSB and 0.8 LSB, respectively, for the best channel operating at a sampling frequency of 10 MS/s. The area occupies 40μm×70μm for one ADC channel. The power consumption is estimated as 4μW at 1 MS/s and 38μW at 10 MS/s with a supply rail of 1.2 V. These excellent performance features and the natural radiation hardness of the design, due to the thin gate oxide thickness of transistors, are very interesting for front-end electronics ICs of future hybrid-pixel detector systems

  10. A 10 MS/s 8-bit charge-redistribution ADC for hybrid pixel applications in 65 m CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi, E-mail: kisisita@physik.uni-bonn.de; Hemperek, Tomasz; Krüger, Hans; Koch, Manuel; Germic, Leonard; Wermes, Norbert

    2013-12-21

    The design and measurement results of an 8-bit SAR ADC, based on a charge-redistribution DAC, are presented. This ADC is characterized by superior power efficiency and small area, realized by employing a lateral metal–metal capacitor array and a dynamic two-stage comparator. To avoid the need for a high-speed clock and its associated power consumption, an asynchronous logic was implemented in a logic control cell. A test chip has been developed in a 65 nm CMOS technology, including eight ADC channels with different layout flavors of the capacitor array, a transimpedance amplifier as a signal input structure, a serializer, and a custom-made LVDS driver for data transmission. The integral (INL) and differential (DNL) nonlinearities are measured below 0.5 LSB and 0.8 LSB, respectively, for the best channel operating at a sampling frequency of 10 MS/s. The area occupies 40μm×70μm for one ADC channel. The power consumption is estimated as 4μW at 1 MS/s and 38μW at 10 MS/s with a supply rail of 1.2 V. These excellent performance features and the natural radiation hardness of the design, due to the thin gate oxide thickness of transistors, are very interesting for front-end electronics ICs of future hybrid-pixel detector systems.

  11. Solar-Diesel Hybrid Power System Optimization and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Headley Stewart

    As of 2008 1.46 billion people, or 22 percent of the World's population, were without electricity. Many of these people live in remote areas where decentralized generation is the only method of electrification. Most mini-grids are powered by diesel generators, but new hybrid power systems are becoming a reliable method to incorporate renewable energy while also reducing total system cost. This thesis quantifies the measurable Operational Costs for an experimental hybrid power system in Sierra Leone. Two software programs, Hybrid2 and HOMER, are used during the system design and subsequent analysis. Experimental data from the installed system is used to validate the two programs and to quantify the savings created by each component within the hybrid system. This thesis bridges the gap between design optimization studies that frequently lack subsequent validation and experimental hybrid system performance studies.

  12. Analytical energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Honghua; Xie, Qiongtao; Lee, Chaohong; Guan, Xiwen; Gao, Kelin; Batchelor, Murray T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems described by non-parity-symmetric quantum Rabi models. A set of analytical solutions in terms of the confluent Heun functions and their analytical energy spectrum is obtained. The analytical energy spectrum includes regular and exceptional parts, which are both confirmed by direct numerical simulation. The regular part is determined by the zeros of the Wronskian for a pair of analytical solutions. The exceptional part is relevant to the isolated exact solutions and its energy eigenvalues are obtained by analyzing the truncation conditions for the confluent Heun functions. By analyzing the energy eigenvalues for exceptional points, we obtain the analytical conditions for the energy-level crossings, which correspond to two-fold energy degeneracy. (paper)

  13. Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Tammy M; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E; Allen, David T

    2011-01-01

    The air quality impacts of replacing approximately 20% of the gasoline-powered light duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with electric VMT by the year 2018 were examined for four major cities in Texas: Dallas/Ft Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging was assumed to occur on the electric grid controlled by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and three charging scenarios were examined: nighttime charging, charging to maximize battery life, and charging to maximize driver convenience. A subset of electricity generating units (EGUs) in Texas that were found to contribute the majority of the electricity generation needed to charge PHEVs at the times of day associated with each scenario was modeled using a regional photochemical model (CAMx). The net impacts of the PHEVs on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone included an increase in NO x emissions from EGUs during times of day when the vehicle is charging, and a decrease in NO x from mobile emissions. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations and average exposure potential at twelve air quality monitors in Texas were predicted on the basis of these changes in NO x emissions. For all scenarios, at all monitors, the impact of changes in vehicular emissions, rather than EGU emissions, dominated the ozone impact. In general, PHEVs lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. A few monitors showed a larger increase in ozone for the convenience charging scenario versus the other two scenarios. Additionally, cumulative ozone exposure results indicate that nighttime charging is most likely to reduce a measure of ozone exposure potential versus the other two scenarios.

  14. Active-charging based powertrain control in series hybrid electric vehicles for efficiency improvement and battery lifetime extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Yin, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a powertrain control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) based on the integrated design of an active charging scenario and fixed-boundary-layer sliding mode controllers (FBLSMCs). An optimized charging curve for the battery is predetermined rather than subject to engine output and vehicle power demand, which is a total inverse of normal SHEV powertrain control process. This is aimed to remove surge and high-frequency charge current, keep the battery staying in a high state-of-charge (SOC) region and avoid persistently-high charge power, which are positive factors to battery lifetime extension. Then two robust chattering-free FBLSMCs are designed to locate the engine operation in the optimal efficiency area. One is in charge of engine speed control, and the other is for engine/generator torque control. Consequently, not only fuel economy is improved but also battery life expectancy could be extended. Finally, simulation and experimental results confirm the validity and application feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  15. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  16. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R; Miranda, U; Medrano, M C [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  17. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  18. Single Molecule Spectroelectrochemistry of Interfacial Charge Transfer Dynamics In Hybrid Organic Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Shanlin [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2014-11-16

    Our research under support of this DOE grant is focused on applied and fundamental aspects of model organic solar cell systems. Major accomplishments are: 1) we developed a spectroelectorchemistry technique of single molecule single nanoparticle method to study charge transfer between conjugated polymers and semiconductor at the single molecule level. The fluorescence of individual fluorescent polymers at semiconductor surfaces was shown to exhibit blinking behavior compared to molecules on glass substrates. Single molecule fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurements showed the conformation of the polymer molecules did not differ appreciably between glass and semiconductor substrates. The similarities in molecular conformation suggest that the observed differences in blinking activity are due to charge transfer between fluorescent polymer and semiconductor, which provides additional pathways between states of high and low fluorescence quantum efficiency. Similar spectroelectrochemistry work has been done for small organic dyes for understand their charge transfer dynamics on various substrates and electrochemical environments; 2) We developed a method of transferring semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into organic solvent for a potential electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells which employed polymer semiconductor as the electron donor. Electron transfer from the polymer semiconductor to semiconductor and GO in solutions and thin films was established through fluorescence spectroscopy and electroluminescence measurements. Solar cells containing these materials were constructed and evaluated using transient absorption spectroscopy and dynamic fluorescence techniques to understand the charge carrier generation and recombination events; 3) We invented a spectroelectorchemistry technique using light scattering and electroluminescence for rapid size determination and studying electrochemistry of single NPs in an

  19. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  20. An Improved Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage System in Light Rail Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Long Cheng; Wei Wang; Shaoyuan Wei; Hongtao Lin; Zhidong Jia

    2018-01-01

    A single-objective optimization energy management strategy (EMS) for an onboard hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for light rail (LR) vehicles is proposed. The HESS uses batteries and supercapacitors (SCs). The main objective of the proposed optimization is to reduce the battery and SC losses while maintaining the SC state of charge (SOC) within specific limits based on the distance between consecutive LR stations. To do this, a series of optimized SOC limits is used to prevent the SC from ...

  1. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  2. Integer Charge Transfer and Hybridization at an Organic Semiconductor/Conductive Oxide Interface

    KAUST Repository

    Gruenewald, Marco; Schirra, Laura K.; Winget, Paul; Kozlik, Michael; Ndione, Paul F.; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Berry, Joseph J.; Forker, Roman; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Fritz, Torsten; Monti, Oliver L. A.

    2015-01-01

    with localized states (the shallow donors) in the substrate and charge back-donation, resulting in an effectively integer charge transfer across the interface. Charge transfer is thus not merely a question of locating the Fermi level above the PTCDA electron

  3. Hybrid dislocated control and general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization for the modified Lue chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuhua; Zhou Wuneng; Fang Jianan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  4. Hybrid dislocated control and general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization for the modified Lue chaotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teacher' s College, Hubei 442000 (China)], E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.com; Zhou Wuneng [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)], E-mail: wnzhou@163.com; Fang Jianan [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  5. Charge measurement system at 100 MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongmei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yin Chongxian; Ye Kairong

    2005-01-01

    A charge measurement system of 100 Mev linac is introduced in this paper. After describing the characteristics and functions of the system's components, the authors analyze the methods of data processing and systematic error in detail. Basing on these, the authors get system resolution in the lab. The actual measurement results are presented at last. (authors)

  6. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  7. Filtering and control of stochastic jump hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xiuming; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research work on stochastic jump hybrid systems. Specifically, the considered stochastic jump hybrid systems include Markovian jump Ito stochastic systems, Markovian jump linear-parameter-varying (LPV) systems, Markovian jump singular systems, Markovian jump two-dimensional (2-D) systems, and Markovian jump repeated scalar nonlinear systems. Some sufficient conditions are first established respectively for the stability and performances of those kinds of stochastic jump hybrid systems in terms of solution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the derived analysis conditions, the filtering and control problems are addressed. The book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on stochastic jump hybrid systems. The contents can be divided into two parts: the first part is focused on robust filter design problem, while the second part is put the emphasis on robust control problem. These methodologies provide a framework for stability and performance analy...

  8. OPTICALLY BASED CHARGE INJECTION SYSTEM FOR IONIZATION DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHEN, H.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; LEITE, M.A.L.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.

    2001-01-01

    An optically coupled charge injection system for ionization based radiation detectors which allows a test charge to be injected without the creation of ground loops has been developed. An ionization like signal from an external source is brought into the detector through an optical fiber and injected into the electrodes by means of a photodiode. As an application example, crosstalk measurements on a liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter readout electrodes were performed

  9. Portable 25W hybrid fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.; Slee, R.; Tilley, J.

    2003-01-01

    Increased operating periods for portable electrical equipment are driving the development of battery and fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell systems promise greater endurance than battery based systems, and this paper describes the research into, and design of, a hybrid lithium-ion battery / fuel cell power source. The device is primarily aimed at military applications such as powering army radio sets and the UK MoD's Integrated Soldier Technology (IST) programme, but would be equally suitable as a power source for civilian applications such as camcorders, battery chargers etc. The air-breathing fuel cell comprises low cost, robust components, and a single cell is capable of developing >0.5W cm -2 . This power rating, however, is reduced in a stack where heat rejection becomes a critical issue. The stack design lends itself to facile manufacture, and the stack can be assembled in minutes by simply stacking the components into place. The remainder of the system includes two lithium-ion battery packs which provide start-up and shutdown power, and enable a silent-operating mode, during which the fuel cell is powered down, to be selected. The intelligent, electronic control, based upon an embedded RISC microprocessor, ensures safe operation and the recharge of the batteries. The overall system is capable of delivering 25W continuous power at an operating voltage of 12V dc. Preliminary testing results are reported. Advantages of this system include a relatively high gravimetric power density, load-following operation and the confidence of a high performance battery as an emergency backup. (author)

  10. Hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Hybrid synchronization; complex network; information source; chaotic system. ... encryption and decryption through synchronization. However, the ... Certainly, if the two systems are different, the security would be improved. How.

  11. FEASIBILITY STUDY AND OPTIMIZATION OF AN HYBRID SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2010 ... preliminary or comparative studies, both during development (design) and normal ... year for a system using only the generator diesel and is 599 kg / year for the ... Keywords: Hybrid system- Wind- Photovoltaic-Diesel- storage ...

  12. Advantages of Hybrid Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Bilajbegović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a decision-making situation, what kind of GPS equipment to purchase, one always has a dilemma, tobuy hybrid (GPS+GLONASS or only GPS receivers? In the case of completeness of the GLONASS satellite system, this dilemma probably would not have existed. The answer to this dilemma is given in the present paper, but for the constellation of the GLONASS satellites in summer 2006 (14 satellites operational. Due to the short operational period of these satellites (for example GLONASS-M, 5 years, and not launching new ones, at this moment (February 25, 2007, only 10 satellites are operational. For the sake of research and giving answers to these questions, about 252 RTK measurements have been done using (GPS and GNSS receivers, on points with different obstructions of horizon. Besides that, initialisation time has been investigated for both systems from about 480 measurements, using rover's antenna with metal cover, during a time interval of 0.5, 2 and 5 seconds. Moreover, accuracy, firmware declared accuracy and redundancy of GPS and GNSS RTK measurements have been investigating.  

  13. Review of hybrid laminar flow control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K. S. G.; Bertram, O.; Seibel, O.

    2017-08-01

    The aeronautic community always strived for fuel efficient aircraft and presently, the need for ecofriendly aircraft is even more, especially with the tremendous growth of air traffic and growing environmental concerns. Some of the important drivers for such interests include high fuel prices, less emissions requirements, need for more environment friendly aircraft to lessen the global warming effects. Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) technology is promising and offers possibility to achieve these goals. This technology was researched for decades for its application in transport aircraft, and it has achieved a new level of maturity towards integration and safety and maintenance aspects. This paper aims to give an overview of HLFC systems research and associated flight tests in the past years both in the US and in Europe. The review makes it possible to distinguish between the successful approaches and the less successful or outdated approaches in HLFC research. Furthermore, the technology status shall try to produce first estimations regarding the mass, power consumption and performance of HLFC systems as well as estimations regarding maintenance requirements and possible subsystem definitions.

  14. Hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system final report I : development and system performance validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems was applied to both bridge : superstructure and deck systems. Results from the both experimental and computational analysis for : both the hybrid bridge superstructure and deck ...

  15. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Samaras, Constantine; Hauffe, Richard; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is receiving attention as an approach to reducing US dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. PHEVs require large batteries for energy storage, which affect vehicle cost, weight, and performance. We construct PHEV simulation models to account for the effects of additional batteries on fuel consumption, cost, and GHG emissions over a range of charging frequencies (distance traveled between charges). We find that when charged frequently, every 20 miles or less, using average US electricity, small-capacity PHEVs are less expensive and release fewer GHGs than hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or conventional vehicles. For moderate charging intervals of 20-100 miles, PHEVs release fewer GHGs, but HEVs have lower lifetime costs. High fuel prices, low-cost batteries, or high carbon taxes combined with low-carbon electricity generation would make small-capacity PHEVs cost competitive for a wide range of drivers. In contrast, increased battery specific energy or carbon taxes without decarbonization of the electricity grid would have limited impact. Large-capacity PHEVs sized for 40 or more miles of electric-only travel do not offer the lowest lifetime cost in any scenario, although they could minimize GHG emissions for some drivers and provide potential to shift air pollutant emissions away from population centers. The tradeoffs identified in this analysis can provide a space for vehicle manufacturers, policymakers, and the public to identify optimal decisions for PHEV design, policy and use. Given the alignment of economic, environmental, and national security objectives, policies aimed at putting PHEVs on the road will likely be most effective if they focus on adoption of small-capacity PHEVs by urban drivers who can charge frequently.

  16. Manipulation of charge transfer and transport in plasmonic-ferroelectric hybrids for photoelectrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijie; Cao, Dawei; Wen, Liaoyong; Xu, Rui; Obergfell, Manuel; Mi, Yan; Zhan, Zhibing; Nasori, Nasori; Demsar, Jure; Lei, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing plasmonic nanostructures for efficient and flexible conversion of solar energy into electricity or fuel presents a new paradigm in photovoltaics and photoelectrochemistry research. In a conventional photoelectrochemical cell, consisting of a plasmonic structure in contact with a semiconductor, the type of photoelectrochemical reaction is determined by the band bending at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. The nature of the reaction is thus hard to tune. Here instead of using a semiconductor, we employed a ferroelectric material, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT). By depositing gold nanoparticle arrays and PZT films on ITO substrates, and studying the photocurrent as well as the femtosecond transient absorbance in different configurations, we demonstrate an effective charge transfer between the nanoparticle array and PZT. Most importantly, we show that the photocurrent can be tuned by nearly an order of magnitude when changing the ferroelectric polarization in PZT, demonstrating a versatile and tunable system for energy harvesting. PMID:26753764

  17. San Juanico Hybrid System Technical and Institutional Assessment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Newcomb, C.; Yewdall, Z.

    2004-07-01

    San Juanico is a fishing village of approximately 120 homes in the Municipality of Comondu, Baja California. In April, 1999, a hybrid power system was installed in San Juanico to provide 24-hour power, which was not previously available. Before the installation of the hybrid power system, a field study was conducted to characterize the electrical usage and institutional and social framework of San Juanico. One year after the installation of the hybrid power system a''post-electrification'' study was performed to document the changes that had occurred after the installation. In December of 2003, NREL visited the site to conduct a technical assessment of the system.

  18. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  19. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  20. Time-dependent plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging based on national driving patterns and demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Jarod C.; MacDonald, Jason S.; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analyzed National Household Travel Survey to simulate driving and charging patterns. ► Average compact PHEVs used 49 kW h of electricity and 6.8 L of gasoline per week. ► Percent of electrically driven miles increased from 64.3 in 2001 to 66.7 in 2009. ► Investigated demographic effects of sex, age, income, and household location. ► Analysis shows higher utility factors for females versus males and high age variation. -- Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are one promising technology for addressing concerns around petroleum consumption, energy security and greenhouse gas emissions. However, there is much uncertainty in the impact that PHEVs can have on energy consumption and related emissions, as they are dependent on vehicle technology, driving patterns, and charging behavior. A methodology is used to simulate PHEV charging and gasoline consumption based on driving pattern data in USDOT’s National Household Travel Survey. The method uses information from each trip taken by approximately 170,000 vehicles to track their battery state of charge throughout the day, and to determine the timing and quantity of electricity and gasoline consumption for a fleet of PHEVs. Scenarios were developed to examine the effects of charging location, charging rate, time of charging and battery size. Additionally, demographic information was examined to see how driver and household characteristics influence consumption patterns. Results showed that a compact vehicle with a 10.4 kW h useable battery (approximately a 42 mile [68 km] all electric range) travels between 62.5% and 75.7% on battery electricity, depending on charging scenario. The percent of travel driven electrically (Utility Factor, UF) in a baseline charging scenario increased from 64.3% using 2001 NHTS data to 66.7% using 2009 data. The average UF was 63.5% for males and 72.9% for females and in both cases they are highly sensitive to age. Vehicle charging load profiles across

  1. The search for competing charge orders in frustrated ladder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Siddhartha; Laad, Mukul S.

    2007-08-01

    A recent study revealed the dynamics of the charge sector of a one-dimensional quarter- filled electronic system with extended Hubbard interactions to be that of an effective pseudospin transverse-field Ising model (TFIM) in the strong coupling limit. With the twin motivations of studying the co-existing charge and spin order found in strongly correlated chain systems and the effects of inter-chain couplings, we investigate the phase diagram of coupled effective (TFIM) systems. A bosonisation and RG analysis for a two-leg TFIM ladder yields a rich phase diagram showing Wigner/Peierls charge order and Neel/dimer spin order. In a broad parameter regime, the orbital antiferromagnetic phase is found to be stable. An intermediate gapless phase of finite width is found to lie in between two charge-ordered gapped phases. Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions are found to lead from the gapless phase to either of the charge-ordered phases. Low energy effective Hamiltonian analyses of a strongly coupled 2-chain ladder system confirm a phase diagram with in-chain CO, rung-dimer, and orbital antiferromagnetic ordered phases with varying interchain couplings as well as superconductivity upon hole-doping. Our work is potentially relevant for a unified description of a class of strongly correlated, quarter-filled chain and ladder systems. (autor)

  2. New Burnup Calculation System for Fusion-Fission Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isao Murata; Shoichi Shido; Masayuki Matsunaka; Keitaro Kondo; Hiroyuki Miyamaru

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of nuclear waste incineration has positively been carried out worldwide from the standpoint of environmental issues. Some candidates such as ADS, FBR are under discussion for possible incineration technology. Fusion reactor is one of such technologies, because it supplies a neutron-rich and volumetric irradiation field, and in addition the energy is higher than nuclear reactor. However, it is still hard to realize fusion reactor right now, as well known. An idea of combination of fusion and fission concepts, so-called fusion-fission hybrid system, was thus proposed for the nuclear waste incineration. Even for a relatively lower plasma condition, neutrons can be well multiplied by fission in the nuclear fuel, tritium is thus bred so as to attain its self-sufficiency, enough energy multiplication is then expected and moreover nuclear waste incineration is possible. In the present study, to realize it as soon as possible with the presently proven technology, i.e., using ITER model with the achieved plasma condition of JT60 in JAEA, Japan, a new calculation system for fusion-fission hybrid reactor including transport by MCNP and burnup by ORIGEN has been developed for the precise prediction of the neutronics performance. The author's group already has such a calculation system developed by them. But it had a problem that the cross section libraries in ORIGEN did not have a cross section library, which is suitable specifically for fusion-fission hybrid reactors. So far, those for FBR were approximately used instead in the analysis. In the present study, exact derivation of the collapsed cross section for ORIGEN has been investigated, which means it is directly evaluated from calculated track length by MCNP and point-wise nuclear data in the evaluated nuclear data file like JENDL-3.3. The system realizes several-cycle calculation one time, each of which consists of MCNP criticality calculation, MCNP fixed source calculation with a 3-dimensional precise

  3. Bond graph model-based fault diagnosis of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a bond graph model-based approach to fault diagnosis in mechatronic systems appropriately represented by a hybrid model. The book begins by giving a survey of the fundamentals of fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, then recalls state-of-art developments referring to latest publications, and goes on to discuss various bond graph representations of hybrid system models, equations formulation for switched systems, and simulation of their dynamic behavior. The structured text: • focuses on bond graph model-based fault detection and isolation in hybrid systems; • addresses isolation of multiple parametric faults in hybrid systems; • considers system mode identification; • provides a number of elaborated case studies that consider fault scenarios for switched power electronic systems commonly used in a variety of applications; and • indicates that bond graph modelling can also be used for failure prognosis. In order to facilitate the understanding of fault diagnosis and the presented...

  4. Modelling and Verifying Communication Failure of Hybrid Systems in HCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shuling; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid systems are dynamic systems with interacting discrete computation and continuous physical processes. They have become ubiquitous in our daily life, e.g. automotive, aerospace and medical systems, and in particular, many of them are safety-critical. For a safety-critical hybrid system......, in the presence of communication failure, the expected control from the controller will get lost and as a consequence the physical process cannot behave as expected. In this paper, we mainly consider the communication failure caused by the non-engagement of one party in communication action, i.......e. the communication itself fails to occur. To address this issue, this paper proposes a formal framework by extending HCSP, a formal modeling language for hybrid systems, for modeling and verifying hybrid systems in the absence of receiving messages due to communication failure. We present two inference systems...

  5. Static In-wheel Wireless Charging Systems for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Panchal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging is a popular upcoming technology with uses ranging from mobile phone charging through to electric vehicle EV charging. Large air gaps found in current EV wireless charging systems WCS pose a hurdle of its success. Air gaps in WCS cause issues in regards to efficiency power transfer and electromagnetic compatibility EMC leakage issues. A static In-Wheel WCS IW-WCS is presented which significantly reduces the issues associated with large air gaps. A small scale laboratory prototype utilizing a standard 10mm steel reinforced tyre has been created and compared to a typical 30mm air gap. The IW-WCS has been investigated by experimental and finite element method FEM based electro-magnetic field simulation methods to validate performance.

  6. The estimation of energy efficiency for hybrid refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, Wiesław; Kozioł, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present the experimental setup and the model of the hybrid cooling system. ► We examine impact of the operating parameters of the hybrid cooling system on the energy efficiency indicators. ► A comparison of the final and the primary energy use for a combination of the cooling systems is carried out. ► We explain the relationship between the COP and PER values for the analysed cooling systems. -- Abstract: The concept of the air blast-cryogenic freezing method (ABCF) is based on an innovative hybrid refrigeration system with one common cooling space. The hybrid cooling system consists of a vapor compression refrigeration system and a cryogenic refrigeration system. The prototype experimental setup for this method on the laboratory scale is discussed. The application of the results of experimental investigations and the theoretical–empirical model makes it possible to calculate the cooling capacity as well as the final and primary energy use in the hybrid system. The energetic analysis has been carried out for the operating modes of the refrigerating systems for the required temperatures inside the cooling chamber of −5 °C, −10 °C and −15 °C. For the estimation of the energy efficiency the coefficient of performance COP and the primary energy ratio PER for the hybrid refrigeration system are proposed. A comparison of these coefficients for the vapor compression refrigeration and the cryogenic refrigeration system has also been presented.

  7. Energy efficient hybrid computing systems using spin devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharad, Mrigank

    Emerging spin-devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ's), spin-valves and domain wall magnets (DWM) have opened new avenues for spin-based logic design. This work explored potential computing applications which can exploit such devices for higher energy-efficiency and performance. The proposed applications involve hybrid design schemes, where charge-based devices supplement the spin-devices, to gain large benefits at the system level. As an example, lateral spin valves (LSV) involve switching of nanomagnets using spin-polarized current injection through a metallic channel such as Cu. Such spin-torque based devices possess several interesting properties that can be exploited for ultra-low power computation. Analog characteristic of spin current facilitate non-Boolean computation like majority evaluation that can be used to model a neuron. The magneto-metallic neurons can operate at ultra-low terminal voltage of ˜20mV, thereby resulting in small computation power. Moreover, since nano-magnets inherently act as memory elements, these devices can facilitate integration of logic and memory in interesting ways. The spin based neurons can be integrated with CMOS and other emerging devices leading to different classes of neuromorphic/non-Von-Neumann architectures. The spin-based designs involve `mixed-mode' processing and hence can provide very compact and ultra-low energy solutions for complex computation blocks, both digital as well as analog. Such low-power, hybrid designs can be suitable for various data processing applications like cognitive computing, associative memory, and currentmode on-chip global interconnects. Simulation results for these applications based on device-circuit co-simulation framework predict more than ˜100x improvement in computation energy as compared to state of the art CMOS design, for optimal spin-device parameters.

  8. First results with the charging system of the Vivitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Brandt, C.; Delhomme, C.; Gaudiot, G.; Haberer, A.; Koenig, R.; Krieg, C.; Oppel, R.; Riehl, R.; Schlewer, B.; Sontag, G.; Strebel, A.; Vogler, H.

    1990-06-01

    An original, Van de Graaff type, belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the Vivitron, a 35 MV Tandem accelerator. Together with a detailed description of it, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very first tests of the real system are reviewed

  9. A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Gaudiot, G.

    1990-10-01

    A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed

  10. Microcomputer based test system for charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidman, S.

    1981-02-01

    A microcomputer based system for testing analog charge coupled integrated circuits has been developed. It measures device performance for three parameters: dynamic range, baseline shift due to leakage current, and transfer efficiency. A companion board tester has also been developed. The software consists of a collection of BASIC and assembly language routines developed on the test system microcomputer

  11. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Jing Junqing; Luo Yanling

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range.

  12. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Junqing Jing; Yanling Luo [Jiangsu Xuzhou Construction Machinery Research Institute, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-01-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range. (author)

  13. A hybrid system for solar irradiance specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, S.

    2006-12-01

    Space environment research and space weather operations require solar irradiances in a variety of time scales and spectral formats. We describe the development of solar irradiance characterization using four models and systems that are also used for space weather operations. The four models/systems include SOLAR2000 (S2K), SOLARFLARE (SFLR), APEX, and IDAR, which are used by Space Environment Technologies (SET) to provide solar irradiances from the soft X-rays through the visible spectrum. SFLR uses the GOES 0.1 0.8 nm X-rays in combination with a Mewe model subroutine to provide 0.1 30.0 nm irradiances at 0.1 nm spectral resolution, at 1 minute time resolution, and in a 6-hour XUV EUV spectral solar flare evolution forecast with a 7 minute latency and a 2 minute cadence. These irradiances have been calibrated with the SORCE XPS observations and we report on the inclusion of these irradiances into the S2K model. The APEX system is a real-time data retrieval system developed in conjunction with the University of Southern California Space Sciences Center (SSC) to provide SOHO SEM data processing and distribution. SSC provides the updated SEM data to the research community and SET provides the operational data to the space operations community. We describe how the SOHO SEM data, and especially the new S10.7 index, is being integrated directly into the S2K model for space weather operations. The IDAR system has been developed by SET to extract coronal hole boundaries, streamers, coronal loops, active regions, plage, network, and background (internetwork) features from solar images for comparison with solar magnetic features. S2K, SFLR, APEX, and IDAR outputs are integrated through the S2K solar irradiance platform that has become a hybrid system, i.e., a system that is able to produce irradiances using different processes, including empirical and physics-based models combined with real-time data integration.

  14. Hybrid Life Support System Technology Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Wetzel, J. P.; Richter, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    Demonstration of plant-based hybrid life support technologies in deep space will validate the function of these technologies for long duration missions, such as Mars transit, while providing dietary variety to improve habitability.

  15. Excitation of hybridized Dirac plasmon polaritons and transition radiation in multi-layer graphene traversed by a fast charged particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Kamran; Mišković, Zoran L.; Segui, Silvina; Gervasoni, Juana L.; Arista, Néstor R.

    2018-06-01

    We analyze the energy loss channels for a fast charged particle traversing a multi-layer graphene (MLG) structure with N layers under normal incidence. Focusing on a terahertz (THz) range of frequencies, and assuming equally doped graphene layers with a large enough separation d between them to neglect interlayer electron hopping, we use the Drude model for two-dimensional conductivity of each layer to describe hybridization of graphene’s Dirac plasmon polaritons (DPPs). Performing a layer decomposition of ohmic energy losses, which include excitation of hybridized DPPs (HDPPs), we have found for N = 3 that the middle HDPP eigenfrequency is not excited in the middle layer due to symmetry constraint, whereas the excitation of the lowest HDPP eigenfrequency produces a Fano resonance in the graphene layer that is first traversed by the charged particle. While the angular distribution of transition radiation emitted in the far field region also shows asymmetry with respect to the traversal order by the incident charged particle at supra-THz frequencies, the integrated radiative energy loss is surprisingly independent of both d and N for N ≤ 5, which is explained by a dominant role of the outer graphene layers in transition radiation. We have further found that the integrated ohmic energy loss in optically thin MLG scales as ∝1/N at sub-THz frequencies, which is explained by exposing the role of dissipative processes in graphene at low frequencies. Finally, prominent peaks are observed at supra-THz frequencies in the integrated ohmic energy loss for MLG structures that are not optically thin. The magnitude of those peaks is found to scale with N for N ≥ 2, while their shape and position replicate the peak in a double-layer graphene (N = 2), which is explained by arguing that plasmon hybridization in such MLG structures is dominated by electromagnetic interaction between the nearest-neighbor graphene layers.

  16. Solitons in one-dimensional charge density wave systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.P.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical research on one dimensional charge density wave systems is outlined. A simple coupled electron-photon Hamiltonian is studied including a Green's function approach, molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo path integral method. As in superconductivity, the nonperturbative nature of the system makes the physical ground states and low energy excitations drastically different from the bare electrons and phonons. Solitons carry quantum numbers which are entirely different from those of the bare electrons and holes. The fractional charge character of the solitons is an example of this fact. Solitons are conveniently generated by doping material with donors or acceptors or by photon absorption. Most predictions of the theory are in qualitative agreement with experiments. The one dimensional charge density wave system has potential technological importance and a possible role in uncovering phenomena which might have implications in relativistic field theory and elementary particle physics

  17. Insight and Evidence Motivating the Simplification of Dual-Analysis Hybrid Systems into Single-Analysis Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todling, Ricardo; Diniz, F. L. R.; Takacs, L. L.; Suarez, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    Many hybrid data assimilation systems currently used for NWP employ some form of dual-analysis system approach. Typically a hybrid variational analysis is responsible for creating initial conditions for high-resolution forecasts, and an ensemble analysis system is responsible for creating sample perturbations used to form the flow-dependent part of the background error covariance required in the hybrid analysis component. In many of these, the two analysis components employ different methodologies, e.g., variational and ensemble Kalman filter. In such cases, it is not uncommon to have observations treated rather differently between the two analyses components; recentering of the ensemble analysis around the hybrid analysis is used to compensated for such differences. Furthermore, in many cases, the hybrid variational high-resolution system implements some type of four-dimensional approach, whereas the underlying ensemble system relies on a three-dimensional approach, which again introduces discrepancies in the overall system. Connected to these is the expectation that one can reliably estimate observation impact on forecasts issued from hybrid analyses by using an ensemble approach based on the underlying ensemble strategy of dual-analysis systems. Just the realization that the ensemble analysis makes substantially different use of observations as compared to their hybrid counterpart should serve as enough evidence of the implausibility of such expectation. This presentation assembles numerous anecdotal evidence to illustrate the fact that hybrid dual-analysis systems must, at the very minimum, strive for consistent use of the observations in both analysis sub-components. Simpler than that, this work suggests that hybrid systems can reliably be constructed without the need to employ a dual-analysis approach. In practice, the idea of relying on a single analysis system is appealing from a cost-maintenance perspective. More generally, single-analysis systems avoid

  18. Photoinduced High-Frequency Charge Oscillations in Dimerized Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemitsu, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    Photoinduced charge dynamics in dimerized systems is studied on the basis of the exact diagonalization method and the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a one-dimensional spinless-fermion model at half filling and a two-dimensional model for κ-(bis[ethylenedithio]tetrathiafulvalene)2X [κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X] at three-quarter filling. After the application of a one-cycle pulse of a specifically polarized electric field, the charge densities at half of the sites of the system oscillate in the same phase and those at the other half oscillate in the opposite phase. For weak fields, the Fourier transform of the time profile of the charge density at any site after photoexcitation has peaks for finite-sized systems that correspond to those of the steady-state optical conductivity spectrum. For strong fields, these peaks are suppressed and a new peak appears on the high-energy side, that is, the charge densities mainly oscillate with a single frequency, although the oscillation is eventually damped. In the two-dimensional case without intersite repulsion and in the one-dimensional case, this frequency corresponds to charge-transfer processes by which all the bonds connecting the two classes of sites are exploited. Thus, this oscillation behaves as an electronic breathing mode. The relevance of the new peak to a recently found reflectivity peak in κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X after photoexcitation is discussed.

  19. Charge transfer in pi-stacked systems including DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Charge migration in DNA is a subject of intense current study motivated by long-range detection of DNA damage and the potential application of DNA as a molecular wire in nanoscale electronic devices. A key structural element, which makes DNA a medium for long-range charge transfer, is the array of stacked base pairs in the interior of the double helix. The overlapping pi-orbitals of the nucleobases provide a pathway for motion of charge carriers generated on the stack. This 'pi-pathway' resembles the columnarly stacked macrocyclic cores in discotic materials such as triphenylenes. The structure of these pi-stacked systems is highly disordered with dynamic fluctuations occurring on picosecond to nanosecond time scales. Theoretical calculations, concerning the effects of structural disorder and nucleobase sequence in DNA, on the dynamics of charge carriers are presented. Electronic couplings and localization energies of charge carriers were calculated using density functional theory (DFT). Results for columnarly stacked triphenylenes and DNA nucleobases are compared. The results are used to provide insight into the factors that control the mobility of charge carriers. Further, experimental results on the site-selective oxidation of guanine nucleobases in DNA (hot spots for DNA damage) are analyzed on basis of the theoretical results

  20. Modular component kit for hybrid drive systems; Modularer Komponentenbaukasten fuer Hybride Antriebssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegger, Peter; Schalk, Johannes; Schmalzing, Claus-Oliver [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany). Bereich Forschung Technologieentwicklung

    2013-10-15

    By hybrid drives, fuel consumption in off-road applications can be significantly reduced. However, the additional power train components and degrees of freedom required in the design of hybridised systems involve an increase in system variants. To keep the number of variants as low as possible whilst simultaneously ensuring that hybrid drives can serve as wide a spectrum of applications as possible, MTU has developed a modular system of components. This makes it possible to use customer requirements as a basis for creating innovative drive systems for the widest range of applications. (orig.)

  1. Nanoscale charge localization induced by random orientations of organic molecules in hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-03-01

    Perovskite-based solar cells have achieved high solar-energy conversion efficiencies and attracted wide attentions nowadays. Despite the rapid progress in solar-cell devices, many fundamental issues of the hybrid perovskites have not been fully understood. Experimentally, it is well known that in CH3NH3PbI3, the organic molecules CH3NH3 are randomly orientated at the room temperature, but the impact of the random molecular orientation has not been investigated. Using linear-scaling ab-initiomethods, we have calculated the electronic structures of the tetragonal phase of CH3NH3PbI3 with randomly orientated organic molecules in large supercells up to ~20,000 atoms. Due to the dipole moment of the organic molecule, the random orientation creates a novel system with long-range potential fluctuations unlike alloys or other conventional disordered systems. We find that the charge densities of the conduction-band minimum and the valence-band maximum are localized separately in nanoscales due to the potential fluctuations. The charge localization causes electron-hole separation and reduces carrier recombination rates, which may contribute to the long carrier lifetime observed in experiments. We have also proposed a model to explain the charge localization.

  2. An insight into the mechanism of charge-transfer of hybrid polymer:ternary/quaternary chalcopyrite colloidal nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Chawla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have demonstrated the structural and optoelectronic properties of the surface of ternary/quaternary (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe chalcopyrite nanocrystallites passivated by tri-n-octylphosphine-oxide (TOPO and tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP and compared their charge transfer characteristics in the respective polymer: chalcopyrite nanocomposites by dispersing them in poly(3-hexylthiophene polymer. It has been found that CZTSe nanocrystallites due to their high crystallinity and well-ordered 3-dimensional network in its pristine form exhibit a higher steric- and photo-stability, resistance against coagulation and homogeneity compared to the CISe and CIGSe counterparts. Moreover, CZTSe nanocrystallites display efficient photoluminescence quenching as evident from the high value of the Stern–Volmer quenching constant (KSV and eventually higher charge transfer efficiency in their respective polymer P3HT:CZTSe composites. We modelled the dependency of the charge transfer from the donor and the charge separation mechanism across the donor–acceptor interface from the extent of crystallinity of the chalcopyrite semiconductors (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe. Quaternary CZTSe chalcopyrites with their high crystallinity and controlled morphology in conjunction with regioregular P3HT polymer is an attractive candidate for hybrid solar cells applications.

  3. An insight into the mechanism of charge-transfer of hybrid polymer:ternary/quaternary chalcopyrite colloidal nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Parul; Singh, Son; Sharma, Shailesh Narain

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated the structural and optoelectronic properties of the surface of ternary/quaternary (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe) chalcopyrite nanocrystallites passivated by tri-n-octylphosphine-oxide (TOPO) and tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) and compared their charge transfer characteristics in the respective polymer: chalcopyrite nanocomposites by dispersing them in poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymer. It has been found that CZTSe nanocrystallites due to their high crystallinity and well-ordered 3-dimensional network in its pristine form exhibit a higher steric- and photo-stability, resistance against coagulation and homogeneity compared to the CISe and CIGSe counterparts. Moreover, CZTSe nanocrystallites display efficient photoluminescence quenching as evident from the high value of the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (K SV) and eventually higher charge transfer efficiency in their respective polymer P3HT:CZTSe composites. We modelled the dependency of the charge transfer from the donor and the charge separation mechanism across the donor-acceptor interface from the extent of crystallinity of the chalcopyrite semiconductors (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe). Quaternary CZTSe chalcopyrites with their high crystallinity and controlled morphology in conjunction with regioregular P3HT polymer is an attractive candidate for hybrid solar cells applications.

  4. Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles charging demand on the optimal energy management of renewable micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousi-Fard, Abdollah; Abunasri, Alireza; Zare, Alireza; Hoseinzadeh, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a new stochastic expert framework to investigate the charging effect of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on the optimal operation and management of micro-grids (MGs). In this way, a useful method based on smart charging approach is proposed to consider the charging demand of PHEVs in both residential location and public charging stations. The analysis is simulated for 24 h considering the uncertainties associated with the forecast error in the charging demand of PHEVs, hourly load consumption, hourly energy price and Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) output power. In order to see the effect of storage devices on the operation of the MG, NiMH-Battery is also incorporated in the MG. According to the high complexity of the problem, a new optimization method called θ-krill herd (θ-KH) algorithm is proposed which uses the phase angle vectors to update the velocity/position of krill animals with faster and more stable convergence. In addition, a new modification method is proposed to improve the search ability of the algorithm, effectively. The suggested problem is examined on an MG including different RESs such as photovoltaic (PV), fuel cells (FCs), wind turbine (WT), micro turbine (MT) and battery as the storage device. - Highlights: • Introducing an expert stochastic framework for optimal operation and management of MGs including PHEVs. • Introducing a new artificial optimization algorithm based on KH evolutionary technique. • Introducing a new version of KH algorithm called θ-KH for the optimization applications. • Modeling the uncertainty of forecast error in Wind turbine, Photovoltaics, market price, load data, PHEVs electric charging demand in an intelligent framework

  5. Simulation of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems for variable electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandoni, C.; Renzi, M.; Caresana, F.; Polonara, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) unit and a solar energy conversion device. In addition to a traditional PV system, a High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) device, the design of which is suitable for building integration application, was also modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. The work identifies the optimal management strategies for the hybrid renewable system in an effort to minimise the primary energy usage, the carbon dioxide emissions and the operational costs for variable electricity prices that result from the day-ahead electricity market. An “ad hoc” model describes the performance of the HCPV module, PV and Internal Combustion Engine, whilst the other units were simulated based on their main characteristic parameters. The developed algorithm was applied to three different building typologies. The results indicate that the best configuration is the hybrid renewable system with PV, which can provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. The hybrid renewable system with HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology when the level of solar radiation is high. - Highlights: • The paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-CCHP unit and a solar energy conversion device. • Both PV and High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) systems have been modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. • The work identifies the optimal management strategies for variable electricity prices. • Hybrid renewable systems provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. • When the level of solar radiation is high, HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology

  6. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  7. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  8. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guler Yigitoglu, Askin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  9. Integration between electric vehicle charging and micro-cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, Giovanni; Canelli, Michele; Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction between an MCHP system and EV charging is investigated. • A parametric analysis with respect to daily driving distance of the EV is performed. • Dynamic simulations are carried out considering two different climates. • Two EV charging strategies are analyzed to maximize the self-consumed electricity. • The impact of EVs on electric grid and economic feasibility of MCHP can be improved. - Abstract: In the near future the diffusion of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) could play an important role in the reduction of emissions and oil dependency associated with the transport sector. However this technology could have a big impact on the electric network because EVs require a considerable amount of electricity. In order to meet the growing load due to the diffusion of EVs, the construction of new infrastructures will be required. The introduction of micro-cogeneration systems could represent a key factor in the reduction of the negative effects on the electric network related to EVs charging. The EVs are often driven during the day and recharged during the night; so the overnight charge of the EVs allows to reduce the amount of electricity exported to the grid. In this way the economic benefits associated with the introduction of micro-cogenerator system (Micro Combined Heat and Power, MCHP), that depend on the economic value of the “produced” electricity, can be improved. At the same time the impact of EVs charge on the electric network can be reduced when electricity is provided by MCHP. In this paper the interaction between an MCHP system, the EV charging and a typical semidetached house is investigated by means of dynamic simulations. The analysis is carried out in two different locations (Torino and Napoli) in order to evaluate the effects of climatic conditions on the system performance. A parametric analysis with respect to the daily driving distance of the EV is carried out in order to highlight the effect of this

  10. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  11. New Acquisition System for the PSR Beam Pulse Charge Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellyey, William C.; Lewis, Paul S.

    2004-01-01

    A Pearson 1010 current monitor toroid has been in use for many years to measure the charge per bunch being delivered from the LANSCE Proton Storage Ring (PSR) to the Lujan Center's spallation neutron source. Improved electronics have been developed to process the toroid's signal. The new system generates a calibrated measurement of charge per pulse and is network-enabled to provide remote access to charge, current and other data via EPICS. It is experimentally demonstrated that accurate charge measurements can be made on calibration pulses that contain frequency components well above what is contained in a typical beam pulse. The new electronics consists of a National Instruments (NI) PXI-1002 chassis that contains a PXI-8176 controller, a PXI-5112 100-MS/s digitizer, and a PXI-6602 scalar and digital I/O module. The 8176 runs under the NI Real Time operating system and was programmed to integrate proton pulse waveforms acquired by the 5112 digitizer. For each beam pulse a 50-kHz pulse stream proportional to the pulse charge is generated by the 6602 and this real time information is distributed to all experimental areas

  12. Mode locking in overdamped charge-density-wave systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstroem, P.; Levinsen, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the rich mode-locking structure observed in overdamped charge-density-wave (CDW) systems can be understood in terms of a simple model of driven damped 'particles' without inertia in a non-sinusoidal periodic potential. The analysis shows that the nonchaotic system of a driven overdamped CDW without inertia in general has a 'close-to-chaotic' behavior in an appropriate frequency range. Our results also provide a natural basis for studies of spatially extended CDW systems. (orig.)

  13. Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very...... popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller...... of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research....

  14. Optimal design of energy storage systems for hybrid vehicle drivetrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Hoekstra, D.; Druten, van R.M.; Steinbuch, M.

    2005-01-01

    Current hybrid powertrain simulation packages arebased on discrete (existing) system components and predefinedsystem structures. Optimization of the performance of the hybridpowertrain is then based on finding the most efficient controlstrategy of the primary and secondary power source and

  15. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of practical systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete modes of behavior, each defined by a set of continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task very challenging. In this work, we present a new modeling and diagnosis framework for hybrid systems. Models are composed from sets of user-defined components using a compositional modeling approach. Submodels for residual generation are then generated for a given mode, and reconfigured efficiently when the mode changes. Efficient reconfiguration is established by exploiting causality information within the hybrid system models. The submodels can then be used for fault diagnosis based on residual generation and analysis. We demonstrate the efficient causality reassignment, submodel reconfiguration, and residual generation for fault diagnosis using an electrical circuit case study.

  16. Hybrid Cooling System for Industrial Application | Ezekwe | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid Cooling System for Industrial Application. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... more than five times over that achieved by using the gas (air) phase alone. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  18. Energy Harvesting in Heterogeneous Networks with Hybrid Powered Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad; Celik, Abdulkadir; Kamal, Ahmed E.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an energy efficient and energy harvesting (EH) system model in heterogeneous networks (HetNets) where all base stations (BSS) are equipped to harvest energy from renewable energy sources. We consider a hybrid power

  19. The Vulcan Advanced Hybrid Manufacturing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Made In Space is developing the The Vulcan Advanced Hybrid Manufacturing System (VULCAN) to address NASA's requirement to produce high-strength, high-precision...

  20. A Personalized Rolling Optimal Charging Schedule for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Statistical Energy Demand Analysis and Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanrong Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and the dependence on fossil fuel, Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (PHEVs have gained an increasing popularity in current decades. Due to the fluctuating electricity prices in the power market, a charging schedule is very influential to driving cost. Although the next-day electricity prices can be obtained in a day-ahead power market, a driving plan is not easily made in advance. Although PHEV owners can input a next-day plan into a charging system, e.g., aggregators, day-ahead, it is a very trivial task to do everyday. Moreover, the driving plan may not be very accurate. To address this problem, in this paper, we analyze energy demands according to a PHEV owner’s historical driving records and build a personalized statistic driving model. Based on the model and the electricity spot prices, a rolling optimization strategy is proposed to help make a charging decision in the current time slot. On one hand, by employing a heuristic algorithm, the schedule is made according to the situations in the following time slots. On the other hand, however, after the current time slot, the schedule will be remade according to the next tens of time slots. Hence, the schedule is made by a dynamic rolling optimization, but it only decides the charging decision in the current time slot. In this way, the fluctuation of electricity prices and driving routine are both involved in the scheduling. Moreover, it is not necessary for PHEV owners to input a day-ahead driving plan. By the optimization simulation, the results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible to help owners save charging costs and also meet requirements for driving.

  1. Non-equilibrium correlations and entanglement in a semiconductor hybrid circuit-QED system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Pulido, L D; Emary, C; Brandes, T; Aguado, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of a hybrid circuit-quantum electrodynamics system composed of two semiconducting charge-qubits confined in a microwave resonator. The qubits are defined in terms of the charge states of two spatially separated double quantum dots (DQDs) which are coupled to the same photon mode in the microwave resonator. We analyse a transport setup where each DQD is attached to electronic reservoirs and biased out-of-equilibrium by a large voltage, and study how electron transport across each DQD is modified by the coupling to the common resonator. In particular, we show that the inelastic current through each DQD reflects an indirect qubit–qubit interaction mediated by off-resonant photons in the microwave resonator. As a result of this interaction, both charge qubits stay entangled in the steady (dissipative) state. Finite shot noise cross-correlations between currents across distant DQDs are another manifestation of this nontrivial steady-state entanglement. (paper)

  2. Robust Power Management Control for Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Generation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Elkhatib; Adouane, Lounis; Aitouche, Abdel; Mohammed, Walaa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust fuzzy control of energy management strategy for the stand-alone hybrid power systems. It consists of two levels named centralized fuzzy supervisory control which generates the power references for each decentralized robust fuzzy control. Hybrid power systems comprises: a photovoltaic panel and wind turbine as renewable sources, a micro turbine generator and a battery storage system. The proposed control strategy is able to satisfy the load requirements based on a fuzzy supervisor controller and manage power flows between the different energy sources and the storage unit by respecting the state of charge and the variation of wind speed and irradiance. Centralized controller is designed based on If-Then fuzzy rules to manage and optimize the hybrid power system production by generating the reference power for photovoltaic panel and wind turbine. Decentralized controller is based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and permits us to stabilize each photovoltaic panel and wind turbine in presence of disturbances and parametric uncertainties and to optimize the tracking reference which is given by the centralized controller level. The sufficient conditions stability are formulated in the format of linear matrix inequalities using the Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness of the proposed Strategy is finally demonstrated through a SAHPS (stand-alone hybrid power systems) to illustrate the effectiveness of the overall proposed method. (paper)

  3. ON THE STABILIZATION OF THE LINEAR HYBRID SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The linear control hybrid system, consisting of a fi- nite set of subsystems (modes having different dimensions, is considered. The moments of reset time are determined by some complementary function – evolutionary time. This function satisfies the special complementary ordinary differential equation. The mode stabilization problem is solved for some class of piecewise linear controls. The method of stabilization relies on the set of invariant planes, the existence of which is due to the special form of the hybrid system.

  4. Methodology for the hybrid solution of systems of differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrinaga, E.F.; Lopez, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This work shows a general methodology of solution to systems of differential equations in hybrid computers. Taking into account this methodology, a mathematical model was elaborated. It offers wide possibilities of recording and handling the results on the basis of using the hybrid system IBM-VIDAC 1224 which the ISCTN has. It also presents the results gained when simulating a simple model of a nuclear reactor, which was used in the validation of the results of the computational model

  5. Space charge effects in a bending magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Close, E.; Smith, L.

    1987-03-01

    In order to examine problems and phenomena associated with space charge in a beam bending system, the beam dynamics code HICURB has been written. Its principal features include momentum variations, vertical and horizontal envelope dynamics coupled to the off-axis centroid, curvature effect on fields, and images. Preliminary results for an achromatic lattice configuration are presented

  6. Space charge effects in a bending magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Close, E.; Smith, L.

    1987-01-01

    In order to examine problems and phenomena associated with space charge in a beam bending system, the beam dynamics code HICURB has been written. Its principal features include momentum variations, vertical and horizontal envelope dynamics coupled to the off-axis centroid, curvature effect on fields, and images. Preliminary results for an achromatic lattice configuration are presented

  7. Self-learning control system for plug-in hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A system is provided to instruct a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle how optimally to use electric propulsion from a rechargeable energy storage device to reach an electric recharging station, while maintaining as high a state of charge (SOC) as desired along the route prior to arriving at the recharging station at a minimum SOC. The system can include the step of calculating a straight-line distance and/or actual distance between an orientation point and the determined instant present location to determine when to initiate optimally a charge depleting phase. The system can limit extended driving on a deeply discharged rechargeable energy storage device and reduce the number of deep discharge cycles for the rechargeable energy storage device, thereby improving the effective lifetime of the rechargeable energy storage device. This "Just-in-Time strategy can be initiated automatically without operator input to accommodate the unsophisticated operator and without needing a navigation system/GPS input.

  8. A state-of-the-art review on hybrid heat pipe latent heat storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghavi, M.S.; Ong, K.S.; Mehrali, M.; Badruddin, I.A.; Metselaar, H.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    The main advantage of latent heat thermal energy storage systems is the capability to store a large quantity of thermal energy in an isothermal process by changing phase from solid to liquid, while the most important weakness of these systems is low thermal conductivity that leads to unsuitable charging/discharging rates. Heat pipes are used in many applications – as one of the most efficient heat exchanger devices – to amplify the charging/discharging processes rate and are used to transfer heat from a source to the storage or from the storage to a sink. This review presents and critically discusses previous investigations and analysis on the incorporation of heat pipe devices into latent heat thermal energy storage with heat pipe devices. This paper categorizes different applications and configurations such as low/high temperature solar, heat exchanger and cooling systems, analytical approaches and effective parameters on the performance of hybrid HP–LHTES systems.

  9. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  10. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  11. Demonstration of Improved Charge Transfer in Graphene/Au Nanorods Plasmonic Hybrids Stabilized by Benzyl Thiol Linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Valerio Bianco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids based on graphene decorated with plasmonic gold (Au nanostructures are being investigated as possible materials combination to add to graphene functionalities of tunable plasmon resonance and enhanced absorption at selected wavelength in the visible-near-infrared region of the spectrum. Here, we report a solution drop-casting approach for fabricating stable hybrids based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD graphene and Au nanorods, which are able to activate effective charge transfer from graphene. We demonstrate that CVD graphene functionalization by benzyl thiol (BZT provides the linker to strong anchoring, via S-Au bonds, Au nanorods to graphene. Optical measurements by spectroscopic ellipsometry give evidence of the introduction of plasmon resonances at 1.85 and 2.25 eV in the Au nanorods/BZT/graphene hybrids, which enable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS detection. Furthermore, an effective electron transfer from graphene to Au nanorods, resulting in an enhancement of p-type doping of graphene with a consequent decrease of its sheet resistance, is probed by Raman spectroscopy and corroborated by electrical measurements.

  12. Deep Charging Evaluation of Satellite Power and Communication System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Chu, B.; Wong, F.; Gardiner, G.; Wright, K. H.; Phillips, B.

    2016-01-01

    A set of deep charging tests has been carried out by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center on subscale flight-like samples developed by Space Systems/Loral, LLC. The samples, which included solar array wire coupons, a photovoltaic cell coupon, and a coaxial microwave transmission cable, were placed in passive and active (powered) circuit configurations and exposed to electron radiation. The energy of the electron radiation was chosen to deeply penetrate insulating (dielectric) materials on each sample. Each circuit configuration was monitored to determine if potentially damaging electrostatic discharge events (arcs) were developed on the coupon as a result of deep charging. The motivation for the test, along with charging levels, experimental setup, sample details, and results will be discussed.

  13. Thermal simulation of a cooling system of hybrid commercial vehicles; Thermalsimulation eine Hybrid-LKW-Kuehlsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, Christoph; Schnoerch, Stefan; Rathberger, Christian [Magna Powertrain Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co. KG, St. Valentin (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    In the past few years hybrid vehicles have been in the center of automotive engineering efforts, in particular in the field of passenger cars. But hybrid powertrains will also be important for commercial trucks. This focus on hybrid vehicles leads to high demands on thermal management since the additional components in a hybrid vehicle need appropriate cooling or even heating. In the given paper the simulation of a complete cooling system of a hybrid commercial vehicle will be explained. For this virtual examination the commercial 1D thermal management software KULI will be used, a co-simulation with several programs will not be done deliberately. Yet all aspects which are relevant for a global assessment of the thermal management are considered. The main focus is put on the investigation of appropriate concepts for the fluid circuits, including low and high temperature circuits, electric water pumps, etc. Moreover, also a refrigerant circuit with a chiller for active battery cooling will be used, the appropriate control strategy is implemented as well. For simulating transient profiles a simple driving simulation model is included, using road profile, ambient conditions, and various vehicle parameters as input. In addition an engine model is included which enables the investigation of fuel consumption potentials. This simulation model shows how the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle can be investigated with a single program and with reasonable effort. (orig.)

  14. Charged Triazole Cross-Linkers for Hyaluronan-Based Hybrid Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Martini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyelectrolyte hydrogels play an important role in tissue engineering and can be produced from natural polymers, such as the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan. In order to control charge density and mechanical properties of hyaluronan-based hydrogels, we developed cross-linkers with a neutral or positively charged triazole core with different lengths of spacer arms and two terminal maleimide groups. These cross-linkers react with thiolated hyaluronan in a fast, stoichiometric thio-Michael addition. Introducing a positive charge on the core of the cross-linker enabled us to compare hydrogels with the same interconnectivity, but a different charge density. Positively charged cross-linkers form stiffer hydrogels relatively independent of the size of the cross-linker, whereas neutral cross-linkers only form stable hydrogels at small spacer lengths. These novel cross-linkers provide a platform to tune the hydrogel network charge and thus the mechanical properties of the network. In addition, they might offer a wide range of applications especially in bioprinting for precise design of hydrogels.

  15. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  16. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  17. Concept design for hybrid vehicle power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hybridization implies adding a Secondary power source (e.g. electric motor and battery) (S) to a Primary power source (P) in order to improve the driving functions (e.g. fuel economy, driveability (performance)) of the vehicle. The fuel economy isstrongly determined by the energy management

  18. Reactor systems modeling for ICF hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Meier, W.R.

    1980-10-01

    The computational models of ICF reactor subsystems developed by LLNL and TRW are described and a computer program was incorporated for use in the EPRI-sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids. Representative parametric variations have been examined. Many of the ICF subsystem models are very preliminary and more quantitative models need to be developed and included in the code

  19. Analysis of Linear Hybrid Systems in CLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Gourinath; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a procedure for representing the semantics of linear hybrid automata (LHAs) as constraint logic programs (CLP); flexible and accurate analysis and verification of LHAs can then be performed using generic CLP analysis and transformation tools. LHAs provide an expressive...

  20. A Self-Powered Hybrid Energy Scavenging System Utilizing RF and Vibration Based Electromagnetic Harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluşan, H; Gharehbaghi, K; Külah, H; Zorlu, Ö; Muhtaroğlu, A

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel hybrid system that combines the power generated simultaneously by a vibration-based Electromagnetic (EM) harvester and a UHF band RF harvester. The novel hybrid scavenger interface uses a power management circuit in 180 nm CMOS technology to step-up and to regulate the combined output. At the first stage of the system, the RF harvester generates positive DC output with a 7-stage threshold compensated rectifier, while the EM harvester generates negative DC output with a self-powered AC/DC negative doubler circuit. At the second stage, the generated voltages are serially added, stepped-up with an on-chip charge pump circuit, and regulated to a typical battery voltage of 3 V. Test results indicate that the hybrid operation enables generation of 9 μW at 3 V output for a wide range of input stimulations, which could not be attained with either harvesting mode by itself. Moreover the hybrid system behaves as a typical battery, and keeps the output voltage stable at 3 V up to 18 μW of output power. The presented system is the first battery-like harvester to our knowledge that generates energy from two independent sources and regulates the output to a stable DC voltage. (paper)

  1. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  2. DIAGNOSIS WINDOWS PROBLEMS BASED ON HYBRID INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFWAN O. HASOON

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the artificial intelligence technologies by integrating Radial Basis Function networks with expert systems to construct a robust hybrid system. The purpose of building the hybrid system is to give recommendations to repair the operating system (Windows problems and troubleshoot the problems that can be repaired. The neural network has unique characteristics which it can complete the uncompleted data, the expert system can't deal with data that is incomplete, but using the neural network individually has some disadvantages which it can't give explanations and recommendations to the problems. The expert system has the ability to explain and give recommendations by using the rules and the human expert in some conditions. Therefore, we have combined the two technologies. The paper will explain the integration methods between the two technologies and which method is suitable to be used in the proposed hybrid system.

  3. Hybrid Ventilation with Innovative Heat Recovery—A System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Hellström

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors when low energy houses are built is to have good heat recovery on the ventilation system. However, standard ventilation units use a considerable amount of electricity. This article discusses the consequences on a system level of using hybrid ventilation with heat recovery. The simulation program TRNSYS was used in order to investigate a ventilation system with heat recovery. The system also includes a ground source storage and waste water heat recovery system. The result of the analysis shows that the annual energy gain from ground source storage is limited. However, this is partly a consequence of the fact that the well functioning hybrid ventilation system leaves little room for improvements. The analysis shows that the hybrid ventilation system has potential to be an attractive solution for low energy buildings with a very low need for electrical energy.

  4. Interconversion between Free Charges and Bound Excitons in 2D Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelvez Rueda, M.C.; Hutter, E.M.; Cao, Duyen H.; Renaud, N.; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Savenije, T.J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Grozema, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    The optoelectronic properties of hybrid perovskites can be easily tailored by varying their components. Specifically, mixing the common short organic cation (methylammonium (MA)) with a larger one (e.g., butyl ammonium (BA)) results in 2-dimensional perovskites with varying thicknesses of

  5. VALVE TURBO-ALTERNATOR AS ADDITIONAL HYBRID CAR DEVICE FOR THE HIGH-VOLTAGE BATTERY CHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kolesnikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of the hybrid car, its drive components and method of the solution of the problem with moving period of the car on electric pulling by means of valve turbo-alternator is given in this article.

  6. Analysis on a hybrid desiccant air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, C.X.; Dai, Y.J.; Wu, J.Y.; Wang, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid desiccant-assisted preconditioner and split cooling coil system, which combines the merits of moisture removal by desiccant and cooling coil for sensible heat removal, is a potential alternative to conventional vapor compression cooling systems. In this paper, experiments on a hybrid desiccant air-conditioning system, which is actually an integration of a rotary solid desiccant dehumidification and a vapor compression air-conditioning unit, had been carried out. It is found that, compared with the conventional VC (vapor compression) system, the hybrid desiccant cooling system economizes 37.5% electricity powers when the process air temperature and relative humidity are maintained at 30 o C, and 55% respectively. The reason why the hybrid desiccant cooling system features better performance relative to the VC system lies in the improvement brought about in the performance of the evaporator in VC unit due to desiccant dehumidification. A thermodynamic model of the hybrid desiccant system with R-22 as the refrigerant has been developed and the impact of operating parameters on the sensible heat ratio of the evaporator and the electric power saving rate has been analyzed. It is found that a majority of evaporators can operate in the dry condition even if the regeneration temperature is lower (i.e. 80 o C)

  7. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  8. A Wireless Phone Charging System using Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulkadir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A wireless phone charging system using Radio Frequency (RF energy harvesting is presented in this paper. Battery size and extension of charge duration offer great challenge in mobile devices and the fact that one has to always connect it to the mains for charging. The research seeks to employ the RF received by its antenna to recharge mobile end devices. This study determined the suitable frequency for power transmission and chooses an efficient microstrip patch antenna which has a gain of 3.762dB, directivity of 5.906dB, and a power density of 7.358dBW/m2. A 7stage voltage doubler was employed to harvest the 3.75V dc from the RF which is suitable to charge a mobile phone. The antenna was designed and simulated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST studio suite while the RF to DC converter was design and simulated using Intelligent Schematic Input System (ISIS Proteus.

  9. The rural areas electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocev, Kiril I.; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Tudzharov, Gjorgji

    2001-01-01

    Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel gen set. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

  10. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  11. A reconfigurable hybrid supervisory system for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, H.E.; Ray, A.; Edwards, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a reconfigurable approach to decision and control systems for complex dynamic processes. The proposed supervisory control system is a reconfigurable hybrid architecture structured into three functional levels of hierarchy, namely, execution, supervision, and coordination. While the bottom execution level is constituted by either reconfigurable continuously varying or discrete event systems, the top two levels are necessarily governed by reconfigurable sets of discrete event decision and control systems. Based on the process status, the set of active control and supervisory algorithm is chosen. The reconfigurable hybrid system is briefly described along with a discussion on its implementation at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II of Argonne National Laboratory. A process control application of this hybrid system is presented and evaluated in an in-plant experiment

  12. A reconfigurable hybrid supervisory system for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, H.E.; Ray, A.; Edwards, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a reconfigurable approach to decision and control systems for complex dynamic processes. The proposed supervisory control system is a reconfigurable hybrid architecture structured into three functional levels of hierarchy, namely, execution, supervision, and coordination. While, the bottom execution level is constituted by either reconfigurable continuously varying or discrete event systems, the top two levels are necessarily governed by reconfigurable sets of discrete event decision and control systems. Based on the process status, the set of active control and supervisory algorithm is chosen. The reconfigurable hybrid system is briefly described along with a discussion on its implementation at the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 of Argonne National Laboratory. A process control application of this hybrid system is presented and evaluated in an in-plant experiment

  13. Charging system with galvanic isolation and multiple operating modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M.

    2013-01-08

    Systems and methods are provided for operating a charging system with galvanic isolation adapted for multiple operating modes. A vehicle charging system comprises a DC interface, an AC interface, a first conversion module coupled to the DC interface, and a second conversion module coupled to the AC interface. An isolation module is coupled between the first conversion module and the second conversion module. The isolation module comprises a transformer and a switching element coupled between the transformer and the second conversion module. The transformer and the switching element are cooperatively configured for a plurality of operating modes, wherein each operating mode of the plurality of operating modes corresponds to a respective turns ratio of the transformer.

  14. Understanding electrostatic charge behaviour in aircraft fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvy, Jill A.; Hooker, Phil; Bennett, Darrell

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents work on the simulation of electrostatic charge build-up and decay in aircraft fuel systems. A model (EC-Flow) has been developed by BAE Systems under contract to Airbus, to allow the user to assess the effects of changes in design or in refuel conditions. Some of the principles behind the model are outlined. The model allows for a range of system components, including metallic and non-metallic pipes, valves, filters, junctions, bends and orifices. A purpose-built experimental rig was built at the Health and Safety Laboratory in Buxton, UK, to provide comparison data. The rig comprises a fuel delivery system, a test section where different components may be introduced into the system, and a Faraday Pail for measuring generated charge. Diagnostics include wall currents, charge densities and pressure losses. This paper shows sample results from the fitting of model predictions to measurement data and shows how analysis may be used to explain some of the observed trends.

  15. Vibration control of bridges and buildings hybrid system. Kyoryoter dot tatemono no shindo seigyo hybrid hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanida, K. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-15

    Multistory buildings, suspension bridges, and cable stayed bridges tend to become huge, and technology of controlling their vibration caused by strong winds and earthquakes is becoming an important subject for study. A description is made on a hybrid system which is a combination of the conventional passive system and active system, having merits of both of the systems. Verification test made using a model and an example of application to an actual bridge are introduced. This hybrid control system has been applied to the main tower of the cable stayed bridge on Route 12 of the Tokyo expressway. It is installed and in operation on the top of the tower to improve the workability, and can decrease the vibration of the tower caused by vortical excitation produced during the construction of the main tower. With the hybrid system, the actuator capacity can be reduced to about 1/5 for the similar damping performance to that of the active system with the same mass ratio. In addition, the weight of the equipment can be nearly halved in comparison with the passive system. Moreover, it has such a high safety characteristic as being used as a passive system when power supply is cut off because the controlling force of the system is smaller as compared with the active system. 2 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Analysis of a Hybrid Mechanical Regenerative Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Xiang Wen Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking systems for conventional vehicles are gaining attention as fossil fuels continue to be depleted. The major forms of regenerative braking systems include electrical and mechanical systems, with the former being more widely adopted at present. However mechanical systems are still feasible, including the possible hybrid systems of two mechanical energy recovery systems. A literature study was made to compare the various mechanical energy recovery systems. These systems were compared based on their advantages and disadvantages with regards to energy storage, usage, and maintenance. Based on the comparison, the most promising concept appeared to be one that combined the flywheel and the pneumatic energy recovery systems. A CAD model of this hybrid system was produced to better visualise the design. This was followed by analytical modelling of the energy recovery systems. The analysis indicated that the angular velocity had an extremely significant impact on the power loss and energy efficiency. The results showed that the hybrid system can provide better efficiency but only when operating within certain parameters. Future work is required to further improve the efficiency of this hybrid system.

  17. Performance estimation of photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xuan, Yimin; Yang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model for evaluating the efficiency of concentrating PV–TE (photovoltaic–thermoelectric) hybrid system is developed in this paper. Hybrid systems with different photovoltaic cells are studied, including crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, silicon thin-film photovoltaic cell, polymer photovoltaic cell and copper indium gallium selenide photovoltaic cell. The influence of temperature on the efficiency of photovoltaic cell has been taken into account based on the semiconductor equations, which reveals different efficiency temperature characteristic of polymer photovoltaic cells. It is demonstrated that the polycrystalline silicon thin-film photovoltaic cell is suitable for concentrating PV–TE hybrid system through optimization of the convection heat transfer coefficient and concentrating ratio. The polymer photovoltaic cell is proved to be suitable for non-concentrating PV–TE hybrid system. - Highlights: • Performances of four types of photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems are studied. • Temperature is one of dominant factors of affecting the conversion efficiency of PV–TE systems. • One can select a proper PV–TE assembly system according to given operating conditions

  18. Development of hybrid system for mass productive passenger car; Joyoshayo ryosangata hybrid system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, S; Sasaki, S; Matsui, H; Kubo, K [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The Toyota Hybrid System has two power sources which engage depending on driving conditions. An improved efficiency gasoline engine provides the main power to drive the wheels, as in conventional automobiles. Drive power can also be supplied by an electric motor, which derives its electricity from a battery and a Generator. Fuel efficiency is further boosted by other measures, such as automatically cutting the engine when the vehicle is at a stop and regenerating the energy accumulate during deceleration. Compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine running in 10 {center_dot} 15 mode, the CO2 emissions are reduced by half. Moreover, with the use of a motor to reduce engine load during acceleration, HC, CO, and NOx emissions are cut significantly low levels. 13 figs.

  19. Photovoltaic / Diesel / Battery Hybrid Power Supply System

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available (SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 406, 2005). The battery bank is cycled frequently, shortening its lifetime. If the inverter fails there is complete loss of power to the load, unless the load can be supplied directly from the diesel generator for emergency purposes....5 Sizing the inverter ............................................................................................... 67 5.6 Sizing the charge Controller ............................................................................... 68 5.7 Sizing...

  20. A Hydrogen-Evolving Hybrid-Electrolyte Battery with Electrochemical/Photoelectrochemical Charging from Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhaoyu; Li, Panpan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-02-08

    Decoupled hydrogen and oxygen production were successfully embedded into an aqueous dual-electrolyte (acid-base) battery for simultaneous energy storage and conversion. A three-electrode configuration was adopted, involving an electrocatalytic hydrogen-evolving electrode as cathode, an alkaline battery-type or capacitor-type anode as shuttle, and a charging-assisting electrode for electro-/photoelectrochemically catalyzing water oxidation. The conceptual battery not only synergistically outputs electricity and chemical fuels with tremendous specific energy and power densities, but also supports various approaches to be charged by pure or solar-assisted electricity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Large-Scale Quantum Many-Body Perturbation on Spin and Charge Separation in the Excited States of the Synthesized Donor-Acceptor Hybrid PBI-Macrocycle Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas

    2017-03-17

    The reliable calculation of the excited states of charge-transfer (CT) compounds poses a major challenge to the ab initio community because the frequently employed method, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), massively relies on the underlying density functional, resulting in heavily Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange-dependent excited-state energies. By applying the highly sophisticated many-body perturbation approach, we address the encountered unreliabilities and inconsistencies of not optimally tuned (standard) TD-DFT regarding photo-excited CT phenomena, and present results concerning accurate vertical transition energies and the correct energetic ordering of the CT and the first visible singlet state of a recently synthesized thermodynamically stable large hybrid perylene bisimide-macrocycle complex. This is a large-scale application of the quantum many-body perturbation approach to a chemically relevant CT system, demonstrating the system-size independence of the quality of the many-body-based excitation energies. Furthermore, an optimal tuning of the ωB97X hybrid functional can well reproduce the many-body results, making TD-DFT a suitable choice but at the expense of introducing a range-separation parameter, which needs to be optimally tuned. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hybrid Recommendation System Memanfaatkan Penggalian Frequent Itemset dan Perbandingan Keyword

    OpenAIRE

    Suka Parwita, Wayan Gede; Winarko, Edi

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Recommendation system sering dibangun dengan memanfaatkan data peringkat item dan data identitas pengguna. Data peringkat item merupakan data yang langka pada sistem yang baru dibangun. Sedangkan, pemberian data identitas pada recommendation system dapat menimbulkan kekhawatiran penyalahgunaan data identitas. Hybrid recommendation system memanfaatkan algoritma penggalian frequent itemset dan perbandingan keyword dapat memberikan daftar rekomendasi tanpa menggunakan data identi...

  3. Hybrid systems: a real-time interface to control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Heilmann, Søren; Holdgaard, Michael

    1996-01-01

    are usually investigated by control engineers that base their work on the theory of dynamic systems. The mathematical tool for this work is thus mathematical analysis, in particular the theory of differential equations. The paper gives an introduction to a general hybrid systems model for definition of system...

  4. Multi-Agent System based Event-Triggered Hybrid Controls for High-Security Hybrid Energy Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-agent system based event- triggered hybrid controls for guaranteeing energy supply of a hybrid energy generation system with high security. First, a mul-ti-agent system is constituted by an upper-level central coordi-nated control agent combined with several lower......-level unit agents. Each lower-level unit agent is responsible for dealing with internal switching control and distributed dynamic regula-tion for its unit system. The upper-level agent implements coor-dinated switching control to guarantee the power supply of over-all system with high security. The internal...

  5. Design And Construction Of Wireless Charging System Using Inductive Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Lam Mung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless charging system described by using the method of inductive coupling. In this project oscillation circuit converts DC energy to AC energytransmitter coil to transmit magnetic field by passing frequency and then induce the receiver coil. The properties of Induction coupling are wavemagnetic field-wideband rangevery shortcm efficiencyhight and operation frequencyLF-bandseveral handred kHz.The project shows as a small charging for 5V battery of phone in this method. The system bases on coupling magnetic field then designed and constructed as two parts. There are transmitter part and receiver part. The transmitter coil transmitter part transmits coupling magnetic field to receiver coil receiver part by passing frequency at about 1.67MHz. The Amperes law Biot-Savart law and Faraday law are used to calculate the inductive coupling between the transmitter coil and the receiver coil. The calculation of this law shows how many power transfer in receiver part when how many distance between the transmitter coil and the receiver coil. The system is safe for users and neighbouring electronic devices. To get more accurate wireless charging system it needs to change the design of the following keywords.

  6. Analysis of hybrid energy systems for application in southern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramola, Muyiwa S.; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Paul, Samuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The option of using hybrid energy for electricity in remote areas of Ghana is examined. • The cost of electricity produced by the hybrid system is found to be $0.281/kW h. • The levelized cost of electricity increase by 9% when the PV price is increased from $3000/kW to $7500/kW. - Abstract: Due to advances in renewable energy technologies and increase in oil price, hybrid renewable energy systems are becoming increasingly attractive for power generation applications in remote areas. This paper presents an economic analysis of the feasibility of utilizing a hybrid energy system consisting of solar, wind and diesel generators for application in remote areas of southern Ghana using levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and net present cost of the system. The annual daily average solar global radiation at the selected site is 5.4 kW h/m 2 /day and the annual mean wind speed is 5.11 m/s. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software was employed to carry out the present study. Both wind data and the actual load data have been used in the simulation model. It was found that a PV array of 80 kW, a 100 kW wind turbine, two generators with combined capacity of 100 kW, a 60 kW converter/inverter and a 60 Surrette 4KS25P battery produced a mix of 791.1 MW h of electricity annually. The cost of electricity for this hybrid system is found to be $0.281/kW h. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of changes in wind speed, solar global radiation and diesel price on the optimal energy was investigated and the impact of solar PV price on the LCOE for a selected hybrid energy system was also presented

  7. Interconversion between Free Charges and Bound Excitons in 2D Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Gélvez-Rueda, María C.; Hutter, Eline M.; Cao, Duyen H.; Renaud, Nicolas; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Savenije, Tom J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Grozema, Ferdinand C.

    2017-01-01

    The optoelectronic properties of hybrid perovskites can be easily tailored by varying their components. Specifically, mixing the common short organic cation (methylammonium (MA)) with a larger one (e.g., butyl ammonium (BA)) results in 2-dimensional perovskites with varying thicknesses of inorganic layers separated by the large organic cation. In both of these applications, a detailed understanding of the dissociation and recombination of electron-hole pairs is of prime importance. In this wo...

  8. Performance analysis of a photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenjia; Ling, Yunyi; Liu, Xiangxin; Hao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A modular photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype is proposed. •Net solar-electric efficiency up to 41% is achievable. •Stable solar power supply is achievable via convenient energy storage. •The modular design facilitates the scalability of the hybrid system. -- Abstract: A solar photovoltaic (PV) thermochemical hybrid system consisting of a point-focus Fresnel concentrator, a PV cell and a methanol thermochemical reactor is proposed. In particular, a reactor capable of operating under high solar concentration is designed, manufactured and tested. Studies on both kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the reactor and the system are performed. Analysis of numerical and experimental results shows that with cascaded solar energy utilization and synergy among different forms of energy, the hybrid system has the advantages of high net solar-electric efficiency (up to 41%), stable solar energy power supply, solar energy storage (via syngas) and flexibility in application scale. The hybrid system proposed in this work provides a potential solution to some key challenges of current solar energy utilization technologies.

  9. Charge transport through DNA/DNA duplexes and DNA/RNA hybrids: complex mechanism study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Vala, M.; Weiter, M.; Špérová, M.; Schneider, Bohdan; Páv, Ondřej; Šebera, Jakub; Rosenberg, Ivan; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 9-9 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology. Annual Meeting of the Czech Society for Structural Biology /11./. 14.03.2013-16.03.2013, Nové Hrady] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378271 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : charge transport * fluorescence spectroscopy * DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  10. Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lu, Xin; Xue, Junliang; Li, Bos

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series regenerative braking system and two of which are parallel regenerative braking systems. The existing friction based Adjustable Braking System (ABS) on the bus is integrated with each of the new braking systems in order to ensure bus...

  11. Hybrid artificial photosynthetic systems comprising semiconductors as light harvesters and biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fuyu; Li, Can

    2013-11-19

    Solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis may be a key to generating abundant and clean energy, thus addressing the high energy needs of the world's expanding population. As the crucial components of photosynthesis, the artificial photosynthetic system should be composed of a light harvester (e.g., semiconductor or molecular dye), a reduction cocatalyst (e.g., hydrogenase mimic, noble metal), and an oxidation cocatalyst (e.g., photosystem II mimic for oxygen evolution from water oxidation). Solar fuel production catalyzed by an artificial photosynthetic system starts from the absorption of sunlight by the light harvester, where charge separation takes place, followed by a charge transfer to the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, where redox reaction processes occur. One of the most challenging problems is to develop an artificial photosynthetic solar fuel production system that is both highly efficient and stable. The assembly of cocatalysts on the semiconductor (light harvester) not only can facilitate the charge separation, but also can lower the activation energy or overpotential for the reactions. An efficient light harvester loaded with suitable reduction and oxidation cocatalysts is the key for high efficiency of artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we describe our strategy of hybrid photocatalysts using semiconductors as light harvesters with biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts to construct efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. We chose semiconductor nanoparticles as light harvesters because of their broad spectral absorption and relatively robust properties compared with a natural photosynthesis system. Using biomimetic complexes as cocatalysts can significantly facilitate charge separation via fast charge transfer from the semiconductor to the molecular cocatalysts and also catalyze the chemical reactions of solar fuel production. The hybrid photocatalysts supply us with a platform to study the

  12. Improved local lattice Monte Carlo simulation for charged systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2018-03-01

    Maggs and Rossetto [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 196402 (2002)] proposed a local lattice Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating charged systems based on Gauss's law, which scales with the particle number N as O(N). This method includes two degrees of freedom: the configuration of the mobile charged particles and the electric field. In this work, we consider two important issues in the implementation of the method, the acceptance rate of configurational change (particle move) and the ergodicity in the phase space sampled by the electric field. We propose a simple method to improve the acceptance rate of particle moves based on the superposition principle for electric field. Furthermore, we introduce an additional updating step for the field, named "open-circuit update," to ensure that the system is fully ergodic under periodic boundary conditions. We apply this improved local Monte Carlo simulation to an electrolyte solution confined between two low dielectric plates. The results show excellent agreement with previous theoretical work.

  13. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO 2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO 2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO 2 emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO 2 emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO 2 emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO 2 emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO 2 emissions should, therefore, be adapted.

  14. Comparison of topologies suitable for Capacitor Charging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maestri, S; Uicich, G; Benedetti, M; Cravero, JM

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between topologies suitable for capacitor charging systems. The topologies under evaluation are a flyback converter, a half-bridge series resonant converter and a full-bridge phase-shifted converter. The main features of these topologies are highlighted, which allows the proper topology selection according to the application requirements. Moreover, the performed analysis permits to characterize the operational range of the main components thus allowing their appropriate sizing and selection. Simulation results are provided.

  15. Hydrogen atom as a quantum-classical hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Fei; Wu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen atom is studied as a quantum-classical hybrid system, where the proton is treated as a classical object while the electron is regarded as a quantum object. We use a well known mean-field approach to describe this hybrid hydrogen atom; the resulting dynamics for the electron and the proton is compared to their full quantum dynamics. The electron dynamics in the hybrid description is found to be only marginally different from its full quantum counterpart. The situation is very different for the proton: in the hybrid description, the proton behaves like a free particle; in the fully quantum description, the wave packet center of the proton orbits around the center of mass. Furthermore, we find that the failure to describe the proton dynamics properly can be regarded as a manifestation of the fact that there is no conservation of momentum in the mean-field hybrid approach. We expect that such a failure is a common feature for all existing approaches for quantum-classical hybrid systems of Born-Oppenheimer type.

  16. Modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero, A

    1994-09-29

    This work deals with the modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems. We first present the timed-graphs as model for the real-time systems and we recall the basic notions of the analysis of real-time systems. We describe the temporal properties on the timed-graphs using TCTL formulas. We consider two methods for property verification: in one hand we study the symbolic model-checking (based on backward analysis) and in the other hand we propose a verification method derived of the construction of the simulation graph (based on forward analysis). Both methods have been implemented within the KRONOS verification tool. Their application for the automatic verification on several real-time systems confirms the practical interest of our approach. In a second part we study the hybrid systems, systems combining discrete components with continuous ones. As in the general case the analysis of this king of systems is not decidable, we identify two sub-classes of hybrid systems and we give a construction based method for the generation of a timed-graph from an element into the sub-classes. We prove that in one case the timed-graph obtained is bi-similar with the considered system and that there exists a simulation in the other case. These relationships allow the application of the described technics on the hybrid systems into the defined sub-classes. (authors). 60 refs., 43 figs., 8 tabs., 2 annexes.

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  18. Grid tied PV/battery system architecture and power management for fast electric vehicle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed O.

    The prospective spread of Electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) arises the need for fast charging rates. Higher charging rates requirements lead to high power demands, which cant be always supported by the grid. Thus, the use of on-site sources alongside the electrical grid for EVs charging is a rising area of interest. In this dissertation, a photovoltaic (PV) source is used to support the high power EVs charging. However, the PV output power has an intermittent nature that is dependable on the weather conditions. Thus, battery storage are combined with the PV in a grid tied system, providing a steady source for on-site EVs use in a renewable energy based fast charging station. Verily, renewable energy based fast charging stations should be cost effective, efficient, and reliable to increase the penetration of EVs in the automotive market. Thus, this Dissertation proposes a novel power flow management topology that aims on decreasing the running cost along with innovative hardware solutions and control structures for the developed architecture. The developed power flow management topology operates the hybrid system at the minimum operating cost while extending the battery lifetime. An optimization problem is formulated and two stages of optimization, i.e online and offline stages, are adopted to optimize the batteries state of charge (SOC) scheduling and continuously compensate for the forecasting errors. The proposed power flow management topology is validated and tested with two metering systems, i.e unified and dual metering systems. The results suggested that minimal power flow is anticipated from the battery storage to the grid in the dual metering system. Thus, the power electronic interfacing system is designed accordingly. Interconnecting bi-directional DC/DC converters are analyzed, and a cascaded buck boost (CBB) converter is chosen and tested under 80 kW power flow rates. The need to perform power factor correction (PFC) on

  19. Entanglement detection in hybrid optomechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro; Palma, G. Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We study a device formed by a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) coupled to the field of a cavity with a moving end mirror and find a working point such that the mirror-light entanglement is reproduced by the BEC-light quantum correlations. This provides an experimentally viable tool for inferring mirror-light entanglement with only a limited set of assumptions. We prove the existence of tripartite entanglement in the hybrid device, persisting up to temperatures of a few milli-Kelvin, and discuss a scheme to detect it.

  20. 15th International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang; Al-Sharhan, Salah; Liu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the hybridization of intelligent systems which is a promising research field of modern computational intelligence concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Fifteenth International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2015) held in Seoul, South Korea during November 16-18, 2015. The 26 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 paper submissions. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  1. EGUN, Charged Particle Trajectories in Electromagnetic Focusing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: EGUN computes trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, user-specified conditions input for each ray, and a combination of Child's Law conditions and user specifications. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magnetic fields may be specified using an arbitrary configuration of coils, or the output of a magnet program, such as Poisson, or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. 2 - Method of solution: The program first solves Laplace's equation. Next, the first iteration of electron trajectories is started using one of the four starting options. On the first iteration cycle, space charge forces are calculated from the assumption of paraxial flow. As the rays are traced, space charge is computed and stored. After all the electron trajectories have been calculated, the program begins the second cycle by solving the Poisson equation with the space charge from the first iteration. Subsequent iteration cycles follow this pattern. The Poisson equation is solved by an alternate column relaxation technique known as the semi-iterative Chebyshev method. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used to solve the relativistic differential equations of the trajectory calculations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 9001 mesh points in a square mesh, 300 mesh points in the axial direction, 100 mesh points in the radial direction, 101 potentials, 51 rays. In the cylindrical coordinates, the magnetic fields are axially symmetric. In rectangular coordinates, the external field is assumed to be normal to the plane of the problem, which is assumed to be the median plane

  2. Charge transfer in gold--alkali-metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.; Weinert, M.

    1994-01-01

    Based on conventional electronegativity arguments, gold--alkali-metal compounds are expected to be among the most ''ionic'' of metallic compounds. The concepts of ionicity and charge transfer are difficult to quantify. However, the changes in bonding in the 50/50 Au--alkali-metal systems between the elemental metals and the compounds are so severe that observations can readily be made concerning their character. The results, as obtained from self-consistent electronic-structure calculations, lead to the apparently odd observation that the electron density at the alkali-metal sites in the compound increases significantly and this involves high l componennts in the charge density. This increase, however, can be attributed to Au-like orbitals spatially overlapping the alkali-metal sites. In a chemical sense, it is reasonable to consider the alkali-metal transferring charge to these Au orbitals. While normally the difference in heats of formation between muffin-tin and full-potential calculations for transition-metal--transition-metal and transition-metal--main-group (e.g., Al) compounds having high site symmetry are small, for the gold--alkali-metal systems, the changes in bonding in the compounds cause differences of ∼0.5 eV/atom between the two classes of potential. Any serious estimate of the electronic structure in these systems must account for these aspherical bonding charges. The origin of the semiconducting behavior of the heavy-alkali-metal Au compounds is shown to arise from a combination of the Au-Au separations and the ionic character of the compounds; the light-alkali-metal Au compounds, with their smaller Au-Au separations, do not have a semiconducting gap. Core-level shifts and isomer shifts are also briefly discussed

  3. Investigation of multi-state charge-storage properties of redox-active organic molecules in silicon-molecular hybrid devices for DRAM and Flash applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Srivardhan Shivappa

    Molecular electronics has recently spawned a considerable amount of interest with several molecules possessing charge-conduction and charge-storage properties proposed for use in electronic devices. Hybrid silicon-molecular technology has the promise of augmenting the current silicon technology and provide for a transitional path to future molecule-only technology. The focus of this dissertation work has been on developing a class of hybrid silicon-molecular electronic devices for DRAM and Flash memory applications utilizing redox-active molecules. This work exploits the ability of molecules to store charges with single-electron precision at room temperature. The hybrid devices are fabricated by forming self-assembled monolayers of redox-active molecules on Si and oxide (SiO2 and HfO2) surfaces via formation of covalent linkages. The molecules possess discrete quantum states from which electrons can tunnel to the Si substrate at discrete applied voltages (oxidation process, cell write), leaving behind a positively charged layer of molecules. The reduction (erase) process, which is the process of electrons tunneling back from Si to the molecules, neutralizes the positively charged molecular monolayer. Hybrid silicon-molecular capacitor test structures were electrically characterized with an electrolyte gate using cyclic voltammetry (CyV) and impedance spectroscopy (CV) techniques. The redox voltages, kinetics (write/erase speeds) and charge-retention characteristics were found to be strongly dependent on the Si doping type and densities, and ambient light. It was also determined that the redox energy states in the molecules communicate with the valence band of the Si substrate. This allows tuning of write and read states by modulating minority carriers in n- and p-Si substrates. Ultra-thin dielectric tunnel barriers (SiO2, HfO2) were placed between the molecules and the Si substrate to augment charge-retention for Flash memory applications. The redox response was

  4. Voith hybrid systems - parallel hybrid for rail vehicles; Voith Hybridsysteme - Parallelhybrid fuer Schienenfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groezinger, Thomas; Berger, Juergen; Discher, Andreas; Bartosch, Stephan [Voith Turbo GmbH und Co. KG (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The article presents a variety of ways help to save fuel, reduce noise and minimize harmful emissions for rail vehicles. These ECO components can be used separately or in combination with drive systems for various types of hybrid concepts. For example, via a hydrostatic or electric hybrid system can recuperate and store braking energy and utilize it for powering the vehicle or driving auxiliary systems. Another system converts lost heat from the drive motor into mechanical or electrical energy. With EcoConsult, Voith Turbo also offers a ''toolbox'' comprising software, hardware and consultancy which allows identifying the exact operating conditions and a reliable calculation of the life cycle cost (LCC) for a variety of vehicle categories and operating profiles. (orig.)

  5. Hybrid attacks on model-based social recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao

    2017-10-01

    With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.

  6. Description of the Charge Transfer States at the Pentacene/C60 Interface: Combining Range-Separated Hybrid Functionals with the Polarizable Continuum Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Zilong

    2016-06-24

    Density functional theory (DFT) approaches based on range-separated hybrid functionals are currently methods of choice for the description of the charge-transfer (CT) states in organic donor/acceptor solar cells. However, these calculations are usually performed on small-size donor/acceptor complexes and as result do not account for electronic polarization effects. Here, using a pentacene/C60 complex as a model system, we discuss the ability of long-range corrected (LCR) hybrid functionals in combination with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) to determine the impact of the solid-state environment on the CT states. The CT energies are found to be insensitive to the interactions with the dielectric medium when a conventional time-dependent DFT/PCM (TDDFT/PCM) approach is used. However, a decrease in the energy of the CT state in the framework of LRC functionals can be obtained by using a smaller range-separated parameter when going from an isolated donor/acceptor complex to the solid-state case.

  7. Application of double-hybrid density functionals to charge transfer in N-substituted pentacenequinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-García, J C

    2012-05-07

    A set of N-heteroquinones, deriving from oligoacenes, have been recently proposed as n-type organic semiconductors with high electron mobilities in thin-film transistors. Generally speaking, this class of compounds self-assembles in neighboring π-stacks linked by weak hydrogen bonds. We aim at theoretically characterizing here the sequential charge transport (hopping) process expected to take place across these arrays of molecules. To do so, we need to accurately address the preferred packing of these materials simultaneously to single-molecule properties related to charge-transfer events, carefully employing dispersion-corrected density functional theory methods to accurately extract the key molecular parameters governing this phenomenon at the nanoscale. This study confirms the great deal of interest around these compounds, since controlled functionalization of model molecules (i.e., pentacene) allows to efficiently tune the corresponding charge mobilities, and the capacity of modern quantum-chemical methods to predict it after rationalizing the underlying structure-property relationships.

  8. Ionic charging by local imbalance at interfaces in hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almora, Osbel; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà, E-mail: garciag@uji.es [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castelló (Spain)

    2016-01-25

    Identification of specific operating mechanisms becomes particularly challenging when mixed ionic-electronic conductors are used in optoelectronic devices. Ionic effects in perovskite solar cells are believed to distort operation curves and possess serious doubts about their long term stability. Current hysteresis and switchable photovoltaic characteristics have been connected to the kinetics of ion migration. However, the nature of the specific ionic mechanism (or mechanisms) able to explain the operation distortions is still poorly understood. It is observed here that the local rearrangement of ions at the electrode interfaces gives rise to commonly observed capacitive effects. Charging transients in response to step voltage stimuli using thick CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} samples show two main polarization processes and reveal the structure of the ionic double-layer at the interface with the non-reacting contacts. It is observed that ionic charging, with a typical response time of 10 s, is a local effect confined in the vicinity of the electrode, which entails absence of net mobile ionic concentration (space-charge) in the material bulk.

  9. Estimation method of state-of-charge for lithium-ion battery used in hybrid electric vehicles based on variable structure extended kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Ma, Zilin; Tang, Gongyou; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Nong

    2016-07-01

    Since the main power source of hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) is supplied by the power battery, the predicted performance of power battery, especially the state-of-charge(SOC) estimation has attracted great attention in the area of HEV. However, the value of SOC estimation could not be greatly precise so that the running performance of HEV is greatly affected. A variable structure extended kalman filter(VSEKF)-based estimation method, which could be used to analyze the SOC of lithium-ion battery in the fixed driving condition, is presented. First, the general lower-order battery equivalent circuit model(GLM), which includes column accumulation model, open circuit voltage model and the SOC output model, is established, and the off-line and online model parameters are calculated with hybrid pulse power characteristics(HPPC) test data. Next, a VSEKF estimation method of SOC, which integrates the ampere-hour(Ah) integration method and the extended Kalman filter(EKF) method, is executed with different adaptive weighting coefficients, which are determined according to the different values of open-circuit voltage obtained in the corresponding charging or discharging processes. According to the experimental analysis, the faster convergence speed and more accurate simulating results could be obtained using the VSEKF method in the running performance of HEV. The error rate of SOC estimation with the VSEKF method is focused in the range of 5% to 10% comparing with the range of 20% to 30% using the EKF method and the Ah integration method. In Summary, the accuracy of the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion battery cell and the pack of lithium-ion battery system, which is obtained utilizing the VSEKF method has been significantly improved comparing with the Ah integration method and the EKF method. The VSEKF method utilizing in the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion pack of HEV can be widely used in practical driving conditions.

  10. Performance assessment of a novel hybrid district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, C.; Oktay, Z.; Dincer, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid system for improving the efficiency of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs) is proposed. This hybrid system consists of biogas based electricity production and a water-to-water geothermal heat pump unit (GHPU), which uses the waste heat for both heating and domestic hot water purposes. Electricity generated by the biogas plant (BP) is utilized to drive the GDHS's pumps, BP systems and the heat pump units. Both the biogas reactor heating unit and the heat pump unit utilize the waste heat from the GDHS and use the system as a heat source. The feasibility of utilizing a hybrid system in order to increase the overall system (GDHS + BP + GHPU) efficiency is then investigated for possible efficiency improvements. The Edremit GDHS in Turkey, which is selected for investigation in this case study, reinjects 16.8 MW of thermal power into the river at a low temperature; namely at 40 °C. Such a temperature is ideal for mesophilic bacterial growth in the digestion process during biogas production. 1.45 MW of biogas based electricity production potential is obtainable from the waste heat output of the Edremit GDHS. The average overall system efficiencies through the utilization of this kind of hybridized system approach are increased by 7.5% energetically and 13% for exergetically. - Highlights: ► A new hybrid system is proposed for improving the efficiency of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs). ► The average overall system efficiencies are increased by 7.5% for energy and 13% for exergy, respectively. ► Various energetic and exergetic parameters are studied.

  11. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of the INSTAR [INertial STorage And Recovery] System: A Flywheel-based, High Power Energy Storage System for Improved Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Talancon, Daniel Raul

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of the INSTAR system: a high-power, cost-effective energy storage system designed to improve HEV regenerative braking capabilities by combining chemical batteries with an electromechanical flywheel. This combination allows the regenerative braking system in hybrid vehicles to recapture more available braking energy at a lower battery pack charging current, increasing vehicle energy efficiency while also potentially increasing battery life.A prototype flyw...

  12. Hybrid algorithm for rotor angle security assessment in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prasad Wadduwage

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient rotor angle stability assessment and oscillatory rotor angle stability assessment subsequent to a contingency are integral components of dynamic security assessment (DSA in power systems. This study proposes a hybrid algorithm to determine whether the post-fault power system is secure due to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability subsequent to a set of known contingencies. The hybrid algorithm first uses a new security measure developed based on the concept of Lyapunov exponents (LEs to determine the transient security of the post-fault power system. Later, the transient secure power swing curves are analysed using an improved Prony algorithm which extracts the dominant oscillatory modes and estimates their damping ratios. The damping ratio is a security measure about the oscillatory security of the post-fault power system subsequent to the contingency. The suitability of the proposed hybrid algorithm for DSA in power systems is illustrated using different contingencies of a 16-generator 68-bus test system and a 50-generator 470-bus test system. The accuracy of the stability conclusions and the acceptable computational burden indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm is suitable for real-time security assessment with respect to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability under multiple contingencies of the power system.

  13. Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.

  14. Sodium Hydroxide and Calcium Hydroxide Hybrid Oxygen Bleaching with System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, K.; Bajrami, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the replacement of sodium hydroxide in the oxygen bleaching stage using a hybrid system consisting of sodium hydroxide calcium hydroxide. Commercial Kraft pulping was studied using yellow pine Kraft pulp obtained from a company in the US. The impact of sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide hybrid system in regard to concentration, reaction time and temperature for Kraft pulp was evaluated. The sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide dosage was varied between 0% and 15% based on oven dry fiber content. The bleaching reaction time was varied between 0 and 180 minutes whereas the bleaching temperature ranged between 70 °C and 110 °C. The ability to bleach pulp was measured by determining the Kappa number. Optimum bleaching results for the hybrid system were achieved with 4% sodium hydroxide and 2% calcium hydroxide content. Beyond this, the ability to bleach pulp decreased.

  15. Using hybrid expert system approaches for engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. H.; Boarnet, M. G.; Culbert, C. J.; Savely, R. T.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the use of hybrid expert system shells and hybrid (i.e., algorithmic and heuristic) approaches for solving engineering problems is reported. Aspects of various engineering problem domains are reviewed for a number of examples with specific applications made to recently developed prototype expert systems. Based on this prototyping experience, critical evaluations of and comparisons between commercially available tools, and some research tools, in the United States and Australia, and their underlying problem-solving paradigms are made. Characteristics of the implementation tool and the engineering domain are compared and practical software engineering issues are discussed with respect to hybrid tools and approaches. Finally, guidelines are offered with the hope that expert system development will be less time consuming, more effective, and more cost-effective than it has been in the past.

  16. Electric energy storage systems for future hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, Hans; Huelshorst, Thomas [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Elektrochemische Energiewandlung und Speichersystemtechnik, ISEA, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Electric energy storage systems play a key role in today's and even more in future hybrid and electric vehicles. They enable new additional functionalities like Start/Stop, regenerative braking or electric boost and pure electric drive. This article discusses properties and requirements of battery systems like power provision, energy capacity, life time as a function of the hybrid concepts and the real operating conditions of the today's and future hybrid drivetrains. Battery cell technology, component sizing, system design, operating strategy safety measures and diagnosis, modularity and vehicle integration are important battery development topics. A final assessment will draw the conclusion that future drivetrain concepts with higher degree of electrician will be significantly dependent on the progress of battery technology. (orig.)

  17. A Vision-Based Wireless Charging System for Robot Trophallaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-O Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to recharge the batteries of a mobile robot has presented an important challenge for a long time. In this paper, a vision-based wireless charging method for robot energy trophallaxis between two robots is presented. Even though wireless power transmission allows more positional error between receiver-transmitter coils than with a contact-type charging system, both coils have to be aligned as accurately as possible for efficient power transfer. To align the coils, a transmitter robot recognizes the coarse pose of a receiver robot via a camera image and the ambiguity of the estimated pose is removed with a Bayesian estimator. The precise pose of the receiver coil is calculated using a marker image attached to a receiver robot. Experiments with several types of receiver robots have been conducted to verify the proposed method.

  18. Dynamics of Charged Particulate Systems Modeling, Theory and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Zohdi, Tarek I

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this monograph is to provide a concise introduction to the dynamics of systems comprised of charged small-scale particles. Flowing, small-scale, particles ("particulates'') are ubiquitous in industrial processes and in the natural sciences. Applications include electrostatic copiers, inkjet printers, powder coating machines, etc., and a variety of manufacturing processes. Due to their small-scale size, external electromagnetic fields can be utilized to manipulate and control charged particulates in industrial processes in order to achieve results that are not possible by purely mechanical means alone. A unique feature of small-scale particulate flows is that they exhibit a strong sensitivity to interparticle near-field forces, leading to nonstandard particulate dynamics, agglomeration and cluster formation, which can strongly affect manufactured product quality. This monograph also provides an introduction to the mathematically-related topic of the dynamics of swarms of interacting objects, ...

  19. A hybrid organic-inorganic electrode for enhanced charge injection or collection in organic optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Omer F; Chaudhary, Sumit; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2006-01-01

    Here we report a novel hybrid organic-inorganic anode for organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic (PV) cells. This hybrid anode structure is realized from a composite of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) and indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles. Owing to the phase separation, this anodic structure leads to a graded work function from patterned ITO to the photoactive polymer, which in turn reduces the barrier height for holes by ∼70%. The resulting devices based on this design show up to 67% reduction in turn-on voltage (for polymer LEDs) and up to 40% increase in short-circuit current and power conversion efficiency (for PV cells). Current-voltage characteristics, Fowler-Nordheim analysis, SEM imaging and energy band diagram analysis are employed to characterize the improved performance of our devices. The reported approach is expected to be immensely useful for the molecular design of next-generation efficient organic devices

  20. Harmonic analysis and suppression in hybrid wind & PV solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Namekar, Swapnil

    2018-04-01

    The growing demand of electricity has led to produce power through non-conventional source of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power, energy through biogas and biomass etc. Hybrid system is taken to complement the shortcoming of either sources of energy. The proposed system is grid connected hybrid wind and solar system. A 2.1 MW Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has been taken for analysis of wind farm whose rotor part is connected to two back-to-back converters. A 250 KW Photovoltaic (PV) array taken to analyze solar farm where inverter is required to convert power from DC to AC since electricity generated through solar PV is in the form of DC. Stability and reliability of the system is very important when the system is grid connected. Harmonics is the major Power quality issue which degrades the quality of power at load side. Harmonics in hybrid system arise through the use of power conversion unit. The other causes of harmonics are fluctuation in wind speed and solar irradiance. The power delivered to grid must be free from harmonics and within the limits specified by Indian grid codes. In proposed work, harmonic analysis of the hybrid system is performed in Electrical Transient Analysis program (ETAP) and single tuned harmonic filter is designed to maintain the utility grid harmonics within limits.

  1. Study of a SOFC-PEM hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillman, B.; Bjornbom, P.; Sylwan, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' In the present project a system study of a SOFC-PEM hybrid system is in progress. Positive synergy effects are expected when combining a SOFC system with a PEM system. By combining the advantages of each fuel cell type it is promising that the hybrid system has higher overall efficiency than a SOFC-only system or a reformer-PEM system. A SOFC stack produces electricity and a reformate gas that can be further processed to hydrogen by the shift reaction. The produced hydrogen can be used by PEM stack in order to produce further electricity. In the PEM system case the complex fuel reformer processing could be eliminated. The simulations were performed with the flowsheeting simulation software Aspen Plus. (author)

  2. A Personalized Rolling Optimal Charging Schedule for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Statistical Energy Demand Analysis and Heuristic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Fanrong; Jiang, Jianhui; Ding, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    To alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and the dependence on fossil fuel, Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (PHEVs) have gained an increasing popularity in current decades. Due to the fluctuating electricity prices in the power market, a charging schedule is very influential to driving cost...

  3. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao, E-mail: yaoyao@fudan.edu.cn; Wu, Chang-Qin, E-mail: cqw@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-04-21

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (R{sub rec}−V) and the current density-voltage (J–V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted R{sub rec} data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the R{sub rec}–V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the R{sub rec}'s are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the R{sub rec} decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  4. Chaos synchronization in autonomous chaotic system via hybrid feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixin; Chu Yandong; Zhang Jiangang; Li Xianfeng; Chang Yingxiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the synchronization of chaos by designing united controller. First, this method is implemented in synchronization of a simple system, then we realize the synchronization of Lue hyperchaotic system, we also take tracking control to realize the synchronization of Lue hyperchaotic system. Comparing with results, we can find that hybrid feedback control approach is more effective than tracking control for hyperchaotic system. Numerical simulations show the united synchronization method works well.

  5. A hybrid electrical power system for aircraft application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Chin, C. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Possible improvements to present aircraft electrical power systems for use in future advanced types of aircraft have been investigated. The conventional power system is examined, the characteristics of electric loads are reviewed, and various methods of power generation and distribution are appraised. It is shown that a hybrid system, with variable-frequency generation and high-voltage dc distribution, could overcome some of the limitations of the conventional system.

  6. A manifesto for conscientious design of hybrid online social systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noriega, Pablo; Verhagen, Harko; d’Inverno, Mark; Padget, Julian A.

    2016-01-01

    Online Social Systems such as community forums, social media, e-commerce and gaming are having an increasingly significant impact on our lives. They affect the way we accomplish all sorts of collective activities, the way we relate to others, and the way we construct are own self-image. These systems often have both human and artificial agency creating what we call online hybrid social systems. However, when systems are designed and constructed, the psychological and sociological impact of su...

  7. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  8. Evaluation of a Compact Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We realized a compact hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI system by integrating a portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS device with an economical electroencephalography (EEG system. The NIRS array was located on the subjects’ forehead, covering the prefrontal area. The EEG electrodes were distributed over the frontal, motor/temporal, and parietal areas. The experimental paradigm involved a Stroop word-picture matching test in combination with mental arithmetic (MA and baseline (BL tasks, in which the subjects were asked to perform either MA or BL in response to congruent or incongruent conditions, respectively. We compared the classification accuracies of each of the modalities (NIRS or EEG with that of the hybrid system. We showed that the hybrid system outperforms the unimodal EEG and NIRS systems by 6.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Since the proposed hybrid system is based on portable platforms, it is not confined to a laboratory environment and has the potential to be used in real-life situations, such as in neurorehabilitation.

  9. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  10. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.; Vergnes, J.; Zaetta, A.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  11. Economic considerations for on-road wireless charging systems - A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhar, A.; Bolech, M.; Prasanth, V.; Bauer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Economic viability of on-road charging strongly depends on the choice of inductive power transfer (IPT) system configuration (static or dynamic charging), charging power level and the percentage road coverage of dynamic charging. In this paper, a case study is carried out to determine the expected

  12. A Lie algebraic condition for exponential stability of discrete hybrid systems and application to hybrid synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shouwei

    2011-06-01

    A Lie algebraic condition for global exponential stability of linear discrete switched impulsive systems is presented in this paper. By considering a Lie algebra generated by all subsystem matrices and impulsive matrices, when not all of these matrices are Schur stable, we derive new criteria for global exponential stability of linear discrete switched impulsive systems. Moreover, simple sufficient conditions in terms of Lie algebra are established for the synchronization of nonlinear discrete systems using a hybrid switching and impulsive control. As an application, discrete chaotic system's synchronization is investigated by the proposed method.

  13. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Power Cutting System for Roadheader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrohydraulic hybrid power cutting transmission system for roadheader under specific working condition was proposed in this paper. The overall model for the new system composed of an electric motor model, a hydraulic pump-motor model, a torsional planetary set model, and a hybrid power train model was established. The working mode characteristics were simulated under the conditions of taking the effect of cutting picks into account. The advantages of new hybrid power cutting system about the dynamic response under shock load were investigated compared with the traditional cutting system. The results illustrated that the hybrid power system had an obvious cushioning in terms of the dynamic load of cutting electric motor and planetary gear set. Besides, the hydraulic motor could provide an auxiliary power to improve the performance of the electric motor. With further analysis, a dynamic load was found to have a high relation to the stiffness and damping of coupling in the transmission train. The results could be a useful guide for the design of cutting transmission of roadheader.

  14. A hybrid press system: Motion design and inverse kinematics issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Erkan Kütük

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid machine (HM is a system integrating two types of motor; servo and constant velocity with a mechanism. The purpose is to make use of the energy in the system efficiently with a flexible system having more than one degree of freedom (DOF. A review is included on hybrid press systems. This study is included as a part of an industrial project used for metal forming. The system given here includes a 7 link mechanism, one of link is driven by a constant velocity motor (CV and the other is driven by a servo motor (SM. Kinematics analysis of the hybrid driven mechanism is presented here as inverse kinematics analysis. Motion design is very crucial step when using a hybrid machine. So motion design procedure is given with motion curve examples needed. Curve Fitting Toolbox (CFT in Matlab® is offered as an auxiliary method which can be successfully applied. Motion characteristics are chosen by looking at requirements taken from metal forming industry. Results are then presented herein.

  15. Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Frederick G.

    2005-11-01

    Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid

  16. Elements de conception d'un systeme geothermique hybride par optimisation financiere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henault, Benjamin

    net present value of the optimal solution, the position of the vertical boreholes, the number of installed heat pumps, the limits of entering water temperature at the heat pumps and energy consumption of the hybrid geothermal system. To demonstrate the added value of this design method, two case studies are analyzed, for a commercial building and a residential. The two studies allow to conclude that: the net present value of hybrid geothermal systems can be significantly improved by the choice of right specifications; the economic value of a geothermal project is strongly influenced by the number of heat pumps and the number of geothermal wells or the temperature limit in heating mode; the choice of design parameters should always be driven by an objective function and not by the designer; peak demand charges favor hybrid geothermal systems with a higher capacity. Then, in order to validate the operation, this new design method is compared to the standard sizing method which is commonly used. By designing the hybrid geothermal system according to standard sizing method and to meet 70% of peak heating, the net present value over 20 years for the residential project is negative, at -61,500 while it is 43,700 for commercial hybrid geothermal system. Using the new design method presented in this thesis, the net present values of projects are respectively 162,000 and 179,000. The use of this algorithm is beneficial because it significantly increases the net present value of projects. The research presented in this thesis allows to optimize the financial performance of hybrid geothermal systems. The proposed method will allow industry stakeholders to increase the profitability of their projects associated with low temperature geothermal energy.

  17. System for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics, method for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Yu, Wenhua; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan

    2017-11-21

    The invention provides a single radiator cooling system for use in hybrid electric vehicles, the system comprising a surface in thermal communication with electronics, and subcooled boiling fluid contacting the surface. The invention also provides a single radiator method for simultaneously cooling electronics and an internal combustion engine in a hybrid electric vehicle, the method comprising separating a coolant fluid into a first portion and a second portion; directing the first portion to the electronics and the second portion to the internal combustion engine for a time sufficient to maintain the temperature of the electronics at or below 175.degree. C.; combining the first and second portion to reestablish the coolant fluid; and treating the reestablished coolant fluid to the single radiator for a time sufficient to decrease the temperature of the reestablished coolant fluid to the temperature it had before separation.

  18. Hybrid control of the distributed refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L.; Wisniewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewise-affine switched system. System behaviors are analyzed using chaos theory. The synchronization phenomenon is interpreted as a stable low-period orbit; if the system has a high-order periodic orbit...

  19. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  20. A Causal and Real-Time Capable Power Management Algorithm for Off-Highway Hybrid Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schalk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid propulsion systems allow for a reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of future off-highway applications. A challenging aspect of a hybridization is the larger number of system components that further increases both the complexity and the diversification of such systems. Hence, beside a standardization on the hardware side for off-highway systems, a high flexibility and modularity of the control schemes is required to employ them in as many different applications as possible. In this paper, a causal optimization-based power management algorithm is introduced to control the power split between engine and electric machine in a hybrid powertrain. The algorithm optimizes the power split to achieve the maximum power supply efficiency and, thereby, considers the energy cost for maintaining the battery charge. Furthermore, the power management provides an optional function to control the battery state of charge in such a way that a target value is attained. In a simulation case study, the potential and the benefits of the proposed power management for the hybrid powertrain—aiming at a reduction of the fuel consumption of a DMU (diesel multiple unit train operated on a representative track—will be shown.

  1. Design and preliminary operation of a hybrid syngas/solar PV/battery power system for off-grid applications: A case study in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohsri, Sompol; Meechai, Apichart; Prapainainar, Chaiwat

    2018-01-01

    , in this study a customized hybrid power system integrating solar, biomass (syngas) power and battery storage system is evaluated a pilot scale for micro off-grid application. This paper shows that for a reliability of a hybrid syngas/solar PV system along with rechargeable batteries, the syngas generator can......Due to the irregular nature of solar resource, solar photovoltaic (PV) system alone cannot satisfy load on a 24/7 demand basis, especially with increasing regional population in developing countries such as Thailand. A hybrid solar PV/biomass based along with battery storage system has been drawing....... Furthermore, the generator has to be always synchronized during the commissioning time. Battery state of charge (SOC) in percent (%) connecting with syngas is greater than solar PV and the charging time appears significantly shorter than that one. All possible combinations between an innovation and existing...

  2. A Hybrid Recommender System Based on User-Recommender Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu; Xu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are used to make recommendations about products, information, or services for users. Most existing recommender systems implicitly assume one particular type of user behavior. However, they seldom consider user-recommender interactive scenarios in real-world environments. In this paper, we propose a hybrid recommender system based on user-recommender interaction and evaluate its performance with recall and diversity metrics. First, we define the user-recommender interaction...

  3. Lower hybrid heating system for an ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.; Harkness, S.; Jung, J.; Misra, B.; Moretti, A.; Norem, J.; Stevens, H.

    1978-01-01

    We have attempted to design a complete Lower Hybrid Resonance Heating System (LHRH) that could be used for TFTR, TNS, EPR, or a reactor. In addition to plasma physics constraints, we have considered those imposed by neutron radiation, surface heating of waveguides, sputtering, multipactoring, vacuum systems, materials, window design, engineering, maintenance and assembly. The system uses a Lallia--Brambilla grill which is fed by a number of waveguides entering the reactor by means of a labyrinth

  4. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state disp...

  5. Hierarchical models and iterative optimization of hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasina, Irina V. [Ailamazyan Program Systems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Peter One str. 4a, Pereslavl-Zalessky, 152021 (Russian Federation); Baturina, Olga V. [Trapeznikov Control Sciences Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya str. 65, 117997, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nasatueva, Soelma N. [Buryat State University, Smolina str.24a, Ulan-Ude, 670000 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    A class of hybrid control systems on the base of two-level discrete-continuous model is considered. The concept of this model was proposed and developed in preceding works as a concretization of the general multi-step system with related optimality conditions. A new iterative optimization procedure for such systems is developed on the base of localization of the global optimality conditions via contraction the control set.

  6. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems; La physique des reacteurs sous-critiques des systemes hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapira, J P [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS 91 - Orsay (France); Vergnes, J [Electricite de France, EDF, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    1998-03-12

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  7. Study of a class of hybrid-time systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, I. [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica-Culhuacan-IPN, Av. San Ana 1000 Col. San Fco. Culhuacan, Mexico D.F. 04430 (Mexico) and Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: ilse@calmecac.esimecu.ipn.mx; Femat, R. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Leyva-Ramos, J. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of a class of hybrid-time systems. In particular, we concern about switched systems constituted by two linear second order systems with a time varying (sinusoidal type) translation term. By means of numerical simulations, system behavior and its relation to system parameters are studied. It is shown that system eigenvalues play a crucial role in the time evolution of the system leading either to regular behavior, oscillatory patterns or intermittent erratic-periodic behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain conditions, presumable fractal structures can be obtained.

  8. Study of a class of hybrid-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, I.; Femat, R.; Leyva-Ramos, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of a class of hybrid-time systems. In particular, we concern about switched systems constituted by two linear second order systems with a time varying (sinusoidal type) translation term. By means of numerical simulations, system behavior and its relation to system parameters are studied. It is shown that system eigenvalues play a crucial role in the time evolution of the system leading either to regular behavior, oscillatory patterns or intermittent erratic-periodic behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain conditions, presumable fractal structures can be obtained

  9. Model-based health monitoring of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Low, Chang Boon; Arogeti, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Offers in-depth comprehensive study on health monitoring for hybrid systems Includes new concepts, such as GARR, mode tracking and multiple failure prognosis Contains many examples, making the developed techniques easily understandable and accessible Introduces state-of-the-art algorithms and methodologies from experienced researchers

  10. Full state hybrid projective synchronization in hyperchaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yandong; Chang Yingxiang; Zhang Jiangang; Li Xianfeng; An Xinlei

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the full state hybrid projective synchronization (FSHPS) which includes complete synchronization, anti-synchronization and projective synchronization as its special items. Based on Lyapunov stability theory a controller can be designed for achieving the FSHPS of hyperchaotic systems. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  11. Hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The real network nodes are always interfered by other messages. So, how to realize the hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems based on the complex network is very important. To solve this problem, two other problems should be considered. One is how the same network node of the complex network ...

  12. 1978 source book for fusion--fission hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.; Pavlenco, G.F.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1978-12-01

    This study summarizes the promise and timing of the hybrid concept and culminates in a generic R and D timetable. This document emphasizes the meaningfulness of the concept to tomorrow's energy needs and energy production systems rather than strict analysis of technical feasibility

  13. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    world, the paragon of animals -William Shakespeare I would not have made it this far without the love and support of my parents. Their work-ethic...xiii  I.  Introduction ...Condition 1 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS I. Introduction 1. Background Physically

  14. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System Market Analysis Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-06-09

    This presentation describes nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs), states their potential benefits, provides figures for the four tightly coupled N-R HESs that NREL is currently analyzing, and outlines the analysis process that is underway.

  15. Joint Optimal Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal (Yashar); C. Rosenberg; S. Keshav (Srinivasam); M.-B. Adjaho (Marie-Benedicte)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe wide range of performance characteristics of storage technologies motivates the use of a hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) that combines the best features of multiple technologies. However, HESS design is complex, in that it involves the choice of storage technologies, the

  16. Borazine-boron nitride hybrid hydrogen storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K [Knoxville, TN; Simonson, J Michael [Knoxville, TN; Maya, Leon [Knoxville, TN; Paine, Robert T [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-04-22

    A hybrid hydrogen storage composition includes a first phase and a second phase adsorbed on the first phase, the first phase including BN for storing hydrogen by physisorption and the second phase including a borazane-borazine system for storing hydrogen in combined form as a hydride.

  17. Storing in carbon nano structures for hybrid systems solar hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marazzi, R.; Zini, G.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid energy system for converting energy from renewable sources and its storage in the form of hydrogen. The storage uses activated carbon and the methodology was modelled mathematically and simulated in numerical software. The results show that storage compression is cheaper storage for liquefaction. [it

  18. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmer, M.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).

  19. Development of a hybrid system of artificial neural networks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a hybrid system of artificial neural networks and artificial bee colony algorithm for prediction and modeling of customer choice in the market. ... attempted to present a new method for the modeling and prediction of customer choice in the market using the combination of artificial intelligence and data mining.

  20. Hybrid computer optimization of systems with random parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A hybrid computer Monte Carlo technique for the simulation and optimization of systems with random parameters is presented. The method is applied to the simultaneous optimization of the means and variances of two parameters in the radar-homing missile problem treated by McGhee and Levine.

  1. Efficient Proof Engines for Bounded Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Herde, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present HySat, a new bounded model checker for linear hybrid systems, incorporating a tight integration of a DPLL-based pseudo-Boolean SAT solver and a linear programming routine as core engine. In contrast to related tools like MathSAT, ICS, or CVC, our tool exploits all...

  2. Variables and equations in hybrid systems with structural changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van D.A.

    2001-01-01

    In many models of physical systems, structural changes are common. Such structural changes may cause a variable to change from a differential variable to an algebraic variable, or to a variable that is not defined by an equation at all. Most hybrid modelling languages either restrict the kind of

  3. Hybrid two fuel system nozzle with a bypass connecting the two fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, Balachandar [Cincinnati, OH; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC; Yilmaz, Ertan [Albany, NY; Lacy, Benjamin [Greer, SC; Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; York, William David [Greer, SC

    2012-05-29

    A hybrid fuel combustion nozzle for use with natural gas, syngas, or other types of fuels. The hybrid fuel combustion nozzle may include a natural gas system with a number of swozzle vanes and a syngas system with a number of co-annular fuel tubes.

  4. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  5. Adaptive hybrid optimal quantum control for imprecisely characterized systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, D J; Wilhelm, F K

    2014-06-20

    Optimal quantum control theory carries a huge promise for quantum technology. Its experimental application, however, is often hindered by imprecise knowledge of the input variables, the quantum system's parameters. We show how to overcome this by adaptive hybrid optimal control, using a protocol named Ad-HOC. This protocol combines open- and closed-loop optimal control by first performing a gradient search towards a near-optimal control pulse and then an experimental fidelity estimation with a gradient-free method. For typical settings in solid-state quantum information processing, adaptive hybrid optimal control enhances gate fidelities by an order of magnitude, making optimal control theory applicable and useful.

  6. Village power hybrid systems development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.; Green, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, M. [Bergey Windpower Co., Norman, OK (United States); Lilley, A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mott, L. [Northern Power Systems, Moretown, VT (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The energy demand in developing countries is growing at a rate seven times that of the OECD countries, even though there are still 2 billion people living in developing countries without electricity. Many developing countries have social and economic development programs aimed at stemming the massive migration from the rural communities to the overcrowded, environmentally problematic, unemployment-bound urban centers. To address the issue of providing social, educational, health, and economic benefits to the rural communities of the developing world, a number of government and nongovernment agencies are sponsoring pilot programs to install and evaluate renewable energy systems as alternatives to line extension, diesels, kerosene, and batteries. The use of renewables in remote villages has yielded mixed results over the last 20 years. However, recently, photovoltaics, small wind turbines, and microhydro system shave gained increasing recognition as reliable, cost-effective alternatives to grid extension and diesel gensets for village-electricity applications. At the same time, hybrid systems based on combinations of PV/wind/batteries/diesel gensets have proven reliable and economic for remote international telecommunications markets. With the growing emphasis on environmentally and economically sustainable development of international rural communities, the US hybrid industry is responding with the development and demonstration of hybrid systems and architectures that will directly compete with conventional alternatives for village electrification. Assisting the US industry in this development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has embarked on a program of collaborative technology development and technical assistance in the area of hybrid systems for village power. Following a brief review of village-power hybrid systems application and design issues, this paper presents the present industry development activities of three US suppliers and the NREL.

  7. Particle-based simulation of charge transport in discrete-charge nano-scale systems: the electrostatic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Claudio; Gillespie, Dirk; Eisenberg, Robert S; Fiegna, Claudio

    2012-02-16

    The fast and accurate computation of the electric forces that drive the motion of charged particles at the nanometer scale represents a computational challenge. For this kind of system, where the discrete nature of the charges cannot be neglected, boundary element methods (BEM) represent a better approach than finite differences/finite elements methods. In this article, we compare two different BEM approaches to a canonical electrostatic problem in a three-dimensional space with inhomogeneous dielectrics, emphasizing their suitability for particle-based simulations: the iterative method proposed by Hoyles et al. and the Induced Charge Computation introduced by Boda et al.

  8. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD

  9. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD

  10. Characterization of Alternative Hybrid Solar Thermal Electric Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid power towers offer a number of advantages over solar-only power tower systems for early commercial deployment of the technology. These advantages include enhanced modularity, reduced financial and technical risks, and lower energy costs. With the changes in the domestic and world markets for bulk power, hybrid power towers are likely to have the best opportunities for power projects. This paper discusses issues that are likely to be important to the deployment of hybrid power towers in the near future. A large number of alternative designs are possible, and it is likely that there is no single approach that can be considered best or optimal for all project opportunities. The preferred design will depend on the application, as well as the unique objectives and perspectives of the person evaluating the design

  11. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...... phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid...

  12. Hybrid Intrusion Forecasting Framework for Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehun; Shin, Seong-Jun; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kwon, Ki Hoon; Han, Younggoo

    Recently, cyber attacks have become a serious hindrance to the stability of Internet. These attacks exploit interconnectivity of networks, propagate in an instant, and have become more sophisticated and evolutionary. Traditional Internet security systems such as firewalls, IDS and IPS are limited in terms of detecting recent cyber attacks in advance as these systems respond to Internet attacks only after the attacks inflict serious damage. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion forecasting system framework for an early warning system. The proposed system utilizes three types of forecasting methods: time-series analysis, probabilistic modeling, and data mining method. By combining these methods, it is possible to take advantage of the forecasting technique of each while overcoming their drawbacks. Experimental results show that the hybrid intrusion forecasting method outperforms each of three forecasting methods.

  13. Hybrid electronic/optical synchronized chaos communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, J P; Kane, D M; Davidović, A; Huntington, E H

    2009-04-27

    A hybrid electronic/optical system for synchronizing a chaotic receiver to a chaotic transmitter has been demonstrated. The chaotic signal is generated electronically and injected, in addition to a constant bias current, to a semiconductor laser to produce an optical carrier for transmission. The optical chaotic carrier is photodetected to regenerate an electronic signal for synchronization in a matched electronic receiver The system has been successfully used for the transmission and recovery of a chaos masked message that is added to the chaotic optical carrier. Past demonstrations of synchronized chaos based, secure communication systems have used either an electronic chaotic carrier or an optical chaotic carrier (such as the chaotic output of various nonlinear laser systems). This is the first electronic/optical hybrid system to be demonstrated. We call this generation of a chaotic optical carrier by electronic injection.

  14. Particle-based simulation of charge transport in discrete-charge nano-scale systems: the electrostatic problem

    OpenAIRE

    Berti, Claudio; Gillespie, Dirk; Eisenberg, Robert S; Fiegna, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The fast and accurate computation of the electric forces that drive the motion of charged particles at the nanometer scale represents a computational challenge. For this kind of system, where the discrete nature of the charges cannot be neglected, boundary element methods (BEM) represent a better approach than finite differences/finite elements methods. In this article, we compare two different BEM approaches to a canonical electrostatic problem in a three-dimensional space with inhomogeneous...

  15. Layered Ni(OH)2-Co(OH)2 films prepared by electrodeposition as charge storage electrodes for hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Boudard, Michel; Carmezim, M João; Montemor, M Fátima

    2017-01-04

    Consecutive layers of Ni(OH) 2 and Co(OH) 2 were electrodeposited on stainless steel current collectors for preparing charge storage electrodes of high specific capacity with potential application in hybrid supercapacitors. Different electrodes were prepared consisting on films of Ni(OH) 2 , Co(OH) 2 , Ni 1/2 Co 1/2 (OH) 2 and layered films of Ni(OH) 2 on Co(OH) 2 and Co(OH) 2 on Ni(OH) 2 to highlight the advantages of the new architecture. The microscopy studies revealed the formation of nanosheets in the Co(OH) 2 films and of particles agglomerates in the Ni(OH) 2 films. Important morphological changes were observed in the double hydroxides films and layered films. Film growth by electrodeposition was governed by instantaneous nucleation mechanism. The new architecture composed of Ni(OH) 2 on Co(OH) 2 displayed a redox response characterized by the presence of two peaks in the cyclic voltammograms, arising from redox reactions of the metallic species present in the layered film. These electrodes revealed a specific capacity of 762 C g -1 at the specific current of 1 A g -1 . The hybrid cell using Ni(OH) 2 on Co(OH) 2 as positive electrode and carbon nanofoam paper as negative electrode display specific energies of 101.3 W h g -1 and 37.8 W h g -1 at specific powers of 0.2 W g -1 and 2.45 W g -1 , respectively.

  16. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  17. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-07-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the January 2003 to June 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. This report summarizes the results obtained to date on: System performance analysis and model optimization; Reliability and cost model development; System control including dynamic model development; Heat exchanger material tests and life analysis; Pressurized SOFC evaluation; and Pre-baseline system definition for coal gasification fuel cell system concept.

  18. A Hybrid Approach to the Optimization of Multiechelon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sitek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In freight transportation there are two main distribution strategies: direct shipping and multiechelon distribution. In the direct shipping, vehicles, starting from a depot, bring their freight directly to the destination, while in the multiechelon systems, freight is delivered from the depot to the customers through an intermediate points. Multiechelon systems are particularly useful for logistic issues in a competitive environment. The paper presents a concept and application of a hybrid approach to modeling and optimization of the Multi-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem. Two ways of mathematical programming (MP and constraint logic programming (CLP are integrated in one environment. The strengths of MP and CLP in which constraints are treated in a different way and different methods are implemented and combined to use the strengths of both. The proposed approach is particularly important for the discrete decision models with an objective function and many discrete decision variables added up in multiple constraints. An implementation of hybrid approach in the ECLiPSe system using Eplex library is presented. The Two-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (2E-CVRP and its variants are shown as an illustrative example of the hybrid approach. The presented hybrid approach will be compared with classical mathematical programming on the same benchmark data sets.

  19. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part I; Crew Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Human spaceflight Architecture team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single space- ship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper provides the analysis of the interplanetary segments of the three Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions to Mars using the hybrid transportation architecture. The trajectory analysis provides departure and arrival dates and propellant needs for the three crew missions that are used by the campaign analysis team for campaign build-up and logistics aggregation analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the impact of mass growth, departure window, and propulsion system performance on the hybrid transportation architecture. The results and system analysis from this paper contribute to analyses of the other human spaceflight architecture team tasks and feed into the definition of the Evolvable Mars Campaign.

  20. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  1. Cost and emissions impacts of plug-in hybrid vehicles on the Ohio power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Fagiani, Riccardo; Marano, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology that can reduce vehicles' fuel consumption, decreasing transportation-related emissions and dependence on imported oil. The net emission and cost impacts of PHEV use are intimately connected with the electricity generator mix used for PHEV charging, which will in turn depend on when during the day PHEVs are recharged. This paper analyzes the effects of a PHEV fleet in the state of Ohio. The analysis considers two different charging scenarios-a controlled and an uncontrolled scenario-which offer the grid operator different levels of control over the timing of PHEV charging. The analysis shows that PHEV use could result in major reductions in gasoline consumption of close to 70% per vehicle compared to a conventional vehicle (CV) under both charging scenarios. Moreover, despite the high penetrations of coal in the Ohio power system, net CO 2 emissions from a PHEV could be up to 24% lower than that of a CV in the uncontrolled case, however, CO 2 and NO x emissions would increase in both scenarios.

  2. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging; System zur Emissionsverringerung beim Fuellen von Koksoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef [ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG, Dortmund (Germany). Head of Oven Machine Dept., Coke Plant Technologies

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  3. A hybrid job-shop scheduling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Robbach, Peter; Bayat-Sarmadi, Fahid; Marx, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The intention of the scheduling system developed at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics is the support of a scheduler working in a job-shop. Due to the existing requirements for a job-shop scheduling system the usage of flexible knowledge representation and processing techniques is necessary. Within this system the attempt was made to combine the advantages of symbolic AI-techniques with those of neural networks.

  4. Hybrid Active-Passive Radiation Shielding System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A radiation shielding system is proposed that integrates active magnetic fields with passive shielding materials. The objective is to increase the shielding...

  5. Real-Time Energy Management System for a Hybrid AC/DC Residential Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J.; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes real-time Energy Management System (EMS) for a residential hybrid ac/dc microgrid. The residential microgrid is organized in two different distribution systems. A dc distribution bus which interconnect the renewable energy sources (RES), energy storage systems (ESS...... buildings. This architecture increases the overall efficiency of the distribution by interconnecting the RES and ESS thorough a dc distribution bus, and therefore avoiding unnecessary dc/ac conversion stages. The real-time EMS performs an 24 hours ahead optimization in order to schedule the charge...... setup. The results shown how the operational costs of the system are effectively decreased by 28%, even with non-accurate estimation of the RES generation or building parameters....

  6. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  7. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  8. Neural-network hybrid control for antilock braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Min; Hsu, C F

    2003-01-01

    The antilock braking systems are designed to maximize wheel traction by preventing the wheels from locking during braking, while also maintaining adequate vehicle steerability; however, the performance is often degraded under harsh road conditions. In this paper, a hybrid control system with a recurrent neural network (RNN) observer is developed for antilock braking systems. This hybrid control system is comprised of an ideal controller and a compensation controller. The ideal controller, containing an RNN uncertainty observer, is the principal controller; and the compensation controller is a compensator for the difference between the system uncertainty and the estimated uncertainty. Since for dynamic response the RNN has capabilities superior to the feedforward NN, it is utilized for the uncertainty observer. The Taylor linearization technique is employed to increase the learning ability of the RNN. In addition, the on-line parameter adaptation laws are derived based on a Lyapunov function, so the stability of the system can be guaranteed. Simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed NN hybrid control system for antilock braking control under various road conditions.

  9. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  10. Optimal energy management of HEVs with hybrid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, E.; Trigui, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery and ultra-capacitor system for parallel hybrid vehicle is considered. • Optimal management using Pontryagin’s minimum principle is developed. • Battery stress limitation is taken into account by means of RMS current. • Rule based management approaching the optimal control is proposed. • Comparison between rule based and optimal management are proposed using Pareto front. - Abstract: Energy storage systems are a key point in the design and development of electric and hybrid vehicles. In order to reduce the battery size and its current stress, a hybrid storage system, where a battery is coupled with an electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) is considered in this paper. The energy management of such a configuration is not obvious and the optimal operation concerning the energy consumption and battery RMS current has to be identified. Most of the past work on the optimal energy management of HEVs only considered one additional power source. In this paper, the control of a hybrid vehicle with a hybrid storage system (HSS), where two additional power sources are used, is presented. Applying the Pontryagin’s minimum principle, an optimal energy management strategy is found and compared to a rule-based parameterized control strategy. Simulation results are shown and discussed. Applied on a small compact car, optimal and ruled-based methods show that gains of fuel consumption and/or a battery RMS current higher than 15% may be obtained. The paper also proves that a well tuned rule-based algorithm presents rather good performances when compared to the optimal strategy and remains relevant for different driving cycles. This rule-based algorithm may easily be implemented in a vehicle prototype or in an HIL test bench

  11. Theory of strong hybridization-induced relaxation in uranium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, G.; Cooper, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Commonly, for metallic uranium systems, sharp magnetic excitations are not observed in neutron inelastic scattering experiments, but rather there is a continuous spectrum of magnetic response. By extending our earlier theory for partially delocalized cerium systems, we can understand this behavior. The band-f hybridization is transformed to resonant scattering in our theory, where the exchange part of the scattering gives both a two-ion interaction (physically corresponding to cooperative hybridization, giving anisotropic magnetic ordering with unusual excitation dispersion for cerium systems) and a hybridization coupling of each ion to the band sea (giving relaxation and strong energy renormalization of the excitations for cerium systems). For uranium the f delocalization (and hence the hybridization) is much stronger than for cerium. The two-ion interaction (giving quasi-ionic energy level splitting) grows by an order of magnitude or more, as evidenced by greatly increased magnetic ordering temperatures. On the other hand, the single-site hybridization strength parameter J-script characterizing the f-to-band-bath coupling grows more moderately as the f levels move toward the Fermi energy, because of the renormalizing effect of the direct scattering which broadens the f levels. The increased energy scale of the quasi-ionic level splitting for uranium as compared to cerium or plutonium is the major contributor to the greatly increased width of magnetic scattering distributions, while the moderate increase in coupling of each uranium quasi-ion to the band sea gives a lesser contribution. We apply this theory to UP and UAs and compare our results with experiment

  12. Designing Networked Adaptive Interactive Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L.J.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in network technologies enable distributed systems, operating in complex physical environments, to coordinate their activities over larger areas within shorter time intervals. In these systems humans and intelligent machines will, in close interaction, be able to reach their goals under

  13. The Novel Application of Optimization and Charge Blended Energy Management Control for Component Downsizing within a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonization of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, design and integration of battery systems is often cited as one of the main barriers to vehicle commercialization. The ability to integrate the optimization of the energy management control system with the sizing of key PHEV powertrain components presents a significant area of research. Contained within this paper is an optimization study in which a charge blended strategy is used to facilitate the downsizing of the electrical machine, the internal combustion engine and the high voltage battery. An improved Equivalent Consumption Method has been used to manage the optimal power split within the powertrain as the PHEV traverses a range of different drivecycles. For a target CO2 value and drivecycle, results show that this approach can yield significant downsizing opportunities, with cost reductions on the order of 2%–9% being realizable.

  14. Electromagnetic Properties Analysis on Hybrid-driven System of Electromagnetic Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Han, Bingyuan; Bei, Shaoyi

    2018-01-01

    The hybrid-driven system made of permanent-and electromagnets applied in the electromagnetic motor was analyzed, equivalent magnetic circuit was used to establish the mathematical models of hybrid-driven system, based on the models of hybrid-driven system, the air gap flux, air-gap magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force was proposed. Taking the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force as main research object, the hybrid-driven system was researched. Electromagnetic properties of hybrid-driven system with different working current modes is studied preliminary. The results shown that analysis based on hybrid-driven system can improve the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force more effectively and can also guarantee the output stability, the effectiveness and feasibility of the hybrid-driven system are verified, which proved theoretical basis for the design of hybrid-driven system.

  15. Method and apparatus for controlling hybrid powertrain system in response to engine temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ryan D; Spohn, Brian L; Lehmen, Allen J; Cerbolles, Teresa L

    2014-10-07

    A method for controlling a hybrid powertrain system including an internal combustion engine includes controlling operation of the hybrid powertrain system in response to a preferred minimum coolant temperature trajectory for the internal combustion engine.

  16. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of an Isolated Hybrid Power System in a Rural Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojian Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In some rural areas in the northwest of China, people are suffering from not only the voltage drop due to long distance transmission but also the power outages due to remoteness and poorly maintained grid. In recent few years, the price of solar energy has been reduced drastically every year in China due to the government policy on renewable energy. In the near future, isolated hybrid power systems for home use could be affordable and used by residences in these rural areas. Thus, it is necessary to design a hybrid power system based on local load and weather condition to check system feasibility and expected performance. It includes load simulation, system sizing, and dynamic system modeling and simulation. This paper firstly introduces current development of renewable energy in China and then goes through the sizing, modeling, and simulation of the system design for a typical remote home in China and finally discusses the system’s availability based on the simulation results. In this paper, the NASA website is the source for weather data, and BEopt is used to generate load data. During system modeling, the MPPT algorithm is much simpler designed than the complex incremental method. A soft starter is adopted with the diesel generator for stability. The charge controller of the battery storage provides external command to the MPPT and diesel PID controller to prevent the battery storage from overcharging. The rms value of the fundamental load voltage is used in the voltage control loop of the inverter.

  17. Optimal scheduling for distributed hybrid system with pumped hydro storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakana, Kanzumba

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pumped hydro storage is proposed for isolated hybrid PV–Wind–Diesel systems. • Optimal control is developed to dispatch power flow economically. • A case study is conducted using the model for an isolated load. • Effects of seasons on the system’s optimal scheduling are examined through simulation. - Abstract: Photovoltaic and wind power generations are currently seen as sustainable options of in rural electrification, particularly in standalone applications. However the variable character of solar and wind resources as well as the variable load demand prevent these generation systems from being totally reliable without suitable energy storage system. Several research works have been conducted on the use of photovoltaic and wind systems in rural electrification; however most of these works have not considered other ways of storing energy except for conventional battery storage systems. In this paper, an energy dispatch model that satisfies the load demand, taking into account the intermittent nature of the solar and wind energy sources and variations in demand, is presented for a hybrid system consisting of a photovoltaic unit, a wind unit, a pumped hydro storage system and a diesel generator. The main purpose of the developed model is to minimize the hybrid system’s operation cost while optimizing the system’s power flow considering the different component’s operational constraints. The simulations have been performed using “fmincon” implemented in Matlab. The model have been applied to two test examples; the simulation results are analyzed and compared to the case where the diesel generator is used alone to supply the given load demand. The results show that using the developed control model for the proposed hybrid system, fuel saving can be achieved compared to the case where the diesel is used alone to supply the same load patters.

  18. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds

  19. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    drive and response systems using the sum and difference of relevant variables of the chaotic ... In the application of secure communications,. 781 ... identical equations denoted by the subscript 2. .... financial support through the DSA scheme.

  20. Fabrication and performance analysis of concentrated hybrid photovoltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Krishna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sun is the most important source of renewable source of energy. During the past few decades there has been an ever-increasing interest in Photovoltaic (PV cells as it directly converts solar radiation into electricity. This paper involves the performance study of photovoltaic system under concentrated solar radiation. The main problem with the concentration solar energy is the drastic increase in temperature of the photovoltaic module resulting in a decrease in performance efficiency of the system. This problem of overheating of the system can be overcome by providing cooling which would ensure operation of the module in the optimal temperature range. Hence, the setup would function as a hybrid model serving the dual purpose of power generation while also utilizing the waste heat for water heating applications. The experimental set up consist of a novel arrangement of concentrator and reflector and the cooling system. The Hybrid Photovoltaic System was repeatedly tested under real time conditions on several days. A comparison was drawn between the results obtained from direct exposure of a standard photovoltaic module to that obtained from the hybrid system in order to better understand the improvement in performance parameters. The study shown a significant improvement of output of standard photovoltaic module under the concentrated solar radiation.

  1. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement, we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, as a natural extension of the anisotropic Rabi model to an infinite spin subsystem, we next explored the NESS of the anisotropic Dicke model. The NESS of this linearized Dicke model is also an inseparable state of light and matter. With an aim to enrich the dynamics beyond the sustainable entanglement found for the NESS of these hybrid quantum systems, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.

  2. Evaluation of hybrid power system alternatives: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Andrew L.

    1999-01-01

    Pursuant to executive and statutory policies, the National Park Service (NPS) has been evaluating the use of photovoltaic (PV) hybrid power systems, for many of its remote, off-grid areas. This paper reports the results of a detailed technical and economic evaluation for one such area: the Needles District of Canyonlands National Park. The study evaluates the presented power systems and five alternative power generation configurations, four of which utilise PV. Projections are provided for the generator run-time and fuel use associated with each configuration as well as all initial and future costs. Included in the study are specific recommendations for energy efficiency improvements at the site. Results show that the generation systems presently in use, two full-time diesel generators, has the lowest conventional 20-year life cycle costs (LCC) of the six systems evaluated. However, when emissions costs are included (per NPS guidelines), several of the PV hybrid alternatives attain a lower LCC than the diesel-only systems. General discussion of the effects of initial versus future costs of PV hybrids as they compare with engine generator system is presented. (Author)

  3. Development of a solar-hydrogen hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, P.J.; Gamboa, S.A.; Vejar, Set; Campos, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The details of the development of a PV-hydrogen hybrid energy system is presented. An arrangement of photovoltaic modules (125 W/module) was established to provide 9 kW installed power in a three-phase configuration at 127 Vrms/phase. A 5 kW fuel cell system (hydrogen/oxygen) operate as a dynamic backup of the photovoltaic system. The autonomous operation of the hybrid power system implies the production of hydrogen by electrolysis. The hydrogen is produced by water electrolysis using an electrolyzer of 1 kW power. The electrical energy used to produce hydrogen is supplied from solar panels by using 1kW of photovoltaic modules. The photovoltaic modules are installed in a sun-tracker arrangement for increasing the energy conversion efficiency. The hydrogen is stored in solar to electric commercial metal hydride based containers and supplied to the fuel cell. The hybrid system is monitored by internet and some dynamic characteristics such as demanding power, energy and power factor could be analyzed independently from the system. Some energy saving recommendations has been implemented as a pilot program at CIE-UNAM to improve the efficient use of clean energy in normal operating conditions in offices and laboratories. (author)

  4. Three Sides Billboard Wind-Solar Hybrid System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the high development of world economy, the demand of energy is increasing all the time, As energy shortage and environment problem are increasing outstanding, Renewable energy has been attracting more and more attention. A kind of three sides billboard supply by wind-Solar hybrid system has been designed in this paper, the overall structure of the system, components, working principle and control strategy has been analyzed from the system perspective. The software and hardware of the system are debugged together and the result is acquired. System function is better and has achieved the expected results.

  5. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  6. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting

  7. Predicting state of charge of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles by extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasebi, A.; Bathaee, S.M.T.; Partovibakhsh, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and introduces a new nonlinear predictor and a novel battery model for estimating the state of charge (SoC) of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Many problems occur for a traditional SoC indicator, such as offset, drift and long term state divergence, therefore this paper proposes a technique based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) in order to overcome these problems. The underlying dynamic behavior of each cell is modeled using two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface and end). The SoC is determined from the voltage present on the bulk capacitor. In this new model, the value of the surface capacitor is constant, whereas the value of the bulk capacitor is not. Although the structure of the model, with two constant capacitors, has been previously reported for lithium-ion cells, this model can also be valid and reliable for lead-acid cells when used in conjunction with an EKF to estimate SoC (with a little variation). Measurements using real-time road data are used to compare the performance of conventional internal resistance (R int ) based methods for estimating SoC with those predicted from the proposed state estimation schemes. The results show that the proposed method is superior to the more traditional techniques, with accuracy in estimating the SoC within 3%

  8. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  9. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...... as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...

  10. Combined braking system for hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulekina, A. V.; Bakholdin, P. A.; Shchurov, N. I.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of surface vehicle’s existing braking systems. The technical solution and brake-system design were developed for use of regenerative braking energy. A technical parameters comparison of energy storage devices of various types was made. Based on the comparative analysis, it was decided to use supercapacitor because of its applicability for an electric drive intermittent operation. The calculation methods of retarder key components were proposed. Therefrom, it was made a conclusion that rebuild gasoline-electric vehicles are more efficient than gasoline ones.

  11. Experiences from the Roadrunner petascale hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbyson, Darren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pakin, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lang, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sancho Pitarch, Jose C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davis, Kei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barker, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peraza, Josh [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The combination of flexible microprocessors (AMD Opterons) with high-performing accelerators (IBM PowerXCell 8i) resulted in the extremely powerful Roadrunner system. Many challenges in both hardware and software were overcome to achieve its goals. In this talk we detail some of the experiences in achieving performance on the Roadrunner system. In particular we examine several implementations of the kernel application, Sweep3D, using a work-queue approach, a more portable Thread-building-blocks approach, and an MPI on the accelerator approach.

  12. Robotic digital subtraction angiography systems within the hybrid operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Yuichi; Irie, Koreaki; Saguchi, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Ebara, Masaki; Nagashima, Hiroyasu; Isoshima, Akira; Arakawa, Hideki; Takao, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hiroki; Joki, Tatsuhiro; Kato, Masataka; Tani, Satoshi; Ikeuchi, Satoshi; Abe, Toshiaki

    2011-05-01

    Fully equipped high-end digital subtraction angiography (DSA) within the operating room (OR) environment has emerged as a new trend in the fields of neurosurgery and vascular surgery. To describe initial clinical experience with a robotic DSA system in the hybrid OR. A newly designed robotic DSA system (Artis zeego; Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany) was installed in the hybrid OR. The system consists of a multiaxis robotic C arm and surgical OR table. In addition to conventional neuroendovascular procedures, the system was used as an intraoperative imaging tool for various neurosurgical procedures such as aneurysm clipping and spine instrumentation. Five hundred one neurosurgical procedures were successfully conducted in the hybrid OR with the robotic DSA. During surgical procedures such as aneurysm clipping and arteriovenous fistula treatment, intraoperative 2-/3-dimensional angiography and C-arm-based computed tomographic images (DynaCT) were easily performed without moving the OR table. Newly developed virtual navigation software (syngo iGuide; Siemens AG) can be used in frameless navigation and in access to deep-seated intracranial lesions or needle placement. This newly developed robotic DSA system provides safe and precise treatment in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery.

  13. A Review of Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setare Amiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of research activities and different types of studies in brain-computer interface (BCI systems show potential in this young research area. Research teams have studied features of different data acquisition techniques, brain activity patterns, feature extraction techniques, methods of classifications, and many other aspects of a BCI system. However, conventional BCIs have not become totally applicable, due to the lack of high accuracy, reliability, low information transfer rate, and user acceptability. A new approach to create a more reliable BCI that takes advantage of each system is to combine two or more BCI systems with different brain activity patterns or different input signal sources. This type of BCI, called hybrid BCI, may reduce disadvantages of each conventional BCI system. In addition, hybrid BCIs may create more applications and possibly increase the accuracy and the information transfer rate. However, the type of BCIs and their combinations should be considered carefully. In this paper, after introducing several types of BCIs and their combinations, we review and discuss hybrid BCIs, different possibilities to combine them, and their advantages and disadvantages.

  14. User Controllability in a Hybrid Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Santander, Denis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of Tapestry in 1990, research on recommender systems has traditionally focused on the development of algorithms whose goal is to increase the accuracy of predicting users' taste based on historical data. In the last decade, this research has diversified, with "human factors" being one area that has received…

  15. Hybrid Techniques for Optimizing Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    relay placement problem, we modeled the network as a mechanical system with springs and a viscous damper ⎯a widely used approach for solving optimization...fundamental mathematical tools in many branches of physics such as fluid and solid mechanics, and general relativity [108]. More recently, several

  16. Simulation of hybrid propulsion system using LSRG and single cylinder engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, C.; Ohyama, K.; Wang, W. Q.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, more and more people are beginning to use hybrid vehicles (HVs). The drive system of HVs needs to produce the electric energy with the electric generator and gearbox powered by an engine. Therefore, the structure becomes complex and the cost is high. To solve this issue, this research proposes a new drive system design that combines the engine and a linear switched reluctance generator (LSRG). When the engine is operating, the LSRG can simultaneously assist the engine’s mechanical output or can generate power to charge the battery. In this research, three research steps are executed. In the first step, the LSRG is designed according to the size of normal engine. Then, finite element analysis is used to get the data of flux linkage and calculate the inductance and translator force. Finally, Simulink models of control system are constructed to verify the performance of LSRG.

  17. Control of hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed generation system against voltage sag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajizadeh, Amin; Golkar, Masoud Aliakbar [Electrical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyedkhandan, Dr. Shariati Ave, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    Fuel cell (FC) and energy storage (ES) based hybrid distributed power generation systems appear to be very promising for satisfying high energy and high power requirements of power quality problems in distributed generation (DG) systems. In this study, design of control strategy for hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed power generation system during voltage sag has been presented. The proposed control strategy allows hybrid distributed generation system works properly when a voltage disturbance occurs in distribution system and hybrid system stays connected to the main grid. Hence, modeling, controller design, and simulation study of a hybrid distributed generation system are investigated. The physical model of the fuel cell stack, energy storage and the models of power conditioning units are described. Then the control design methodology for each component of the hybrid system is proposed. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance including active power control and voltage sag ride-through capability of the hybrid distributed generation system. (author)

  18. Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

  19. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Ribeiro, C.M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energie Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  20. Modelling of a Hybrid Energy System for Autonomous Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid energy system (HES is a trending power supply solution for autonomous devices. With the help of an accurate system model, the HES development will be efficient and oriented. In spite of various precise unit models, a HES system is hardly developed. This paper proposes a system modelling approach, which applies the power flux conservation as the governing equation and adapts and modifies unit models of solar cells, piezoelectric generators, a Li-ion battery and a super-capacitor. A generalized power harvest, storage and management strategy is also suggested to adapt to various application scenarios.

  1. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid autonomous generation systems in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dei, Tsutomu; Ushiyama, Izumi

    2005-01-01

    Two hybrid stand-alone (autonomous) power systems, each with wind and PV generation, were studied as installed at health clinics in semi-desert and mountainous region in Mongolia. Meteorological and system operation parameters, including power output and the consumption of the system, were generally monitored by sophisticated monitoring. However, where wind and solar site information was lacking, justifiable estimates were made. The results show that there is a seasonal complementary relationship between wind and solar irradiation in Tarot Sum. The users understood the necessity of Demand Side Management of isolated wind-PV generation system through technology transfer seminars and actually executed DSM at both sites. (author)

  2. Laser fusion hybrid reactor systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The work was performed in three phases. The first phase included a review of the many possible laser-reactor-blanket combinations and resulted in the selection of a ''demonstration size'' 500 MWe plant for further study. A number of fast fission blankets using uranium metal, uranium-molybdenum alloy, and uranium carbide as fuel were investigated. The second phase included design of the reactor vessel and internals, heat transfer system, tritium processing system, and the balance of plant, excluding the laser building and equipment. A fuel management scheme was developed, safety considerations were reviewed, and capital and operating costs were estimated. Costs developed during the second phase were unexpectedly high, and a thorough review indicated considerable unit cost savings could be obtained by scaling the plant to a larger size. Accordingly, a third phase was added to the original scope, encompassing the redesign and scaling of the plant from 500 MWe to 1200 MWe

  3. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hybrid with ultrafast charge separation and improved photoelectrocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, PR China (China); Liang, Yinghua, E-mail: liangyh@ncst.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, PR China (China); College of Chemical Engineering, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan 063009, PR China (China); Liu, Li; Hu, Jinshan [College of Chemical Engineering, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan 063009, PR China (China); Cui, Wenquan, E-mail: wkcui@163.com [College of Chemical Engineering, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan 063009, PR China (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The rGO wrapped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photoelectrode was successfully synthesized. • The Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}@rGOhighlyincreasedthechargeseparationefficiency. • The photoelectrode exhibited enhanced photoelectrocatalytic degradation for RhB. - Abstract: A reduced graphene oxide (rGO) wrapped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} (Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}@rGO) hybrid as photoelectrode for enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation of organic pollutants is reported, which exhibited excellent charge separation and photoconversion efficiency. The core@shell structured Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}@rGO photoelectrode yielded a pronounced 1.56-fold and 23.8-fold photocurrent density at 1.0 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), than that of loading structured Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-rGO and pure Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}@rGO hybrid exhibited enhanced photoelectrocatalytic efficiency for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB), which was 43.0% and 65.6% higher than that of photocatalytic (PC) and electrocatalytic (EC) processes, respectively. The enhancement in PEC degradation of RhB benefited from: (1) a strong interaction and a wide range of conjugation were formed in the core@shell system; (2) a 0.26 V of flat band potential was negatively shifted in case of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}@rGO composite; (3) the photogenerated electrons and holes could be spatially separated by external electric potentials.

  4. Mobile Hybrid Power System Theory of Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Timothy M. Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency is a driving constraint for electrical power systems as global energy demands are ever increasing. Followed by the introduction of diesel generators, electricity has become available in more locations than ever. However, operating a diesel generator on its own is not the most energy efficient. This is because the high crest factor loads, of many applications, decrease the fuel efficiency of a hydrocarbon generator. To understand this, we need to understand how an electrical load af...

  5. Efficient Hybrid Propulsion System Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    Transmission Control Unit (TCU), Brake Control Module (BCM), eMotor Inverter Drive Unit (IDU) and Battery Management System (BMS). Figure 11 AVL...phasing in the regenerative braking needs to accommodate the change in total braking power. The goal should be to achieve as close to a linear braking ...power engagement, relative to the brake pedal travel, as possible. If a straight linear ratio is used, where by the regenerative power is

  6. A hybrid approach for quantizing complicated motion of a charged particle in time-varying magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menouar, Salah; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2015-01-01

    Quantum characteristics of a charged particle subjected to a singular oscillator potential under an external magnetic field is investigated via SU(1,1) Lie algebraic approach together with the invariant operator and the unitary transformation methods. The system we managed is somewhat complicated since we considered not only the time-variation of the effective mass of the system but also the dependence of the external magnetic field on time in an arbitrary fashion. In this case, the system is a kind of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems which require more delicate treatment when we study it. The complete wave functions are obtained without relying on the methods of perturbation and/or approximation, and the global phases of the system are identified. To promote the understanding of our development, we applied it to a particular case, assuming that the effective mass slowly varies with time under a time-dependent magnetic field

  7. Iron free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.M.; Halbach, K.

    1995-01-01

    The strength and astounding simplicity of certain permanent magnet materials allow a wide variety of simple, compact configurations of high field strength and quality multipole magnets. Here we analyze the important class of iron-free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics. The theory of conventional segmented multipole magnets formed from uniformly magnetized block magnets placed in regular arrays about a circular magnet aperture is reviewed. Practical multipole configurations resulting are presented that are capable of high and intermediate aperture field strengths. A new class of elliptical aperture magnets is presented within a model with continuously varying magnetization angle. Segmented versions of these magnets promise practical high field dipole and quadrupole magnets with an increased range of applicability

  8. Charge-transfer collisions involving few-electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.

    2016-01-01

    Ion-atom collision systems that involve more than one electron constitute nonseparable few-body problems, whose full solution is difficult to say the least. At impact energies well below 1 keV/amu an expansion of the stationary scattering wave function in terms of a limited number of products of nuclear and molecular state wave functions (amended to satisfy scattering boundary conditions) is feasible and usually sufficient to obtain accurate charge-transfer cross sections provided the electronic wave functions include configuration interaction. At energies above 1 keV/amu this approach becomes inefficient and close-coupling methods within the semi classical approximation are better suited to treat the problem. For bare-ion collisions from helium target atoms explicit solutions of the two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation can be achieved, but are computationally costly and cannot be extended to problems which involve more than two electrons.

  9. Superconducting and hybrid systems for magnetic field shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzelino, L; Gerbaldo, R; Ghigo, G; Laviano, F; Truccato, M; Agostino, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate and compare the shielding properties of superconducting and hybrid superconducting/ferromagnetic systems, consisting of cylindrical cups with an aspect ratio of height/radius close to unity. First, we reproduced, by finite-element calculations, the induction magnetic field values measured along the symmetry axis in a superconducting (MgB 2 ) and in a hybrid configuration (MgB 2 /Fe) as a function of the applied magnetic field and of the position. The calculations are carried out using the vector potential formalism, taking into account simultaneously the non-linear properties of both the superconducting and the ferromagnetic material. On the basis of the good agreement between the experimental and the computed data we apply the same model to study the influence of the geometric parameters of the ferromagnetic cup as well as of the thickness of the lateral gap between the two cups on the shielding properties of the superconducting cup. The results show that in the considered non-ideal geometry, where the edge effect in the flux penetration cannot be disregarded, the superconducting shield is always the most efficient solution at low magnetic fields. However, a partial recovery of the shielding capability of the hybrid configuration occurs if a mismatch in the open edges of the two cups is considered. In contrast, at high magnetic fields the hybrid configurations are always the most effective. In particular, the highest shielding factor was found for solutions with the ferromagnetic cup protruding over the superconducting one. (paper)

  10. Optimal Control of Hybrid Systems in Air Traffic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgarpour, Maryam

    Growing concerns over the scalability of air traffic operations, air transportation fuel emissions and prices, as well as the advent of communication and sensing technologies motivate improvements to the air traffic management system. To address such improvements, in this thesis a hybrid dynamical model as an abstraction of the air traffic system is considered. Wind and hazardous weather impacts are included using a stochastic model. This thesis focuses on the design of algorithms for verification and control of hybrid and stochastic dynamical systems and the application of these algorithms to air traffic management problems. In the deterministic setting, a numerically efficient algorithm for optimal control of hybrid systems is proposed based on extensions of classical optimal control techniques. This algorithm is applied to optimize the trajectory of an Airbus 320 aircraft in the presence of wind and storms. In the stochastic setting, the verification problem of reaching a target set while avoiding obstacles (reach-avoid) is formulated as a two-player game to account for external agents' influence on system dynamics. The solution approach is applied to air traffic conflict prediction in the presence of stochastic wind. Due to the uncertainty in forecasts of the hazardous weather, and hence the unsafe regions of airspace for aircraft flight, the reach-avoid framework is extended to account for stochastic target and safe sets. This methodology is used to maximize the probability of the safety of aircraft paths through hazardous weather. Finally, the problem of modeling and optimization of arrival air traffic and runway configuration in dense airspace subject to stochastic weather data is addressed. This problem is formulated as a hybrid optimal control problem and is solved with a hierarchical approach that decouples safety and performance. As illustrated with this problem, the large scale of air traffic operations motivates future work on the efficient

  11. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  12. Measurement and Analysis of Power in Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Keshri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Application with renewable energy  sources  such   as solar cell array, wind turbines, or fuel cells have increased significantly during the past decade. To obtain the clean energy, we are using the hybrid solar-wind power generation. Consumers prefer quality power from suppliers. The quality of power can be measured by using parameters such as voltage sag, harmonic and power factor.   To   obtain   quality   power   we   have different topologies. In our paper we present a new possible topology which improves power quality. This paper presents modeling analysis and design of a pulse width modulation voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI to be connected between sources, which supplies energy from a hybrid solar wind energy system to the ac grid. The objective of this paper is to show that, with an adequate control, the converter not only can transfer the dc from hybrid solar wind energy system, but also can improve the power factor and quality power of electrical system. Whenever a disturbance occurs on load side, this disturbance can be minimized using open loop and closed loop control systems.

  13. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hajizadeh; F. Hassanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid ...

  14. Improved pattern recognition systems by hybrid methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, B.; Haettich, W.; Tropf, H.; Winkler, G.; Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V., Karlsruhe

    1978-12-01

    This report describes a combination of statistical and syntactical pattern recongition methods. The hierarchically structured recognition system consists of a conventional statistical classifier, a structural classifier analysing the topological composition of the patterns, a stage reducing the number of hypotheses made by the first two stages, and a mixed stage based on a search for maximum similarity between syntactically generated prototypes and patterns. The stages work on different principles to avoid mistakes made in one stage in the other stages. This concept is applied to the recognition of numerals written without constraints. If no samples are rejected, a recognition rate of 99,5% is obtained. (orig.) [de

  15. Hybrid illumination systems for a brigth future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    Problem to be adressed: Even with the implementation of the Eco-design directive (2005/32/EC) it is projected that the 20% energy reduction goal will not be reached in 2020. as a matter of fact, the electricity consumption in the illumination sector will not be changed from the levels of cosnsump...... of an interdisciplinary group, we aim to make a prototype of a test system. for this we will merge Solid State and Fiber optic technologies. The overall project will be assessed under  the viewpoints of environmental, socio-economic and esthetical parameters...

  16. Parametric Linear Hybrid Automata for Complex Environmental Systems Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Hayat Khan Tareen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental systems, whether they be weather patterns or predator-prey relationships, are dependent on a number of different variables, each directly or indirectly affecting the system at large. Since not all of these factors are known, these systems take on non-linear dynamics, making it difficult to accurately predict meaningful behavioral trends far into the future. However, such dynamics do not warrant complete ignorance of different efforts to understand and model close approximations of these systems. Towards this end, we have applied a logical modeling approach to model and analyze the behavioral trends and systematic trajectories that these systems exhibit without delving into their quantification. This approach, formalized by René Thomas for discrete logical modeling of Biological Regulatory Networks (BRNs and further extended in our previous studies as parametric biological linear hybrid automata (Bio-LHA, has been previously employed for the analyses of different molecular regulatory interactions occurring across various cells and microbial species. As relationships between different interacting components of a system can be simplified as positive or negative influences, we can employ the Bio-LHA framework to represent different components of the environmental system as positive or negative feedbacks. In the present study, we highlight the benefits of hybrid (discrete/continuous modeling which lead to refinements among the fore-casted behaviors in order to find out which ones are actually possible. We have taken two case studies: an interaction of three microbial species in a freshwater pond, and a more complex atmospheric system, to show the applications of the Bio-LHA methodology for the timed hybrid modeling of environmental systems. Results show that the approach using the Bio-LHA is a viable method for behavioral modeling of complex environmental systems by finding timing constraints while keeping the complexity of the model

  17. Power quality analysis of hybrid renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinchin W. Mosobi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid renewable energy sources consisting of solar photovoltaic, wind energy system, and a microhydro system is proposed in this paper. This system is suitable for supplying electricity to isolated locations or remote villages far from the grid supply. The solar photovoltaic system is modeled with two power converters, the first one being a DC-DC converter along with an maximum power point tracking to achieve a regulated DC output voltage and the second one being a DC-AC converter to obtain AC output. The wind energy system is modeled with a wind-turbine prime mover with varying wind speed and fixed pitch angle to drive an self excited induction generator (SEIG. Owing to inherent drooping characteristics of the SEIG, a closed loop turbine input system is incorporated. The microhydro system is modeled with a constant input power to drive an SEIG. The three different sources are integrated through an AC bus and the proposed hybrid system is supplied to R, R-L, and induction motor loads. A static compensator is proposed to improve the load voltage and current profiles; it also mitigates the harmonic contents of the voltage and current. The static synchronous compensator is realized by means of a three-phase IGBT-based current-controlled voltage source inverter with a self-supporting DC bus. The complete system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results obtained illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and are found to be satisfactory.

  18. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  19. Extending a Hybrid Tag-Based Recommender System with Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    extension for a hybrid tag-based recommender system, which suggests similar Web pages based on the similarity of their tags. The semantic extension aims at discovering tag relations which are not considered in basic syntax similarity. With the goal of generating more semantically grounded recommendations......, the proposal extends a hybrid tag-based recommender system with a semantic factor, which looks for tag relations in different semantic sources. In order to evaluate the benefits acquired with the semantic extension, we have compared the new findings with results from a previous experiment involving 38 people......Tagging activity has been recently identified as a potential source of knowledge about personal interests, preferences, goals, and other attributes known from user models. Tags themselves can be therefore used for finding personalized recommendations of items. This paper proposes a semantic...

  20. Nonimaging optics maximizing exergy for hybrid solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Jiang, Lun; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Ferry, Jonathan; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Alexandr; Kirk, Alexander; Elarde, Victor; Osowski, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-Merced), Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and MicroLink Devices Inc. (MicroLink) are developing a hybrid solar system using a nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that maximizes the exergy by delivering direct electricity and on-demand heat. The hybrid solar system technology uses secondary optics in a solar receiver to achieve high efficiency at high temperature, collects heat in particles and uses reflective liftoff cooled double junction (2J) InGaP/GaAs solar cells with backside infrared (IR) reflectors on the secondary optical element to raise exergy efficiency. The nonimaging optics provides additional concentration towards the high temperature thermal stream and enables it to operate efficiently at 650 °C while the solar cell is maintained at 40 °C to operate as efficiently as possible.